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Modern PorroerSYstem
Third Edition
About the Authors
D P Kothari is vice chancellor, vIT University, vellore. Earlier,he was Professor, Centre for Energy Studies, and Depufy Director (Administration) Indian Instituteof Technology, Delhi. He has uiro t."n the Head of the centre for Energy Studies(199597)and Principal(l gg7g8),Visvesvaraya Regional Engineeringcollege, Nagpur. Earlier lflazs: and 19g9),he was a visiting fellow at RMIT, Melbourne, Australia. He obtained his BE, ME and phD degreesfrom BITS, Pilani. A fellow of the Institution Engineers (India), prof. Kothari has published/presented 450 papers in national and international journals/conferences.He has authored/coauthored more than 15 books, including Power system Engineering, Electric Machines, 2/e, power system Transients, Theory and problems of Electric Machines, 2/e., and. Basic Electrical Engineering. His researchinterestsinclude power system control, optimisation,reliability and energyconservation. I J Nagrath is Adjunct Professor,BITS Pilani and retired as professor of Electrical Engineeringand Deputy Director of Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani. He obtained his BE in Electrical Engineering from the university of Rajasthanin 1951 and MS from the Unive.rity of Wi"sconsin in 1956' He has coauthored several successful books which include Electric Machines 2/e, Power system Engineering, signals and systems and.systems: Modelling and Analyns. He has also puulistred ,"rr.ui research papers in prestigiousnationaland international journats.
Modern Power System Analysis
Third Edition
D P Kothari Vice Chancellor VIT University Vellore Former DirectorIncharge, IIT Delhi Former Principal, VRCE, Nagpur
I J Nagrath Adjunct Professor, and Former Deputy Director, Birla Ins1i1y7"of Technologt and Science Pilani
Tata McGraw Hill Education private Limited
NEWDELHI
McGrawHill Offices
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Preface to the Third Edition
Sincethe appearance the secondedition in 1989,the overall energy situation of has changed considerably and this has generatedgreat interest in nonconventionaland renewableenergy sources,energyconservationand management, power reforms and restructuringand distributedarrddispersed generation. Chapter t has been therefore,enlargedand completely rewritten. In addition, the influences of environmentalconstraintsare also discussed. The present edition, like the earlier two, is designed for a twosemester course at the undergraduate level or for firstsemesterpostgraduate study. Modern power systemshave grown larger and spreadover larger geographical areawith many interconnections betweenneighbouringsystems.Optimal planning,operationand control of such largescale systemsrequire advanced computerbased techniques many of which are explainedin the studentoriented and readerfriendlymannerby meansof numericalexamplesthroughout this book. Electric utility engineers will also be benefittedby the book as it will preparethem more adequatelyto face the new challenges. The style of writing 'Ihe is amenable selfstudy. to wide rangeof topicsfacilitates versarile selection of chaptersand sectionsfbr completion in the semester time frame. Highlights of this edition are the five new chapters.Chapter 13 deals with power system security. Contingency analysis and sensitivity factors are described. analytical framework is developedto control bulk power systems An in sucha way that securityis enhanced. Everythingseems have a propensity to to fail. Power systemsare no exception.Power systemsecuritypracticestry to control and operatepower systemsin a defensivepostureso that the effects of theseinevitable failures are minimized. Chapter 14 is an introduction to the use of stateestimationin electric power systems.We have selectedLeast SquaresEstimationto give basic solution. External system equivalencing and treatment of bad data are also discussed. The economics of power transmissionhas always lured the planners to transmit as much power as possible through existing transmission lines. Difficulty of acquiring the right of way for new lines (the corridor crisis) has always motivated the power engineersto develop compensatorysystems. Therefore, Chapter 15 addresses compensationin power systems.Both series and shunt compensationof linqs have been thoroughly discussed. Concepts of SVS, STATCOM and FACTS havcbeen briefly introduced. Chapter 16 covers the important topic of load forecasting technique. Knowing load is absolutelyessentialfor solving any power systemproblem. Chapter 17 dealswith the important problem of voltagestability.Mathematical formulation, analysis, stateofart, future trends and challenges are discussed.
Information contained in this work has been obtained by Tata McGrawHill, from sources believed to be reliable. However, neither Tata McGrawHill nor its authors guaranteethe accuracy or completenessof any information published hereiir, and neittier Tata McGrawHill nor its authors shall be responsiblefor any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of use of this information. This work is publi'shedwith the that Tata McGrawHill and its authorsare supplying information but are understanding not attempting to render enginecring or other professionalservices. If such seryicesare required, the assistanceof an appropriate professional should be sought
TataMcGrawHill
Private Iimited TataMcGrtrwI{ill Education O 2003,1989,1980, reprint2009 Sixteenth RCXCRRBFRARBQ in can No part of this publication be reproduced any form or by any "un, of withoutthe prior writtenpermission the publishers from India only by the publishers, This edition can be exported PrivateLimited TataMcGraw Hill Education ISBN13: 9780070494893 4 ISBN 10: 007049489 PrivateLimited, Published TataMcGrawHill Education by in 7 WestPatelNagat New Delhi I l0 008, typeset TimesRomanby Script Makers, at Vihar, New Delhi ll0 063 andprinted Paschim Al8, ShopNo. 19, DDA Markct, Delhi ll0 053 Enterprises, Gopaljee Coverprinter:SDR Printcrs
Wl
Preracero rne lhlrd Edrtion
are analysis for MATLAB andSIMULINK, idealprograms powersystem examples illustrating alongwith 18solved in included thisbookasan appendix
tem problems. The help rendered tive theiruse in solvin by Shri Sunil Bhat of VNIT, Nagpur in writing this appendix is thankfully acknowledged. Tata McGrawHill and the authors would like to thank the following reviewers of this edition: Prof. J.D. Sharma,IIT Roorkee; Prof. S.N. Tiwari, MNNIT Allahabad; Dr. M.R. Mohan, Anna University, Chennai; Prof. M.K. Prof.P.R. Bijwe PEC, Chandigarh; BITS, Pilani; Dr. H.R. Seedhar, Deshmukh, Dr. SanjayRoy, IIT Delhi. and While revising the text, we have had the benefit of valuable advice and and practising engineerswho used from many professors,students suggestions the earlier editions of this book. All these individuals have influenced this to our edition.We express thanks and appreciation them. We hope this support/ would continue in the future also. response D P Kors[m I J Nlcn+rn
Preface to the First
Mathematical modellingand solutionon digital computers the only practical is approach to systems analysis and planning studies for a modern day power system with its large size, complex and integrated nature. The stage has, therefore,been reachedwhere an undergraduate must be trained in the latest techniques analysisof largescale of power systems. similar needalso exists A in the industry wherea practisingpower systemengineeris constantly facedwith the challengeof the rapidly advancingfield. This book has bedndesignedto fulfil this need by integratingthe basic principlesof power systemanalysisillustrated through the simplestsystemstructurewith analysistechniques practical size for systems. this book largescale In systemanalysisfollows as a naturalextension of the basicprinciples.The form and level of someof the wellknown techniques are presented in such a manner that undergraduates can easily grasp and appreciatethem. The book is designedfor a twosemester course at the undergraduate level. With a judicious choice of advancedtopics, some institutionsmay also frnd it useful for a first course for postgraduates. The readeris expectedto have a prior grounding in circuit theory and electrical machines. He should also have been exposed to Laplace transform, linear differential equations, optimisation techniquesand a first course in control theory. Matrix analysisis applied throughoutthe book. However, a knowledge of simple matrix operations would suffice and these are summarisedin an appendixfbr quick reference. The digital computerbeing an indispensable tool for power systemanalysis, computationalalgorithms for various systemstudiessuch as load flow, fault level analysis,stability, etc. have been included at appropriateplacesin the book. It is suggested that where computerfacilities exist, students shouldbe encouraged to build computer programs for these studies using the algorithms provided. Further, the students can be asked to pool the various programs for more advancedand sophisticated studies,e.g. optimal scheduling. importantnovel An featureof the book is the inclusion of the latestand practicallyuseful topics like unit commitment, generation reliability, optimal thermal scheduling,optimal hydrothermalschedulingand decoupledload flow in a text which is primarily meantfor undergraduates. The introductory chapter contains a discussion on various methods of electricalenergygenerationand their technoeconomic comparison. glimpse is A given into the future of electricalenergy.The readeris alsoexposed the Indian to power scenariowith facts and figures. Chapters2 and3 give the transmission line parameters theseare included and for the sakeof completness the text. Chapter4 on the representation power of of gives the steadystatemodelsof the synchronous systemcomponents machineand the circuit modelsof compositepower systemsalong with the per unit method.
preface ro rhe Frrst Edition W Chapter5 deals with the performanceof transmissionlines. The load flow problem is introducedright at this stagethroughthe simple twobus systemand basicconceptsof watt and var control are illustrated.A brief treatmentof circle
concept of load flow and line compensation. ABCD constants are generally well covered in the circuit theory course and are, therefore, relegated to an appendix. Chapter 6 gives power network modelling and load flow analysis, while Chapter 7 gives optimal system operation with both approximate and rigorous treatment. Chapter 8 deals with load frequency control wherein both conventional and modern control approaches have been adopted for analysis and design. Voltage control is briefly discussed. Chapters 9l l discuss fault studies (abnormal system operation). The synchronous machine model for transient studies is heuristically introduced to the reader. Chapter l2 emphasisesthe concepts of various types <lf stability in a power system. In particular the concepts of transient stability is well illustrated through the equal area criterion. The classical numerical solution technique of the swing equation as well as the algorithm for large system stability are advanced. Every concept and technique presented is well supported through examples employing mainly a twobus structure while sometimes three and fourbus illustrations wherever necessary have also been used. A large number of unsolved problems with their answers are included at the end of each chapter. These have been so selected that apart from providing a drill they help the reader develop a deeper insight and illustrate some points beyond what is directly covered by the text. The internal organisation of various chapters is flexible and permits the teacher to adapt them to the particular needs of the class and curriculum. If desired, some of the advanced level topics could be bypassed without loss of continuity. The style of writing is specially adapted to selfstudy. Exploiting this fact a teacher will have enough time at his disposal to extend the coverage of this book to suit his particular syllabus and to include tutorial work on the numerous examples suggestedin the text. The authors are indebted to their colleagues at the Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani and the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi for the encouragement and various useful suggestionsthey received from them while writing this book. They are grateful to the authorities of the Birla lnstitute of Technology and Science, Pilani and the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi for providing facilities necessary for writing the book. The authors welcome any constructive criticism of the book and will be grateful for any appraisal by the readers. I J NlcRArH D P KorHlnr
Contents
Preface to First Edition vn
1 . Introduction
I
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1 . 1 A Perspective I 1 . 2 Structureof Power Systems I0 1 . 3 Conventional Sourcesof Electric Energy I3
RenewableEnergy Sources 25 29
1 . 5 Energy Storage 28 1 . 6 Growth of Power Systemsin India 1 . 7 Energy Conservbtion 3I
r.8
Deregulation 33
1 . 9 Distributed and DispersedGeneration 34 1.10 Environmental Aspects of Electric Energy Generation 35 1.11 Power SystemEngineersand Power SystemStudies 39 T . I 2Use of Computers and Microprocessors 39 1.13 ProblemsFacing Indian Power Industry and its Choices 40
References 43 2. Inductance and Resistance of Transmission Lines
45
2 . 1 Introduction 45 2 . 2 Definition of Inductance 45 2 . 3 Flux Linkages of an Isolated
CurrentCtrryingConductor 46
2.4 Inductanceof a SinglePhase TwoWire Line 50 2 . 5 ConductorTypes 5I 2 . 6 Flux Linkages of one Conductorin a Group 53 2 . 7 Inductanceof CompositeConductorLines 54 2 . 8 Inductanceof ThreePhase Lines 59 2 . 9 DoubleCircuitThreePhaseLines 66 2 . 1 0Bundled Conductors 68 2 . l I Resistance 70 2 . r 2 Skin Effect and Proximity Effect 7I
Problems 72 References 75
3. Capacitance of Transmission Lines
3.1 3.2 Introduction 76 Electric Field of a Long Straight Conductor 76
76
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3.3 3.4 3.5
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Potential Diff'erencebetweentwo Conductors of a Group of Parallel Conductors 77 Capacitance a TwoWire Line 78 of Capacitanceof a ThreephaseLine with Equilateral Spacing B0 UnsymmetricalSpacing BI Effect of Earth on TransmissionLine capacitance g3
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6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Load Flow Problem 196 GaussSeidelMethod 204 (NR) Method 213 NewtonRaphson DecoupledLoad Flow Methods 222
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6.9 Control of Voltage Profile 230 Problems 236
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BundledConductors 92 Problems 93 References 94 95
7. Optimal System Operation 7.I 1.2 7.3 7.4 1.5 7.6 7.7 Introduction 242 on Optimal Operation of Generators a Bus Bar 243 Optimal Unit Commitment (UC) 250 ReliabilityConsiderations 253 Optimum GenerationScheduling 259 Optimal Load Flow Solution 270 of System 276 OptimalScheduling Hydrothermal Problems 284 References 286
242
4. Representation,of Power System Components 4.1 Introduction g5 4.2 Singlephase Solutionof Balanced Threephase Networks 95 4.3 OneLineDiagram and Impedanceor Reactance Diagram 98 4.4 Per Unit (PU) System 99 4.5 ComplexPower 105 4.6 Synchronous Machine 108 4.7 Representation Loads I2I of Problems 125 References 127 5. Characteristics and Performance of power Transmission Lines 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.1 5.8 5.9 5 .1 0 Introduction 128 Short Transmission Line 129 Medium Transmission Line i37 The Long Transmission LineRigorous Solution I 39 Interpretationof the Long Line Equations 143 FerrantiEffect 150 TunedPowerLines 151 The Equivalent Circuit of a Long Line 152 Power Flow througha Transmission Line I58 Me th o d s l ' V o l ra g e o n trol 173 o C Problems 180 References 183
8. Automatic Generation and Voltage Control 8.1 Introduction 290 8.2 Load FrequencyControl (Single Area Case) 291 8.3 Load FrequencyControl and Economic DespatchControl 305 8.4 TwoArea Load FreqlrencyControl 307 8 . 5 Optimal (TwoArea) Load FrequencyControl 3I0 8 . 6 Automatic Voltage Control 318 8 . 7 Load Frequency Control with Generation Rate Constraints(GRCs) 320 8 . 8 SpeedGovernor DeadBandand Its Effect on AGC 8 . 9 Digital LF Controllers 322 8 . 1 0DecentralizedControl 323 Prohlents 324 References 325 9. Symmetrical Fault Analysis 9.1 Introduction 327 Line 328 9.2 Transienton a Transmission Machine 9.3 ShortCircuit of a Synchronous (On No Load) 330 Machine 339 9.4 Short Circuit of a LoadedSynchronous of Circuit Breakers 344 9.5 Selection
291'l
128
321
327
6. Load Flow Studies 6.1 6.2 lntrotluction 184 NetworkModel Formulation I85
t84
3 Load Compensation 557 15.6 External System Equivalencing 545 I4.6 10.8 10.2 12.2 10.6 Introduction 510 SystemStateClassification 512 SecurityAnalysis 512 Contingency Analysis 516 SensitivityFactors 520 Power System Voltage Stability 524 References 529 531 14.4 13.4 LineToLine (LL) Fault 402 11.4 Line Compensation 558 15.6 Algorithm for ShortCircuit Studies 349 9.7 Zsus Formulation 355 Problems 363 References 368 ' Symmetrical Com 10.7 ComparisonbetweenSTATCOM and SVC 565 15.3 13.1 12.5 SomeComputational Considerations 544 14.4 10.6 Open Conductor Faults 414 11.10MultimachineStabilitv 487 Problems 506 References 508 13.2 13.rffi#q I confenfs 9.l Introduction 531 I4.2 SymmetricalComponentAnalysis of UnsymmetricalFaults 398 11.2 Least SquaresEstimation: The Basic Solution 532 14. Compensation in Power Systems 433 15.4 I2.5 12.8 Flexible AC Transmission (FACTS) 566 Systems 15.7 I2. Power System Stability 12. An Introduction to state Estimation of Power systems l4.1 Bus Impedance Matrix Method For Analysis of Unsymmetrical ShuntFaults 416 Problems 427 References 432 397 550 12.6 ShuntCornpensators 562 I5.3 12.1 13.1 10.8 Introduction 433 Dynamics of a Synchronous Machine 435 Power Angle Equation 440 Node Elimination Technique 444 SimpleSystems 451 Steady State Stability 454 Transient Stability 459 Fq'ralArea Criterion 461 .9 Application of Power SystemStateEstimation 550 Problems 552 References 5.2 Loading Capability 557 15.4 Tracking State Estimation of Power Systems 544 14.5 13.1 Introduction 556 15.6 12.5 SeriesCompensation 559 15.8 Network observability and PseudoMeasurementss49 14. Unsymmetrical Fault Analysis 11.9 Introduction 369 SymmetricalComponentTransformation370 Phase Shift in StarDeltaTransformers 377 Sequence Impedances TransmissionLines 379 of Sequence Impedances Sequence and Network of Power Systern 381 Sequence Impedances Networks of and Synchronous Machine 381 Sequence Impedances TransmissionLines 385 of Sequence Impedances Networks and of Transformers 386 Constructionof Sequence Networks of a Power System 389 Problems 393 References 396 12.5 Double LineToGround (LLG) Fault 404 11.10FactsControllers 569 References 574 ll. 11.13 15.3 Static StateEstimation of Power Systems 538 I4.9 Principle and Operationof Converrers 567 15.7 10. Power System Security 13.3 Single LineToGround (LG) Fault 3gg .5 10.7 Treatmentof Bad Dara 546 14.3 10.1 Introduction 397 11.
5 Voltage Stability Analysis 597 17.7 LongTerm Load Predictions Using EconometricModels 587 r 6 .1 Introduction 575 16.Furthermore. for (The USA has already developed around 50Vo of its hydro potential and hardly any further expansionis plannedbecause ecological of considerations.) x Electricity is a very inefficient agent for heating purposes.because can be of it generated centrallyin bulk and transmittedeconomically over long distances. Hydro energy.1 17. The world's increasingpower requirementscan only be partially met by hydro sources. e. Conventionally.oil. naturalgas).and nuclearand hydro sources.electricenergy is obtainedby conversion fiom fossil fuels (coal.4 In tro d u c ti o n 5 9 1 Comparisonof Angle and Voltage Stability 592 ReactivePower Flow and Voltage Collapse 593 MathematicalFormulationof Voltage Stability Problem 593 11.Future Trends and Challenses 601 References 603 591 I. 8 ReactiveLoad Forecast 587 References 589 17.16. 5 Estimationof y. Heatenergyreleased by burning fossil fuels or by fission of nuclearmaterialis convertedto electricity by first converting heatenergyto the mechanical form througha thermocycle and then converting mechanicalenergy through generators the electrical to form.ecologicaland biological factorsplace a stringentlimit on the use of hydro sources power production.It is a covetedform of energy.T A PERSPECTIVE Appendix A: Introduction to Vector and Matrix Algebra Appendix B: Generalized Circuit Constants Appendix C: Triangular Factorization and Optimal Ordering Appendix D: Elements of Power System Jacobian Matrix Appendix E: KuhnTucker Theorem Appendix F: Realtime Computer Control of power Systems Appendix G: Introduction to MATLAB and SIMULINK Answers to Problems Index 605 617 623 629 632 634 640 Electric energy is an essentialingredient for the industrial and allround development any country.is also limited in terms of power. 4 Estimation of Periodic Components 581 1 6 . Voltage Stability 1 1 . drives. say an electric furnace. Thermocycleis basicallya low efficiency processhighestefficiencies for modern large size plantsrange up to 40o/o. The earth has fixed nonreplenishableresourcesof fossil fuels and nuclear materials. (ft): Time SeriesApproach 582 1 6 .1 StateoftheArt. The per capita consumptionof electricalenergyis a reliable indicator of a country's stateof developmentfigures for 2006 are615 kwh for India and 5600 kWh for UK and 15000 kwh for USA.2 Forecasting Methodology 577 timation of Averageand Trend Terms 577 1 6 . 6 Estimationof Stochastic Component: Kalman Filtering Approach 583 16.thoughreplenishable. it can be adaptedeasily and efficiently to domestic and industrial applications. Load Forecasting Technique 16.g.2 17. while smallerplants may have considerably lower efficiencies.3 11. particularly for lighting purposes and rnechanical work*. Further. becauseit is generatedby the low efficiency thermocycle from heat energy.6 Preventionof Voltage Collapse 600 ll. .with certain countries overendowedby natureand othersdeficient. Electricity is used for heating purposesfor only very special applications..
on the other hand. 1.we can no lon tor generation of electricity. a popular festival.urces*. Distant hopesare pitched on fusion energy but the scientific and technological advanceshave a long way to go in this regard. while the peak load along with considerations of standby capacity determines plant capacity for meeting the load. technologists already r* the end of the earth.o th"y need to constantly draw upon the experiencesof the developed countries and guard againstobsolete technology.s n o n s nc fuel reso. of course. Transportation when nonconventionalenergy go electric in a big way in the long run.and the electric utility can exerciselittle control over the load (power demand) at any time.vt6J vurrJLurlp[rult iltlu exponentially rising population. weather.Introduction with the ever increasingper capita energyconsumptionand g x p o n g n l l a _ _ _ __ _ _ . In terms of bulk electric energy generation. gas and coal ancllissionable rnaterials'At the projectedconsumptionrates. In fact. A breakthrough in the conversion from solar to electric energy could pr*io" another answer to the world. Recyclingr of nuclear wastes B o tr 6 :o 100 E B o c 6 0 E Fast breederreactortechnologyis expectedto provide the answer for extending nuclear energy resourcesto last much longer. . The power system must. therefore. to on consumption a worldwidebasis. severalcountries will face serious shortagesof coal after 2200 A'D' while fissionable materials may carry us well beyond the middle of the next century. resourcesare we[ developedor a breakthroughin fusion is achieved. which this planet cannot afford. rntensification of effofts to develop alternative sources of enerw including unconventional sources like solan tidal energy.Bulk power generating stations are more easily amenable to control of pollution since centralized onepoint measurescan be adopted.however. in fact. a need to find ways and meansof reducingthis level.in doing . etc.. unlike water and gas. and a purely randomly varying componentof relatively small amplitude.^ D v^. The developingcountries. These estimates.1 Typical daily load curve The average load determines the energy consumption over the day.This figure is expected rise as oil supply can be expected to for industrial usesbecomesmore stringent. be capable of matching the output from generatorsto the demand at in The difficulty encountered this voltageand frequency. cannot be storedeconomically (except in very small quantitiesin batteries).s steeply rising energy needs. Fusion when harnessed could provide an inexhaustiblesourceof energy..1 shows a typical daily load curve. oil crisis of the 1970s has dramatically llfenislable The drawn attentionto this fact. To understand some of the problems that the power industry faces let us briefly review some of the characteristic features of generation and transmission. a varying componentwhose daily patterndependsupon the time of day.oil and gases are not expectedto last much beyond 50 years.have to intensify their efforts to raisetheir level of energyproduction to provide basic amenities to their teeming millions. season. etc. Figure 1. any time at a specified task can be imagined from the fact that load variations over a day comprises three componentsa steady component known as base load. Electricity. D e velopm ent an d applicati on of an ttpollu tion techn ologries l + o x o In this regard. Fig. The characteristics of a daily load curve on a gross basis are indicatedby peak load and the time of its occurrence and load factor defined as averageload = less than unity maximum (peak)load Cufiailment of enerry consumption The energyconsumptionof most developcdcorrntries has alreaclyreachecl a level. cannot be regarded as highly dependable. a distinct shift is taking place acrossthe world in favour of coalLJin particular intense pollution in their programmes of energy development. There is. the developing countries already have the example of the developed countries whereby they can avoid going through the phases of *varying estimatcs havebccn put forth for rescrvcs ol'oil.
&.'ina"p". I (iiD the consumermay be asked to use shunt capacitorsfor improving the Llg4" L 1'1 L A factory to be set up is to have a fixed load of 760 kw gt 0. tin"tor.conomical tariff.*hl" h"""itr.. n .# rwervcs '"*Prur power."jT.plant capacity (kw) x Time (in hours)th" plunrh^ Tariffs I ' b.:_"...j:ij:::.:::. transmission rf authedemands .j:j:*T:j wages and on and o:rynd.. "il*t.."ff"tJ'trJ.:Tl it1:Y_T^:* tlil a pf penaltyclause po*er factor of his installations.200 Annual fixed chargesdue to maximum demand correspondingto tariff (b) = = 30 x 1.i. rhefactoris much highertrranunity. etc.. b depends the maximum on demandon tir" syrie. ..staff.61il ."..il.lfe may be imposedon the consumer. If it is low...." tr... .f."":"^::::":":J _ . determine the more e.ffiH: i:s.o_ltheunitsproduced therefore th€tuel charges the of the. 2 using daylight saving as in many other counfies. plus u fo..fi".1"ff":"il:ffi:i . I I i  I  Tt:"9:"lT:f:.#u".. of kVA demand instead of kW to penalize to"O.i" il. . InPut dematrd= 950 j= 1000 kvA _ Average demand Installedcapacity Plant usef(tctor Actual energyproduced _ _ _ (kWh) . i:"::19'c. ::"T:l:_^."1:."'... loads.. of to'* lo*"."'.:llT:11. Australia. divenitv unitv "r" the maximum on the ::m:r..Intercst depreciation charges ibr the snitchgear arc l29o of the I capital cost..#...'lil mtharee.. A h i g h l o a d f a c tuvrl. " Diversity Factor .i""irT3H::Tgl""rii:'J]. rne lrv switchgear costs Rs 60/kvA and swirchgear losses at full load i amount to 5qa. 1' Giving incentivesto farmers and/or some industries to use electricity in the r u E i r r or lighr load periods." prant.10 = Rs 1.12 x 60.:fff:fii*. 3' staggering the offrce timings 4' Having different time zones in the country like USA. energy at the following alb. I by **iui."...000 "ost = on Annual charges degeciation 0. Luckily.:'' Tariff should consider the pf (power factor) of the load of the consumer.r.'.d1:$:"*Yil'." of :#:*'::i.000 Annual running chargesdue to kwh consumed = 1000x 0.000 Rs 30.. .jij Asindividuar centris rJir o*n road have .#"#UH:ffiTTfi.rgreajly in jackinguF tn. If the factory is to work for 48 hours/week.. u r u night u r U B I  L r o a o p e f l o o s .*'Ji:[1t z%""l.."'iotJ .ii. ' u " n .:"ff"Hf.ft. e l p s i n d rmoren g m o r e e n e r g y * ' n u .::"'?.8 x 48 x 52 x 0. . ." oiifif. 680 The cost of electric power is normally given by the expression(a + D x kW + c x kWh) per annum. it takes more current for the same kWs and hence Z and D ] i i.. Actual energyproduced 7@ m a x i m u m p o s s i b l e e ' m s o f u t i o n M a x i m u m d e m a n d = 0 3 = 9 5 0 k v A on @ased instarelptant capaciiyy Loss in switchgear= 5% .ff.a"* of the power output.mterconnection.station ..ano i ."". unit of energyconsumed.ti"" = of switchgear 60 x 1000 = Rs 60.1?Til'jl[.which when"r.j.ate rates: (a) Lv supply at Rs 32ftvA max demand/annum + 10 paise/tWh (b) HV supply at Rs 30/kvA max demand/annum + l0 paise/kwh." and distribution) losses are conespondingly increased..'3f:l :.000= Rs 7.:.."'11'f."::i. 99. u * I ' .iff.':T":.f.xl#1rJ. the may Tariff structures be suchasto influence loadcurveandto improve s"j:9.:.ilnffi generalhave a time dJveniry.ffi?.sometimes consumer "h.: i i i ili"tH * . .3:":ffii"T. 5' Having twopart tariff in which consumer has to pay an amount dependent on the maximum demand he makes..pj. tr. A high diversity factor could be obtained bv.'.. other factors used frequently are: enuy 3re: plant capacity foctor I ..where 4 is a rixea clarge f_ . f.f.a factors aids i at er in&viJJp excess Powerof a plant audng tight"toaa periodsis evacuated throughlong distance high voltage transmissionlo"r.g. The more..?"  rhisisdenned ::::*1":i""1".fi:_'J""1tr dividedas sum individual demands consumers...:1t:i1.r"d ru"to'. i. The electricrty board offeri to supplJ. i o r h ur (xawrrg a w energy lrom a given installation.8 pt..e.ilTffi? .:._Tj_.i.. "u"t ii charged o? tt" u"si.1."irili.'.
(b) maximum energy that could be produceddaily if the plant.2 Load duration curve Annual cost of thermarplant = 300(5.5 .000 P = 328.000P _ 3000 8760 5. The costs are as under: Hydro plant: Rs 600 per kw per annum and operating expenses 3p at per kWh.r3dE o = dP Total charges/annum Rs 2.00. =950x0.89.Find (a) the 'the reserve capacity of the plant.000 p) _ I 0.000_ p) kW Thermal energy = (2lg x107 _ E) kwh B Hours afoo 0 Annual cost of hydro plant =600P+0.20. Solution average demand Load factor = maximumdemand average demand 25 Average demand= 15 MW 0.r3(zrg x r07_ n) Total cost C = 600p + 0.00.. while running as were fully loaded. Thermal plant: Rs 300 per kw per annum and operating expenses r3p at each. rheenergy generated annually by A generatingstation has a maximum demandof 25 MW.600 +0.Introduction t WI I .00.5 x g760 .t3(219 x 107 E) _ For minimum cost. which is partly hydro and partry thermal.and a plant use factor of 72Vo. per schedule..03 or dP 4Etooo.2 shows the load duration curve.10 = Rs t. tariff (a) is economical.. 4Q.36.696 Total= Rs 2. 5.000 P the thermal plant. The Ioad duration curve can be assumedto be a triangle..03E Fig. a plant capacity factor of 5OVo.038 + 300(5. demand corresponding tariff(a) j to 950 kVA Annual running chargesfor kWh consumed l"' dE=3m dP dE=dPxt From triangles ADF and ABC.219 x 10' kwh Figure 1. a load factor of 6OVo.0". Ler the hydro capacity be p kW and the energy generaredby hydro plant E kWh/year. the base load would be supplied from the hydro plant and peak load from 500.50= installed capacity + 0. l5 Total energy generated per year = 500 x 1000 x 0. Thermal capacity = (5.8x48x52x0.'.= 0 dP = capacity += 30 MW Installed 0. The utility has to meet this load by setting up a generating system.#.00..00. and (c) the daily energy produced..gg0 = Max. and overall :ffily:f generation cost per kWh. Solution = 255 x106 kwh Energy generatedby hydro plant = 1935 x i06 kwh Total annual cost = Rs 340.60 = Plant capacity factor = demand average . 1.20 x 106/year generation = cost overall ###P x 100 = 15. Since operatingcostof hydro plant is low.096 Therefore.say 330 MW Capacityof thermalplant= 170MW Energy generatedby thermal plant = 170x3000x1000 A region has a maximum demand of 500 MW at a road factor of 50vo.53paise/kWh Determine the hydroprT!.000 p) + 0.
45x8760x100 Load Forecasting As power plant planning and constructionrequire a gestationperiod of four to energy anrl eight yearsor even longer for the presentday superpower stations.m. Solution LF 3kw MD5KW (a) ConsumerI ZOVo atTpm at6pm Average load 2kw MD5KW Consumer2 1\2 kW atTpm at 11 am Average load MD3KW Consumer3 1kw atTpm Maximum demand of the system is 8 kW at 7 p'm' = = sum of the individual maximum dernands 5 + 5 + 3 13 kw DiversitY factor = 13/8 = 7.2 kW.000 8760 CommentsThe various plant factors. 1. The energy g e n e r a t e d b y u n iIt i s 1 x 1 0 8 u n i t s . 100 Annual plant capacityf'actorof Unit z = lPgx = 8'567o loxg76oxloo Plant use factor of Unit 2 = (b) l'2*100024Vo 5 I 10033. Unit No.'. 0 7 5 x 1 0 E x 1 0 6135%o = 0 The annual load factor of the total plant = x 20.m.". e . The load suppliedby the two units is 14 MW and 10 MW.e.maximum demand N I 1 . the plant use factor equals the plant capacity factor i .72 From a load duration curve. a n d t h a t b y u n iz i s 7 . 5 x 1 0 6 u n i t s .45x8760 = 3I.54V o The maximumdemand Unit 2 is 6 MW. 1 (baseunit) works for l00Vo of the time. 2 k W Combinedload factor = =+ x10040Vo 7.5x106x100 6000x0. Solution Annual load factor for Unit 1 = 14. Also since unit I has been running throughout the year.625 ConsumerI Average load 0'2 x 5 = I kW.Introduction =3025=5MW Daily energyproduced flver&g€ = demand 24 = 15 x 24 x = 360 MWh Energycorresponding installed to capacity day per =24x30_720MWh axlmum energy t be produced _ actualenergyproducedin a day plant use factor Reserve capacity of the plant = instalredcapacity . consumer 3 has an averageload of I kw and his (b) maximum demandis 3 kW at 7 p.027o 10x0.7 I7o Since no reserveis available at Unit No.Consumer 2 has a maximum demandof 5 kW at 11 a.3Vo LF= 5x LF= Combinedaverageload = I + l'2 + l = i .27Vo There are three consumersof electricity having different load requirementsat different times. 2 Consumer Averageload 1. 5 x 1 0x 1 0 0 = 14. 5 4 V o . plant capacityfactor and plant use factor of each unit. = :9 = 5ooMWh/day 0.. on 6000 8760 x Load factor of Unit 2 for the time it takesthe load 6 Annual load factor for Unit 2 = 7 . 2 (peak load unit) only for 45vo of the time. the capacity of base and peak load units can thus be found out from the load duration curve. and the load factor of the total plant. and thus the generation from the peak load unit is much higher than that cosf of power from the baseload unit. i.m. and a demand of 3 kW at 7 p. and Unit No. 81. (c) LF= 20Vo i.54vo.m.l* i " '. 7. studies. load demandfnrecastingplays a crucial role in power system . Consumer t has a maximum demand of 5 kW at 6 p. the folrowing data are obtained: Maximum demandon the sysremis 20 Mw. and a daily load factor of 20Vo. F i n d t the load factor.8 1 . Consumer3 Average load I kW. and (c) the average load and load factor of the combined load. Determine:(a) the diversity factor. its capacity factor is the sameas the load factor.. the load factor and averageload of each consumer.5x106x100 = 19. The load factor of than that of the base load unit.000 8760 x 1 x 1 0 8 x 1 0 0:81.' a load of 2 kW at 7 p'm' and an averageload of 1200 w.
the This necessitates long range forecasting. In shortterm load forecasting. economical and environmental. in turn.It provides capacity savingsby seasonal having opposing winter and summer requirements. following two alternativesare possible.hourbyhour predictions are made for the decadeof the 21st century it would be nparing2. Both power and energy uru ractors rnvolved re ng an involved processrequiring experienceand high analytical ability.ffiil. may be built closeto coal tnines (calledpit headstations) l. T.however. *Interconnectionhas the economic advantageof reducing the reserve generation capacity in eacharea.power stationsiting will dependupon many factorstechnical.Under conditionsof suddenincreasein load or loss of generation in one area. Yearly forecastsare basedon previous year's loading for the period under considerationupdated by factors such as general load increases. the simple extrapolationtechnique is quite adequatefor long range forecasting.This. Each electricallyconnected area or regional grid operatestechnicallyand economically independently. transmission lines and the distributionsystemsare the main components an electric power system. It also gives the flexibility to meet unexpectedemergencyloads' . while sophisticated probabilistic methodsexist in literature [5. fired stationswill continueto be sitedin distantwesternand southern fuel transport by As nuclear stationsare not constrained the problemsof and air pollution. Also.but these are eventuallyinterconnected*to form a national grid (which may even form an internationalgrid) so that each areais contractually tied to other areas features. however remote. the distancesover transmissionlines of 4001765 belt and some coal are locatedmainly in the eastern country's coal resources regions.2 STRUCTURE OF POWER SYSTEMS Generating stations.00.India is now heading in respectto certaingenerationand scheduling grid.D. It facilitates transmissionof offpeak power.major loads and weathertrends. exchangeof power between areas centres. which alsoconnectone power * 38Voof the total power required in India is for industrial consumption. compared to less than 200 billion kWh in 198687. Z.since weatherhas a much more influence on residentialthan the industrial component.area) to another. As it is considerablycheaper to transport bulk electric energy over extra high voltage (EHV) transmission lines than to transportequivalentquantitiesof coal over rail roqd. power starions energy is evacuatedover transmission lines to the load and electric centres. However. for a national The siting of hydro stations is determinedby the natural water power The choiceof site for coal fired thermalstationsis more flexible. it is immediately possible to borrow power from adjoining interconnected lines under faulty causeslarger currentsto flow on transmission areas. 28].ftffi I powerSyslem Modern nnatysis lntroduction all system(gtid. The sources.It permits capacity savings from time zones and random diversity. Bulk power can be transmitted to fairly long kV and above.it may be better to prepare forecast in constituentparts to obtain total.Interconnection condition with a consequent increase in capacity of circuit breakers. so that these while avoiding high densitypollution stationsare locatedclose to load centres areasto reducethe risks.Generatingstationsand a distribution of systemare connected through transmission lines. Generation of electricity in India was around 530 billion kWh in 20002001 A.of radioactivityleakage. 16. a particularareato the transmission in (which will be discussed detail reasons and technological For economical areasor regionalgrids (also called power pools).A distributionsystem connects the loads in lines. power stations may be built close to the load ceutres and coal is transportedto them from the mines by rail road' In practice. would require a correspondingdevelopmeni in coal resources. the recent trends in India (as well as abroad) is to build super (large) thermal power stations near coal mines.000Mwa stupendous task indeed. a greater flexibility exists in their siting.
3 schematic diagram depicting power system structure The heat releasedduring the combustionof coal.we are compelled. Therefore. The axialflow type of turbine is normally used with several cylinders on the same shaft.3 depicts schematicallythe structure of a power system. voltage levels are employed: distribution l.others.Figure 1.s and. The chemical energy stored in coal is transformed into electric energy in thermal power plants. Some industries level. The efficiency of the overall conversionprocessis poor and its maximum of because the high heat lossesin the combustiongasesand value is about 4OVo .25kv 'qff9a. The distribution system.The conventional and some of the unconventional sourcesand techniquesof energy generation are briefly surveyedhere with a stresson future trends. wind and tidal sources. Normally. A simple schematic diagram of a coal fired thermal plant is shown in Fig. The necessity to conserve fosqil fuels has forced scientists and technologists across the world to search for unconventional sources of electric energy.qiaji. nuclear) and hydro generations are the main conventional sources of electric energy. 1. Though the distribution system design. we shall discuss only coalfired boilers for raising steam to be used in a turbine for electric generation.for reasonsof space. The steam turbine acts as a prime mover and drives the electric generator (alternator). planning and operation are subjects of great importance.the rest on wherethe reductionis to a rangeof 33 to 132 kV.to exclude them from the scope of this book. particularly with reference to the Indian electric energy scenarioTtrermal Power StationsSteam/Gasbased Large consumers Small consumers Fig. 1. 1. coal is the fuer for most of the sream plants. oil or gas is used in a boiler to raise steam.comefrom :^:yft. supplies power to ttre domestic or industrial and commercial consumers. as of now.In India. In India heat generationis mostly coal basedexcept in small sizes.765 kV) Tie linesto othersystems Thermal (coal. The heat releasedby the combustion of coal produces steam in a boiler at high pressureand temperature. abou 75voof electric power used t is generated thermal in plants(including nuclear). oil.which when passedthrough a steamturbine gives off some of its internal energy as mechanicalenergy.3 CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ELECTRIC ENERGY a . may require power at these voltage transmissionline voltage.4. two The next stepdownin voltage is at the distribution substation. O Transmission level (220kv . Some of the sourcesbeing explored are solar. Generating stations at 11kV . Thus.23vofrommostly hydro stationsandZvo. depending the substation. because of limited indigenous production of oil. The primary or feeder voltage(11 kV) 2. fed from the distribution transformer stations. the power system operatesat various voltage levels separatedby transformer. The secondaryor consumer voltage (440 V three phase/230V single phase).
with steam perhaps increase unit sizes to several GWs which would result in better generatingeconomy.^ ^ rntroduction Effi and the large quantity of heat rejectedto the condenser which has to be given off in cooling towers or into a streamlake in the case of direct condenser cooling' The steam power station operateson the Rankine cycle.The fluidizedbed boiler is undergoingextensivedevelopmentand is being preferred due to its lower pollutant level and better efficiency. there is renewedinterest in thesebecauseof the overall increasein energy efficiencies which are claimed to be as high as 65Vo. Air and thermal pollution is always present in a coal fired steam plant. The main problem with coal in India is its high ash content (up to 4OVo bed combustion technology is being developed and To solve this. and this is a significant advantage our concern in for environment' The only trouble in the cai of a large unit is the tremendous shock to the system when outage of such a large capacity unit occurs. Now called cogeneration.a concept called wheeling Power. Of course they can sell the extra power to the government for use in deficient areas. fuel first produces is process heat and the waste heat from the process6s then used to produce power.lr. To take advantageof the principle of economy of scale (which applies to units of all sizes). .. 1.Today. Direct ignition of pulverized coal is being introduced but initial oil firing support is needed. they will not have to dependon the grid power which is not so reliable. Fluidizedbed Boiler turbines of this size. in 1970s the first 500 Mw superthermal unit had been commissioned at Trombay.4 schematic diagram a coarfiredsteamprant of In India. There are two possible ways of cogenerationof heat and electricity: (i) Topping cycle.In the bottoming cycle. r. Larger units can be installed at much lower cost per kilowatt. and As on 3I.paper. total cogenerationpotential in India is 19.it is advisable to save fuel by the simultaneousgenerationof electricity and steam (or hot water) for industrial use or space heating. SOX.food. fuel is burnt to produce electrical or mechanical power and the waste heat from the power generationprovides the processheat. Further. Since larger units consumeless fuer pJr kwh. fertilizer and petroleum refining industries. Efforts are on to develoo srDer. The problem of air pollution can be minimized through scrubbers and elecmostaticprecipitators and by resorting to minimum emission dispatch [32] and Clean Air Act has already been passedin Indian Parliament. The COz. labour and maintenance expenditure.u Inecnanlcal energy) can be increased by using steam at the highest possible pressure and temperature. Stack max).2000. Th"y require io*".500MW actual achievementis 273 MW as per MNES (Ministry of NonConventional Energy Sources.They may aiso seil power to the neighbouring industries.s maximum generator unit size is (nearly 1200 Mw) limited by the permissible current cjensitiesused in rotor and stator windines. i"ui"r. Th"y are also cheaper to opcrate because of higher efficiency.textiles. Cogeneration Considering the tremendous amount of waste heat generatedin tlbrmal power generation. Cooling towers are used in situations where the stream/lake cannot withstand the thermal burden without excessivetemperaturerise. Stepup Ah uE transformer 1030 kv / Coolirrgtower Condenser Burner Preheated air Forced draft fan mill Flg. Cogeneration of steam and power is highly energy efficient and is particularly suitablefor chemicals. Jtuidized perfected.. etc. Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) has produced severalturbogenerator setsof 500 MW capacity.Thus theseindustriescan solve energyshortageproblem in a big way. additionalincreasein efficiency is obtainedby reheating the steam after it has been partially expanded by an ext.the presenttrend is to go in foilarger sizesof units. According to chaman Kashkari [3] there may be a saving of as high as lvo in capitalcost per kilowatt by going up from a 100 to 250 MW unit size and an additional saving in fuel cost of ubout gvo per kwh.12. Currently. (ii) Bottoming cycle.) are emitted via the exhaust gasesand thermal pollution is due to the rejected heat transferred from the condenserto cooling water. modified to \vv'yvrDrwrr ur r'. they produce ress air. thermal and waste pollution.such systemshave long been common.E rt^r^ h. rn" reheated steam is then returned to the turbine where it is expandedthrough the final states of bleedins. In the topping cycle. This shock can be tolerateclso long as this unit sizeloes not exceed r}vo of the online capacity of a large grid. here and abroad.Government of India) Annual Report 200H1.
Hydroelectric plants are ..H I Coalfired plants share environmental problems with some other types of fossilfuel plants. Francis and Kaplan are used for storage. Headworks Spillway Valve house Surgechamber Reservoir Pen stock Powerhouse pond Tailrace Fig.Often.Ttrsteehnical and economic difficulties still prevail. Gas combustion generates high temperatures and pressures. Gas Turbines With increasing availability of natural gas uangladesh) primemovers basedon gas turbines have been developedon the lines similar to those used in aircraft.6. i. Total potential is around 9000 IvftV out of which 900 MW is being planned. Different types of turbines such as Pelton. A gas turbine unit can also be used as synchrono. and navigation. pondage (medium head) type.greenhouse. .pondageand runofriver plants. CCGT unit produces 55vo of CO2 produced by a coal/oilfired plant. effect. The energy is obtained almost free of nrnning cost and is completely pollution free. storage of irrigation and drinking water.me water stream where the discharge of one plant becomesthe inflow of a downs6eam plant. The basin in Kandala (Gujrat) has been estimated to have a capacity of 600 MW. The unit can take up to ITVo "uiu" overload for short periods of time to take care of any emergency.2 m and the tidal flow is estimated to be 18. 1. This is called combinedcyclegasturbine(CCGT) plant. 1.e. and reservoir (high head) type. Hydroelectric stationsare designed. respectively.5. The utilization of energy in tidal flows in channets has long been the subject of researeh. The oldest and cheapestmethod of power generationis that of utilizing the potential energy of water. 1. Diamond Harbour and Ganga Sagar.mostly.. Local storage tanks Jr gur ured in caseof gas supply intemrption. There are culrently many installationsusing gas turbines in the world with 100 Mw generators.ornp"nsator to help maintain flat voltage profile in the system. Of course. Units are now available for a fully automatedoperation for 24h or to meet the peak demands. A tidal power station has been constructed on the La Rance estuary in northern France where the tidal height range is 9. as multipurpose projects such as river flood control.r. it involves high capital cost requires a long gestation period of about five to eight years as compared to four to six years for steamplants. 1.A 6 x 30 MW gas turbine station has already been put up in Delhi. A simple block diagram of a hydro plant is given in Fig. cascaded plants are also constructed. The reservoir type plants are the ones which are employed for bulk power generation. Additional advantageis that exhaust gas from the turbine still has sufficient heat content. Some of the major sites under investigation are: Bhavnagar.. The vertical difference between the upper reservoir and tail race is called the head.000 m3/sec. In Delhi (India) a CCGT unit6f 34Mw is installed at Indraprasthapower Station.5 CCGTpowerstation CCGT plant has a fast start of 23 min for the gas turbine and about 20 minutes for the steam turbine. so that the efficiency of the las turbine is comparable to that of steam turbine. The schernatic diagram of such a plant is drawn in Fig. which is used to raise steam to run a conventional steam turbine coupled to a generator.Navalakhi (Kutch). Hydro plants are of different types such as runofriver (use of water as it comes).6 Generator A typical layout for a storage type hydro plant Steam Fig. on the sa. There are of course intense siting problems of the basin. these include "acid rain" and the .
peak load may be handled by means of pumped storage.000MW by rhe year 2010). When Uranium235 is bombardedwith neutrons. and lower reservoirs and reversible turbinegeneratorsets. Narora (UP) and Kakrapar (Gujarat).In order that the freshly released neutronsbe able to fission the uranium atoms.7.rpp". water in the lower reservoir is pumped back into the ipper one so as to be ready for use in the next cycle of the peak ioad p. when production costs are the highest. etc. hqavy water.In fact. mustbe usedfor peak.81 mlsz Problems peculiar to hydro plant which inhibit expansion are: 1. from the point of view of the thermal sector of the system.) called moderators. The pumped srorage scheme. The iurbines are driven by water from the upper reservoir in the usual manner. etc. These neutronsthen participate in the chain reaction of fissioning more atoms of 235U. this rate can be controlled oniy within a narrow range. up. in which is used in a conventionalmanner to generateelectric energy by meansof a steam turbine. At present 500 MW capacityis und"r construction.. Total estimated potentialis 15000 MW. if required. advancedgas reactor (AGR). when inserted into the reactor vessel. However. 5.etc. diagramof a nuclear power plant is shown in Fig. water. this sourceaccountsfor only 3Voof the total power generation with nuclear stations at Tarapur (Maharashtra). Ecological damageto region 4.Kalpakkam (Tamil Nadu). Some of the existingpumpedstorageplantsare I100 MW Srisailem in Ap and 80 MW at Bhira in Maharashtra.). which cun ulio be used as motorpump sets. Several other nuclear power plants will be commissioned 20I2. India alsohas a tremendous potential (5000MW) of having large number of micro (< 1 Mw). The overall efficiency of the sets is normarly as high ut 607oEo. rods made of n'eutronabsorbing material (boronsteel) are used which. The electric power is supplied to the sets from the general power network or adjoining thermal plant. Displacement human habitation from areasbehind the dam which of will fill up and become a lake. the developedcountries have already switched over in a big way to the use of nuclear energy for power generation. Waterintake Nuclear Power Stations With the end of coal reservesin sight in the not too distant future. rn" generatorsin this period change to synchronousmotor action and drive the turbineswhich now work as pumps. control the amount of neutron flux thereby controlling the rate of reaction. and.In India. mini (< 15 Mw).Such a plant acts as a conventional hydro plant during the peak load period. This consists of un . The schemadc. In areaswheresufficienthydro generationis not available. nuclear fuel rods must be embeddedin neutronspeedreducing agents(like graphite. at present. is analogousto the charging and discharging or u battery. * Existing capacity (small hydro) is 1341 MW as on June 200I. Thesecannotprovide baseload. During the light load period.it is likely that more and more power by will be generatedusing this important resource (it is planned to raise nuclear power generationto 10.Kota (Rajasthan). Control rods Fuelrods_ .rioo.The upper reservoir has enough storagefor about six hours of full load generation.for the reaction to be sustained.small (< 15 Mw) Mrl plants in Himalayan region.In future. boiling water reactor (BwR).fission reaction takesplace releasingneutrons and heat energy. Siltingreportedly Bhakra dead storagehas silted fully in 30 years 2. tu1 be used as synchronous condensersfor vAR compensationof the power network. the immediate practical alternative sourceof large scale electric energy generation is nuclear energy.in fact. The heit releasedby the 'uclear reaction is transported a heat exchangervia primary to coolant (coz. viz.W t   powersystem Modern Anarvsis daily load demand curve. p=gpWHW where W = dischargem3ls through turbine p = densiry 1000 kg/m3 11= head (m) 8 = 9. uttaranchal and JK which must be fully exploited to generate cheapand clean power for villages situated far awayfrom the grid power*. their speeds must be ieduced to a critical value.Therefore. Various types of reactorsare being used in practicefor power plant pu{poses. und h"uuy water moderated reactor. Seepage 3. Himachal. It has the added advantage that the synchronousmachin". Steam is then generated the heat exchanger. 1.Forreaction control. Ina way.shaving and energy saving in coordination with thermal plants.
liquid sodium. be realiably connected to a power network. It requireslinle fuel in terms of volume and weight. Merits 1.The energy densitylkg of fuel is very high and so the core is small. 1. thereby considerably extending the life of nuclear fuels.8 CANDUreactorpressurized heavywater rnoderatedadopted in In d i a The associated merits and problems of nuclear power plants as compared to conventional thermal plants are mentioned below. Containment Fig. it is preferable to support such a station with a pumped storage schemementioned earlier. independentlyof nuclear . Because of relatively high capital cost as against running cost. no transportation problems and may be sited. therefore. 3 . 2. Demerits Nuclear reactors produce radioactive fuel waste. the disposal poses serious environmentalhazards.However. Wherever possible.some of the neutrons are absorbed by the fission of lhe more abundant 23sUwhile 238U uranium isotope lenriched uranium containsonly about 3Voof 238U)converting it to plutonium ("nU). which in itself is a most of its is fissionablematerial and can be extractedfrom the reactor fuel waste by a fuel reprocessing plant. During 235U. The fuel for an FBR consists of 20Voplutonium phts 8Vouranium oxide.The neutrons do slow down a little through collisions with structural and fuel elements. pressurized heavy water moderatedis adopted in India.8. The greatestdangerin a fission reactor is in the caseof loss of coolant in an accident. Figure 1. require that they be normally located away from populated areas.W ModernPo*". the nuclear plant should operate continuously as the base load station.The heat so transportedis led to a secondarysodium circuit which transfers it to a heat exchanger to generate steam at 540'C. and thereforeposes . The rate of nuclear reaction can be lowered only by a small margin. Plutonium would then be used in the next generation reactors (fast breeder reactorsFBRs). This is achieved by fast moving neutrons so that no moderatoris needed. and at the presentrate may not last much beyond 50 years. there is a redeemingfeqture. The FBR technologyis being intenselydevelopedas it will extend the availability of nuclear fuels at predicted rates of energy consumption to several centuries. It is therefore necessarythat the coolant should possessgood thermal properties and hence liquid sodium is used. Its schematic diagram is shown in Fig. system An"tysis iiiriociucrion  CANDU reactorNatural uranium (in cixideform). It is essentialthat for breeding operation. conversion ratio (fissile material generated/fissilematerial consumed) has to be more than unity. the fission does continue and its afterheatmay cause vaporizing and dispersalof radioactive material. Nuclear power stations must. as tripping of the lines connecting the station can be quite serious and may required shutting down of the reactor with all its consequences.9 shows the schematicdiagram of an FBR. 4. Even with the control rods fully lowered quickly called scrarn operation. 1. A nuclear power plant is totally free of air pollution. .ldaves the reactor at 650"C at atmospheric pressure. 2. The coolant. The world uranium resourcesare quite limited. so that the load on a nuclear power plant can only be permitted to be marginally reduced below its full load value.
This holds great promise for India as we have one of the world's largest deposits of thoriymabout 450000 tons in form of sand dunes in Keralu una along the Gopalpfur Chatrapurcoastof Orissa. The . Fusion Energy is produced in this processby the combination of two light nuclei to form a single heavier one under sustained conditions of exiemely high temperatures millions of degree centigrade).000tons) and thorium.r reactorto light water reactortechnology. an extremely toxic material. heavy warer 1g. boiling iut.. can be further reduced by standardisingpl4nt design and shifting from heavy wate. the impact of fusion reactors would be much less than the fission reactors..inadequare hydro potentiaiilentiful reserves uranium(70.India needs to watch carefully their design. our heavy waterbased plants are most safe.er Indian nuclear scientists. Genera(in tion of electricity via fusion would solve the longtenn energy needs of the world with minimum environmental problems. would make the environmentalconsiderationsmost stringent. pnrrrar r vrrvr vyglgttl errolam nttdtvsts Anal. As p. We have merely 1 per cent of the world's In thermal generation of electric energy.9 Fastbreeder reactor (FBR) An important advantageof FBR technologyis that it can also use thorium (as fertile material) which gets convertedto t33U which is fissionable.But we must adopt more conservative strategies design. Typical power densities 1MWm3) in fission reactor cores are: gas cooled 0.0. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Generation suitedfor India. In case of successin fusion technologysometime in the distant future or a breakthroughin the pollutionfree solarenergy.l"J engineering experience. conventional thermal plants.75.0.o"i.75.000 MW by z0ro AD. been An experimentalfast breeder test reacror (FBTR) (40 MW) has built "*f.FBR technology i. serious doubts have been raised.O.that all this may pur the nuclear energy developmentin reversegear. 1. A .about the safety claims of nuclear power plants.and many yearsof nuclear of  Core Coolant Containment Fig. fast breederreactor 760. However.Fusion is futuristic. with poor quality coal.^l^ at Kalpakkam alongside nucrear a powerplant. in World scientistshave to adopt of different reaction safety strategymay be to discover additives to automatically inhibit feaction beyond cr. If this happensthere could be serious energy crisis in the third world countries which have pitched their hopes on nuclear energy to meet their burgeoningenergy needs. There is a fear. high temperaturegas cooled 7. constructionand operating strategiesas it is committed to go in a big way for nuclear generation and hopes to achieve a capacity of 10.ii"at rather than by mechanically inserted control rods which have possibilitiesof several primary failure events. Zg.t _ Modprn rrtyyvrr.France (with 78Voof its power requirement from nuclear sources)and Canadaare possibly the two countries with a fairty clean record of nuclear generation.53. \ In the past few years. with a breeder reactor the release of plutonium. constructionand operationof nuclearplants.. There have been as many as 150 near disaster nuclear accidents from the Threemile accident in USA to the recent Chernobyl accident in the former USSR. pressurizedwater 54. the heat released by the fuel is converted to rotational mechanical energy by means of a thermocvcle.iul reactor is expectedby 2010 AD. there is an intense need today to develop FBR technology as an insuranceagainst failure to deverop these two technologies. The present cost of nuclear wlm coalttred power plant.FBRs would becomeobsolete. Considering radioactive wastes.
lndia had starteda research and developmentproject in collaboration with the former USSR to install a pilot MHD plant based on coal and generating2 MW power. Wind power may prove practical for small power needs in isolated sites. New Zealand. there is considerable tional effort into the development of alternative/new/nonconventionaUrenewable/cleansourcesof energy. wind. there are three types of operations: 1. Ttre present installed geothermal plant capacity in the world is about 500 MW and the total estimatedcapacityis immenseprovided heat generated the in p = densityof air (1201 g/m' at NTP) V _ mean air velocity (m/s) and A = sweptarea (rn"). but the total exploitableenergy potential seemsto be very little. attempts have been made since 1940 to use wind to generateelectric energy and developmentis still going on. I.In MHD technology. feasibility studies of 1 MW station at Puggy valley in Ladakh is being carried out. it Wind as a power source is attractivebecause is plentiful. Fnrther. MHD developmenthas been put on the shelf. 10100 kW for comrnunities 3. Most of the new sources (some of them in fact have been known and used for centuries now!) are nothing but the manifestationof solar energy. In India. sea waves.1 .5 pAV3W where Gas flow at 2. 0. Geothermal Power Plants In a geothermal power plant. cornbustionof fuel without the need for mechanicalmoving parts. it does not impose extra heat burden on the Control environment. The principle of MHD power generation is illustrated in Fig. High temperature is needed to iontze the gas. There has been some use of geothermalenergy in the form of steam coming from undergroundin the USA. Medium. Italy.g. it is nonsteadyand undependable. technoeconomicfeasibility has yet to be satisfactorily established. inexhaustible and nonpolluting. thereby generatingelectricity. Methods have also been found to generate and consequently varying speeds frequencypower with varying wind speeds of wind mill propellers.ry Modern Power System Anatysis Introduction w I mechanicalenergy is then used to rotate the electric generator. In fact with the developmentof CCGT (combined cycle gas turbine) plant.5 MW for connectionto the grid. However. For wind power generation. Also. In this section. Philippines and some other countries.500'C Strong magnetic field e generati on F i g .but the the efficiency is even less than the conventional capital costs are less and the fuel is available free of cost. so that it has good eiectrical conductivity.electrically conducting gas at a very high temperature is passed in a strong magnetic fleld.1 0 T h e p ri n c i p lof MH Dpow er Though the technologicalfeasibility of MHD generationhas been established. e.10.510 kW for isolated single premises i 2.Unlbrtunately. it should be used in conjunction with other methods of power generationto ensurecontinuity. Another geothermal field has been located at Chumantang.Mexico. . its economicf'easibilityis yct to be demonstrated. are volcanic regionscan be utilized. Wind Power Several Winds are essentiallycreated by the solar heating of the atmosphere. 1. equipment has been devised to start the wind power plant wheneverthe wind constant speedreaches30 kmftr. Abotrt 50Vo efficiency can be achievedif the MHD generatoris operated in tandem with a conventional steam plant.Thus two stages of energy conversion are involved in which the heat to mechanical energy conversion has inherently low efficiency. a 25 MW MHD plant which uses natural gas as fuel had been in operation for some years. we shall discuss the possibilities and potentialities of various methods of using solar energy. the rotating machine has its associated lossesand maintenance problems. is an established and forms of energy will play acceptedtact that renewableand nonconventional an increasingly important role in the future as they are cleanerand easier to benign and are bound to becomeeconomicallymore use and environmentally use.4 RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES development. In a MHD generator. Small. the importance of To protect environmentand for sustainable It renewableenergysourcescannot be overemphasized.. In Russia. viable with increased internaBecause of the limited availability of coal. ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) etc. 1. Large. Since the pressureand temperatures low. But for maximum flexibility. There are a number of hot springsin India. The theoreticalpower in a wind streamis given by P = 0. Japan. fossil fuelled plants. heat deep inside the earth act as a source of power. The conductinggas is obtainedby burning a fuel and injecting a seeding materials such as potassium carbonate in the products of combustion.
This is equally true with many other unconventional sourcesas well as sourceslike wind. Therefore. Fluctuatingsources with fluctuating loads complicatestill further the electricity supply. it is available for only a part of the day.g. Though the engineeringproblems associated with wavepowerare formidable. Rural grid systems likely to be 'weak. with energy fluxes commonly averagingbetween50 and 70 kW/m width of oncoming wave. ]'here is a 10 MW installationof such a tower by the Southern California EdisonCo' in USA using 1818plane rnirrors. orissa. Up r o 31. the wind power potential of India has been estimated to be substantial and is around 45000 Mw. In all solar thermalschentes. The chief problem is the cost and maintenance solar cells. Solar energy could. Their theoreticalefficiency is about 25Vobut the practical value is only about I5Vo. y hazy atmospheric conditions greatly reduce the energy received. 270 community lights.oud and. However. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) The ocean is the world's largest solar coilector.\ of 4 kWh/m'.tO /k w h . large amplitude(.it has severalcrrawbacksenergy density pei unit area is very row. in theseareas. t 2. rhe bulk of which is in Europe (7UVo). the necessary cells would occupy about0. each m x i 7 m reflecting direct racliation thc raisecl to boiler. Solar Energy The average incident solar energy received on earth's surface is about 600 W/rn2 but the actual value varies considerably.It has been estimated that to produce 1012 kwh per year. But that does not matter as solar energy is basically free of cost. Direct Conversion to Electricity (Photovoltaic Generation) 2.57o(in I975) assumingI07o efficiency and a daily insolation . however. 2000 is 1267 Mw. Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. In India. a vast sourceof energyis available. With the likelihood of a breakthrough the large of in scale production of cheap solar cells with amorphoussilicon. "otru"titional The solar power tower [15] generates steam for electricity procluction. with severalhundreds of kilometersof coast line.640 TV (solar). has It the advantageof beingfree of cost.55 x10am2solar thermai system collector area.the most important being that of the collection and concentration of solar energy and its conversion to the electrical form through efficient and comparatively economical means. and cl. challengingtechnological problemsexist. this technology may competewith conventional methodsof electricity generation. There are always periods without wind. 39000 PV streetlights and 3370 warer pumps MW of grid connected solar power plants were in operation.74 hectare a at a busbarcost of abo u t$ O. harnessing solar energyfor electricitygeneration. at the most. supplementup to 5r0vo of the total energy demand.collectors with concentrators are employedto achievetemperatures high enough(700'C) to operatea heat engrne at reasonable efficiency to generate electricity. The installed capacity as on Dec. where wind blows at speedsof 30 kmftr during summer' On the whole. 2000. This technologyconvertssolar energyto the electrical form by meansof silicon wafer photoelectriccells known as "Solar Cells". Sea wave power estimated poterrtial is 20000 MW.10 s). in progress page 17).l%oof US land areaas againsthighways which occupy 1.rhe long period (.varrn. solar pond at A Ein Borek in Israel procluces steady150 kW fiorn 0. The schemeinvolves large and intricate structuresinvoiving lug" capital outlay and as of today is f'ar from being competitive with Jlectricity generation. The conesponding world figure is 14000 Mw.particularly as conventional fuels becomescarce. solar power will overtakewind in 2040 and would become the world's overall largest source of electricity by 2050. total capacityof about 2000 MW is being planned. the bulk of which is in Tamil Nadu. there are considerableengineeringdifficulties in building a single tracking bowi with a diarneter exceeding30 m to generate perhaps200 kw. wind power plants have been installed in Gujarat. storage necessary is because the fluctuating of nature of sun's energy.2m) waves are of considerable interest for power generaticln. Wave Energy The energyconientof sea wavesis very high.(60%). The power in the wave is proportionalto the squareof the anrplitudeand to the period of the motion. 33 kV). in 462000solar cookers. In India. At present. Electricity may be generated from a Solar pond by using a special . 3.nonexhaustible completelypollutionfree. and On the other hand. Solar power potential is unlimited.'In one technology.low temperature' heat enginecoupledto an electricgenerator.Introduction pot Tota l solar ener gy ent ial I ndia is 5 x lO ls kwh/ yr . As per one estimate[36]. Temperaturedifference of 2O"Cbetween\. Therefore. the amountof energythat can be harnessed large and development is work is (alsoseethe sectionon HydroelectricPower Generation.47 MW of SPV power. 278000 solar lanterns(PV domestic lighting units). are since retatrvely low voitage supplies(e. two technologiesare being developedfor conversion of solar energyto the electrical form. solar absorbingsurfacewater and cooler 'bottorn' water .
ffiffi Modem Pow'er system Anatysis lntroduction solar. A significant amount of storage capable of instantancous would be betterway of meetingsuch peak loads.but due to economicalreasons.s fuel for aircraftand automcbilescould encourase its large scaleproduction.e. heat. Biomass is burnt to provide heat for cooking. As already mentioned.5 ENERGY STORAGE Hydrogen can be used as a medium for energy transmissionand storage. A proposedplant using seaiemperaturedifferencewould be situated 25 km cast ol'Mianii (USA). Fuel Cells A fuel cell converts chemicalenerry of a fuel into electricity clirectly. 1. Global electricity generatingcapacity from full cells will grow from just 75 Mw in 2001 ro 15000MW bv 2010.1 x 106. As regardsnuclearpower. For transportingthis . Other methods are discussed below very briefly. comfort heat (space heat). of Also the use of hydrogena. tactory processes and raising steamfor electricity production and transport. wherethe temperature clil'l'eronce 17.US.dro power is 84. with no intermediatecotnbustioncycle.s. and so far use the most importantway is to have a pumped storage plant as discussed earlier. S t or ag eo f a n y n a tu rei s l ro w e v e r ery costl y arrcl ts cconomi csmust be v i worked out properly.uitable and environrnental friendly sustainable development.000 Mw.Enclgy wliich can be convertedinto electricity can be storedin a number of ways. 1"6 GROWTH OF POWER SYSTEII{S IN INDIA is a lol ol problenrin storing clectricity in largc quantities. intenseexplorationis being undertakeri in vitriousregitlnsof thc country.This can provide a continuallyreplenished storeof thermal energy which is in principle available fbr conversion to other energy forms. Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. while sorne oil reserveshave been discoveredso far. Renewableenergy programmes specially designedto meet the growing are energy needs in the rural areas for prornoting decentralized and hybrid dcvelopment as to stem growing migration of rural populationto urban st. is Biofuels The material of plants and animals is called biomass. hyclrogen supplied to the is negative electrodeand oxygen (or air) to the positive.tctor. When lndia attained independence.v Authority). Total biomass power harnessedso far is 222 MW . Since indepcndcncc. flywheels and superconduc t in gc o i l s . In the beginningof the First Five Year Plan (195156). crop drying. gas turbines are normally used for meeting peak loads but are very expensive. There are about 2000 community biogas plants and tamily size biogas plants are 3.The main reason'.secondary batteries.IW has so far beencommissioned to the end of 9th plan.but has rich deposits thoririm of rvhichcan be utilisedat a future clatc in l'ast brccclorrci. hydrogengas. Tamil Nadu. storageand distriburion. hydro development receivedattentionin areaslike Kerala. thc coulltry has nnde tremendous progress the development electricenergyand todayit has the in of largest systemamong the developingcountries. India is cleflcient in uranium. i. Electrolysis a wellestablished is commercial process yielding pure hydrogen. Hydrogen Energy Systems can occlrr. As per a recentreport up of tlre CEA (Ccntlal Flectricit.Sodiutttsulphur battery(200 Wh/kg) and other colrbinations of materialsare also being developed get more output and storageper to unit weisht. c:onlpressedair. In the fuel cell. ethanol liquid or charcoal solid.invented by Plantein 1860. In I ndia p o te n ti aI' ttlb i o E n e rg ys 1 7 0 00MW and thatfbr agri cul tunrl i rstci s l i w about 6000 MW.. Germanvand Japan may take lead for this.149 MW through oil stations and 587 MW through nonutilities).5"C. India has immensewater power l.the total potentialof h1. It would be through this integration of energy conservationefforts with renewable energy programmesthat India would be able to achievea smooth transition from fossil fuel economy to sustainablerenewableenergy basedeconomy and bring "Energy for ali" for ec. the rotal installed capacity was around2300 MV/ (560 MW hydro.l areasin searchof better living conditions. which may be transformed by chemical and biological processesto produce intermediate biofuels sttch as methane gas. The porous electrodesallow hydrogen ions to pass. The most widely used storagebatteryis the lead acid battery. Secondary Batteries Large scale battery use is almost ruled out and they will be used for battery powered vehicles and local fluctuating energy sourcessuch as wind mills or 'l'here India is fairly rich in natural resources like coal and lignite. installeclcapacity was as low as the 1400 MW in the early stagesof the growth of power system. OTEC refers to the conversion of someof this thermal energy into work and thence 50.the major portion of generationwas through thermal stations.rhy fuel cells are not in wide use is their cost (> $ 2000/kW). Ht can be convertedvery efficiently back to electi'icityby rneans fuel ceils.csources also of which only around25To have so farbeen utiliseci.040Iv{W at ('L't% load factor. 1004MW thermal.oniy 25000 t\. Various options available are: pLrmped storage. Hydrogenand oxygen are combined to give water and electricity.
