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s106 Lifting Lug Design

s106 Lifting Lug Design

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PDHonline Course S106 (2 PDH

)
Design/Evaluation of Overhead Lifting Lugs
2012
Instructor: Clement Rajendra, PE
PDH Online | PDH Center
5272 Meadow Estates Drive
Fairfax, VA 22030-6658
Phone & Fax: 703-988-0088
www.PDHonline.org
www.PDHcenter.com
An Approved Continuing Education Provider
De s i gn/ Eva l ut i on of Ove r he a d Li f t i ng Lugs
Page 1
Rule_1 "OK" · Rule_1 if a 0.5 d ⋅ ≥ "OK" , "NG" , ( ) :·
The dimension "a" must be greater than or equal to half the hole
diameter, d.
i.e. a > 1/2 * d
For this example, a = 1.125" and since it is greater than 1/2*d which is
0.625". Rule 1 is satisfied.
Rule 1:
There are some geometric guidelines to be considered as recommended
in Reference 1. They will be called Rule 1 and Rule 2.
Geometric Guidelines:
F
y
36 ksi ⋅ :·
F
u
58 ksi ⋅ :·
e 1.125 in ⋅ :·
a 1.125 in ⋅ :·
d 1.25 in ⋅ :·
ksi 1000
lb
in in ⋅
⋅ ≡
t 1.25 in ⋅ :·
e
a
Dia. d
thickness, t
2”
1.75”
3.5”
1/2”
Embed
plate
kip 1000 lb ⋅ ≡ Example of an Overhead Lifting Lug
There is very little published information available on the subject of the design/analysis of
lifting lugs. Therefore, design engineers are left without adequate technical guidance on
this subject. The following provides a systematic method.
Introduction

by Clement Rajendra, PE
Project Engineer, CP&L, Southport, NC 28461
e-mail: clem.rajendra@pgnmail.com
Design/Evaluation of
Overhead Lifting Lugs
DISCLAIMER: The materials contained in this MathCad file are not intended as a representation or warranty
on the part of PDHonline.org or any other person named herein. The materials are for general information
only. They are not a substitute for competent professional advice. Application of this information to a specific
project should be reviewed by registered professional engineer. Anyone making use of the information set
forth herein does so at their own risk and assumes any and all resulting liability arising therefrom.

De s i gn/ Eva l ut i on of Ove r he a d Li f t i ng Lugs
Page 2
P
w2
16.875kip ·
P
w2
0.9 F
y
⋅ t ⋅ d
pin

1.8

d
pin
d 0.50 in ⋅ − :·
This failure mode involves bearing failure at the pin/lifting lug interface. Often the pin
diameter is much less than the hole diameter. Let us assume a pin diameter 1/2" less than
the hole diameter. Using a bearing stress of 0.9 F
y
, and a "factor" of 1.8, we have (See
Note 1):
Failure Mode 2:
P
w1
32.625kip · P
w1
P
u
5

A factor of safety of 5 is common for lifting components. Therefore, using a
factor of safety of 5, the working load is:
P
u
163.12kip ·
P
u
2 a ⋅ t ⋅ F
u
⋅ :·
This failure mode involves tension failure on both sides of the hole. Therefore, the ultimate
tensile load is given by:
Failure Mode 1:
Evaluation based on Failure Modes:
Rule_2 "OK" · Rule_2 if e 0.67 d ⋅ ≥ "OK" , "NG" , ( ) :·
The dimension "e" must be greater than or equal to 0.67 times the hole
diameter, d.
Thus, e > 0.67 * d
For this example, e = 1.125" and since it is greater than 0.67*d which is
0.8375". Rule 2 is satisfied.
Rule 2:
De s i gn/ Eva l ut i on of Ove r he a d Li f t i ng Lugs
Page 3
Rule_4 "OK" · Rule_4 if t 0.5 in ⋅ ≥ "OK" , "NG" , ( ) :·
Rule_3 "OK" · Rule_3 if t 0.25 d ⋅ ≥ "OK" , "NG" , ( ) :·
In this example, since 0.25 x 1.25 = 0.3125" and the thickness of the lug is 1.25",
this failure mode does not control.
This failure mode involves the out-of-plane buckling failure of the lug. Per Ref. 1, this failure
is prevented by ensuring a minimum thickness of lug of 0.5 inches and 0.25 times the hole
diameter d.
Failure Mode 5:
P
w4
28.322kip ·
P
w4
1.67 0.67 ⋅ F
y
⋅ e
2