Each plant specializes a was cornmissionedat singrauli' Today BIIEL first 500 MW turbogenerator manufacturersin the is consideredone of the major power plant equipment world.commercial 200405' in 6.Introduction power to the load centres. T.The of tn" First Five year Plan became 5700 MW at the end of the SecondFive voltage came up in Tarnil year plan. By .It is expectedto remain more or less same out all over the be selfsufficient in power' BHEL has plants spread To viz' turbo sets'power equipment. in range of equipment'BHEL's ers.657o. This station uses two boiling water reactorsof Northern region 308528 (49674) MW* 9 . region Western 299075 (46825) commissionedbY 2012.6g\o.54Vo. {O. country ancltheseturn out an entirerangeof tiigft pi".1 Growthof Installed Year Hydrtt Nuclear Thermal DieseI Total 19707t 197879 198485 200001 6383 l 1378 t4271 25141 420 890 1095 2720 7503 t6372 27074 71060 398 \'..11 in projected energyrequirement five Mapof Indiashowing regional and parkloadin MW for year201112' MkWh =2700 MW renewable r4704 28640 42240 101630 The emphasisduring the SecondPlan (195661) was on the developmentof and thus there was a need to step up power basic ancl heavy inclustries total installedcapacity which was around 3420 MW at the end generation.D.transmissionlines of up to 110 were constructed.turbinesfor nuclearplants. year 201112 [19]' HE FI and peak load in the regions of the country with projectedenergy requirement io ororrcrt crcncreri nuclear power' At the During the Fourth Five Plan. India startedgenerating units were comrnissionedin AprilMay Tarapur i\uclear Plant 2 x 210 MW American design. power transformhydro sets. The introduction of 230 kv transmission was: Domestic Pattern of utlization of electrical energy in 199798 and othersis industry 35'22Vo 6. switch gears..7 ENERGY CONSERVATION new sourceof energy' we should resort is Energy conservation the cheapest earlier).ture boilers. are given in Table capacityin lndia (ln MW) Tabte 1. and such as cogeneration(discussed to various conservationmeasures .917o. inigation 30.etc. projection for 2011The growth of generating capacity so far and future 1'1' 2012 A./ Fig. 1.
e.rutage of the power industry and reassembly Restructuring involves disassembly into another form or functional organisation.i..thus raising the price it could expect from the sale. Theseare highly wastefulenergydevices. etc. generationthat is connectedto the distributicn systetn. to brought in changesdesigneci enc<. governmentof its stateowned private companies.3.We can achieve considerable electricalpower savings by reducing unnecessary high lighting levels. This can be achievedby employing series/shunt compensation.1. Privatisation started sale by a and operatingeconomy.which would indirectly contribute to energy conservation. It improves the load factor of the steam staflon. Rate restructuringcan have incentivesin this regard. Open accessrs nothing but a common way for a govenlmentto encouragecompetition in the electric industry and tackle monopoly. 1.the electricpower industry worldwide operatedas a regulated industry. researchis now shifting towards .).By properplanned maintelance the downtime of existing large stationscan be cut down.It competition. Various systems for load rnanagementare described in Ref.hotels even hospitals. all having the same lu a year.distributed and sold electric power and services. A 9 W cornpactfluorescent lamp (CFL) may be used instead of 40 w fluorescenttube or 60 w lamp. They were followed by England. electric utility assets. the USA. A more direct method would be the control of the load either through rnodified tariff structurethat encourage or schedules direct electrical control of appliancein the form of remote timer controlled on/off switches with the least inconvenience io the customer.r32 I Modernpower Svstem Analvsis Load Management lntroduction use energy efficient motors to avoid wasteful electric uses.It is expectedthat the optimal bidding will help Genco to maximize its payoffs.Transco (Transrnission Operator). the use of small diesel/petrol generators and invertersare very conmon in commercialand domestic use. These actions will also improve the load factor of most power stations.There is no consciousnesson energy accountability etndno senseof urgencyas in developed yet countries. Gas turbirre combined with steam turbine is ernployed for peak load shaving. Plant utilization factors of existingplants must be improved.In some cases. Maintenancemanpower training should be placed on war footing. Power companies are now planning the introduction of systemwideload managementschemes. Ripple control has been tried in Europe. Transmissionand distributionlossesshoulclnot exceed2OVo. Pumped storage(hyclro)schemehas been consiclered Section in 1.deregulationwas driven by privatization to needs. The consumersare given choice to buy energy from different retail energy suppliers who in turn buy the energy from Genco in a power market. In India where vastregionsare deficient in electric supply and. The structure for deregulation is evolved in terms of Genco (Generation System Company)and ISO (Independent Company).transmitted. The state wants to sell its electric utility investment and change the rules (deregulation)to make the electric industry more palatable for potential investors.Maintenance must be on schedulerather than an elnerqency.oversizedmotors.Deregulationas a conceptcame in early 1990s. static var compensators.HVDC option and FACTS (flexible ac technology) devices/controllers.5. This is more efficient than normal steam turbine and has a quick automated starl and shut doivn. of research needed clearlyunderstand power system operation under deregulation. Energy storage can play an important role where there is time or rate mismatchbetween supplyand demandof energy. systemrather than to the transmission The earliest reforms in power industrieswere initiated in Chile. Most of the potential for load control lies in the domestic sector.It is possibleto As mentionedearlier by various shift demanrlaway frorn peak hours (Section I . Now India is also implementing the the to is Lot restructuring.aresubjected to long hours of power sheddingmostly random. In any area there was only one company oI government agency (mostly stateowned)that produced.Everyoneshouldbe madeaware throughprint or electronicmedia how consumptionlevels can be reducedwithout any essential lowering of comfort.etc. [27].power factor improvement methods. The consumer is assuredof good quality power supply at competitive price. Remote kWh meter reading by carrier sysrems is being tried.8 DEREGULATION In India where most areashave large number of sunny days hot water for bath arrdkitchen by solarwater heatersis becomingcommon for commercial buildings. For over one hundred years. The focus of. IPP).This has been discussed in Section 1. (independentpower producer. The restructuringof the electricity supply industry that norrnally accompanies the introduction of competiiion provides a fertile ground for the growth of embeddedgeneration. Industry 'load management'schemes.
GY finding the optimal bidding methodswhich take into account local optimal dispatch. highly efficient gas turbines. mini/micro hydel or wind turbine units.Thesemay be solar.we shall now focus our attentionon fossil fuel plant including plants.revenueadequacyand market uncertainties. In solar PV (Photovoltaic). growing energy needsin the and hybrid enerqy systems(distributed/ rural areasare met by decentralised generation). theft.ration its modularity. Solarcells efficiencyis to be improved to 15%o be of use at commercial to level. These laws enablesetting uo of State Electricity RegulatoryComrnissions(SERC) at srate level. levels.This has led of projectsand redevelopment existing sites. Dispersedgenerationhas been used for clecades an emergencybackup as power source. demonstration. 1998.biomassbased cogeneration. 1.large size solar cells/modulesbased on crystalline siliconthin films need to be developed. subsidized power supplies and above all on sustainable whercver feasible.Thus. and health risks involvedin nuclearplants of various As far as environmental discussed Section1.In the rural sector main thrust areasare biomassbriquetting.Irreversible in by like ozonelayer holesand global warmingcaused increase CO2 damages up.fuel cells.Most of theseunits are used only fbr reliability reinfbrcement. 1.Urban and industrial wastesare used for variousenergy applications including power generationwhich was around 17 Mw in 2002. as result the pollution issue has become a nightmarish problem and strong national and international pressuregroups have sprung up and they are having a definite has awareness Governmental of impacton the development energyresources. hydro and nuclear power projects. scaling up and cornmercialization of new and emerging technologiesfor widespreadadaptation.9 DISTRIBUTED AND DISPERSED GENERATION (DG) entailsusing lnany srnallgenerators 250 MW DistributedGeneration of output.But to favouring of smallsize with the increasinggap in electric dernandand production. porlability and is relocatability. 1998 and the Electricity (Laws) AmendmentAct. gasbased Conversion of clne lornr ol' energy or anotherto electrical tortn has in unwanted side effects and the pollutants generated the processhave to be disposed off. time consuming level.3. Even if the power itself in c t ls t sa b i t rtttl rcth i tnc c n (r' as ta ti o n o wcr.and small wind and solar PV senerators make up this category. . Dispersedgenerationreferesto use of still smaller generatingunits. Nowadaysinverters are being increasinglyused in domestic sector as an emergency supply during black outs. 'fhe main purpose of CERC is to promote efficiency. Haryana.3. of less than 500 kW output and often sized to serve individual homes or businesses. It has to be devektpnrenlwittr uppntpriata technolog)' particularly assuredthat no irreversible damageis caused to environment which wouid affect the living conditions of the future generations.But the margin of economydecreased considerably last 10 years [23]. t uilt nent t r ansnt issit t n cur of is E ntphasis lr cinglaid on cor ] scr vilt ior t losses. The fossil fuel based generatingplants fonn the backbone of power generation in our country and also giobally as other options (like nuclear and even hydro) have even stronger hazardsassociatedwith them.etc. Micro gas turbines. problerns relatedto largelrydroplantshavealsobeendwelledupon in Section 1. Syster Anulyri.3.Lengthy. Therefore. India will be able to ableenergy based econolny iind bring "Energy for all" for equitable. Another maior advantageof dispersedgene. India has now enactedthe Electricity RegulatoryComrnission'sAct. development. this can stem growing migrationof rural populationto dispersed urban areasin searchof better living conditions.small combincdcycle plitnts. diesel. Andhra Pradesh. Pollutants know no geographical boundary. and perhapsa reducedneed fbr distribution equipment as well.installedat variousstrategic points throughout the area. PIL (public interestlitigation) and demonstraprocedures governrnent at tive protestshave delayedseveralprojects in severalcountries. I nt r oduct ion If There are already32 million improved chulhas.Otherareasare developrnent high of eificiency inverters.our country has to move forward fbr severallarge thermal. w[ich power creatednumerouslegislationat national and international have to be fully conversantwith in practiceof their professionand engineers survey and planning of large power projects.10 ENVIRONMENT/\L GENERATION ASPECTS OF ELECTRIC ENER.sincc thcsearo the rnost ccon<lnrical choiccs. economy and competition in bulk electricity supply.so that each providespower to a small numberof consumers nearby. Dispersed generators also include two new types of tbssil fuel unitsfuel cells and microgas turbines. issucs. The in thesehave already'been kinds are concerned. The distributed/dispersed generatorscan be stand alone/autonomous or grid connecteddepending upon the requirement.therei s no nccd < tftransrni ssi on l p lines. At the time of writing this (200i) there still is and will probably alwaysbe some economy of scale favouringlarge generators. are alreadyshowing in the atmosphere Atmospheric Pollution We shall treat here only pollutrorras causedby thermalplants using coal as feedstock. etc. have started the processof restructuringthe power sector in their respectivestates.W Modernpo*". and sustainabie environmentfriendly. Certain issues concerning this have already been highlighted in Section 1. orissa. The main challenge today is to upgradethe existing technologies and to proniotedeveloprnent.
w_ ffiffi rr^r^ n tviouern ^ . . lntroduction Oxides of Carhon (CO.. is soluble It in water and so has adverseaff'ect on human health as it enters the lungs on inhaling and combining with moisture converts to nitrous and nitric acids.In Delhi of course Inderprastha and Badarpur power stationscontributetheir share in certain areas. COt) Also it should be understood that pollution in large cities like Delhi is caused more by vehicrtlar traffic and their emission.99Vofor sulphur content 37o sulphur and 83Vofor 0.ers Cool water is circulatedrottnd the condensertube to remove heat from the exhaust steam in order to condenseit. ^ . 2. Steam fronr lowpressureturbine has to be liquefied in a condenser and reduced to lowest possible temperatureto maximize the thermodynamic practicallyachievableis about efficiency. It has been noticed that the byproduct sulphur could offset the cost of sulphur recovery plant. Problematic pollutants in emission of coalbasedgeneratingplants are. The .. but they have poor performancefor particles of size less than is 0..lung and heart disease. ThesE. the openatmosphere (if available) surroundingthe plant.This raises the temperature water in these two sources and threatenssea and river life around in sea and downstream in river. Once through circulation through condenser of water where available. it does so in soil.are serious environmental objections and many times cannot be overruled ard also there may be legislation againstit.these cause poor visibility and respiratory diseases. . Particulates (fIY ash) 2 NO. . nitrogen oxides CO coz . Sulphur emissioncan be controlledby: o IJse of fuel with less than IVo sulphur. A brief account of various pollutants. Cooling tov.5Vosulphur. from combustionproducts by lirnestonescrubbersor fluidized bed combustion. Sulphate concenffations of 9 10 LElm3 of air aggravate asthma. Thermal Pollution Of theseNOz. nitrogenoxides.a . .is a majorconcernas a pollutant. generally not a feasible solution.If in the stack a vertical wire is strung in the middle and charged to a high negative potential. Ifydrocarbons During the oxidation process in cornbustioncharnbercertain light weight hydrocarbon may be formed. Oxides of Nitrogen (NO*) Dust content is particularly high in the Indian coal. At ievels of 25100 parts per million NO. On the other hand CO2 has been identified developingcountries. . thereby reducing theseoxides from being emitted. it needs to be mentioned here that Indian coal has comparatively low sulphur content but a very high ash content which in some coals may be as high as 53Vo. The best efficiency of steamcycle the cycle end must be removed' of 4\Vo. These can also be removedfrom the combustionproducts by absorptionprocessby certain solventsgoing on to the stock.uystem Anaiysts rower^ . . their likely impact and methods of abatements presentedas follows. Removing sulphurfrom the coal by gasificationor floatationprocesses. damageto buildings and vegetation. These ions accelerate towards the walls. get neutralized on hitting the'walls and the particles drop down the walls. are Oxides of Sulphur (SOr) Most of the sulphur present in the fossil fuel is oxidized to SO2 in the combustion chamberbefore being emittedby the chimney. a a o a in to CO is a very toxic pollutantbut it getsconverted CO'.. Particulatescome out of the stack in the form of fly ash. o LJseof chemical reaction to remove sulphur in the form of sulphuric acid. may also be noted that although It sulphur does not accumulatein air.. Precipitatorshave high efficiency up to 99Vofor large particles. Certain hydrocarbons o Particulates Though the account that follows will be general. Fabric filters in form of bag lnuses have also been employed and are located before the flue gases enter the stack. can be controlledby fitting advanced technologyburners which can assuremore complete combustion. impaired visibility.It meansthat60Vo the heat in steamat This is achievedby following two methods' cooling tubes of seaor river 1. These electrons are captured by the gas molecules therebybecomingnegative ions. Emissionof NO_. In atmosphere it gets further oxidized to HrSOo and metallic sulphateswhich are the major sourceof concern as these can causeacid rain.The efficiency of precipitators high with reasonable in flue gasesbut drops for'low sulphurcontentcoals.Precipitators can be used to remove particles as the flue gasesrise up the stack. ash and other inert materials.1 pm in diameter.rnof ozone layer. Concentration of pollutants can be reducedby dispersal over a wider area by use of high stacks. which danngethe lungs.r. It comprisesfine particles of carbon. it emits electrons. can cause acutebronchitis and pneumonia.r . Tire compounds are a major source of photochemical reaction that adds to depleti.r .In high concentrations.
he or she has to make decisions on how much electricity to generatewhere. avoidance of sharp edges and use of earth screen shielding to lirnit audible noise to acceptable levels. In a country like India. improvementand expansion a power system. 5' Workers inside a power plant are subjectedto various kinds of noise (particularly near the turbines) and vibration of floor. . when. Electric field strengthin the rangeof 1000015000 v/m is consideredsafe. Visual and Audible Impacts These environmentalproblems are causedby the following factors. besidesmain frame compLlters.I2 USE OF COMPUTERS AND MICR. I. It is mainly usedfor planning and arralysing some new aspects of the system. Lines converging a large substation at mar the beauty of the lanclscape around. a power system engineerneeds load flow studies. To reduce this uoise to tolerable level foundations and vibration filters have to be designed properly and simulation studiescarried out. Closed cooling towers where condenr. In 1950s many analogue devices were developed to control the online Ii'equencyand tieline controt. Not a seriousproblernin India at present. Power frequency(50 or 60 Hz) and even their harmonics are not considered harmful. is pumped to cooling tower tt and is sprayedthrough nozzlesinto a rising volume of air. Right of way acquiresland underneath. He has to be involved in and transmission.et towers are being used. Offline applications include research. mini.Could be a problem in future.Gfrfud ffiffii I Mociern PowerSysteqAnaiysis lntrcCuction T.ate flows through tubcs anclair is blown in thesetubesavoidsthe humidity problembut at a very high cost. But this has the disaclvantage raising of u n o e s t r a o t e Je v e l s l n t h c s u l r f t l u n d l n g r e a s . micro and in personalcomputersare all increasinglybeing used to carry out various power systern studies and solve power system problems for offline and online applications. In India only v. At the to'wers great attention must be paid to tightness of joints. of For planning the operation.TT POWER SYSTEMENGINEERSAND POWER SYSTEM STUDIES sffi EEF circulating water gets hot in the process. The worker nlust be given regularmedical examinations and sound medical advice. The 1950s also saw the advent of digital computerswhich were first used to solve a. The electrical and electronics engineers.The latentheat of water is 2 x 106 J/kg and cooling can occur fast. routine evaluation of system performanceand data assimilationand retrieval. Online and real time applications include datalogging and the monitoring of the system state. l. 2.The solutions to these problems and the enormouscontribution problems of to made by digital cornputers solve the planning and operational power systemsis also investigated.OPROCESSOiTS course the water evaporated must be macleup in the systemby adcting fresh water from the source. Underground cablesas alternativeare too expensivea proposition except in congestecl city areas. Phenomenon corona (a sort of electric dischargearound the high of tension line) producesa hissingnoise which is aucliblewhen habitation is in close proximity.Till 1970s.now. Some of the water evaporates providingcooling. while being aware of this controversy. and by using what fuel. tunctions such as genelationrontrol. accuracy. so as to achieve a high degree of economy and reliability.there was a widespreaduse of computersin systemanalysis.With the entry of microprocessors the arena. Electromagnetic Radiation from Overhead Lines Biological effects of electromagnetic radiation from power lines and even cables in close proximity of buildings have recently attractedattentionand have also causedsomeconcern. load flow problem in 1956. and stability studies.On the planning side. 4. Investigations carried out in certain advanced countries have so far proved inconclusive. He constructiontasksof greatmagnitudeboth in generation has to solve the problemsof planning and coordinatedoperationof a vast and complex power network. must know that many other environmentalagentsare moving around that can causefar greater harm to human health than does electromagnetic radiation.speedand economy. Power system studiesby computers gave greater flexibility. As a piece of information it may be quoted that directly under an overhead line of 400 kV.short circuit studies.He has to know the principlesof economicload despatchand load frequency control. 3' Radio interference (RI) has to be taken into account and counteredbv varlous means.AC analysers network analysers florv and stability studieswhereasDC were preferredfor shortcircuitstudies. All these problems are dealt with in the next few chapters after some basic concepts in the theory of transmission lines are discussed. t a The power system engineerof the first decadeof the twentyfirst century has abreastof the recent scientific advancesand the latest techniques. were AC and DC lirl Jlhef irst rnethos solvingvariouspowcr systemproblenis were used for load in developed early 1930s. the electricfield strengthis 11000 V/m and magnericflux density (dependingon current) may be as much as 40 ptT. were developed 1940sand were used in conjuncin Analogue compLrters tion with AC network analyserto solve variousproblemsfor offlinestudies. he has to additionally face the perennial problem of power shortages and to evolve strategies energyconservation for and load management.
Rarnagundam (West Bengal). concerted efforts to develop solar energy and the growing so sourcesof energy needto be emphasized.2 depictsthe time microprocessors.150nrillion totts itt 200'+ to to be ipclcascd 180 million tonnesin 1988. The utilization of in this perennialsource of energy would involve massiveinvestments dams.07 lakh of villages(86Vo) havebeenelectrified and 117 lakh of pumpsetshave been energized. Nationai Thennal Power Corporation(NTPC) is in chargeof theselarge scale generationprojects.68Vo consisting both technicallossesin transmisof sion lines ancltransfonners. alreacly.easures.In future it is likely to be 7I7o. the all India load factor up to 199899was of the order of 78Vo. that conventional may be conserved.By 200i..etc. Assuming a very modest averageannualenergy growth of 5Vo.5. T a b l e1.it is expected 2005 lts cotttpltrcdto q)orc than . lbr it should be possibleto avoid power cuts. also nontechnical and lossescaused energy by thefts and meters not being read correctiy.As mentioned earlier. system.To can clemancl be met and depletingfbssil fuel resources that the coal productionwill have meet the energyrequirement.1g.2 Tirne scale Milliseconds 2 s 5 minutes 10 minfew hours .r.The transmission loss in 199798 on a national basiswas 23.2003 a 'k NTPC has also built seven gasbased combined cycle power stationssuch as Anta and Auraiya. .engineeringand constructingnew power stationsis imrninentto rneetthis situation. 2000 MW*.India's nuclearpower generation to MW by year 2010.rytrfi\ r powerSvstem tutodern Anaivsis '. A 400 kV SingrauliVindhyachal of 500 MW capacity by has beencommissioned NPTC (National first HVDC backtobackscheme power Transmission Corporation) followed by first pointtopoint bulk + of EHVDC transmission 1500 MW at 500 kV over a distanceof 915 km on from Rihandto Delhi.India's electrical energy requirementin the year 2010 will be enormouslyhigh.ll' the utilizationlactor could be increascd. the Planning Commissionand the Ministry of Power are coordinating to work out a perspectiveplan to develop all hydroelectric sourcesby the end of this century to be executed by the National Hydro Power Corporation (NHPC).Korba Neyveli (Tamil Nadu). Table 1. some of these problemsare tackled in this book. r. The Central Electricity Authorchannelsand generationtransrnission ity. \other nonIn India. Microprocessors ancl computersinstalledin generating stations control various local processes such as startingup of a generator from the cold state. Intensive work must be conductedon boiler furnaces to burn coal with high ash content. mentioned to go in for even higher voltages(800 kV). (AndhraPradesh)and (Madhya Pradesh). NTPC has also startedrecently developmentof hydro plants.It should be possibleto achieve considerable savingby leducingthis lossto 1570by the end of the Tenth Five Year Plan by rrsing well known ways and nreans and by adooting sound commercial practices. Chandrapur (Maharashtra)all in coal mining areas. and its poor quality.5400 ckt krn of 800 kV lines and 48000 Also lines may be sericsand ckt kni gf 400 kV lines would be in operation.'"" A large central computer is used in central load despatch centres for cc<ln<lmic securc and controlof'largc integrated systems. There shunt compensated is a needfor constructingHVDC (High Voltage DC) links in the country since more power at the samevoltageand require DC lines can carry considerably fewer conductors. Manv more super thermal plants would be built in future. India generating As in capacity is utilized on an average 360t) hours out of 8760 hclursin a year. The governnlent has bLrilt Farakka severalsuper thermal stationssuch as at Singrauli (Uttar Pradesh). A difficult and challengingtask of planning. According to the Atomic to to will increase 10000 Energy Commission.Y AND ITS CHOICES The electricity requilements of .13 PROBLEMS FACING INDIAN POWER INDUSTR.[ndia have giown tremendously anC the demand has been running ahead of supplyl Electricity generation and t r ans m i s s i op ro c c s s cis In d i a a rc v c ry i neffi ci cnt n c< l l npari soni tl r those n n i w of somedeveloped countries.vhilein for Japanit is rrsed 5 t00 hours. India has no choice but Becauseof limited coal reserves keep going on with its nuclear energy plans.dofew hoursl week I month 6 months I yr. Hydro power will continue to remain cheaper than the other types for the next decade. India has so far developed only around l87o of its estimatedtotal hydro potentialof 89000 MW. It is There is a need in future expecredrhat by the year 2Ol112. evcry attempt should be made to improve system load factors by flattening the load curve by giving proper tariff incentives and taking other administrativem. Power Grid recentlycommissioned 14'Feb.Further. Everything seems be set for a take off in nuclearpowel' production using the country's thorium reservesin breederreactors.10 years Control Problems Relaying and system voltage control and excitation control AGC (Automatic generation conrrol) ED (Economic despatch) Securityanalysis UC (Unit commitment) Mai ntcrrancc schedLrl i ng Systernplanning (modification/extension) F 1. A number of 400 kV lines are operating successfullysince 1980s as a This was the firsi stepin working towards nationalgrid. to carry huge blocks of power with greaterstability. Nuclear energy assumesspecialsignificancein energy planning in India. per one estimate. As per the Central Electricity Authority's (CEA) sixteenthannual power survey of India report.
Ctnpman and Hall. 1972.emergencyrestoration system. New york. 1975. Smith. x Captive diesel plants (and small diesel sets for commercial and domestic uses) are very uneconomical from a national point of view. Modern Power Station Practice.J. London. 1893200million) will be required if we have to achievepower surplusposition by the time we reach the terminal year to the XI Plan (201I2012). McMillan. Cambridge.Tata McGrawHill.I. Energy Resoorces and Supp\t. Improved o and M (Operation and Maintenance) technologieswhich are being used tgday are hotline maintenance. 21. Krotzki. FACTs (Flexible AC Transmissions) devices etc. 7 ... London. 15).. Ahson. 20.K.P. 2nd edn.4th edn. and D. svc (static var compensator).onru. The Elements NuclearPoveer. B. particularly powerintensive ones.1.Aug. Nagrath. 12. Generally. Power System Planning. Sullivan. Tata McGrawHill. l4th Report. 6.1976. oJ' Longman. Because of power shortages. Stateoftheart technologieswhich are.A. 15. Berkowitz. and B. 16. and 8. RobertNoyes (Ed..presenr figures for HVDC is 3136 ckt km. S. Apart from being lower efficiency plants they use diesel which should be conservedfor transportationsector. certain trends that will decide the future developments of electric power industry are clear.T. 1988.220/132 is 215000 kv ckt km.J. New Delhi.2000.. Chand.l.It may also be pointed out that this book will also help in training and preparingthe large number of professionals trained in computeraided power system operationand control that would be required to handle v CES REFEREN Books l. ElectricPower svstems.J.March l99l.. New Delhi. weir.K.1972. 1976. Theory and practice.w. Kothari. 800 kV is 950 ckt km. in operation.t 2000 MW TalcherKolar + 500 kV HVDC bipole transmissionsystem thus enabling excesspower from East to flow to South. 3. . Econonrloadingof Power Plants and Electric Wiley.T.T. real time control of power system. EPRI EL377SR..sacondIndia studiesEnergy.. D.A. et. HVDC backtoback. 2. 1976. weedy.. 2nd edn.gineering. 9t Golding.. However. At the time of writing. Power Station Engineeringand Economy.Mass. Consortiumof industrial .As populhtion has already touched the 1000 million mark in India. and W. New York.many of the industries. Kothari and S. 1977. al. 3rd edn. Central Electricity GeneratingBoard. 17. J. . Cogeneration Steamand Electric Power. 1998. Kashkari. Kothari. press. Basic Electric Power Engineering. New York. E. 1977. ' Pergamon. 2002.rs should be encouragedto put up coalbasedcaptive plants. J. Wiley. etc.A:. being used in India currently are HVDC bipole. New Delhi. 1985.* Curcently 20Vo of electricity generatedin lndia comesfrom the captive power plants and this is bound to go up in the future. Mahalanabis.I. Steinberg.Kirit. Power System Planning and Operations:Future Problemsand ResearchNeeds.unit size will go further up from 500 MW. 1944. cEA 12 Annual survey of Power Report. 18. 1943. D. Huge amounts of funds (of the order of Rs. Kothari. Tata McGrawHill. 7000 ckt km of + 500 kV HVDC line is expected by Z0llI2. (Ch. i 10. D. NoyesDali Corp. of usA.H. R. and F. Car. Renewuble Energy Resources. thermovision scanning. cory. Chapman Hall.P. Public sector investment in power has increasedfrom Rs 2600 million in the First Plan to Rs 242330 million in the SevenrhPlan (1985 90). The Generationo. agricultural and domestic requiremeni. 16th ElectricPower Survey of India.J. Shortfall in the Sixth Plan has been around 26Vo. Power grid is planning creation of transmissionhighways to conserve Rightofway. Electric Machines.P. the whole energy sce is so clouded with future. Nagrath. 4. Power Generationand Environmentalchange. Tata McGrawHill. N.McGrawHill.srenr Analysisand Control. 1978. Twidell. London. and I. 1997. Parikh. O.D. Macmillian. Vopat. Strong national grid is being developedin phasedmanner. S. Energy En. sharma (Eds). and D.D. D. There is little chance for sixphasetransmission becomingpopular though there are few suchlines in USA.Electric Power Stations. L976. 1960. it will be 30000 Mw.J.L. In 20Ol the interregional capacitywas 5000 MW. Demandand Conservation with SpecialReference to India. New Delhi. and A.M.have installed their own captive power plants. 13. Energy Resources. M. wiley. A higher voltage (7651 1200 kV) will come eventually at the transmissionlevel.). More of HVDC lines will do. New york.S). 1986. 5. 14. London. Eilgerd. we may see a trend to go toward undergroundtransmissionin urban areas. 400 kV is 45500 ckt krn and.f' Electricitlt b1t Wind Power. 19. M. I L Bennet.W. E. Huge investmentis planned to the tune of us $ 20 billion in the coming decade.C.Reading. February1977. Sept 2000. Conxputer Aided Power. It is Lxpecredthat by 2OlI12. and T.. Otherwise achieving a rarget of 975 billion units of electric power will remain an utopian dream. vols I and lI.G. Systems. Import should be liberalized to support this activity. B. Basic Electrical Engineering. A. Mass.P. New Delhi.. There have been serious power shortagesand generationand availability of power in turn have lagged too much from the industrial.H. spon. McGrawHill.
Energy Resources and Technology.pp. Kothari & T. Kothari.."ri. Nut. in Norwell MA: Kiuwer.. 1977.. a1. and S. 20. l5). S..241. Nov.K. PowerLine.. 28. by 35. 1981. ibid May 1977. M. Apl. 43. D..5. NationalSolarEnergyConvention. 21.r""i"J #.P. imPedance of the line' i". 1988.Proc. 34. PAS96.N. r \w w ntt y v l hlil . New Delhi. 1 Sep 2001. NI^r'. Kusko.++ ^^nrrrrnrAnce which is normally due illffilf?. IEEE Trans. from a power system the most dominant line parameter Inductar.d th" . 2nd edn.S. no. Carlsen.J. L. "Analysisof Multimedia and Hypermediafor ComputerSimulation and Growtft". 'A Predictionof Power System Development. P. United Nations.2. Proc. i'e'' a circuit current such that Ies vary linearly with This can be written in the form drb di .8 Oct. (Ch.. Morgen. Sachdev. r978. P. (Jnderstanding Electric Utilities and Deregulation. 273... Bhatti and D.". c a p a c ito leakale s i s t alinee a n d t a n c e .L.ffiffi powerSystem N4odern Alqtysis . Nagrath. no. line as an the performance of a transmission The four parameterswhich affect e l e m e n t o f a p o w e r S y s t e m a r e i n d u c t a n c e . EJEISA. pp 1116.I INTRODUCTION 32.P. D. D. 1977. pp 147158. . on Transportation Systems. M. 25. Kothari.. . Dhaka. Spom. lines' transmission rhis ii overhead 1'e' lnductance and resistance' r. Kothari. di. "Mini and Micro FlydropowerSystemsin India". 22. Nanda.'Energy system Planning and Energy conservation'. Conf.75.itiuu. Bangladesh. pp. NPC Cong. Bhatti. i997. invited chapterin the book.no. on Captive Power Generation. r L*". Proc. 65. and K. Lee Willis. s.PAS100. Kothari and Amit Arora. "On Some of the Design Aspectsof Wind Energy ConversionSystems". 'Power Supply Scenarioin India' 'Retrospects and Prospects'. Int. . (icME 2001)..49.I1E (India). r e over n c .f.Anshu.S. . 1999.rL. 16. 39. 1986. S.+ha caricq line narameters. 'Minimization of Air Pollution due to Thermal Plants'. 1986 Trieste Italy 31.. J. 'Our EnvironmentOptions on the Way into the Future'.t.'Operating underS/ress and Strain'.P. i. 57. Wehenkel. Kothari. April 2002. 36.T. lOQO I 7QL.'LoadForecastingBibliography.L and H. 40. 2001.P. June2001.'Electricity Costs atxd Tariffs: A General Study. 1428.IEEE Spectrum. D. et..P.ti" flux linkages (2.697.P. and I. Philipson. Ek I wu.r) (WbT)' of the circuit in weberturns ".P. Seminar to the BioPhysics Workshop. 2002.G. 26. =VY (2. 33. Shikha. Kothari et al. and D. 30. 29.. Theory and practice. 2002.c. Marcel Dekker Inc. s v i e w p o i n t .2 DEFINITION OF INDUCTANCE given by Voltage induced in a circuit is . 2000. L979..Int. 'Methodsfor Assessing energyManagement options'. 27. 9. et. Kothari. NY. 23. "Fuel Cells in TransporationBeyond Batteries". Proc. Automatic Learning Techniques Power Systems.Jan. vol. Dec. A s w e s h a l l s e e i n l a t e r c hline' e r s . Vol 3. Kothari. and J.New Delhi. BUET. al. Saxena.Scientific Publishers. 'Electric Power Load Management: some Technological. IIT 41. D. UK.. Bansal. vol. ffiffir"##r'"* the atong lineandthevtogether oi.Mar. D. conf. Delhi. Kothari. Chand.. IEEE Trans. Regularity and Social Issues'.N.1992.'i+r. 173176. 1972. . of Energy Conversion and Managment.. 1968.67.... i t i s t h e i n d u c t i v e apt capacity of a reactancewhich limits the transmission 2. IEEE.presented at YYIV Nntinnnl fnnvontinn n s ^F vJ llltr ttrL. 37.i.: v e = dr dt dr . Organised SESI.P. Energy ProblemsFacing the Third World. Energy Engineering. Feb. 38.Hyderabad. I."Wind as an Ecofriendly Energy Sourceto meet the Electricity Needs of sAARC Region". P.19682030'... l). Vol. Basic Electrical Engineering. Kothari D. e n g i n e e r . A. .21752187. Papers 24. ^a j 2. Talukdar.. Feb.Economic.P. 13 Dec. Sharma(Eds).: L .A. D. IEEE Spectrum.2) in anceof the circ'lit in henrys' which near magneticcircuit. Talukdar. Mar. Tata McGrawHill. D. Fink. C.R.
1) by ir. e. (2.il po**.e.+f .10) Transmissionlines are composedof parallel contluctorswhich. we get the steady state AC volrage drop i + due to alternating flux linkages as Y= jwLI = jt^r) V e.yzly'l resulting in flux linkages of (2. Consider now an infinitesimal tubular elementof thicknessdy and length one metre.constantand is in direction of ds all alongithe circular path. CARRYTNG coNqucroR 2rryH." r1/ (2. can be considered infinitely long. Syrtm An"lyri. These are of course in phase.8) we have The conceptof mutual inductance requiredwhile consideringthe coupling is betweenparallel lines and the influence of power lines on telephonelines.rt l t. Flux Linkages due to Internal Flux \rrr') \r") FromEqs.5) On similar lines. 2.'. M r rL= n Iz .1 shows the crosssectional vi. This systemforms a singleturncircuit.while the external flux alwayslinks the total current inside the conductor. = jwMnlz = 7tl\12 V (2. y metres from the centre of the conductorsis Bu=pHu=:+ Wb/m2 z ztr r ntI Figure 2.rtt i I Replacing ir. The mmf round a concentricclosed circular path of radius y internal to the conductor as shown in the figure is {nr. )t.3 FLUX LINKAGES OF AN ISOTATED CURRENT.rr) (2.=)!t AT/m 2Tr" . = magnetic field intensity (AT/m) /y = current enclosed(A) By symmetry. t A = LI where ) and I arc the rms values of flux linkages and current respectively.The total flux can be divided into two parts. .r2) The flux density By.e) (2.(2.4) .) t : [ 4 ) .7) H.1 Flux linkages due to internal flux (crosssectional view) The voltage drop in circuit 1 due to current in circuit 2 is V..8) *For power frequency of 50 Hz. Eq. (2.6) where Fig.9) and(2.10).=1.. Modern L = ! H lnductance Resistance Transmission and of Lines  ffffi or I (2.. The flux in the tubular element dd = Bu dy webers links the fractional trrrn (Iril .ds =Iy (Ampere'slaw) where p is the permeability of the conductor. H. The effect of nonuniform current density is consideredlater in this chapter while treating resistance. flux linking which is in the form of circular lines concentricto the conductor.f\]y i i r ' i+r 1 t \ \. it is quite reasonableto assume uniform current density.3) .i.from Eq. 2.the mutual inductancebetweentwo circuits is defined asthe flux linkages of one circuit due to current in another. for all practical purposes.we obtain H. Therefore. Let us first developexpressions as for flux linkages of a long isolatedcurrentcanying cylindricat conductor with return path lying at infinity.' " = ( . is. ?5 \ \ ll! t'l l t. (2. Assrrmino rrniform crrrrenf dcnsifv* (2.Such a division is helpful as the internal flux progressivelylinks a smalleramountof current as we proceedinwards towards the centreof the conductor.ew of a long cylindrical conductor carrying current 1.that which is internal to the conductor and the flux externalto the conductor.
. the total flux linkages of the conductor due to flux between points P.2.r7) ) r z= 2 x l}. 1t = 4n x l0'[Vm. which carries a cunent of 1 amperes.t l ln =L wb/ m Dr The inductanceof the conductor contributedbv the flux included between points P.7 + Z x r o .. the conductoris far removed from the As return current path.v 2r Dr (2.14) Wb/m lengthof conductor ^^./km LL "Dl Dl fV* (2. f n ' tn' \.1e) Point Flux Linkages due to Flux up to an External Let the external point be at distanceD from the centre of the conductor. such that its flux linkages are given by d)=1 xd6=FI d.461 los.17)by substitutin D t = r and E Dz = D.t". while log denotes logarithm to base 10.$ t (2. the magnetic field external to the conductor is concentric circles around the conductor and therefore all the flux between P. =  (nonmagnetic conductor).18) (2. Since Fr=I.I ln "2 wbT/m .1s) (2.20) r Total flux linkages of the conductor due to internal and externalflux are ). ' 2ny Therefore. Fig. (2. and P2.2 showstwo pointsP. i'e'. = I #f d y :ffw a t^ ^rn =T*10/ and Lint= ]xto7 z Flux Linkage to Conductor rVm Two Points External f  For a relative permeability lf. and Pr is then Lrz = 2 x I01 fn ? or L. D (2.Flux linkages of the conductor due to external flux (from the surface of the conductor up to the externalpoint) is obtainedfrom Eq.= ' Z r r y AT/m = I x 1 o .* )"*.r3) Integrating. F = 4t x107 n Figure 2. therefore wbT/m The flux dQbeing external to the conductor links all the current in the conductor which together with the return conductor at infinity forms a single return. .2 Fluxlinkages to flux between due points PI. and Prat distances and Drftoma conductor D. (2. .D' mH. I n 2 2 r *Throughout the book ln denotes natural logarithm (base e).n = 0." =  dy . and Pr is p D " .: I.we get the total internal flux lin The flux dd containedin the tubular elementof thickness dy is dd = +dy (2.1Dt2 n. P2 external Magnetic field intensity at distancey from the conductor is I H.ModernPqwer System Analysis of Lines and lnductance Resistance rransmission ffi.= 2x701 lln )= )in.*. and Pr lines within the concentriccylindrical surfacespassingthrough P.16) due to Flux Between where ln standsfor natural logarithm*.
a simplifying assumption will now be made. 2.zsb) L .L r\ (2. accurate .0. This is so because relative permeabilityof earth the is about the sameas that of air and its electricalconductivitv is relativelv small. as shown in Fig. conductorsused in practiceare always strandedexcept *Kimbark [l9] has shownthat the resultsbasedon this assumption fairly are even when D is not much larger than 11and 12. To provide the necessary flexibility for stringing.l n . 11+ Ir= Q Iz= .22a) The inductance of the conductor due to current in conductor 1 only is then l" Lt= 2 x 107 + f'1 (2.zrb) Here r' can be regarded as the radius of a fictitious conductor with no internal inductancebut the same total inductanceas the actual conductor. We make three observationsin regard to these flux linkages: 1. 2.becauseof the effect of negative current flowing in conductor 2.r) to (D + rr) links a current whose magnitude progressivelyreducesfrom Irto zero along this distance.for the complete circuit L= Lt+ 4= Drz D D+rz 4 x 10'ln FVm (2. For calculating the total inductance due to current in conductor 1.25a) Fig. and 1. let us considerthe flux linkages of the circuit caused by current in conductor 1 only. Based on the above assumption.7788r \ = 2 x ro4rh + wbT/m rl L= 2x 1o7 Ir w^ n (2.WIRE LINE To start with. 2.. be very much affected as we shall see later while dealing with capacitance. 2.22b) Similarly.rr/4 = 0.2x = .3 Singlephase twowire and the magnetic line fielddueto current in conductor only 1 It is important to note that the effect of earth's presenceon magneticfield geometry* is insignificant.Therefore. (2.24) If r/r= r'z= /. / t +4r n 2 ) [r ) x ro_71 *J_r. (2. it can be assumedthat the flux from (D .W Modern Power systgmAnalysis .r) to the centre of conductor 2 links all the current ^Ir and the flux from the centre of conductor2 to (D + rr) links zero current*.It ) r = 2 x 1 0 . *The electric field geometry will.n a singlephase line. ^ . then L= 4 x 10'ln D// Wm (2.) links all the current It in conductor 1.t .2Ia) are Considera simple twowire line composed solid round conductors of carrying currents1.the flux linkages of the circuit causedby current in conductor 1 as per Eq.92t log Dlr' mHlkm Transmission lines are infinitely long comparedto D in practical situations and therefore the end effects in the above derivation have been neglected.3.2 r l oriEn c vurr ruh a csrvrr n c r r r n s i f i n n u r r r v f! ahve^n^r^ et r n r v v ^ fhe flrrx linkaoes and likewise fhe indttcfances of the circuit causedby currentin each conductorccnsideredseparatelymay be addedto obtain the total circuit inductance. External flux from (D . (2'23) Lz=2x107h r.5 CONDUCTOR TYPES So far we have considered transmission lines consisting of single solid cylindrical conductors for forward and return paths. t" Iet . 3..7 1 . however. the inductanceof the circuit due to current in conductor 2 is ' D .4 INDUCTANCE OF A SINGLE. External flux from 11to (D ..1 0 . 2.Zra) Inductance of the conductor due to flux up to an external point is therefore (z. If D is much greater than rt and 12 (which is normally the casefor overheadlines). Flux beyond (D + 12)links a net cunent of zero.PHASE TWO. Lines of and lnductance FlesistanaeTransmission li$Bfr f .
. ^ .= 2 x l. + (/.r. (2. I. considera group of n pnallel round conductorscarrying phasor currents Ip 12. aluminium 24 strands Fig.ry small crosssectionalareas.26a) N=3x'3x+l where x is the number of layers wherein the single central strandis counted as the first layer.+ . 2. + In).. + I. 3 2 o n Aluminium is now the most commonlyemployedconductormaterial.26b) (. The overall diameter(D) of a strandedconductoris Unes 2. with alternate layers spiralled in opposite direction to prevent unwinding. (2... + Iz +.Low density and low conductivity result in larger overall conductordiameter..t un.(1..27) The flux linkages of conductor i due to current in conductor 7 1rlf"r to Eq..52  I Vodern PowerSystemAnalysis lnelr rn+ana^ ^^f rrrLrL..21)] )ii= 2 x 107 h! t.4 shows the crosssectional view of an ACSR conductor wrth 24 strands of aluminium and 7 strands of steel.. + In The above equation can be reorganizedas )i = 2xro'[[r.q. + I n ^ O . + I i k D . us oDtam P(2xr)d (2. + .(self linkages)are given by [see F. The most effective per coronafree EHV linesis to provide several conductors way of constructing phase in suitable geometrical configuration.6 FIUX LINI{AGES OF ONE CONDUCTOR IN A GROUP l* ! 5.which offers anotherincidental advantagein high voltage lines. . ) . Increased diameter results in reduced electrical stress at conductor surfacefor a given voltage so that the line is coronafree. These are known as bundled conductors and are a common practice now for EHV lines.Stranded conductors are composed of strands of wire. I. + )ii *.. electrically in parallel. rhe rotal flux linkages of conductor i due to flux up to point P are )i = Xir + )iz + .28) Aluminium strands where Du is the distanceof ith conductor from 7th conductorcarrying current 1r. I)istances of these an expression for the total flux linkages of the ith conductor of the group consideringflux up to the point P only..+ But. ( 2 . r .Sucha conductoris known as alurninium conductor steelreinforced (ACSR) and is most commonly used in overhead transmission lines. .27) and by repeateduse of Eq. ln D r + I r h D z + .5 Arbitrary groupof n parallel roundconductors carrying currents The flux linkagesof ith conductordue to its own current1. . . ri WbT/m (2.. The total number of strands (M) in concentrically stranded cables with total annular space filled with strands of (rD uniform diameter is given by (2. Steelstrands 4 I Fig. expandedACSR conductors In extra high voltage (EHV) transmission are used.4 Crosssectional of ACSR7 line. t'* \^ Dt + 4 u ! .2.5. . Theseare provided with paper or hessian between various layers of strandsso as to increasethe overall conductordiameter in an attemptto reduce electrical stressat conductor surfaceand prevent corona. Figure 2.m]+. + ..From F.z +. .q. lt ult. 2. vvhose sum equals zero..nt'stl'latlug ut ^t r^ I lallsrnlsslon ^: !  .ln D i 1 ' rl. * )in view steelstrands. (2. The low tensile strengthof aluminium conductors made up by providing central is strandsof high tensilestrengthsteel. D.* " ^ As shown in Fig.fn a Dij WbT/m (2. . h + +h n [ * .il. 1 7 ) li s 5..vtclttutt ct'ttu a t ^ ^ l ^ .  fo. = 2 x rca(r.28).It has the advdntages being cheaperand lighter than copper though with less of conductivity and tensile strength..
T.thofnz to fii".. * I . ( Dir.etc.+I^t" wbr/m +) 2.^. zxfir ! h+a6Ja. .{^ D. we have Llnes f.* 7 ^.arsumenrthelogarithm Eq.. each filament of A is taken to carry a current I/n.. L e = 2 x 1 0 .. .1.2 Dii +.. .D...17r/ntn ..*pr"f.rD. 3'::r'.. while each filament of conductor B carries the return current of .. (2.. .D.r 1 nD r ) 1) '4 t ) In order to accountfor total flux linkages of conductor i. D r n ) ... D. approachln = t o.. "J In terms of the above symbols. .il Atim' "il"#il#:ili:ffi.7l n (Dnr. l:#1:# *: jr:lr* nryn2..r.i.+ 1 .6 singlephase consisting two composite line of conductors !:{Kr.*rn I . = . . tor . Future 2. 4.:. ) .e the currentis that equally divided among the filaments of each compositeconductor.. weobtain its flux tintages u.D u .= L i = ] ! : 2nx70t.._ \+ 12+.rD.7 INDUCTANCE OF COMPOSITE CONDUCTOR LINES (2..+1. ...._.29)and simplifying.s "r'.n)r'" Wb_T/m l i = z x 1 o rI t r n * * U Dt r r ' .:!"^: u... ( D ^. ..w. . Dnj. " of lf r ) m int p.*rnl*.n' Htm (2.sts setof product pertains yflr..#. I!:::::1li:*Ti:r{.D rj . .lnductanec anrl Fls ai r an . D. Dr^. D '* .2 x t o 4 l t " ] .. ) . .ff ffiilil:.r. t . (Dnt..]tl*'of conductor iri"L. .33) as auureviate.. . o 2 o o [ ( D n .* l i l n at.. The terms such as ln D1/Dn. D .l n = e+ ."li:t:t:y? GMD is also called rnl denominaror u.. ..":::"* geometric mean radius (GMR)... it is sufficiently accuratefo assum. ml * L..:. D rn)]r. l n.. ... . .::ir:l I ..::. D. denoting .h L_.(2. D r ... .. ' ! . of conduc A.. ..r:D. \ = 2 x lo716 (P.rrj"".30) (Dn'"' D.. The average inductance the filaments composite of of conductor is A Lt+L2+4+"'+Ln Luu. . ..rion rir"#i"t indu*ance Eq.33) o 2l 11?x. .33) of in is rhem.^')1/^' "' FVm 7/n (D.... . ^^' 6 .and isdefin"o . . .d.Ihnt.+L.. k. we can write Eq (2.n (2.. *ru"rorr:rr"rh" l ( D n .3r) Sinceconductor is co#posed n filaments a of electrically parallel. ) .6 showssuch a singlephase line comprising compositeconductors and B with A having n paraliel filaments A and B having mt parallelfilaments.. (230) ro filamenr i of conductor A. . ( D i t .t The inductanceoffilament f is then (D.' *' l'r t ) n " Diz.i<Er I  )i' = 2 * totl t.+. n .. Also for the sake of symmetry..Thus. .J ..Though the inductance each filament will of be somewhat different(theirresistances be equalif conductordiameters will are chosento be unttorm). .r. .wi have f/ I a /1 lA\t^cr Applying Eq. .nth :f t:?. ^i T^! ur I rallsmlssfon  Substiiuti'g for /n in the secondterm of Eq.i. 2.' D. . r a r q orru g a a ..p r j . _Lu. .""1i) term T:l Composite conductor A Fig. let the point p now recedeto infinity.. .31)i" for from E..its in inductance is _A We are now ready to study the inductanceof transmissionlines composedof compositeconductors.he. ^ . (2.1 " ' D.1 . I rna Dir'""'Diz""''''^'rti L(' * I. Dni .
8a. Frnd the self GMD of the conductor.7 Crosssection a sevenstrand of conductor Solution The self GMD of the sevenstrandconductor is the 49th root of the 49 distances.neglectthe effectof the central at strand of steel and advance reasonsfor the same.04 cm.D^^= 2. 2.7 7 8 8))tt7 2.the current conductedby the central strandsof steel can be assumedto be zero. (2. 2. = (V)7 (D1zD'ruD r)u (zr)u )t'on rp Substituting the values of various distances.. Solution The conductivity of steelbeing much poorer than that of aluminium and the internal inductance of steel strandsbeing ptimes that of aluminium strands. is Determinethe 50 Hz reactance I rn spacing. Diameterof steel strand= 5. Dtz= Drc= d Drt= Dn= Du= 2d Dr= Jld (2. (l(+).68= 1. say d.7788r)7 (2212 3 x 22f x 22rx 2r x 2r)u)t'o' x (b) Line composed of two ACSR conductors (a) Crosssection ACSR conductor of .2.6g cm.. 2. which gives the inductanceof one conductorof a singlephase line for the specialcaseof two solid. (2. Thus D.68 cm.t Iilm ^Hn^ Note the similarity of the above relation with Eq. round conductors.3s) A conductor is composed of seven identical copper strands. The diameterof eachstrand 1. _ us _ 2 r(3 (0 . and the total inductance of the line is L= Le+ Ln srngrelayer oI alurrunlum conductorshownin Fig.22b) r\ is the self GMD of a single conductor and D is the mutual GMD of two single conductors.22b). all strands are of the same diameter.dTil.fir Fig.eilf') .1 I todern FowerSystemAnalysis Inductance and Resistance Transmission of Lines (2.7. each having a radius r.56 .04 2 x 1.t77r 6U+e Fig..((tJ.34a) L t = 2 x 1 0 . The inductanceof the composite conductor B is determined in a similar manner. p. For the arrangement of strandsas given in Fig. Thus. 2.8 is 5.7 h+ '^ Dr. as shownin Fig.In Eq.8 .
3x 0. with unsymmetrical Side A Side B Dn Dzs Fig.3 From the figure it is obvious that D t q = D z q = D z s ..PHASE LINES Substitutingd' = 0. 2. 4') t 'o = 0 . 2.367 8'8 = 0.A = ((D nD nD n)(DztDzzDn)(D3tDtrDtr))''e Here.25b). we get D.4 6 t to e " 1..578 x 314 x 103 .5 x 103x 0. u = J O am Drs=Dy = 10m = D ^ = (6 8 2x 1 0 0 )l /6 8. 1 2 5m Substitutingthe values of D^.10 Crosssectional . the problemcan be solved by writing t[e conductcr self distancesas Dii= 2'177rt where r. Solution The mutual GMD between sides A and B is D. D. = l .7188dand simplifying D . l 5 5 d = 1 .93 0.461 los ^ " 0.however..A= (2..7788m and in the Substituting values of various interdistances self distances D16.578 mHlkm The arrangement conductorsof a singlephase of transmissionline is shown in Fig. B= ( ( 5 x 10.1.485 mH/km If the conductors in this problem are each composed of seven identical as strands in Example2. The basic equations So far we have considered only singlephase of to can.be easilyadapled the calculation the inductance developed line lines.9 Arrangement conductors Example of for 2. D.9. is the stranci raciius.635 mHlkm L^ = 0.5 mm of in radius and the return circuit of twowires of radius 5 mm placed symmetrically with respectto the forward circuit.85 mH/<m L.789 = 1..D .. in Eq. = 0.2.0.10 shows the conductorsof a threephase of threephase spacing. Find the inductanceof each side of the line and that of the complete line.778U3x 4a x 8\tte = 0.5t I I ModernPower Svstem Analvsis Lines oi and Resistance Transmission lnductance The self GMD fbr side A is D. 367 m Similarly. = Doc = Dat = 2. 2.789mH /km Loop inductance 2 x 0. I = Loop reactance 1.8 m spacing view of a threephaseline with unsymmetrical Fig.= ((DMD$) (Dz+Dz) 1D3aD3))tt6 . 6 8= 1 . 9 3c m x D ^ = D s i n c eD > >d 1P L = 0 . Figure 2.461 toe D 0J25 L = Lt + Ln = 1.495 ohms/lcm ()z 4m 4m l I s ( t"l ' I "' t i lines..we get the various as inductances 8'8 = 0. whereinthe forward circuit is composed three solid wires 2. 1 5 5 1 . D6 andDr. 778q2.8 INDUCTANCE OF THREE. (2.5 x 103x 0.
This alrangement causes each conductor to have the same average inductance over the transposition cycle. 1 Lines and Resistance Transmission of lnductance But. (2. for section a 1 of the transposition cycle whereina is in position1.ero. I I". (2. / () . b is in position2 and c is in position3.For all practical purposesthe and the inductancc an untransposecl can of line dissynrnrctry bc neglectcd can line. 1.36) This is the same relation as Eq.2. the total line are z.* l Dr. ( I n.1 j * o . +1. 2. .34a) where Dn. we get ra = If ro = 11../n.+Ir+ Ir0 Unsymmetrical spacingcauses flux linkagesand thereforethe inductance the of eachphaseto be differentresultingin unbalanced receivingend voltageseven en senolnge tages and llne currents are balanced.1 u r c t l I .q. . be taken equal to that of a transposed If ttre spacingis equilateral. = . uzr *orr (   \ (l) c'l b c i') \7 \ Average flux linkages of conductor a are r" h = )o3 z x ro71 !t f'. AIso voltages will be induced in adjacent communication lines even when line currents are balanced.ira := the . h ! r .an interchange the positionof the conductors madeat switching stations to balancethe inductanceof the phases. then D"o= D and b Fig.?n { : r F V m f ' o D . hence A o =2 x 1 0 . the It is not the present is in However. the flux linkages of the conductor are found for each position it occupies in the iransposeci cycie.)3t)t/3 T2 on F19. I I. For tr. Such an exchange of conductor positions is called transposition. z. the mutual GMD = lf conductors.11.i 16 tn*+ r. = D"o. so that Ir. '' t" wuvb: ].ln (Dt2D2.37) ) u r= 2 x t o . r . . L o = 2 x l 0 . the total flux linkages and hence net voltage induced in a nearby telephone line is zero. appiying Eq. .. t nD n D r D l t ) t / 3 ( \ 4 . r.37) that Lo= Ltr= L. practiceto transpose power lines at regularintervals. (2.12 Effect of transposition Inducedvoltage of a telephoneline . r6t we have betweenthe threephase Lo= LO= L.Ugdern Power SystemA Assume that there is no neutralwire.equivalent L o = 2 x t 0 .11 A complete transposition cycle To find the averageinductance each conductorof a transposed of line. it follows from F.nll " D.f.s0) to conciuctor of Fig.lI. flux linkagesof a nearby telephone ftrr balanced threephase currents.. A complete transposition cycle is shown in Fig. (2. r " * \" For the second section ''r. ro = 11..r r .* 'x to?[r" + * 16 k tn .7 mI fmn (2. Over the length of one transposition cycle.".7I o k (D"D'trDt')''' r'a equilateral spacing D"o (DtzDnDrr)t'' . Dt. m ] .7h + f = 2 x f O .r.2.) Show that over the length of one transpositioncycle of a power line. This problem is tackled by exchanging the positions of the conductors at regular intervais aiong the line such that each conductor occupies the original position of every other conductor over an equal distance.
). where 1 .r)t.. It was also shown that ptwer line transpositionis ineffective in reducing the inducedtelephoneline uoitug. 2. Thus thereis need to avoid the presence suchharmonic currentson power of Iine from considerations the performance nearbytelephone of of lines. and the telephoneline is transposed over shorter lengths comparedto the power line. " L n 5 ( " ). (tr)* ).t)tz Doz o * r. It may be noted here that the condition Iu+ Iu+ I. 1 n + l w b"_ r i' 'm ( 2 .)rt: + ' (2. 4/0 wires (1 cm dia) 50 spaced horizontally 1.It. Power line transpositionaparrfrom being ineffectiveintroducesmechanical and insulation problems.n! . voltage induced in the telephone loop is zero over one transpositioncycle of the power line. )r= 2 x 10711. and the fourth wire. = 0. which is a neutral. may be very troublesome.. Hz..(III) 3 i. ( 3 ) +I o Q ) + I . =2x104(1.Consequently. where Io+ Iu* Ir=J[o .when the lines is run parallel over a considerable length. E.. (2.Ib+1. ln *.(III) are the flux linkagesof the telephoneline r.40) " D" ) rhe emfinduced . solution Referring to Fig.\/2(II)and ).n + * 1 . 16 and 1r.15 km long line hasfour No.. the flux linkages of the conductor r."rp. D.the voltage induced over complete transpositioncycle (called a barrel) of a telephone line is zero. (b) Find the voltage drop in each of the threephase wires.4r) (D orD arD . Such cancellation doesnot takeplacewith harmonr. of Writing for ). which are multiplesof "u.o iu.t= 2 x l0/(tn+ 16+ 1.". in the three transposition sections the power line. Iu and I. ."p'#ir"t* ."nt. rc7 .Therefore.In fact. (a) From the fundamentalconsideration...itt3 )" (I)* 4.nts three and are thereforein phase. ( 3 ) = 3 1 ( 3 ) The harmonic line currentsare troublesome two wavs: in (i) Inducedernf is proportionalto the frequency.j105 A The line is untransposed. Similarly. use we have A.62  Modern Power Svstem Anatrrqic.= Zrf). it is a good practiceto transpose both power and telephone lines.+. It has been shown above that voltage inducedin a telephoneline running parallel to a power line is reduced to zero if the power line is transposed and provided it carries balanced currents. when power line currents are unbalanced or when they contain third harmonics.. is not very large because there is a cancellationto a great extent of the flux linkages due to Io. .these frequencies.r. ). of the telephone line are lnductance and Resistance Transmission of Lines (ii) third and multiple of third harmonic currenrsunder healthy .Someinducedvoltagewill alwaysbe present on a telephoneline running parallel to a power line becausein actu4l practice transposition never completelysymmetrical.." "3Jti.ondirion.r([l) by repeared of Eq.+ I.r)r. lf the power line is f'ully transposedwith respectto the telephone line )."+) wbrim(2.r2. 3 s ) t v Du.. = where ).... The currents are: Similarly.1 t"* WbT/m (2. (ii) Higher frequencies come within the audiblerange. )/r(II) ancl). therefore. carries .6t. Io= 30 + 750 A Iu= 25 + j55 A I"= 55 .)ln (DntDutD.(l). * 16 t" tn? *r" .e.. if present.It is. find the flux linkages of the neutral.easierto eliminate induced voltages by transposing telephone the line instead. " ^ * + 1 . Also find the voltage induced in the neutral wire." u fI iA threephase.r(I).\lm fjnder balanced load conditions. The wires in order are carrying currents 1o.5 m apart in a plane.38) ) t 2 = 2 x t o t l. The two transposition cyeles ^re staggered.)ln (Dn2Db2D. = 0. = 0 is not satisfiedfor (i) rpwer frequency LG (linetoground fault) currents.3g). If Io + Iu + I. ) The net flux linkages of the telephoneline are = 2 x tor( h D:. the readercan easily verify that even when the power line currents are unbalanced or when th"y cgntain harmonics.)ln(D"2Db2D.= ). i.
Assume the telephone Iine current to be zero.f n2 + 1 . (2.n) D o n = 4 . and 16.(lr. ( ). 2.2.s n.6e3(25+is5)) 3r4 = .n x 1 5 x 103 V =or j 3 1 4 x 15 x 103x Z x 107(1 J05Io+ 0.=\. we can present the result in compact form .(Io+ I) (this is easily checkedfrom the given values). 1 .e .l n 1 \" Don " 1* l l n ' ' Drn Substitutingthe valuesof D. + 1. 2.(r. Find the mutual inductancebetweenthe two circuits and the voltageinducedper kilometre in the telephoneline if the current in the power line is 100 A. \.=2xr07iw(.r\rz=4x10'lln D2 Dr AVo= x r.'f(') c I n2 ln Dlr l ln2 voltage (:) . ( 1 ." )o=2x ro?[ l* ru rn**r rn*  wurr. and furthersince ro= rb= rr= r.2 x l0' (1.14 Power and telephone linesfor Example 2.. we get An= .o 2D) Since Ir= .1 Iu + 0.Dg.rn \.5 ml*Solution (a) From Frg.= 2 x 1 0 .and simplifying Vn = 0 .5 m Flux linkages of the neutral wire n are .r = 2 x Io7. (.9 4 2 (1 ..sn1 p o s e 4 r s c a ulated below: Fig.64 I I t a Modern Power System Analysis b lnductance and Resistance Transmission of Lines n (:.695I) A singlephase Hz power line is supported a horizontal crossann.( I+ 1 ^ l n ' ) .a iulbo_ 2 # A V .105 Io + 0. D b n= 3 m.+ Iu).r"n. 50 on The spacing between the conductors is 3 m..9 4 2 x 1 06 = 100 V (b) From Eq.rn " r'o D 2D) I f'o r I r \ n + 1' ^ l n l * 1 .6 j204) V + r \ lwbT/m D.n.rntl6t) Dt \ Flux linkages of conductor 7.5 m. voltage drop/petre of phases b and c can be written as t " l*O. D rn = 1.2.(348. = .5 Avo = j2xralx x rs x rd(6 !9e (30+j50)+0.. and D. the flux linkages of the conductor a are ( \ The voltagedrop/metre phase canbe writtenas in a av.6 Total flux linkage of the telephonecircuit ). 2. rn!* romz) v/m Similarly.695 I) V y Vn = .2 x lO' 0.51 I. 'Yt' I Fig. = 2x t o t / . Solution Flux linkaees of conductor Z.l c I ) ' D tr.14.13 Arrangement conductors Example of for 2.1051o 0. the expression for AVo can be written in simplified form \)d/ \ll Avo= 2 x toty.and simplifying. l r.405 1") WbTim Since I.I3.30).n. " + ) Using matrix notation. = .' t1.2= 2 x 1071lnD' D^ Dr) = 2 x ro1 h D' I D1 Substituting the valuesof 1.71 . tr. A telephone line is supported symmetricallybelow the power line as shown in Fig.j 0 .695I) WbT/m + The voltage induced in the neutral wire is then Vn = j w ).
PHASE LINES It is commonpracticeto build doublecircuit threephase lines so as to increase transmission reliability at somewhatenhancedcost.=' Serr "t respectiverv .= (r'qy'q)t'o= (r'q)'/z GMD *. alsoremainsthe samein eachtransposition transposition verify this for sections2 and 3 in Fig.n Ds o 'l'ltl"tlt)u = z x .= jttMr.h.In to as order to achievethis.u(q')"'[a)"' ] rvpnur. Therefore. transposition The reader is advisedto verify this for sections2 and so do D.l = 314 x 0..g 2 r b s (Jsf)t" = r' \ 5 2 1) 0.. as the conductorsof eachparallelcircuit rotate cyclically.7l o D'. self GMD (D") should be made high and mutual GMD (D') should be made low.n't'u (r')t'' qr/3hrt6 Fig.rrn(2.D. conductors and a/) rs Drr..61)t/2 v o t= o .15 Arrangementof conductorsof a doublecircuit threephaseline It may be noted here that conductors a and a' in parallel compose phase a and sirnilarly b and b'compose phase b and.. in order c to achieve high D" the conductors of two phases are placed diametrically opposite to each other and those of the third phase are horizontally opposite to [' \r') \q) by of The self inductance each circuit is given (2)'''p Lr = 2 x 10..the individual conductorsof a phase should be kept as far apart as possible (for high self GMD).I lV. Section 3 L = 2 x 1 0 .. 1 2+ 2 \ t / 2 = ( 5 . it is desirable build the two lines with as low an inductance/phase possible.ot .) Applying the methodof GMD.3.CIRCUIT THREE.=mutual GMD betweenphasesb and c in section 1 of the cYcle transposition = (DP)r. Figure2. cycle in Fig' 2'15' 3 of the transposition a Self GMD in section1 of phase a (i. 2 I ) t / 2 D 2 = (L 9 2 + Z \r/2 = (7.7ln =2x107h ( 2.)rt3 (2. and c'compose phase c.42) a andb in sectionI of the D r = Q .3).7DP)tt2 Dt.:^':'ffi'1'are 'i Dr r = ( y'qr 'q) ''' = ( r 'q) ''t Equivalent self GMD D. 12.. reader should The inductancePer Phaseis = (r')t''qtt3hrt6 o Section 1 Section2 \0. From the point of view of rrowertransferfrom one end of the line to the other (see Sec.15 showsthe threesections the transposition of cycleof two parallel circuit threephase lines with vertical spacing (it is a very commonly used configuration). c b ' b the sallle in each section of the It uray be noteclhere that D"u t'eurains cycle.44) rotation of conductorsof eachparallel circuit over the Becauseof the cyclic The section..0758mH /km cYcle transposition = (DpDp)rr+.DrbD.o=mutual GMD betweenphasesc and a in section I of the cYcle r.e.*.:.z D. cycle. = (Dr. 2..'.0758x l03 x 100 _ 2. the D rn (DnbDbrD.66 i I Modernpower SystemAnalysis Lines of and Resistance Transmission lnductanee will lead to eachother.4s) r ...transPosition = (2Dh)v2 Hence D"o 2rt6Drt2pr/3htt6 (2'43) Voltage inducedin the telephone circuit V.9 DOUBI"E. while the distance between phasesbe kept as low as permissible (for low mutual GMD). (The readercan try other configurations verity that these equivalentequilateralspacingis to low D.15./9 Vlkm 2. 2.n)''t A4pt=4 x tli n ! Dl Ul^ (2. Dbrand D.
000 kv/m at NTp) is reached'Corona dischargecausescommunication interference and associated power loss which can be severein bad weather conditions.() I ou'. (bY sYmmetrY) a Mutual GMD betweenbundles of phasesc uruJ .. This increasein criticalcoronavoltageis clepenclcnt numberof on concluct<lrs thc group.2.v be written as n of 810 times the conductor'sdiameter. though applied above to a particular configuration of a double circuit. However.trrr r:rn svlrrrrr.2 *2xro7rn (t)'^l . While the GMD method is valid.s)2(2a i(Zd .thc in clearance between them and the distance between the groups forming the separate phases*.  Find the inductive reactancein ohms per kilometer at 50 Hz of a threephase per phaseas shown in Fig.47) The GMD method.line inductance is reduced considerablywith the incidental advantageof increasedtransmissioncapacity of the line. o= ( Dr PaPr o) t 't + = @f@ + s)z(d.t(S Further..4 m ! .[ i.u ' ^ c[. themutuar o.(t.t)Zd)tt+ D. 2 . = D.  line threephase conductor Fig.e.Lr AAr? tetJM. Under this condition / \ rf h >> L ll unaM '+0.s = 0 . it is commonly applied for untransposed lines and is quite u./ r\ di tt. ". . the line voltagesthat can be usedare severely limited by the phenomenon corona. it complete transposition(of the bundles as well as of the conductorswithin the bundle) so that the method of GMD can be applied' The mutual GMD between bundles of phasesa and b Dob= @ @ + s) (d . + M) \. three or four conductors arrangedin configurationsillustratedin Fig' 2.2 = 8 .r.4m"" ..aml. It is economical transmit large chunksof power 10 over long dista'ces by employing EHV lines. i. The GMD method is still fairly accurate for all practical purposes.''. the more is the self GMD' .i d)rt4 GMD betweenbundles of phasesb and c Mutual Dh. l_ f"=o.q2 6.rrrui" for practical purposes. of is the result of ionization of the atmospherewhen a certain field intensity (about 3..45) can no\.ou. z.ln fact.irrespective the numberof conductors in the bundle. 8 1m The more the number of conductors in a bundle.725 cm' (exceptwhen they Even though the power lines are not normallytransposed is sufficiently accurate to assume enter and leave a switching station).d dl I where M is the mutual inductancebetweenthe two circuits.4)(13.corona. M = z x 1 o ^ ( z \ ' ' ' 7 \ q ) This is a well known result for the two coupled curcuits connected in parallel (at similar polarity ends). The current will not divide equally amongthe conductors of the bundle unlessconductors within the bundle are ruly transposed. impedance between cucuits the .16. Critical line voltage for formation of corona can be raised considerably by the use of bundled conductorsa group of two or more conductorup". is valid for any configuration as long as the circuits are electricallyparallel.e.q. because of increased self GMD. 1 6 Configurationof bundled conductors ] s = 0.Lines of and Resisiance Transmission lnductance Equation (2. F i g . d /\ (} 1) d \_. L=! = [.0)2(14.for fully transposed lines.17 Bundled (2. Reichman [11] has shownthat the spacingof conductors in a bundle affects vortagegradient and the optimum spacing is of the order of The bundle usually comprises two. I be) I On' d =7 m "\ ' >l '/^' :' 6 / d =7 m*]* : L=I IJ2D x 1 0" ' l n " ' . phase. \ q ) becomes zero. r v1 n ElrTl.n = Qd (2d + s ) (2d D.ri.t))tt" = GQ)6Q .6))'. bundled conductorline with two conductors All the conductorsare ACSR with radii of 1. 2 s .rUUlL.
4\t/z = 0 .7799x J2 xl. Ohmic or DC resistanceis given by the formula nl R'n .s0) Equation (2.the presence line resistance of must be considered.5 3 1o h m /k m lltlA iiiiv' Ac \i olran. With the increase of frequency the nonuniformity of inductive reactanceof the filaments becomes more pronounced. Apart fronl the skin effect. The effectiveAC resistance given by is O_ average power lossin conductor watts in ohms (2.073 = 0 ..m The distribution of current throughout the crosssectionof a conductor is uniform only when DC is passing through it.i25 cm Xr= 3 1 4 x 0 .' ' " o h l n s A (2.48) is equal ro the DC resistanceof the conductor given by Eq.T2 SKIN EFFECT AND PROXIMITY EFFECT (7 x7 xl 4)t/3 0.= (r' s r' r)' ' o =(rk)r/z = (0. as This phenonlenon cilled stirr is qffect. Consequently. effective the conductor resistance more fbr AC then fbr DC. For the example in hand. (2.ohm_m / = length. The inductive reactance the inraginaryfilaments therefore of decreases outwards with the result that the outer filaments conduct more AC than the inner filaments (filaments being parallel).4 6 1 x 103l os 8' 82 " 0. The flux linking the filaments progressively decreasesas we move towards the outer filaments fbr the simple reasonthat the flux inside a filament does not link it. For large solid conductors the skin effect is quite significant even at 50 Hz. the equivalent line will have d = 7 m and conductor diameter(for sametotal crosssectional area)as JT x 1. The analytical study of skin effect requires the use of Bessel's functions and is beyond the scope of this book.4 6 1 x l 03 6n = 0 .^. A qualitative is explanation of the phenomenon as follows.725x 103 for a bundledconductor conductor line This is 76'4rvo higher than the colrespondingvalue liuirit€c out' . nonuniformity of current distribution is also causedby proximity eJJ'ect. r small changesin temperature.49) where p = resistivity of the conductor.49) only if the current distribution is uniform throughoutthe conductor.l" diiuduJ ^lr^l (2.073 = 0.r iower r increases transmission its capacity. 2. with this approximation.the currentis nonuniformlydistributedover the crosssection a mannerthat the current density is higher at the surface of in the conductor compared to the current density at its centre. can form threeloops in parallel.0 7 3m Inductivereactance phase per lnductance and Resistance Transmission of Lines A = crosssectional area.8r 0.50) can be used to find the resistance Ro at a temperature /2. Thus while considering transmission line economy. 2.70 I n llarlarn Dnre.we have for the example in hand Drn=exTxl4yrrtg.It causeslarger power loss for a given rms AC than the loss when the Sairr€ vaiueof DC is flowing ihroughthe conciuctor.77ggx 1.3 0 1 o h m/k m In most cases' is sufficiently accurate usethe it to centreto centredista'ces betweenbundlesratherthan mutual GMD between bundles for compu ting D"n. bbt and.This effect becornes Inore pronounced frequencyis increased.s ) 1 2.725x l 02 x 0.48) where 1is the rms current in the conductoi in amperes.TT RESISTANCE reactance of a bundled Though the contribution of line resistanceto series line impedance can be neglectedin most cases'it is the main sourceof line power loss.1g. (2.301 ohmlkm Thus the approximate method yielclsalmostthe samereactance value as the exact method'It is instructive to comparethe inductive reactanceof a bundled conductor line with an equivalent heuristic (on basis) singleconductor line.g2m Xr= 3 I4 x 0 . = R ( 1 + oor ) where R = resistanceat temperature0"C ao = temperaturecoefficient of the conductorat 0"C 8. on the contrary when AC is flowing through a conductor. ln2 The effective resistance given by Eq.Pairs aat. Each line conductorcan be divided into sectionsof equalcrosssectionat area (say three sections). consider a twowire line as shown in Fig. is Imagine a solid rottnd conductor (a round shape is considered for convenience only) to be composed annularfilamentsof equalcrosssectional of area. resistanceincreases the with temperature in accordancewith the relationship R.so also the nonuniformity of current distribution. if resistanceRr1 at temperature tl is known (2.o' erra+^ ^ ^r. cct The . D .
. L .9.2 5c m . P2. ? Calculate the 50 Hz inductive reactanceat I m spacing in ohms/km of a core. what is the effective reactance between the two ends of the line? 2. fiequency.18 Both skin and proximity effects depend upon conductor size. 15m *1rn.7 A singlephase Hz power line is supportedon a horizonralcrossarm.8 Telephoneline parallelto a power line 2.For normal spacing of overhead lines. Fig. Find the mutual inductance of between the circuitsand the voltageper kilometreinducedin the teiephone line for 150 A current flowing over the power line.5 m. unit length.8.1.9 A 500 kV line has a bundling arrangement of two conductors per phase as shown in Fic.proximity are underground cables etfect causesan appreciable increasein effective conductorresistance. 2 . The condttctors the telephrlncline are of solid copper of spaced 0. The distance between the nearest conductors the two lines is 20 m. A telephoneline is also supported a horizontalcrossarm the samehorizontalplane as the on in power line.threephase bundled conductor line Computethe reactance per phaseof this line at 50 Hz Each conductor carries50Voof the phasecurrent.__ 5m+++5mf  Fig. P2. LlKe skin effect. 3 A concentriccable consistsof two thinwalled tubes of mean radii r and for Derive an expression the inductanceof the cable per It respectively. 800 A.9 500 kV. The cable consistingof 12 equal strandsaround a nonconducting diameterof each strandis 0.5 2. Fig. 1 Derive the formula for the internal inductancein H/m of a hollow r.Assume full transposition.6 Two threephase linesconnected parallelhaveselt'reactances X. conductors carrycurrents + 1 and. 2. a b c h b Fig.5 Two long parallel in at magnetic intensity a point P. 4 A singlephase Hz circuit comprisestwo singlecore cableslaid side by side. distance between conductors and permeability of conductor material. However.This type of nonuniform AC current distribution Decomes more pronounceo as me olstance Detween conouctors ls reouceo. the nonuniformity of current distribution caused by proximity effect also increasesthe effective conductor resistance.25 cm and the outsidediameterof the cable i s 1 . What is the of 2. 50 The spacing between conductorsis 2.5 m apart and each sheathhas a mean diameterof 7. If the mutual reactancebetween them is Xp.72 I t  ModernPowerSystemAnaiysis Inductance and Resistance Transmission of Lines b flux linking loop aat (and thereforeits inductance)is the least and it increases somewhatfor loops bbt and ccl. as shown in Fig.5? field .6 m between centres. P2.onductor havinginsideradiusr. this effect is always of a negligible order. p2. and in of X2. 2 .5 cm. if the centresof the cablesare 0. Find the mutual inductancebetweenthe circuits and calculatethe 50 Hz voltageinducedin the telephone line ptsrkm. and outsideradiusr. shown Fig. P2. Thus the density of AC flowing through the (au') of the conductors is the least and is at conductors highest the inneredges at the outer edges (cc').8 A telephone line runs parallelto an untrasposed threephase transmission line. estimatethe longitudinal voltage induced per km of sheathwhen the circuit carries a current of ( r f^ ( r l ( . LE S PROB IVI 2 .The power line carriesbalanced current of 400 A per phase. for whereconductors locatedcloseto eachother. 2. P2. andalsodetermine line in for the expression the inductance H/rn of a singlephase consisting of the hollow conductors described above with conductors spaced a distance D apart. leadsheathed 50 2 .
lgq er1tgrygf .!yg!U_An4ygp
2.10 An overhead line 50 kms in length is to be constructed conductors of 2.56 cm in diameter,for singlephase transmission. The line reactance must not exceed31.4 ohms.Find the maximum permissiblespacing. 2.11In Fig. P2.1I which depictstwo threephase circuitson a steeltower there
cal cenre tlnes.
Inductance and Resistance Transmission of Lines
NCES REFERE
threephase circuit be transposedby replacing a by b and then by c, so that the reactances the threephases equal and the GMD method of of are reactancecalculationscan be used. Each circuit remains on its own side of the tower. Let the self GMD of a single conductorbe 1 cm. Conductors a and at and other corresponding phase conductors are connected in parallel. Find the reactance per phaseof the system.
Electric'ttl Transrnission and Distributiort Book, Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co., East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1964. 2. Waddicor, H., Principles of Electric Power Transmission, 5th edn, Chapman and Hall, London, 1964. 3. Nagrath, I.J. and D.P. Kothari, Electric Machines, 2nd edn, Tata McGrawHill, New Delhi, 1997. 4. Stevenson,W.D., Elements of Power System Analvsis,4th edn, MccrawHill, York, 1982. New
l.
C) j I o iz.sm Io c ) l1o l m4m
b b ' 4 m
c'
5. Edison Electric Institute, EHV Transmission Line Reference Book, 1968. 6. Thc Aluminium Association, Aluminium Electrical Conductor Handboo,t. New York, 1971. 1. Woodruff. L.F., Principles of Electric Pov,er Trun.snissiorr,John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1947. 8. Gross, C.A., Power System Analysis, Wiley, New York, 1979. 9. Weedy, B.M. and B.J. Cory Electric Power Systems,4th edn, Wiley, New york, 1998. 10. Kimbark, E.W., Electrical Transmission of Power and Signals, John Wiley, New York, 1949.
l
I
I
')
r.___zsm___l
.)
Paper
I l. Reichman.J., 'Bundled Conductor Voltage Gradient Calculations," AIEE Trans.
Fig. P2.11 ).12 A doublecircuit threephase line is shown in Fig. P2.I2. The conductors a, a/l b, bt and c, c/ belong to the same phase respectively. The radius of each conductor is 1.5 cm. Find the inductance of the doublecircuit line in mH/km/phase.
a b
l I t l
1959, Pr III. 78: 598.
a/
l
(_)
() i 1m i'1m
a) \..,_/
1m l ,r
b/
[r \. _./
l
lI
1m
>l< I
Fig. P2.12 Arrangement conductors a doublecircuit of for threephase line 2.13 A threephase line with equilateralspacingof 3 m is to be rebuilt with horizontal spacing(.Dn = ZDn  ZDrr).The conducrors are to be fully transposed.Find the spacingbetween adjacentconductorssuch that the new line has the sameinductanceas the original line. 2.14 Find the self GMD of three arrangernents bundledconductorsshown in of Fig. 2.16 in termsof the total crosssectional A of concluctors (same area in each case)and the distance d between them.
Lines of Capacitance Transmission
t
: V , "= 6 e a v 6    q  d v V
tL r r  .', L ),,, /t'\V
Fig. 3.1
Electricfield of a lclngstraightconductor
3. 1
IN T R O D U C T IO N
The capacitance togetherwith conductance forms the shunt admittanceof a transmission line. As mentioned earlierthe conductance the result of leakage is over the surface of insulatorsand is of negligible order. When an alternating voltageis appliedto the line, the line capacitance drawsa leading sinusoidal current called the charging current which is drawn even when the line is open circuited at the far end. The line capacitance being proportionalto its length,the chargingcurrentis negligible lines lessthan 100km long. For longerlines for the capacitance becomes increasingly importantand has to be accounted for. 3.2 ELECTRIC FIELD OF A LONG STRAIGHT CONDUCTOR
path of As the potential difference is independent of the path, we choose the the path PP2lies along an integration as PrPP2 shown in thick line. Since equipo',entral,Vrris obtained simply by integrating along PyP, t.e.
vrz= l:,'trav:ht"?u
3.3
(3.1)
POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO CONDUCTORS OF A GROUP OF PARALLEL CONDUCTORS
Imagine an infinitely long straightconductorfar removedfrom other conductors (including earth) carrying a unifbrrn charge of 4 coulomb/metrelength. By symmetry,the equipotentialsurfaces will be concentriccylinders,while the lines of electrostaticstresswill be radial. The electric field intensitv at a distancev from the axis of the conductoris ,= Q v/^ 2nky
that the It Figure 3.2 showsa group of parallelchargedconductors. is assumed ground and are sufficiently removed from conductorsare far removed from the between i.e. eachother, the conductorradii are much smallerthan the distances lines always power transmission usedin overhead them. The spacingcommonly imply that the charge on Further, these assumptions meets theseassumptions. remainsuniformly distributedaroundits peripheryand length. eachconductor
nn
where ft is the permittivity* of the medium. As shown in Fig. 3.1 consider two pclintsP, and P, locatedat clistances D, and Dr respectively from the conductor axis. The potential difference Vn (betweenP, and Pr) is given by
* In SI units the pennittivity of free space is permittivity for air is ft, = klko = 1. ko = 8.85 x 1012 F/m. Relative
i,o  
Fig. 3.2 A group of parallelcharged conductors
7S
'l
Modernpower SystemAnalysis or
Cot
Capacitance Transmission of Lines
The potentialdifferencebetweenany two conductors the group can then be of obtainedby adding the contributionsof the individual chargedconductors:by repeated application of Eq. (3.1). so, the potential difference between conductorsa and b (voltagedrop from a to b) is
 r 79 ( 3. 4b)
l' .^
0.0121
log (D / (ror)ttz)
trtF/km
tn *lcln tn qo *;. n,h ++.. qn +) +. "
v
(3.2)
The associated line charging current is
I,= ju.Co6Vnu Allvn
(3.4c)
Each term in Eq. (3.2) is the potentialdrop from a to b causedby charge on one of the conductors of the group. Expressionson similar lines could be written for voltage drop between any two conductorsof the group. If the chargesvary sinusoidally, do the voltages(this is the casefor AC so transmissionline), the expressionof Eq. (3.2) still applies with charges/metre length and voltagesregarded phasorquantities. as Equation(3.2) is thus valid for instantaneous quantities and for sinusoidal quantities as well, wherein all chargesand voltagesare phasors. 3.4 CAPACITANCE OF A TWO.WIRE LINE
(3.5)
"O___l
(a)
[__{b
i
Linetolinecapacitance
lr )o
. . 
c",
Considera twowire line shownin Fig. 3.3 excitedfrom a singlephase source. The line developsequaland oppositesinusoidalcharges the two conductors on which can be represented phaso$ QoNd qb so that as eo = _ eu.
(b)
Cnn
C.n=Cbr=2C"a Linetoneutralcapacitance Fig. 3.4
l*l

J
l
Fig. 3.3 Crosssectional view of a two_wireline The potential difference Vo6 can be written in terms of the contributions made by qo and q6 by use of Eq. (3.2) with associated assumptions (i.e. Dlr is large and ground is lar away). Thus, V 0t), = ' Since
As shown in Figs. 3.a @) and (b) the linetoline capacitancecan be equivalentlyconsidered two equal capacitances senes.The voltageacross as is the lines dividesequallybetweenthe capacitances suchthat the neutralpoint n is at the groundpotential.The capacitance eachline to neutralis then given of by
C,= Co,= Cb,= 2Cou= ,!#A
pflkm
(3.6)
" , l ; t ( n " h*D ^ + )
27rk rorb
(3.3)
The assumptions inherent the abovederivation in are: (i) The charge on the surfaceof each conductoris assumedto be uniformly distributed, but this is strictly not correct. If nonuniforrnityof chargedistributionis takeninto account,then C,
Qr,=  qu, we have
0.0242
pFkm )
(3.7)
v o b =+ m L !
r c 2L(+ ( 4  , ) " ' ) [ nr
) lf D/2r >>1, the above expressionreducesto that of Eq. (3.6)and the error causedby the assumptionof uniform chargedistribution is negligible. (ii) The crosssection both the conductorsis assumed be circular, while of to in actual practice strandedconductors are used. The use of the radius of the circumscribingcircle for a strandedconductorcauses insignificanterror. \4r'
The line capacitance Cnh is then
"ab 
Qo Vot
In (D / (ror)ttz1
F/m length of line
Q.aa)
a
s
1
^

4
q0 3.5

Modern pb*gl Jysteq 4!gly..!s For air medium (k, = l),
es
CAPACITANCE OF A THREEPHASE LINE WITH EOUILATERAL SPACING
LgT '
(3.14b)
,,=#ffi p,Flkm
1o (line charging) = ju,CnVnn
Figure3.5 showsa threephase composed threeiclentical line of concluctors of
(3.1s)
\D
Vac,/
Vab+ Vac= 2 rt cos 30" V"n =3V"n
A \_/b
a/
Fig. 3.5
crosssectionof a threephaseline with equilateralspacing
,''h
I I
Using Eq. (3.2) we can write the expressions for Vu,,and V,,..as
t " , " I (3.8) (3.e)
n". Vca 1 I
1",
vub= *(0"
6 2 * t1,, tn , r, ,, t +)
\V'o
30
IF
I
vn,= i ! * ( n " 6 P t q 1 , t n # * r ,^ r j )
Adding Eqs. (3.8) and (3.9),we get
Itvun
= v,,t, v,,, *
,'oolrr,,
'l )t,, ,, D + (qu ,1,
; ]
(3.0) r
v",
6 D
vb
Vr
!b
Since there ilre no othcr chargesin the vicinity, thc sunr of'clrar_{es on the three conductors is zero. Thus q6 * Qr=Qu, which when substituted in Eq. (3.10) vields
Fig. 3.6 phasordiagram baranced of threephase vortages 3.6 CAPACITANCE OF A THREE.PHASE LINE WITH UNSYMMETRICAL SPACING
= V,,h Vn, !+ r" 2 I zTTk r
(3.11)
With balanced threephase voltages applied to the line, it follows from the phasor diagrarn ol'I,rig. 3.(r that Vou I Vor= 3Von
(3.r2) (3.13)
Substituting for (Vot,+ V,,,) trom Eq. (3.12) i n E q . ( 3 . 1 1 ) , e g e r w
v^_ 4o tn2
27Tk
r
For the first,sectionof the transposition cycle
The capacitance of line to neutral immediately follows as /" Qo Von 2 Tlc ln (D/r)
= v o b + ( e o t r n ! * q u r  'n f t
(3.l 4a) zTvc \ r
Dr z
+e,rrn})
Dr , )
(3.r6a) \
.
l
E2' I
t
ModernPower SystemAnalysis Capacitance Transmission of Lines I
t
m
*lr"ho3L+aatnL
D rn = (D nDnDT)tl3
(3.18)
r'o,= l / Fig. 3.7 of Crosssection a threephaseline with asymmetricalspacing (fully transposed)
lfiln,
( ^ r ^ D " n' tn;*n,
j , r" t ,* )
')
(3.1e)
Adding Eqs. (3.18) and (3.19),we get vot # vo, = *( / r ^,\, 6 r, 2r t r ( qt  r q") r n t f %)
For the second section of the transposition cycle
zTrK\
f
 t e.zt" +lz ) (3.16b) uzt ut
(3.16c)
(3.20)
As per Eq. (3.12) for balancedthreephase voltages V n ti and also Vor='3Vnn (qu + qr) =  qo
cycle For the third sectionof the transposition
vob=.(r"rln &r* q6rtn!i e,tt"+l Dr,) zi'!\ Dy
Use of these relationships Eq. (3.20) leadsro in Qo ln D"n l/ o n^.. (3.2r) Znk" r The capacitance line to neutral of the transposed of line is then giveh by C. = 3s: 2nk F/m to neutral " Von ln (D"o/ r)
If the voltage drop along the line is neglected, Vno is the same in each transposition cycle. On similar lines three such equations can be written for Vbr= Vut, I 120. Thrce more equations can be written equating to zero the summation of all line charges in each section of the transposition cycle. From these nine (independent) equations, it is possible to determine the nine unknoWn charges. The rigorous solution though possible is too involved. With the usual spacing of conductors sufficient accuracy is obtained by assuming
Qat= Qa2= Qa3= Q"i Qut= Qaz= Quz= Qo, 4ct= Q,'2= 4,3= 4r'
(3.22a)
Forair medium 'o;=
= \n 'uut" log (D,o /r) p,F/km to neutral
(3.22b)
(3.t7)
This assumptionof equaicharge/unitlength of a line in the three sectionsof the transposition cycle requires,on the other hand, three diff'erent values of Vnu The solution can be designated Vo61, as Vo62andVoo,in the three sections. as of considerablysimplified by taking Vou the average thesethreevoltages,i.e. v , q , @ v g ) =! { v , , u r + v o u r + v o o z )
J
It is obvious that for equilateralspacing D,, = D, the above (approximate) formula gives the exact resdlt presentedearlier. The line charging current for a threephase line in phasor form is
Io Qine charging) = jut,,Vnn Alkm
(3.23)
3.7
EFFECT OF EARTH ON TRANSMISSION LINE CAPACITANCE
or
'/ nb=
6 q1aln'
.1*o" I l 'n ( DtzD?tDy rnI '
[ ,, ) "'
r'
\ Dt2D23D3t )
)
( DrrDr^D^,\1 +q^lnl:ll \ DnDnD3t ))
In calculatingthe capacitance transrnission of lines,the presence earthwas of ignored, so far. The effect of earth on capacitance can be conveniently taken into account by the method of images. Method of Images The electric field of transmission line conductorsmust conforrn to the presence of the earth below. The earthfor this purposemay be assumedto be a perfectty
E4

ModernPowerSYstemAnalYsis
we get ubstituting the valuesof different chargesand simplifying'
Vob=
conducting horizontal shdet of infinite extent which therefore acts like an surface. equipotential unit and potential plane midway betweenthe conductors as is such that it has a zero shown in Fig. 3.8. If a conducting sheetof infinite dimensionsis placed at the zero potential plane, the electric field remains undisturbed.Further, if the conductor carrying charge q is now removed, the electric field above the conducting sheet stays intact, while that below it vanishes.Using these well of we known resultsin reverse, may equivalentlyreplacethe presence ground below a chargedconductorby a fictitious conductor having equal and opposite chargeand locatedasfar below the surfaceof ground as the overheadconductor above itsuch a fictitious conductor is the mirror image of the overhead of conductor.This method of creatingthe same electric field as in the presence by images originally suggested Lord Kelvin. earth is known as the method of
2hD 'l rn r(4hz + D2)'tz rk
r Radius
(3.2s)
l
h
t
,/'7
Zero potential p l a n e( g r o u n d )
I
I I
lmage charge
Fig'3.9SingephasetransmissionIinewithimages It immediatelY follows that irk
wab 
F/m linetoline
(3.26a)
h
\
,
I t__
F i g . 3 . 8 Electricfield of two long, parallel,oppositelycharged conductors
and
Cn= 
ln
2nk D
F/m to neutral
(3.26b)
41+tO't4h21stt2
Capacitance
of a Single'Phase
Line
its to line Considera singlephase shownin Fig. 3.9.lt is required calculate by the methodof images of taking the presence earth into acoount capacitance describedabove. The equationfor the voltage drop Vo6as determined by the b, two chargedconductorsa and, and their images a'and b' canbe written as follows:
t"gt#Y = m2 +nrrn e,,, vub i* *1, "
*q,,tnGFfUl
(3.24)
Capacitanee Transmission of Lines 86 ,*  Modernpower SvstemAnalvsis images.with conductor a in position1, b in position2, and c in position 3, 1 2 7rl( ln r  ln h, The equation for the averagevalue of the phasor %. ir found in a similar manner. Proceedingon the lines of Sec. 3.6 and using Vou* Vo, = 3Von and Qo* Qt * Qc = 0, we ultimately obtained the following expression for the capacitanceto neutral.
(3.27)
Similar equationsfor Vo6can be written for the second and third sectionsof the transposition cycle.If the fairly occurate assumption constant of chargeper unit length of the conductor throughoutthe transmissioncycle is made,the average value of Voufor the three sectionsof the cycle is given by
tn
D'u r
rr( rn"n"\'),)!t \
( (hrlhhs)''' )
F/m to neutral
(3.29a)
C,
0.0242
D'n lon o ron@"httu')'!t o
r (4h24)tt3
pPttcm neutral (3.29b) to
(3.28)
where D, = (DnDnDrr)"t
Comparing Eqs. (3.22a) and (3.29a), it is evident that the effect of earth is to increase the capacitanceof a line. If the conductors are high above earttr comparedto the distancesamong them, the effect of earth on the capacitance of threephase lines can be neglected.
Calculate the capacitanceto neutrallkm of a singlephaseline composed of No. 2 single strand conductors(radius = 0.328 cm) spaced3 m apart and,7.5 m above the ground. compare the results obtained by Eqs. (3.6), (3.7) and (3.26b). Solution (1) Neglecting the presenceof earth tEq. (3.6)l 0.0242 n, ^ C,=31fitkm log 
o.oi+z =ffi=o'00817
0.328 By the rigorousrelationship [(Eq. (3.7)]
cn
P'Flkm

o.0242
"'(+.(#')"')
C" = 0.00817 pFkm
+ negligible.
Since
=915, the effect of nonuniformity of chargedistribution is almost
Flg. 3.10 Threephase line with images
_uu I 
r
r
l
powel€ysteryr_Anslygls Modern
b c a
Capacitance Transmission l of Lines

89
(2) Considering eff'ect earthandneglecting the of nonuniformity charge of distribution [Eq. (3.26b)] 0.0242
r(l*( 300
/4h"))  897
d=8m
,Jto4
o32BJLo4
c' o:o?? = o'0082 P'Fkm " 2.9s3
Note: The presenceof earth increases the capacitanceby approximately 3 partsin 800.
Examp 3.2 le
A threephase Hz transmissionline has flat horizontal spacing with 3.5 m 50 betweenadjacentconductors. The conductorsare No. 2/0 harddrawn seven strandcopper (outsideconductor diameter= 1.05 cm). The voltage of the line is 110 kV. Find the capacitance to neutral and the charging current per kilometre of line. Solution D"o= (3.5 x 3.5 x '7)t't= 4.4 m
 h=6m
Fig. 3.11 Crosssection a doublecircuit of threephase line Solution As in Sec. 3.6, assumethat the charge per conductoron each phase is equal in all the three sectionsof the transpositioncycle. For section / of the transpositioncycle V,,n(l)=
0.0242 tog(440/0.525)
.'"f z*l*("i*'';)+c,(rn; )
*n.(,n j+r";)]
(3.30)
For section II of the transpositioncycle
v n"  l _ 1 0 6 u,Cn 314.o.oos%
= 0.384 x 106O/km to neutral
v"b = ,lAln.("i* r"#)+c, .'" Gr) (rn; *)
+a,(rnj.,":)]
For section III of the transpositioncycle
charging cunent +
(l 19l ]e) x l000
(33r)
0.384x 106 = 0.1I Aftm
Xn
(rrr) vtu =*lr. ('" .^ a, ^I) j i)+ (rn I. +a.(rn;.r"f)f,"r,
Average value of Vo6over the transpositioncycle is given by
The six conductorsof a doublecircuitthreephase line having an overall radius of 0.865 x 102m are arrangedas shown in Fig. 3.11. Find the capacitive reactanceto neutral and charging current per kilometre per conductor at 110k V, 5 0 H z .
= (av v,* s) iL*[n.'n r,^(###)] (ttrj+*
have we cn 4 r x 7 x 8 .6 = 5.I2.)''3= l?3f Arl3fitz Now Cn= 2d( x 5. = (At'' D.33) l'.90  Modernpower SystemAnalysis =fi.g.o)r. = ( jh)''' 1 n r z * o s * s t o fr o o) 3 .. Exarnple3. / = 8 m.o = ?f rf )rt4 = ?f)''' D D'l' = QAt'' Dr.865 x 102m Substitutingthe valuesfor various distances. = 3 1 4 x 0 ' 0 1 8 1x 1 0 . 3. \ 2 )) L\2) = (j ' + h 2 )rt 2 l 0 m = f : r=lf/)+(oh\"1Jim .)tn (ffi)''' fien".361 2nk = 0. h=6m I  gf .36) 3.68 x 106 Ulkm Chargingcurrent/phase = "t#* Charging current/conductor 0'361 = L pF /km (D"pop.1805A/km 4 ltk F/m . d = 8 m. the self geometric mean distance.Qt3von=*r"(:#) (3.^...l ' / 3 f [ 100x8 \0. 8 5 1 0 .018 1F/km I Q C . For the first section of the transpositioncycle mutual GMD is Dub= ((ts) (ts))tta_ liglttz Db' = Qil''' Drr..6g x 10{ = 0. grjh)r.37) Now h= 6 m. . .)h(ffi)"' i'B' jh Capacitance Transmission of Lines (3.22b)and (3.This fact suggeststhat the method of GDM would be applicable the calculations capacitance well providedit is modified in for as by using the outer conductor radius for finding D. Eqs.86s/  = 0.1 2 1 0 6x 1 0 0 0 x x A comparison of various expressions for inductance and capacitance of transmission lines [e. = (D.'f 'd vou* 3von= vo. 12 Capacitanceto neutral per conductor = 2dc (3.7788r.3 can be conveniently solved as under by using the rnodifled GMD method.6)] brings our rhe facr that the rwo are sirnilarexceptthat in inductance expressions haveto use the tictitious we conductorradius rt = 0.= q.oDroD. 3.t = [(i. we can write f ..121'1/2 g = (72 + 42)rt2=J65 Conductorradius (overall) = 0.8 METHOD OF GMD (MODTFTED) Total capacitance neutral for two conductorsin parallel to Cn= 4rk (3.3s) Fig.? .. "n ln the first section of the transposition cycle self GMD is D. (2. while in the expressionsfor capacitanceactual conductorradius r is used.t)t. Referring to Fig.
e. applied voltage is baranced threephase.. 3. we get T I Qc' .25 cm.FThis result Example 3.The diameterof each conductoris 2. Dzt) (3.Itun. All conductors have the sameradii.500 kv. 3'3 A threephase.1 3'2 A threephase doublecircuitline is shown in Fig.l Fd+ Fig.h*j :::f ::i::t"^tll:. rinc horizontarspacingwith 2 rn betweenadjacentconductors. At a certain instant the chargeson the centre conductor and on one of the outside conductors are identical and voltage drop betweenthese identically chargedconductorsis 775 v.fiIH#.3. [? aQ 1O. . j.. Dtz . Neglect the effect of grouno. p_3.'lt I obviously checks with the fundamentally derived expressionin LsL PROB MS IE BUNDTED CONDUCTORS A bundled conductorline is shown in Fig.= ^ffi p. and find the value of the identical chargein coulomblkm at the instant specified. D t.f o Q 2m vob= *lotn. I DP l' Fig' 3'13 oQ eu.9 ai . Hz overheadline 50 has regularly transposed conductors equilaterally spaced 4 m apart The of such a line is 0.Given D = Jm and radius of each of the six conductors is 1.rat.6.g.iHffi T.aD that the method of modified GMD is equally valid in this case (as it shouldbe). Thus if the charge on phase a is qo. Take the voltage 50 of phase a as referencephasor.13..:i. / . similarly the charge is equally divided for phasesb and c.d x D* + d x D12for the samereason. Hz.5 A threephase trernsnri. Also find the charging current of phase a.:.. aQ 2m I Crosssection a bundled conductorthreephase of transmissionline Now.3e) Consideringthe line to be transposed proceeding and in the usual manner. ou* *o.0 cm. 3. Also Drr. threephase bundled conductorline as shown in Fig' P2'9' Find the capacitivi reactance to neutral in ohms/km at 50 Hz. p3.n'.xegtecithe effect of ground. The line is transffio and carries balanced load' Find the capacitanceper phaseto neutral of the line.The radius of eachconductoris 0. 3. = (DnDnD3)In It is obvious from Eq.r q n t n g ..01 "upu. writing an equ'ation for the voltage from conductor a to condu ctor b.The results obtainedwith theseurru'rnptions are fairly accurate for usual spacings. p3.2.*lr.40) where Do.*ro .. and it is assumedthat the charge per bundle divides equally among the conductors the bundle as Drr> of r/. The conductorsof any one bundle are in parallel.3g cm. I >fDy  Fqi Dzs _ "6 iec/____ '.p"i kilometre to neutral when the conductorsare in the same horizontai prane with successive spacing of 4 m and are regularly transposed. ) \ D.:i.(rn4.h .Sq"lr" rn4.ssion has r. _t = r t v.the f inal r e s u l t w i l l b e '. ) or Qu. 3'6 Find the 50 Hz susceptance neutral to per kilometre of a doublecircuit threephaseline with transposition shown as in Fig.e tFkm'Recalculate the capacitanc. n " t n D r r \ +ro .Fkmto neutral (3.".$l. the conductorsa and a'have a chargeof qolz each. 3'4 consider the..
Syrt"r An"lysi. 3 . Thus the neutral impedance Zn does not affect network behaviour.A. solution of the threephase . The thickness of the lead sheath is 2 mm. Transmission and Utilization of Electric Power.. where D . The solution of a threephase network under balancedconditions is easily carriedout by solving the singlephase networkcorresponding the ref'erence to phase.M. 4.each of radius.2 SinglePhase Solution of Balanced ThreePhase Networks Papers A T. 4. R.+ 6 o*_ 6 D >)<.328 cm). to An importantelementof a power systemis the synchronous machine. Per unit system leads to great simplification of threephasenetworks involvingtransformers. Paper insulation separatingthe conductor from the concentric lead sheath has a thickness of 2. New York. Find the capacitive reactance per kilometre between the inner conductor and the lead sheath. "Electric Stresses Associated with Bundle Conductors". Wright. the insulating medium being air.4th edn.5 mm and a relative permittivity of 3. and A.Equation(4.1) conespondsto the singlephase network of Fig. 2: 7 1 .The transient model of the machine will be presentedin Chapter 9.oJ 5 6 5 .7 . Generation. A. H.8. Hodder and Stoughton.D 'l.3 cm and D = 35 cm. German. 2 .1 showsa simple. For the reference phase a En= ( Zc+ ZL) I ' (4.{ single conductorpower cable has a conductorof No.which greatly influencesthe systembehaviourduring both steadystateand transient conditions. 4. impedance An diagram drawn on a per unit basisdoes not requireideal transfbrrners be includedin it. Starr.2 whose solution completely determinesthe network.D. so that In = 0. 9 Derive an expressionfor the capacitanceper metre length between two long parallel conductors.T. International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education. It is much more practicalto represent power systemby meansof simple symbbls for each a componentresultingin what is called a onelinediagram. Cotton...6 Doublecircuit threephaseline with flat spacing 3. P3. Assume that the line is fully transposedand carriesbalanced load.94 i t  Modern Po*". Parton. 8 Find the capacitanceof phase to neutral per kilometre of a threephase line having conductors 2 cm diameterplacedat the cornersof a triangle of with sides5 m. Stevens. 1982. International Journal of ELectrical Engineering Education 1965. 2 solid copper (radius = 0.3 :357. 1 9 6 5 . 3 . Calculatethe maximum potentialdifferencepermissible betweenthe conductors. Elements of Power SystemAnalysis. The synchronous machinemodel in steadystateis presented this in chapter. McGrawHill. J. 5 . r being 0.3rd cdn.r. Pitman. 3 .I INTRODUCTION NCES REFERE Books l . 1962.1) The currentsand voltages in the other phases have the samemagnitudebut are progressively shifted in phaseby 120". the if electric lield strengthbetweenthem is not to exceed25 kY lcm. r. A complete diagram of a power system representing all the three phases becomes complicatedfor a systemof practicalsize. and D.E. Figure4. "The Capacitance and Inductance of Overhead Transmission Lines". The Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy..balanced threephase network. Stevenson. and H. so much so that it may too no longer convey the information it is intended to convey.The generator and load neutrals are therefore at the samepotential.w. 1970. 6 m and 7 m respectively. 6 l' o . with axes separated a by distanceD. Barber.
4./o).4b is an acceptable proposition. 4. 4. An important fact has. Wherever proper phaseangles of currents and voltages are needed. to be AN m0 lrne culTent /A Z1 !: Fig. correction can be easily applier after obtaining the solution through a singlephasetransformerequivalent.3 ' See Section 10. If the transformeris YIA connectedas inFig.4b. (b) Singlephaseequivalentof 3phase y/y transformer Fig.4a.Modernpower SystemAlelygis Ia Representation PgryerSystemComponents of l . the delta side has to be replacedby an equivalentstar connectionas shown dotted so as to obtain the singlephaseequivalent of Fig.3. \e. . In most analytical studies.1 Z6 Ea Ic Balanced threephase network have a certain phaseangle shift. Since both phasevoltage and line current shift through the samephaseangle from star to delta side. 4.1 (a) Y/A transformer withequivalent connection star € l > Ia >.*In=o lrJ'ZL \.2 Singlephase equivalentof a balancedthreephasenetwork of Fig.". 4.4 It may be noted here that irrespective of the type of connection. * c ) 'trb t L_l zn 16 .4. I) are respectively in phasewith (Von.from the star side values Vorand Io(90" for the phase labelling shown). however. Fig' 4. the transformation ratio of the singlephaseequivalent of a threephasetransformer is the same as the linetoline transformationratio. the transformerper phaseimpedanceand power flow are preserved the singlephase in equivalent. 4. In the singlephaseequivalent (Vew.we are merely interestedin the magnitude of voltages and currents so that the singlephaseequivalentof Fig. Ia A n_ (b) Singlephase equivalent of Y/A transformer (a) Threephase transformer Y/y Fig.
Neutral do grounding impedances not appearin the diagram as balancedconditions are assumed.5ohms/phase line: LoadA : 15 MW.6 . 6k V . system.6.tro Yli 4. Singlephase Fie.X = 15.33/1 kV.6 . circuit breakersneednot be shown in a load flow study but are a must for a piotection study. e.6. / C " ' S Li Load g cent value = per unit value x 100.For the systemof conditionscan be easily transtbrmer diagramis drarvnin Frg. 0.X ' = 0 .g..IINE Modern Power System Analysis DIAGRAM AND IMPEDANCE OR REACTANCE DIAGRAM A onelinediagramof a power system shows the main connectionsand showrrdependingon the information required in a system study.> F r . 2o h m s G e n e r a t oN o . delta. *Per Fig. 4.i . 8 5 l a g g i np o w e r a c t o r g f Note: Generators specified threephase are in MVA.5 . I 1 ancl33 kV) are presentin this system.9 lagging powerfactor L o a dB : 4 0 M W .2a) Genl' .5 Onelinerepresentation a simple power system G e n e r a t oN o . 6o h m s r k r 1 G e n e r a t oN o .T r a n s f o r m e r l+' l I Load A J.t C .I 1 r. Power system networks are represented oneline diagrams using by suitable symbols fbr generators. 6 k V .Let Consider first a singlephase = (VA)s VA Base voltamPerss Basevoltage= Vu V Then L q of . T1 99 t basisfor use under balancedoperating The impedancediagramon singlephase drawn from the onelinediagram.The reactancedata of the elementsare given below the diagram.6). Figure 4. a . transformersand loads. Transformers specified threephase are in MVA. Generator and transformer connectionsstar.1 0 .3 : 2 5 M V A .The ('Y ( I l o A ft __'l r fl T2 . 6k V .and neutralgrounding are indicatedby symbols drawn by the side of the representation these elements.ffi ' 'Tr.6 lmpectancediagram of the power system of Fig. voltamperes and impedance of an valuesof these of electricalcircuit in per unit (or percentage) baseor ret'erence value of any quantity is defined as: quantities.: f o r m e r T 2 . Fig..4 PER UNIT (PU) SYSTEM \ It is usual to express voltage.and per phase(equivalent star)impedance one side. ns : :n e.n'rq J'rn.2 : 1 5 M V A .tF Y r l F' t l at rYA l v i r throughout this book. in modelwill be discussed Sec.motors. Three voltagelevels(6.X ' = 1 . It is a convenient practical way of network representationrather than drawing the actual threephasediagram which may indeed be quite cumbersome and confusing for a practical size power network. Fr _ . 4. 1 : 3 0 M V A .F .n?fid\ I. Per cent value is not convenient for use as the factor of 100 has to be carried in computations. S V .3316.5 shows the oneline diagram of a as simple power system. as are The generators represented voltagesourceswith seriesresistance studies. 11 kV. tensionside Transmission 20.linetoline voltageand powerfactor. 4. I Basecurrent/u = [4)e \v/B A (4. The per unit* the actualvaluein anYunits the baseor referencevaluein the sameunits The per unit method is particularly convenientin power systemsas the various sections of a power system are connectedthrough translormersand have different voltage levels. 5 6o h m s r Transformer (3 phase) 15MVA. 4.0 .X ' = 1 .linetoline voltage and per phase reactance (equivalent star). current.6 . (synchronous machine and inductivereactance in by line is represented a zimodel(to be discussed 4.A. 4.Circuit breakers are of represented rectangularblocks.3 I i I ONE.Loads are on specifiedin threephase MW. linetoline transformation ratio. The transmission (not involving rotatingmachines) to Chapter5).5 the impedance as ideal transformers with transformer impedances equivalents are shown of Representation Power SystemComponents This is a fairly good approximationfor most power system have been neglected.2ohmsper phase hightension 11 : 1 on side Transformer Tr(3 phase): MVA. it 'litrd'r.2 X= 16 ohmsper phaseon frign 15 kV.r_1 Intrn^'"1'"rr' f. Loads are assumed be passive and are representedby resistanceand inductive reactancein series. 4.
4) Baseimpedance.ooo(kv)2.! Vt._ __Ia _ x GV)3 _ 1.)B = Linetoline base kilovolts = (kV)B Assuming star connection (equivalentstar can always be found).practical choice of base values are: Base megavoltamperes (MVA)B = or Base kilovoltamperes= (kVA)B Base kilovolrs = (kv)a Base current 1. two sides of the transformer in the ratio of (vA)a and voltage bases on the transformation. i n^n (4.s) (4. Tar cpr esent sasingle.000 x In a threephasesystemrather than obtaining the per unit valuesusing per phase base quantities.9) is given bY =z(pu)o. zs 12 transformer of (a) Representation singlephase '' neglected) impedance (mignetizing Base current Ir l'ooox(MVA)u Jr 1rv.r trt2 .I tir.3) For a power system. V r s. orotJ (kV)n.u l'ooox(kv)u J3rB o (4.10) (4..the per unit valuescan be obtained directly Uy u.7 .8) Fig. Z(ohms)x (kVA).u.rvq. " IB Vi (VA )" ohms (4.e. of Let us chooseavoltamperebase The magnetizing impedanceis neglected.ing threephase base quantities. its per unit value is given by z(pu) = JZB Z(ohms)x (vA)' V. new' nt* p"t unit impedance s changedfrom .e) If the actual impedanceis Z (ohms).7) Baseimpedance 7o " _ x GD3 _ 1.2 that a threephase ty a singlephasetransformer in a threephase system can be represented The deltaconnectedwinding of the obtaining per phasesolution of the system' so that the transformationratio of transformer is replacedby an "quiuaient star transformer is always the linetoline voltage ratio the equivalent singlephase transformer' of the threePhase Fi gure4. .i. oto (MVA)a' n'*' andtV base when MVA baseis changecl from Eq' the (kv)r.phaset r ansf gr m lr int er m sof pr im ara' yand andan ideal transformer of ratio 1 : secondary leakagi reactancesZp artdZ. ^L_: onms (MVA)' G"Ab transformer of circuit singlephase (b) Perunitequivalent (4.11a) Z(ohms)x (kVA)u (kV)? 1.1'ooq] GV)r z.n' l .6) transformer forming part of It has been said in Section 4. (MVA)B Per unit impedancez (pu)  (4. a {_J> (kv)" (4..il I MooernHowersystem Analysis Baseimpedance = Y4: z.000 (kv)1 ohms (kvA)8 Z (ohms)x (MVA). 1. Z(pu)n"* ffi"ffi Per Unit Representation of a Transformer (4.000x (MVA)u (kV)a to trom (MVA)r... 4.2b) 'er unit imPedanceZ (Pu) = x Z (oltrns) (MVA)' @ (4.Let Threephasebase megavoltamperes (MVA.4.
we get Vz(pu)= Vr(pu) . Consider the system to be divided into a number of sections by the Choose an appropriatekV base in one of the sections. is the singlephase The above stepsare illustrated by the fallowing examples.13) (4. On primary side: Zr=Zp+ Z. 4.The result per unit impedancediagram. Calculate kV bases of other sectionsin the ratio of transformation.(pu)Zr(pu)_ Ir(pu)Z.o"a2 Zr(pu)= Zo(pu)+ Z.I r(pu)I Vzn 6Zo(pu)Zru]a Ir(pu)IruZ. transformeris conveniently The pu transformerimpedanceof a threephase obtained by direct use of threephaseMVA base and linetoline kV base in relation (4. Then the voltagebasein the circuit of generator1 is 11 kV linetoline and 2 that in the circuits of generators and 3 is 6. 4.(pu).5 Solution The per phaseimpedance has been drawn in Fig.7a we can write Vz=(VtIflp)alrZ. 4.W I I todern Power Srrstem Analrrsie Yvr v. (4. We shall assumethat the impedancediagram is meant for short circuit studies.11c) [.I.(pu)+ Z. Z(pu) can be determined directlyfrom the equivalentimpedance primary on or secondaryside of a transformerby using the appropriaie impedancl base. of The per unit reactances various componentsare calculatedbelow: Z ( p=+ : ! . rr rqt ystr Therefore 'I 2 8 = a (as (VA)a is common) Vrn z 1..(pu) (4.12) is of Thus the per unit impedance a transformer the samewhethercomputed from primary or secondaryside so long as the voltage baseson the two sides are in the ratio of transformation(equivalentper phaseratio of a threephase transformer which is the same as the ratio of linetoline voltage rating).vr. Any other impedanceon either side of a transformeris converted to pu value just like Zo or Zr. Line capacitance a series reactanceonly. in 3. transfbrmers.2 kV. to Let us convert all reactances per unit form.(pu)Z* Dividing by vzn throughout and using base relations (4.12) into per unit form Vz(pu) = [Vr(pu) Vw . Choosea common threephase MVA base of 30 and a voltagebaseof 33 kV linetolineon the transmission line. Calculateper unit valuesof voltagesand impedances eqch sectionand connectthem up as per the topologyof the onelinediagram. Equation (4. .(pu) Equation (4.Loads A and B are thereforeignored.r4) Z(pu)=Z. rra. of Representation Power System Uomponents (4.I4) can be represented the simple equivalent circuit by of Fig.Z(pu) On secondary side: zz= Z.. Choosean appropriate 2..5.+ L * I ' u) zru Zro But a2Ztn = Zzr z.rablesimplification has thereforebeenachievedby the per unit method with a common voltampere base and voltagebaseson the two sidesin the ratio of transformation. + o2zo (4.. From Fig. We shall make some further simplifying assumptions. We shall convertEq. diagramof the power system of Fig. 4'7b which doesnot requirean idealtransfurmet.t'ff. Obtain the per unit impedance(reactance) 4. Per Unit Impedance Diagram of a Power System Now or +=+=. so are as and resistance neglected that it is represented 1. c). . Ir I'o 12 I'u I r ( p u ) = 1 2 ( p u ) =1 ( p u ) From a oneline diagramof a power systemwe can directly draw the impedance diagramby following the stepsgiven below: common MVA (or kVA) basefor the system. Coniia./a2 j Example4 1 diagram of the power system of Fig. 2. b.6.1s) .13) can thereforebe written as = Vz@u) Vr(pu).Current drawn by static loadsunder short circuit conditions can be neglected. 1..9).1i b) (4. l LaD   Vza zz(pu)= zB ' +++o'1' zzu zru 1.(pu)Z(pu) where (4.
.3214 * i9 x /. Complex power flow in the direction of current indicatedis siven bv S=VI* =lVlllll0 = l V l l 1 lc o s d + j l v l l 1 l s i n 0 = P + i e or @. Generator 3: 4.[J:Ti]#?let Transformer 0. 4.3214 rcsotve rJxarnpre b. we now calculatethe pu values of the reactances transfonners of and generatorsas per relation (4.43s x (10'5i1 =0. JU U000.17) . based on equiprnentratings rather than in actual ohmic valuesasgiven in Exampl 4. 4.44 0.1 rhe With a baseMVA of 30.2 30 x = 0.r.10): Transformer Z : Transformet Tr: Flepresentation power System eomponents of l!.7.""..6 30 x 1. 4.: er TransformerTt: Generator1: Generator2: Generator3: 2o.ltl3.209 x aiT 1.435 Generator Gr: 0.Transmission line: Transform T.. 4 1 8 I = 16x30 0. *iit" e rhetransmirr. . i. are per unit values of voltagesto which the generators are in ashort iJ"'. base volta_ee of I I kV in the circuit of generator I md b:isevoltageof 6. assuming rbuowing 4. t S l= ( p 2 + e \ t . hne irnpedances nray be us Fig.:.3llllrlt"" Example4.This is a convenient choice of sign of 0 in power systems where loads have mostly lagging power factors.5 Complex Power Consider a singlephaseload fed from a source as in Fig.I.56 30 x = 0'437 AZI{)frL_/XfX)<1 _" The reactance diagramof the systemis shown in Fig.9 Reactance criagram the systemof Fig. in the circuit of generators2 and 3 .5x3o GT2 = 0.9 Complex power flow in a singlephase load When d is positive. ".209 T.r.++ x 0.g.r 6. Let v tvt16 r _tn t (6_0) Fig.? l_0_ 0 .936 6.: TransformerT): 0.564 I iliffij IExample 4.22 ff =0. the current lags behind voltage.44 I i (6'6)1 = 0.431 0.220 Generator Gr: 0.3e6 (ll)' u t7.1 k\.21' obviously these values are the same as obtained already in Exampre 4. 4. .=0. 4 1 3r * I) *(6'612.413 Generator G3: 0.= o'396 Generator1: tazr = o'936 Generator2: 0 .4."pu (no these ui Source (a) The reactancc data of gencrators and transtbrmers usually specified are in pu (or per cent) values._J 64 0.2)' 0.9.2 circuit study. wil beraken t /.5 (roads of neglected) Et' Ez and E.
'5 lvLl lILl I 0 (4.voltamperesreactive (VAR) = kilovoltamperesreactive (kVAR) = megavoltamperesreactive (MVAR) It irnmediatelyfollows from Eq. i1 n = positive for lagging current 0 = Lan'' (4. .is expressed kv.real (active) power (watts.complex power (VA. MVA). qreactive Consider now a balanced threephaseload representedin the form of an equivalentstar as shown in Fig. (4. 4.L2.20) Then . 4.IzXr = reactive In case of a series RC load carrying current I P _I2R power absorbedis negative) O . 4. kVA.i.9.Ji tvLtvLtcosd + iJT t 0=P+iQ@.17) that Q.S = .12 Complex powerfed to threephase load Here s=vF_v(i+i) f Y r i . thereactivepower. MVA) lSl = apparent power (VA. kVA.10 Phasor representation complex of power(lagging load) pf If two (or more) loads are in parallel as in Fig. : JT lvrl zOrti If Ir =llil I (6p.17)can be represented the phasordiagramof Fig. ffii V=l(R+jxr) P = I"R = active power absorbedby load power absorbedby load Q .(4. andIy.the line currentin amperes.10 where Eqrration by . is positive for lagging current (lagging power factor load) and negativefor leading cunent (leading power factor load). s is in MvA. Kirchhoff's current law appliesto complex power (also applies separatelyto real and reactive powers).9= P + iQ is supplied by the source and is absorbedby the load.18) P :gativefbr leadingcurrent S = 3vplt= 3 lvptl6pl.1e) tsl = Ji tvrt ttrl P .19). in s is in kvA. 4. r ' r(' pr + p r+ j ( e t +e z ) ) ! (4. The threephase complex power fed into load is given by P = lVl l1l cos 0 . . kW. and if the line current is in kiloamperes.Ji tvLltILtcosd e = Ji lvLltILtsin d d .IzX. it signifies rating of I nepresentation powersystemeompqlents ot As per Eq. the line voltage.A .4. (4. With the direction of current indicated in Fig.ll Fig.power factor angle lf vL. 4.I Here Modern Power system Anatysis S . In a series RL load carrying current { T l.21) Fig. MW) Q = lVl l1l sin 0 = reactivepower . .
It converts mechanical power into electrical form and feeds it into the power network or. generator diagram a roundrotorsynchronous of Fig. 13 shows the schematic crosssectional diagramof a threephase synchronousgenerator(alternator)having a two pole structure.Books on electrical machines 1151 may be consulted for a detailed account of the synchronousmachine. _lvLll6P r L_ Jiz z Substituting I. The rotor shown is a cylindrical" one (round rotor or nonsalient pole rotor) with rotor winding excited by the DC source. fhp Lllv qlrnrre quv vv ApfinpA svrlllvu cfnrnfrrro JLr uvLur v ronpafc rvyvolo lot t'. 4.Sis now given in MVA. while the winding in an actual machineis distributed across the stator periphery. is therefore stationarywith respectto field flux Qy. Highspeedturbogenerators have cylindrical rotors and Iow sppedhydrogenerators have salient pole rotors.4. \ NN '\r \lQ I \. called armature reaction flux. . Tn o mqnhinc rrrifh mnra fhqn f r r r nv nnlec l/vrvo.V'l' ". relationship Fig.In terms of load impedanceZ.The stator has a balanced threephasewindingaat._lvrl'_ lvl " . stator winding.Jt.14.. N = rotor speed (synchronousspeed)in rpm P = numberof poles . This flux. bbt and cct. The winding shown is a concentratedone. it draws electrical power from the network and converts it into the mechanicalform.13 Schematic On no load the voltage EJ inducedin the referencephasea lags 90" behind dywhich producesit and is proportionalto dyif the magneticcircuit is assumed is This phasorrelationship indicatedin Fig.The frequencyof inducedemf is given by l  Ef=Vt f =ffi nz where . tr V.It intuitively fbllows that Qois in phase with phase c current 1o which causesit. the terminal vclltage V. Figure 4.14 Phasor between fuand E. can be modelled on it per phase basis for the referencephase a. (4. . threephase emfs are produced in stator winding.v.6 SYNCHRONOUSMACHINE (4. We shall presenthere a simplified circuit model of the (undertransient which with suitable machine modifications wherever necessary conditions) will be adoptedthroughout this book. in Eq.22a) Field winding .22b) vl I T:t F I The synchronousmachineis the most important elementof a power system. The rotor winding is so arrangedon rotor periphery that the field excitation produces nearly sinusoidally distributedflux/pole (d) in the air gap. the As balancedsteady load is drawn from the threephase stator currents produce synchronously rotating flux Q/poIe (in the direction of rotation of the rotor).As the rotor rotates.. Obviously to be unsaturated.20) for f r . = Er Qr I electricallyfor every pair of poles.r winding (4. in the caseof a motor.is in kV.T1O 4. The machine excitation which is controllable determinesthe flow of VARs into or out of the machine. 4. Since the magnetic circuit has been . Load impedance if required be Z can calculatedfrom 1)xr \Xp>{ o F . Since the machine is a balancedone and balanced loading will be considered.
liO*  Modern powsr Syglem_Anatygis urrurnJdto be unsaturated.4.15 that phasorAB =.@.24) is drawn in Fig. Becauseof the assumed linearity of the magneticcircuit. . 4. It therefore easily follows from Fig. 4.. so that Eq. NEffi t The circuit of Fig.26) which is represented the phasordiagramof Fig. (i. This in fact is the condition for power to flow into motor terminals. is interpreted as inductive reactancewhich accountsfor the effect of armature reactionthereby avoiding the needof resortingto addition of fluxes l&q. doand d. voltage phasorE. of jlX"= .23)1.i9. excitation)determinesthe VARs of deliveredby it.lra.5.1S phasor diagram synchronous of generator Here d .e. & Fig.24) where Ef = uolrage induced by field flux Q. 4.). 4.2I. Equation(4. the simplified circuit model of Fig. Eo and v. @..angle by which Et leads v. currents and voltagesas phasorsis drawn in Fig.4. superposition the principleis applicableso that the resultant air gap flux is given by the phasor sum d' = d1+ Q. = Ef .4. 4.power factor angle 6 ..jloXo .reverses as shown in Fig. (4.20.". Therefore. voltage phasors lag 90' behind flux phasori.It may be noted that by V. called load angre or torque angle We shall see in Sec.Eois proportionalto (o (and therefore Io)and is 90' leading d" @r 1. expressionfor voltageswithout the need of invoking flux phasors. (4. (4.jIoX.I7. 4.The corresponding phasor diagram is given in Fig.The magnitudeof power delivered depends upon sin d In the motoring operationof a synchronous machine.2s) Rapr". 4.jlo X.24) now becomes V. 4.10 that dmainly determines power deliveredby the the generatorand the magnitude E. 4. With the direction of phasorAB indicatedon the diagram AB = jlo Xo where X" ir the constantof propotionality.the current 1.18 will be usedthroughout thisbook.I7. are proportionalto flux phasors dr."n. @. = Et . in fact.on"n.ion po*"r' Syrr"r Cornp. Thetotal as +xl=Xslsc synchronous reactance of the machine.25) modifiesro Ef = V.in the place of the circuit model of Fig.furthei. .IoRa (4. V. alone = uo load emf The circuit model of Eq.. wE ualt li^^rrurr€utly ^rrwll[c) 4tule r rt l0ilowlng This model of the synchronousmachinecan be further modified to account for the effect of magnetic saturation where the principle of superposition does not hold. Phasor diagram under loaded (balanced) conditions showing fluxes.16 wherein X.15.E" Fi g. is the for acrive power to flow out of the generator..L6 can be easilymodifiedto include the effect of armature leakage reactance resistance and (these series are effects)to give the complete circuitmodelof the synchronous generator in Fig.17 circuitmodelof roundrotorsynchronous generator Armature resistance Rn is invariably neglectedin power system studies.3) Further assumingthat the armatureleakagereactance and resistance are re eml whtch equals the termin tage V. In terrnc nF thp ql n r q urv vrv o rlofiiri^uvruulrurr ^s vL v . The fieici induceciemi Ey ieacisthe terminal condition voltage by the torque (load) angle d This. respectively. 4. now leads lby d. 16 Fig.
8..e.l is fixed. in presented Fig' 4'23' T\e phasor to high. 4. I x " Fig.10. medium and low excitationsare to the unity power factor case'It is obvious diagramof Fig.1.20 MotoringoPerationof machine sYnchronous of Fig.21 Phasordiagram motoring oPeration in generatoroperates parallel with other generators Normally. 1 8 S i m p l i f i e d ircuit model of round rotoI synchronous generator (a) Overexcited Ef' 1I J Vt'. changein such a manner as to (c) Underexcited Fi1.19 Phasor nousgenerator .23(b)colresponds frot the phasor diagram that for this excitation c lEJl os 5=lV) E1 I t of diagram synchroFig.4. Voltage and reactivepower flow are often automatically uy YUIL4S\/ IvSurqlvro \uvv vvve^v^r vr Components System of RepresentationPower = poweroutput lvtl ll. 4.4. I" 0 Ia l "' / it"x' c Fig.For bus generatorconnectedto an inJinite bus as shown in Fig' 4'22' As infinite independent remainconstant voltageand frequency whose a means largesystem machine and the bus' and of the power exchangebetweenthe synchronous machine.. t.This is discussed detail in by is mainly controllecl meansof its regulated Section5..lcos d = constant active FIIS': and by automatic tap changing devices on transformers.1 6>v).22Synchronousmachineconnectedtoinfinitebus l/ol cos dof the phasor Io on V' It rneansthat since lV. As the machineexcitation is varied. jIJ' ( b ) N o r m a le x c i t a t i o n Fig. the projection is varied' Phasordiagramscorresponding whiie the excitation remains constant.the'i I Modern Power System Analysis  machine The flow of reactivepower anclterminal voltage of a synchronous in excitation. so powerintothebus(ordrawsnegativereactivepowerfromthebus)'Forthe . armaturecurrent keep angle g. power factor. 4.'/ 6666 l E1 ( . a synchronous simplicity of operationwe shall considera to connected the power system. the excitationof the synchronous of independent activepower into an feedingconstant generator consider now a synchronous In and its infinite b's bar. lags behind V.  .23 P h a s o r d i a g r a m s c f s y n c h r o n o u s g e n e r a t o r f e e d i n g c o n s t a n t power as excitation is varied case(Fig' a'23a)'i'e' Forthe ovetexciterl This is definedas normal excittttittrt feedspositive reactive thatthe generator cos . 4. 4 .
lx. E1 (a) Overexcited  V1 generator anglecurveof a synchrcnous Fig. from (l1olX5)/X5.. Considernow the power deliveredby a synchronousgeneratorto an infinite bus. 4.27 shows the caseof limiting excitation with d= 90". the motor draws positive reactive power (or suppliesnegative reactivepower).24 Phasor diagramsof synchronousmotor drawing constantpower as excitationis varied From the above discussionwe can draw the general conclusion that a synchronousmachine (generating or motoring) while operating at constant power suppliespositive reactive power into the bus bar (or draws negative r c q e t t v cI v While Figs 4.Io leads Vu i. . For excitation lower than this value the generatff becomesunstable.28) The plot of P versus { shown in Fig. 1o leads V. (4.e. Figure 4. The direction of phasor1ois always 90o lagging jI"X. ' @ . This problem (the at stability) will be discussed length in Chapter 12.As lEtl sin dremainsconstant. feeds negative reactive power into the bus bar (or draws positive reactivepower from the bus bar). andits magnitudeis obtained Figurc 4.23c). regarding the quantitativevalues of llnl and d This can easily be accomplished by recognizing from Eq.25 Power Power Factor and Power Control (b) Underexcited Fig. ln.From Fig. cos d PX" = constant (for constantexchangeof power to = # lyrl (4. In the overexcited case. lErl cos 6 < lV). while in the underexcitedcase . 4.23 and 4.^ # .26 shows the phasor diagram for a generatordelivering constant power to infinite bus but with varying excitation. the tip of phasor Ermoves along a line parallel to y.19 this power is P = lVtl llol cos 0 The above expression.24 shows the overexcitedand underexcitedcasesof synchronous motor (connectedto infinite bus) with constantpower drawn from the infinite bus. .$ or underexcited case (Fig. as excitation is varied. is called the power angle curve. r.iiii Components of Representation PowerSystem I t Modern Power systemAnalysis T. sin 6 .l e: E: sin6 (4.a r l f Y l l v L v / Al n ll r rl nvrt v avrl to u n i f p r l ln vw ul u lll4vllltlv mqnl"io on the oih. the motor draws negativereactive power (or suppliespositive reactive power).e.4. ^ ^ l L ^ " j a ^ {  A l 4 ^ l i ^ / \ ^ ^ A a A u t _ ^ ^  .2e) For P ) P** or for 6> 90' the generatorfalls out of step. .27) that lEll sin 6 llolX. . i.can written in a more useful form from the phasor be geometry. The maximum power that can be delivered occurs at 6 = 90" and is given by (4.l cos l1.Io lags V. hand.19 sin (90" + 0) lnA _ rl. so that the generator feedsnegativereactivepower into the bus (or drawspositivereactive Figure 4. 4. nrtrx/cr vv frnrn fhc hrrc hsq r \ v U rYrvr rhvarn r r n r r cvrvc\v lnvi v . 4.24 illustrate how a synchronousmachine power factor thesedo not give us a clue changeswith excitation for fixed power exchange.25.. ._ I iilis'.e. .27) (4.30) infinite bus bar) . From Fig. 4.