t
d

1.8

This failure mode involves tensile failure as the pin tries to push out a block of steel through
the edge of the lug plate. Assuming a block of steel 0.8d in length, allowable load is given
by:
Failure Mode 4:
P
w3
22.5kip ·
P
w3
2 0.4 ⋅ F
y
⋅ e ⋅ t ⋅
1.8

This failure mode involves shear failure as the pin tries to push out a block of steel through
the edge of the lug plate. The shear area is twice the cross-sectional area beyond the hole
for the pin. Thus:
Failure Mode 3:
De s i gn/ Eva l ut i on of Ove r he a d Li f t i ng Lugs
Page 4
P
w5
18.984kip ·
P
w5
2 a
eff
⋅ 0.45 ⋅ F
y
⋅ t ⋅
1.8

Therefore, load capacity based on AISC is given by:
a
eff
min AISC
min
( ) :·
AISC
min
a 1.5
e
2
⋅ 4 t ⋅
d
1.25
¸

¸
_

,

Combining these three requirements into a single "formula" we have:
Since 1.25 times "a" is 1.25 x 1.125 = 1.406" and is greater than the diameter of hole of
1.25". This requirement is not satisfied. Therefore, the tensile capacity of the lug must
be based on a reduced "a" dimension which will satisfy this requirement.
This requirement states that the diameter of the pin hole shall not be less than 1.25 times
distance from the edge of pin hole to the edge of plate, i.e. dimension a.
Requirement 3:
Since 4 times thickness is 4 x 1.25" = 5" and is greater than 1.125". This requirement is
satisfied.

This requirement states that the distance transverse to the axis of a pin-connected plate
from the edge of the pin hole to the edge of the member, i.e. dimension a, shall not exceed
4 times the thickness at the pin hole.
Requirement 2:
Since 2/3 of A
2
is 1.875 in
2
which is more than A
1
, this requirement is not satisfied.
Therefore, the tensile capacity of the lug must be based on a reduced "a" dimension
which will satisfy this requirement.
A
2
2.813in
2
·
A
1
1.406in
2
·
A
2
2 a ⋅ t ⋅ :·
A
1
t e ⋅ :·
This requirement states that the minimum net area beyond the pin hole, parallel to the axis
of the member (A
1
), shall not be less than 2/3 of the net area across the pin hole(A
2
).
Requirement 1:
The above section of AISC Code has three separate geometry checks that can be applied
to the lifting lug. If these requirements are not met, a smaller value for "a"
should be used for the calculation of tensile capacity, a
eff
.
AISC Code Checks per Section D3.2:
De s i gn/ Eva l ut i on of Ove r he a d Li f t i ng Lugs
Page 5
Based on Ref. 3 f
1
W ( )
W
w t
w
+ ( ) 2 ⋅
W tan β deg ⋅
( )
⋅ l ⋅
w t
w

t
w
2
3
+
¸

¸
_

,
+
W tan α deg ⋅
( )
⋅ l ⋅
w t
w

w
2
3
+
¸

¸
_

,
+ :·
β 20 :·
f
max
7423
1.8
lb
in
⋅ :·
α 45 :· for 1/2 in. fillet weld and 21 ksi
allowable shear stress on
effective throat
Length of weld along lug width w 3.5 in ⋅ :·
Lever arm l 2 in ⋅ :·
Length of welds along lug thickness t
w
1.25 in ⋅ :·
This is an initial guess for Mathcad W 1 kip ⋅ :·
Therefore, the maximum load W that can be applied can be calculated as follows:
W
W tan
β
β
deg
W
W tan
α
α
deg
This is typically the weak link in an overhead lifitng lug, due to off-set loading. In general,
the lug is rarely directly over the item to be rigged. Conservatively, let us assume that the
off-set is a maximum of 45 degrees in the plane of the lug and 20 degrees normal to the
plane of the lug. The additional loads due to off-set can be determined by statics to be as
follows:
Weld between Lug and Base Plate:
De s i gn/ Eva l ut i on of Ove r he a d Li f t i ng Lugs
Page 6
f
2
W ( )
W tan β deg ⋅
( )

2 w t
w
+ ( ) ⋅

f
3
W ( )
W tan α deg ⋅
( )

2 w t
w
+ ( ) ⋅

P
w6
root f
1
W ( )
2
f
2
W ( )
2
+ f
3
W ( )
2
+
¸
¸
_
,
0.5
f
max
− W ,

¸
1
1
]

P
w6
8.198kip ·
Lug Base Material:
The analysis is similar to the weld above except that there is no interaction between tension
and shear. The capacity is based on the maximum tensile stress at the base of the lug:
W 1 kip ⋅ :·
f
max
0.75 F
y

1.8

l
w
2 a ⋅ d + :· Lug width
f
1
W ( )
W
l
w
t ⋅
W tan β deg ⋅
( )
⋅ l ⋅
l
w
t
2
6

¸

¸
_

,
+
W tan α deg ⋅
( )
⋅ l ⋅
l
w
2
6
t ⋅
¸

¸
_

,
+ :·
P
w7
root f
1
W ( ) ( ) f
max
− W ,
¸
1
]

P
w7
8.283kip ·
De s i gn/ Eva l ut i on of Ove r he a d Li f t i ng Lugs
Page 7
1. As discussed in Reference 1, using a "factor" of 1.8 on AISC allowables results in a factor of safety
of 5 for A36 steel. This is in line with ASME B30.20 which requires a design factor of 3 on yield
strength and ANSI N14.6 which requires a design factor of 3 on yield strength and 5 on ultimate
strength. This is also in line with the load ratings for other components of the lifting assembly such as
slings, shackles, etc.
Notes:
3. Omer Blodgett, "Design of Welded Structures", 1966
2. AISC Manual of Steel Construction (ASD), Ninth Edition, 1989
1. David T. Ricker, "Design and Construction of Lifting Beams", Engineering Journal, 4th Quarter, 1991.
References:
If additional capacity is desired, the anglesα and β can be restricted as needed to increase the
capacity of the lug. In the above example, if these angles are made equal to zero, the maximum
capacity will increase to 16.875 kips.
P
w7
8.283kip ·
P
w6
8.198kip · P
w3
22.5kip ·
P
w5
18.984kip · P
w2
16.875kip ·
P
w4
28.322kip · P
w1
32.625kip ·
Note variation in capacities for each attribute
Cap
allow
8.198kip ·
Cap
allow
min Capacity ( ) :·
Capacity P
w1
P
w2
P
w3
P
w4
P
w5
P
w6
P
w7
( ) :·
Conclusion:

They are not a substitute for competent professional advice. i.25 ⋅ in lb in⋅ in 2” a := 1. Example of an Overhead Lifting Lug thickness.e. "OK" . Design/Evaluation of Overhead Lifting Lugs by Clement Rajendra. The materials are for general information only. PE Project Engineer.org or any other person named herein. Rule_1 := if ( a ≥ 0. Anyone making use of the information set forth herein does so at their own risk and assumes any and all resulting liability arising therefrom. CP&L. Rule 1 is satisfied. a = 1. NC 28461 e-mail: clem.125" and since it is greater than 1/2*d which is 0. Therefore. Rule 1: The dimension "a" must be greater than or equal to half the hole diameter. They will be called Rule 1 and Rule 2.125 ⋅ in Fu := 58 ⋅ ksi Fy := 36 ⋅ ksi Geometric Guidelines: There are some geometric guidelines to be considered as recommended in Reference 1. "NG" ) Rule_1 = "OK" .5” e := 1. The following provides a systematic method. Application of this information to a specific project should be reviewed by registered professional engineer. d kip ≡ 1000 ⋅ lb t := 1.625". a > 1/2 * d For this example.com Introduction There is very little published information available on the subject of the design/analysis of lifting lugs. Southport.rajendra@pgnmail. t Embed plate Dia. d.25 ⋅ in ksi ≡ 1000 ⋅ d := 1.125 ⋅ in 1/2” 1. design engineers are left without adequate technical guidance on this subject.75” e a 3.Design/Evalution of Overhead Lifting Lugs Page 1 DISCLAIMER: The materials contained in this MathCad file are not intended as a representation or warranty on the part of PDHonline.5 ⋅ d .