' l\jluzX" l/ ' l Fig. 4.28. In a salient pole machrne at gap ls nonunllorTn arong IULOI'ljcrlPilury. .. axis reactance)to the flow of quadrature On the other hand.10 that as dchanges. lt will be shtlwn in Section 5.or fourpolestructure.. 4.{1 \3 62 Iaz Fig. armaturecurrent in phasewith { producesflux along the of quadratureaxis and the reluctanceof the flux path being high (because large . 4.as shown in Fig. hencethe machinepresentslarger armaturereactionreactance (called direct componentIl of armaturecurrent 1o. while d and active power vary in accordance with Eq..Armature current in quadraturewith El producesflux along the direct axis and the reluctanceof flux path being low (becauseof small air gap). made through the Direct axis I /. It is seen from this diagranr that as d increases. produces the same flux linkages per arnpere ai the air gap is uniform so that the armature reaction reactance offered to inphase or quadrature current is the same (X. it produces larger flux linkages per ampere and X.27 Case of limitingexcitationof generator deliveringconstant power to infinitebus bar Similar phasor diagrams can be drawn for synchronous motor as well for constant input power (or constant load if copper and iron losses are neglected and mechanical ioss is combined with load).29 Sallent pole synchronousmachine (4polestructure) In a round rotor machine.000/1..26 Effect of varying excitationof generator deliveringconstant power to infinitebus bar employed in machinescoupled to hydroelectric turbines which are inherently slowspeedones so that ttre synchronousmachine has rnultiple pole pairs as different from machines coupled to highspeed steam turbines (3." V1 Fig.lruug trrtr i ^ + L ^ l ^ ^ ^ + ^ l ^ ..29.1 .l and lE1trare fixed. there is no significant change in the flow of reactive Power' of Locus Er Er'.. is distinguished A salient pole synchronous from a round rotor machine by constructional features of field poles which /. 4. Another important operating condition is variable power and fixed excitation. 4. l . .28). 4.28 generator with variablepower and fixed Operationof synchronous excitation axis of main poles (called direct axis) and is the largestalong the axis of the interpolar region (called quadrature oxis). 4. In this case lV.^ + L ^ Fig. (a.: .500 Salientpole machineanalysisis rpm) which have a two. f t .L ^ . current magnitude increases and power t'actor improves. + X1 = Xr). n' rL ls Lllc rtrilsL . tworeaction theory outlined below.ModernPower System Analysis of Ftepreseniation Fqwer SystemComponents Salient Pole Synctrronous Generator 1!1  machine. armatLlrecurrent in phase with field induced emf Ey or in quadrature (at 90") to S. The corresponding phasor diagram for two values of d is shown in Fig.^ ^ .
sind+ lv. syrt"t Rn"tyri.in the operatingregion (r< 70') is larger in synchronizing a salient pole niachin.30.=1. Draw IoRo. P versus d is plotted in Fig.30 Phasor diagram salient of 1. 4. Consider Fig. The phasordiagramof a salientpole generator shown in Fig. all to the same scale which is obtained as follows. It is noticed that the maximum power 34 (change power per unit in output occurs at 6 < 90' (about 70'). 4.and resistanceiue ignored and an unsaturated value of synchronous reactanceis considered.lr ffil Po*r. it producessmaller flux linkages per ampereand hencethe machine presents smaller armature reaction reactance Xu (guadrature axis reactancea X) to the flow of inphase component Io of armature current /o.r = steady state direct axis reactance The significance and use of thesethree values of direct axis reactancewill be elaboratedin Chapter 9. Draw % *d Io at angle 0 2. X/ = subtransientdirect axis reactance Xh = transient direct axis reactance X.QP is proportional to MVAR and Me to MW. the greatestallowable stator and rotor currents must also be consideredas they influence mechanical stresses and temperaturerise. while selecting a large generator.the saturationeffects. . As Mp is proportional to MVA. The locus at of constantlEtl (excitation) is also a circle centeredat O. Make lCPl . 4.llol Xq and draw the line OP which gives the direction of Ey phasor 4.Draw CQ = . Mod"rn Representation power of Resultant interpolar air gap). called the power. Draw a I from Q to the extended line OP such that OA = Ef It can be shown by the abovetheory that the power output of a salient pole generatoris given by lv.t(L to 1.. 4. the phasor diagram of a cylindrical rotor machine.31) The first term is the same as for a round rotor machine with X.32. Furt1t"r ' d5' change in power angle for small changes in power angle).) 3. the direct axis reactancechanges with time acquiring the following distinct values during the completetransieht.It can be easily is drawn by following the stepsgiven below: Fig.il.saliency. During a machine transient.V) and henceMVA is a circle centered M.31 power angrecurvefor sarient poregenerator In this book we shall neglect the effect of sariency and take X'= X't in all types of power system studiesconsidered.X.l'(xo. a circuit model cannot be drawn.besidesrated MVA and power factor. Operating Chart of a Synchronous Generator generator polesynchronous Fig. = Xa and constitutesthe major part in power transfer. 4.l lE.l .xn) 2XdXq si n 26 (4.4 r i5 I I rl. Since a salientpole machineoffers different reactances the flow of Il and to 1ocornponentsof armature current Io.31. The second term is quite small (about I020Vo) comparedto the first term and is known as reluctancepower.cofficient. For simplicity of analysis. The locus of constantllolx. Such timiting parameters in the operationare brought out by meansof an operating chart orperformance chart.: than in a round rotor machine.
This is repeatedfor other excitationsgiving the curve afg..33.7 pu. \ 0. .32 Phasordiagram synchronous For zero excitation.0 pu.e.lX. now the chart shown in Fig.0.lr. fixing both active and reactivepower scales.85 pf lagging E N l a o (E i\ Locus11.{ is working point placed within this area at once defines the MVA.e. 4.in this caseassumed be lEtl = 2. d= 90o). or Io = jV.J pu. The remaininglimit is decidedby loss of synchronism leading power factors. changes continuouslyso that the load forecasting problern is truly a statistical one. Fig. 0. r Arnq rl t r cri u Q ci v r I v r ar r a ru c  2. The completeworking area. to i. 4.1 pu margin is employed in and is shown by the curve afg which is drawn in the following way. .Circles of per unit excitation are drawn from centre to M with 1. a 0. For zero excitation. the pcrwer Mh is reducedby 0.1.Reactive power(pu)lagging Fig.l). The magniiudeof the ioad. but in practice a safety margin is brought in to permit a further small ln increase load belore instability. gfabcde.2. The operationallimits are fixed as fbllows. lE.s Leading . however.01I. The loads are generally composed of industrial and domestic components. With centre at 0 a number of semicircles are drawn with radii equal to different pu MVA loadings. whereasthe domestic lclad mainly consists of lighting. llol =lV)lXr leading at 90" to OM which corresponds VARs/phase. It is assumed machineis ratedto gire 1. 4. power factor and excitation. The theoreticallirnit is the line perpendicularto MO at M (i.4 at times ly. industrial load consists An mainly of largethreephase induction nlotors with sulficient load constancy and predictable duty . Considera point h onthe theoreticallimit on the lETl 1. designun6 upJrotion The of power systemsboth economically and electrically are greatly influenced by ttrp nature and magnitude of loads. Limitation of the statorcurrentto the corresponding requires limitline to becomea circular arccd aboutcentre0. i. Mw. Taking 1.I \Y/rl n r l or r r r . At point d the the rotor heatingbecomesmore important and the arc de is fixed by the maximum to excitationcurrent allowable.y.0 per unit active power at power factor 0. M 9o. still be on rhe on the desiredlimiting curve.85 lagging value and this tixes point c. so that the length MO conespondsto reactivepower of 0. heating and many single_phase devicesusedin a randomway by houscholders.i Io X r' = Y.40 pu (i. A typical daily load curve is shown in Fig' 1.85 pf lagging line is shown.5 1.0 pu excitations = arc.33 operating chartfor rargesynchronous generator . current.43.7 I .1 pu to Mk.the currentis 1.0 per unit active power as the rnaximum allowable powel'.shown shaded. in iact.Opu excitation .The load angle 6 canbe measured as shown in the figure.l = 0 . 4. a that the horizontal limirline ubc is drawn throughb at 1.4.0 >. MVAR. v u ! rn D n rYrY v r v )r 'rs r a mr  .33 which is drawn for a synchronous Consider machinehaving Xt = 1. the op"ruiing point must.0pu excitationcorresponding the fixed terminalvoltageOM.43pu. X" I (circlecentreM) I C]' (U o c) F generator of Fig.7 REPRESENTATION OF LOADS Load drawnby consutners the toughest is parameter assess to scientifically.e. tl 0. Lines may also be drawn from 0 conesponding to various power factors but for clarity only 0.e.
.e. is (i) Constant Power Representation JlfZJ. Calculatein each case (a) load pf (b) reactive power drawn by load (c) load angle 6 Solution Full load. (4. 0. P _ 1 x 0 .99 .436 x M5 = 281 MVAR This is usedin load flow studies.t n ' l ( 6 .Calculate: (a) Excitation emf (E1) andpower angle 6 (b) Reactivepower drawn by the load Carry out calculationsin pu form and convert the result to actual values.7 0.436 = 0.t PJQ:T The generator of Example 4. li .9 pf lagging at rated voltage.3 is carrying full load at rated voltage but its excitationemf is (i) increased 20vo and (ii) reducedby by 20vo. 1" ( leading) (b) Reactive power drawn by load Q = VJ.0. Thus I " z = !I: . the analytic treatment would be very cumbersome and complicated.t ASa= i )L = 1 pu Synchronous reactance = +# X.z o.study.9 pf lagging = 0. 4. is essential know the variationof real and reactivepower it to with variation of voltage. sin r/ = 1 x I x 0. 4 3 6 ) = 1.lsr I l v l 2..9 pf lagging Load current = generatorcurrent Io= 7 pu. (4.9 . 24 kv.436 pu (a) Excitation emf (see Fig.l ar v e z I I t   A synchronous generator rated 645 MVA . = 1. i.9 pf lagging. 3 4 4( 0 . Normatly in such studies the load is of composite nature with both industrialand domesticcomponents.586 j l.j 0 . 9 p u Ef= which then is regarded as constant throughout the study. It has a is syrrchronous reactancel. 9 = 0 . lineto_line Load volt In representation loads for various systemstudies such as load flow and of stability studies. typical composition A of Induction motors 55757o Synchronous motors 5:75Vo Lighting and heating 2030Vo Though it is always better to consider the PV and of QV characteristics each of these loads for simulation. " I' = P : i Q .The load specified in MW and MVAR at nominal voltageis used ro compurethe load impedance(Eq. It is known as constantcurrent representation because magnitudeof current is regarded the as constantin the . 0.0 ) V{< where V = lVl 16and 0= tanl QlP is the power factor angle.344pu 'r" (24)z Full load (MVA) = I pu.3_phase MV BasekV = 24. In most of the analytical work one of the following three ways of load representation used.99 x 24 = 47.Both the specifiedMW and MVAR are taken to be constant.sa . (iii) Constant Impedance Representation This is quite olten used in stability studies.2l = 199 137.436 pu or 0. The generatoris feeding full loadat 0. T r._IaZ II Modern Power SvstemAnatrrsic Representationp of Sotution Base A = 645.17). (actual) = 1.P = J O w* f ll Fvattrt v F^sr. (ii) Constant Current Representation Here the load current is given by Eq.Ig) Ef = V.1" E.76 kV (line) 6= 3j..+ j XJ" = 1 1 0 " + j 1 .?2b)). 9 .
7 9 = 1 .2 MVAR at d by 20Vo samereal load.5065 6 = 30.659 = 0. The ratings of the generator. sind (i) PROB S IEIvI 4'r Figure P4'l shows the schematic diagram of a radial transmission system' The ratings and reactances the various of componentsare shown rherein.4" 2.78 pu or 502.9pf tagging 4. 8 = 1 . 9 9x 0 . 1r kv.=7 (i) Et is x 0.49.5" In= . wtrat is the value and pf of the current delivered to the bus.lllolsin / =1x1.t = 30Vo YIltransformer.9j0. X = I5Vo Yl transformer. e4. 25 kV.. calcurate rhe terminal voltage of the synchronous machine.50o UvGir+1.motor and transformers are Generator40 MVA.5= 0. l l v'. X.l .59149.024 Q = 0. Neglectresistance. ll L_220 y 30 kV. l x. 220kv in 50 () rine.75 lagging (b) Reactivepower drawn bY load Q = lV.2 .8 MVAR (ii) or by E. (i) V1 100MVA X = 10o/o dh ___EF_l___> 1 6 0 5F  100MVA V2 X = Bo/o Fig.Now As per Eq.183x0.024 = 0. 3 A synchronousgenerator is rated 60 MVA.__iFrF l .9 l1. usea baseof ioo and vrre .344 =0. [y^ l_1 f 1 \M ) 'Y 2 I ) / t.15 kA at 0. unity pf . p_4.lM I ftrodernPower System Analysis tation of Power (b) or V.Representthe transmission line and the transforrnersby series reactances ontu.28) P= l E'. In this case assumethe (a) pf = cos 1.j 0 . It has a resistance Ro = 0l pu and xo 7 r. I I kV. (a) Determine E.344) or or sin d= 0.024x 645= 15. 33 y_220 y kV. p4.2. 8 9.4"110" jr. 40 MVA.i1. decreased 20o/o E f = 1 .Y Y I Fig.9= (2'388xr) . i n 6 \ 1. 5 9 Substitutingin Eq.i' d \ 1. MVA. and angte d (b) Draw a phasor diagram for this operation. 11t220 kv 220t66kV 0.2 Draw the pu inrpedancediagram fbr the power system shown in nig.5" = 1.344 ) which gives 6 . Xu = 20Vo Motor 50 MVA. X = l5*o o e =( L 2 \ L ) . (a.344 = 0 . 1 8 3l 4L2" (a) pf = cos 4I. It is feedinginto an infinite bus bar ar 11 kV delivering a cirrrent 3.1 kv 60 MW 0.388130.2" = 0.65 pu.*fF.9power factor ragging is tappedfrom the 66 kv substation which is to be mainraineo alt oo kv.9 x sin 1. (c) Bus bar voltage fails to 10 kv while the mechanicalpower input to generator and its excitation remains unchanged..5"rlo" .A load of 60 MW at 0.5" 4 .g ff hgging. .
2nd edn Tata McGrawHill. Inc.05MV A R (b) 33. 6 and mechanicalpower rnput. 54 14 MVAR (c ) 4 1 . and I.i 3 l 2 8 . 1980. Find new d and P. Electric MachineTheory PowerEngineers.14 kA. Theory and. D.Problems of Electric Machines. 108 MW.7 0.New york. 5 o5 3 .8 7 6l a g 4. 0 .MVAR.6". 16 kV ratedgeneratoris feedinginto an infinite bus bar at 15 kV. (a) Determine Ey and d for the above operation. 4. 3 7k v .4 A 250 MVA. what are ttre correspondingvalues of El and d and also the rnechanical power input to the generator. at 1966.3" leading (c ) i . 2nd Edn. 3 M W . Electric Machines and power systems.5 The generatorof Problern4.1 2 7 . 0..85 pf lagging to infinite bus bar at 15 kV.1985.42. Paper 6' IEEE CornitteeReport. v.4 is feeding 150 MVA at 0.4MW (d) 184.4 (a) 0.I 126  ModernPower SystemAnalysis Representationoflgygr_gyg!"_!L_qg[p!g$q T generator resistance be negligible. 2' van E' Mablekos. (b) The mechanicalpower input to the generatoris increasedby 20Vo from that in part (a) but its excitation is not changed. 2 0 .p.2 8 k V . REFERE I.787 pu .ver Meeting."The Effect of Frequency and Voltage on power System Load". 5 7 8 . the power is to be delivered to bus bars at unity pf.15MVAR (b) 6. and I.3 (a) 26.lt is found of that the machine excitation and mechanicalpower input are adiustedto give E.P. 1 5 0 .ICES Books l' Nagrath.What are P and Q fed to the bus bars? (b) Now E. The generator a synchronous has reactance 1.5M W. 79. Presented IEEE winter po. D. Tata McGrawHill.53.Kothari. Kothari. ( d ) 1 8 . 4' Kothari. Tata McGrawHill.62pu.1 3 .45. 51. Answers 4. 5. (d) For the value of Eyin part (a) what is the maximum Qthat can be deliveredto bus bar. and D. to 4.908lagging ( c ) 1 .. (a) Determine the line current and active and reactivepowers fed to the bus bars. (c) Et is now maintainedas in part (a) but mechanicalpower input to generatoris adjustedtill Q = 0.. 3.9". Basic Electicar Engineering.25.Find the new line current and power factor.1 " . 2002. New Delhi.9 6 M W 4. = 24 kY and power angle 6 = 30o.8 kV (line). 2nd Edn. Determine Ey.P.J.5ll"l.Harperlno for Raw. New Jersey. 7997.? Sketchthe phasor diagram for each part. Nagrath.1 12kV 4. New De\hi. (c) With referenceto part (a) current is to be reduced by 20Voat the same power factor by adjusting mechanical power input to the generatorand its excitation. What is the corresponding 6and {.I'J. Electric Machines. Delroro.6"kA. 5 " .8 " k A . 5 (a ) 2 5 . New Delhi. find new dand Q delivered. 2002. (d) With the reducedcurrent as in part (c).. is reducedby l0o/okeeping mechanicalinput to generator same.2 ' . New York.J. Nagrath.prentice_Hall. ' 3 5 .
the total 50 Hz shunt admittance* QwCl) is small enoughto be negligible resultingin the simple equivalentcircuit of Fig. The phasor diagram for the short line is shown in Fig..A problemof major importance power systems the flow in is of load over transmissionlines such that the voltage at various nodes is maintained within specified limits. rl/ = tvnt * ?JlJr cos A + 4#rin" Qp 1il21n2+ x2 r l t / f r l V R l /o . 5. While this general interconnectedsystem problem will be dealt with in Chapter 6.J Lo rJLr. For long lines exact analysis has to be carried out by considering the distribution of resistance.and sendingend circle diagrams will also be developed in this chapter so that various types of end conditions can be handled.Sstands a sendingend for quantityand subscriptR standsfor a receivingend quantity 5.1. 4 ) u w It2 .A transmissionline on a per phasebasis can be regardedas a twoport network. the relationship between sendingend receivingend voltagesand currents can be immediately written as: lyrl lA BlIy*l L1.l_*#:.T.J lyrl (5'3) These constants can be determined easily for short and mediumlength lines by suitable approximations lumping the line impedance and shunt admittance. 5. inductance and capacitance parameters and the ABCD constants of the line are determined therefrom.J Lc plLroJ Also the following identity holds for ABCD constants: ADBC=l (sr) /< t\ =I l z f l v o l Lr. 5..2 This chapter deals primarily with the characteristics and performance of transmission lines. wherein the sendingend voltage Vr and current 15are related to the receivingendvoltage Vo and current 1o through ABCD constants"as SHORT TRANSMISSION LINE For short lines of length 100 km or less.":Jff:: C = cepacitance/unit length/phaseto neutral / = transmissionline length Z = zl = total series impedance/phase Y = ll = total shunt admittance/phase neutral to Note: Subscript. shunt admittanceis mainly capacitive susceptance (iwcl) as the line conductance(also called leakance)is always negligible. Equations for power flow on a line and receiving.For overhead transmissionlines.From this figure we can write lV5l = l(ly^l cos /o + lllR)z + (lV^l sin dn + lllxyzlr/2 l v 5l = [ t v R P + l t 2 ( R z+ f ) l * z t v R  i l ( R c o sQ ^ + X s i nf{ ) r l 2 ( 5 . Fig. I / i "L tvRP J . of Transmission lines are normally operated with a balancedthreephase load.1 Equivalent circuit a shortline of This being a simple series circuit. the analysiscan thereforeproceedon a per phasebasis. . attention is presently focussed on performance of a single transmissionline so as to give the reader a clear understanding the principle involved.eharacteristics Perforr"nance povrerTransmission and of Lines The following nomenclature has been adoptedin this chapter: z = seriesimpedance/unitlength/phase y = shunt admittance/unitlength/phase neutral to .=. to Appenclix B. *R"f'.2 for the lagging current case.1 INTRODUCTION 5.
6) = lVool magnitude of no load receivingendvoltage lVprl = magnitude of full load receivingendvoltage (at a specified power factor) 'u1. an approximate condition.3 shows the phasor diagram under conditions of zero voltage regulation. = Per cent regutation where condition underzeroregulation diagram Fig.AClz _ llllzl sn /AOD _ zlvRl lyR oA ''^?):'Yu'x lvRLl 100 (5.expressed percentage full load voltage. 5.e.2 Phasordiagramof a shortlinefor lagging Voltage Regulation Voltage regulationof a transmissionline is defined as the rise in voltage at the of as receivingend. we get per cenrregularion !!4 9"t!t:l n x tin 4r x 100 lvRl (for leading load) (s. i.e.'%' lvRl = For short line. when full load at a specifiedpower factor is thrown off.Lines J"#.e) where d is the angle of the transmission line impedance. The exact condition for zero regulation is determinedas follows: current Fig. (5. lVsl = lVpl = Per cent regutation . 5. tan/n= i. i.. however. In the above derivation.8) l=l rfr Ivs v^ .8) X sin Qo> R cos /p.3 Phasor Figure 5. or tan </o(leading) >+ X It also follows from Eq.s) Voltage regulationbecomesnegative(i. Q*has been considered Expanding binomially and retaining first order terms. (5.e. lV5I = lVpl or O C= O A AD . lV^61 lVsl. load voltage is more than no load voltage).e. l/l R cos/^+l1l X sind^ x 100 I yRl (s. This is. ff cos + /^ ff sin f^)''' (s. when in Eq.8) that for zero voltage regulation l V 5= l V ^ l + l X ( R c o s/ o + X s i n / o ) l The above equation is quite accurate for the normal load range. X =cot d e /^(teading= [ (5. of Characteristics Performance PowerTransmission and 1 The last term is usually of negligible order.7) positive for a lagging load.
(i) and (ii).\ = 72.5 0 0 0 = 7 0 7 A 1 0 x 0 .0195ohm and 0.39 0..L  l Fig.175kV due the approximationin (i) Ignoring it.10).7 A ' or (c) 'YL ^ :ltl loxlooo 3wxc ll. 107 .63 mH per km' The voltageat the receivingend required is to be kept constantat 10 (11.j7vo 10 (b) Voltage regulariondesired= ?+t = l0.29 + j273'7 l/ol= (i) 5000 (ii) Find (a) the sendingend voltage and voltage regulation of the line.39 f) X = 3I4 x 0.09 kV 133 or Figure 5.5). 70'7) = 0.09. and (c) compare the transmissionefficiency in parrs (a) and (b). l ! l .4 showsthe equivalentcircuit of the line with a capacitivereactance placed in parallel with the load.000 kw at a power factor of 0'707 lagging by means of an overhead transmissionline 20 km long. we have Since the capacitance 10 x cos/^ Solving Eqs. that for zero of at voltaee regulation. U!4 IAOD= sinr zlvRl lt follows from the geometry angles A. A singlephase Hz generator 50 suppliesan inductive load of 5.'. (b) the value of the capacitors be placed in parailet viittr to the load such that the regulation is reducedto 50vo of that obtained in part (a).7 0 i From Eq.707. I 273'7 Voltage regulation= pfTL.63 x 103x Z0 = 3. Solution The line constantsare R = 0 .I = 549( 0.x roo :Zt. given by l 1 l= . Case (a) lyst. voltage regulation improves (decreases) as the power factor of a lagging load is increased and it becomes zero at a leading power factor given by Eq. Note that the real part of 0.0 1 9 5x 2 0 = 0. = j273.109 t0 .l9. 911 j0'412).707( 0. 5. we get cos dn= 0'911 lagging and l l a l = 5 4 9A Now Ic= In. l V 5l = l V o l + l 1 l ( R c o sQ * + X s i n / ^ ) = 1 0 . (5.96 e (a) This is the case of a short line with I = Ia= 1.10) l From the above discussion it is seen that the voltage regulation 6f a line is heavily dependent upon load power factor.9Vo C81 P'F Efficiency of transmission.10) x 103= l1n ( R cos d^+ X sin dn) does not draw any real power.29 appears we have I.701 + 3.0 0 0+ 7 0 7 (0. we can write kv.4 Assuming cos y''^now to be the power factor of load and capacitive reactance taken together. (5. /p (leading) = Lines of and Characteristics Performance PowerTransmission or new value of lVr  = 11.10 = 0.j0.96 x x y 0. The line resistance and inductanceare 0. R+jx (5.
030) = (0.707 iug to 0. The resistanceand reactance the star connectedwindings of are 0.046 + j0. I 2.39 103 x + x .we get lVs = 0. 5. The 6'6 kV side of the transfonnersis delta connectedwhile the 33 kV side is star connected. 85 + 0.037 + j0.8 lagging power factor.0046+ j0. Identical 6. BaseMVA = 5 Base kV = 6.OU 7O. as 5 0. The line has a seriesimpedance (0. 5.91 Using Eq.S) e/phase = Input to a singlephase short line shown in Fig.L prdvrtg uJ receivingend power factor improves (from 0. 046 0.5 receives MVA at 6 kv.36 ohms. 6 Load current= .= 1. respectivelyand for the delta connectedwindings arJ0. = (0.6kV Fig. find the load and receivingend power f'actor.4 + j0. 1( 0.5).respectively. 527) x = 0.Also tind the supply voltage.g5lagging power factor on the low voltage side of a transforner from a power stationthrough a cablehaving per phaseresistance reactance 8 and 2.57 kV (linetoline) A substation shown in Fig.06 and 0.6 kv winding of the transformer Solution It is a problem with mixedend conditionsload voltage and input power are specified.1 pu 0.6.5 and of ohms.02+ /0.1.072) pu Given: Load MVA = 1 pu = = 0.7%o ' 5000 (549)2 0.911 lag). the Zr= j ( 0 .000kw at 0.6 on low voltageside = 33 on high voltage side Cabie impeciance (8 + jZ.000 I kw at 0. 5. what is the voltage at the bus at the power station end? 6.characteristics and Pedormance Power Transmission of Lines LI{S Case (b) Per unit transformerimpedance.6 __1 I _ ( 8 + r 2 . 91 + 1. uapacltor ln parallel wlth the load.6 . 5. the line current reduces(from 707 A to 549 A). 91 pu Loadvolt age + 6.a) ohms. 7 5 ) x 5 _ 6.0046+ j0. 1 2 ) x 5 ( 0 .0115)+ 2(0. Let us choose.6/33 kV transfoffnersare installed at each end of the line.g7.5 and 3'75 ohms. s ): x s (0'037 = + io'0r15) Pu (33)' Equivalent star impedance of 6.The exact solution is outlined below: Sendingendactive/reactive power = receivingendactive/reactivepower + activekeactiveline losses For active power l ys I l1l cos ds= lVRllll cos / a + l1l2p For reactivepower l y s I l / l s i n g 5 5 =l V p ll 1 l s i n Q o + l t l 2 X ( i) (ii) = (O.12) O/phase = + f .6 is 2.36) (0.8 pf *Vs lassins 3kv I L Fig. (5. 0 2 +0 . f* r/= ' 5000 .995 pu = 0.q2 Q'2 /u Lrr6f.6/33 kV 33/6. 072x 0.5 Solution lt is convenient here to employ the per unit method. the line voitage regulationdecreases (one half the previous value) and the transmission iproves (from "ffi"i"nJy 96'2 to 97'7vo)' Adding capacitors parallel with load is in a powerful method of improving the performanceof a transmissionsystem and will be discussed further towards the end of this chapter. 5 + 1 3 . If the load of voltage is 3 kV.995 x 6.030) pu = Total seriesimpedance (0.
(iv). 5. 5. (i) and (ii). 5 0 0x 1 0 3 0.000 x 103 l y s l l l l s i n / 5 = 2 . chargingcurrents to shuntadmittance 100 km to 250 km leneth.000)'til2 2 x 3. we get 0 .2. (iii). we have all p'{lt (2. 5 0 0x 1 0 3 From Eqs..4*29W"19! 3000 L 1s00xlq1r0.zztt ta 3000 J Simplifying. 5.1 ) 1 capacitance loadend line. 5 0 0x 1 0 3x 0 .4x l+ o.0 1500x103 .ooox1o3 .INE due For lines morethan 100 km long.3 /o (iii) Lines l. the following circuit equationscan be written: Vc= Vn+ I o( Zl2) Is = In + VrY = In r Wo+ Vs = Vc + it (ZiZ) Substitutingfor Vg and 1. we ger for cos Qp= 0. 8x 1 0 6l l l 2 + 6 .n l 1c o s P o = F l (iv) =l'*.1 1 .'F6. in the last equation.000 = x + t210.{ Transmission of and Characteristics Performance Power IMEDIUM TRANSMISSION I. 2 5 x 1 0 1 2 0 = which upon solution yields t_725 A Substituting l1l in Eq. . we get 2000x1030. representation line. adding and simplifying.82 = 1. it is accurate to lump all the line admittance at the receivingend sufficiently resulting in the equivalent diagram shown in Fig.8 5. we get lvrl2 lll2 = lVnlzlll2 + zlvRl lll2 (l1lR cos + tItX sh /n) + tlta @2 + f) the numerical values given l Z l 2 =( R 2 +f ) = 0 .4ltP . 44 kY .8 2000 :3 . l3?.000 x 725 x 0.2 . vs= vn+ I^ (zt2) (zD) [r^(t +)+ = v n ( .82 Load Pn = lVRl lll cos /a = 3.790kW Now l V5  = l 1 l c o s d s = 2.localized Fig. 3 2 V f .4tIf 3000 (v) Nominalf Representation Substituting the known valuesin Eq. . it leads to the nominalZ circuit shown in Fig.nominalT Fig.7 Medium l1l sin /o . 6 = 1 . 5. t { ) + rn z ( t .000 l V 5l = If all the shunt capacitanceis lumped at the middle of the line.8 Medium For the nominalZ circuit.8. we get IR(ZL)Y YvR) + .'llVl [:] (s. Starting frorn fundamental circuit equations.500 103.2 (3.it is fairly straightforward to write the transmissionline equationsin the ABCD constantform given below: lVs I l1l cos /.7. 3 2 lysl l1l2. I Modern PowerSystem Anatysis Squaring(i) and (ii).4112 +0. t f ) 7 2 5 x 0 .
2174.z \ 2 ) + 101.38 ioa 190"x10r.0094 x 10{ x 250 lg0" U In this methoc the total line capacitance divided into two is equal parts which are lumped at the sending.2"\to.9.2" x 109.zr Representation (s.2" = 0. 5. 11 x 250 = 27.9" 1s=r** 7 6 . we have )vz) 'r i4 I ('*'t '.3 kv ffid:.l2. Neglect leakance.* = tvoy + t.11 ohmlkm and its effective diameteris 1.01 I + L Y Z = 1 + 0.4 Voltage regulation = W#2 THE LONG TRANSMISSION LINERIGOROUS SOLUTION Using the nominaiz. ll "   = (rine rv^or noload) (5.6 cm.8 lagging power factor to a balancedload at 132 kV.6xJl .13) = 148.26 lV5 (line)= 82.zr representation shown in Fie. The line conductorsare spacedequilaterally3 m apart. 2 ' + 1 1 .+ ( . ) 10" = 76. :a tr nsfc ion t 5.g"o = 109.method. + Nominal.2" + 82.964 70. .Zr f L = 2r x Y = jutl 50 x I .)vov>zvn(r.of and Performance Power Tralq4lqslon Lines [l$k Characteristics Rearrangingthe results. find the sendingendvoltage and voltage regulation of a 250 km.12 2 = 0. Hz. r MVA at 0.# l t z x 100 .9 Mediumline. must be considered.T Q = 314 x 0.. + ( Finally.3x 103l36.3x 250 = 97. 5 C) X .5 + j97^4 = I0I.nominal_7r representation From Fig. 3 " 1 j7. The readershould verify this fact lurva 3nt e t by applying star_ delt trans ormati< to either one.3vo LrU+. 4 Q Z= R + jX = 27.trr(t+vz) \ 2 ) " r 1 x I i +: x 7.2134. as = 7.825 15.0094 pFlkrrr R = 0.38 x 104 lW Fig.and receivingendsresulting in the nominal.3 369" A I r^ = #9 "13xl32 = vo (per phase) (I32/d. S. threephase. 24 x 10. The conductorresistanceis 0. 8 5l 1 & .2 174.143 kv + ll&. we have _ t Is= In + VoY + Vs= l 2Vsy li6.48 .2 l0 kv z v s =[ t + + Y Z l v R + I * / 1 \ vo+ eo*.u. we get the following equations t l. 0 6 3 7 .  f / 1 \ / z l. the fact that the parameters a line are not lumped but distributeduniformally throughoutits length. 5.rt) [t*r")]L1nr It sl uld b e noted tha nominalzand nominalrrwith the above hou J t l d at constants are not equ vale to eachother.0374 2 v o v t + t ^ v z ) .r .9. transmission 50 line delivering 25 of For lines over 250 km. 2+ 2 .
we ger the dx d2v Ea = rZv' (5. when .'._ (bITk).10 shows one phase and the neutral return (of zero impedance) of a transmission line. The rise in voltage* to neutral over the elemental section in the direction of increasing "r is dV".19) gives Vn= Cr + Cz dVx = Irzdx o. dT = dI. Z. " from the receivingend having a series impedance zdx and a shunt admittance ydr. 5.15).lW and C. !1' = ZI. (5.. (5.'. Let dx be an elemental section of the line at u dirtunr._(w*).1s) .21) complex number rms values of I/.. as determined above. as Substituting valueof + from Eq.lx= v*ldx o. * 1 (vn+zJn) ZJ*) 2Un i'' with 9r ant c. C. are arbitraryconstants be evaluated.17) and (5. (5.. (s.14) with respecrro tr. and C. Rearranging Eq.149 1 I mooetn Po*".. A more convenientform of expression voltageand currentis obtainedby fbr introducing hyperbolic functions. is called the charqcteristic impedanceof the line and 7is called the propagatton constant.20) The constantsC. Sv sis characteristics and Performance Power Transmission of Lines C17e)r'Czle)'21. using Eq.t" Here V' is the complex expressionof the rms voltage. (5. does not affect these first order differential relations. we get v*=vnt+l+ \ 2 I.21).Eqs. (5.r = 0.we obtain drv. Vr= Vn and 1r= In. = VoL( " " 2 " \ "* 2 ( o7* + o7'\ / r"^' 2 . whose magnitude and phase vary with distance along the line. ..1e) Fig. . to Differentiating (5.2r) This is a linear differentiai equation whose general solution can be written as follows: V*=CpI**Cre1x (s. at any distance x along the line can be easily found out.cz) (s. Differentiating Eq..." ( "\ ) e1' + et' \ 2 ) / + . Knowing vp.. = yvx r^=! (ct.r7) (s. (5. We can write the following differential relationships acrossthe elemental section: (5.and 1. to *_ Here Z. ( e : J : : ) ( 2 ) )* . and C2 may be evaluatedby using the end conditions.17)with respect x: Eq. Substitutingthese values in Eqs. T or r) assumedfor the elemental section. Yd. In and the parametersof the line..10 Schematic diagram a longline of Figure 5.16) . (5.=(Yn+/o).? ).. i. *(h.19) yield the solutionfor V. Z. and I. .18) where 7= .14) Lc which upon solving yield (s..r7) and (5.r= Cr= It may be noticed that the kind of connection (e. 9t .e.r.g.
sin and cos of real numbers as in Eq.. Hl A=D cosh 7/ B = Z.l..=Jyz(H+) \^' ^l^i^.24). as Vr= Vn cosh 1r + I^2. tpt + e"1 lBt1 (s.td lBt1 Evaluation INTERPRETATION OF THE LONG LINE EOUATIONS The ABCD constantsof a long line can be evaluatedfiorn the results given in F4.30) = cosh r ++* 7/ .. 6. *In case [vs 1s] is known. *lVnZ.a+ jp cosh (o/ + i7t)  Z .complex numbers involved in evaluating ABCD constantscan be computedby any one of the three methods given uJtow.:l.27) Qr= I (Izn+ I&. (5.r can expressionsfor ABCD constanis art ':::i. Vr= V.. (5.+o.. sinh 1r I.x.lRlr.o' .5 sinh (o/ + jpl)  .2e) : tpt . Ir= Is Characteristics Performance PowerTransmission and of Lines ffi (5.) l (5.(e" ){r".. Method 2 (5. Method I  2   z I' oc.t =l.2s) 5.+) #*. fvn Inl can be easily found by inverting Eq. (5. .tt/. of Eq.27) can be looked tp in standard tables.i@t+r.Now v.ritgx+n V^ = I V R + .23).. [:] Hl of ABCD Constants ^ 7.26).23) Bx.2r) can be writtin as Z.z (t..22) lines and sinh . sinh 7/ A=D=l* YZ 2 (s.::./+ j1l) = cosh ul cos gl+ j sinh a/ sn pt sinh (a/ + jQl) = sinh al cos gl + j cosh a/ sn pt Note that sinh.=(t .at"i0t _e:deipt (s.28b) Here (s.+*4* 7/ 3! he convenienflw )! .lnl (s. (5.28a) \ This seriesconvergesrapidly for values of 7t usually encounteredfor power r.These can be rewritten after intloducing hyperbolic functions.)  (s.l. cosh. Method 3 tat"iot +'?t'iot _= 1 c = Jsinh :r/ Z. 7is a comprexnumber which can be expressed as 7= a+ jp The real part a is called the attenuation constantand the imaginary part ^ Bis called the phase constant. It must be noted that 7 Jw is in generala complex number and can be expressedas As alreadysaid in Eq.i when x = l.^ 6.+) c x Y(r*V\ (s.= Io cosh rr + V.24) \ 6 ) The above approximation is computationally convenient and quite accuratefor lines up to 400/500 km.Lqrrrrrnwio. :l =li.) The instantaneous voltagev*(t) canbe writtenfrom Eq. (5.+ 3/tl L t 2 .) dz= I (Vn.30)as v* (t) = xd Ol!.26) The hyperbolic function of.xe2) where cosh (cr.InZ.
retardsin distancephaseby (uAtl4.34) SLtrge Impetlance Loading (SIL) of a transmission line is.If Z" is pure resistance.The same is true of current waves. The incident wave under this condition cannot distinguish betweena termination and an infinite continuation of the line.the reflected voltage wave is zero (vn. At any instant of time t.144  nrodern Power System Analysis *l ^* j(at/tx+t .wherethe lines loss can be neglected such that z. 5. as shown in Fig. 5 .. the line is terminated in its urAf B Sendingendx=/ x=0Receiving end '. the space coordinate. Now characteristic impedance. is roughly onetenthof the value for overheadlines.1 rl/2 i/1 l:i:r) rcsist''cc (.31) . written down by proceeding wavescan be simply obtainedfrom voltage wavesby dividingby Zr.e.* "'.= ( . the distribution advancesin distancephaseby (u'Atlfl.3s) where lVol is the linetoline receivingend voltagein kV.12. .Thus they represent of two variablestime and Vx= Vrl * VxZ (s.defined as the power delivered by a line to purely resistive load equal in value to the surge impedance of the line. as the ratio of the power transmittedto surge impedanceloading.e. . (5.A completevoltageor currentcycle along the line correspondsto a change of 2r rad in the angular argument Bx.s expressedin radlm. It 0 i.It hasa value of about 400 ohms for an overhead line and its phase angle normally varies from 0" to . however. Sometirnes. used ih connection (dueto lightningor switching)or transmission with surges lines.. nlV^ +Jlltrle*ett''tLtrh) .11 (a > 0 for a line having resistance). After time At the voltage distribrrtion trom the receivingendto the sendingend This is the reflecterlwave travelling to in exponentially going from the receivingend the with amplitudedecreasing in Fig' 5. Envelop eox IR = 2. i.12 Reflected wave If the load impedance Zr = + . shown At any point along the line. The term surge impedanceis.Expressionsfor incident and reflected current waves can be similarly current from Eq..32) Now . v. + gx+ h) "or{'l (5.)"'.32)1.0x+ (s. Thus for a line having 400 ohms surge impedance.15o. = z. Thus and is the incidentv'ave'Line the this wave is travellingtowarcls receivingend exponentiallyin gclingl}onr tht: sendirlg to causeits arnplitucle decrease losses to the receivingend.JIlh?\. i.33) Fig. The correspondingline length is defined as the wavelength.. is it found convenientto expressline loading in per unit of SIL.1 1 l nci dent ave After timeAt. A line terminatedin its characteristicimpedanceis called the infinite line. 5. distance.A t ( f+ 4 0 Sendingendx=/ of voltageconsists two termseachof which is a function The instantaneous two travelling waves..For undergroundcables Z. (5.5 lyRl2kw (s.ZrI '1 characteristics and Performance PowerTransmission of Lines I (5.21).' Direction of travellingwave w F i g .r= (az dz) cos . At any time the voltage and current vary harmonically along the linc with respectto x.rl is sinusoidally distributed along the distance from the receivingendwith amplitude increasingexponentially with distance. purc Elt+tlu^ u. SIL= JT y!lvo loook tv. I x t00okw J3 x aoo = 2.zJn= 0).. the voltage is the sum of incident and reflected voltage waves presentat the point tEq. Power systemengineers normally caII Zrthe surge impedance. as sendingend.
l .028 . transmission For a lossless . The line parameters tm ani y = 2.l'12 x IA3 lxf Y = 2. \ ' (5.C(r+ juL))rt2 ' = of wave along the line would be The actual velocity of the propagation less than the velocityof light' somewhat *fu= of velocitvlight (s.(tt#) r ( C\ltz a .41) are: Solution The total line parameters R ..m (s.en ts 220kV...e. line (R = 0.l pointed out heyethat the vyaves hundredkilometres). where/= cul2r is the frequency in cycles/s.37) (s...000 km "50(usuallya few lines are much shorterthan this Practicaltransmission tlrau'ttin (s.t i)''' 7= a+ jg = ju\Lc).5.40) (s.load 2\L) 0 = a (Lq''' Now time for a phasechangeof 2n is 1f s.11and5. accurateto assumethat ln ) *x 2 0 .iAd I Po*g!Sy$e!l Anelysis Modern (s. 0 = .42) . = 1" lot = 6. 1 8 81 1 6 2 ' .91+ j0. 6 " = 0.iu(LC)tlz .n D r' 2r 2ffi0 1.4 x 400 = 160'0 fl U .l2 x 1O3 = 0.1881162'6" (i) At noload Vs= AVn' ls = CVa C_ l n D /r v=4 ' (Pol^D 2*o It.=: and v = fA = ll(LC)rlz ms transmissionline For a singlephase L= lto .36) 147 )Zn/gm line for a typicalpowertransmission Now length)= 0 g (shuntconductancelunit = 7= (yz)1/2 Qu. = h D/r.t 'lt"nG )t/2 ' A and C are comPutedas follows: /A = L  ) l* l t Y Z= l + l Since r and rt arequite close to each other. it is sufficiently q. i.0 f) X = O.?n=.4 ohm/ are r = o.During this time the wave travels a distanceequal to ).!25 ohnr/km.enclcur r ent andr ebeiving.125 x 400 = 50.38) at the line is 400 km long' The voltage 50 A threephase Hz transmission x = 0.endvolt agewhent her eisno. (Lq''' )2110. when log is taken.iu (LQ'''(r. It needsto be Figs..8 x 106rnho/km' Find the following: (i )Thesending. d sending.. = 4=: f^ m/s "' ri f which is a well known result..= 7yz)''' such that e.8 x 106 x 400 lg)" = 172'6" Q Z = R + i X = ( 5 0 ' 0+ j 1 6 0 ' 0 ) 1 6 8 ' 0 /90" x 168 172'6" YZ = l.]'2areforitlustrationonlyanddonotpertainnareal power transmissionline' . . G = 0)..3e) of Velocity of propagation wave. = A.0. one wavelensth.
42 /.8 x 106 x (0..(g0 + 72. 51exp ( 0.3l g I . t'. 9 3 6 p_ r0.g x 10{ Uncm z = (0. 1 6 3x t O . Note: Use the receivingendline to neutral voltage as reference.+" r._56 t06P1+ j0.51 10" kV (to neurral) (b) At 200 km from the receivingend: L( to+160.l2xl03x Neglecting the imaginary part.9 Hz C = Y(l + YZ/6) = = 1. the receivingend voltage (242 kV) is more than the sendingend voltage.I) s0) J0\ Incident voltage = :!u+urltlxl 2 lr:2oorm l / l = tAl 1.09x 103 I ' = lvnhn' #:# = 242 kY 1 1 l5 l c l l V R l = 1.6))t/2 = 1 .4) z = (1 .= 220= 0.6. 0 6 gx l 0 .3 .125 + j0. (b) The incident and reflected voltages to neutral at 200 km from the receivingend. y = j2.1yz)t'2 (2. 5. Now 1 A = l + L Y Z 2 1 ^ = 1 + . = f (a) At the receivingend.5 the line is open circuited with a receivingendvoltag e of 220 kV.l V.725 Qlkm. 068) x t O .A. Performance Power Transmission and of Lines I 14g^ tsimplifying. solution From Example 5.068 x 103x 200) . we obtain the maximum permissiblefrequency as f = 57. 163x l0.4) Olkm = 0.xi1.t75 x r06P x S in c eth c i rn a g i n a ry a rt w i l l b c l essthan.r2x1o3 160 x x &= 0. e 3 6 .. This phenomenon known as is the Ferranti elfect and is discussed length in Sec.5. If in Example 5.. 3 = ( 0. we can write )  VR = 63. ..936 x 0.125+ 70.51 kV (to 10" neurral) 2 Reflected voltage vRzclR / = 3 3 8k m .09 x 103xry = * 103= 152A "J3 It is to be noted that under noload conditions.56 l0 6 .8 x 106x 0.220/J3 = 63.. 0 8x 1 0 .0..r. p approxirnated as th of the real part.3 x 200) x exp 01.i2.88 = 63.6 CI/km = y.9 1 Modern Power Svstem Analvsis Characteristics. at (ii) Maximum permissible noload receivingend voltage = 235 kv.= llV " l l :2f2f0i = 0 .4 Olkm. find the rms value and phase angle of the following: (a) The incident and reflected voltages to neutral at the receivingend.f . ?cl n 2 1 . x = 0. (c) The resultant voltage at 200 km from the receivingend. .0+ j{J r a = 0 . For open circuit 1n= 0 Incident vcrltage Vn I . 163+ i1.3 % ^ . l A l =  . we have following line parameters: r = 0. 5 6x l r J 6 P= 0 .0 .88 250 I Al*.. lzll can be .r14E l A l = 0 .42 172.
u characteristics performance and of power Transmission I rsr Lines / v ^ .Jyz = jalLC cosh 7/ = cosh jwlJTC = cos Lt.o)and reflected (E o) voltage waves are both equal to V^/2. with this approximation 7.2+ j0. (5. This phenomenonis known as the Ferranti..47 l12. as I increases. the incident (E.2 10. i1 velocity of propagationof the electromagneticwave the along the line.2 x J3 .rt+ D Vpfor I = 0 (s. = 6I. the incident voltage wave increases exponentiallyin magnitude . 5.65. 14 Here Ir= . + V.Locus of V5 wlth / = vs0+ Jctt2) Magnitude of voltage rise _ lvrltJ CLf (s.13.13 Equation (523) characterizes performanceof a long the line. Thus 15 .1 kV 5.14 the capacitance lumpld at the ieceivingend is of the line.62 112.2" = 124.5.4" Resultantlinetoline voltage at 200 km = 124. As of shown in Fig.M) =olv.2" kV (to neutral) (c) Resultantvoltage at 200 km from the receivingend .2" + 61. the eff'ectof the line capacitance to is cause the noload receivingend voltage to be more than the sendingend voltage.62 112.tJ I lncreasino/ \. It is apparentfrom the geometry of this figure that the resultantphasor voltage Vs QF) is such that lVol > lysl.tl.5.47 I .. \ u"'J andturns rhrough positive a pr angle (represenred by phasor oB). V. effect. I i.at4gt *  Vn \ juCt ) Since c is small comparedto L. A simple explanationof the Ferranti effect on an approximate basis can be advancedby lumping the inductanceand capacitance parameters the line.Is QwLl) = V. For an overhead line shunt conductanceG is always negligible and it is sufficiently accurateto neglect line resistanceR as well.12.n.jVruCl Now Vn= Vs .4s) where v = 7/J LC.215. A general explanation of this effect is advanced below: = / and In = 0 (noload)in Eq. while the reflected voltage wave decreasesin magnitude exponentiaily YEu. Vn .21).lrc The above equationshows that at I = 0.ffi0'. uLl can be neglectedin comparisohto yc.tj CLlz (+. which is nearly equal to trr" velocity of light.877 = 124. With reference to Fig.I f Modern Po*e.at ifl (< A2\ \J.7 TUNED POWER LINES \ En= Ero= Vpl2 Increasing/ Fig.2" kV (to neutral) Reflectedvoltage Ys"'uritt'l 2 l' .The effect becomesmore pronouncedas the line length increases.5. we have Substitutingx t7 /5  Fig. 5.6 FERRANTI EFFECT As has beenillustratedin Exarnple5. 2 . System Anatysis = 65. 5.
) (r*ir.52) 11"'' sln!24 is thc fitct.. so far the practical method of improving line regulationand power transfercapacity is to add seriescapacitors to reduceline inductance. lV5l= lVpl llsl = llal i. sinutJE cosutE =! . the velocity of light . must have we Z/= Z. . (5. cosh J JLl^ = fi:IfilH.50) in Eq.?rx. Lr. n = I ..2.':"! l'lt. . z.) _  = _ _ ___{l t(tU Y ganh1il2) 2) N o wi f a l J t C = h r .r by which thc scrics irupcdunce ol'the no'ri'alz must be multiplied to obtain the z parameter of the equivalenta Substituting 7 from Eq. According to exact solurion of a long line [refer to Eq. the receivingend voltage and current are numerically equal to the colresponding sendingend values. ___.000km.23) simplifies to cos LC ulJ . . (s.51) It is too long a distance of transmissionfrorn the point of view of cost and efficiency (note that line resistancewas neglectedin the above analysis).and shunt inductors under light or noload conditions. sinn1/ = Z._) Lr..fiTi I I power uooern system Rnarysis sinh ?/ = sinh jalJLC = j sin wtJLC eharacteristics and performance power Tr@ of t Z = Z. 5.000 km.we ger 1* I . sin h 7/ f * *YtZ=cosh 2 From Eq. jZ.1  (t. length and freouencytuning can be aehievedby increasing or L C. 48) 1. (5. the length of line for tuning is Fig.or zrnetwork..tt2 _1 .. sinhl/ =  Hence Eq. (5.53) .^.r. i.o.(. Such a line is called a tuned line. A methodof tuning power lines which is being presentlyexperimentedwith. rT sina'tJ LC Z.For a given line.50) 7/ . the exact equivalentcircuit of a transmissionline can be established the form of a T.t. For 50 Hz. However.13)].!r_.e. 6.. .J +!v. (5.i^. 7/ L1.)lL.l:. in The parameters the equivalentnetwork are easily obtainedby comparingthe of perfbrmance equationsof a znetwork and a transmissionline in terms of end quantities..23)]. It. Since ll^frc 2nrfJ LC = y. ( 5.s0) (s.Jru.8 THE EOUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF A LONG LINE Z' = .so that thereis no voltagedrop on load.4e) (s.e. uses seriescapacitorsto cancel the effect of the line inductanceand shunt inductors to neutralize line capacitance. . Lv. The methodis impracticaland uneconomical power for frequencylines ancl is adoptedfor tclephonywhere higher frecluencies are employed. (5.2 (s. sitrh 7/ = cosh fl So far as the end conditions are concerned._.15 Equivarentz network a transmission of rine For a zrnetwork shown in Fig.47) For exact equivalence. I z.51). long line is divided into several A sectionswhich are individuatly tuned. 5.. tlnh'' : z[*init rr 1 ( vY tJyz 7t ) (5. YtZ. (5..15 [refer ro Eq. r=+@))= = 3.^t (s. 2 .. by adding series inductances shunt capacitances severalplaces or at along the line length. 3 .shunt capacitorsunder heavy load conditions.nh. 5.
d anr ol' the rnus I is thc lactor by which thc shunt aclmittancc \ il/z ) / 1 VR= 20 + VJ .16.Wl I Anqlysis Power System Modern (tanhfll2\.131.8 pf lagging. .7"= 0.2 0.9" kA .3" 2 = 1 + 0.l z 7 1 0k v nominalnmustbe multiplied to obtain the shunt parameter (Ytl2) of the z.16' EquivalentTnetwork of a transmissionline EquivalentT network parameters of a transmission line are obtained on similar lines.00 190"+  I .5135.3" 4 = 0. 5. llLrW otrr.9" = 0. + _x l0r I lg0" x l3l .001Z90 x 127+ 0.n.72.0656 L162.29)).lioo JLUUM o 1 q ll.5" Sendingend= cos (16.2 x r27 + r3r.4 /.g. The receivingendload is voltage. t061J g0. 5.3" x 0.164 l36._ 36.764/_36.=+ J3 x220x0. (d) approximation[Eq. of abovevalues Y/and Z/.9 x 131.l {'l^.2 172.4"= 73j.Find the sendingend current.9" = 719. (c) exacttransmission line equation lBq.9"+ 36.gg4 = 52.3" Q = 0.745 = 53. Fig.9g4 leacling Sendingendpower= * 23gx 0.164/.90 7s= 0'938 1r.27)1.2 /.2 172.1 l\rat.u io lot f}roref'nro lltvlvlvlvt r 4nri lr r p r c q l l ._36. (r l v vrLtqrrJ pmnlnrrerl vr^lHrvJ vs' c = v ( r + ! v z ) =y + l f z \ 4 / 4 5. (5.2 172.r.2) = pf _ 0.9 = lYsltin" 25L2 kV Is= In= 0.5.745laggrng Sendingend power_ JT x 251.16. Solution Z = 40 + iI25 .2 L72.6.9"_ 41. Comparethe resultsand comment.3 = 0.9kA Sendingend powerfactor= cos (4.764x x 0.154l_35. x 131.127l9A + 0. (b) nominalzrmethod. fl = al + jpt =JyZ Z= 10' 190" U load The Leceivingend is 50 MW at ?20 kV. As we shall see in Chapter 6 equivalentr (or nominalr) network is easily ^.001/.93g/_L2" B=Z=I3L.13 /.8 .power and power factor using (a) short line approximation.7/7. 6. equivalentNote that Ytl  + +Y' Z' I : j\ 4 ) 2 .13x JT 0. 1o= l36.9" = 0.7 Exirmple line 300 km long has a total seriesimpedanceof 40 + A 50 Hz transmission j125 ohms and a total shunt admittanceof 103mho.Z x 0. The equivalentT network is shown in Fig.8 lagging power factor.1^^+^l <fllIWPLVLT +^ L\J l^^.3 = 14514.0.2MW x@)Nominaltrmethod: I ' A = D = l + ! y z = . (5.7 MW (c) Exacttransmission equarions line (Eq.3" sinh 7/ = tuthl!/2 1 so that the 1 and For a line of medium length fll2 1t equivalent.28b)]. \ l (a) Short line approximation: equationin termsof the sinh 7/ is a consistent Vs= t27 + 0.network reduces to that of nominaln.) = 0.93gZl.2 = lVsllin" 238 kV 1s= 0.2 172. (5.164L36. 50 MW at220 kV with 0.164/.2 + 21.
5172.3' .5"(same calculated part (b)) as in Sendingend = cos (16.7'x 0. 15 W M ?37.052 + 70.6.49"= 0.3" kA 0.362 8L2" 1 characteristics and Performance Power Transmission of Lines = 0.3"+ 2.984leading pf = Sendingend power= Jl 'fhe * ?313 x 0.984leading 52.7' c= y(w!Z') = o.2172.99+ j0. 0J& l36.124 190.37 1e0.3577 + = 0.82 + = 137 16.23 x 0.zr method and the approximation (5.164 l 36.2I l .6.5" L.2" + 21.2172.3") 0.2118.oo1 + ]x to{ lrgo xr3t.65"x 0.88s" 0354 s' =7::: .23W C = Lsinh .23 kV 0.2 = 10.5'fi1 (radians)r'6.3 + {.4" l y s l h n "2 5 I .938 11.987leading 52.35.5' .2" kV = I YsIrin" 237 kY .3 /s = 0.28b) are practically the same and are very close to those obtained by exact calculations(part (c)).4 " x 127+ 0.49" = 0.93811. 131t 6.1286 115.D2 1144.13 116.164 l36. On the other hand the results obtained by'the short line approximation are in considerableerror.3kV 0.9" kA p. 6 = 131.2 (alreadycalculatedin part (b)) cosh(al + i 0l) = !k"' lgt + e*t lBt1 B= z(t*!Z\= \ 6 ) Z+  yf 6 ' gl = a.3"kA pf Sendingend = cos (15.85" = 52.3" tetr \ 6 ) 6 = 0.O2 0.77 x 104 190.155   PowerSystem Modern 4nalysis = Jrotlgo"*l3t.28h) 238 kV o.49" = 0.938 ll. f x 0.97 16.057 eo.35 = 0.28b): A'=D =  +  Yz ) .354 181..136.2 MW Comments We find from the above example that the results obtained by the nominal.9"' = 1 1 9 .946 l= gosh 7/ = 0.5"kA 0.07135..2 it4.4. 7 5 " 1 = 136.49") 1.j0.4" + 0.5" 362.8".2" . 7M W 237.9" = ll9.7" = 0.2"x 127 10" + 128.I3 11..1286 x 0.987 = 9.745 lagging P" 53. a line of this length(about300 knr).1") = 0.2"x 127 10" + 128. 2 "+ 2 L 0 3 1 3 5 .2172.0s54 e4'oss4l20.9 = 0.4" = 128.\ Is = 9 .5 172.85' E Y 10'190" 1 A = D = c o s hf l = O : 9 3 8 L . 1 3 1 . it is sufficientlyaccurate ftlr to use the nominalr (or approximation(5.331 = lzo.2" sinh 7/ = 0.984 t Now x tsr t.f.2" x0.3" = 0.^ Vs= 0.987leading power = Jt Sendingend x 237.28b)) which results in considerable savingin computational eflort.= 81.2" kV lVs hin.0554 i0.354 181.886 .87 l125.zl7z.I3 116.2172.93811.g" 20.984leading 52.15 MW (d) Approximation(5. 2 k v I.1286 1t5. = 52. Therefore. 5" kA 0.164I 36.938+ iO.x 1o3 lgo" x (13l. 2 " " lY : t l3nnn" = soz.t3 x 0.58MW results tabulated are below: Short line uppntximatktn Nominalr Exact Approximation (s.154" .58MW . 0.9.y/ z.001l9O" 8.= 1 = 731.938 11.lr ul"u"' Vs= 0.J 7 x l O a 1 9 0 .6.
" similarly.The sameresult holds for sr. D.61) that the receivedpower po will be maximum tvsttvRt ' .l4l tvot2to6. (5. 5.P cos o). . is given by x so(3phase = t {l#%+191 t( s r.u) lll*lf t@+6) (s.1 7 A tw obus voltage as areferencephasor(Vn=lVRl 10") Let us take the receivingend and let the sendingendvoltagelead it by an angle 6 (Vs = lVsl 16).r=*r. (5. = I?l.e) lsrtl It is easyto seefrom Eq.9 ModernPowerSystemAnalysis LINE characteristics and performance power Transmission of Lines POWER FLOW THROUGH A TRANSMISSION sn= t0 lvRt al!lrv^tz{1*t] ti+l vstt13= 'ul'll^' d) l4v^t2l1p t(/r Similerly.and receivingendcomplex power and voltages. Tlp.= .f tur .60) system F i g . sion line (2nodel2bus ay t.lvsllv'l (o' lBl J pr Qs = (s.62) (J. (5'1)] as receiving.a) If Let A.'..se) In the above equationsso and s. *ro p.. the transmissionJine constants. a)F vA) '/ .angle d is known as the torque angle whose significance has been explained in Chapter 4 and will further be taken up in Chapter 12 while dealing with the problem of stability. While the problem of flow of power in a general network will be treated in the next chapter.l+lvRt i+l t(a+ for 1o in Eq.59).the principles involved are illustrated here through a single transmissystem)as shown in Fig.a) (/ v cos " tBt lrl " /1 Qn= ff lyslly*l . l ' ( tp r..a/ . Thus we see that Eqs. l*lvopt1p. .= I Bt o ^ = l4LYry .= v. the real and reactive powers at sendingend are t" can. = I ?l v.61) (s. we in can write the real and reactive powers at the receiving_endas basis) as line of the transmission canbe expressed (on per phase = Pn + .a) lliivni'? lAl .. in then the threephase receivingend complex por. are in expressed kv line.os _ a) (/1 v) . r* = JI]lv^]cos .15ElI 5. it is convenient deal with transmission form of sending. B.6t (5.Since in loadsare more often expressed terms of real (wattslkW) and reactive (VARs/ line equationsin the to kVAR) power.a1 (s. (5. The complex power leaving the receivingendand entering the sendingend This indeedis the sameas Eq.65) .t 6. _ 0 ) _ l A l r v4 a _ 0 ) rBl 'l .and sendingend * vR t. are per phasecomplex voltamperes.17.*pr"rsed in terms of currents Receivingand sendingend voltages[see Eq.59) give rhe threephase MVA if vs ina vo *" expressed kV line. (/1+ b) l*l  'ur.i Jt *JT lBl L 3 Ss= iQs Sp = Pp +lQP s^(3phase = MVA) T# 4p . in If Eq' (5'58) is expressed real and imaginary parts. however..s7) at tBicos(0*A (5'63) 6.r= ivr. D = lDl lo (since A = D) Therefore.s6) (s. B = lBl lP. in equationwas presented the form of line performance So far the transmission voltase and current relationshipsbetween sendingandreceivingends.be written as A = lAl la.__.s5) sin(/. i n ( 0 .u ) A n = .n ^ sin1/.Vnfn Sn Ss= Ps + iQs = YsI.r.'"'lEl L\tl. If yR and 7..while v* and vr are expressed per phasevolts.f f f : !t s : (5.J+/ / E E A \ (5.58) and (5.54)'we get Substituting lBThe corresponding en @t max po ) is 'u:'ll^'t Attv'P Po(max) c.l{l rv^r' (B. (5.5 ..t sin (p . we can write 6=0 such that t^= r1r "r t v 5tt( . . .iQn.
The real power received is maximum for 6 = 90o and has a varue lvsllvRvx. is proportional to the magnitude of the voltage drop acrossthe line.In fact. (5. 2. (5. of course.the vARs (lagging reactive power) deriveredby a line is proportionalto the line voltage drop and is independent of d Therefore. the severityof line over voltagesunder switching conditions.the maximum receivingend power is received. 5. where z = R + jx. Consider now the specialcaseof a short line with a seriesimpedanceZ.71 to (5. For very long lines voltage level cannotbe raised beyond the limits placed ' 4'1'presentday high voltagetechnoiogy.12) several importanrconclusionsthat easily follow from Eqs. (5.66) n^= #tavl (s.Y r i l l o l c o s ( g . e.61) to (5. the vARs demanJof the load must be met locally by employing positive vAR generators(condensers). Maximum real power transferred for a given line (fixed X) can be increasedby raising its voltage level. to so that 0 = tant xlR = 90". Seriescapacitors woulclof c<lurse incrcos!.o. at A somewhat more accurateyet approximateresult expressingiine voltage drop in terms of active and rlactive powers can be written directly from E q.o. increase To power transmitted in suclt citscs.66). t 3.when 6 = 0 = sothatP^ (rnax) Now cos d= RllZl.l v R Pc o s o lzl tzl i g o = l v ' ) l Y * l .67) can then be approximated as (s.lvRl= lAv1. As said in 1 above. we get the simplified resultsfor the short line as t Equation (5.etl1'lunl @+6) .since dis normallysmall*.67) ps=lI:1. this technique is always used in the load flow problem to be treated in the next chapter. while the reactiu.o' Pp (5.5).74) ) are enumeratedbelow: I' For R = 0 (which is a valid approximation for a transmissionline) the real power transferred the receivingend proportional to is to sin 6 (= 6for small values of d ). lAVl= llnl R cos Q + llol X sn Q lvRl dis necessary considerations system from of stability whichwill be discussed at length in Chapter12.l v * l ' .The receivingend Eqs.10.(5. i n o d lzl tzl for the receivingend for the sendingend and (5.72) be furthersimplified assuming can by cos 6 = r. .68) d_'u:'lI.'.1r) (s.74) (s. lv]\Yol Ytc's tzt tzl // l'rt o = (max)'tr'. From Eq.64). i. in a transmissionsystem if the vARs demand of the load is large._ ry_srn l z l sin o vo \ lzl (s.6e) The above short line equation will also apply for a long line when the line is replacedby its equivalentr (or nominalr) and the shunt admittances are lumped with the receivingendload and sendingendgeneration.t"r Analysir _ Thus the load must draw this much leading MVAR in order to receive the maximum real power. p o . d is restricted to varues weil below 90o from considerations stability to be discussed of in Chapte 12. (5. Thus Let lvtl . This is accomplished adding series capacitors the by in line. po*". " lzl tzl (s.b ) . This will be discussed lengthin Sec. This idea will be pursuedfurtherin chapter 12. the voltage profile at that point tends sag rather to sharply. To maintain a desiredvoltageprofile. Sy..s(n . lt is from this consideration that voltage levels are being progressivelypushedup to transmit larger chunks bf power over ronger distances wananted ty l*g.irtlln"rutirrg stations.f60  I Modern Po*e. Now AD=I l0:B=Z=lzlle Substitutingthesein Eqs.(d* e. the magnitudeof voltage drop acrossthe rransmission line. *small r i I i I I .6 \ .70) Normally the resistanceof a transmission line is small compared to its reactance(since it is necessary maintain a high efficiency of transmission).tltc only choicc is to reducethe line reactance.66) and (5. 4.
5.162  "odern power SvstemAnalvsis characteristics and Performance Power Transmission of Lines R!ry* XQn lvRl Thisresult reduces thatof Eq.D .0.18.1 r i A . to if = j Example5.005 + 70.68) by recognizingthat since R = 0. 'l\1D1 Jp2 = Ip2+ J\Jp2 x 0.e. 5.j0.lVrl=lVzl = 1 pu.18 Twobus system Reactivc powcr loss can also be cornputedas l/l2X= :t +(9.05 d.en _ 2es _ 1. 0= 90".05 pu.67) ": U. The desired voltageprofile is flat.638 Pu X Reactivepower loss* in the cable is __> Sn=5l (b) G) { + zo.os= pu.638 15+j5 (c) 25 + j1S Fig. i.276 Total load on station = (15 + i5) + (5 + j0.l' X lv. or From Eq.05 pu.12 V 2 =1 .638) 1 = 20 + j5. for flat voltage profile lVll = lV2l . Estimate the torqueangleand the stationpower factors:(a) for cable z = 0 + 70. Since cableresistance zero. t. (5.638 Powerfactorat starion = cos [run' t'f:t') = 0. Hence l D _ D = fv t l l v lsin 6. Solution The powers at the various points in the fundamental(twobus) systemare defined in Fig.8 (s. Tcosl d' tv12 Qs = . Further. (5.' = P61+jQ61 lvlt51 Qt= ^' I lv. 10" and voltageof bus 1 is V1 16r.ro i16.  SlIl lxl 0. (s.e68= 0.llvl .75) = Case (a): Cable impedance 70.Hence is Pcr t Pcz= Por * Poz = 40 pu Pot= Pcz= 20 pu The voltage of bus 2 is taken as ref'erence. and (b) for cable Z .05 pu. It is given rhat generator G. 0l o " pu QL= Qs. .69) 4 = I4.0 pu real power. 5.: cosdt  Q v u1.638pu U.(25 + jls) .(5 .UJ From Eq.\. can generatea maximum of 20.. The total demandsat the two busesare Spr=15+75Pu So z = 2 5 + 7 1 5 P u The station loads are equalizedby the flow of power in the cable.638) Total load on station 2 =20+i15.J c) SDI= 15 +/5 (a) f2o= lvtllv.0.L Real power flow from bus I to bus 2 is obtained from Eq. V.5" vr= I lL4'5" @ I Sn.e. thereis no real power loss in the cable.963lagging I \ 2 0 ) .z7 " I .D .74) R = 0.18(a).!1q)1 o. i. (5. Ps= Pn ) = An interconnector cablelinks generating stations1 and 2 as shownin Fig.
Qcz= #.Solving Eq. we specify the generation at station I as Pcr= 20 Pu The considerationfor fixing this generation is economic as we shall see in Chapter 7.. Since the power is receivedat unity power factor.1g(b). t "" case = Cableimpedance 0. Thus we havefour equations. in four unknowns e61.1 :'P o s e G 2s .10).Pc2= (84. (iii) and (iv). Explicit solution is always possiblein a twobus case.Por '. In rhis""r It may be noted that the real power loss of 0.U)UZ e c r . Qn= o Substitutingthesevalues in Eq.d)  *.3 pu. (i) to (iv).!5x]75200 whichgives 6.6 109. (5. s i n ( d +4 ) sin 84.5. (c) With the load as in part (b).6 r ) . e.62). sin84.3" Ur) * (ii) lv c P = l P o z . r"rp rt v.4" Substituting in Eqs. we have Pn= " 275^x275 cos(75o 22") 9 85 * (2712cos70o 200 200 .3o (iii) o .l 84.S = . thoughtheseare nonlinearalgebraicequations.0502 lB4.{ iz i.l vftf l l v z c o s( d .Analvsis characteristics and Performance power Transmission of Lines 165 ') Powerfactor ar station2 = coS (ron*r 15'638 = O. i pu is supplied by Gz(Pcz .(5.3"+ 4) ^= U.(ii). It will be seen that explicit solution is not possiblein the generalcaseand iterative techniques have to be resortedto.Yl!rr". = Q c t = 5 .6t>.j0. "'^' = Pct.))" From Eq. = #cos d. we can write 5 = = cos 84.05 = 0.69) ir. \ i .. Eqs. 1 3 . c 2= 1 6 . (i) for d.164 I toctern power Svstem ..U)UZ cos (84.3" =+sin Qcr .7 = D{W .P z =P n .227.e o t =e s = f f r t ^ t . The above presentedproblem is a twobus load flow problem.vould thc receivingend bc voltageif the compensation equipmentis not installed? Solution (a) Given lV5l= lVal = 215 kY.t r r .68)and (5. (o. The real load flow is thus not obvious as was in the case of R = 0. Q62.rcos ij.85 15": B .C = J5".0502 FromEqs. 1 0 Q ^'^D' Case(b): the cable resistance causesreal power loss which is not known a priori.load demands.20. 1 2P G z 2 0 . sin(84.66) and (5. we ger dr . From Eqs. x Q75)2 (75"5") sin #rcos 0=378sin(75"A302 eorecz= Uffiri. 6p Qcp Qcz Let us now examine as to how many system equationscan be formed.9 117. d (b) What type andrating of compensation equipment would be requiredif the load is 150 MW at unity power factor with the samevoltage profile as in part (a). (5.200 175" (a) Determine the power at unity power factor that can be received if the \ voltage profile at each end is to be maintaine at 275 ky .0502 0. en= lzl 15.005 +70.3" A. = 5o.3"U.67) (84. 51. The unknown variables in the problem are P62.61) sin (75".3" (v) p52. what r.3" 4) #. The generationat station 2 will be 20 pu plus the cable loss.V#*s@+ 61) (i) A 275 kV transmission line has the following line constants: A = 0. and line flows are shownin Fig.Even solutionis possible in this case. (5.The readershould try the case when Q c z = 7 1 0 a n d l V 2 l= ' The general load flow problem will be taken up in Chapter 6.zgslagging \ 2 0 ) The stationloads. 6r = 14.
ggtv^t2 cos 150 70" 200 200 (i) = llrvf cos a)MW (// (s.e. we obtain lVal = 244. (s.00l45tyRl2 Solving the quadratic and retaining the higher value of lv^. ^ . therefore.Sincecircles are convenientto draw.2l.Q n = 0 l V 5 = 2 7 5 k V . As per the above equations.002912 lv^121u2 0. (5.62). It follows from Eq.rv^r' r.274. 5 6 1 5 0+ / 0 sR=.59). are MVA (threepha.s8) (5. i. 8 5 .56 MVAR must be drawn alongwith the real power of Po = 150 MW.375 lynt (1 _ (0.a) ' \ t(r (s.9.phasor. The expressions complex numberreceivingand sendingend for powers are reproduced below from Eqs. The load being 150 MW at unity power factor. 1 9 (c) Now. Qo = 0.4 .1 1 0 or From Eq. (ii).5e) Since no compensation equipment provided is P n = 1 5 0 M W .62) 5 = 28. the circle diagramsare a useful aid to visualize the load flow problem over a single transmission. we have to . we get sin(75". compensation equipmentmust be installed at the receivingend. en= sin (75. 1 5 0.. It is to be observedfrom the results of this problem that larger power can be transmitted over a line with a fixed voltage profile by installing compensation equipmentat the receivingendcapableof feedingpositive VARs into the line.A=0.46") 0'85x e75)2 sin 70o 200 "# .j 2 7 .It will now be shown that the Iocusof complex sendingand receivingend power is a circle. IB l in polar coordinates in terms of rectangular or coordinates.Q o = 0 characteristics and Performance Power Transmission of Lines Ifil (ii) 0 = !:y*t sin (75'. . would. 5.56 MVAR i. +P 4r..56 MVAR Thusin orderto maintain2T5kV at a receivingend. ) x (275)'cos70o .b) lfl 4/rt(rn=l+lvs( o)+3 4/r+ o F i g .58) and (5. Circle Diagrams It has been shown above thatthe flow of active and reactive power over a transmission line can be handledcomputationally. 5 6 +Q c = 0 or Qc = + 27.se) with voltages in KV line.16) Substituting this data in Eqs.5) *tvot2 200 200 From Eq.00291VR1 0 . are each composedof two phasor componenfs6ne a constantphasorand the other a phasorof fixed magnitude but variable angle. The loci lor S^ and S. See subsection 5. the compensationequipment nnustfeed positive VARs into the line.46 302= .46" _ 150 = 1.58) that the centre of receivingendcircle is located at the tip of the.be circles drawn from the tip of constantphasorsas centres.10 for a more detailedexplanation.2 7 .* sin 70' 150= 215zq7cos (75o 5)200 1 5 0 = 3 7 8 c o s ( 7 5 ". So and . (5.we have = t':\!'"os (75" A . is impractical as it correspondsto abnormally low voltage and efficiency. l V a l =? l The units for Sp and S. Horizontal coordinate of the centre l+l vRP . en= 27. (5. With reference Fig.19.166  I todern power SvstemAnalvsis (b) Now lV5l= lVpl = 275 kV Power dernanded load = 150 MW at UPF by P n = P R = 1 5 0 M W .28.77) .61)and (5.9 kV Note: The second and lower value solution of lVol though feasible.e. (5.5 .
a) MVAR tB t The radiusof the sendingend circleis (5.7e) in the polar coordinates or in terms of rectangular coordinales.e.22 and5.=o i.80) in Figs5.for angle d lAll t2 u"l lall Radius lYsllVnl lBl Phasor55 = P5 +ie5 Referenceline f o r a n g l e6 Fig. 5. 5.81) The sendingend circle diagramis shown in Fig. 5.. the centre Co rernains fixed and concentric circles result for varying l7rl.='. MVAR MVAR C5 Roforonco lino .a) from the positive MWaxis. I _ Modernpower SystemAnalysis . Horizontal coordinate of the centre = (f cos .have raclii in accordance to ltzrl lvRtABt.2I. From the centre the sendingend circle is drawn with a .a)Mw Bltv.'1.21 Sendingendcircle diagram IB l t(0. it follows from Eq. (5. Similarly. for the case of constant ll{l and varying lvol the centrcso1'circlesmovc along the line OCoaru)..d6Eif . .2 =u':. . at angle rt?...i.Thecenrre is located by drawing OC.a) l4l.' (s.a) MVAR sin (s.20 Receivingend circle diagram 1Qs F'or constant lVol.u.rr${e(same as in the case of \ lBt receivingend).!"i (s. The operatingpoint N is located by measuringthe torque angle d(as read from the recefvingendcircle diagram) in ttredirection indicated from thc re'fi'rcncc' Iinc. characteristics and performance power Transmission of Lines Vertical coordinate of the centre t69 Vertical coordinateof the centre lBl The radius of the receivingendcircle is tysllyRlMVA tBl = i{ltv*t2sin(tJ.59) that the centre of the sendingend circle is located at the tip of the phasor + Fig.and sendingend circle diagrams have been clrawn .23.. However. The corresponding receiving..78) = l+ilvrt2 (F.uoi..
896 70. z " x \ 2 ) 2 = (0.138. threephasg.1 mHlkm per phase Capacitance= 0.2MVA Radius receivingend of circletBl 138. determine the MVA rating of a shunt lvnl2 tzl Pa=oK Qn= KM thereceivingend whentheline is delivering load.545.2" Q Y= 314 x 0.7 184.characteristics and Performance power Transmission of Lines [giM t Resistance= 0. .23 Sendingend circlediagram a stror.Usenominal.2". 5 0 7x 1 0 . i l r i 4 .method.x t . = 275x275x0.035 Olkm per phase Inductance= 1.2O Z = 14 + 7138.1. 5. .tuou.a) = 84.896 lj. 5. no zr Solution R=0.\/A P lzl 55 MVAR _ > M W L Fig.507 103/_W U x x A = ( t + L v z \ = 1 + .5 MVA oJl: useof circlediagrams i$ustrated means therwo examples is by of given Cp .522 Receivingend circre diagram a short rine for MVAR Ps=oL Qs=LN lvsl2 l@ .rrro Fi1.896= 488.10 A 50 Hz.l' = + B=Z138.5.. Thus rating of shunt reactor needed= 55 MVA. lVpl= 275kV lysllyRl 275x275 .24 Circlediagram Example for 5.0106) 0.5" i.t for line 488.1x l03 x 400 = 138.7 Location the cenre of receivingend of circle.7" = 83.1184.0.035x400=14Q X = 314x 1.2" lV5 = 275 kV.275 kY.012 pFlkm per phase If the line is supplied at 275 kV.400 km transmissionline has the following parameters: From the circle diagramof Fig.l . + 55 MVAR must be drawn from the receivingendof the line in order to maintain a voltageof 275 kV.5r l l = ' r d d ' ) MVA l4:l1 i l l IB I 138J \ Fig.3 r 3 g .24.012x 106 400 lg0" .
(5. For the sake of simplicity let the line be characterizedby a series Further.real and reactivepowersdeliveredby the line small voltagel{  can voltage lVrl and a specifiedreceivingencl for fixed sendingend bewritten as below from Eqs.25) and the line C^Q parallel to the MWaxis.5 V (b) Given lV5  = 295 kV. Solution In Fig.2t5x275x0'93 611. This article will discussthe two methodsby meansof whieh voltage at a bus can be controlled. B = Il5 ll7" If the receivingend voltage is 2'r5kV. therefore.g5 lagging pf is being delivered at the receivingend. 5. it has negligible resistance). (c) The additional MVA that has to be provided at the receivihgend when delivering 400 MVA at 0.11 power System Modern Analysis Lines  .5".8).io.71) and (5.8 5= 3 1 .Voltage at various buses must.i?3. Draw P/S parallel to MVARaxis to cut the circle drawn in part (b) at S.26 (akeady exemplifiedin Sec.of and Characteristics Performance PowerTransmission t load of 250 MW at 0. (b) The maximum power that can be delivered if the sendingendvoltage is held at 295 kV. 5 " MVAR I Practically each equipmentusedin power systemare ratedfor a cprtain voltage with a permissible band of voltage variations.8 " l@a ) = 7 7 o . the line load should be O^S.4 MVA 115 Drawing the receivingend circle (see Fig. lvslt6 lvRltj a) I p". 5.be controlled within a specified regulation figure.85 (a) Locate OP conespondingto the receivingend laggingpf (+ 31.9).l?" .e. Then .6 MVA l4li Rt'' lBl tt5 c o s l 0 . under practicalconditions.25 Circle diagram for ExampleS.25 the centre of the receivingendcircle is located at k lVsl = 355.93 11.8 lagging pt the suppty voltage being maintained at 295 kV.1 .X12. 5. For the Therefore. 5.10 METHODS OF VOLTAGE CONTROL .o = RQ = 556 M W Radius of circle diagram(c) Locate OPt conespondingto 400 MVA at 0. determine: (a) The sendingend voltagerequired if a load of 250 MW at 0. 5. since the torque angle d is reactance(i. t".8 lagging pf (+ 36.26 A twobus Considerthe twobus systemshown in Fig.11 . ^ or^ lysllyRl 275lvsl A . 5 "= 7 5 .705.0. P^iio*  system Fig.82) Fig. we read PR.:jl Example5. MVA to be drawn from the line is P/S = 295 MVAR or 295 MVA leading 5. (5.73). additional specified voltage profile. 5.8").
+tys  (1 .r rl ef.83) upon quadraticsolution*can also be written as nsmtssion l"ffie Lines (5. rury vrry withil a corresponding Ql band.85) Fig. il" line would. however' tobe noted that the receivedreactive power of the line must remainfixed at esnas given by Eq.). to and Xg is the per phase capacitive reac_ tance of the capacitor bank on an equiva_ Ient star basis. 5. under light load conditions. (5. a local VAR generator (controlled reactive power source/compensating equipment) must be usedas shown in Fig.=iH 'of kA course.rv.. In order to regulate the line voltage under varying demandsof VARs. To accomplish this under conditions Qn. therefore.i The modified lVol is then given by Oi * Qc= Qo Fluctuationsin Qo ue absorbedby the local vAR generator o6 such that the vARs drawn from the line remain fixed at esn. sign in the quadratic solution is rejected because otherwise the solution would not match the specified receivingend voltage which is only slightly less than the sendingendvortage(the differenceis ress thai nqo).. receivingend voltageis r{r.. .4xeRltvrt )r. if the vAR demandis less than 11d ":t!q. in fact. the expression for the VARs fed into the line can be derived as under. otthe receivingendvoltagemust changefrom the specified value 'n'i some value lTol to meet the demandedVARs. 'li. .!. is met by consequent changesin the rorque angle d.u. A:.83) Reactive Power Injection It follows from the above discussion that in order to keep the receivingend voltageat a specifiedvalue l{1. a fixed amountof VARs drawn tai I *.." Q " *. it fo l l o w s th a t tyRt tr4l > Indeed.operatewith specified receivingendvoltage for only one value of Qo given by Qo = Qsn Practical loads are generally lagging in nature and are such that the vAR demandQn may exceed et*. Thus lv*l 'Jo= '(lYsl . Static VAR grenerator crrmparisonof Eqs.lance cause the VAR demand to become negative resuliing in the receivingend voltage exceeding the sendingendvoltage (this is the Ferranti effect already illustraredin Section5.6). lIc Fig.. . = rvlql lvrt  +ty3 (1 . n."' tvo < t4l Thus a VAR demandlarger than Qf is met by a consequent fall in receivingfrom the specifiedvalue..fle vAR balanceequation at the receivingendis now rr{ r= }vrt ..if lV^l is in line kV.g3)that for or. similarly. (5. These are discussedbelow.lVol) for (QD> Q^= o^= Qn = QsR) . be automatic by using the signal from the VAR meter installedat the receivingend of the line.84) Since the real power demandedby the loacl must be delivered by the line. L.rt easily follows from Eq.s tttt: YD.n . With reference Fig.85) rcvcalsthut r^r.84)ancl(5. I and specifiedr4r. from the line. the charging of the line may "upu. 5. It is. Pn= Po varying real power demandp.28 Static capacitor bank r. sincct{tis spccificcl withina buntl.vR. szr use of rocarvAR generator the roadbus at Trryotypes of vAR generators are employed in practicestatic type and rotating type.g3) for fixed rv. (5. butior bo= Oo.vp' .27.i '= X Equation (5.The receivingendvoltage would thus remain at l4l (this of a fixed sending_end {1ed voltage lVrl). the two methodsdiscussed below are employed. 'Negative It is nothing but a bank of threephase static capacitors and/or inductors.ocal VAR compensation"ourr"lrrumes made can. 5.4xesn Avrtzlt/z (5. (s...28.
n"ruro* would ""d.8g) It immediately follows from the above relationship that the machine feeds positive vARs into the line when rEGt> tv^r (werexcited case) and injects negarive VARs if lEGl continuously adjustableby adjusting machine which controls tE6l.. (iv) capacitors act as short circuit when switched on..:o.C_ I.l Y R rr r c l ) J3 ( _jxsJl ) = jlVpt(tE6t _ IVRt)lXs MVA ec= tVRt(EGt _ tVRt)lXs MVAR (5. lvnl il]ffi'ir'$ t:L::"::ch Control 6r J":ff i::: {.ronous reachnce $". Rotating VAR grenerator It is nothing but a synchronousmotor running at noload and having excitation adjustableover a wide range. !:T? T*ly .. while under light load conditions.:r*::':il. th" .. Receivingendvoltage which tends to sagowing to vARs demanded by the load. problerns limit their buses in the svstem *r. Such tap changes niust"bemade . their effectivenesstends to decreaseas the voltage sags under full load conditions. .icrr i.riyat harmonic frequencies. .rr.rv^rr As r e (r i.^flusium"a have wtr.IF) i3x #.r.::: smallerreductionin Qc comparedto the .86) in pr. taps of sending_and receivingend transformers.. The transformer tap changing is obviously rimited to a narrow range of voltage control. seems it that rotating vAR g. (i) Capacitor and inductor banks can be switched on in steps..the oo*io.r. From rhe observarions ua" in .. It feeds positive VARs into the line uncler overexcitedconditionsand f'eeds negativeVARs when underexcited.HMVA t v P :j 3:^t1o1 (s. th.However.ing be preferred. ^ KA If inductors are employed instead. and can be done either manua'y or automaiically.u*. or static capacitors.t.1 powersystemAnarysis Modern J3 t Figure 5'29 shows a synchronous motor connectedto the receivingend bus bars and running at no load. economic considerations. can be raised by simultaneousry .tion and 'rai'r. 5.E Q{3phase)='F''tuo* XL (s..capacitor banks are employed._ (lvRl .static vAR generators. inductor banks are switchedon. IrzodeJeass and E .0. when negative vARs are needed. n. (iii) If the system voltage containsappreciableharmonics. .(. QsQPhase)+ XC MVAR .t":::H:.o"r being ca'ed a Tap Changing Under Load ifCUf_l transformer. rn contrastto statrcvAR generators..oun.IEGD/0.when positive VARs are needed. (ii) Since Qg is proportionalto the squareof terminal voltage..'.vARs fed into the line are J5. (v) There is a possibility of series resonancewith the line incluctance particuia.29 Rotating VAR generation The vAR injectionmethoddiscussed abovelacksthe flexibility and economy of voltage control by transformer tap changing.1..rp.n to ". . machine A thus running is called a synchronouscondenser. The following observationscan be rnade for.yn. install. for a given capacitor bank.tap changing used Is in conjunctionwith the VAR injection method. excirarionis resst s tlt""r"" Under heavy load conditions..rrun.the capacitorsmay be overloadedconsiderably.or vAR by Transformers vol rage.Lt Fig.However.r*. rhe fifth being the most troublesome. since the motor o. (i) These can provide both positive and negativevARs which are continu_ ously adjustable.grigible real power from 3ry iQcGPhase).r. stepless(smooth) VAR control can now be achieved using SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier) circuitrv. "Jtution the following observationsare made in respect of rotating VAR generators.. vAR ibr_"" generators.."i"' a taige u.tuti. If the vortage correctionneeded exceeds this range.87) t l i e c = 3J v R3 4 oG i l _ = 3 W ( .use.t of .: iii..uogir. (ii) vAR inje*ion ar a given .on_road. .
Thus. we choose (5. + I(X. but these changes are small in comparison to the change in B as B = Z for the . it would be necessary to simultaneously inject VARs at the receivingend in order to maintain the desiredvoltage level.75) the voltage drop ref'erred the high voltage side is given by The perfonnance of long EHV AC transmissionsystemscan be improved by reactive compensationof series or shunt (parallel) type.For finding the operating conditions along the line.". For example.tig.93) For complete voltage drop compensation.5. (5. (5. This is so becausefn < 1 increasesthe line current / and hence voltage drop. the optimum connection scheme and the number of intermediate stations. 12) and voltage conffol. it is requiredto find out the most appropriatelocation of the reactors and capacitor banks. practice.92) tstn= 1 we tn= llttin Eq. Seriescapacitorsand shunt reactors are used to reduce artificially the series reactanceand shunt of susceptance lines and thus they act as the line compensators.tonrlvol + RPR+xQR t* n r l V o l (s.X.. Compensation of lines results in improving the system stability (Ch.'J I Power Analysis Modern System and Performanceof Power Transmission Characteristics Lines fi. (5. 5.let the transformer taps be set at off nominal values.{Vl which is to be compensated. Compensation of Transmission Lines 1 : fsnl at transformer eachend line Fig.Z.30 that rr > 1 and tn 1 I for voltage drop Equation (5. the Series compensationreduces. .!jIQsNow lAVl . seriesimpedanceof the line which causes voltage drop and is the most important factor in finding the maximum power transmission capability of a line (Eq. rr and ro.X. if the tap setting dictated by Eq.rlVol ton2lVol trnrlvrl.8e) (s.I2lll = z=R+jx Thus merely tap setting as a method of l.e. facilitating line energization in increasingthe efficiency of power transmission. (5.tsn. is thc total incluctive selected that the factor (XL . A. RPR +xgo ) _ n2 lvRl (s.90) indicatesthat /^ tends to increase*the voltage compensation. a transkV input has rr . the tap ratio/nominal ratio.e1) In order that the voltage on the HV side of the two transformersbe of the sameorder and the tap setting of eachtransformerbe the minimum. It is obvious from Fig.) sin Q. The extent of effect of compensationdependson the number.r( . becomes negative and equals (in magnitude) R cos /.To compepsate voltage in the line and transformers...!. so that AV becomes zero. The ratio X=IXL is called "compensation factor" and when expressedas a percentageis known as the "percentagecompensation". Seriescapacitors also help in balancing the voltage drop of two parallel lines.91) and reorganising. 5. (s. like UP. may be so of In X. = capacitivereactanceof the seriescapacitor bank per phaseancl rcactance the line/phasc. rvould give rise to excessivelylarge tap setting if voltage drop compensation compensationexceedscertain limits. Let /5 and r^ be the fractions of the nominal transformationratios.30 let the impedances the transformerbe lumped to for tn Z alongwith the line impedance. besides the average degree of compensation required. nominal rr and equalsZ (sinh 4ll) The voltage drop AV due to series compensationis given by tAvl = !I.e4) t on. we have trn rVs = t^ n rVo + IZ (s. for the equivalent zr. and ABCD constants of the bank may be first found out and then equivalent can then be arrived at constantsof the seriescombination of linecapacitorline by using the formulae given in Appendix B. in states thermal plants are located (east) several hundred kilometers from load centres (west) and large chunks of power must be transmitted over long distances. With referenceto the circuit shown.93) "[' "r"rWW ). shouldbe unity.30 Transmission withtap changing of With reference Fig. seriescompensation quite importantsincesuper is In India. Here X.l7!J. obtain SubstitutinE . I transformer line the Consider operationof a transmission with a tap changing at eachend as shown in Fig.) sin .e0) to From Eq. lTsl  AV = 1Rcos S. C and D constants are functions of Z and therefore the also affected by change in the value of.X.70)). 5.While planning longdistance lines. and reducing temporaryand transient overvoltages.30. i. location and of circuit arrangements series capacitor and shunt reactor stations. setting range (usually not more than + 20Vo).. W the right hand side of Eq. the ABCD constantsof the portions of line on eachside of the capacitorbank.
'threephase 5. the reactive power capacity of a shunt capacitrtr is greater than that of a series capacitor. (5.93+70. Calculatethe voltageand load at the distantenc of the line. For a line current of 1.3 A threephase overheadline 200 km long has resistance 0.4 A short 230 kV transmissionline with a reactance 18 O/phasesupplir of a load at 0.85? 5 . The shunt capacitor improves the pf of the load while the seriescapacitor has hardly any impact on the pf.28b). are placed along the line to minimise losses Ii may be noted that for the same voltage boost. the shunt reactors are kept across above.707. (c) the load MVA. (c) efficiency of transmission. The charging current is approxiof mately given by BrltA where B. This overvoltage can be the to power limiting criterion at high degree of compensation. There is a load of 10 MW at unity power factor a the mid point of the line. Under light load or noload conditions. Proper type of compensation should be provided in proper quantity at appropriateplacesto achieve the desiredvoltage control. (b) 0.and sendingendvoltages are to be maintainedat 230 k\ Calculate (a) rating of synchronous capacitor required.= Br) lvl= BclVf[r +) (s. 9 l 1 . as discussed of the leading VARs for achieving voltage control. 5.8 power tactor lagging.l 5 . (b) the V. 8 and 16..0025 19tr U.3 at the receivingendand 200 km from the receivingend. impedance.. Calculate the load voltage. Use nominalT circuit for the line.016 B=20+ jI40 The load at the receivingend is 60 MVA.8 power factor lagging.rhOt" l uodern Power SvstemAnalysis Characteristics Performance PowerTransmission and of Lines r81 is When seriescompensation used. 8 If the line of Problem 5. we seethat in both seriesand shunt compensation long transmission it is possible to transmit large amounts of power efficiently with a flat lines voltage profile.]l'.'I when the line is delivering full load of 50 MW at 132 kV and 0. 9 For Example 5. Similarly. wavelength. pf. The power at the generatingstation is 40 MVA at unity power factor a a voltage of L20 kV. 7 Find the incident and reflectedcurrentsfor the line of Problem 5. charging current should be kept less than the rated fullload current of the line. 50 H4 0.8 laggin pf. 1 A threephase X = 12 ft p"t conductor.the reader References7. (b) the loa current. 5. Compute the efficiency of transmission.000 A tt receiving. For complete treatmenton may refer to ChaPter 15.A spark gap with a high speed contactor is used to protect the capacitors under overvoltage trons. 5 .current. 5 m and 6 m transpose( Find: (a) the ABCD constantsusing Eq.determine sendingend the voltage.6 is 200 km long and delivers50 MW at22OkY and0.7 find the parametersof the equivalentn circuit for the line. ff]= [1 ". Thus reactors should be introduced as load is proper voltagecontrol' removed.6 The generalized circuit constantsof a transmissionline are A0. Shunt compensationat noload also keeps the receiving end voltage within limits which would otherwise be quite high becauseof the Ferranti Effect.es) Reduction of the charging current is by the factor of (1 . to absorbsome capacitive loads or in light load conditions.. the shunt capacitorsare used acrossan inductive load so as to provide part'of the reactive VARs required by the load to keep the voltage within desirablelimits.f<lr As mentioned earlier.\ may be neglected. At what value of P is the voltage regulatior zero when the power factor of the load is (a) 0.85 lagging power factor.If the total inductive susceptance Br due from line to neutral at to several inductors connected(shunt compensation) appropriateplaces along the line. 5 . Power drawn by the synchronouscapacitt .EMS PROB voltage of 11 kV is applied to a line having R = 10 f) and 5 .At the end of the line is a balanced load of P . 1. (BcI. The voltage at the supply end is 22O kV. of Thus. The reader is enceuragedto read the details about the Static Var Systems (SVS) in 'compensation'. power factor and power. then the charging current would be kW at a leading power factor. Series capacitors are more effective for long lines for of irnprovement systemstability. is the total capacitive susceptance the line is and lVl is the rated voltageto neutral. The loar form of and evaluatethese constants.Br lBc) and 81lBg is the shunt compensationfactor. characteristic and velocity of propagation. Capacitors are connected and of eithcrclirectlyto a bus or throughtcrtiarywincling the main transformer and the voltage drop.5 A 40 MVA generating station is connectedto a line havin Z = 300 175" Q Y = 0. !.he. = 5. and (d) the receivingend voltag regulation. there are chancesof sustainedovervoltage the ground at the series capacitor terminals. 2 A l o n g l i n e w i t h A = D = 0 . 5 " a n d B = 1 5 0 1 6 5 "C I h a s a t t h e o a r l end a transformerhaving a seriesimpedanceZr = 100 167" Q.16 Qlkrn an conductordiameter of 2 cm with spacing4 m.
1975. 1966. 1.6 lagging power factor. R.. respectively. 1 3 . 1971. Reactive Power control in Electric systems.p. Indulkar.. March 19g2.on pAS. line has resistance overhead 5. line has following kV.No.IF. Context Pub. 12. Elementsof Power Sy.V. P. R. 4. threephase. Electric Power Research Institute.wiley.Kothari.D.E. 11. 1975. Miller.s. c. Tata McGrawHill. 1951.R.The load at the receivingendis 15 MW. Winnipeg. Kirnbark. "A Universal Power circle Diagram". Dunlop..D. Macdonalel. kv.8 power factor lagging. What will be the lagging at 33 kV. Kothari. Springerverlag.13 A threephase is The load at the receivingend 30 MW. Arrillaga. Static Compensators for ReactivePower Control. Modelling & Simulation. 1985. 9.vol. New york t982. The loadsat the twobus bars are 40 MW at 0. R.No. Bijwe. IEEE Trans. J. M. J. Marchenko. Parmod Kumar and D. New York. IEEE Trans. Parmod Kumar and D.s. 400 km transmission 5. overheadline has resistanceand reactanceper phase of 5 5. "sensitivity Analysis of a MulticonductorTransmission Line".w.Flkm If the line is supplied at 275 kV.Use nominalkV at the receivingend. 1983. conf. R.London. 1984. BerlinHeidelberg. Calculate the extra load of 0. pASg5.. IJhlmann. McGrawHill.4thedn. AIEE Trans.10 An interconnector cable having a reactanceof 6 O links generating stations1 and 2 as shown in Fig. Mathur.. 1982. determine the MVA rating of a shunt reactor having negligible lossesthat would be required to maintain 275 when the line is delivering noload..18a.The desiredvoltage profile is lVtl = lVzl = 22 kY.stem Analysis. "Microprocessors controlled static var s5istems".7.P.1€? T.. Direct current Transmission.I4 Constructa receivingendpower circle diagram for the line of Example 5.P. T. Haigh.P. The torqueangle and the stationpower factors. Peter Peregrinus Ltd.E. Tron'smission Line ReferenceBook345 kV and Above. Find the voltage at the sendingend.. Power Transmissionby Direct current.1979. Indulkar.98: 606.. D. E. (Ed. 1 5 . 33 kV.J. Desphande. equipmentinsertedat the receivingend kVAR rating of the compensating so as to maintain a voltageof 33 kV at each end?Find also the maximum load that can be transmitted. 8. High Vohage Direct Curuent Transmission. 2. "optimal voltage Control Using ConstantSensitivityMatrix".15 A threephase and25 f).. if the receivingend voltage is permitted to drop to 28 kV. "EHV Transmission". et al. 7o: 2042.. IEEE Trans. 3.Dec. 1 6 . Goodrich. Nanda and K. zr method.. w. (special Issue). Palo Alto calif. D.11 A 50 Hz.M. Papers 10. Stevenson. PAS. In d u c ta n c e = 1 mF l /k m = Capacitance 0.June 1966. What is the voltage regulation and efficiency of the feeder? of and reactance 5 and 20 Q. 19g3.85 power factor respectively. Proc. "Analytical Development of Loadability Characteristics EHV and UHV Transmission for Lines".01 p.il uooern power system hnalysis characteristics and Performance power Transmission of Lines 183 5.). 4.1 MVAR from the line.035 Qlkm . Kothari. Calculatethe sendingend power factor. 70: 299. 5.s.85 lagging power factor. 1984. Gutman and D. of of a feederhaving resistance 3 Q and areactance 10 f) 5.275 parameters(per phase).Oct. Kothari. therefromlVrl. Find the capacity of the compensation voltage of 33 equipmentneededto deliver this load with a sendingend NCES REFERE Books l. 2: 139. overheadIinepractice. Mccombe. 5. 7. Lingamurthy.12 A.D. 1 4 . Locate the point coresponding to the load of 50 MW at 220 kV with 0.. 0. 5. Electrical Power System Design. London.0 MW at 0. New york.J. 0. respectively.8 lagging power factor and 20 MW at 0.8 lagging power factor. IEEE. The receivingend voltage is maintained at 11 kV by means of a static condenser voltage and drawing2.. Draw the circle passingthrough the load point. Int.. in 102: 942.p.8 lagging power factor which can be delivered with the compensatingequipment (of capacity as calculated above) installed. "some studies on carrier Propagation overheadrransmission Lines". wiley. New Delhi.. and F.E Power Engineering Series 6. = Resistance 0.Gorakhpur.6. Electric Power System Research. 6. c. J. 1 9 8 6 .3 : 1 9 5 . . Also draw the sendingMeasurethe radiusand determine end circle and determine therefrorn the sendingend power and power factor.proc.threephase suppliesa load of 2.
6. Qi= Qci. Power is injected of transmission may be buseswith only generators loads are tappedfrom it. Systems This chapter is devotedto the load flow problem. The equivalentpower sourceat eachbus is represented sourceat the ith bus injects currentJr into a shadedcircle. "'' fl (6'1) 6.the AC calculatingboard was the only meansof carrying out load flow studies.lb showsthe network model of the samplepower systemprepared by on the above lines.e.Three major problems encounteredin this mode of operation are listed beiow in their hierarchical order.With the availability of fast and large size digital inciuding load flow.e. by A power systemcomprisesseveralbuseswhich are interconnected rneans while the into a bus from generators' lines. the most importantmode of operationof a power system.The AC calculating board has been rendered obsoletefor all practicalpurposes. Load flow problem problem 2.This for information is essential the continuousmonitoring of the current state of the of the systernand for analyzing effectiveness alternativeplans for future system load demand.Line by transformers are represented a seriesimpedance(or for accuraterepresentation by series and shunt impedances. increased expansionto meet Before the advent of digital computers.i.Qo) is where the corrrplexpower suppliedby the generators Pot+ iQai Sci= the ccltnplexpower drawn by the loads is ancl Spi= Por+ iQoi The real anclreactivepowersinjected inttl thc itlt bus arc thcn Pi= Poi. the between The line admittance mutual admittancebetweenlines is assumedto be zero' .= Pi + jQi= (Pci. all The networkmodel of Fig. 6. The equivalentpower that the structureof a power systemis such that the bus.6. carried out conveniently. it is convenient to regard loads as negative Thus the and lump together generatorand load powersat the buses. 1. kinds of power systemstudies. To arrive at the network model of a a po*"i system. Figure6.Qoi Figure 6. other variablesbeing specified.in fact. For systematic analysis. a twobus problem (see Example 5.1ashowsthe onelinediagramof a fourbussystem with generatorsand loads at each bus.2 NETWORK MODEL FORMULATION The load flow problem has. The main information obtained from this study comprisesthe magnitudesand phase angles of load bus voltages. some of the advancedlevel sophisticated studieswhich were almostimpossibleto carry out on the AC calculating board have now become possible. Of course. the net complex power injected S.i.Ltrad parlance is the steady state solution of the porver system network.Symmetricalsteadystateis' in fact. generators into the bus is given by at the ith bus. it is necessaryto proceed systematicallyby first formulating the network model of the sYstern.In fact. tedious and time consuming. while the other two llow study in power systetn problems will be treateilin later chapters. invertedLnetwork).lc afier lurnping at the shunt admittances the buses. it is sufficiently accurateto represent short line by a series may be used impedanceand a long line by a nominalzr model. real and reactine power flow on transmissionlines. Optimalload scheduling control Problem 3. therefore.Besidesthe groundnode.Po)+ j(Qci. VAR generators the buses is transportedvia transmissionlines to buses power at some of deficientin power. can now be all computers.These studieswere.8)' the help of a f'undamental life power systemcomprising a large number Eor4 lq4d flqW llq4ypfufg4l of buses.2.there and noloads.we are now ready to study the of operationalfeatures a compositepower system. (equivalent7T may be neglectedwith a small loss foi very long lines). been alreadyintroduced in Chapter 5 with systent. to may also be connected some buses. nocies nodes i and k is depictedby !ip= Jri'Further. it has four other is (buses)at which the currentfrom the sources injected into the network.reactive powers at generatorbuses.The surplus Further. and there may be others with only loads and no generators. Often. It may be observed are the Sources alwaysconnectedto a commonground node. line resistance in accuracybut a great deal of saving in computationtime. .lb hasbeenredrawnin Fig.1 INTRODUCTION With the backgroundof the previous chapters.P^ i = 1.
4) Comparing Eqs. k = r. .lZt Soz (c) Power network of Fig.l n i Y v = Y q t= )r+ = 0 Yzq=Y+z=lzqiYy= yqz=ly Each admittance y.3) and (6. .: Jz= Vz)zo+ (Vz..3 and 4. Each ofidiagonal ierm v* (i.2. Further. 6. in matrix form = "Inus Isus Vnus . 4) is the mutual admittance (transfer admittance) between noim i and ft and equals the negativeof the sum of all admittances connected directly between thesenodes. 6.!z+ lu (b) Equivalent circuit Equation (6. . 3. (i = r. Eq.respectively. we can write Yrr=)ro* ln+ Yzz= lzo * ltz t Ytt= ):o* ln* Yu= lqo * lzq * Ytz= Yzt = .Vr) lzc * (Vq _ V) yzq + Rearrangingand writing in matrix form.4). ( Y q a* y z q lzq * Yz+) 0 .3) can be recognized. 4) is calred the serf admittance (or driving point admittance) of node i and equals the algebraicsum of all the admittances terminaring on the node. Yr* = Yri.f l (6.Yrz _ !* 0 ln (lzo*ln * hz * lzq.3. .Vr) ).s) (6. (6. t23 J z + \z .lzt (y:o * yrg *rzt*yy. 2.6 or..a) can be written in compact form as n Sor v1 Ji= D k=l (a) Onelinediagram Fig.V) ln * (Vr .2.v) ln + (Vt _ V) lzz + (Vt_ Vq) yzq Jq= Vayqo (Vq .1 Sample four bus system y p v p ii = r . we getthe following fbur equations: Jt = Vrlro + (Vr . be of the standardform to (6. we get (yrc * tn *fn. using index notation. .Vr) ln + (Vz_ V) yzt + (Vz_ Vq)yzq s= vztgo+ (y: . 6.lni ln lzt + lzq lzz* lzq ly YZt = YZZ= .1 Samplefourbus system Y l t = Y r c = .1 (b) lumped and redrawn Fig. (6. 2 . .apitying Kirchhoff s currentlaw (KCL) at nodesr.
however.6) can also be written in the form Vnus = Zausleus (6. erements.. requirements ***For Ilg].e.^L{" urhanp 'vrrvrv V J^^+^^ BUS \re. rr* is ilrconditionedor even singular' A large shunt admittanceinserted at the slack bus most simply achieves the desired result [20]. Furthermore.9.7) where Zsu5 (bus impedancematrix) = fsLs fbr a network of fbur buses(fbur inclependent nodes) DUS admlttance and is known as bus involved algorithms. In the former case. i. because absence in of this. are called driving point imped. since in a power network each bus is connectedonly to a few other buses(usually to two or three buses).?blrs system.ances the nodes. 6. etc.the ys. so that only n v + t ) terms are to be stored for an 2 .in a system containing hundreds of buses. it is usually necessary l'o creal'e at least one strong artificial tie to ground to avoid numerical difficulties when obtainingZsg5. yi* = 0 if buses i d k are not connected (e. although in more sophisticated studies of large power systems. is a sparse matrix. it has been shown that certain ordering of nodes produfes faster convergence and solutions. the arDrrrary manner.The diagonal erements flmmetric of Zuu. zero elementsof I'ru.. .. prop"rty is not evident in a small system like the sample system under consideration. the zss" can be referred to ground or slack bus. Note: In the sample system of Fig. The dimensionof the y"u5 matrix is (n x n) where n is the numberof buses'[The total numberof nocles e m = ii n +  includingthe ground (reference)node.and th! of offdiagonalelementsare called transfer impedances of the nodes.rp"o"niing Zsu. yru.y5 of a rargenetwork is very sparse'i'e' it has a large number of zeroelementi.. 6.i. become nonzeroin the .Auris a full matrix.8) rnus yields symmetric Zsus.l As seen above.while y"u. is most useful for short circuit studies as will be seenin Chapters10 and 11. convenience. **The disadvantagesof the conventional impedancematrix may be overcome by making use of LU factors of the admittancematrix and bf employing compacr srorage scheme' Piecewise methods or tearing techniques (dialoptics) have recently been applied to overcome the disadvantages excessiv. is a symmetric except when phase shifting transformersare involved. In contrast to this.3 FORMATION OF fsus BY SINGULAR TRANSFORMATION Graph (6.the sparsity may be as high as 90vo.'ulsD aL^ urc llralnx  ^^ : or admittancematrix.regulatingtransformers.itrougtr tf. Zsus need not be obtained by inverting rnus. direction is so assigned as to coincide with the assu'red positive direction of the element current. Bus admittancematrix is often used in sorving road flow problem. YA = 0). sparsityis one of its greatest advantages it heavily as reducescomputer'memory and time requirernents.1.Appendix c dealswith the topics of sparsityand optimal ordering..1.rorug. Tinney and associates[22] at Bonnevile Power Authority were the first to exploit the sparsityfeature of zsu5 in greatly reducing numericalcomputations in load flow studies and in minimizing the memory required as only nonzero terms needbe stored.the impedance matrix is a fuil matrix. It hal gained widespreadapplication owing to its simpticity of data preparationand the easewith which the bus admittancematrix can be formed ano moOfied for networkchangesaddition of lines.o. of . Equation (6.** The bus impedancematrix. Furthermore. It is t' be stressed here that yBus/zBus constitute models of the passive portions of the power network. (seeExamples 6'2 and6'7)' of course.
In fact.6. A set of unconnectedelements is defined as a primitive network. where E.The number of links / of a connectedgraph with e elementsis I = e . are equivalentwherein b the parallel sourcecurrenr in admittanceform is related to the seriesvoltage in impedanceform by (b) Co.n (numberobuses) f (6. and E" are the voltages of the element nodes r and s. = lrrv^ (6. Also !r. the current relation for Fig. .6. 8".= /7r.1c in here that each source and the shunt admittance connected across it are represented a single element.7r. 6. A connecteds'bgraph containing all the nodes of a graph but having no closedpathsis called a tree.4a can be written as vrr* €rr= Zrri^ Similarly.r2) I yr"=E E" c @ rn v + o 7 \.Branch .i90 l O power Modern System Anatysis r @ Primitive Network o Fig.e .9) Thoseelementsof the graph that are not includedin the tree are called links (or link branches) and they form a subgraph. It may be remembered here that for steady state AC performan.= Yrs€rs Fig. The elementsof a tree are called branchesor ffee branches.called vr. ull element variables (vr* E. this combination represents by the most general network element and is describedunder the subheading "primitive Network"..Link e =9 m=5 b=m1=5'l=4=n l=eb=5 @ (a) Tree (a) lmpedanceform (b) Admittance form Fig. * jr. 6.not necessarily connected.m + l (6.4b is ir. The voltage relation for Fig.11) (6. 6.4 Representationa network of element The forms of Figs.3 Treeand cotreeof the oriented connected graphof Fig.2 cotree.tree Jr. 6. The performance equations a primitive networkerre of given below: In impedance form V+E=ZI (6. respectively. = Er E..10) Note that a tree (and therefbre. 6. 6..13) .rr") ar€ complex numbers. irr.2 Lineargraphof the circuit Fig.4a and.b = e .) are phasors and element parameters (zrr. cotree) of a graph is not unique.. The number of branches b that form a tree are given by b=m * 1..
'J' Load Fiow Stucjies In admittance form I+J=W < i I flH: ( 6. AT"/gives j61 =currentinjectedinto bus 1 because otherelements connected bus t haveno sources. Z and Y are diagonal where the diagonal entries are the impedances/admittances the network elements and are of reciprocal.'f{W'. Hence we can write *For node l. V2.14). Thesecomponents are thereforethe bus currents**. *Another .3a where the ground node is chosen as the referencenode.l 8 ) (6.respectively.. Therefore. we obtain the following relations tetween the nine elementvoltagesand the four bus (i.3a.'These relatedas Z = Yr. the application* of the KCL must result in ArI =o (6. With this choice. The knowledge of b tree voltages allows us to compute all element voltages and therefore.1e) F. n. . 16) (6.achcomponentof the ndimensional vector ATI is the algebraicsum of the elementcurrentsleaving the nodes 7. Its elementsa.V3 and Va.l ModernPowersvstemAnatvsis v = AV. to useful set of network variables are the / link (loop) currents which constitute a zero redundancyset of network variables [6]. eachcomponentof the vector ATJ recognizedas the algebraic sum of all source "unbe currentsinjected into nodesr.If there is no are mutual coupling betweenelements.2.2. NeturorkVariables in Bus Frame of Reference e Linear network graph helps in the systematicassemblyof a network model.n.r7) 0 1 0 0 1 This matrix is rectangular and therefore singular. if tth element is incident to but oriented towards the ftth node = 0 if the ith element is not incident to the kth node SubstitutingEq.l:r= 0 verify this for another Thereadershoulci node. (6.Iare the elementvoltage and currentvectorsrespectively. Bus Incidence Matrix For the specific systemof Fig. 6.e. One set of such variables is the b tree voltages.. Consider a tree graph shown in Fig.15) v2 v2 v2 vr ArI+ArJ=AryAV"u. (6... Arl gives iro+ ir.14) where the bus incidence matrix A is Here V and. The main problem in deriving mathematical models for large and complex power networks is to selecta minimum or zero redundancy(linearly independent)set of current or voltage variableswhich is sufficient to give the information about all element voltages and currents. in matrix form Vn I 2 3 4 ) 6 7 8 9  1 0 0 0 0 0 l 0 l 0  0 1 0 0 1 l l 1 0 0 1 0 _ 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 l links branches (6. z and Y arereferred to as the primitive i admittance matrices. . 6.*It may easily be seen by using topological reasoning that these variables constitute a nonredundantset. .20) Similarly. ( 6 . **For node l. the b tree branch voltagesbecomeidentical with the bus voltagesas the tree branchesare incident to the ground node. Vut = Vt Vtz= Vz Vut = Vt Vuq= Vq Vts= VtVta= Vt Vn=VtVts= VqVtg= Vtor. tree branch) voltages V1. we get I+J=yAVsu5 Premultiplying by Ar.oare found as per the following rules: aik = 1 if tth element is incident to and oriented away from the ftth node (bus) = .and rl and E are the sourcevectors.. all bus currents assumingall element admittancesbeing known.. This is the most appropriatetree choice for a power network. (6.16) into Eq.
(a) Find Yuu.. r r ^ ' v r r r r g v l ' v a (6..10 0. Yeus = ATYA (6. 6. I Load Flow Studies I ftt^ I ArJ = Jsus (6.15 YA= 0 0 lzq t2 13 23 24 34 0 l n 0 ..jzz lrz !24 0 0 0 jqo ft+ Fig.1 gives the line impedancesidentified by the buseson which theseterminate..2r) v rBUS ... bus to bus 0 l y lzz 0 0 &pu 0.10 0.Yrr 0 0 0 lzo 0 J n 0 0 .we get 3 IJ1' )ro 0 0 0 0 0 !n 0 .05 0. 3) Find the Y6u" using singular transformation for the system of Fig. (b) What modifications needto be carriedout in Yuu. of course.The shunt admittance all the busesis assumed at negligible.. I The elements this matrix.n ln Using A fiom Eq." . '.yr * lzt * Jy. (6.5 showsthe oneline diagramof a simple fourbussystem. !n Y. 0 ..l r = A T vI.23) A computerprogramme can be developedto write the bus incidencematrix A from the interconnectiondata of the directed elementsof the power systetn./eus J .Table 6. (6.5 Sample system Example for 6..il9:4iitl .2.05 xpu 0.. ^ ^ _ . The bus admittance matrix can then be obtainedfrom the singular transformationof the primitive Y. 6. assumingthat the line shown dotted is not connected.lzt ()'lo f.2 Table 6.e.30 0. i. Solution )ro !zo Vro !qo Figure 6. . Standardmatrix transpose and multiplication subroutines can then be usedto compute Yu* fiorn Eq.45 0..23).1 Line.agreewith thosepreviouslycalculated of i n Eq.19)thenis simplified Equation to = ATYAV".A (6. i.E0 0.6). ( 6.Jtz .17). ltn Y J Z ) v.' f .15 0. !'tn  }'l _!zc *"*'^"r Example 6.15 0.)r: 0 ( yzo* yn * lzt * tzq. Modern Power Svstem Analvsis J .22) * yr:) .1  .t'23 the samenodal currentequationas (6. . if the line shown dotted is connected.
6. is the voltage at the ith bus with respectto ground and .1si6t Y r* = lY'oleio'r Real and reactive powers can now be expressed as n (6. 1. Solutioncan only be obtainedby and therefore.3.27) and (6.0 6t . for the systemcan be written as k:l t Y*Vr from Eq. V p ii = l 2 n (6.24).trrrr.o"* Xrr.).on .(2 .0 2. iterative numerical techniques.. The solution for the remaining 2n bus variablesis rendered difficult by the fact that Eqs. is written below P. Practical allow a power systemanalystto fix a priori two variablesat considerations each bus. (real power) = lvil D k:l (iv) lvkl lYiklcos (0.28) are nonlinear algebraicequations (bus voltagesare involved in product form and sine and cosine terms are present) explicit solutionis not possible.27) and (6.b"iFl 'f/0. is the source current injected into the bus.ot.n"* = Yrz..28) can be solved for 2n variables if the remaining 2n variables are specified.I. Ytz. i=1.Each bus is characterized four variables.5)./.2 is obtained from which yuu.6.ora+ (2 . (6.lvil D k:l lvkl lYiklsin (e.j6) + n"* Modified Y"u.25a) Substitutingfor J.26a) Qi (reactive power) = . = Yzz.t.2.l and 6i by resulting in a total of 4n variables.1+ 6t . = solution (a) From Table 6. . P. Qi.. .24) Equations (6.0 J.2sb) Equating real and imaginary parts P.t (2 .4 LOAD FLOW PROBLEM The complex power injected by the sourceinto the ith bus of a power sysrem IS (6.j6) = Yzr.siffi where V..1.2 Line f. + i = r .2. The load flow problem is handled more convenientlyby use of "/. l7. ratherthan . (6.jQi=Vf Y i l . Equations(6.27) and (6.F.6.6').. Table 6.27) Qi Qeactivepower) .\.26b) addedbetweenbuses 7 and 2. Therefore.n"* = ytt.pu .Irn In polar form V. we have r2 23 24 34 Gpu 2.0 (6.fl (6.j6) Y2z. 2.28) 6. we can write A L k:l Pi. (real power) = Re ]Vi I t (6.taking the complex conjugateof Eq.0 .. fl (6.28) represent2n power flow equationsat n buses of a power system (n real power flow equationsand n reactive power flow equations).0 .0 B.. (6.!:l t Modern Power Svstem Anatvcis Table 6. = ll/..0 .
(2) PV Bus/Generator (6..l^tn< lvil ( lv. These adjustable independent variables are called control parameters.2e) where Ptand Qpare systemreal and reactivepower loss."l pure load bus (no generating 6. Further. ^u** (6.+ .e. etc.i.real powers p..e.i.o S (6.po. for corivenience the slack bus is numbered bus 1. (hence eo.35) (6.t The and (po.i prrori) ata PV bus can be maintained constant only if conrollable esource is available at the bus and the reactive generation required is within prescribed limits.l must satisfy the inequality lv. ars fl/."rrury to have one bus (i.31) The power system equipment is designed to operateat fixed voltages with allowable variations of t (5 .respectively.36) D i Qci=l i Qot+Qr f(x.34) It is.6rln.n* Qci. ^rn 1 Qci S Qc.) ' and. Dependingupon which two variablesare specified a priori.e.32) This constraint limits the maximum permissible power angle of transmission line connecting buses i and ft and is imposed by considerationsof system \ stability (see Chapter 12). g ancl andegile specified).s (state variables) must satisfy the inequality constraint f*iftyat the bus. and Ne constrainedas follows: Qci Pc. these equationscan be written in the vector form 16. Lrrc ucr puwers ri ano ai arc known l.The unknowns are e..l_* (6. ' \ are specified. of course. These limits. pcr= eci=0) controlled Bus is a Bus/voltagre At this type of bus P' and eo.28) are referred to as stutic load ftow equations (SLFE)' By transposingall the variables on one side. *tnn*i. which are dictated by specificationsof power systemhardwareand operating constraints. is. (3) Slack Bus/Swing Bus/Reference Bus In a load flow study real and reactivepowers (i.A 1:1t"t:i:. In order that the variations in real and reactive powers of the slack bus during the iterative process be a snrall percentage of its generating capacity. S Pc. ^in 1 Pc. (ii) Certain of the 6.. Voltage .. P D Po.. and arc known r rr rrrro rJyw vr LruD. the buses are classifiedinto three categories. Vector J can then be partitioned into a vector u of confrol parametersand a vector p of fixed parameters..f = vector function of dimension 2n x = d_ependent state vector of dimension 2n or (2n unspecifiedvariables) (6. .. ) = vector of independentvariablesof dimension 2n (2n independent variabreswhich are specified.l})Vo of the rated values.. the bus connecteclto the largest generating station is normally selectedas the slack bus.all the state and control variables must lie within specified practical limits. the slack bus) at which complex power is unspecified so that it supplies the difference in the total system load plus losses and the sum of the complex powersspecifiedat the rcrnainingbuses. are known a priori andrv.27) and (6. For SLFE solution to have practical significance.30) Control parameters may be voltage magnitudesat pV buses.33) (6. (iii) owing to physical limitations of p and/ore generation sources. The complex power allocatedto this bus is determined as part of the solution.0iil toaern power system Anatvsis state variables.=t Po.Optimal sharing of active and reactive power generation between sources will be discussedin Chapter 7.) and 6. (I) PQ Bus Qpi p. are describedbelow: (i) Voltage magnirudelV.y)o where .:flg.. The vector p includes all the remaining parameters which are uncontrollable. systempower loss the being unknown till the load flow study is complete.obvious that the total generationof real and reactive power must equal the total load demandplus losses.e. complex power) cannot be fixed a priori at alr the buses as the net complex power flow into the network is not known in advance. l t (6. It n.r p.6ft1 l6i.t" Pp bus. the same By reasoningthe slack bus must be a generatorbus. therefore.(hence p6. as Equations(6.
reactive powers and angles at fhepV busesand active and reactive powers at the slack bus. Thus in Eqs. At the cost of solution accuracy.all the busesmust have controllable e sources... Equations(6. through iterative numerical techniques.:T:J"#il.T:. itJuu. methods of assemblinga Yeusmatrix and load and have defined the load flow problern in its genpralform with flow equations that load flow definitions of various types of buses.'iLT.28) 1it = 90' and 1ii .r.. . .e.' E r ) r v k r l y ic o s( 6 . (6. .0 7.37)).28) then reduceto Pi =lVil iP..iolrlac nf thp rrerfnr u ere snecifie.ffi#ilfl.6 u + r v .. Eqs. P7.6 indicates bus injections fbr the data specified in the table.2 in and approximations the load flow Let us make the following assumptions ' (6. n .1 consider the fourbus samplesystem of Fig.0 Qot = Qoz = Qoz = Qoq = 0./r k:1 n n (6. from the datarhar buses3 and 4 have onry sources. from considerationsof stability (see Chapter 72)' i. r J j0. e.l v k l l Y i k (6 i.90o ' zero.6r) is small (< r/6) so that sin (6.37)can be solvedexplicirly (noniteratively) for 62.l at all the PV buses. 3 9 ) kr Since lv.".37) 1 2 3 4 Por = Poz = Poz = Poq = 1.2 +7O...ouiLii*i. i = 2.6r).D i:2 i:2 Po. the real power generation at bus I is known a priori to be Pct = Por * Poz * pot * poo_ pcz = 2. .:.".It has been demonstrated being essentially nonlinear algebraic equations.sr. 6. . Section 6.  Fig. r 2y . .ffi .3g) follows immediately upon simurtaneous sorutionof Eq.28). (iii) AII buses at voltage magnitucles all the busesincluding the slack bus are specified. yields simultaneously but can be solved sequentially[solution of Eq.37) representsa set of linear algebraic equationi in 6.ts 'l."(.6 r).. Further. when substitutedin Eq. .. + iQi at thesebuses).l.where load flow solutions have to be carried out repeatedly but a high degreeof accuracyis not needed. The next logical step is to comPuteline flows.5 presents some of the accuracyfor algorithmswhich are used for load flow solutionsof acceptable systemsof practicalsize..= r .C (i) Line resistances i.0 2.:. (iteratively) to determine the values of the 2n vanables of the vector x comprising voltagesand anglesat the PQ buses.3. .we have 7 unknownsinsteadof 2 x 4 = 8 unknowns.In the present problem the unknown stateand control variablesare {.0 7.15 jo. it is computationallyhighly economical. (6. Equations (6.(Pr= 0). 6.6 Fourbuslossless samplesystem Real demand Reactive demand Real generation Reactive generatrcn l \.27) and (6.Such techniqueshave value particularly for planning studies.n n n I "Ihe load flow problem can now be fully defined as follows: Assume a certainnominal bus load configuration. .27) and (6. as otherthanthe slackbus (numbered bus 1) are PV buses.. ecz and Qc+. Specify P6i+ iQci at all the pQbuses (this specifiesP.. = 0).I Po. 60..l) in numberas 6.61.' the So far we have presented.specify Pcr (this specifies P.i Po*"t sv"ttt An"lvtit Mod".n ( 6 .0 pu Therefore.Also specify lVll and 6.'u. (6.0 2. The nth equation correspondingto slack bus (n = l) is redundant as the reat power injected at this bus is now fully specified as Figure 6.0 pu. Eq.L.4 1.3g). 2 . Line resistances considerld negligible.6 wherein line reactances are indicatedin pu. of (shiintconductance overhead being smaii are rreglecie. This is justified (ii) (6. (= 0) at the slack bus' T. the activepower loss of the systemis lines is alwaysnegligible).. which. are The magnitudeof all the four bus vortages specifiedto be r. e Il_r::t:: "_bviyus slnce ffie system is assumeci lossless. are powersLe specified in the table below: 53=.0 Pcl ='Pcz = 4'0 Pct=o Pcq=o 061 (unspecified) Q62 (unspecified) O63 (unspecified) 06a (unspecified) et=. it is possible to linearize load flow equationsby making suitable assumptionsand approximationsso that f'astand eiplicit solutionsbecomepossible. .have to be solved equations. ecz.o lVzl= 2 . (6'21) and (6. d.vhichare(n . ir .6o) = (6r. (6.. As bus voltages are specified.= I + i^ I Uz .e.) and lV. An Approximate Load Flow Solution madehaveo.S.ls are specified. .d The 2n SLFE can now be solved Wffi Pr = . is specifiedat the slack bus (6. ect.5 0.. Since the sorutionis noniterative and the dimension is retlucecr to (rrl) from Zrt.
o Using the above Y"u.015 pu 0.6 .10 cos 5.sin ( 4 .6.492 +. (5.667 Qz = . 113 2 t.0ll rad = 4. 2 02 Pqt= + s i n ( { .4 ) + 6 . i.52o+ 21.Pki sin ({ .0s2 + 1. let us find the line flows.6 .". Eq. 4=0.4 n:n l (vii).4 ) + l 0 ( 4 . For reactive power flow.492 r/ = pu \r 0.4I" .37) are expressedas (all voltage magnitudesare equal to 1.2 i.38). we have Qr = . " 6q=0.667 OI' I Q p = _1. 3 8 5 7 0 . 018 0.2 .5 cos 4.69) can be written in the general form ( l Z l =X .11' Substituting 6s in Eqs.> = u.$n 4'41o = .q).5 cos 4. @ 2 + j0. Yru5can be written as follows: 4 4 e r = D e o .04 1.1.132Pu power generation the four busesare at Reactive = Qt + 0.667 Qz = . 6.4I" 4. we Taking bus 1 as a referencebus.667 cos 4.6g) can be written in the form lvi]lvkl Pik = . 4 Fig.62 ptr pu Qa = Qs + 1.103 j0. approximate load flow Eqs. 6.l 0 c o s 5 .sin1.41" .6.502 10. 0 1p u 8 I ..132pu Qc+ * l i't '.L32 = Q++ 1.8917O. (iv) = 0.15 0. 0 = 9 0 " ) Now.04 Qr = 0'07Pu Qz = 0'22Pu Qz = 0'732Pu Q+ = 0. 6 6( 6 .lvillvkl cos(.1 1 " .11' + 21.6 6 7cos 9. 0 = 9 0 o ) Pru=.t.0 pu) where P* is the real power flow from bus j to bus k.JJ4 pu (viii) ( l z l =X .\ I Modern PowerSystem Analysis Though the reali63sesare zero.089rad=5.074rad=4.10 cos 8.6) = .10 cos 8.'yili.23o ..O = 0 .1 Real power flows on other lines can be similarly calculated.pz. 01S 0.52o+ 16.0 1 5 70. (6. (6.4 = 0. g 9 1p u 0.23' (v) ( P z =3 = 5 ( 6 . Equation (5. 092 + 1. and bus powers as shown in Fig. and solving (ii).64" . 1 1 3 0.891+/O.57pu Qa Qcz = Qz + 0. 1 1 o = 0 .385 (vi) 3 1 .103 p.1: Pt z = .6 ) + 1 0( 6 .ET 1 0.{ .2 .7 Loadflow solution the four'bus for system = Q r c Q u= # # ( c o s d 1 .1 0 ( 4 .23" .64' + 16. jD. (iii) and (iv).9 pu). D e p i _ r.p. =+ sin(d.6o) ei* =W Xik Xik where Q* ir the reactive power flow from bus i to bus ft.667 Qq = . z r = + Q.23" 0.6 ) 7 6 P + = .0= 1.Pzr= .5 = 0. 6 6(7 q : 6 ) (ii) (iii ) pn = .0= 1.+r+ _ L._ hl = 0. 4 get O. .6. 6 6 76 .6.0'385 L'L Pu ( ix) 0.4 ) + 6 .6o) x.667 cos 9. cos(d.6 o )= 1 0 s i n 5 . From the datagiven.the presenceof the reactive lossesrequires that the total reactive generationmust be more than the total reactive demand (2. s 0 2i 0 .6 q ) P t = .667 cos 4.
6.To start with.Iterations are repeated no bus voltage magnitudechangesby more than a prescribed value during an iteration.. is assembled using Eq.. It shouldbe noted that (n . (6r 64) 0.40) L T:i I fbr Substituting J.41). The voltage magnitudesat the PV buses and slack bus are set equal to the specified values.. With this step. Assembly of bus' admittance matrix rsus: with the line and shunt admittance data storedin the computer. If complex number operations Dot availablein a computer.SEIDEL METHOD The GaussSeidel(GS) method is an iterative algorithm for solving a set of nonlinear algebraic equations..= *l '':jq . and.5 GAUSS.41) are the most recently calcuiated (updated)values for the correspondingbuses.*A flat voltage start means that to start the iteration set the voltage magnitudesand anglesat all busesother than the PV busesequal to (i + l0).The convergenceis quite sensitive to the starting values assumed' Fortunately. . Vr. Algorithm for Load Flow Solution = *+' eA = e+t = + .We shall seelater that the methodcanbe easily adoptedto include PV buses as well. 3. process.3. 2.This is necessaryas voltagemagnitudeand angle are specifiedat this bus (only two variables can be specified at any bus). Define i = 2. (6. = * l L . (6. (6. is assembled using the by rule for self and mutual admittances(Sec. l (6. .04 pu 0. The iterative processis then repeatedtill the solution vector convergeswithin prescribed accuracy.Q5.V3. (6.fr or lV.. + jQ) are known at all busesother than the slack bus.1 powerflows on otherlines can be similarlycalculated. . let it be assumedthat all busesother than the slack bus are PB buses.l ei6' (6..** i.During the courseof any iteration... . n): To start the iterationsa set of initial voltage values is assumed. .. (6.1) complex voltages V2. V.ft 'Active The voltages substitutedin the right hand side of Eq.o. The slackbus voltage being specified. L = 2.41)can be converted rnto 2(n . these are are permitted to vary during iterative computation..e.bus iniections(P. n aresequentially of Eq. The computation processis then said to converge to a solution.there are(n . The slack bus angle is conveniently taken as zero.[ I (6. During each updated throughuse iterationvoltagesat buses i = 2. It is much slower to convergeand may sometimesfail to do so. o v o l .23) where input data are in the form of primitive matrix Y and singularconnectionmatrix A.. Alternatively yru. carried out at the end of a completeiteration.1.2Oftril I Analysis PowerSystem Modern I en*. basedon guidancefrom practical experiencein a physical situation.42) A significant reduction in the computer time can be achieved by performing in advance all the arithmetic operationsthat do not change with the iterations... P^ and 0p.41)in cornplexnumbers to be solvediteratively are for findin1 @ .40) v.4r) Presentlywe shall continueto considerthe casewhere all busesother than the slack are PQ buses. 3. from Eq.jQ)lvi [from Eq.in a load flow study a starting vector closeto the final solution can be easily identified with previousexperience.43) and reactive generation allocations are made on econorfc considerations discussedin Chapter 7. known).. in a power systemthe voltagespreadis not too wide. zlre Eqs (6. The solution in vectoris immecliatelyupdatecl respectof this variable.39) into (6. initialiy ali voltagesare set equal to (r + 70) exceptthe voltageof the slack bus which is fixed.1) bus voltages starting values These values are then updated of whose magnitudesand angles are assumed.. One of the equationsis then used to obtain the revised value of a particular variable by substituting in it the present values of the remaining variables. to all generatingstations. = (P. (6.25a)] From Eq. _v .3. . the slack bus voltage being fixed is not required to be till updated. 5) by writing Vr = €i + ifi = lV.3e) J..1) equationsin real unknowns(ei. To explain how the GS method is applied to obtain the load flow solution. While active and reactive generations allocatedto the slack bus.l.. Iterative computationof bus voltages(V.. .t Yit' l = 2'3""' n vr' Y" I vr* ilt I" k*t I I t^ . With the load profile known at each bus (i.The processis then repeatedfor all the variablesthereby completing one iteration. a solution vector is assumed..1 0. the processis known as the Gauss iterative method. Since.5) v . it is normalpracticero use a flat voltage start..2). Reactive at and Generations load demands all the busesand all the line flows are 6.' f . allocate* Po. (6.l) equations (6. Yru. the revised through an iterative voltage at the ith bus is obtained as follows: (6.The stepsof a computational algorithm'aregiven below: 1.
1.ovo. /<).l . for the (. l.. For the tth bus. 3.26b) Busk sm ei = .8 7i'representation line and transformers of a connected between buses two The current fed by bus i into the line can be expressedas Iit = Iitt + Iirc = (Vi . D " .V) !it.l.) L r .G+r).i = 2 . Acceleration of convergence 17(r+l)  vi' Ai r .'.is obtainedfrom Eq.44) flows on the lines terminatingat the slack bus.flows:This is thc last step in thc loaclflow analysis whereinthe power flows on the variouslines of the network are computed. I f!.+ V.d (6.r + 1)th iteration one can write from the above equation I g.u The algorithm for pe buses remains unchanged. From Eq.G*r)l 1y.e)l < 6. +... A wrong choice of o.8. lav.y.jey 5 .46) 4.4s) The iterative process is continued till the change in magnitude of bus voltage.Im j yr* D.. A suitablevalue of a for any system can be obtained by trial load flow sfudies.Ql.(r+t) Ln = Fig. o v o t... . i = 2.ro. where a is a real number called the acceleration factor.25b) yields Sf = pr. B u si l*io up by the use of the acceleration factor.oo The power fed into the line from bus i is.kvk.52) . . _ _ IAV. (6. o v l .i Bovo(. valuesof the e and d are to be updatedin every GS iteration through appropriate bus equations. (6.4e) The power loss in the (t . .a Sri fbr all i.*t)1y. (6. Algorithm Modification when pv Buses are arso present At the PVbuses. + 6.I ].. * t .'l'hererirre. the accelerated value of voltage at the (r + l)th iteration is given by y(r+r)(accelerated) V.t+r) V.e. Sri = Vk (V*k.49). 5'.+r) B.r.Vf) yfo+ VoVfyi. . the power fed into the line from bus k is a i y.u.47) (6. computation of slack bus power: substitution of all bus voltages computedin step 3 along with V.+r J where .( .y. (6. n (6. computtttion ofline .. between two consecutiveiterations is less than a certain tolerancefor all bus voltages. Total transmission loss can be computed by sununingall the line llows (i.  'S n (Vl") ilt k=irl f r . Pi?t'rtt _ r^ (.Vr\ yft+ V!.s1) "t L ( t 1 ' ' ' ) * . . in Eq..This is accomplishedin the following stepsfor the ith pV bus.('*r).48) and (6.r. 6.206  Modernpower SvstemAnatvsis I*rl. n (6.ovof L ft:l ) f " ) The revised value of ei is obtained from the above equation by substitutingmost updatedvaluesof voltageson rhe right hand side.Q'* = a(v. . Similarly. . p andrv]rarespecified and ancr dare the unknownsto be e detcnnincd. .V. ) (6. 6..t)th line is the sum of the power flows determined frorn Eqs. may indeed slow down convergenceor even cause the method to diverge. Considerthe line connectingbuses i and k.D (6.f. y. S* = Pir* jQiF Vi lfr= Vi(Vf . In fact. A generally recommendedvalue is a = 1. t )__ 1 r = .roand )no as shown in Fig.6. Thus 6Q+r)_ ay!+r) = Ansle fei]l. r :r k:.(. 3 . This concludesthe load flow analysisfor thJ case pe of busesonry.i.rv.t B . (6.45) immediately following step 1. The line and transformersat each end can be representedby a circuit with series admittance y* and two shunt admittances1l.*y.48) 2' The revisedvalueof {.e.
it is fixed At Q^in or Q^o.0 0.Q*r) . i: 1.while loads are at buses2 and3. the dotted line is assumedto be connected). .0 .r^n and treat bus f as a pe bus. . tg.1 0 .z +' rj6 ) .a5).. .'.respectively.. first is slack the as usual.. 6.('+r) a 0..f)nd the voltagesand bus anglesat the three busesat the end of the first GS iteration."'.Seide iterative method using YBUS .i.0. the computations given below have been performed on an electronic calculator.4 e For the samplesystemof Fig.. 0\ 4 ..:.2b (i.^ .and B.If ai any stage during the computatibn.. 6. the bus is now treatedlike a pe bus. (6. 3.0 = i = 1'2" A.i Dusvoltages at rne eno or tne llrst rteratron are calculated using Eq.9 which serves as a basis for the reader to write his own computerprogramme.0. 3 S l a c kb u s v o l t a g e l Y 1 l 6 1 ) 4 R e a lb u s p o w e r sP i f o ri = 2 .' ( / \ v'6 v+ r! fll Yzz t I . f t m are PQ buses.2 = for i = 2!:'m Vio Make initialassumptions for I m + 1.2 0.t hen2. v v6 6' j 2 ) _ ( _ t+ ' iO .6..u 10" 4 0.i"g Eq.n count r = 0 Set iteration Exampl 6.er. (6.Q+r)6 y(r+l) from Eqs. " " ' n bus powersQi. .6. . as the case may be..m(PV buses) o 7 VoltagemagnitudelimitsIVrI min andIVi I max'lor '(J b n"u"iiu" pow"t limitsQi min and Q.3 The l"ur for the samplesystemhasbeencalculatedearlierin Example 6.52) and (6. vtz=+{WYztvtY"v! Fig. Solution Table 6.1 I 2 J r. 2 1' .'r^'iI ')  l 1 + . set e. max for PV buses demand at any bus must be in the range e^rn .. respecrively.l'fiffi Y 1 Primitive matrix A matrix 2 Bus incidence ( . order to approachthe In accuracy of a digital computer. compute 4(r+1) and y(r+t) from Eqs. . m ar ePVbusesand t he r em aining + l. set O(r+l) ei."n ..52) and (6..e.1.e.. Thus step 1 above branches out to step 3 below. Computethe parameters for i ^ t 1.5 .45). T)r.2. r.3 Bus Pp PU I lnput data Vt' Pu Retnarks Slack bus PQ bus Pp bus Pp bus 0u pu .3.for I = m + 1" {fO buses) 5 Reactive Vf I for i = 2.')Qt. (6.5 the generators connected all the four are at buses. ff 9.9FowchartforloadflowsoutionbytheGauss. Assuming a flat voltage start.n and O.. Yr..Q at anybusgoes outsidettreJe timits. 5 . Compure 4. 3 ' 4 . All busesother than the slack are pe typd.p'for (exceptk = i ) from Eqs (6'43)and (6'44) . Now all the computationalstepsare summarizedin the detailedflow chart of Fig.( ..If = Otu..n.e^u*. 3. and the dropped. 5 r i '0 .^*and treatbus i as a pebus. . (6.It is assumed that out of n buses. . .45). Values of real and reactivepowers are listed in Table 6.