Thus. Rule 2 is satisfied.875 kip .9 ⋅ Fy ⋅ t ⋅ dpin 1. using a factor of safety of 5. Therefore. Therefore.8 Pw2 = 16.Design/Evalution of Overhead Lifting Lugs Page 2 Rule 2: The dimension "e" must be greater than or equal to 0. "OK" . the working load is: Pw1 := Pu 5 Pw1 = 32.8.67 ⋅ d . e = 1. Rule_2 := if ( e ≥ 0. Let us assume a pin diameter 1/2" less than the hole diameter.67 * d For this example.67 times the hole diameter. the ultimate tensile load is given by: Pu := 2 ⋅ a ⋅ t ⋅ Fu Pu = 163. and a "factor" of 1.67*d which is 0. Often the pin diameter is much less than the hole diameter. we have (See Note 1): dpin := d − 0.125" and since it is greater than 0. d.625 kip Failure Mode 2: This failure mode involves bearing failure at the pin/lifting lug interface.50 ⋅ in Pw2 := 0. Using a bearing stress of 0.9 Fy . e > 0.8375".12 kip A factor of safety of 5 is common for lifting components. "NG" ) Rule_2 = "OK" Evaluation based on Failure Modes: Failure Mode 1: This failure mode involves tension failure on both sides of the hole.

25 times the hole diameter d. In this example.5 inches and 0.Design/Evalution of Overhead Lifting Lugs Page 3 Failure Mode 3: This failure mode involves shear failure as the pin tries to push out a block of steel through the edge of the lug plate. 1. Rule_3 := if ( t ≥ 0.3125" and the thickness of the lug is 1. Per Ref.322 kip Failure Mode 5: This failure mode involves the out-of-plane buckling failure of the lug.25 x 1.8 t d Pw4 = 28. since 0. allowable load is given by: 2 1.67 ⋅ Fy ⋅ e ⋅ Pw4 := 1.25". Thus: Pw3 := 2 ⋅ 0. "NG" ) Rule_3 = "OK" Rule_4 = "OK" .25 = 0. "OK" .5 kip Failure Mode 4: This failure mode involves tensile failure as the pin tries to push out a block of steel through the edge of the lug plate.4 ⋅ Fy ⋅ e ⋅ t 1.8 Pw3 = 22. this failure is prevented by ensuring a minimum thickness of lug of 0. Assuming a block of steel 0. "NG" ) Rule_4 := if ( t ≥ 0. "OK" .25 ⋅ d . this failure mode does not control.5 ⋅ in .8d in length. The shear area is twice the cross-sectional area beyond the hole for the pin.67 ⋅ 0.

25 times distance from the edge of pin hole to the edge of plate. aeff. shall not exceed 4 times the thickness at the pin hole. Requirement 2: This requirement states that the distance transverse to the axis of a pin-connected plate from the edge of the pin hole to the edge of the member. dimension a.8 Pw5 = 18. If these requirements are not met.25  d aeff := min( AISCmin) Therefore.125 = 1. a smaller value for "a" should be used for the calculation of tensile capacity. this requirement is not satisfied.406 in 2 A2 := 2 ⋅ a ⋅ t A2 = 2. Therefore. Requirement 3: This requirement states that the diameter of the pin hole shall not be less than 1.25 times "a" is 1. Since 4 times thickness is 4 x 1.984 kip . This requirement is satisfied. Since 1. parallel to the axis of the member (A1).5 ⋅   e 2 4 ⋅t   1.45 ⋅ Fy ⋅ t 1.875 in2 which is more than A1. i.25 x 1.813 in 2 Since 2/3 of A2 is 1.406" and is greater than the diameter of hole of 1. A1 := t ⋅ e A1 = 1. This requirement is not satisfied.2: The above section of AISC Code has three separate geometry checks that can be applied to the lifting lug. Combining these three requirements into a single "formula" we have: AISCmin :=  a 1.e. Requirement 1: This requirement states that the minimum net area beyond the pin hole.125". Therefore. the tensile capacity of the lug must be based on a reduced "a" dimension which will satisfy this requirement.Design/Evalution of Overhead Lifting Lugs Page 4 AISC Code Checks per Section D3.25" = 5" and is greater than 1.25". the tensile capacity of the lug must be based on a reduced "a" dimension which will satisfy this requirement. i. load capacity based on AISC is given by: Pw5 := 2 ⋅ aeff ⋅ 0. shall not be less than 2/3 of the net area across the pin hole(A2).e. dimension a.