(.let bus 2 be a PV bus now with lV2l= 1. io)jl _ 1 Yzt . From Eq.967r j8.0335) tf:..032 rad = .84658o 0. Once again assuming a flat voltage start.o87)  ) ( o .04 (. : !:: =_ A.'.03t7 yo.0093 3je 3.025 70. vJ = I il [0.3+io.028 jo.(.666 j2)(t + + 70)_ (_ 1+ = ''!'. _ Yrovl 1 114tr .20791 0. find Qz. " Ytt * (vl) .fei. v) = 1.0317 In Example6.087 pu 3.019+ ...5).046).666 j2) (1. [ ..yY"v' y _ v t .019 70.r^rr\l 19 + 70. (6.r _ 7 0 .l  2.v . 6.:.Im {.04pu.0.. ..666in L .666 1 .0.1 I Analysis Power System Modern  Load Flow Studies 4.t .l .= i Q . t vt = .51) n.1"'..046) I . (Note fz= 0. [J .: ^r!:. (6.0.I.2 < Q.?.t + i3) 1'04 io)f .2 + j6) (1.itt'lzsJ = . (r. 04( cos 6) * j sin dj) = 1.04 = pu + 1. s (.0.(. Given:0.il1.e. Vl .0693 j0.0.I + i3) (1.666 jrr = t( +'z^?e.99r j9.. v . :. .2s3pu 1.: ..08e3z) _ I _ _ 2.03351 .033e) ( 3.2 * i6) +  I T#frL+re .i".I + i3)l ) = .: ^ ^. i.e2+ i6) + io) (to4 r) j3)(t.04 + i0) .1 + 13) .r(.(.04 (0.' .j ' 1 ..03351) z + _ (_ r.246 jrr.fii.jLr 3.666_jtt )= or 612 1.0322) = L03946 + 70.03e4 + 70. ii e".:.Yo.7 O ' 0 0 3 1 3ig permissibte limits on ez (reactive powerinjection) are ".9?' = 1.99948+ j0.666+ j2) + (.9962 = 0 ' 9 9 8 5 .2 + j6)(r. < l.666 j2) (1.4.rstz+ 70.2079 pu ' O" = 0'2079 Pu FromEq. .f.J.""rrirhe J + (.(..llii. 0 I 'l= . V4 at the end of the first GS iteration.028 70.(.0..Yszv.03s46 + + 70.r.046 . V3.
04 pu. evaluat ed ( x! .yztvt yztv? yrovl) ") _[o..r).0 p u It is clear. (Note VL = t + 70 bf virrue of a flat start.ss) order ..0 341) (.05..56a) 3. x2. .) 2t vqLt llv vL = l( 'z 'r.59 + io.2 + j6) _ 2 .666 j2X1.0923 + pu Ax: . *1. . . tf I aar{ Lwqv Ela.[[*)' a*0. .r:^^ \)t. .. '.4'246. 7 0 9 3.r .t"=# . .04 (. i = I .2 5 < Q z < i . .je 1.f9 )' are the derivativesof It with respectto !f. ^in. 2 .v. (6.ModernPowerSystem Analysis 0 .i2). . 6 66j r l L t .n ( 6 . 6 6 6 . . ) \ / [ .0893 pu ] = vL . . .e.cinitialvulucs u'know's as *l: *').u.0.I +. 1 g .0775 j0. re. it set equal to ez. = 0'25 Pu Qz a p uvrvrvrv. have in the we f.(#)' Axt + *[ l!t] oi l* n. x n )= 0 . ) . o _ (_ r + j3)toa * Assur.". ' d"r . .zs 3 .. J_rl be the corrections.v. i = 1 . 5 4 ) Expanding theseequations Taylor seriesaround initial guess.It works faster and is sure to convergein most cases as longer remain fiied at I.xor. Therefore = J t @ \ + f u t l .2 + j6) (r.the calculatede2 (= 0. i. that other data remainingthe same. (* 2 + i6)1. 6 6 6.. .(.s3) vj = : l'::* .(x01. whichon beingadded the initial guess. to givelhe actual solution.Hence e... n (6. r"r.u .j n .? = t. .. .( )'.666 jrr 1.sjo. . .Yo.\0 I .j t l ( Considera set of n nonlinearalgebraicequations f i ( \ .rn.. . * u r + A x l . .jlr.zr J .(. of Jg..6 NEWTONRAPHSON (NR) METHOD The NewtonRaphson method is a powerful method of solving nonlinear algebraic equations.. .55) in matrix fbrm whcrefg)'.2079)is now less than the Qz..034i j0.0347 70.666 . ar the end of the first iteration is calculatedas follows. . I tvyy Or.. + A x f . at Neglecting higher order terins we can write Eq. 8 tt 2 . .42M _ I'rl or in vector matrix form f''' l a'l' Llxi (6..U(JlUli 6.0s5e + + 70. .. x.')' [ 3 .r + i 3 ) ] + .o341 3 . .v*v)) .0630.Y.t r Lr .'" ^!?.r(1.Yo. ./ x1.j9 .08e3) I /.r3) (r'0s0e + i0'0341) 1 ( Dr. ) l / ^. _in.# = +. x 2 . x 0 . Let J.Y.. . (Y...0.j r[_t. [ Yr..(. The value of V.(..vJ " r.W. . 2 . *0.o \ux.ns (6. (Y3) zt  .
.62b) alvil. rthbusF l= (6.57).s8) Iterationsare continuedtill Eq.5e) v lJiG")l < e (a specifiedalue).. the vector of residuals of Eq. n NR Algorithm for Load flow Solution "(r+l)_r(r)+AxQ) At that all busesarePQ buses..lPi aQi (6.Pi (calculated) = APi (6. Hence the slack bus does not enter the Jacobianin Eq. the Jacobianeleurentsof the lth bus become a sinele row pertainingto AP. Equation f writtenas :l_J m Approximatevaluesof corrections/r0 can be obtainedfrom Eq (6. + . is unspecifiedso that there is no equation correspondingto Eq.2ll I Modern Power Svstem Analvsis  l(. We is can now wnte fthbusl I I .60b) for this bus.62a) where i and m Ne both PQ buses.i. (6. Q are fixed. 6) for whereexpressions P. i.rH''l  I l (6. in general.i vector be written can corrections (6.A*. i = 1. l = l n T:tT' LJ t.60b) = Qi (specified) . (6. (6. * 0 (6. (6.57) comesponds 6. (6.For a trial to lV.fie= Qi(specified) while the vector of corrections y'xo corresponds to It is to be immediatelyobserved that the Jacobian elements corresponding the to ith bus residuals andmth bus correctionsare a 2 x 2 matrix enclosedin the box in Eq.Qi = o fiq (1v1.1. (6.60a) J'ip (lV.61a) fip= Pi (specified) . lVrl becomesfixed so that Alvml = 0. set of variables /0 .21) and (6. for the (r + 1)th iteration ( 6. there are no equationscorrespondingto Eq.e. and Q. e.28).o*n as the Jacobianmatrix (obtained differentiating function (6.. 6) = I'i (sPccificcl) Pi = 0 (6.These being a set of linear algebraic equations can be solved efficiently by triangularizationand back substitution(see Appendix C).61b) . assume rnust satisfythe following nonlinearalgebraicequations (6.If the ith bus is a pv bus.f is k. a. Therclbrc. consider now the presenceof PV buses. are given in Eqs. 63a) (6. (6.AQi (6. ..f.56b) the by .56b)can be it to vector withrespect x and evaluating at r01. Updatedvaluesof x are then tl ="0 + AxI or.e.. (6.62c) mth bus I ous jmtn . any PQbus the load flow solution First.2.Qi @alculated).l.62a) 46^ AlV^ i t h b u s lp .62a). Since at the slackbus (bus number l).51)for obtaining approximate the Equation for the load flow case as mth bus If the mth brrs also a PV bus.53) is satisfiedto any desiredaccuracy.60) at this bus. Prand Qr are unspecifiedand lV.
60a and b) are derived in Appendix D and are given below: Case I m t l H.64). 6.63) and (6.lz J ti = Pi .62d) It is convenientfor numerical solution to normalize the voltage corrections corresponding to a parricular vecror of variables tqlv2lq64lval6lr. 2(Pa) 3(PVl (6.the corresponding of correctionsoo. 4 Hzn Nza 5 Hzz Jzz Hsz Hqz Jqz Nzz Hzs (a* i ib) = (Gi.64) Fig.63b) Expressionsfor elementsof the Jacobian (in normalized form) of the load flow Eqs.= QiBiilvilz IA A<\ \\J ' \'J. + jf.2L6  rtrodernPower SystemAnalysis l ztz t Ninr= N^i = 0 l. .+ jBi*) @* + jk\ case2 I. (6. Equation rc. corrections thenaddedto are J a+ I lv2l lVor L I f nvt Atrl 1r updatethe vector of variables.' Lzz Jzs Jz+ Lz+ Hss o f.^= Li^= a^fi .er+ bJt 6. 2 3 I l 2 Y I Yi^= G* + jB.6rl .lV.10 Sample fivebus network '* Bus No. we can write t Jacobian (Evaluatedat trial values of variables) Corrections in variables i_it_l t .# oo1464 /.0). H+s J+s Hss (6.66) Also if the ith bus is a PQ bus while the mth bus is a PV bus.^=J^.Biirvirz Mii= Pi + G.67) Jcc Lu Nsq l]qll lalv4ll [:_] Hss H5a An important observation can be made in respect of the Jacobian by examination of the Y"u5 matrix.n...==t. Yi^= 0 (Gi^ = Bi^ .z c0 J Nsz Hss Nn Lqz Haa Naz. (6. the vector of residuars[aP2 aez ah ap4 ae4 Apr].* Vi= e. If buses i and m are not connected.an is then solved by triangularization and back substitution procedure to obtain the vector of alv^l lv^l elements become Jacobian asa consequence which.=O (6. we can then write (6.Giilvil' Li. Hence from Eqs. and the Jacobian(6 x 6 in this example) are computed.b*et Nr*=Jirr= a.
getthevalues we trf Powers rts = PB. evaluate elements of the usingEqs.0 Qct=? Unspecified (PO hus) lvll= 1. Jacobian Eq.2.27) and (6. 6.j23.941 .6 0. if there are limits on the controllable B sources PV each time and if it violates the limits. Studies I 1.60a and b).11.l v z l z y 2 2xl s n 4 z _ l v 2 l l . the correspondingPp bus is made a PV bus in that iteration with voltage fixed at the limiting value.rlz lyrrl cos 0r.6 ) Pt = lVl lvl l\rl cos(dr.64) and (6. I i:ig. 5+ 7 O . 6.94 * . If all the valuesare lessthan the prescribedtoletance. 6 Fig. (6. oz+jo.j11.528 = 24.882.0 1.02 + 1O.95" 0 +. g 4 r .$) + lVrlzlyrrl cos0zz lvzl l\l + l Y r r lc o s( Q z t +q . limits.(for aII PQ buses)from Eqs. and Q. (6.6r)+ lV.6) lv3l lY.94I + jll.calculate P.z .OS and a total shunt admittance of 70'02 pu' The quantitiesat the _b"!91j9!qulated below: specifiecl RealloadReactiveloadRealpowerReactiveVoltage To startiterationchoose 4= we get t +70 and .lsin (0r. the iterative algorithm fbr the solution of the load flow problem by the NR method is as follows: L W'ith voittge anclangle (usually f'= €I) at s at atl PQ busesand d at all PV buses' In the absence of anY tlther information flat voltage start is recommended' 2. Q does come within the prescribed iteration. it is made equal to buses.re I I rrrrodcrn Power Svstem Analvsis Iterative Algorithm Omitting programmingdetails.j 1 1 .67)for correctionsof voltageangles and magnitudes' 4.0 l 5 1.g (slack bus) Pz = lVzllvl lY2l cos(0r1+ 6r.0 0 .5 0.23pu 2 .O 2 3 1 .Q is computed the limiting value and the correspondingPV bus is made a PQ bus in that computation. + 6r. (6.0 0 .011 = 5.r 2 . r 3 l .6 systemof Fig.TLLV . 9 6 " o."= nes ^ . Bus demand PD demand Qo generation PG Unspecified specification power generation O6 UnspecifiedV'=1. If there are limits on the voltage of a PQ bus and if any of these limits is violated.2g).: Find the load flow solution using the NR method.11 Threebus system Example for 6. + bz Substituting givenandassumed values different of quantities. and print the entire solution including line flows. Compute AP. Solve 5.Use a toleranceof 0.01 for powermismatch. 2.sen. 7 &. If the convergencecriterion is not satisfied.5Pu 0<Qct S . In step 2.. 0 4O " l 1 .65).i v z i i v l t y z l s i n( g r + d t . I"u.764)+ j0. stop the iterations. for the given systemis obtained as follows: eacn ltne Lcad Ftor.h ) .4 = 0.. If in the subsequent the bus is switchedback to a PV bus.764 Each self term = 2l(2.(for PV and PB buses)and AQ. Q z = . 0. Update voltage angles and magnitudes by adding the corresponding to changes the previousvaluesand returnto step 2' at Note: 1. Solution Using the nominalrcmodel for transmission lines. Eachof the three lines has a series Considerthe threebus pu impedanceof 0.04 (PV bus) nt p rc C o n tro l l a b l c a c ti v o o w o r s o urccl s avai l abl c btts3 w i th the ctl nstrai nt 1. (6. From Eqs. 3.7 5 . og Each offdiagonalterm = .6r)+ lVrl lv2ll\zl x cos(ez + h .23 l75.0 0 .
l iladan rvruuErrr Darrrar r VYYEr Crralam \)yolgltr Anahraia nrrqryoro t Load Ftow Studies ti^i.25 ^ ^ .39604s800 I l0.l /.6s4697  E00 I0.5 .ftB.t1. 68) i = l .(epG11. alv2l 7Pu 0lv2l aQ.t'j L'y.031 Line flows  i zzr  Power residualsas per Eq. (6. (6. (specifi"d) n rt. 4 5( w i t h i nl i n r i t s ) * S r = 1 .[1 0 0 2I.1913r2E00 0. however. 0 2 3 . with sparsityprogramming. rcliablebut faster in convergence than the polar version. q o lI o o a r l l a ) l I a i .6r).0 ' 9 6 P u Sz=0.the rear ancr imaginary parts .23)= 0. (specifi"d)I{ k:l e.224742E00 0.o .1 I oosoJ r. 061. 0P. Py Qz with respectto 6r.0 I Rectangular PowerMismatch Version Jacobian elements can be evaluated by differentiating the expressions given above fr>r Pr.O}nr'l ttv.37sr6s800 L0.69) Q u = .f of the v. 4^ i^ ^   .. If' the sanre problem is solved using a digital computer.. .826213^800 E00 0. The chanses in variables are obtained as I t d j^l rl I 2 4 .ltages resllectivcly. .t . . the solution in converges three iterations. However'thc rcct:tttgtrlltr vcrsionsccnlsto bc slighiiy t.00 Sr=1.61) are .rt (calcu (.f*Gi* eoB.this increasein order is of hardly any significance.n i = slack(s) ) B.0 . I 5 + 0 . (6. by the nurnber<ttpi buses.u)l s .60s274800 0.o'e6) t'e6 The changesin variablesat the end of the first iteration are obtainedas follows: 0P.0 3 1 j (.be noted that even the polar versionavoids these as far as possible using rectangular arirhemetic in constructing Eqs (6. }Qz 0P. ancl .. s 4L r .08eJ We can now calculatefusing Eq.e.a671 Q o \= Q\ + Q rt = 0 .' +. The following matrix shows the imaginary partof line flows I 0.1 [   l  .12) .26a) and (6.28)] Qtt= 0.koG. tirr Sinceat pv buses e.12 Q o r =.and .(. Theselbllow fr. variables''fhe number of equations as and variables greater is than thart Eq. 0 s z z . 06.024 rad 0..0 J I oo 0.lviP.081 lVt = I.o^ z l : l . The total numberof nonlinearpower flow equations considered this case in arc fixed iurd cqual 2 (trl). pu P3= 0. r ' .The final resultsare given below: Vz= 1.6 = 1.1. 3 0 0 2 3 .0 .o} 0 : ( 6.4677+ 0.1 .It nray.f.r'.o 0. 06:' 0P.7 91) .!.(. 'av 06. canvary but . 06.B.65). i 3f 0 . 2 . .0 .f. .f.839861E'00l I o.0655 rad This versionusese.r8422eE00 0.26b)and are P.0 0.673847 L0.^u^o ) 4 1  L [ n r v .' . 061 aP.5+j1.r. (6.e) J.roJ lnrv.4. 6 = 0 . k=l = * lf. aQ.u .oy]}g (lbr each PQ bus) (6.^ 4 I t .(0.64) 9f and (6.62 The following matrix shows the real part of line flows tQT= 1 .73 = Aror.].Indeed eachiterationis rnarginally faster than for Eq' (6'67) sincethereare no timeconsunring sine anclcosineterms.5994&E00 _0.0.o'i Eqs.0 0 6 s 4 1 I L'i I Itv.l l . a voltagemagnitude squarecl misnlatch equation is required tbr each PV bus. 6 4 .0 0 6 s 4 1 : l .r9178zE00] 0. .u u ) 3 .15 Transmission loss = 0.0677 which is within limits.t) + fihrG* t epB.23 t/.5j0. d1 and lVrl and substituting the given and assumed values at the start of iteraticln. I Aai l:l t2.0 0.r [ 0 . 1 [ a ]l : l I l * l ^ 4 l : l o l * l .M l0.
l V i P .A detailed flow chart describing the procedure for load flow analysis using NR methodis given in Fig.::::!tlr. However.j=Jsij= Jo.222  I Modern Porgl Jyllem Anatysis l(l Load Flow Studies necessary motivation in developing the decoupledload flow (DLF) method.EI.73) In Eq. The assumptions which are valid in normal power ryr. I F E F F A A ' ? h I E h Equations(6.77) for Alvl. A better opproo. 6.67). !'u.F LL'VV IVI.6s)) (6.the linearisedequationsin the rft iteration of iterative processcan be written as Jr J2 J4 J6 AQ AIVP F o ri * j Juj= J3 Js .8 . updating the [H] and [r] matrices in each iteration using Eqs (6.. (6. The resulting decoupledlinear Newton equationsbecome tApl = lHl lA6l Ltvt J whereit can be shownthat gU = Lij = lvil lvjl (CUsin 6u.B.tsI(.. This will result in faster convcl'geuce than in the sirnultaneous mode."n1operation are made as follows: . in which P6 and QV problems are solveclseparately.78) to (6. only the most popular decoupled Newton veision is presented here t1el.8. are the componentsof the current flouring into node i.+ jb.j = O For i=.h is to conduct each iteration by frst solving Eq. (6.There is not much of an advantage from the point of view of speedsincethe time per iteration of the DLF is almost the same as that of NR method and it always takes more number of iterations to convergebecauseof the approximation.s gave the Furtherphysically justifiablesimplifications may be carriedout to achieve some speed advantagewithout much loss in accuracy of solution using the DLF model described in the previous subsection.80) a. (6.6s)) (Eq. t. (Eq./].This effort culminated in the developmenr the Fast DecoupledLoad Frow (FDLF) merhod of by B.e.lz + Qi Steps in solution procedureare similar to the polar coordinatescase. and b.72) Jzij= Jt. i.r In any conventionalNewton method.i large number of decoupled algorithms have been dlveloped in the literature. .77) can be constructed and solved simultaneously with each other at each iteration.= jBi)@r+jf*) frCo * k:l (6. and therefore may be ignored' Any such approximationreducesthe true quadratic convergence to geometric one.^"'::: .tLtl4!1 (6.Jqij = Gij ei fi Bijei+ Gilfi 6.80). O.L'Ii An important characteristic any practicalelectric power transmissionsystem of operatingin steadystateis the strong interdependence betweenreal powers and bus voltagesanglesand betweenreactivepowersand voltagemagnitudes. Fast Decoupled Load Flow (FDLF) L'aUL.70) Using the NR method.') = 0 (for each PV bus) (6. lV. The main advantage the DecoupredLoad Flow (DLF) as of comparedto the NR method is its reducedmemory requirements storing in the Jacotean.76) and (6. half of the elements of the Jacobean matrix representthe weak coupling referred to above.. (6. This interestingproperty of weak coupling betweenP6 and QV variable. stott in 1974l2ll.u' J:.except that the initial estimatesof real and imaginary parts of the voltages at the PQ busesare madeand the correctionsrequiredare obtainedin each iteration using (6.12.74) Lii= .)i Jsii= 2"i J6ii = 2fi (6. (6..i cos {r) i * j H i i = . the elementsto be neglectedare submatrices [1v] and [. butthere are compensating computationalbenents.Qi ( 6. 77) I^Qt.76) for 44 *o use the updared 6 in constructingand then solving Eq.78) a.UTL1L' ' A A L('AL' .7s) The correctionsare then applied to e andf and the calculationsare repeatedtill convergenceis achieved. Decoupled Newton Methods (specified)2 @i2+ f. 76) ( 6.7e) (6. l.
sin 6.87).83) Matrices [/fl and [L] are squiue mafrics with dimension (npe + npy) and nrn respectively... "r*^*'c .ij. both [B'l and lB"] are always symmetrical.l n v' e ^ro e^n c e . [#] (6. to update[d] and thenone solutionfor IA lVl] to update[Vl] to be called ldand lV iterafion Senarafe.1v112 ls \ Compute = scnd12l%tl2 LlVi. 88) Qi < Biilvilz .l and settinglVrl = I pu in the equations.8s) Are all maxA within tolerance 2 max Determine in change power max APr. Equations(6. If phase shifters are not present. Ignoring seriesresistance calculatingthe elementsof tdll which then in becomesthe dc approximation power flow matrix..). both [B/] and lBttf are real.'*i ::.l powerloss.] =''i. s tcetc are annlied fhr the rcql qnA rcqotlvc power mismatches follows: as (6.85) by lv. B(are elementsof [. and their constant sparseupper triangular factors are calculated and stored only once at the beginning of the solution. shunt reactancesand transformer offnominal inphase taps. 1 2 cos 6. sparse and have the structuresof [I{ and [L]..81) max [APf I €pi max lAQl S eo where eo and €e are the tolerances. Dividing eachof the Eqs. : s i n{ r : 0 G.LB" I t^lytl (6. Equations (6.86) and (6. I elci . respectively.6 . A flow chart giving FDLF algorithmis presented Fig.e.. Neglecting from [B//] the angle shifting effects of phaseshifters.86) (6. and 1. the resultant simplified FDLF equations become I last node ') Compute el.84) (6.'.t I I vodern Power SvstemAnalvsis I zasWith theseassumptions. < B4. ' gt'r ioi) IAP lyl I = [B'] [L6] tAQl tr4 I . In Eqs.82) (6.always employing the most recent voltage values. (6..87) are solvedalternatively. With the above modifications. i.11. I voltages.86) and (6. entriesof the [1{ and [L] submatrices the will become considerablysimplified and are given by count iteration I Aduance I r= r+1 and cmpute anol printlineflows. they are constantand need to be invertedonly once at the beginning of the study.AO where 8t.84)and (6.B] matrix.6.:: = LAPI ltyjt lvjl Bfi AA tAQl= [%t tvjtB..u" ? =i: :: .76) and (6.13. Omitting from [B/] the representationof those network elements that predominantly affect reactive power flows.:.87) F i g . 3.r^ ^ . comPuteAefr) 2n6 Lfiv) (6.. (6. 4. in ( 6. 2..12 1V. Since they contain only admittances.77) can now be written as DetermineJ1 . Further decouplingand logical simplificationof the FDLF algorithmis achieved by: 1.. One iteration implies one solution for [4fl.
76) and (6. + 6r .a.Bn0.1.5r] Ltu.24+23.13 (104.04 x 11..04 (.6. .Bn (r.1 = 6[+ 66[ tLQzl lz4.0 4)2 1t. 8 9 Lzz= Qz.0. .80) we get H z z = 0 ' 9 6 + 2 3 .oz) L.(6.f 1 . .13sin (104.95) 1.508 _r2.764 x 1.srl 't.08.. ( 6 .Bsr t\P . 8 6i)= 1 .rz5r[24.731 [ 24.3..115.0401 .12.(i)l ' f+uJ"'l (ii) fori=1..n .0082 0.l <' I  re \ fr= 1  Substituting in Eq.. Use (a) DecoupledNR method Read LF data and form Ysr. l e+ Flg.0.0q2 = [.is (6.ILJ 1?rE rcEq.47 Hzt= Hzz= 1. Afr/.60a) 1. (i) we get L6.n.24.2311\6t\1 _ [ 0.47 lt. r  / 1 \ r.55") + 12.6r) . 2 .77)).062 Qz= . (6. Substitutingrelevant valuesin Eqs.Qt.2.Bzz= t + 23.04x 12.lvzlzV2zlsin 82 lvzl lhl llrrl sin (9zt+ 6.Bzzt\P] . i * s Calculate 6i.23 Htt=.24. (6.0. (a) Decoupled NR method: Equationsto be solved are (see Eqs.lvzl lvtl lYzl sin(0r.04x 12.l'125 ttv2Arl 1 X .0.23 sin + sin(75. 13 . 5 0 82 5 .0.42 tv3t.Brz) = .04 . I :us.') = . = PV bus Calculatesli l slack bus power i er and all line flov flows and print Aa{tr = ..R [alY"(')ll Lz.rLJ) 1a<\ = ^ L.7 6 4x (1 .23 zs.6..508..n.04 0 .78) .018 0.l .bZCI powerSvstem Modern Analvsis LoadFtowStudies (Start ) I ## Considerthe threebussystemof Example 6. (ii) .764= .oq2 x2x 2 3 .115) 24.n.2 = .ssJ[64trl L J SolvingEq.04+ (l .39 Qz= .1.50512.5 0 8. .0a1.q) = .' .002 (i) Solvefor A6f usingEq.
003 A6t'' = .but the sensitiviry of the NR method is minimal to these factors which causepoor convergence. but slightly more than the decoupledNR method.508]tatvitl alvtl= 0. polar coordinatesare preferred when rectangularcoordinatesare for the NR method. for large systemsthe NR method is faster. till the solution converges within the specifiedlimits. For typical large systems. fi LP/lVl and A^QIIV are calculatedefficiently. a solution than the NR methodwhich hasquadratic convergence characteristics and is the best among all methods from the standpointof convergence. Q(rl canbe similarly calculatedusing Eq.003 0. Storagerequirementsare around 60 percent of the formal NR.two to five iterations are normally is required for practical accuracies. whereasthe number of iterations for the NR method remains practically constant.oz I  I   rBzzt tatrt')tl fil6411oqrl 23. This is becauseof the sparsityof the network matrix and the simplicity of the solution techniques.It is.87)l 8. In fact.068 lz. . It is experienced that the GS method works well when whereasNR requiresmore memory programmedusing rectangularcoordinates.09 p l v t t =1 .. used. rad.. independentof system size. then the speedfor iterations I of the FDLF is nearly five times that of the formal NR or about twothirds that of the GS method.508.rzsl [23. more accurate and more reliable than the GS method or any other known method.convergence affected by the is choice of slack bus and the presenceof seriescapacitor. the elementsof the Jacobianare to be computedin eachiteration.GS and NR methodsare compared when both use liu5 as the network model. This is due to the fact that the elementsof [81 and [Btt] are fixed of approximationto the tangents the defining functions LP/lVl and L.and it is more reliable than the formal NR method.'. this method requires less time per iteration.86) and (6. For FDLF. Thus the NR method is decidecllymore suitablethan the GS method for all but very small systems. Using the values of lAQAl\l the above equationsare solved alternatively. The rate of convergenceof the GS method is slow (linear convergence requiring a considerablygreaternumber of iterations to obtain characteristic). 6. With the NR method. )Lz4" l and Brr1l af'.0. the number of iterations for the GS method increasesdirectly as the number of busesof the network. Consequently. In the GS method and other methods. it works for any size and kind of pro6lem and is able to solve a wider variety of illconditioned problems t23).ng I Analysis System Power Modern AN 9 l= 0.068 rad In this section. The NR method needs 3 to 5 iterations to reach an acceptablesolution for a large system.tz I t. (6. The matrix equationsfor the solution of load flow by FDLF method are [see Eqs..04 I L: 1'5571 t l  (v) Solving Eq.086 = pu lvftt .restrictedin use of small size system becauseof its doubtful convergence and longer time needed for solution of large power networks. and are not sensitiveto any 'humps' in the ciefiningiunctions.086  lui:. the convergence geometric. however. (6. {tl 0.28). Its programming logic is considerably more complex and it has the disadvantage requiring a large computei memory even of when a compact storage scheme is used for the Jacobian and admittance matrices. The chief advantage the GS method is the easeof programming and most of efficient utilization of core menrory.. Hence.1la4" l (iv)  1. Therefore. These values are used to compute bus power mismatchesfor the next 'LAPAVll and iteration. In fact.the time per iteration in the NR rnethodis roughly equivalent to 7 times that of the GS method [20]. The time per iteration in both these methods increasesalmost directly as the number of buses of the network. it can be made even faster by adopting the scheme of optimally renumberedbuses.f (iii) lffil= o.QAVl. using the most recent values. (v) we get 46.r) .0.so the time is considerably longer. 0 9 u Now Q3 can be calculated.lvlo)t+atv'tt 1.In addition.8 COMPARISON OF IOAD FLOW METHODS 6').The method is probably best suited for optimal load flow studies(Chapter7) because its high accuracy of which is restricted only by roundoff errors. completean iteration.
^L. As . ft \rGi t  iVcil iA \ .rrr . Load flow solution then gives the voltagelevels at the load buses. Control by Transformers Apart from being VAR generators.This is illustrated by meansof Fig. If some of the load bus voltages work out to be lessthan the specified lower voltage limit. 1S P i = v.71) and (5.. reactance (resistance assumed is negligible)and voltagebehind synchronous reactance. eci= With YYrtrr / P (6. c xo.vit+tEcit) lr/l .14 where the equivalent generatorat the ith bus is modelled ty a synch.This to situation Control by Generators Control of voltage at the receiving bus in the fundamentaltwobus system was discussedin Section 5. as in contingencyevaluation for system security assessment and enhancementanalysis.onou. it is indicative of the fact that the reerfivc n^rr/ar ff^. each one of them takes less time and hencethe overall solution time is still low. The FDLF can be employedin optimization studiesand is specially used for studies.73) that Pai+ jQet tAvt tEthttv!= ffi O. The voltagesat other load buseswili also rise owing to this injection to a varying but smaller extent. lVilt6i ti Xei Flg.it is important to discussthis problem in greater detail. voltagecontrol) are buses.buseswith generators usually made PV (i.{ ano i'tlri Loi glven bYihe ioaci ijow soiution.l Epl.particularly when the there are minor changesin systemconditions.' 'i..'l I Changes in system configurations can be easily taken into account and though adjustedsolutionstake many more iteration.odern powersystemAnatvsis system.these velrres Thus the VAR injection of +jQc causesthe voltage at the jth bus to rise approximately by (XhllViDQ.6. Note: When a series of load flow calculations are performed.s. It immediately follows upon application of Eqs.8e) (6.e. the final values of bus voltagesin each case are normally used as the initial voltagesof the next case.e0) Since we are considering a voltage rise of a few percent. At a bus with generation.ilai:i.t= lErhl+ n. lV(l can be further approximated as lVl= lV.l+ ffiO. voltage can be conveniently controlled by adjusting generatorexcitation... tv'.10. ^*^^ie. transformers provide a convenient meansof controlling real power' and reactive power flow along a transmission line. 6. ^r4^^:: lines for specifiedvoltage limits cannotmeet the reactiveload demand(reactive line flow from bus i1o bus ft is proportional lAvl = lvil . 6..This reduces number of iterations.e1) #r. (5. Though the same general conclusionshold for an interconnectedsystem./ f ^:..9 CONTROL OF VOLTAGE PROFILE e . (6. #l =tvit* hn.lvkD.
92) 5 1= V .___ Jl"r<_tc.. having a regulating transformer with off'nominal turns (tap) ratio a includedat one end as shown in Fig.95). complex power output from it equals complex power input.. it is rcgardcdas an iclcal with line device. (6. The presence regulatingtransformers lines modifies the l/uur matrix of in tw a t hc r c byrn < i l i fy i n gth e l o a c lfl o w s o l u ti on. Here VLn= (Von* tV6) = Q . real power is controlled by means of shifting the phase of voltage. Voltage magnitudecan be changedby transforrnersprovided with tap changing under Ioad (TCUL) gear..18a.17b.jJT) Von= dVon 6. 6.e.It is quite accurate neglectthe to translonucr.%n _o A/ C. I J (V"n+tV"r)=aV".17a shows a regulating transformer which shifts voltage phase angle with no appreciablechange in its magnitude. can The I matrix representation be written down as follows liom Eqs.V2) or Ir = dl'a Also lo:lzyV.17 Regulating .es) I z= l( Vz. 6. /^ ic raal nr rmhor\ (b) magnitude Flg. i.C onsi cl er l i ne.95) cannot be represented a bilateral network. has already been clarified.Transformers specially designedto adjustvoltagemagnitude smail values are calleo re rnxers.. connecti ng o buses.94) and (6.%n (a) .'d&r1'l .cfyVz (6.18b gives the corresponding circuit 4epresentation by represented a seriesadmittance.. 6. / i = c r v l f or For the transmissionline I\= ! @V1 . and reactive power by changing its magnitude. 6. Figure 6.16 Regulating transformer control voltage for of for of transformer control voltagephaseangle Fig.'. n.oV.e4) wher ea = (1 j J l t)= 7 1 ta n t J 1 t since r is small.c. Figure 6. Figure 6. which is achievedby adding inphaseboosting voltage in the line.WVr + lVz by Equations(6.16 showsa regulatingtransformerfor control of voltagernagnitude.94) and (6. (6.l Modern Power Svstem Analvsis Since the transformerls assumedto be ideal.This is achieved by adding a voltage in series with the line at 90" phase angle to the corresponding line to neutral voltage as illustrated by means of the phasor diagram of Fig. ) = . small impedance the rr:gulating of i.
:i.j3) 3 (0..we can write. real) at .up at Fig.ffiTH#*: with orrnominar or tap settins Fig.666 . q ) Lv4) 'lIl r.s47 + js. (6.96)would then be usedin writing.r.2 are modified as under. (ii )  4t The fourbus system of Fig. Eqs. 6. therefore. 6. y ) l v t) . . o: [ o I f 4 l 1 . Find the modified rru5 gf the system for With offnominaf **ing transformers eachend of the line as shownin . d = e.94) and (6. Ylfvil[Iil I t L . 6.o Substituting (ii) in (i) and solving we get (i) . ) (iv) Note: Solve it for the case when ao &2 are complex. a real value. For a voltage regulating transformer a is real.95) can be represenred the zrnetworkof Fig. 6. by 4 e i3" e2 4 r.18a is representedby a zrnetworkwith shunt admittance at eachend. 6.vf [q 1: ['"1 J 4y ) LV2 ltz ) /iii\ l '= o?v aqztf l^*.l .887 3.5 is now modified to include a regulating transformerin line 34 near bus 3.e.19.1 L . The above derivations also apply for a transformer with offnomin al tap setting' where a = (k[nuJ(kD.92 js.O a. . matrix of the complete power network.je 3. i. d.j6) 1T G z+ j6) + j6) 3. (6. the elements of the corresponding submatrixin (v) of Exa 6. lt/q l yv i l =l[o . the rru.1e :jiiil:':3.o* (i ) V/ V\ = l..777 r. Thus Lotory "!'..6. If the line shown in Fig. l''r Y 12 3 4 r.1 Bqs2 ao.92 516 j10. a.l/ 1.je t c Fis.18 Line with regulating transformer and its circuitrepresentation Modified submatrixi n (v) of Example 6.3r13 5.j e (b) Fig. L l v".20 Offnominal transformers both line ends (a. M or a .j2) 4 (2.777 3 .U t ) oI[ ' .. sz I I v2 3 j2) . 6. additionalshunt admittancelol2ysappears bus 1 yu at and yo at bus 2. .r:up.r t.. 04 (ii) V/V\ = d3 or d = si3o I __ f# neffiting transformer (a) aV'l Of__1*<<L Solution (i) With regulating transformer in line 34.)]. .2 is ( a J (6.20.e6) The entriesof f matrix of Eq.I Modernpower SystemAnalysis Bus.
accuracyand reliability and of as such is widely being used for a variety of system optimization calculations.. Transformer reactance 70. r For the power systemshownin Fig.0 pu.96 + j1.use the GS method.2 are in pu. P6.0 10" Pz+ iQz = 5. Assume Vn = ll0.1.low storage.It would not be incorrect to say that among the existing methods no single load flow method meetsall the desirablerequirementsof an ideal load flow method.oz o ottooo . p6='! 6 . P6.The FDLF method is clearly superior to the NR methodfrom the point of view of speedas well as storage.Choice of a particular method in any given situation is normally a compromisebetweenthe various criteria of goodnessof the load flow methods. c>+J=F"d Fig. The bus powers are specified in the following table. vi 710" tt. Important methodsavailable have in methodsis the best. P6.3 For the systemof Fig. (c) Find the bus admittancematrix for the system. Use the GS is technique.3 find the voltage at the receivingbus at the end of the first iteration. Take ground as reference.4 pu. P6.obtain the bus incidencematrix A. 5 Consider the threebussystem of Fig. it gives sensitivity analysesand can be used in modern dynamicresponse and outageassessment calculations. Expressall impedances and admittances per in unit.3 6. Fortunately. Load is 2 + 70.2.04.5. 1 () 110 m k 3 Fig.. (b) Find the primitive admittancematrix for the system.46 lVTl= 1102 Assume: \ = 1.2 2 3 t' 6.4.02/0" and 1 6.7orr:" Fig.viz. offnominal turns ratio is lll.8 pu. P6. P6. P6. . the NR method is stili in use because its high versatility.0 .74.o.it is easy to see that only the NR and the FDLF load flow methodsare the most important ones fbr generalpurposeload flow analysis.4 Fig.Is this matrix unique? Explain. high speed.7 akrn by and a shunt admittanceof 70.reliability for illconditioned systems. Lines are rated at220 kv. voltage at the sending end (slack) is 1 + /0 pu. the line resistances negligible.The magnitude are of all the threebusvoltages are specified to be 1. course Of newer methodswould continueto be developed which would either reduce the computation requirementsfor large systems or which are more amenableto online implementation.It is givbn rhat all the lines are charactenzed a seriesimpedanceof 0. perhapsthe most importantpower systemstudy. Given: indicatedon the figure.1 + j0. because the behaviourof different load flow methods is dictated by the types and sizes of the problems to be solved as well as the precise details to implementation. l 236  I Modernpower SystemAnqtysis CO N C L U SION Load Flow Studies Bus I is slack bus with Vr = 1. Use the base values 22OkV and 100 MVA.35 x 105 O/km.0 pu.versatility in handling various adjustmentsand simplicity in programming. PROB IVI TE S 6 . not all the desirable features of a load flow method are needed a l l s i tu a ti o n s . Take ground as a reference. p6. 2 F<rrthe network shown in Fig.4 (a) Find the bus incidencematrix A for the fourbus sysremin Fig. 10 In this chapter. Line admittance is 1.obtain the complex bus bar voltage at bus 2 at the end of the first iteration. The pu line reactancesare 6 .Yet. in Inspite of a large number of load flow methods available. Line impedances shown in Fig. P6. load flow has been introduced and discussed detail.
O . (b) Solve the load flow equationsin cases(i) and (ii). Startthe algorithmwith calculations bus 3 rather than at at bus 2. thc rcal flgws but are changed.6 and tolerancesof 0. bus all Assume unlimited Q sources.0 Bus power.4. New Delhi.10 Perform a load flow studyfor the systemof Problem6. P c z = 1 . load demands and linc flows thc onelinediagram. =is'o .95 .04pu lV3l= 0. 0 0p u lV2l= 1.K. A.Mark generations.5.0. Table P6.1.2.r2 = 0 Po: = 1.whereas in case (ii) the changeswill occur in the real power flow. Consider two cases: (i) RT is a magnituderegulatorwith a rario = VrlVl = 0. using the data of Example6. 6.5. lunspecified) Qoz= 0 go.I. As shown in Fig. P6.0pu. Computer Aided Power System Analysis and Control.O Carry out the completeapproximateload flow solution.?38i I I Modern Power Svstem Anatvsis Zrrvz . P6. on 6.pu B us Voltagemagnitude. The bus power and voltage specificationsare given in Table P6.0 Unspecified Unspecified .9 For the sample system of Example 6.ffi () ir o  y=_j5. Mahalanabis. with accelerationfactor of 1. 1988. 6. 6. (ii) RT is a phaseangle regrrlaror having a ratio = V/Vi = ".99. (b) NewtonRaphson using IBUS.l \ vel '. 6.5 with bus voltagespecifications changedas below: l V t l = 1 .7 where a regulating transforrner(RT) is now introclucedin the ljne l2 near bus 1. \ Note: This problem requiresthe use of the digital computer.2 1.0 . to a (a) GaussSeidel using luur. The reader should verify that in case(i) only the reactiveflow will change. compare the load flow picture with the one in Problem 6. NCES REFERE Books l.. pu Bus type I 2 ) 4 a Unspecified 0.. Other systemdata remain as that of Problem 6. In this casethe resultswill show that the reactiveflows arc essentially unchangccl. P ct = 0 The real demandremainsunchangedand the desiredvoltage profile is flat.6 ect (unspecified) Pcz = 1. Tata McGrawHill.02 1.0 pu.96 pu Your results should show that no significant change occurs in real power flows.lJ / 13 Fig. bus powersand all line flows.6 (a) Repeat Problem6. lunsp"cified) Pa = 0 Qot = l. .7 Consider the threebussystemof problem 6.0 p u .. p6.01 pu for changes of in the real and reactivebus powers.\ .P.1. but the reactive flows change appreciably as e is sensitive voltage.with tolerances 0. Use the NR method.4.8 Calculate V3for the systemof Fig. to (b) ResolveProblem6.01 Unspecified Unspecified Slack PV PQ PQ Computethe unspecified voltages. D.5 Real demand Reactive demand Real Seneratrcn Reactive generation . Ahson. Kothari and S.10 = PGr ? Qot = 0.e.7 Threebus sample system containing a regulating transformer 6.5 for the first iteration.5.5 assumingthat the real generationis scheduledas follows: Pc t = 1 .4 pn.10. I ' 3 Por = 1.0 y=j5 0 3 Fig. lvrl = lv2l = lv3l = 1.0 '. i.0001 for the real and imaginary components of voltuge. use the fbllowing nrcthuds obtairr load flow solution.4 with bus I as slack.3" (a) Find out the modified )/ur5 matrix.
Juty t974.M. 'power Flow sorution by Newton. IEEE Trans. 19g7..on Power plant Dynamicsancrcontror. 'Decouprecr NewronLoad FIow. u. Iowa. Wiley. power System Analysis. 24' ward. Bijwe.p. 22' Tinney' w'F" and J'w. l3' Arrillaga. 197g. 96.F. 'A second order Load Flow Technique'. s3g 19' stott. and A. and D.s usi'g the Nodar Impcdance Matrix.C.H. H.732_33. IEEE. 12' Hupp. Hill.pp 339_351 37.John Wiley. and r. J.'A Load Flow calculation Method for Illconditioned Power Systems'.IEEE Trans.. B. Academic press.J. The Iowa state university Press... \ 35. 21' stott. D. Kothari and D. zrg. p. 1971. pp. Diakoptics and Networks. 33.M.s Method... Tamura.teclrrc Lnergy System Theom: An Introduction..EEE Trans. IEE. 14. Hare.' r pnrrrar .pAS_91. L. proc. 26. 7Il. pAS. Happ. Sarson.H. of II symp. Erectricarpowersystents. 2001. 2nd edn. .L. . gO.. Lgg. 30.stochastic Load Flows. April lggl 100. B.New York 1972.. R. rg:/g. ll.J... 'Exact Second Order Load Flow.R. prenticeHail. pAS_g6:1449. 196g. 1955. and B. 32. sorution of Large Networks by Matix Methods.. McGrawHill. J. 34' Nanda' J'D'P' Kothari and s.n ."Some Important observationson FDLF'Algorithm". 'Decontposition Techniques power systemNetworkLoad in Flow Analysi. and H. Vol. Jury 1974.A1 tatysls 2' weedy.rA 0 " ' _ M. 'DiakopticsThe solution .IEEE Trans pAS.second order Decoupred Load Flow'.on Auto contor. Electic Machinesand power. .w. P A S .J."A Novel secondorder Fast Decoupled Load Flow Method in Polar coordinatcs".S. computer Modeiling of Erectricarpower sltstems.. 9 4 . New Delhi. Kalam. Wiley. computer Methods in power system Anarysis.. S. w.John w1ey. Engrewood criffs. Plenum.J. Tata McGraw_Hilr.s.c.1 9 7 5 .. August 1973.November1967. IEE.. New york. August lg7g.A. l0' Knight' rJ'G'. W. B.Solution TriangularFactorization'. Dopazo.E. . 19g9..pergamonpress. srivastva... pp. of system problems by Tearing proc... 2 g g . proc. "A Simple and Efficient Method for Load Flow sorurion of RadiarDistributionNerworks'.and y. and c. 1998. 1923.. Nnvernhe" ' 1oA1 v 55:1801 " 23' Tinney. proc.New york. No. and N. 2nd Ed. Das.. IEEE Trans. N. 7' Rose' D'J' and R'A willough (Eds). No. McGraw_ Power Frow Argorithmswith Reference Indian power to systems. r2.H. 9' Brown. and c.. computer Modelting of Electrical power systems. Hyderabad.916..p. 14_i6 Feb. 1975. New York. IEEE Trans pA. 2001. . pAS.. 1976. stott. of EpES. England.c. John wiley. 15g6. 1974. Roy. H.. 5.pAS_93: 859. pp.' 2 ___ l _ . 335_ 346. H'8. L. Iwamoto. stenoy.pt III. 29.pp. and W.. l8' Laughton'M'A'.F. 'Review of LoadFrow carcuration Method. Mayer.R. and w. proc.p.. no.. 19g2.Nov/Dec Ig71. D'. vor 301_ 312. 11. s' and Y.A.Kiltin and A. 4. N.y.yor. 31' Iwamoto.ysrems. 1972. I)ecember L963. IEEE Trans.P'M. IEEE Trans. and o.June 1956. 1994. 2.J.. Papers 17. 930. J. 28' sachdev. Nagi and D. l6' Anillaga' J and N'R' watson. 20. AC_lg.s.w. zgr_zgg. New York. power system Engineering. IEEE. N. D'P' Kothari and A.Yol. l5' Bergen.. Inr. proc. JJJ.. r9g6. Sept/Oct. young.F Tinney. r4r. 97. Sterling. EIAbiad. IEEE Trans.. . power SystemControl. York.1978. Nanda. 'Digitar computerSorutionof power problems. 14' Nagrath...H. Kothari. Jan/Feb 1977. 196g..H. 2639. New york. of the Sixth pSCC Conf. stagg. . Dermstadt. ErectricMachines and power systems. 36' NandaJ'' D'P' Kothari and S. of the IEEE. v. ptc.AIEE Trans. M. g2.s. .2nd 8d. walker.J. .o dp .K. IEE. 1972. Tinney. srivastava. proc. M. Alsac. G. Shipley.A Novel Method for solving Radiar DistributionNetworks". New York.r. 19g6. Medicherla. D.r.S. Gross.4th Ed. Introduction to Matrices and power systems. r15. Analysisof Faulted Power systems. Jury r994.A. H. r995.New york. ' IEEE Trans. watson. H. Power systemEngineering and Mathematics. 'Techniquesfor Exproiting Sparsity of Network Admittance Matrix'. of the IEEE. 1736. B. 44. sparse Matrices and their Applications. Hart. May 19g7. 75: 39g.p. New . power systemAnarysis.B. v'rvr er a r e yro rrra i*l l A^^r. 8' Anderson. 2nd edn.. 27' Saro. .. 38' Das. pAS.No.Ames.A Fast Load Flow Method Retaining Non linearitv'.. Tamura. proc. 'Tearing Argorithms for Large scare Network Problems'. John w1rey..R. 6. 5.F. 'FastDecoupled Load Flow. Happ. 'Direct solutions of sparse Network Equationsby Optimally Ordered Triangular Factorizaiions. New york.B.O. I. Kothari. .c. cory..
there resultsan infinite numberof load flow solutions.For sirnplicitywe consicler the presence thermalplantsonly in the beginning.involved the consideration of economy operation. at optimalreleases water at hydro generation. By fitting a suitable degree polynomial. this chapterwe cor. of etc. MW '. The 'best'choice in sornesense of thevaluesof specifiedvariables leadsto the 'best' load flow solution.1 where (MW)o'in is the minimum loading limit below which it is uneconomical (or may be technically infeasible) to operate the unit and (MW)n.1 (vw)min (MW)max Power output. two variablesare specified at eachbus and the solutionis then obtainedfor the rernainingvariables. l I I I L The optimal system operation. we shall consider the optimal operation of generatorson a bus bar. 7.While thereis negligible operatingcost at a hydro plant. Inputoutput curve of a generatrng unit The inputoutput curve of a unit* can be expressedin a million kilocalories per hour or directly in terms of rupees per hour versus output in megawatts.spcttch The main aim in theeconomicdispatch problernis to rninimize thc total cost of generating real power (production cost) at various stations while satisfying theloads andthe losses thetransmission in links.so that the economicconsiderationsare that of operating(running) cost and not the capitai outiay. there is a limitationol availability ol'watcr'over a pcriodof tinrewhich nrustbc used to savemaximum fuel at the thermal plants.emissions certain fossilfuel plants. Generator Operating Cost 7.OptimalSystem Operation A3 pariance caiied is the 'load scheduling' (LS) problem. the operatingcost as such is not meaningful.2 OPTIMAL OPERATION OF GENERATORS ON A BUS BAR the 'unii commitment' (UC) probiemand the secondis calleci Before we tackle the unit commitment problem. The specifiedvariablesare real and reactivepowersat PQ buses.. P t r o .In the later part of this chapter of we will considerthe presence hydro plants which operatein conjunctionwith of thermalplants. Presentlywe shall concentrateon fuel fired stations. c 8 6 o g E 6 f LL 8b= e 5 o O o Fig. di.The first problem in power system t \ al)  . 7. an analytical expression for operating cost can be written as A unit consists of a boiler. also called the ec'omonic problem.Economy of operation naturallypredominantin determining is allocationof generation to eachstationfor varioussystemload levels.The additionalvariables be specifiedfor load flow solution are the tap to of settings regulatingtransformers. while only to a small extent.and voltagemagnitude at and angle at the slack bus.real powersand voltagemagnitudes PV buses.u. voltagelimits. .in general. A to suitablemeaningwill be attached the cost of hydro storedenergyin Section 7.eachpertaining to one set of valueso1'specified variables. The inpLltoutput curve has discontinuities at steam valve openings which have not been indicated in the figure. and rangeof transformer bus tap settings)..ider economyof operation ln the only.The fuel cost is meaningtulin maintenance coutributes case of thermal and nuclear stations. A typical curve is shown in Fig.7 of this chapter. of systemsecurity. turbine and generator.1 INTRODUCTION The major component of generatoroperating cost is the fuel input/hour. In the load flow problemas detailedin Chapter6.7. All theseconsiderations may make conflicting for requirements usuallya compromise fo he madefor and has optimalsystem operation. the specifiedvariablesare allowed to vary If in a regionconstraineci practicaiconsicierations (upperanciiower iimits on by activeand reactivegenerations. is the maximunr output limit. The cost curve can be determined experimentaily. Throughout this chapter we shall concern ourselves with an existing installation.One must first solvethe UC problem before proceeding with the LS problem.but for hydro stations where the energy storageis 'apparentlyfree'.
+ {).8) o o o c E >B . . Q.s) effect of reactive loading on generatorlosses is of negligible order. (7..e.wc can fit a polynomial of suitabledegreeto represent curve in the inverseform Pc. Since Ci(Pc) is nonlinear and C. separable \ If it is assumedat present.il.the load on each generatoris to irc constrainedwithin lower and upper limits. l) r (7.. I = L. ) P.1o) (7.1). line generators 'What is the optimal manner The question that has now to be answeredis: by the generatorson the bus?' in which the load demand Po must be shared This is answeredby minimizing the operating cost k (7.2 Incremental costversus curve is shownin Fig..For better accuracy incremental fuel cost may be expressedby a number of short line segments (piecewise lineanzation).e. Define the Lagrangian as f  poweroutputfor the unitwhose fuel Fig.QC)'. Optimal Operation it (Pci)^[f ""] "".. dPo.that the inequality constraint of Eq. . =o dPo. ( f  (J I I L i:t \' G D i l.":':t cost of the ith generator (units: Rs/TvIWh). . 1 Po. i.7.e.in 1 Po.Pc.dr*The (7. of Considerations spinning reserve.A typical plot fuel cost versus power output is sho. 1 0 ) c a n be written as dC^ dPoo \ . (7. d4.. Further. . a Iurctio' ol'.7.. (7.require that where the suffix i standsfor the unit number.6) 2 b.(lC)i + 1. is independentof P6t (i+ i). 7.et us assulne on Ubvtously load clenrand the statton. i.3) itre that it is known a priltri which generutors t<lrtln to ntccta [.gencra.If the cost of incremental as curve is approximated a quadraticas in Eq.d Etr o E E () o o (MW)min MW Power output.2..i= a. i..to be explained later in this section.^ r . Eq. 2. the of underthe equalityconstraint meeting load demand. k :": d4(il. rn.1 inputoutput i.2) c = D ci(pci) f:l ( 7.r.^ :  Ci(Pc) Rs/hourat outPutPc. (7. Minimization is achieved by the condition of.".. i.. DySIeIrl Arlaly A . is the incremental E q u a t i o n ( 7 .*."* the rated real power capacity of the ith generatorand Po is the total power demandon the station.i.k (7. 7) l I i.L4+  I  . 2 .6) must be a strict inequality.the problem can be solved by the method of Lagrangemultipliers.e) where X is the Lagrange multiplier.* is where Pci.rrticular (7. Rs/hour (7. ^*) Po D Po.e.4) DPr. or where lci dCi ' dPc. .q is not effective. Pcr. the loading of each generator is constrained by the inequality constraintof Eq. Since the operatingcost is insensitiveto reactive loading of a generator.P o = O (7.. ..Further. a linear relationship.r) is called the incremental The slope of the cost curve.''. (MW) max where k = the number of generatorson the bus. . + .wnin Fig. . + d. IC Altcrnativcly..! . in and is expressed units of rupeesper megawatthour (Rs/lvIWh). this is a nonlinear programming problem. "'. we have (lc)i= aiP"t + bt marsin.43 Juel cost(lQ.the rnannerin which the reactive load of the station is sharedamong various ondoes not afl'ectthe operatingeconomy'. . MOOern rower   A .) i i = 1 ..It generatly suffices to fit a second polynomial. p:. degree _Q.e..5). (7.
From this point onwards. 25 The total plant output is then (56 + 20) = 76 MW.. When dczldPcz= Rs 44/MWh.1.How will the load be sharedbetween the two units as the systemload vanes over the full range?What are the corresponding values of the plant incrementalcosts? Solution At light loads.Otherwise. which then determines the plant ).Pr] r 0 and repeat from step 2.\ = 61. This step is possible if [D Pc. Increment(lC) bv A (1").trversusplant output.3 o @ +t I l c c 8 5 0 ^ 45 i= a> EP 40 t O c E J c Plantoutput. (7.o dPo. 60 i*o.e. the additional load must now be taken by unit 1. and the maximum and minimum loads on each unit are to be I25 and 20 MW. It is seenfrom Table 7. The results are displayedin Table 7.pcz+3o. 2. and total load varies from 40 MW to 250 MW. Thus. NfW Plant Output 40. i.25 250. unit t has the higher incrementalfuel cost and will. its loading from now on is held fixed at this value and the balance load is then shared between the remaining generators on equal incremental cost basis.2. k) from Eq.^o or P6. If ItPc..7.2o Mw wiitr plant \ = Rs 35/I4Wh. . i. each unit operatesat its minimum bound.44 pnt = JI= 56 MW 0. respectively. unit 2 is operatingat its upper limit and therefore. 4. MW RszMWh 35 44 50 55 60 61. Unit I Pcl. When rhe plant load is 40 Mw. the values of plant load sharedby the two units are found by assumingvarious valuesof \.1 Plant ). reachesthe limit PGi.n. t I: Po. Solve for P".e. Pol < e(a specified value)..25 65 Unit 2 Pcz. min.0 130. dczldpcz= Rs 35 p"i UWt.1 .0 G1 dcz= o. 0 175.5). is monotonically increasingfunction of (1g).25PG2+30 . of with an increasein the plant output.as found in Example7..0\ 231.operareat its lower limit of zo Mw. for which dcrldpcr is Rs 44 per MWh. 3. When the ourput unit 2is20 MW.25.0 220.3 shows the plot of the plant .. L ^ cost of the plant colrespondsto that of unit 2 alone. IC = (IC)o. the additionalload should be borne bv unit Fig.0 Incremental fuel costs in rupeesper MWh for a plant consisting of two units are: dt Figure 7...7 that at . the optimal solution is reached. consider now the effecr of the inequality constraint (7.:^r A^^r ^ . 0. Assume that both units are operating at all times. because P..rl I < 0 or decrement (/c) by A(tr) fl . Computer solution fbr optimal loa<ling of generators can be obtained iteratively as follows: 1.. The fact that this operation is optimal can be shown by rhe KuhnTucker theory (seeAppendix n.3). As (1c) is increasedor decreased the iterative process. MW Incremental fuel cost versus plant output. 2.if a particular generatorloading in P". (i = 1. Choose a trial value of ). therefore.0 76. or Table 71 Outputof each unit and plant output for variousvaluesof ) for Example7.2opct+40.
625 Rs/lr assuming Totalyearlysaving continuous operation This savingjustifies the need for optimal load sharing and the ddvices to be installed for controlling the unit loadings automaticallv. 7. the increasein cost for unit 1 is 165rnnn  \'U . . Solution Example 7. + 40Pc + 120 Rs/hr Cz= 0.I revealsthat unit I should take up a load of 50 MW and unit 2 should supply 80 MW.l25Pzcz+ 30Po.rs" + 30) ". 1x 1 0 0 2 + 4 0 x 1 0 0 + 1 2 0 + 0 .22.Z.l find the saving in fuel cost in rupeesper hour for the optimal schedulingof a total load of 130 MW as comparedto equal distribution of the same load between the two units. .lPto.7.3. 440 Similarly.1 have the following cost curves.Ifnt . one morning to 6 a. Net savingcaused optimumscheduling by is = 772. for unit 2.721.25PG2 30= 52.5. Cr = 0.48: i Mocjern Power Systemnnaiysis To find the load sharingbetweenthe units for a plant output of say 150 MW.t:Hzut"l .1. 27. Optimum load sharingfor any plant load can be directlv read from this fieure.22. (0.5. we find from the curve of Fig.1 12 (noon) Fig. I = 100 I tzs Let the two units of the svstem studiedin Example7.875 Rs/hr . referring to Table 7.2Pa*4052.1 of Example 7. 0. that the correspondingplant X is Rs 52. the next morning.4 Output of each unit versus plant output for Example 7. If each unit supplies65 MW. unit outputs for various plant outputs are computedand have beenplottedin Fig. we get the optimum schedule as = 120 M W Pcr = 100 M W' Pcz Total fuel cost for this period is + [ 0 .MW _> 200 250 E 100 o J 50 Sunday Monday Flg.J D^tLl\S/I[ lso Let us assume daily load cycle as given in Fig. dpor= r25PGz+ :oro. Considerthe 24 hour period from 6 a. 7.721.m.875 50. Also assume a that a cost of Rs 400 is incurredin taking either unit off the line and returning it to service after 12 hours.. 7. we want to find out whether it would be more economical to keep both the units in servicefor this 24hour period or to remove one of the units from service for the 12 hours of light load.'tnZ (U.22 per MWh. + P c r + P c z = 1 5 0M W Pcz = 88'89 MW Proceeding on the above lines. + 100 Rsftrr 250 tI 200 I 3 150 220 MW Eru o E 5 0 f 0 5 0 150 100 Plantoutput. 7. lf\r1 t'tUI'6yll rl 165 = Jso "' Fn^ a llL. Optimum schedules each unit for 150 MW plant load can now for be found as P c t = 6 1 ' 1 1M W 0. 1 2 5 x 1 2 0 2 3 0 x 7 2 0 + 1 0 0 ]x 1 2 = Rs. For the twelvehourperiod when the load is 220 MW.4.m.1" J*co.5 PM Time Daily load cycle l 1 2 (night) l 6 AM For the plant describedin ExampleT. Now. 1.^\rn *U)JIl nr = rr. L I ' r : r t .
024.to determinethe combinationwhich has the least operatingcost among all these.r . 7.y) (7.it is clear that it is economicalto run both the units. wherein the most efficient unit is loaded first to be'followed by the less efficient units in order as the Ioad increases.t) units Now the application of DP results in the following recursive relation FN@)= TnVn9) * Fur @ . while at the same time the unit combinations to be tried are much reduced in number.224 Total fuel cost for this case= L.m. Pcz = 56 MW Total fuel cost for this period is then (0.64.so as to finci the most economicaioperatingcost of the combination. 1 ^ .permissible load of the smallest unit to the sum of the qrroiiollo . Starting arbitrarily with any two units.u.64. the UC table is to be arrived at for the complete load cycle.r2) canaeifies Using the aboverecursiverelation. it is easily verified that it is economicalto run unit 2 andto put off unit 1. Let a cost function F" (x) be defined as follows: F.) also. In a practical problem. can be viewed as the cost curve of a single equivalent unit. It may be noted that in this procedurethe operatingcombinationsof third and first.it is not economicalto run all the units availableall the time.g.e . A straightforward but highly timeconsuming way of finding the most economicalcombination of units to meet a particular load demand. it is quite easy ro determine the Jptimal manner of loading (ft + 1) units. then it is economical to run only 2 in the light load period and to put off unit 1. 1. way. At eachload level the most economic answermay be to run either unit or both units with a certain load sharing betweenthe two. to it shall be assumedthat the load on each unit of combination of units changei'in suitably small but uniform steps of size /MW (e. The most economical cost curve in discreteform for the two units thus obtained.6& + 400 = Rs 1. If only one of the units is run during the light load period. I MW).The advantage of this approach is that having oitiined the gPliu.y) .064 Comparingthis with the earlier case. we get the optimal scheduleas Pcr = 20 MW. yielding minimum operating costsfor loads ranging in convenient steps from the minimum.y) Mw by the remain_ ing (1/ .65. fN 0) = cost of generating y MW by the Nth unit F*{x . then. the most iconomical combination is determined for all the discrete load levels of the combined output of the two units. their operating cost and startup times are negligible so that their onoff statusis not important.i + o rrr + L .27.3 OPTTMAL UNrT COMMTTMENT (UC) As is evident.r MW by N units. .till all available units are exhausted.1 x 20' + 40 x 20 + 120+ 0. also third and secondare not required to be worked out resulting in considerable saving in computationaleffort.Further.. i .i" determined for each load level. The third unit is now added and the procedurerepeated find the cost curve of the threecombined to units.1 r nunlmum ure total oDerating eost and the load sharedby each unit of the optimal combination are . to divide the load optimally among the units of each combination by use of the coordination equaiions. their individual cost characteristics and the load cycle on the station are assumed be known a priori.^ ^ ^ . Then the total fuel cost during periot:tXf ': this 762+ 3o x 76+ 100)x rz = Rs 37.Considerablecomputationalsavingcan be achievedby using branch and bound or a dynamic programming method for comparing the economics of combinations certaincombinations as neetnot be tried at all.1 . It is easy to see that if the startupcost is Rs 200. If the load is assumedto increasein small but finite size stensldvnamin prograrrurung can be used to advantage for computing the uc table. A simple but suboptimal approach to the problem is to impose priority ordering.LrrlD PruuttJs . This problem is of importancefbr thermal plants as for other types of generationsuch as hydro.^ uurrD. wherein it is not necessaryto solve the coordination equations.t ltgtiFl power Modern svstem nnAVsis Dynamic Programming Method t  If both units operatein the light load period (76 MW from 6 p. For these reasons. The use of DP for solving the UC problem is best illustratedby meansof an example. i . The total number of units available.is to try all possiblecombinationsof units that can supply this load. to 6 a.2.m.It is required to determinr th. To determine the units of a plant that should operate for a particular load is the problem of unit commitment (UC). then from the same table. Let the load changes be in steps of I MW.125x 5 6 + 3 0 x 5 6 + 1 0 0 ) x 1 2 = Rs 37. we can easily determinethe combination of units.584 Thus the total fuel cost when the units are operating throughout the 24 hour period is Rs I. Considera sample system having four thermal generating units with parameterslisted in Table 7.y (x) = the minimum cost in Rs/hr of generating .of loading ft units. n f q l l $vs^rqurv r r .224 = Rs 1.the minimum cosr of generating (.440+ 37.only the Dp approachwill be advancedhere.664 Total operatingcost for this casewill be the total fuel cost plus the startup cost of unit l . mosteconomical units to be committed for a load of 9 MW.65. The processis repeated.il. ^ .
y.0 1. Of these *l = unit running...' F3(9). ' The UC table is preparedonce and for all for a given set of units.zL /J/nour. As the load cycle on the station changes. .Of these FzQ) = min tt6(0) + Ft(9)1. Therefore. economy and reliability (security) must be properly coordinated in arriving at the operationalunit commitment decision. 'u\e It must be pointed out here..18 1948 2 3 0 0 1 1 4 0 0 0 1 \ + VzT + Fr(2)1. Using the UC table and increasingload in steps.Fz(1). respectively with a minimum operating cost of Rs 239.tW and 2 MW..g.we now computeFl(O). . F:(1). Every eleciric utilify is normaily under obligation to provide to its consumersa certain degreeof continuigl and quality of service (e.565lhour Examinationof Fr(9). i.0 Ft@) = ft@) fr(9) = f{9)= 1 2 .we will seehow the purely economic UC decision must be modified through considerations of reliability.. . voltage and frequency in a specifiedrange). * t*r.66 MW. Fz(l). VzG) Ft(3)1. On computing termbyterm and compdng.50 23. VzG) + Ft(8)l' VzQ) + Ft(7)1. .(1)1.g. In fact the best scheme is to restrict the use of the DP method to obtain the 1 2 3 4 Now 1.34 MW and 1. ModernPow for unit parameters the samplesystem Table 7.0 1 2 .Fl(9) and Fa(9) leads to the conclusion that optimum units to be lommitted for a 9 MW load are 1 and 2 sharing the load ur Z l.the step size could be reduced(e. The effect of step size could be altogether eliminated.12).0 = unit not running.0 12. respectively and a total graung cost oI I<s z. t6(5)+ Fr(4)1. while the load sharing among committed units is then decidedby use of the coordination Eq. If a higher accuracyis desired. that the optimai iiC tabie is inclependentof numberingof units.. vzg) + Fr(O)l) tfr(s)+ F. we get FoQ) = [f4(0) + Fr(9)] = Rs 239. with a considerableincreasein computation time and required storage capacity. Fz(9).. we can calculate Fz(8).565ftour Proceeding similarly. The result is the overall station cost characteristic in the form of a set of data points. By combining the load range over which the unit commitment does not change.00 2.5 x9 = Rs 242.e. For the example under consideration.0 32. the overall result can be telescopedin the form of Table 7.. Fz(l).5 30.60 2. Fz(2).In this section.0 0. Fse)= min {t6(0)+ Fr(9)f.0 1. To verify.565/hour. 7.4 RELIABILITY CONSIDERATIONS With the increasing dependence of industry. agriculture and daytoday household comfort upon the continuity of electric supply. Table 7.5 26.if necessary) load sharing among generating stations.2 Generating Capacity (MW) Cost curve pararneters (d = 0) Unit No. VzQ) + Fr(6)l' Vz@)+ F1(5)l' r l5 6r3 t 4. Fz(9).3 Status*of units for minimum operatingcost (Unit commitment table for the samplesystem) Unit number Load range LorP'ot+ btPcr = ollss x 92 + 23. . The answer to the above problem using branch and bound is the samein terms of units to be committed.I of MW. (7.. t6(1)+ Fl8)1. A quadratic equation (or higher order can then be fitted to this data for later use in economic equation.0 1.12).'[6(9)+ rr(0)]] = [6(0)+ FzQ)l= Rs 239. the reader rnay solvethe above problem onceagain by choosing a different unit numbering scheme.0 UC table for various discrete load levels. but with a load sharing of 7 . Using the recursiverelation(7. we get FzQ) = Vz(2) + Ft(1)) = Rs 239.0 1 2 . Fz(O).. which could be completely arbitrary.5651how Similarly.685lhour From the recursive relation (7.77 1.the UC table is prepared in steps.3.it would only mean changes in starting and stopping of units with the basic UC table remaining unchanged.. units 1 and 2. if the branch and bound technique [30] is employed.10). computation is made for F2(0). the reliability of power systemshas assumedgreat importance.the most economical station operatingcost is calculatedfor the completerange of stationcapacity by using the coordination equations.
6. Stale \K = \/ i + I )t .r. Patton's analytical approach to this problem is the most promising. Since the probability of unit outageincreaseswith operatingtime and since a unit which is to provide the spinning reserve at a particular time has to be startedseveralhours ahead. Sound engineeringjudgement must be exercised in arriving at these estimates.6 Randomunit performance recordneglecting scheduled outages A unit during its useful life span undergoesalternateperiods of operation and repair as shown in Fig. 'up' time). 7. p (up) + p(down) = 1 p (up) andp (down) in Eqs. composition and skill of repair teams. trt= llT (down) (repairs/year) Failure and repair rates are to be estimated from the past data of units (or other similar units elsewhere) by use of Eqs. Therefore. of cycles (7. of cycles 'down' time). The margin. the random phenomenoncan be describedby the following parameters.r scnsitiveto size. (7. The lengths of individual operating and repair If hy^dro. Also. When a unit has been operating for a long time.Failure of a unit can be regardedas an event independent the state 'down' state of other units. A simplified treatmentof the problem is presented below: f1(down) f2 (down) f3 (down) periods are a random phenomenon with operating periods being much longer than repair periods. between the capacity of units committed and load was incidental.I4). rz\ !l urs PIUDaUITILy Ur urtr systelll 1l:1: ^t L1^^ l^:^ Utrltr$ ttl ulIS Slaltr 2 tLl is pt = {r. Mean time to failure (mean No. to meet contingencies. Furthefinore. Mean time to repair (mean Et.16) P (down) = Obviously. ' ( t tlr Up. static reserve capacity is always provided at a generating station so that the total installed capacity exceedsthe yearly peak load by a certain margin.To start a spare (standby) thermal unit* and to bring it on steam to take up the load will take severalhours (28 hours).This indeedis a complex problem. so that the load cannot be met for intolerably long periods of time. If a particular systemstate i is defined asX. the capacity of units on line (running) must have a definite margin over the load requirementsat all times. This margin which is known as the spinning reserve ensurescontinuity by meeting the load demand up to a certain extent of probable loss of generationcapacity.rs) (7.16) are also termed as availability and unavailability. i. I j ln r. if any. respectively. Failure rate. it could be brought is on line in a matter of minutes to take up load. When ft units are operating.{* ot(down) (7.13) (7. This is planning a In arriving at the economicUC decisionat any particular time.In order to meet the load demand under contingency of failure (forced outage) of a generator or its derating caused by a minor defect.While rules of thumb have been used.r7) . A = IIT (up) (failures/year) Repair rate.e. .the problem of security of supply has to be treated in totality over a period of one day. probability. the system state changesbecauseof random of outages.generation available in the system.The failure rates are affected by preventive maintenance and the repair rates are . the constraint taken into account was merely the fact that the total capacity on line was at least equal to the load. based on past experienceto determinethe system's spinning reserve at any time.13) and (7.(ul). it may not be possible to meet the load requirements. 7. units in an0 1 Time> Fig.t p+A ) tr+ A (7. we can write the probabiliiy of a unit being By ratio definition of in 'up' or 'down' statesat any time as p (up) = r(up) z(up)* z(down) Z(down) Z(up)* Z(down) _ l.r4) Mean cycle time = f (up) + Z(down) Inverseof these times can be defined as rates [1]. the spinning reserve has to be provided at suitable generating stations of the system and not necessarily at every generatingstation. the loads are never known with complete certainty. (down) Z (down) No. If under actual operation one or more of the units were to fail perchance(random outage). (7.15) and (7.
e.01. Though theoretically Eq. The process is continued till ^t < MTIL.17)] r. = probability that system state i causesbreach of syStem securlty. it is necessary to run the next mosteconomical i.99x 0 + 0.99. security function S is computed as per Eq.rarely more than one iteration is found to be necessary. 2 S = . 7. 7. S is then recalculated and checked. known with complete certainty).r. 7.e.18). rr = 0 (unit = 12MW> 5 MW) I p+^ = 0. (7. only unit 1 is to be operated.g. unit 2 (Table unit.01x 1 = 0. (7. The economicallyoptimal UC fbr this load curve is immediately obtained by use of the previously prepared UC table (see Table 7. Let us now check if the above optimal UC table is securein every period of the ioaci curve. the This figure should not exceed a certain maximum'tolerable insecurity level (MTIL).18) must be summed over all possible system states (this in fact can be very large).7. For illustration.4. Further assume systemMTIL to be 0.005(MTIL) Thus unit I alone supplying5 MW load fails to satisfytne prescribed security criterion. 7. For the minimum load of 5 MW (period E of Fig. let us check if the of systemis securefcrrthe period E.The only breachof securityconsidered here is insufficient generation probability that the available generation capacity (sum of capacitiesof units cbmmitted) at a particular hour is less than the system load at that time.4. the economic unit commitment schedule modified by bringing in the next most economicalunit is as per the UC table. is defined as [25] (7. is a quantitative estimateof system insecurity.7 Unit number WWt Patton's Security Function A breach of system security is defined as some intolerable or undesirable condition. = 1 if available capacity is less than load and 0 otherwise. the Unit I can be only in two possiblestatesoperating or on forced outage. S indeed. stateswith more than two units out may be neglected as the probability of their occurrencewill be too low. 99/year for all the four units..3) along with unit 1.In orderto obtainoptimalandyet secure UC.? piti : p1r1* p2r2 where = Pr= P(up) ffi = 0.Assuming identical failure rate ) of l/year and repair rate pr.18) S = Ep. MTIL for a givcn systemis a management decisionwhich is guided by past experience. = probability of system being in state i [see Eq.reconsider fbur unit exampleof Sec.3. . As the economic UC table has some inherent spinning reserve. (7.7) accordingto optimal UC Table 7. rz = t (with unit I down load demand cannot be met) pz= p( down) = Hence S= 0.3) and is given in TabIe 7.If the value of S exceeds MTIL. Security Constrained Optimal Unit Commitment 0 (noon) 0L t A B C D E F 2 3 I I 0 I 0 0 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 Once the units to be committed at a particular load level are known from purely economic considerations.7 Dailyloadcurye Therefore.gW I Modern PowersystemAnalysis the sample system for the load curve of Fig. Time in hours > Flg. from a practical point of view the sum needsto be caried out over statesreflecting a relatively small number of uniqs on forced outage.e. where p.01> 0. Let the daily the load curve for the systembe as indicated in Fig.7. r.7. When system load is deterministic(i.005.
Therefore. 7. (2. For example.690.rrlro .1uuuurrttrg L^ s n^. 4'd therefore.The transmissionlossesmay vary from 5 to ISVoof the total load.506. Total fuel cost for periods B. c and D as obtained by most economic load sharing are as under (detailed computation is avoided) = 1. . Casea When unit 3 is not operatingin period C.690.463.756+ 1.with due considerationto the overall cost.869 = + + Startup cost of unit 3 = Rs 50.0g1.\rci(Pc') (7.startupcost must be taken into consideration from the point of view of overall economy. With both units I and 2 operating.Therefore.5 OPTIMUM GENERATION SCHEDUTING * Unit was started due to security considerations.Therefore.704+ 1.0001 This combination (units 1 and 2both committed) does meet the prescribed MTIL of 0. Assume that the load is located near plant I and plant 2 has to deliver power via a lossy line.356 1.756 1. To illustrate the point.5 Optimal and secure UC table Unit number Period Unit number Period A B C D E F I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 l'l' l 0 0 l 0 0 0 0 0 A B C D E F I I t< 1 0 1 0 0 I 0 0 0 0 0 *Unit was started due to startup considerations. Startup Considerations The UC table as obtainedabove is secureand economically optimal over each individual period of the load curve.ifl5"#Wl power Mooern System Rnarysis E#nft# = Rs 4. we shall investigate how the load should be shared among rr$rrvsu rqrirrrra nlqnfc Iotal operatrng cost= Rs 4. Total operating costs= I. consider a twobus system with identical generatorsat eachbus (i. B.868 Caseb When all threeunits are running in period C. It is.it is essentialto accountfor lcsseswhile developingan economic load dispatch policy.the total system load can be optimally divided among the various generatingplants using the equal incremental cost criterion of Eq.456. Such a table may require that certainunits have to be startedand stoppedmore than once. t()f.10).7. i.e. ^S MTIL.rquLor . i. c. on. while it is obvious in this casethat the ptunt 1 should carry a greatershareof the load demandthereby reducing transmissio' losses. security function is contributed only by the state when both the units are on forced outage.^ vYuvrr luuv l^^^ rvirDsr 4rE .e. If the transmissionlossesare neglected. In this section. unit 3 has to be stopped and restartedtwice during the cycle. Equal incrementalcost criterion would dictate that each plant should carry half the total load.005. A modern electric utility serves over a vast area of relatively low load density. we obtain the following optimal and secure UC table for the sample systemfor the load curve given in Fig. howrurr. the sameIC curves). i. can no longer use are we the simple 'equal incrementalcost' criterion. unit 3 is not stoppecl at the end of period B.756 l.075. S = p (down.216 (startup cost = 0) Clearly Caseb resultsin overall economy.690.e. 7. < Proceedingsimilarly and checking securityfunctions for periodsA. examine whether or not it will be more economical to avoid one restarting by continuing to run the unit in period C. therefore.756 Rs 4. Table 7.e. lt is obviousthat when losses present.690. D and F. ry Ine the overall cost of generation ODJgCtfVg fS tO mirufiUze c = .7) at any time under equality constraint of meeting the load demand with transmission loss.000 (say) From the unit commitment table of a given plant. We must.the optimal and secure UC table for this load cycle is modified as under.The stateswith both units operatingor either one failed can meet the load demand of 5 MW and so do not contributeto the security function. the fuel cost curve of the plant can be determinedin the form of a polynomial of suitabledegreeby the method of least squaresfit."alistic to neglect transmission losses particularly when long distance transmission of power is involved. x p (down) x 1 = 0.
+ 28rrpcrpcz + ZBnpGzpG3 + 2BrrPorpo.an now write ^ f t o_. for developing a transmission loss model. The Lagrangianmultiplier ) is in rupeesper megawatthour. # *:O' i = r' 2' " " k (7. Equation (7..when fuel cost is in rupees per hour.i:l (7.23) impiies that minimuqr ftrei eost is obtained.: course.24) It may be noted that B is a symmetric matrix. The parrial derivative)PLIAPGi is referred to as the incrementaltransmission loss (ITL). = II where pG^B*. k (7.. i = r . approximate and exact. (7.27) = ) or where Li= #Li= ) .Q TL) if i = 1. B*r= Bn^. it is necessaryto compute ITL for each plant. we have Pr= PIBPI Where (7. . nth plants B^n= loss coefficients which are constantsunder certain assumed operatingconditions If P6"sare in megawatts.23) can also be written in the alternative form ( I C) i.. .. k (7. (7 ."a^^'o') x Base MVA *B^. PL= Bn4. One of the most important. Equation (7. . we write the Lagrangianas t=tr. PG^. .e.PI= DP".23) QAPL iAPGi) (7.An. e.of .2r) Thus in the optimization problem posedabove. we can write the expressionfor loss as is called the penalty factor of the ith plant. . + Bzz4. The general form of the loss formula (derived later in this section) using Bcoefficients is It will be shown later in this section that. {in pu) = B^n (in Mwt) . methods of expressing transmissionloss as a function of generatorpowers is through Bcoeffrcients. e.23) together with the power balance Eq. if the power factor of load at each bus is assumedto remain constant. simple but approximate.. of There are several methods. the systemloss P.. .. associated with the lth generatingplant.22) and recognizing that changing the output of only one plant can affect the cost at only that plant. For optimum real power dispatch. A full treatmentof these is beyond the scopeof this book. P.re) Equation (7. can be shown to be a function of active power generation at each plant. . Cemputations.ZS) wiih the system Dowerioss morieias per Eq. we c.22) Rearranging Eq.] . Also.20) This equation is referred to as the exact coordination equation.(Pc)^[t""Po".B*n are in reciprocal of megawatts*.2. 2 . + Bzz4.\r .z6). i.pGn (7.. . This method is reasonably adequatefor treatment of loss coordination in economic scheduling of load between plants.26) for transmissionloss may be written in the rnatrix form as ') AL = dC. PGr= real power generationat m. k) are the only control variables. Ap I * = ftl?lPo. )) canbe obtainedfrom k optimal dispatchF. P51r) P.... . (1.may be carried out in per unit. Thus it is elear that to solve the optimum lead seheduling problem. The (k + 1) variables(P6r.Pci Q = I...19)..2s) k = tatalrnumber of generating plants Pci= generationof lth plant Pp = sum of load demand bt all buses (system load demand) Pr= total systemtransmission loss To solve the problem.q.1Pt ^+ A d PGto Po . Pct. 2. and therefore we must determine the functional dependence transmissionloss on real powers of generatingplants. Pr= Pt(Pcp P52.. i:l where k 0 (7.when the incrementalfuel cost of eachplant multiplied by its penalty factor is the same for all the plants. P62. For a three plant system.26) m:7 n:I (7.
go to step 6. Hence Pl= For Po.!not have any effect ort Fr.8 A twobus systemfor Example 7.p. and solving for Po.30a) ln*t I If yes. If 100 Mw is transmited from plant 1 to the load. Otherwise.p . Calculate =If j:l J=l pciBijpcj..22). . It may be noted that in the aboveexpressionother termsare independentof Po.19) for a partieular ioaci ciemanci are soiveciiteratively on the following lines: Po 1. we obtain k A twobus system is shown in Fig.. .32) can be solved iteratively by assuminginitial valuesof P6. A s s u m eI t G i =0 .po. 2 . k . Pr = 10 MW. = 0.\ is Rs 25llvlWh.P ) L""ii'Gi ]:I .29) and recognizing that B.3I) Collecting all terrnsof P. Substinrting APL&G' and dcildPci Eq.. + S l z n . 6. Simplifying Eq.4 .32)iterativelyfor Po. Fin( the required generationfor each plant and the power received by load when tie system .if (8". 2. = Bir.30b) from above in the coordination repeatfrom step 3. ) For any particularvalue of \. and are. j:l (7..+ d. i = l. The incrementalfuel costs of the two plants are given below: dC (ai + 2M. stop.+ b .. k).. v.Mwh + . Fig. left out. therefore. Iterations are stoppedwhen Po..pr. Initially choose) = )0. r o .)D 'l bi + ^ ZBijpGj J*T r t& A* '28. 7. ^ ") <0or Assuming quadraticplant cost curves as C i (P o i )= * o . . : ^ J:l (1. Solve Eq. 7. dc. Eq.. (7.  B nPbr 100MW. 2 .p". = atPo'+ b' (7.PD.o ^ la) n ' t  :f: i7'2'"''k (7'32) Pc. (i) . ) > 0 .) Pci= .4 ' a i P c i +b .. i. .l' t s l (a specified value) a k + P=D zBijpcj )Fo. (7.32) along with the Dower balance F. . (7.q. *rB=. Equation (7. Increase) by A) (a suitable step size)' tt [* pc.ffif Modern Po*ersystem Anatysis k k p.o'ozPcr 16'oRs.s(aconvenientchoiceis P".s converge within specified accuracy.s.r.e. We obtain the incremenlalcost as dP' decrease ) by AA (a suitable stepsize). B z z =0 a n d B n = 0 = B z . t o) is satistied l lLPot . . .8. (7. (7. we have k Example7. 3. I = 1 . 4. a transmission loss of 10 MW is incurred. we can write 5.4 outuuon Therefore 6^rr: since the ioad is at bus z a\one.o'o4PG2+ Rs/lvIWh 2o. Check if power balanceequation (?. .
This. = Rs 2. get Bqs.Syrt"r An"lyri.16. ) qinrnc ctrnnirrino the fntel lnqd n s ^ r vn t r v n r a rr t ' E irc .The saving at plant 2 is (ii) (iii) = .The aim of this article is to give a simpler derivation by making certain assumptions.OtS.69.937.04 we P6. Pcz = 125 MW Pct= 128. \r 5 ? ok\ . Solution Case a If the transmission loss is not coordinated.B1P.53 .9a.MPl.2. 10= Bn (100)2 At plant 2 the load increases from 37.(i) and(ii) for P61nncl Solving Pcr = 275.57+ I25 .33) to The powerdelivered the loadis + Pct * Pcz= 0.59MW (ii ) Caseb This caseis alreadysolvedin Example 7. however.57)' = 16.+ : o. Derivation of Transmission Loss Forrnula I Brr= 0'001MWr (7.04Pc2+2ABrrP"r+Z)BuPcr= 20 Substituting the values of Bcoefficientsand ) .04 MW is = 2.4 with a load of 237. the optimum are schedules obtainedby equatingthe incremental fuel costsat the two plants. .and (b) when losses are also coordinated. 7.9 (c) depicts the case of two generating plants connected to an arbitrary number of loads through a transmission network.18 MW to 128.Ztm.001 x (128.18 MW.9 Schematic diagram showing two plants connectedthrough a power network to a number of loads with nient r^_^.691hr Mrz= i= tD I^n e.rv).A2P. we get Pc t = 1 2 8 ' 5 7M W Pc z = 1 2 5 M w The transmissionpower loss is Pr = 0.Rs 2.saving at plant I due to loss coordination is Sirniinriv (c) Flg. as in Fig. +r6Pctli). The values of current distribution factors depend upon the impedances of the lines and their interconnection and are independentof the current Ip.31) for plant 1 becomes Equation A.57MW. r'a wv ^av(ltl define Kgi:".1 +2^aBr2P62= ^76 and for plant 2 ) 0.'r'.04 MW at bus 2. Find the optimum load distribution between the two plants for (a) when losses are included but not coordinated. 0 2 P + 1 6 = 0 .59 MW to 125 MW due to loss coordination.4.34) Mo1 wrd Mp2 are called curcent distribution factors.is quite complicated.57 the Loss coordinationcauses load on plant I to reducefrom 275.43 Rs g. Therefore. Also find the savings in rupeesper hour when losses are coordinated..Define Considerthe system of Example 7. is supplied by plant 1 only.2.53 MW and the load is Po = Pct * Pcr.1+2^. One line within the network is designatedas branch p.Pt.agine that the total load current 1.r 16)dPc. Let the current in line p & Irr.937. Im.032. Figure 7. Thus (i) 0 . 7.= 128. Optimum plant loadings with loss coordination are MW.237.001P4r 237.25.431hr The net saving achieved by coordinatinglosseswhile schedulingthe received r' load of 237.04 MW An accurate method of obtaining a general formula for transmission loss has been given by Kron [4]. and Prr2= 37." l Mod"rnPo*"r. O 4 P c z + 2 0 \ (7.032.
41) where 8 r. we get ll. the total transmissionloss is given by* 'The general expression for the power system with t plants is expressedas The\.:..t.36) (7. From Eq. and cos Q2. = cos (a.z WGoshfDmS. P..(Moll6l cos a1 + Mpzllo2lcos oz)2a (Mrll6lstn Mr2lls2lsn oz)2 Expanding the simplifying the aboveequation.!l .l l v . and l1o.PczB. .. the units of Bcoefficients in are in MWI.42) It can be recognized as Pr=ftrB. * ... is the lagging phase angle of the load.37) (7.o: 8 'n. At this stage let us make certain simplifying assumptions outlined below: (1) All load currentshave the same phase angle with respectto a common refere{ce. tVr.J' vL Jl l vrl cosf" &z MK where Pot and Po.9(a)) have the samephase angle and so have Ioz and 1o [Fig. (7.lf voltagesare line to line kV with resistances ohms. where a. and Po.35).on) P'r 'nt"P' ' .:.38).on) lV* ilV. 7.37).l2 1cosffiLu' Pc^ Pcn cos(a.*3. Further.8.bove results can be extendedto the general case of ft plants with transrnishur loss expressedas k k P. respectively. rL Y Y R.d) = lloil l1i where {. will also be in in l s. Thesetwo assumptions lead us to the conclusion that Ip1 andI. cosQ. are the threephase real power outputs of plants I and 2 at power factors of cos (t.9(b)].r4rlu*ry ' L' 1yf 1*r6f T.r. (7. and lor. to (2) Ratio X/R is the same for all network branches.l2= Mzrrllorlz + tutf. with Po. = lstrp( Re p Substitutingfor llrl2 fromEq. :II. (7.* P'o4oo * zDpG^B^npGn m.. dritT + 4. applying the principle of superpositionthe currentin the line p can be expressed as where 1ot and Io2 are the currentssupplied by plants I and 2.R. Ict = llcrl lo.oz) (a1 + Now e. ff Ro is the resistanceof branchp.rMpzRp lVllv2lcos /. and yl and V2 are the bus voltages at the plants. (7'3s) . 7 The terms Bs.is the same for all load currentsat all times. and lcz = 1162l lo2 .n:l .9(c). expressed MW. (7. =Df m:l n:l PG^B^. such that the current distribution factors Mr.l and llurl from Eq. F3' l v . respectiveiywith respect to the common reference. 7 P *' (7 Equation 3e) "T.rr l = = ' ? ' l $ l v tl c o s /. it is reasonable assumethat 0.7.::::. . fFig.'we obtain D " rLurn.40) o.zllczlz 2MolMrzllctl llGzlcos .fW t powerSygtem Modern Anatysis When both generators t and 2 are supplying current into the network as in Fig.PG. 1v31"*fr) p D2 r Gr *Wl.7 . Let. we can write llrl2 .  P3' M32RP tvzP("o. It can be written as VDil I (6t. Since { and divary only through a narrow range at various buses.38) T . l c o s Q c o s Q  (7. is the phaseangleof the bus voltage and /. Bp and 82. and Mr. (7. are real rather than complex. To understandthe implication of this assumptionconsider the load current at the ith bus. l c o s Q * c o s Q .l' (cos )' 6 (7. and 02 are phaseanglesof 1"... M ' .no p Brz Bn = ffiDM"M"Ro lV. are called loss cofficients or Bcofficients.
3.2774..9 Pu Z..0l0o pu is shownon the diagram.05" + l4') = 0. 2 2 .6 .jO .7826 Since the sourcecurrentsare known. 6 . 6.but the simplicity of loss equationsis the chief advantageof the Bcoefficients method.231 may be consulted./0P6i.bus voltagesand phase angles.04 pu M.2174.r ot = t an..Furthermore.015 + 70.9" pu The current phaseanglesat the plants are (1. + Id 4. l5 I" I. 2.jl.0 .06pu Id = 3. 6 9t : . the voltagesat the sourcebusescan be calculated. = 0."i0. i. Voltage magnitudes at all plants remain constant.066 16. 6_ jo.ot) = cos 0o = 1 more accuratemethodsand exactexpressionfor 0P.yields reasonablyaccurateresults. This is equivalent to assuming that the plant currents maintain constant phase angle with respectto the common reference.06+ jO.10 Samplesystem Example of 7.t+! . Mrz = 0. Major system changes require recalculation of the coefficients. by Lossesas a function of plant outputscan be expressed other methods*. The bus reference with a voltageof l.l4oi o2: t an. we have _ 3. There are two loads and a network of four branches.2174.o I ro"o r Fig.Ol + 70.7826 plants 1 and 2 connectedto buses 1 and Figure7.^O : .0.015 + 70.0 + (2 ..04pu Zo = 0. Mtr .70. *For Za = 0.9393 . power factor at each plant remains constant.The branch cunents and impedancesare: I.051 14.7 0 .=7 . The bus voltages at the plants are Vr = 1. with regard to the location of plants and building of new transmissionlines: Y lr" t'' lb1 ' '  b Refbus v =110"pu Y l.6 Solution As all load currentsmaintain a constantratio to the total current.OI + 70.i?ffil I .this considerationis equally important in future system planning and. g _ o. 4) ( 0. 5P u I u = 1 .j0. Ratio of reactive to real power. 2 1 7 4 j1. t 8z6 I. 4 P u Zo = 0.since sourcepower factors are assumed constant as per assumption3 above.Mrtz= 0. it is fortunate that treating BIn spite of the number of assumptions coefficients as constants.048+ jO.10 shows a systemhaving trrvo 2.However. Voltage phase angles at plant buses remain fixed.015+ 70. includingthosementioned The following assumptions if Bcoefficients are to be treated as constantsas total load and load sharing plants vary. 6.06 pu Calculatethe loss formula coefficients of the systemin pu and in reciprocal mesawatfs if the hase is 100 MVA ^^^D The plant power factors are pfi = cos (6. 4.25Pu I o = 2 . Accounting for transmission losses results in considerable operating economy.05" pu Vz= 7 + ( 1.7826.e. Mrr = 0. All load currents maintain a constantratio to the total current.Mu = 0. Theseassumptions are: between 1. made.25 . 06) + = 1. 015 70.references 122.1s 4.j 0 .I725 = 1.6 Mor= L. 7.O9= 1. = Io. in particular.+ld rd r: .5) (0. in a practical size network a load flow study has to be made to find power factors at the buses.j0.l4o cos (or. Mnz = 0.06) = 1. 12= 16r Ir) .2= 0. when the coefficients are calculated for some average operating conditions.# power nnatysis ruodern system r !nrr!na! i i ffi i alreadyare necessary. respectively.
9 + 14").48a) a.43).j fn p o w fha e ql ^.02224 pu Bzz q2 0. 0.lcos(9.7 1 x 82q2 (1. areload demands at bus i. and ep.ffiffi Mociern PowerSvstem Ana[.t.01 + D = Dt2 _ e0.t^+:^rtlrurulalLlull. \ (7.e..= lr.a. r r f^*.9393 0.02224 LLL+ h . first on control variables and then on dependent variables.7826)2 + 0.946 x = 0.01597 pu x(0.Later the inequality constraints are introduced..48b) t"each bus PV . (7. jforeachrouusf t r 4I n (7.tl where the vector of dependentvariables is foreach bus r0  pV foreach busi I .051)2 x(0.6 OPTIMAL The problem of optimal real power dispatch has been treated in the earlier section using the approximate loss formula.946 The losscoefficients lBq.Poi Qi= Qci. i.1.46) 100 0'01597 = 8..t = 0'0M06 = 0. It is based load flow solutionby the NR method.015) rJ66 ..7) subject to the load flow equations [see .217 + 0.7826X0. slack bus 4i 4l pe foreach bus ]= O] (7. Equarions(7.r q vv v vo r .Qu where Po.a first order gradient adjustmentalgorithm for minimizing the objective function and use of penalty functions to accountfor inequality constraintson clepenclent variables.0.2174)L0.0.01 (0. (7.sis p OPtimal System Operation Pfz = cos (4.a\l are ffi ffi$ffi l c =f ci(Pci) (7. I (7. * 6i . Q. The solutiontechniquegiven here was first given by Dommel and Tinney on [34]. y) =  _tn.A^ a c K d^^ D u _r S The objective function to be minimized is ihe operating cost The vector of independent variabresy can be partitioned into two parts_a vector u of control variableswhich are to be variea to achieve optimum value of the objective function and a vector p of fixed or disturbangeor unconhollable .. r u D l l l r [fle l w ODleQtlVe l L l L l tltnefinn g L l l mrrcf E S r i_^1.47) 7. \7qql lEq.0.7 82q2 + 0.The problem of unconstrained optirnalload flow is first tackJed.00406 x loz Mwl 100 LOAD FLOW SOLUTION ' f (x. This section presentsthe more general problem clf real attd reactive povrer flow so as to minirnize the instantaneous operatingcosts. Optimal Power Flow without Inequality Constraints Ld.217a)2 0.44) and (7.01597x 1o2Mwl 100 Br. Lotl x 0.tcos(0..45) can be expressed vector form in (7. theseloss coefficients must be dividedby 100 to obtaintheir values units of reciprocal in megawatts.44) = 0.Q.43) 3 Q. lty.00406 pu For a baseof 100 MVA.a3)l [Eq.4s) (7.4)= 0 for each pv bus j:7 It is to be noteclthat at the ith bus Pt= Pci..It is a static optimization problem with a scalar objective function (also called cost function)..946)2 and e f j:1 tUilvjily.02224 x lo2 Mwl Drr = A 4 . + Ltvinvjlllzulsin (0ul j:r (7.0 5 x (0.Llvllvjlly.01x(0.= 0.. for eachpV bus_J andthe vectorof independent variables is .0 x (0.
[l]'*u.*^Dlvrrl LrMJ lI lvsr Slack It may be noted that for computing the gradient.u = . This is known as optimal reactive power flow problem' ***The original pup".54) is obviously the same as the equality constraints.+ is already 0x known from the load flow solution (step 2 above). u. (i.s4) 0 L = 0 c* l y 1 ' ) _ o 0u 0u LduJ y) l#r. it indeed is the load flow solution) in the direction of steepestdesceht (negative gradient) to a new feasible solution point with a lower value of objeetlve funstion. and compute the gradient = Y. p) Lagrangianfunction conditionsto minimize the unconstrained The necessary (see Appendix A for differentiation of matrix functions). By repeating the.52) for r. of Dommel and Tinney t34l may be consulted for details' where L.u.5a) for given u andp. (7.rrl ac 0x L\dxl J (7.. (r +r) * .l.i( { \ ' l I ^. The method successively improves the Solution x as follows..se moves in *rc dkestisn +f the negadve gradient. or x and racobian the matri. (6. p) = 0 (7.52).s3) (7. A simple yet efficient iteration scheme.. define the Lagrangian function as (7'51) L (x. are Stey 2 . P) where ) is the vector of Lagrange multipliers of same dimension asf (x.Dopazo et all26ltuse Qo. u.53) are rather ^a L . Iti. 6) the real Since in this case the net injected real powers are fixed.P) = o f u. oc *l 9L1' t 0u L 0 u) (7. u. (7.. (7. .the JacobianJ .. the minimum will finally be reached.52) and (7. (7. The computational procedurefor the gradientmethod with relevant details is given below: Step I Make an initial guess for u. The optimization problem** can now be restatedas min C (x' u) subject to equalitYconstraints .pal nnrrrcr lncc ic to he minimizedrv the obiective function is ( 7. \ = . a r = (x."'.56b) reproduced below: a f . P6t on magnitudes PV buses.Jind a feasible load flow solution from Eq. the expressions the elementsof Jacobianare given in Eqs.54) are nonlinearalgebraicequationsand can only be solvediteratively. u7+ Arf (x.f (x.the minimum has been reached.ffi@ Analvsis PowerSvstem Modern feasible solution point (a set of valuesof x which satisfiesEq.s6) bus voltage and regulating transformer tap setting may be employed as buses' additional control variables.s5) Step 4 Insert ) from Eq. 0u by involved***. (6.53) and (7.= 0 c* l y 1 ' ) _ o 0x 0x L}x J (7. rhe end resurts J. $...65)1.4e) (7'50) To solve the optimization problem. the control variables.u is a step in the negative direction of the gradient. is the steepestdescentmethod (also called gradient method). (7.s2) (7.It may howeverbe observed comparisonwith Eq.on "^...c.^6* L. as control variable on with reactive Power control' **rr *L^ .rl]4" r (*('). Equation (7.64) and (6.0. injected power P.o"VC.(r) + Ax where Ar is obtained by solving the set of linear equations (6. . Otherwise. Equations(7. p)= C (x.55) into Eq. u. Step 3 Solve Eq.il . may parameters* be voltage puru"t"rs. the minimization of at the slack bus is equivalent to minimization of total system loss.56a)that Y= Jacobian matrix [same as employed in the NR method of load flow 0x for solution. 57\ C = Pr(lVl.54) by the NR iterative method. The step size is adjustedby the positive scalar o.'The expressionsfor tS as neededin Eqs. Control at buseswith controllablepower. Step 6 Find a new set of control variables unew= l. step 5 rf v c equals zero within prescribedtolerance. (7.s8) Here A.that can by employed. etc..53).
In accordance with the KuhnTucker theorem (see Appendix E). becausethese constraints are seldom rigid limits in the strict sense.53) would now be modified as given below. 1.se) Pc. when these limits are violated.6r) o r .Too small a value of a guarantees convergencebut slows down the the rate of convergence.0 too much and lvl = 1. its component in the gradient should continue to be computed in later iterations. The penalty function method is valid in this case.11 Penalty function of .0 on a pebus really Steps 1 through 5 are straightforward and pose no computational problems.oro Au. ) ui.^^. (7. .j":T. = __l_ ) dx o x 4l a r * L a " i ) . This forces the solution to lie sufficiently close = 0 asthepenalty # functions dependent on variables independent the control variables.ui. 7.o ou.rnax xi whenever xr ( r y.e.11.64)would containonly one nonzero.oro Au. the control variables are assumedto be unconstrai""o. .o ofl a PQ bus du ou'+ a"*La"l'r:o 'Ihe (7.#*ff" f uooern Power Analvsis Svstem to the constraint limits.^* u i : u i . The necessaryconditions (7. i. a. which clearly indicates how the rigid limits are replaced by soft limits. The objective function is augmented by penalties for inequality constraintsviolations.g. (7.6s) (7. .in < lVl < lYl . (7.sdw. in fact. lvl < 1..nin1 Po. where the choice of a is very important.63) (7. as the variable may come within limits at some later stage. m in Q '64) where Tiis Treal positive number which controls degreeof penalty and is called the penalty factor.g.fAf1'. 7. .60) Xmln 0L :0 0u. i. Step 6 is the critical part of the algorithm.fafl'.54). o A plot of the proposedpenalty function is shown in Fig. too high a value causes oscillations around the Inequality Constraints on Control Variables ry vshould not exceed 1.^^ * 7f u. the upper and lower limits on dependentvariables are specifiedas rmir.\awj . if u..52) and (7.^o)2 i w. = {7i@i ' [ 71G . Such inequality constraints can be conveniently handled by the penalty function method. lUn. C t = C ( x .1". ^i) zi whenever ) xi.^in * otherwise After a control variable reaches any of the limits. soft limits (e.62) vecto UW: ^trZ 0x obtained from Eq.01 may still be The penalty method calls for augmentationof the objective function so that the new objective function becomes Though in the earlier discussion.but are in fact. T Thereforer now.* n < ui < ui .66) : ax_AC. is setequal to the correspondinglimit.remain unchanged. always contrained.. S Pct.inBq. the necessaryconditionsfor minimization of I. 7 f u .xi. ** These inequality constraintson control variablescan be easily handled..57) causes uito exceed one of the limits.^u* Fig. Inequality Constraints on Dependent Variables ax_ac. are of termcorresponding the dependent to variable while x. if u..SxSr*u^ e. while the conditions (7. are. (7. in step 5 of the computationalalgorithm. 0r. under constraint (7. .g. 1ui. load flow equations. A suitable penalty function is defined as .If the correctionAu. u )f*U t (7.61). = L Often. is introduced for each violated inequality constraint.::tutt e.e.o ) (7. the gradient vector has to satisfy the optimality condition (7.59) arc: where the penalty W.xi.
Over each subinterval it is assumed that all the variables remain fixed in value. This. The problem is to determine q(t).70) The problem can be handled conveniently by discretization. (ii) Water availability (7.it is assumedthat (i) storageof hydro reservoir at the reservoir (after accounting for irrigation use) and load demandon the system are known as functions of time with complete certainty (deterministic case).6e) where J(t) is the water inflow (rate).with transmission __^_1_ Q \t. variable. depending. Y (T) arc specified water storages at the beginning and at the end of the optimization interval. the convergence.7 OPTIMAL SCHEDULING OF HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEM For a certainperiod of operation7 (one year.72t Ptr = thermal generation in the mth interval Ptn = hydro generation in the zth interval PI =transmission loss in the rnth interval . Optimization will be carried out with real power generation as control for loss accounted by the loss formula of Eq. solution technique are illustrated through a simplified hydrothermal system of Fig.. but are required to operate under constraintsof water available for hydro generationin a given period of time. Operation of a system having both hydro and thermal plants is.and X/(0) .68) X (T).I2. 7 .e. Optimal operating policy in this case can be completely determined at any instant without reference to operation at other times. (7. is the static optimization problem.PoG) = 0. The problem of minimizingthe operating cost of a hydrothermal sYstemcan be viewed as one of minimizing the fuel cost of thermal plants under the constraint of water availability (storage and inflow) for hydro generation over a given period of operation. Pcn(r)=f(X'(t). J (waterinflow) under the following constraints: (i) Meeting the load demand Pcr(r) * Pca(t) . 7.26).lr) under the following constraints: (i) Power balance equation Pt *PtrPIPt =0 where (7. The problem is now posed as n^(EL : u^r^4r:. This sectionhas shown that the NR method of load flow can be extendedto yield the optimal load flow solution that is feasible with respectto all relevant inequality constraints. te 10.the water discharge(rate) so as to minimize the cost of thermal generation.*r"$^r'(pt). far more complex as hydro plants have negligible operating cost.rfrrrt..71 This is called the power balance equation. (o) l' t@ at+ lrqgl =o dt JO JO_ (7.will that the solutionlies closer to the rigiA fimits. 7.one month or one day.A good schemeis to start with a low value of 7j and to increase imization process. (iii) The hydro generation Pcrlt) is a function of hydro dischaige and water storage(or head). i.These solutions are often required for system planning and operation. The problem thus belongs to the realm of dynamic optimization. so becomepoorer. Cr = rT JoC ( Por ( t ) ) dt (7.x..12 Fundamental the problem formulation and For the sake of simplicity and understanding. upon the requirement). X'(t) water storage.. system hydrothermal Fig.' ModernPowerSystemAnalysis Mathematical Formulation By choosinga higher value fot 1.Pr(t) .. however.if the solution exceedsa certain tolerance limit. This systemconsistsof one hydro and one thermai piant suppiying power to a centralized load and is referred to as a fundamental system. indeed. The optimization interval Z is subdivided into M subintervalseach of time length 47.67) The previous sectionshave dealt with the problem of optimal schedulingof a Dower system with thermal plants only.q(t)) (7.the penalty function can be made steeper however.
zl I nr l AT Ahto Now . M = X/*IAT = storagein dischargeunits. .X^ r .8 7x l 0 3 h to [The reader may compare this equation with Eq.73) for m = l. ..M^r['ffi)=' (7.ytr* + .ry.23)] #r.Se(x^+ x^t)l @^ .73) Y . 7Pt dPt '[ rt.J * + q ^ = 0 ... while hydro generations. The fact.p) = effective discharge in m3ls hry. . (7.5e(Y + Y)l where (q* . = 9.A .7e) . is chosenas a dependent ql variable. m = I. (7 .xM* DJ^ Dn^ Solution Technique M (7.76) * where P3.7L) with equaliry constraintsof Eqs.77) The dual variables are obtainedby equating to zero the partial derivatives of the Lagrangian with respectto the dependentvariables yielding the following equations AP rJ)e = Ar.(r + 0.h..ffiffifjn = D77\r57 n tnm Modern PowerSystem Analysis t2 ) t  . that water discharge in one of the subintervals is a dependentvariable.c.7s) Ptn = ho{I + o. hk= hLll + o. (7. it is convenient to choosewater discharges in all subintervalsexcept one as independentvariables. where Y InEqs. qr)* ^Ttp1.P) where h o = 9 .(7. The Lagrangian L is formulated by augmenting the cost function of Eq.rn LDTHTGH nm D tn fI Dpy\r6p m t2 ) Optimal System Operation PI = load demand in the mth interval (ii) Water continuity equation y^ _ yt(m_r)_ f AT + q^ AT = 0 l e = water head correction factor to account for head variation with storage p = non:effective discharge (water discharge neededto run h dro In the aboveproblem formulation.. is shown below: Adding Eq.2. L T (X^ + X^ r) l ffi = 7 ro * 2A where A = draa.p ) Mw (q^ . 2.ffi + M (y . (iii) Hydro generation in any subinterval can be expressed*as xM "oD m J^ +la^ = o m (7.p) (7. M leads to the following equation.72). Thus.8rx rorhto fto = basic water head (head corresponding to dead storage) qt = xo . a dependent variable.Se(x'+ X"t)l where =D tc(%r). (7.rDmt ut/\I CT) / . Xo and XM are the specified storagesat the beginning and end of the optimization interval.For convenience. = average head in the mth interval Now The problem is solved here using nonlinear programming technique in conjunction with the first order gradient method.74) throughLagrangemultipliers (dual variables) \i \i'and )i. for which we can write ho=9. therefore.l) qs can be specifiedindependently and the remaining one can then be determined from this equationand is.xT(4r+ 4.water inflow (rate) in the mth interval q^ = water discharge (rate) in the ruth interval The above equation can be written as (7. only (M ..81 x 1o2hk@^ . (7. crosssectionof the reservoir at the given storage of h' o = basic water head (head correspondingto dead storage. known as water availability equation ffiffi X ^ = water storage at the end of the mth interval J* .73). Uf t \ 7Pt )  ^ lu 0 /78) 4n= ho {! + o..5e(y it11* @^ p)rj (7 * . thermal generations and water storagesin all subintervalsare treated as dependentvariables.74) Becauseof this equation.
(7. we get iently by augmenting cost functioniith p"nulty functionrur air". (7. Since there are three subintervals. From Eq. (ii) Obtain )! from Eq. (7. Obtain the gradientvector using Eq.78). for all Consider the fundamental hydrothermal system shown in Fig.Incremental fuel cost of the thermalplant is dc r. (7. If not.5e (zy + Jt . The method.77).8 0 ). Water head correction factor e is given to. (iii) Obtain )1.o (7. Repeat from step 2 In the solution techniquepresentedabove.82) and check if all its elements are equal to zero within a specified accuracy. (7. \f. The methodoutlinedaboveis quitegeneral and canbe directlyextended to a slzstemhaving multi hydro and multither+nal plan+s.)i*t 1o. For these control variables. if some of the control variables (water discharges)cross the upper or lower bounds.73) Obtain the values of dependent variables Y..zqt +d)= 0 laq' ) (7.ffil a Analysis Modern Power system (+) = )7.t\n" fl + 0.76).61) given in S ec .\r p.78). 3.i" the Sec.If so. (7. Assume for simplicity that the reservoir is rectangular so that e doesnot ehange with water storage. 4. (7. Ptu. go to step 5. The initial water storage in the reservoir is 100 m3/s and the final water storage should be 60m3/s.. The gradient vector is given by the partial derivatives of the Lagrangian with variables.0 Rsft' dPcr Further.5e(2Yt + J^ .79). if not check at the end of the cvcle. (7. In this technique optimization is carried out over each subinterval and the complete cycle of iteration is repeated.80) and using Eq. 10 Mw and 5 Mw. Let us assumetheir initial values to be q2 = 75 m 3ls 15 m2ls The value of water diseharge in the first subinterval can be immediateiy found out using Eq.81) The dual variables for any subinterval may be obtained as follows: (i) Obtain { from Eq.83) where cr is a positive scalar. 5.80) and (7..74). the total water available for hydro generationduring the day is 40 m3/s. (739).be 0.opcr + 25. has the disadvantage of large memory requirement. since the independent variables. There is no water inflow into the reservoir of the hydro plant.e. (pt) = )rr.2q^+ p)} (7. A modified techniqueknown as decomposition[24) overcomes this difficulty. 6 .Ar*'.a++). Algorithm Assume an initial set of independent variables q* (m*I) subintervalsexcept the first. the water availability equation does. transmissionlosses may be neglected.m=r {\oq* ) (7.005. step 4 above is checked in accordancewith the KuhnTucker conditions (7.81).76). F\r. from Eq. optimum is reached. i.5ho e I ax^ /)^**t \ *U *'(q^ DI .(15 + 15) = 10 m3ls It is given that X0 = 100 m3/s and X3 = 60 m3/s.i. qt using Eqs. wherein load varies in three steps of eight hours each as 7 Mw.the control variablesre q2 and q3..72) and (7. . The objective is to find the optimal generationschedulefor a typical dav. Stepsof one complete iteration will be given here. ' ( 7. Basic head is 20 m.7. respectively. Obtain the dual variables )f. (7.e. 7. (7.82) For optimality the gradient vector should be zero if there are no inequality constraintson the control variables.73). these are made equal to their respective bounded values.^Zh"{r + 0.dependent variables and gradientsneed to be storedsimultaneously. Thus respectto the independent (+) \oq )m+r =\f.81) and other values of ry (m * 1) from Eq.i. however.e. Obtain new values of control variables using the first order gradient method. Let the noneffective water discharge be assumed as 2 m3/s. er = LOO 60 . (7.sh"r(q*p)l. The aboveproblem has been speciallyconstructed(ratherovelsimplified) to illustrate the optimal hydrothermal schedulingalgorithm. (7.I2. which is otherwise computationally involved and the solution has to be worked on the digital computer. )i @ = 1) and )rr using Eqs.73) in Eq. ek*=q.6. 7. (7.
= 10 .1.3 2 0 [ l + 0 . 4 1 I= 1 .0.474 FromEq. (7. . 5 0 .1574 31.pl.2 9 .5e + f .E0)for m = 1 and2. for all the three subintervals.lsal j Lr? fzo. 0 0(5 x e o.)l {o.Shoe . = 9.p)l = 0 (qt @.68s1 lnk_l=la[.602MW P Z a = 0 .ssrJ Also from Eq.gt = 90 m3ls f=Xr+12q2=75m3/s The valuesof hydro generations the subintervals be obtained in can using Eq.5e(?)(0+ il .r3 A:2.315 W M { 4 n = 0 .31gm3ls The above computation brings us to the starting point of the next iteration. lrf ) (2X2 fl + 0.2.26.oLl#l Lq:"*J= L.589(0. q 1 4 .29. we have [^i I lr?l=lrr.the gradientvectoris (#)= ^ 7 . we can write 685] [2e lril From Eq.1962 + 25 x 10a x x .1962 + 25 x 104 x 190} x 8 {I = 2.Sn"e .82).1962{l + 25 x loa (2oo.7877 UsingEq.76) :fli lf:i= .p)] = o (qt ) t r = 8 .398 (0. _ p)l _ )3.l .81 ) = case  ^3  ^?l: I I r:ea I for ttrelossless hil lzs. (7.' t l or )T=P[. x?.{l l52l = .1962 0.^Z {0.5x 0.(15.3 . since the gradient vector is not zero. 1 9 6 2l + 2 5 x 1 0 a x 1 3 5 }x 1 3 { = 3.+25 .3. . (< 0.PL.510)= 10.1574 )t.005x t3) = x 7.398MW F c r = p  .5x 0.26. .7877.p ) x 1 = 0.1574 31. . (7g3) Calculating ).z q ' + o l .7. = J .5 hoe(q.zqt+ p)I _ \m . (7.i.2 x 1 5+ z ) l x 2 = 8.7q as follows: x P b .685MW 4r = Pto.5.8.W po Modern Xt = f + Jr . 3 9 8 x {0.398 0.5ho.589x 0.tg6} x 0.2o + 2)l x and from Eq. (7. 0 0 5 8 l _ 3 1 . 5 x 0 .172+ 14. then optimal conditions fbr are not yet satisfied. Iterations are carried out till the gradient vector U"comes zero within specified tolerance.sag Lri Ld Lze J I I \l' ^ l = A\hnii + o. 0 0 5 x r+ X 0 .5 x 0.4 " = J .3437 ( ar. 1o.i.strn. we have 4'r*= 100 .'l:::Ijllil [[] .f t n " { 1 + 0 .we havevaluesof )i as dc(P€) AGT V D m Substituting various values.l1+l Loq" ) Let us take a = 0. hence the second iteration will have to be carried out starting with the following new values of the control variablesobtained from Eq. {7.685 0.1962 + 25 x 10a x t22} {I = 0.1962 0.78). (7.60 . 1 9 6 2 I + 2 5 x l O a x 1 6 5 }x 1 3 = 3. t = 9 .515= 4. (7.005x t3) . 8 1 1 0 .i.1).005x 13) x = 8.p)l _ S! 1O. then .79).411 MW The thermalgenerations the threeintervalsare then in pLr = pL.x3. 5 8 9 W M From Eq. we get xt. 5 x 0 .9799 If the tolerance gradient vectoris 0. ll . 6 8 5( 0 . ) { q ' . 1 9 6 2 x0 .602= 6.
2 A constant load of 300 Mw is supplied by two 200 Mw generators.1 For Example 7. The total load at a certain hour of the day is 400 MW.7 showsa systemhaving two plants I and 2 connected buses to 1 and 2. the baseis 100MVA if Ref bus Flg. (b) For the above value of received load. There are two loads and a network of three branches. Given: Fuel cost is Rs Zhmltion kilocalories. Note: All P6s must be real positive.1 calculate the extra cost incurred in Rsftr. P7.2. 7.03+ J0. The bus 1 is the reference bus with voltage of 1. for which the respective incremental fuel costs are dcr = o ' l O P G l+ 2 0 ' 0 Po. P7.24 pu Zt = 0. received load for optimum operation..5 pu L .5 AqZ Pct= .$ft + r2.3 shows the incrementalfuel cost curves of generatorsA and B. (ii) equal to 2p6. dcz o'lzPc2 + 15'o dPo.45 pu Zo= 0.0po+150 Find the expressionfor inerementalfuel eost in rupeesper megawatt hour as a function of power output in megawaffs. Z.03+ /0. Neglect transmission loss and develop a computer programme for optimum generationschedulingwithin and accuracyof + 0.150 + 60 (IQz .7 . 0.0 I 0" pu.4.8 Aqi where ICs are in Rs/IVIWh and P6s are in MW.8. what are the optimum values of Pot and Por. and (iii) less than ZPo be shared between A and B if both generatorsare running.8. 7. what are the values of p61. respectively for plants I and 2.4 Consider the following three IC curves PGr=100+50(IQt2Aqi Pcz= . (a) For this value of system ). respectively.7 Samplesystemfor probtemp7.6 For the system of Example 7.00014+ O. po. if system losses are accounted for but not coordinated. The branch currents and impedancesare Io=2 70. Assume further the fuel costs at no load to be Rs 250 and Rs 350 per hr.I2 pu Calculate loss formula coefficients the system per unit and in the 6f in reciprocal megawatts. AIso find a good linear approximation to the incremental fuel cost as a function of Fo. and (b) the saving in Rs/day thereby obtained compared to equal load sharing between machines. Determine (a) the most economicaldivision of load betweenthe generators.05 MW.ffil uodern Power Slrstem Analvsis Hffiffi miiiions of iriiocaiories per hour can be expressedas a function of power output Poin megawattsby the equation PROB iEii/iS 7. How would a load (i) more than ZPo. and.o= 1 6 i O 4 n r r 1.3 Figure P7.I and 2.. = 1.1. = 0. with powers Pc in MW and costs c in Rsar.3 7. the system ) is Rs 26a4wh. (c) Total fuel costs in RsArr for parrs (a) and (b).7 FigureP7. 7.12pu (MW)mtn P6 Flg. if a load of 220 MW is scheduled Pct= Pcz = 110 MW. as 7.i0.06+ j0.0+ 4a Qq3 .
"A primer on Loss Formula". IEE.Improved Loss Formula compuration by optimally ordered EriminationTechniques'. Nagrath. (India). warwick.3 with a load of 220 Mw from 6 a.. 2r. Reliability Evaluation of power System..wiley.10 Reformulate the optimat hydrothermal schedulingproblem considering the inequality constraints on the thermal generation and water storage employing penaity functions. Berrie. Billinton. 29' IEEE CommitfeeReport. /. 197g.P.Marcel Dekker. 1g77.H. 1986.. 8' singh. IEEE TransmpAs.New york. R.. A.. of Technicopy. Allan. S'K. England.E..p.Nerv Jersey. Ncw Jersey.JulyAug 1971.. Modelling and Evaluation. London. June 1976. E.Boston.. pergamonpress.Mass.. Kusic. to 6 p.}(. stevenson. 16.s. IEEE. rp92.J.I. Proc. "Economysecurity Functions power in systemopoutionS".N.R. 7. A.77: 1434. T.pAS_90: 1752. I9)6. prenticeHall. D o n l.operation and Control. "An optimization Technique for Real and Reactive power Allocation". 12. u...K. 2001. A. and D. 1988.K. D\rrD LrE YYr\.W. J'F. 1997. M.J' Nagrath.R. Meyer.8. Modern optimization Techniques power in Systems. KAp.. Nov 1967. 15.D.E. 1975. "optimal HydrothermalSchedulingand Unit commitment. . "Optimal Thermal Generating Unit Commitment. and v. computer Aided power system Analysis and control. D.90: 716.w 5 . Modern power systems. Tata McGrawHill.).P.. power systempianning.J. Billinton. and I.F. AIEE Trans. 1973.plenum Press. Patton. Kothari and s.. R. Inc. Khatib. Economicsand pranning. Economic control of Interconnectedsystems. Kothari.H.L.. IEEE Trans. r95g.3. The MIT Press. "optimal Stochastic Scheduling Cascaded of Hydrothermal Systems". 17.S. John wiley. Ahson.L. 23. rEE. International rext York.m. 1999.. 1972.A.F' Wollenberg. t970. 31' Kothari.. Find out the necessary equations and gradient vector to solve the problem. Dec. rnc.. 22.. Iyl). New york.Power Generation. Wood. 1971. 26' Dopazo. 7.19g6."security Constrained EconomicThermal Generating Unit Commitment. . o r q Er NCES REFERE Books 1.I. and w. 32' Nagrath. pAS. 14... A'K' and A. 1959. P7.r. D. of 9. 4 .o . New Delhi. Proc.London. York. A.J.I.New york. 1972.D. Power System Economics. 28. R.PAS96: 841.E. Pilani.. Thesis. 10' Wood. et al. l\ew IorK. Hill. McGrawHil. and R..B. 27. power system Anarysis. w. Momoh. Electricity. IEEE .9 Repeat Example 7. r9g0.m. Electic power System Applicationsof Optimization. 197g..T.o i" 0 8 1 2 16 20 24 Timein hours' Flg.K. Book co.I.Kluwer Academic Publishers.p. IEEE Trans. (India).m. Harker. 199: 169.8 Fot the power plant of the illustrative exampleusedin Section 7. J. Modern power systemscontror and operation. g7: 154g. Happ. system Reliabitity.s. computer Aided Power system Analysis. . r\cuenswanoer.T.S.J f \r r v v rJn oao ( 7w7. to 6 a. 19' Debs. Ringlee and A. 59: 156. "optimal power DispatchA Comprehensive survey. Economicoperation of Power systems. A. Kirchmayer. Power System Reliabitity Calculations. New york. and R. 30. L.J. G.8 Dailyload curve for problemp7. Billirrton. New york. Power systems Engineeringand Mathematics. Kirchmayer.I.London.. pt ilr. 5 . prenticeHall.G. Sterling. syrt"r Anutyri. and I. 1971. R. sullvan.IEE. Hutchinson London. H. 19g3..L. 24' Agarwal.. Znd edn..J.W uoo"rnpo*". power SystemControl."optimal Schcduling of Hydrothermal Systems.. K.New Knight. Power System Reliability Evaluation.Gqrdon and Breach.snprinl Ptthlirntinn 15 .E. Correct the scheduleto meet security requirements.. Berrie.D.. July 196g. ph. IEEE. UK. r9gg. D. New york. A'J' and B. Kothari. New w E. 20. Techniquesin power System. 8. H. Aggarwar (Eds). J.R. 56: 264.I..'. J. 1996 11' Mahalanabis.. c.A New Method of Determining Loss Coefficients". 1984. Albertson. Bergen.1977. 1977. and 40 MW from 6 p... IEEE Trans.9 7. D..w. 25' Aytb. Kwue and R.J...E..c.. Wiley. J. 2 .. New York. 18' YongHuaSong (Ed. P7. New york. 1977. 13' Billinton. "Economics power systemsReriability. obtain the economically optimum unit commitment for the daily load cycle given in Fig.
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is necessary maintain it to networkfrequency constant so that the powerstations satisfactorily parallel. Figure 8. 8..failing which the machinespeed will vary with consequent change in frequency whieh may be highly (maximum permissiblechangein power fiequency is t 0. manual regulation is not feasible and therefore automaticgenerationand voltage regulation equipment is installed on each generator. I P+JQ Fig. ggirtcfalor field. However. correcttime is obtainedfrom synchronous clocksin the system.rL^e ^$rL^^^r5 llla! ul ulc.rn.1 vrJrrJr(lrrr urlLUultLtrlcu :.. to to otherwisethe system will be prone to hunting resulting in excessivewear and tear of rotatins machinesand control equipment.rri+^^. R caused momentary by chargein generafor speecl. The controllers are set for a particularoperatirrgcondition and they take care of small changesin load denrand without fiequency and voltageexceedingthe prescribedlimits. 8... Thus. It has been shown in previous chaptersthat for small changesactive power is dependent internalmachineangle 6 and is inderrendent bus voltage: on of whiie bus voitage is dependenton machine excitation (therefore on reactive . The regulators mustbe dusigned be insensitive thst randomchanges. while the power frequencycontrol is slow actingwith major time constant contributedby the turbine and generatormomentof inertiathis time constant is much larger than that of the generator tield. undesirable* Also the excitation of generatorsmust be continuouslyregulated to match the reactive power demand with reuctive generation.^ ^ l .2 LOAD FREOUENCY CONTROL (STNGLE AREA CASE) Let us considerthe problemof controlling the power output of the generators of a closely knit electric areaso as to maintz. excitation voltagecontrolsare noninteractive smallchanges for and can be modelled analysed and independently. . Furthermore.qffi. otherwise the voltagesat various system buses may go beyond the prescribed limits..and (ii) fast random variations aroundthe mean.1..rhr ^6^. variousmotorsoperating run in the on the systemrun at the desiredspeed.?t...l ^ . Further.r. . let us consider a single turbogeneratorsystem supplying an isolated load.INTRODUCTION Powersystemoperation considcrcd far was underconditions stcady so of load.T . the contrcllers must be reseteithernianuallyor automatically.. .r r c^ r v r f i r r r o Lrr r. With the passage of time. ^ . both active and reactive power demandsare never steady and they continually change with the rising or falling trend. .ri rJ rrlttw n." Change frequency in causes change speed the consumers' in of plant affecting production processes. the entertaining and devices functionproperly. _ _ _ : .I ^ l . as the change in lcad demand becomes large. therefore. All the generators such an areaconstitutea coherent group so that all the generators in speeo ancisiow riowii togetiier iip rnarntarnrng thelr reiarrve power angies.i. r . In modern large interconnected systems. 8.1 schematic diagramof loadfrequency excitation and voltageregulators a turbogenerator of Change in load demand can be identified as: (i) slow varying changes in meandemand. excitation voltage eontrolis F:tcl :tcfinrr ir rrh vr r nr rv v r rirn h r t h cv ..5 Hz).^ L . r ^ .r..tnr*. tI'r..Such an area is defined as a control area. Steam input to turbogenerators water input to hydrogenerators) (or must.inthe scheduled frequency.the transients excitation in voltage control vanish much faster and do not affect the dynamics of power frequencycontrol..be continuously regulatedto match the active power demand.1 gives the schematic diagram of load frequency and excitation voltage regulatorsof a turbogenerator. To understandthe load fiequency control problem.. Tire boundariesof a coqtrol area will generallycoincide with that of an individual Electricity Board Company.
e. Elgerd: Electric Energy System Theory: An lntroduction.Low power level pilot valve movement is converted into high power level piston valve movement. The reversehappens when the speeddecreases. (+) t (i.. Let the operating conditions be characteizedby = "f" systemfrequency (speed) P'c = generator output = turbine output (neglecting generator loss) . This is necessary order to open or close in the steamvalve againsthigh pressure steam. G) Hydraulic amplifier: It comprises a pilot valve and main piston alrangement. It is contributedby Ayg and AyB and can be written as Ayo=(h) Ayc+(.W Turbine Modern power system Analys.high pressureoil flows on to the top of the main piston moving it downwards. upwards) of . . downwards) The net movement of C is therefore orO.8. turbine running at constant speedwith turbin" po*"r output balancing the generator load.+ kAf AYc=. Ayp. Its downward movement opens the upper pilot valve so that more steem is admitted to the turbine under steady conditions (hence more steady power .e. (xl) Lintcage mechanism: ABC is a rigid link pivoted at B and cDE is anotherrigid link pivoted at D. Ayi sets into rnotion a bequenceof eventsthe pilot valve moves upwards.It also provides a feedback the steamvalve movement (link 4). New York.krAyo(i.As the speedincreases fly balls move outwards the and the point B on linkage mechanism moves downwards. . 322.1) rHydraulic amplifier (speed control mechanism) Fig. p.fr9rn where APc is the commanded increase in power.e. The reverse Model of Speed Governing System Figure 8. stearnvalve opened by a definite magnitude. .e. The consequent movemen of Cwith A remaining fixed at Ayo . The systemconsists the following components: of Steam Speed changer Assume that the system is initially operating under steady conditionsthe linkage mechanism stationary and pilot valve closed.ktkcAPc+kAf (8...IE = steam valve setting We shall obtain a linear incremental model around these operating conditions.2 Turbinespeedgoverning system Reprinted permission McGrawHilt with of BookCo. This link mechanismprovides a movementto the control valve in proportion to change in speed. (i) FIy ball speedgovernor: This is the heart of the system which senses the changein speed(frequency).h) *. the turbine generatorspeedincreases. Let the point A on the linkage mechanism be moved downwards by a small amount Aye.It is a commandwhich causesthe turbine power output to change and can therefore be written as Main piston A I Pilot value High pressure oil t\ Aye= kcAPc (8.2) The movement of D. \ The command signal AP. Let us model i. 1g71. (i.2 shows schematicallythe speedgoverningsystem of a steamturbine. the steam valve opening consequently increases.from Olle l. Two factors contribute to the movement of C: (i) Ayecontributer [?Jl \rl Aya or . the frequencygoes up. these events mathematically.s Speed Governing System turbine. is the amount by which the pilot valve opens.ktKcApc (ii) Increase in frequency ff causes the fly balls to move outwards so that B moves downwards by a proportional amount k'z Af.
(8.6) a y u ( g = .<..k&cApc(") + krAF(s) (8. ur".3) The movement ay.4a shows a two stage steam turbine with a reheat unit.3 . 8. certain justifiable simprifying assumptions.r*^or". (8.4) It can be verified from the schematicdiagram that a positive movemen ayo. t causesnegative (upward)movement ayulccounting for the n"gutiu" .which ean be rnade at this .k.r.Figure 8. Modelling of a hyjroturbine regulating system is beyond the scopeof this book. The dynamic *ponr" is targely influenced by two factors. the rate of oil admitted to the cylinder is proportional to port opening Ayo. 'fttus. we can write AYu(s)k'ktk'AP' (s).(g.^ri^/o o\ :. The movementay"i.l " = tlme constant of speedgovernor rKqkS AYg(s)FAPds) (b) Turbine transfer functionmodel Flg.Lru' \o. (i) Inertial reaction forces of main pistoi and steam valve are negligible compared to the forces exerteclon the iirton by high pressureoil.krAF(s) ') (oo '' t "'tr .ithereby by ayr.4).s obtainedby dividing the oil volume by the area of the crosssection thepiston. This is necessitated the targe inertia or the penstoct gut" by which regulates the rate of water input to the turbine. by For easeof analysisit will be assumedhere that the turbinl can be modelled to have Ssingle equivalent time constant. (i) entrained steambetwein the inlet stbam valve and first stageof the turbine. Ks9 1+ fsss 4Y5(s) 4F(s) Flg.].s) koAyug) + (8.. The volume of oil admitted to the cylinder is thus proportional to the time integral o.2).4). (g.gainof speed governor (a) Twostage steamturbine .s { sec. we ger of AYr(s)=.8) =& Steam valve n= klc K2 t_ = speedregulationof the governor K.i#) where Let us now relate the dynamic responseof a steam turbine in tenns of changes in power ouFut to changesin steamvalve opening ^4yr.ign used in Eq.  E t riyLr.= .tugl.f ayo. of Thus controt 1 E^.4 . Taking the Laplace transform Eqs. Typicaly the time constant lies'in the range o.Blockdiagramrepresentation speed governorsystem of The speed governing system of a hydroturbine is more involved.epending upon its sign opensone of the ports of the pilot valve admitting high pressure'o' into thJ moving the main piston and opening the steam valve "ynnJ. 8.5) Ayp(s)= kzAyd. (ii) the storageaction in the reheaterwhich causesthe output of the low pressurestageto lag behind that of the high pressure stage. Figure g. the turbine transfer function is characterized two time constants. r .4b shows the transfer function model of a sreamturbine. +y .= ktayc + koAys (g.3) and (g.7) lor. 9. An additional feedback loop provides temporary droop compensation to prevent instability. rs rcpfesenleo ln tne ronn of a block diagram in Fig.i ro z.. (ii) Because of (i) above. rs = .od./ \ (8. Turbine Model Avn= krfoeayrlat (8..o.k so r U n l EliminatingAyr(s) andAyo(s).3.