In general. let us assume that the off-set is a maximum of 45 degrees in the plane of the lug and 20 degrees normal to the plane of the lug.25 ⋅ in l := 2 ⋅ in w := 3. due to off-set loading.8 in 45 20 f1 ( W) := W W ⋅ tan ( β ⋅ deg) ⋅ l W ⋅ tan ( α ⋅ deg) ⋅ l + + 2 2  ( w + tw) ⋅ 2  tw  w      w ⋅ tw +   w ⋅ tw +  3  3     Based on Ref. Conservatively. the maximum load W that can be applied can be calculated as follows: W := 1 ⋅ kip tw := 1.Design/Evalution of Overhead Lifting Lugs Page 5 Weld between Lug and Base Plate: This is typically the weak link in an overhead lifitng lug. 3 . the lug is rarely directly over the item to be rigged. The additional loads due to off-set can be determined by statics to be as follows: α deg W tan α β deg W tan β W W Therefore. fillet weld and 21 ksi allowable shear stress on effective throat α := β := 7423 lb fmax := ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ in This is an initial guess for Mathcad Length of welds along lug thickness Lever arm Length of weld along lug width for 1/2 in.

Design/Evalution of Overhead Lifting Lugs Page 6 f2 ( W) := W ⋅ tan ( β ⋅ deg) 2 ⋅ ( w + tw) W ⋅ tan ( α ⋅ deg) 2 ⋅ ( w + tw) f3 ( W) :=   2 2 2 0.75 ⋅ Fy 1. W   Pw7 = 8.5 Pw6 := root  f1 ( W) + f2 ( W) + f3 ( W)  − fmax . W    Pw6 = 8. The capacity is based on the maximum tensile stress at the base of the lug: W := 1 ⋅ kip 0.8 Lug width fmax := lw := 2 ⋅ a + d f1 ( W) := W W ⋅ tan ( β ⋅ deg) ⋅ l W ⋅ tan ( α ⋅ deg) ⋅ l + +  t2  l 2  lw ⋅ t    w  lw ⋅  ⋅ t   6   6  Pw7 := root  ( f1 ( W) ) − fmax .283 kip .198 kip Lug Base Material: The analysis is similar to the weld above except that there is no interaction between tension and shear.

1966 Notes: 1. David T.322 kip Pw5 = 18. As discussed in Reference 1. Pw4 = 28.625 kip Pw2 = 16. . the angles α and β can be restricted as needed to increase the capacity of the lug. "Design of Welded Structures". Ninth Edition.283 kip If additional capacity is desired. "Design and Construction of Lifting Beams". Omer Blodgett. In the above example. This is in line with ASME B30. 1991.875 kip Pw3 = 22. 2. shackles. 4th Quarter.875 kips.984 kip Pw6 = 8. AISC Manual of Steel Construction (ASD). 1989 3.Design/Evalution of Overhead Lifting Lugs Page 7 Conclusion: Capacity := ( Pw1 Pw2 Pw3 Pw4 Pw5 Pw6 Pw7 ) Capallow := min( Capacity) Capallow = 8.198 kip References: 1. Ricker. Engineering Journal.6 which requires a design factor of 3 on yield strength and 5 on ultimate strength. if these angles are made equal to zero.5 kip Pw7 = 8.198 kip Note variation in capacities for each attribute Pw1 = 32.20 which requires a design factor of 3 on yield strength and ANSI N14.8 on AISC allowables results in a factor of safety of 5 for A36 steel. This is also in line with the load ratings for other components of the lifting assembly such as slings. using a "factor" of 1. etc. the maximum capacity will increase to 16.

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