Writing the powerbalance equation. rrrroarrn Generator Load Model The increment power in inputto the generatbrload system is APG _ APD whele AP6 = AP.\ AP..e) complete Block Diagrram Representation of Load Frequenry Control of an Isolated Power System =fffrr"n $rr*"r (8..a Pr^ = T H P*' d ( o f l +B A f .q. g. @PDl?flAf=BAf (8.10) (ii) As the frequency changes.6 Blockdiagrammodelof load frequency control powersystem) (isolated Steady States Analysis The model of Fig.] < Dividingthroughoutbyp. andrearanging.e.G) 4PoG) B*'. the change in load demand.i2) AP6(s) Flg. B is positivo a for predominantly motorload. have we A P c .= + =powersystem gain Equation (8.the motor load changesbeing sensitive to speed.rt"r An"ly.i. The kinetic energy being proportional to square of speed(frequency).8.we get /A' ' n'7'. ^Po(s) 16ffioro. This increment in power input to the syrtem is accountedfor in two ways: (i) Rate of increase of stored kinetic energy in the generator rotor.[#j 2H = pow€r systemtime constant Bf" (s. incremental turbine incremental loss to be negligible) and App is the load increment.)r.13) Kp.APc.6 shows that there are two important incrementalinputs to the load frequency control system . Let us consider.u)= 1d (Afi^ + B(ptt)af dt f Taking the l.. = H x p.the rate of changeof load with respectto frequ"n.T) Rate of change of kinetic energy is therefore (8.(r. the change in speedchangersetting. = f. we can write AF(s) as AP6$u)(8. is the kW rating of the turbogenerator andH is defined as its inertia constant. 8. situatiqn in and APo.s .aplace transforrn. the stored energy is Wk.y.simple 4Fis. i.. kW = sec (kilojoules) where P.11) wherethe constantB can be determined empirically.13) can be representedin block diagram form as in Fig. arot\ycan be regarded as nearly constant for small changes in frequency Af ard can be expressed as AP(s)=trPn15.5. the kinetic energy at a frequency of (f " + Arf ) is given by Automatlc Generationand Voltage Control I =tAP6g)_ aPo(.#phSi I po*". s). At scheduledfrequency (fo ).5 Block diagram representation of generatorload model laeo(s) =nr.  AP. Flg. 8.4.
'(rr cr rr^tr(r ucttrng \7'e' af = o) and the load anaount *. .oo c demand the sneerl .hqnrro' 't::.17) r^sorr.. ap. 8. For typical values of B and R quoted earlier APo = 0.*.the linear incrementalrelation (g.han.16) then simplifies to .ffi"ffi.Modern which ..16) fi roa (J L 8. *' #ff:Tiil: :. (8.rog .ffi. e... K I ( = 1I . curve mainly determined R.c 102 101 100 0 (ii) 60% Load 250 MW machine with an operating load of 125 MW.:r.1uuy' cquauon glves tne steadystate changes in frequencycausedby changes in load demand.7 shows the linear relationship betweenfrequency and load for free governor operation with speedchanger set to give a scheduled frequency of r00% at full toao.rL^ rhe droop isthus by "r. Decreasesystem = BAf= in load (uffi)*.n change for . Apo= 0). The . (.=_ *"r: (r^...7 Steady qharacteristic a speed of governorsystem "*l?39frequency '=(#)b : #: o'ol Pu Mwgz .971 APo Decreasein system load = 0.Equation (8. Speed regulation R isnaturally so adjusted that changesin frequency are small (of the order of 5vo from no load to ruu load). (Or"<rlat dA^t   \r.Y ^ /P' (in PuMWunit change ai in frequency). Of course.the contribution of decrease system load in is much less than the increase in generation. = 7 / B . the speedgovernorregulation. .hung".Fig. hoo .].. r.5 NNVtHz af 0. fjfli.fl"... Then *For Percent Load a:?:r?: :2. Now 4=(#6)o..e.::::^ a2e g * . w h e r e B .:il?: in system .droop.. g.(s):o : I ^L^^ r'E ..^) ^. The sready +)with state changein frequency is obtained as follows. steady 3l i: T::: frequencya sudd.01 pu Mwalz and l/R = U3) so that B canbe neglected in comparison. 2 rr e o. Therefore.ti'l. (8.16)ican be appliedfrom no load to full load' with this understanding.Apog):+)is obtained follows: as AP^ ^f aF@)l*.)o". or slopeof this 'l ( I relationship is l \ B+(t/R) ) Power system parameter B is generaily much smalrer* than r/R (a typical value is B = 0.029 ApD consider now the steady effect of changing speed changer setting load demandremainingfixed (i. 8.s Flg. ffi. let the change in load be i%o for IVo change in frequency (scheduledfrequency = 50 Hz). ruuloLoao li\ It is also rccognized that Ko.
governors.flr*uoyro.the steamvalve beginsto closeafter 0. The load is suddenly reducedto 50 MW./R K ) \ _ KreKrKp. (8.x) MW Reduction in frequency = Af Now af_ x 0.ooo )t"= \ 500. they will operate at the same frequency at steadyload. . tI^.21) Two generators rated 200 MW and 400 MW are operating in parallel.e. The of droop characteristics their governors are4Vo and 5Vo. Solution Kinetic energy stored in rotating parts of generatorand turbine = 5 x 100 x 1..e.4 = 20.1e) If K rrK. Assuming that the generatorsare operating at 50 Hz at no load.4Vo..I ODIalneU f. Solution Since the generators are in parallel. we get r) 231 MW (loadon generator v  600x= /A JOy trltf lvlw (IUau /1 ^l ull ^ Btrrltrriltur L) on A 100 MVA synchronousgeneratoroperates full load at at frequencyof 50 Hz. changesby APo.04x 50 200 (i) (ii) x af 0.000 kWsec Stored kinetic energy oo (frequency)2 Frequency at the end of 0. Systemfrequency= 50 ' Dynamic Response giving the change in frequency as function of To obtain the dynamic response the time for a step changein load. Repeat the problem if both governorshave a droop of 4Vo.^.4 sec 0'01150 x 231 = 47.14).sK tK ps R I AP'. dynamic responsecan r' Onfy r Dg  1!. r s ) ( l * 4 sxl* zors)+ KseKt p. in frequencythat occurs in this time. This indeed is desirable from operational considerations.generatorI gets overloaded It easily follows from above that if both governorshave a droop of.they will share the load as 200 MW and 400 MW respectively. they are loaded corresponding to their ratings.18) I (8.:g xu'c s (8. for Af = Q Figure 8. The characteristic equationbeing of third order. Typical valuesof the time constants magnitudesof the time constants of load frequency control system are rdlated as .": t / r l ( 1 + K .luf A ^^^tC: ^ SPtrUfffU *^:^^1 ll'llll('llua1'I ^^^^ Ua1DE. we must obtain the Laplace inverse of Eq.i.7 depicts two load frequency plotsone to give scheduled frequencyat I00Vorated load and the other to give the samefrequencyat 6O7o rated load. Let load on generator 1 (200 MW) = x MW and load on generator 2 (400 MW) = (600 .{s):o: ttsgttf r t v (t ^ p s ( 1 +T . Given H = 5 kWsec/kVA of generatorcapacity.e.ooo 5r rfz = 5ox I soo.^II(rwsYsIr +L^ LfIs ^L^^^+^i^+in r.= l Ar=( "  \ B+llR) \rc" (8. while the load demand i..4 seconds.000= 5 x 105 kWsec Excesspower input to generatorbefore the steam valve beginsto close= 50 MW Excess energy input to rotating parts in 0.69 Hz 200 It is observed here that due to difference in droop characteristics of 2 while generator is underloaded. 4.APo) ru) 'o" (8. According to Eq.2I) the frequency changecausedby load demandcan be compensated changingthe settingof the speedchanger. Ar = ( ". how would a load of 600 MW be sharedbetweenthem?What will be the system frequency at this load? Assume free governor operation.20) If the speed changer setting is changedby AP.Analysis uodernPower system W I Autor"tic G"n"r"tionand Volt"g" Conttol AD F AF@lap.000 ) equation can be approximated as first order by examining the relative involved.i.05 50 400 600x EquatingAf in (i) and (ii).APo.respectivelyfrom no load to full load.000 x 0.4 sec = 50 x 1. by APc. the steadyfrequencychangeis obtainedby superposition.lIAP. Due to time lag in governor Determinethe change system.Il<ll4ivLsllDrlv + zo. (8. .
8 Firstorderapproximate brockdiagramof road frequency controt an isolated of area Irning Tro = T. (" = 100. inertiaconstanrIl = SkWseclkVA =2osec . so much change in frequency cannot be tolerated. .0. Tt = 0.23b) "For a 250 MW machine quoted earlier. For purposes of developing a suitable control strategy. all the generators respond in unison to changes in load o. order approximation is obviously a poor approximation.Such a coherentareais called a control area in which the frequency is assumedto be the same throughout in static as well as dynamic conditions. Aflrt"udystare . = 0: =1). 4s = 0.5 sLc.J (."o{1:.5 sec and I I o Time (sec)> t 1 Firstorderapproximatiorl Flg' 8.8.*. Typically* t. l. All the control strategies discussedso far are. (8. = 4 :o 2 * 5 .s" s Dynamic response_of changein frequency a stepchangein load for (APo= 0.0.[. for the system being used for the illustration above.)= Ar ft{' . Apo = 0.029(I . Proportional Plus fntegral Control .APo (1+ KpslR)+ Zp.g. 8.Trr4T. R= 3) The plot of change in frequency versus time for first order approximadon ^rirst given above and the exact response are shown in Fig.4 sec. .23a) (8. <To.01 pu e.t:tt'. State Electricity Boards) in which the generatorsare tightly coupled together so as to form a coherent group.029 Hz = (8. In fact. therefore. applibable to an independent control area. = 20. = 0. a. ' Bf 0. System frequency specifications are rather stringent and.9 Hz [see Eq. e.01pu. Af (t) = .  = 0. Kp. the steadystatedroop in fieo=ueney will be 2.=xaP.23b)l from no load to tull load (l pu load). i. it is expected that the steady change in frequency will be zero. . TakingR = 3. Consider now a practical system with number of e generating stations aird loads. It is possible to divide an extendedpower system (say.4 sec. the steady load frequency charartitirti" fi agiven speedchanger setting has considerabledroop...6 K*\ is Iuld reduced to thlt of F'ig. = 2b sec..01x = 50 It is seen from the above discussionthat with the speed governing sysrem installed on each machine. turbogenerator and load system.a[n#)]] g 22) *.e. from which we can write AF(s)l*r(s):o = to. a control area can be reduced to a single speed governor. national grid) into subareas (may be. While steadystatefrequency can be brought back io the scheduled . + ^ + r o ' 1 L R4.p"rJ changer settings. therefore. 8. the block diagram of Fig. Io.. Gontrol Area Concept So far we have considered the simplified case of a single turbogenerator supplying an isolated load.g. = llB = 100.
as is well known from control theory. gives zero steady state error..09) 8. speedchangersetting. The dynamic response of the proportional plus integral controller with Ki = 0. Now + I I t o r x 1 AF(s1= Kn.5 sec.. r s ) ( l + 4 s ) + (** RKo. 4s = 0. frequencyelTor and a fast dynamic response. Kp.ut.24) obviousry Flg..___ inteorel __O (8. For example.e.B. 8. Ir = 0. but it has its time (integral of frequency) error though steady frequency error is zero. A corrective action (manual adjustment apc. Ki= 0. 4 logical design criterion is the minimization of II. i. The additional signal fed back in the modified control schemepresented above is the integral of ACE.4 sec.= 0.the systemcould under go intolerable vaiue by adjus'ring dynamic frequency changes with changes in load. the systembeing of fourth orderthe order of the system has increasedby one with the addition of the integral loop. the speed changer setting) is taken by a large (preassigned)station in the area as soon as the time error exceeds a prescribed value.11 Dynamic response loadfrequency of controller with and without integral controlaction(APo = 0. this is only possible if Af = 0. modern powersystems keep Eaekofintegra+e4tinae errsr all the time. In central load frequency control of a given control area. the change (error) in frequencyis known as Area Contol Error (ACE).10 Proportional integralload frequency by The signal APr(s) generated the integral control must be of oppositesign to /F(s) which accounts for negative sign in the block for integral controller.s(l+{rs)(l+ 4s) * + {'s)(1 + 4sXl f zo's)R Ko'(KiR f s) "+ actiOn (8.+ AF(s) t l AP6(s) sensor Frequency control plus Fig.10. 17o) occurs a control is known as isochronous control. For the sake of comparisonthe dynamic responsewithout integral control action is also plotted on the samefigure. a signal from Af is fed diagram througfan integrator to the s configuration shown in Fig.B . 'Such .ffil I Analys Power system Modern AutomaticGenerationand VoltageControl tin ihe above scheme ACE being zero uncier steaciyconditions*. Af lrt""d" . Becarrse of fhe intes!'atins Of the Load eonfrnller qnhierrAe 'vu lvrv ?a?^ otvsuJ craolrr Dl4lg ora+o controller. ( l * f . economic despatch) of the control area.25) Af l"t"^dy = so/F(s) : o state .lrsrr uAp^ rcwlMl HrD Ap =  .09 for a step load disturbance of 0. Integral controller APe(s) APp(s) l+tr8I I t . Ko. Af reaches steady state (a constant value) only rr. +).For this purpose.01 pu obtained through digital computer are plotted in Fig.01pu.11.CZ dr for a step disturbance.onsfant vvuulqr!. 8. In contrast to Eq. Ips= 20 sec. The system now modifies to a proportional plus integral controller. (r %"s). (8. The dynamics of the proportional plus integral controller can be studied numerically only.= 100. This can be argued out physically as well. This integral is indeed the time error of a synchronous electric clock run from the power supply. if a sudden small increasein load (say. which.3 IOAD FREOUENCY CONTROL AND ECONOMIC DESPATCH CONTROL freouencv_ J _ I control ________ with .16) we find that the steady state changein frequency has been reduced to zero by the additio4 of the integral controller. It leads to the natural suggestion that the speed changer setting be adjusted automatically by monitoring the frequency changes.e. 8.but it exercisesno control over the relative loadings of various generating stations (i. Infact. 8.
EDC .Central economic despatch computer Flg. = r where q'q ''rrl''l X. of . Speed Fig. Elgerd: Electric Energy SystemsTheory: An Introd. generatorand governorsystem. the road conrior . 345. 8. together.4 TWOAREA LOAD FREOUENCY CONTROL Automatic "fnceot An extendedpower system can be divided into a number of load frequency control areasinterconnectedby meansof tie lines. this is not satisfactory.Figure 8'12 gives the schematicdiagram of both thesecontrolsior two typi. may even get overloaded.pJactual)].uction. some units in the pro""r. It is convenientlyhssumedthat each control area canbe represented by an equivalentturbine. New York from Olle I. However.. Some control over loading of individual units cafi be Lxercised by adjustingthe gain factors (K. this fact must be accounted for in the incremental power balanceequation of each area.) includeJin the signal representing integral of the area cogtrol error as fed to individual unitr. theseunits match the load and the frequenry returns tp the scheduled value (this action takesplace in a few seconds).poweranglesof equivalent machines thetwo areas. Without loss of generality we shall consider a twoarea case connectedby a single tie line aslilusnated in Fi g..13.Symbols used with suffix I refer to area 7 and those with suffi x 2 refer to area 2.process of this change the Ioadings of u@units change in a manner independent of economi@ In fact. sin ({ .f area.26) . power in or out of an area.q (8. [po (desired). suitabry modified by the signal representingintegral ncg at that instant of time.changesthe speed changer 1i.The signal to changethe speedchan3ersetting is lonstructed in accordance with economic despatcherror.Economic despatch controller CEDC . The signal P6 (desired) is computed by the central economic despatch computer (CEDC) and is transmitted to the local econornic despatch controller (EDC) installed at each station. _Tcommand signai generated'oythe centrai economic despatch computer.However. proportional plus integral controller will be installed so as to give zero steady state error in tie line power flow as compared to the contractedpower.eivenbv lr.i3 Two interconnected contror areas(singre rine) tie The control objective now is to regulatethe frequency of each area and to srnnultaneously regulatethe tie line power as per interareapower contracts.B. in the. In an isolated control area case the incremental power (apc _ apo) was accountedfor by the rate of increaseof stored kinetic energy and increase in areaload causedby increasein fregueircy.since a tie line t *rport. I971.l1r_::ltrol frequency Dcrurgsor tne governors of all generating units of the area so that. 8.ut units of a control area. Power transported out of area 1 is . 812 Control area load frequency and economic despatch control Reprinted (with modification) with permission of McGrawHill Book Company. As in the caseof frequency. Ptie.p. The system thus operateswith economic desfatch error only for very short periods of time beforJ it is readjusted.
'l'^LiI4ArrrS AS fho T ^l^a rrrw lsl/l4vv fL lo nl o frn rrm r * 4l D u rr ^ fr u E^ LY. 8. (8.1r. 8. g.r/ ". g.1(s) ffroor(s) (8.t. (8.] $. apt i".t+ to g.(s) ) where as definedearlier [seeEq. Thus..synchronizing (8.13) of the isolated control areacase. \ Let us now turn our attentionto ACE (areacontrol error.(l Afrdt I Urat) (8.14. 8.2e) For the control area 2. arc incremental frequency changes of areas 1 and 2.r(s) where Afi nd Af.mental line power can be expressed as AP..30) ( g: 35) With referenceto Eq.".(s) (8..14 The corresponding block diagram is shown in Fig. the incre.15.462) where T..34) ( 8.33) Comparedto Eq.27) we Since incrementalpower anglesare integrals of incrementalfrequencies.13)] = Kp31 I/81 Tpil = LHr/BJ" A P ti " .z(s)+ b2AF.4F.i. can write Eq. g.r(s) Fil in tie For incrementalchanges { and 6r. r(s) + b1AF1g) Similarly. (g.E): [S]ti z: ar2rrz rzr= LL " Przxzr \Prr) (s. 8.Zg)l ./4 (s)l = AP.A P r.31) and reorganizing...E) .(8. /a ta\ \v. (8. + AP.32) " t$.. tie Similarly the incremental line power out of area2 is given by aPt.. in the presence of a tie line. z = 2ilzr([ yrat where [ ayrat) AF1(s) iE= Fig.r+ brAf.i.15.37) (8.I\. the incrementalpower balance equationfor area 1 can be written as = APo. respectively. ACE is the change in area frequency which when used in integral control loop forced the steady state frequencyelror to zero.t (8. ( 8.28) APti".4. we of Taking the laplacetransf'orm Eq.12).6.the only changeis ol the appearance the signal APri"J(s) as shown in Fig. 38) Combining the basic block diagramsof the two control areascorresponding to Fig. .16. (8. ACE2 is expressedas ACEr(s) = APti". 36) where the constant b. with AP5rg) and Apr2(s) generatedby integrals of respective ACEs (obtainedthrough signalsrepresentingchangesin tie line power and local frequencybias) and employing the block diagramsof Figs. we easily obtain the composite block diagram of Fig.: gr r r .APor + *w)+ Jr" or nrzr* AP. for the control are a 2.36) can be expressed the Laplace transform as in ACEl(s) = APo.27) as Fig. In order that the steadystatetie line power error in a twoarea control be made zeroanotherintegralcontrol loop (one for each area) must be introducedto integratethe incremental line power signal and feed tie it backto the speed changer.i. ic nlrfoinerl .308  I I Modefn Power SystemAnalysis Automatic Generation Vortage and contror I APti". ( s) ] tYr:J ({ cos L .r(pu)= Tp(Afi .15. r(s) is given by tEq.L9). In the case of an isolated control area.31) It rnay be noted that all quantitiesother than fiequencyare in per unit in Eq. Ap6".4P /"\ tie. = 'Y:t'Yf PrrXrz coefficient cos(f .".i. 8. get A F (s ) = IAP 6 1 G . fbr control area I ACEI = APu".r = 2*. This is aeeomplished a singleintegrating by bloek by redef ining ACE as a linearcombination incremental of frequenryand tie line power. z( s)= [ AFr ( s). block diagramof Fig. Equation (8.! I+ which is also indicated Uy .3l). (8. is called areafrequency bias. 15 n7ri"l (8. tl h a lrv c i o nro l^ or6r s ..
r =A P .1 :pE o 6 c) =a d .the output signals of all integratingblocks will become constantand in order for this to be so. changein frequency) obtainedthrough digital computerstudy are shown in the form of a dotted line in Figs.g q <. 1 6 KtL) APu".5. ?r. = 3 . their input signalsmust become zero. 8. =Tr. .4 sec. respectively.s tt) E g .When steady conditions are reached.Af. 4 2 5 .41) ) (8.19. and APrrbe simultaneously in appliedin control areas 1 and 2. a g t u Q c l e. I. Formulation of the statespacemodel for the twoarea system will be illustrated in Sec. Ap6".ln the conventional approachul anduzwere provided by the integral of ACEs. Dynamic responseis difficult to obtain by the transfer function approach (as used in the single area case)becauseof the complexity of blocksand multiinput (APop APor) and multioutput(APri".In accordance with modern control terminology APcr arrdAP62 will be referred to as control inputs q and u2. + brAfr= o finpot of integrating block\ r l Afr .39a) trJ o (8..z. 7r = 0.5 sec.42) lr *li ol. . Tzt.n EOo o o o @ .WIU& Modern Power svstem Analvsis Let the step changes loads APo.n o o o r\ ai cit lr CL d <.3eb) (8.. *. The results of the twoareasystem(APri".1. 2 f l r 2 = 0 .39). b = 0 .> (g() E 9 o o o o o o E o Afi=Afz=0 Thus.28)and(8. from F i e . A more organizedand more convenientlycarried out analysisis through the state spaceapproach(a tirne domainapproach).( 8 6 Hence Eqs.9 d * 3 5 u = o a'9 '85 oo.Y EF a (\ .41)aresimultaneously satisfied only for A P r i " . 0 9 . This has been achieved by integration of ACEs in the feedbackloops of each area. l! t l+ ld 5l u I f: Modern control theory is applied in this section to design an optimal load frequencycontroller for a twoa3ea system.29) APn". & = 0 .2.5 OPTTMAL (TWOAREA) LOAD FREOUENCY CONTROL 5 * * o O E F A G' 6 o o o E (D () (U b 6 tr(') E H'. 2 = 0 and v'it (8.40) ra S I il oi g A oo N o (U o !t o oy. We have. In . + b rAfr= O finputof integrating block\ .=constant ar2 (8.i". changein tie line power and. = 20 sec K o r =1 0 0 . 0 5 R 8. 8. Afr Afr) situation..(8.(8. : " . under steady condition change in the tie line power and frequency of each area is zero.8 .r) K'z) APti". The two areasare assumedto be identical with system parameters given by Trs= 0.(8.Afz =o finpurot integrating block '4'\ \ s FromEqs. AP.18 and 8. therefore.
+.1 tt1= APg.I' 8 t t For block 2 x. XS= JACEit t. 8.._ .z . x4 + u2 I\2 or io=#*o**u '2t sg2 t sg2 ( 8. immediately notice that the systernhas nine state variables.T .. 8.{< Optimalcase (full state feedback) or iq= Tprz  Tps2 '' . . r + r .2+ Tiliz= ' With integralcontrolaction xt or *z=+r**n t r + { . + I I I l f..V t 1 4 l T.rea Before presenting the optimal design. 48) .szx6.. w1= AP" For block 1 xq = Af.1 8 change in tie linepower ' For block 3 r 21.2i5 .. xt = Aft .y ' .01pu) changein area1 F i g . we must formulate the state model.* * ... dt 1+r+i.wt x.AP. = K ^ t ( x z L P h .w) (8. = JACE.01 pu) 1 change in a. 46) For block 5 Fig. s r i ': = R.+_''.x6 or is= l Ttz Y 4 r< I . formt'lating states of combination all the system feedbackloops are this purposethe conventional statevariablernodel for block as shown in bv resented a se Statevariablesare definedas the outputsof all blocks baving either Fig. t* . 47) For block 6 . h l  1 4 l o o X ( t'2 3 I . 445 due to step load(0.x t t ptl t ptl 'psl 1 .constanf. ' dt' x s t 7.r2.'f\ Optimal case (full state feedback) x1 + T.L r. We an integratoror artirne.. x5 = AP52 u2 = /)Pa w2 = APp.16 and 8.71=a. l x s * I .z u ( 8. M& moderncontrol theory approach ur and u2 wtll be createdby a linear the For (full state feedback).W ^ at?K or2 Tps2 ' Tpsz z ( 8. This is achieved below by writing the differential equations ciescribing each individual block of Fig.11=1 12 14 20 18 16 Time(sec) A L I N or * t= X+ * n ^h r. 8.AutomaticGeneration and Voltagecontrot itZ I Analysis System Power rrrrodern  f* ComparingFigs. 8. *f Kprt t psl Kprt .I r. wz) Ko*2 (8.17 in terms of state variables (note that differential equations are written by replacing s UV *1.45) o x IL I with integral control action For block 4 Torz*+= I Krrz(xs + ar2x7 Knrz '\A'1. r r i. 8 .43) .19 Change in frequencyof area 1 due to step load (0.17. r ( 8.1 / /' '.a .17.. Kprt .
the control vector z is constructed by a linear combination of all states..52) reveralsthat our model is not in the standard form employed in optimal control theory.we get *' = Axt + But ( g.s ) 1 For block 9 i9= b2xa.anxt uz=.52).a constantdisturbance vector p would drive some of the system states and the control vector z to constantsteadyvalues. = _ Kx* Hence tt /= Ikl 0 0 6 7 8 9 0 2 irrz bL Tprz o o 0 0 0 o o 0 0 0 i  o 1 10 1 7. ut=is= brx.1 Trst 0 1 o K p Tprz ' o z Tprz Ttz * = 0 in Eq. x x' * Ir" (8. 56) This represents system model in terms of excursion of state and conhol vectors fiom their respectivesteadystate values. I TreZ 0 0 0 1 atz 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RzTrsz 2ilr2 0 0 0 b 2 0 0 0 0 [ o o TI I Br =  I L ss1 o o o aco) 'O 00. For full state feedback.43) to (8.."1 T ModernPower SystemAnatysis '.s3) Definingx and z as the sumof transient steady and state terms. r r "+ B u r r + F w (8.52).54) n = ut * z'. we have r i' = A (r/ + x"r) + B(at + usr)+ Fw By virtue of relationship(8. (8.e. Furthermore.. can write we = .i Kirxs=. For a constant disturbancevector w. anduz aregeneratedby means of feedbacks from all the nine states with feedback constants to be determinedin accordance with an optimality criterion.51) can be organizedin the following vector The nine equations matrix form (8.5O) (8.l I I J l o oo o o + Kprt 0 Tprt 0 0l I .'3i4'.Ar Kiz la.i. whichthengives 0 = A . 0 1 Rr4er A _ 2 Y 'tPsl 3 0 4 0 5 0 7 Tprt 8 9 bLoo 0 0 atzKprz Tprt .."".55) in Eq.s2) *=Ax+Bu+Fw where ln the optimal control schemethe control inputs u. the steady state is reachedwhen x _ l x r x2 . (8.54) and (8.1 Tt 1 Ttr o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 .s7b) .l( (r/+ rr") For a stable system both r/ and ut go to zero.while the cost function employedin optimal control requiresthat the systemstateand control vectors have zero steady state values for the cost function to have a minimum.T (8. xg)r = state vector u = f u t u2fT= control vector vector w = l w t w2fT = clisturbance while the matrices A. Now ttt+ Itrr=. and rnonly. Examination of Eq.co". therefore ur. + x.Ki{s= (8.53). (8. (8.55) Substituting and z from Eqs.Kir IeCn.57a) where K is the feedback matrix. The standardform is i=Ax+Bu which does not contain the disturbance term Fw present in Eq. (g. u=Kx (8. B and F are defined below: I I Tpst.t"" " constructedas under from the state variables x.Cerar For block 7 it=2iTtzxt2iTr2xa For block 8 (8.52).4e) (8. (8.
the steam valve catmot be openedmore than a certain value without causingthe boiler presisure drop severely. . of course. A convenient PI has the quadratic form (8.s8) arzbz 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 uzr. + bzx. 7'r* = 20 sec /l = 3: (n* = l/lJ = 100 b = O .?+ . For illustration we considertwo identical control areaswith the following systellparameters: 4r* = 0'4 scc.17 easily reveals the steady state values of state and control variablesfor constantvaluesof disturbance inputs w.0000 0. (iii) Excursionso1'the contt'ol vector (ut1.00001 l3 7 f. + . (8.68 ..56). The steadyvalueof the controlvectoris.l4l9 0. can write the PI as we pr= * fU+ + h.57b) in Eq. (8.5286 t.. Q md R can be recognizedas 0.constants. = wl = r.]) + + + 2Jtt' + kfu'l u. 09. = COnstant I9r..o2tl0.0046 0.. * kt*sr.0100 0. = wz * 4 0 0 .Modern Power SystemAnalysis Examinationof Fig.Ki = 0. of are The steacly valuesof JeCg dt are. ^ = [ Lo. = Constant The values of xr* and xe* depend upon the feedback constants and can be determined from the following steady state equations: utrr= kttxtr.021 0.t4rg 0.61) '*Refer Nagrath and Gopal [5].se) K = RrBrS The feedbackrnatrix K in Eq.'' Qx' (8.11 + at From the PI of Eq.)2 (.ll '.2xt. (8.5 sec.52tt6 l..r.60) The acceptablesolution of K is that for which the systemremainsstable.743 0. For example.64) Fol stability all thc cigenvalues the matrix (A . 8. SubstitutingEq..0100 0. = wz Igr. + ftt8r8".of course.arrxt. andwr.e.r. .q) are minimized.kI = symmetric matrix (8. kz*gr. These are Ilrr=X4"r= /7r" = 0 Automatic Generation b ? o0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ulr.. brxta)z (.Bn shouldhave of negative real parts. up = I . 2iln = 0. xte) nrinimized.t + brx\. = wl r5rr= x6rr= lv2 (8. The steady values of ACEs are of course zero.gggg0.tt.gggsl (8.63) ' Pr= + u'r Ru'dt . a ' This nrinimization intended indirectlylimit the controleffbrt within is to the physical capability of components.a n b z 0 0 Q+a?)o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 = symmetric matrix R . (ii) Excursions JnCg dr about the steadyvalues (xts. to With the abovereasoning. + . (8. + kzgxgr. the system dynamics with foedback is definedbv i' = (A .6813 0.0. constant.51).74370. 05 The manices Q arrd R are defined for the problem in hand through the following design consiclerations: (i) Excursions of ACEs about the steadyvalues (r.57b) is to be determined so that a certain performance index (PI) is minimized in transferring the system from an arbitrary initial state x' (0) to origin in infinitie tirne (i.t2ss k2txlr. (g. 425.ut2) about the steadyvalue are rninirnized. x' () = 0). T'r= 0.BIgx.tl0460..
t" . the ovelail fansfer function of these two is K. (i) Transport the state information of the distant area over communication channels..It basicallyconsistsof a main exciter which excites the alternator field to control the output voltage. The error initiates the corrective action of adjusting the alternator excitation. This is."g . there are two ways of obtaining full state information in each area for control purposes. 8.20 Schematic diagramof alternator voltageregulator scheme Fig.The effect is only schematically reBresented hlock hv G. l* T"rs where T"yis the exciter field time constant.20 gives the schematic diagram of an automatic voltage regulator of a generator. Itjs r"rpoor" of a control system can be improved by the internal derivative feedback loop. tt" carrier frequency being the system frequency of 50 Hz. The output of the . Dffirencing device. The block diagram of the systemis given in o A D Alternator. 8. suitably amplified through voltage and power amplifiers. The exact load model of the alternatoris beyond .The no load transferfunction is Ks 7*T*s where Potential Fig. The load causes a voltage drop which is a complex function of direct and quadratureaxis currents.f.21. 8.iiii'f:l power Modern rystem in4gs c= vR. The function of important components and their transferfunctions is given below: Potential transformer: It gives a sample of terminal voltage v. Error wave form is suppressedcarrier modulated. Change in voltage caused by load Load change tG 1+Iers skrt 8. The derivative feedback in this system is provided by means of a stabiyzing transformer excited by the exciter output voltage vE.6 AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE CONTROL Fig. It gives the actuating error T*= generatorfield time constant. L Figure 8.iop" .vr.lq weil known that the dynami.vr '_ As the control areasextend over vast geographical regions.arr*..expensive.21 Brockdiagramof arternator vortageregurator scheme Error amplifier: It demodulatesand amplifies the error signal. Its field is excited by the main exciter voltage vu. scR power amplffier and exciter fierd: It provides the n". of course.. The exciter field is automaticallycontrolled through error e = vr"r . Its gain is Kr.: stabitizing transformer: T4*d are large enough time constantsto impair the system's dynamic response.rhtJ.rr" amplifier time constant to be small enoughio be neglected. Under no road it producesa voltage proportional to field current. It is a type0 system which requiresa constant error e for aspecified voltage at generatorterminals."rriry power amplification to the signal for controlling thl exciter n"ro..
was shown by Concordia et. in Mechanical f'riction and backlashand also valve overlapsin hydraulic relays cause the governor deadband.This is. The governor deadband materiallyaffect the can system response. are included in the statevec:tor.g u .e. of the to havebeenproposecl consider effect of GRCs for the clesign methocls dynamic the When GRC is considered. u't _+( +/ A l 'rr= MY dt t*9r"'l Taking the Laplace transform. 17] as shown in Fig. while solving the stare equations.If these largc tttottrclttrry systerttis likely to c:ha. be 8. there is another noniinearity introducedby the deadband the governor operation. Several Thrs results in disturbances. systeln generation controllers. The limiting value of deadbandis specifiedas 0.beyondthe scopeof this book.8. Some have a generation rate between 5 to 7jo/o/min.6s) The eff'ectof the speed governor deadband that for a given position of the is governor control valves.Here 2". Therefore..r. is Since the secondary connectedat the input ternfnals of an amplifier. the maximum rate of valve by openingor closingspeedis restricted the limiters.it may be verified at each step if the GRCs are viclated. speed the governor may not irnmediately react until the input reachesa particular value. In this model l A Y E l . sMlRt l*Irs Fig.ln AGC studies.320' l I Modern Power SystemAnalysis Automatic Generation Voltage_l and Control Jffif E I is transformer fccl ncgativclyat the input terminalsof thc SCR power stabiliz. + LrJilL ' d t valuesimposedhy the limitersareselected resffictthe generation The banded to rate by l}Vo per minute. Further.sc constraintsarc not consirlcrcd. r. I I. the deadband eff'ect indeed can be significant. .g 9t". of course. s Accurate staterrariablemodels of loaded alternator around an operating point can are available in literature using which optimal voltage regulation schemes devised..ction takesplace when the input signal decreases. The transferfunction of the stabilizing transfo"meris derived below.Lt sK". The generationrate reheat units is quit low. iS the power rate limit irnposedby valve or gate control. 8. hydroIn thennal system.ignored. Thus the governor deadbandis defined as the total rnagnitudeof sustainedspeedchangewithin which there is no change in valve position. the in duration for which the power needsto be imported increasesconsiderably as cornparedto the case where generationrate is not constrained. 8. though nonlirrear. automatic cannotbe appliedfor and linearcontroltechniques nonlinear rnodelbecomes of the optimization the controllersetting.Insteadof augntentingthem.7 LOAD FREOUENCY CONTROL WITH GENERATION RATE CONSTRAINTS (GRCs) the so controlproblcmdiscussed far doesnot consicler effect frcquency The l<racl of the restrictionson the rate of changeof power generation.In power systems maximum only at a specified can powergeneration change plants. R should be selected with care so as to give the best dynamic response. al [18] that one of the It effects of governor deadbandis to increasethe apparentsteadystate speed regulation R. beenapproxinraaed has by linear characteristicsin earlier analysis. If the generation systerm order will be altered.8 SPEED GOVERNOR DEADBAND ON AGC AND ITS EFFECT 1 +{ .sincerelativcly small signalsare under considerations.06Vo. we get (s) %. havingsteam (fiom saf'etyconsiderations the equipment)for o1 rate. n r (8.22. undue wear and tear of the controller. . the ratesdenotedby P".. * s. Dur to this.With GRCs. it can be assumedto draw zero current.22 Governor modelwith GRC The GRCs result in larger deviationsin ACEs as the rate at which generation can change the area is constrainedby the limits imposed. governor TlLespeed characterristic. generationrate in the hydro area norrnallyremainsbelow the the safe limit and therefore GRCs for all the hydro plants can be. Now dt vr = Rr i.ing amplifier. tr. _ sM VuG) R. an increase/decrease speed can occur before the in positionof the valve changes. Another way of consicieringGRCs for both areas is to arjri iinriiers io ihe governors[15. Similar a. Most of the reheatunits have a generatiol rate around 3%olmin. though the input signal increases.
d= eAT _ deadband. a decentralized control schemeis shown. there occurssampling operation . aloneis employed to find out u".the control vector in the discretemode is constrainedto remain constant between Flg. 1 deadband "(r+1) (8.24 Decentralized control .e.x.(i.10 DECENTRALIZED CONTROL Reference[20] considersthe effect of governor deadbandnonlinearity by using the describingfunction approach[11] and including the linearised equationsin the state spacemodel.24. 8. The discretetime behaviourof the continuoustime systemis modelled by the system of first order linear differenceequations: Speed governor Deadband x(k+1)=Qx(k)+Vu(k)+jp&) (8. Thus. 8. tl. if x('+l) . Unlike the continuoustimesystem.and ris the sampling at period.Consideringthe worst caseforthe deadband.e. The effect of the deadbandmay be included in the speed governor control as loop block diagram shown in Fig. etc.the following set of and traversed) examiningthe deadband ly define the behaviourolthe dead.9 DIGITAL LF CONTROLLERS In view of the large size of a modern power system..t Analuri. while x. B and.The ACE. The matrix y'r can be evaluatedusing various welldocumentedapproacheslike Sylvestor's expansion theorem.. 8. 6. P are state.lFFf Modrrn Po*. is usedto find out the vector u. conhol and disturbance vectors respectively and A.. i. 8. a signal which is used for AGC is availablein the discreteform.2. (r is the step in the computation) {=({r_lntr j=(eArDAtf where A.B and f are constantmatrices associated with the above vectors.. ft = 0. svrt. In the the system presence GRC and deadband even for small load perturbation. the system starts responding after the whole deadband is block in Fig. . In recent years. oscillatory.LO p vectors I in the conespondingcontinuoustimedynamic system.66) where x(k).23.. 8. in 8..control and disturbancevectors and are specified t= kr. This is mainly due to the facts that digital control turns out to be more accurate and rcliqhlc r v^rEv^vt nnrnnaef in qize less censifive to nnise end drift nnd more flexihle Tt may also be implemented in a time shared fashion by using the computer in systems load despatchcentre. The optimal digital load frequency controller designproblem is discussed detail in Ref [7].if so desired. of highly nonlinear and hencethe optimization problem becomesrather becomes complex.increasinglymore attentionis being paid to the questionof digital implementation of the automatic generationcontrol algorithrns. u(k) and p(k) are the state.ln Fig. control and disturbance transition matrices and they are evaluatedusing the following relations.nd 7 Te the state. it is virtually impossible to implement either the classicalor the modern LFC algorithm in a centralized manner. betweenthe systemand the controller. 1.23 Deadband speedgovernor u(r+1)= 7(r) 1: "(r+l) _ x.(r) I g tf Xr*l _ xt < 0 "(r+1).. 8..68) control loop in Flg. series expansion techniqueetc. are the constantmatrices associatedwith r. makesthe dynamicresponse of The presence governordeadband It has been seen [9J that the governor deadbanddoes not intluence the selectionof integral controller gain settingsin the presenceof GRCs.23.67) where f u.band [9] DiscreteTime Control Model The continuoustimedynamic systemis describedby a set of linear differential equations x=Ax+Bu+ fp (8.
.425 ar2= I.s:Modelling and Control. New Delhi.Ko. Elccu'ic Energv.i. . 8. 2. 8. Derive an expressionfor the steadyvalues of changein frequency and tie line power for simultaneouslyapplied unit step load disturbanceinputs in the two areas. and B.i2[. B. 1n rvt nhfain vuLarrr en AsnrAccinn fnr tha cfenrlrr cfrfp errnr in 6 .0.J. Kothari and S.). for a urrit step t ^ " .5 = 0.05 lHint: Apply Routh's stability criterion to the characteristicequation of the system. New York 1972. 3 For the load frequency control with proportional plus integral controller clJ oc olrn'rn. = 0. 1 Two generators of The droop characteristics their governors are47o and 5Vorespectively from no load to full load. = 20 sec . Wiley. obtain an expressionfor AP6"$) for unit step disturbance in one of the areas. Woolenberg.1.r giveu below.K. Power Generation. Tata McGrawHill. how will it be sharedamong the generators and what will the s)/stemfrequency be? Assumefree governor operatlon. a 1 Cohn.9. Zp. Theseinclude the method of "aggregation". K i = l . K r r K .J...J.aF(s) 1' af (t)dr: liq. It may by noted that other techniquesof model simplification are available in the literatureon alternativetools to decentralizedcontrol. Make the following approximatron. . 8 .F. N. Gopal. 2 0 0l . D. = 1 .iorlvYYll ll( T i iLc .n. Decentralized or hierarchicalimplementationof the optimal LFC algorithmsseemsto have been case since the real load disturbancesare studied more widely for the stochastic A truely stochastic. Operation and Control.2nd edn Wiley. N.K. = 0'5 sec. Real Time Control of Electric Power Systems. Cory Electric Pow'er Systems. and . Weedy. simple approachis discussedin Ref. on Interconnected Systents. Comment upon the stability of the system for parameter values given below: 4e = 0'4 sec.1 4 Power Analysis Modern System x .K. * '4F(s) hm/F(")] : I n.16). Wiley. 1996. i971. time APr. tf^461dv .2tTr.R = 3 .P. f'41t)d r. Wood.9 sec.. b = 0.i.16 assumethat inte controller blocks are replacedby gain blocks.t + (7rg + T.(x1 x2)' ut=ktxt u2kzxz  and Automatic Generation voltageControl ffi ' . Elsevier.01 pu Solve for Af (l) with parameters T"q= 0.. 8 . 4 . E.. New York. 3rd edn. M. 8.Y. Computer Aided Power Systent Analysis and Control. and M.4 For the two area load frequencycontrol of Fie. North Holland.5 For the two area load frequencycontrol employing integral of area control error in each area (Fig. 9 . Coinparewith the exact response NCES REFERE Books l. 1983.s) =. 2 Consider the block diagrammodel of lcad frequencycontrol given in Fig. L. lirnl*m of (with respect 50 Hz). "singular perturbation".l IE PROBI/IS rated 200 MW and 400 MW are operating in parallel. t959. Economic Control of lnterconnected Systems.:*. The speedchangersare so setthat the generators operate at 50 Hz sharing the full load of 600 MW in the ratio of their to ratings. "moment matching" and other techniques[9] for finding lower order models of a given large scale system. New Delhi. Given AP. Mahalanabis. (Ed. What of are the no load frequencies the generators? 8 . A. 6 L e v.s/clrT'lrcorv: An ltttnxlut'lion.4th edn. 8. 1982. = 20 sec K p r = 1 0 0 .e.lCommenton the dependence to error in seconds error in cycles upon the integral controller gain K. 7 . Control Systems Engineering. New York. I. 1 . Jamshidi.Sv. ACEI and ACE are fed to the respective speedchangersthrough gains .4 + 0. New York. O.s= 1 + Z"c. Handschin. 2nd cdn. and B. 5 .I Ahson. Z. Inrge Scale System.If the load reduces 400 MW. 8.). Nagarth.rs) (1 + Z. 1988.Assume both areas to be identical. of The speedchangers the governorsare resetso that the load of 400 MW at is sharedamong the generators 50 Hz in the ratio of their ratings. What is the corresponding cycles.Wiley. Control of Generation and Power Flou.. (1 + Z..M. Kirclrrnayer. 70.". I998. New York. 8 . Elgcrd.K p r = 1 0 0 R = 3 given in Fig. t JO JO s0 s+0 S L been shown possible using the modal control principle. i. [7]. A..6. 8. New York. McCrawHill.
No. of course. Kothari and P. Vol 07. 4.L' Kothari.E. 19' Nanda.. 1904.. pAS_100..The systemmust be protectedagainst flow of heavy short circuit currents(which can causepeffnanentdamageto major equipment) by disconnectingthe faulty part of the system by means of circuit breakers operated by protective relaying.pp.p.. the loads can be neglectedduring fault. (rndia)."AGC in a Deregulatedpower system. Hope and o. Grande.. P.E. o. 63.1 INTRODUCTION So far we have dealt with the steadystate behaviour of power system under normal operating conditions and its dynamic behaviour under small scale perturbations. Singh. Kirchmayer .Such conditions are caused in the system accidentally through insulation failure of equipment or flashover of lines initiated by a lightning stroke or through accidentalfaulty operation.on P. 15' Nanda. "Parameter optimization of power Systemsfor Stochastic Load Demands" Proc. r0. concordia. N.1g. M. A u g . . . IEE. J. "lJndersfandingAutonnaticGeneration Control. May 19g9. 4.13. Optimization and Control PergamonPress.. IFAC. pAS92.. M'L.L. J. Tripathy.These are unsymmetrical faults requiring special tools like symmetrical componentsand form the subject of study of the next two chapters. Kothariand D. lines and loads. Kothari and D. the symmetrical fault analysis must be carried out. The majority of systemfaults are not threephase faults but faults involving one line to ground or occasionallytwo lines to ground.. and c. D'. 2 6 . . IEEE Trans.No. G. Satsangi. Nanda. . rzg. 2 5 . as voltages dip very low so that currents drawn by loads can be neglectedin comparisonto fault currents. on Power System.. D."The Megawatt Frequency control problem: A New Approachvia optimal control Theory".fault*).J'. al..2334."Automatic GenerationControl of an Interconnected Hydrothermalsystem in continuous and DiscreteModes considering Generation Rateconstraints' IEE proc. "Variable Structure Control strategy to AGC of an Intcrconncctcd Rcheat Thermal systcm.p.. Nov/Dec.. rggo. Symmetrical fault analysisis. Van Slycik et. simpler to carry out. 21. Nanda. M.December 19g6.AGC of a Hydro_Thermal systemwith New ACE considering GRC".S Indulkar and D. and e.s. IEEE Trans.LE.D. Nov. g2.K. Titli.s... Oxford. No.S. T'S. Kothari.p.ffansfonners.Y.. r3g.This chapter is devoted to abnormal system behaviour under conditions of symmetrical short circuit (symmetricalthreephase.. (India). I I' Siljak.S. Though the operating conditions at the time of fault are important. Feb. J. 1106_1122. No. 1992. 20. T'. Kothari and J. M. 1 9 9 1 . Das. 24.t. *Symmetrical fault may be a solid threephase short circuit or may involve are impedance. C.June 1983. pt c. 46r. 5...'DynamicModels for Steamand Hydroturbines power in system studies" IEEE Trans. and A.Fosha.. l. IEE.. s. NonLinearSystems: The Parametcr Analysis antl Design.. as this type of fault generally leads to most severe fault current flow against which the system must be protected. 9. 730 22' Daq D. 1 9 5 7 .P. SystemsDecomposition.on Power Systems.S. 4..Discretemode of a. Satsangi. 2g5. Nanda.130 : 17.7 6 ..Vol. 16' IEEE committee Report.c.P.pp Zg7303.Though the symmetrical faults are rare. 197g.."sampledData AutomaticGeneration Control of Interconnected ReheatThermal Systems ConsideringGenerationRate Constraints". "Optimization of Discretetype Load FrequencyRegulatorsConsidering GenerationRate constraints" proc. IEEE Trans. A power network comprises synchronousgenerators. 72. Szyonanski. Kothari and D. r2g. "Automatic Control of ReheatThermal SystemConsidering Generation Rate Constraint and Covernor Deadband. L.L.Effect and E. January19g3. pt c. Int. 4 2 9 ..10.optimisatiorr of Loadfrcqucncy C<lntrolParameters Power systemswith ReheatSteamTurbines for and Governor Deadband Nonlinearity". I8. vol.L.H. 1969. B. M...5 7 9 .S. Bangalore. 23' Das. prctc.p. Nanda. IEEE Trans.9.April 1970. Bakken. 1401_1406. 199g. IEEE Trans. D'D..May 19g1.I. pAS g9: 556. 92.two_ AGC area Reheat Thermal system with New Area control Error. 13' Bhatti. l4' Kothari.. D.apers 12. January rgg2.L.245. Elgerd. rg73. Jalleli..lE4 Nov. M. Marik. J. Nanda. Kothari.. J'. J. M. proc. . prD. Das. we must estimatethe magnitude of currents that would flow under short circuit conditionsthis is the scope of fault analysis (study). Kothari and P..I. of speed Governor Deadbandon Tie Line Power and Frequency Control performan ce. Kothari.A. M.G. r. J. For proper choice of circuit breakers and protective relaying. Wiley. p t D . 3 Aug. AIEE Trans. Kothari. Satsangi and J.L.Discrete Mode AGC of a two Area ReheatThermal Systemwith a NACE consideringGRC.. l7' Hiyama. EMps.
Thus = '# i.. which causes total short circurit the currentto be unsymmetrical the till transient decays. (iii) Line capacitance negligibleand the line can be represented a lumped by is RZ seriescircuit. is (e. = 0. = . momentarily must also be determined.n. . 1.I"+ I.3)..n possible) lrnu* e. 9.a ) g .9. theclecay trnnsient to If of current this in short time is neglected. the flux per pole undergoes dynamic changewith associated transients damper and field windings.chrne tre treatedin Sec. are (tlte casewhcn the line is (i) The line is led I'rorna constant voltagcsoLrrcc fed from a realisticsynchronons ma. of Furthermore..rf a_ + A z = (Rz Jr\tt"(t: + tanl +) ir = transient current [it is such that t(0) = t(0) + L(0) = 0 being an inductive circuit.t *) rV) A plot of i* i. the sinusoidal steady state current is called the symmetrical short circuit current and the unidirectional transient component is called the DC offset current. Depending upon the arc intemrption time of circuit breakers.set curnent Let us consider the short circuit transient on a transmission line.2.Jrv'sin c) * E' (dlzl tzl Sincetransmission line resistance small. 0 .2 TRANSIENT ON A TRANSMISSION LINE 42V = *sin lzl (cr. In a modern large interconnectedpower system.325  t ModernPowerSystemAnalysis tffiffi I The synchronousgenerator during short circuit has a characteristictimevarying behaviour.i.. is known of from circuit theory that the currentafter short circuit is composed two parts.the maximum current that a breaker has to carry For selecting a circuit breakerwe must. + i.from the considerations mechanicalforcesthat act on circuit breaker components..F. = steadystatecurrent . therefore. short circuit occurring when the voltage wave is going through zero.1) Synrnretrical short circuit current DC otT.1.(6)e$tL)t = 9Y s i n( d .l I i r+V\'\' . . it decayscorrespondingiothe tim6 constantiRl.In the event of a short circuit.9. and'i = i. 9.2 that the maximum momenro) short circuit currcnt i.a suitable reactancevalue is used for the circuit model of synchronousgeneratorsfor short circuit analysis. i.momentaryshort circuit currentis taken corresponding its maxirnumpossible value(a sat'e to choice).The in reactanceof the circuit model of the machine changesin the first few cycles from a low subtransientreaetanecto a higher transient value.3) F i g . heavy currents flowing during a fault must be interruptedmuch before the steady state conditions are established. L . will (ii) Short circuit takes place when the line is unloaded(the caseof short circuit on a loaded line will be treatedlater in this chapter). It easily follows fiom F'ig. is shown in Fig.9C. determine the initial current that flows on occulTenceof a short circuit and also the current in the transient that flows at the time of circuit intemrption. The short circuit is assumed take place at t = 0.4) = twice the maxirnum of symmetricalshort circuit current (doubling effect) For the selectionof circuit breakers. The parameter It <rcontrolsthe instanton the voltagewavewhen shortcircuit occLrrs.rnpower systemterrninology. corresponds the firstpenk.. finally settling at a s'iitt higher synchronous (steady state) value.1 by With the aboveassumptions line can be representecl the circuit rnoclel the to of Fig. Jiv rzr cosa+ JTv rzl (e.2) Im*= _ .t This has the maximum possible value for o. 9. t.e. whcre i.tr.. + v = JI vsin (o.w . Certain simplifying assumptions madeat this stage. 9. ( R t D t tzl Thus short circuit current is given by (e.
The ne ls snownln rrg. of course. Since the (theorem of constant air gap flux cannotchangeinstantaneously flux linkages). 9.ffiffif The nevf ntrecfinn ic Modern Power System Analysis turhqf ic fhc r.a#& reactancewhen combined with the leakagereactance of the machine is called Xi synchronousreactance X4 (direct axis synchronousreactancein the case of salient pole machines). therefore. The circuit breakermust.2 it meansthat when the current is intemrpted.Armature resistance being small can be neglected.This figure is then increasedby an empirical rnultiplying factor to account for the DC offset current.rrrrcnf fn hc i n f e r r r r n f/ p s l ? t r el lv Aa hqo haan b. on per phasebasis.3 Consider now the sudden short circuit (threephase)of a synchronous generator initially operating under open circuit conditions.) has not yet died the value of the DC offset at the time of intemrption (this would be highly complex in a network of even moderately large size).9. the symmetrical short circuit current alone is calculated.3 SHORT CTRCUTT A SYNCHRONOUS MACHTNE (ON OF NO LOAD) Under steady state short circuit conditions. we need to concentrate our attention on syimmetrical (sinusoidal) short circuit current only. the DC offset currents appear in all the three phases.These DC offset currents are accounted for separately on an empirical basis and.the DC offset (i. the armature reaction of a generator produces demagnetizing In termsof a circuitthis a synchronous flux. modern day circuit breakers are designed to intemrpt the cunent in the first few cycles (five cycles or less).intemrpt the current much before steady conditions are reached. pointed out earlier. for short circuit studies. 5 . The machine undergoesa transientin all the three phasefinally ending up in steady state conditions describedabove.each with a different magnitude since the point on the voltage wave at which short circuit occurs is different for each phase.The time constant of the damper winding which has low leakage inductanceis much less than that of the field winding. to counter the demagnetization of the armature short circuit current. Details are given in S ec . which has high leakage Fig.Immediately in the event of a short circuit. (a) Steady stateshortcircuitmodel of a synchronous machine (b) Approximate circuit modelduring period shortcircuit subtransient of X1 (c)Approximate model circuit during period short transient of circuit Fig.2 Waveform a short of circuit current a transmission on line 9. the symmetrical. . These currents decay in accordancewith the winding time constants.9. Immediately upon short circuit. currents appearin the field winding as well as in the damper winding in a direction to help the main flux.short circuit current is limited only by the leakagereaitance of the machine. 9. With referenceto Fig.
) *Unity turn ratio is assumedhere.the middle transient period where the machine offers subtransient and finally the steadystateperiod w\n the machine offers transientreactance.) X'j " FaultAnalysis symmerrical I'lt. xtd (e.While the reactance effective after the darnperwinding currents have died out. + (X. the difference Ai/ betweenthe steady with the field time constant. Xy and Xu. rL (11x. 9. The envelopeof the current wave shapeis plottedin Fig.4 (Contd.J (9. 9. (e.4b.l l X... If we examinethe oscillograrnof the short circuit currentof a synchronous trom it.5) Fig. lEsl Y.) of is called the transientreactance the machirre. the difference envelopesis the cunent Ai/' (correanclsubtransiertt betwecnthe tlansicrrt sponding to the clamperwinding current) which decays fast according to the clamperwinding time constant. 4 current short symmetrical circuit machine (b)Envelope synchronous of <>f is called the subtrunsientreoctutxc:e the nrachine.e.5ffit I I 0) Steady state current amPlitude Tlme (e.7c) (a) Symmetricalshort circuit armature current in synchronousmachine Fig. The shortcircuit currentcan be divided irtto three periodsinitial subtransientperiod when the current is large as tire tnachine reactance..+UXJ+llxd. i.e. ofters synchronous : If the transientenvelope is extrapolatedbackwards in tinre. 9.7b) tltt= 32.The machinethus offers a timevaryingreactance Xttoto Xtaandfinally to Xn. l1l = steady state current (rms) !//l = transientcurrent (rms) excluding DC component lltl = subtransientcurrent (rms) excluding DC component reactance Xa = direct axis synchronous .in steadystate(Fig. \t z.9.4a. the damper and field inductance. 9.Of course. model currentsinducedin them so that in the circr.of field winding and Xa* of damper windingappear in parallelx with Xo as shorvn in Fig.we discussed the oscillogram.. t a Time (9. As the danqpqlruadlag cullqqls 4!q first to die out. we will tind machineafter the DC ottset cuitentshave beenrettroved the current wave shapeas given in Fig. 9. during the initial period of the short circuit to of X.7a) o E E a o i of Extrapolation steady valrre of Extrapolation transientenvelope lll = Actual envelope \IL ob _ l E 8 l t.6) X' . I Subtransient oeriod b l I I I I Steady state period E a q) 'o0 g () f.The rnachine combinationof Xo.3b.Similarly.: Y+ J2 where X. in decays accordance envelopes state1nd transicnt above..t= X .the leactanceunder of reactance the machine. reactance.3c) in the rniddleper:iod the short circuit. 1_: X.Obviousiy Xf7< steacly conditionsis the synchronous which changesfront < X'd Xu. i.The reactance in the initial period of the short circuit. Xr* effectively becomesopen circuited and at a later stage X1 from the parallel thus chauges reactance becomes open circuited.the cunentsand reactances In termsof can wrlte lIl = oa t.3a).rit windingshavetransfurnrer thcir reactancesX.9.MocjernPower Sysiem nnaiysis Thus during the initial part of the short circuit.and Xrinparallel (Fig. and presented the machine by finally to X.
0 0.9Aa and. As we shall see later the transient reactances are used for stability studies.07 0.951.0250. V6ltage bases are: I I kVin generators.012 Reactance G.)1./ ry t l c a b *+ different types of machines. and field winding time constants with Td* 4 ry At time / 2' r4*. . 9.35 0.:o : Aito exp(r/ .8 0.1 Solution Select a system base of 100 MVA.5 r f For the radial network shown in Fig.0 0 30.3e a/ km + Ai.20. and al decav exponentially as Aitt = Ai( exP (.650.0030.8ohreaclance riO. . Both Ai. (or X.1 Typicalvaluesof synchronous machine reactances (All valuesexpressed pu of ratedMVA) in Synchronous r NO 2: 5 MVA.38 0. 33 kV for overhead line and 6.01 0.35 _ x.5 0 .0B) / km o F z xn caote / Fig. The method of computing short circuit currents is illustrated through examplesgiven below.6. = ro = AC resistanceof the armature winding per phase.Aint .t/q. except those which open instantarreously.Oc = interceptsshorvn iLEigs.l"ilirion).16 0.t xd xti x2 xo ru l .91.l. limits for pon ii'ragntir rutlrarion s g O) o o Fig.0030.0 0 2 .5 0.subtransientreactanceis used for generatorsand transient reactancefor synchronousmotors.s 0 .1 3 0.30. Aitt practicalry dies out and we can write log (Aitt+ At. * Highspeed units tend to have low reactanceand low speedunits high reactance. .5 0. b_ The intercept Ob for finding transient reactance can be determined accurately by means of a logarithmic plot.0 0.6 kV for cable. a threephase fault occurs at F. The machinemodel to be employed when the short circuit takesplace from loaded conditionswill be explainedin Sec.1 2 0 .Ob. 9.:o: Ai.r gives typical valuesof machinereactances which can be userjin fault calculations and in stability studies.3 5 0.10 0.008 0.020.'ii#I: Modern Power Svstenn Anelveie Fault n Xtd= direct axis transientreactance X'j = direct axis subtransientreactance lErl = per phaseno load voltage(rms) Oa.81.190.61. 9.170.01s r. = of Reactanceof G2 Reactanceof Z.d 0.040.log Ai' = .35 0.180.t )1. rhe values reactances tf j? normallyrie within f:T:jr:lltlq certain predictable".o : ob Table 9. Type of machine Turboalternator Salient pole (Turbine (Hydroelectric) generator) compensator (Condenser/ capacitor) Synchronous motors* X. Trl* .d 0.6 Radial networkfor Example g.14 0.25 _ x.) Ait = Ai6 exp 1_ t/r7) where r4. 9.5 0 . Normally both generator and motor subtransient reactancesare used to determine the momentary current flowing on occurrence of a short circuit. Tabie 9.z = (0.4 .30.0040.r0. Determine the fault current and the line voltage at l l kv bus under fault conditions.27 jo. 1OMVA 15%reactance 1 1k V 10 MVA 12.1.6 0. To decide the intemrpting capacity of circuit breakers.5r2.180.2 0 .050.5oh reactance \ \ ne : 3o km. and rf arerespectively damper.37 0.2 0.) X^ .4.
99) pu + q21tlq = (0. The circuit model of the systemfor fault calculationsis given in Fig. and by (d) the current to be interrupted breakerB in five cycles. 9. on line = l5%o a baseof 25 MVA.36)x100 Q'2 .8"pu at Voltage 11 kV bus= 4. 9.7 = + + Totalimpedance (j1.8"x 0.708" = 0.744 55) .25)+ (t1. Now .8.750 1.6 (0. 9. 1 1 7 0 .6pu = (0.744 i0.0) + + = I.(0.666' I I  66d. 5 MVA. 6616. The generatorcircuit can thus be replacedby a single voltage sourcein serieswith the parallel combination of generatorreactancesas shown.55) cableimpedanc" (6 . I Cable I t T2 Line T1 A 25 MVA. transtbrmersand generatorreactances already given on proper base values. calculate (a) the subtransientcurrent in the fault.715 F between and11 kV bus Total irnpedance Sotution Choosea systembaseof 25 MVA.0 (o.7. (c) the momentary current in breaker B.q.j*= j0. the voltagesof the two generatorsare identical (in phaseand magnitude) and are equal to 1 pu.750 A 18u.1 .674+ j4.93 = 3(91!t. 6 7 4 j 4 . 9. the generator The circuit can thereforebe reducedto that of Fig.744 70.196l. 11kV bus +70. i I l Flg. Assurne that the systemis operating on no load when the fdul" occurs.6 kV.rJr0. Fis.6)+ (0. Each motor has Xj = 25Voand Xl = 3OVoon a base of rating of the stepuptransformeris 25 MVA.88 I :T ptt = ft88 x 11 = 9. 9. +i0. Since the systemis on no load prior to occurrenceof the fault.27+j0.5ll j1. line voltagebaseis 66 kV and motor voltage base is 6." J3 x6.25 pu are Line.9b and then to identical. = 8.744 i0. 9.se For the specified fault.9a.9c.93 j.6 kV when a threepha.8.6 )' Circuit model of the systemfor fault calculationsis shownin Fig.10. 8 " p u + ''? Isc= tt = 0'196I . 8 2= 5 .6) (0. pu + 70.70'8"Pu 5. voltage at the motors is 6.Z (in ohms) MVA""'" line impedance overhead (kvBur" )2 30x(0.196x 8. (b) the subtransientcurrent jn the breaker . For a generatorvoltage baseof 11 kV.6kV with a leakagereactance l0%o.6 = A Isc= 0.93 70.The bus fault occurs at the point F.14= 4. The threephase 11/66 kV with a leakage reactance of l0o/o and that of the stepdown of transformer is 25 MVA. line and a transfbrmer to a bus that suppliesthree identical motors as shown in Fig.8 Fig.93+ j05s) + (71.55) + .0) (0. and motor inducedemfs are The systembeing initially on no load.43 167. 6.99) i1.6 kV.43176.8" = to*. (a) For each motor X'.99) + (t1.PowerSystemAnalysis I Fault Analysis Symmetrical  I 337 Reactance Tr= .r170.68 kV x . 11 kV generator with Xl = 20Vo is connected through a transformer.99)+ (i1. 66 of Reactance the transmission Given: kV.25 x + = i1.WY4 of ) = 71. 9.
25 j0. 9. 42 r .8) (e. the no load voltage.9c.As explainedin Sec.< to" Allowance is made for the DC offset value by multiplying with a factor of 1. Therefore. 9.1.+ + .+ = + j1.5 .55 momentarycurreni ihrough breaker B . current through circuit breaker B is XI (motor)= 70.6 x 7. E. the current to be interrupted is x 1 .15 j0.4i9.. 9. Rather than calculating the DC offset current.5 kV circui. (e. We shall. Lv 1/.ss jo.in which case the circuit model reducesto that discussedin Sec.5 = A 1 1 0+ ' of The reactances the circuit of Fig.EJ= Etr= Er.Infact. 9.1 (Sec. The analysisof short circuit on a loadedsynchronous complicatedand is beyond the scope of this book. if 1o is zero (no load case).479.l .. is the induced emf under loadedcondition andXa is the direct axis synchronous reactanceof the machine. 9.  25 x 1.10 Circuitmodelof current is given in Fig.3x 25 = Jr. the circuit model to be used for computing short circuit Fig. The m achine inducedemfs to be used in thesemodels are given bY E.i+ lrlu(lEl *^A^l ur ^f a i0.17.55 rcuitbreaker) (c) generatoroperatingunder steadyconsynchronous ditions supplying a load current /" to the bus at a terminal voltage of V ". present here the methods of computing short circuit current when short circuit occurs under loaded conditions. 1 5 1 5 2 .187 A Issc= * r4rrlt]frf* o o. 9. motor subtransient reactance (X!j = j0.967A (d) To compute the current to be intemrpted by the breaker.3O).187 7. Slluws ^L^. .and in Fig. 1 8 7= 7 . ] _ j1.1515pu =2x + jl.1lb for transientcurrent. 9.i 3. it was In the previous article on the short circuit of a synchronous that the machine was operating at no load prior to the occurrence of aBsumed machine is short circuit.000 = 2. Current (symmetrical) to be intemrpted by the breaker(as shown by arrow) 1 1 ^ " =3. (b) From Fig.l= v" + ilTtj Fig.5).When short circuit occurs at the terminals of this machine.42x 2. 110" = 3. 1 x 3 . lr rBtlc rl:^ f\ >.5.j4.3.9 (c) For finding momentary current through the breaker.) pu T I s c (' B ) 2 x .55 (b) i0.11a for subtransient a loaded current..e) . 9.9d. allowance is made for it on an empiricalbasis.22pu r Basecun'entin 6.4 SHORT CIRCUIT OF A LOADED SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE machine.^ +L^ Llrg urrUurt ^i^.fiffirel ! power Modern System Anatysis I s c = 3 > <. 9.V'+ il"Xto The voltage E!is known as the voltage behind the subtransientreactance and the voltage E!is known as the voltage behind the transient reactance. howevbr..s jO. we must add the DC offset current to the symmetricalsubtransient current obtainedin part (b).9c now modify to that of Fig.25) is now replaced by transient reactance (X a = /0. 5 8 1A 9.9.2 j0. EL.1 110' F tll?9 .25 j0.55 : .
. I 9.312.6226 j6. lll66kV and 66lll kV with leakage reactance of l\Vo each.9"12 An alternate method ol' cornputing short circuit currents is through the application of the Thevenin theorem.9636I tr + j0.45 I'. .l2b.2 0.l 2 c ) 9 .8906)= (.11) Wheneverwe are dealing with shortcircuit of an interconnected system.9" . Find the subtransient culrent in the generator. 6 2 2 6 _ j 1 .2 jg. r^_. .23gA short circuit (sc) current computation through the Thevenin Theorem .0 (0.6 pu.7536 70.0.4 jL.1._ . 0.7783/_ 36. . 7536+"i0.70.equivalent is shown Fig. During short circuit conditions these can be replaced by similar circuit moclels eicept that the voltage behind subtransient/transient reactanceis eiven bv = l: = 0..12a. .2 A Now ( a ) O n e ._ .312. 5 6 5 3 u j p Basecttrre (gen/moto 44q1 nt I = ) lr.l i n e i a g r a mf o r t h o s y s t o m f E x a m p l e 3 d o 9 t" F t .the synchronousmachines (generatorsand motors) are replaced by their corres po n d i n g i rc u i t m o c l e l s a v i n g v o l tagebehi ncl c h (transi ent) srrhtransi ent reactancein serieswith subtransient (transient) reactance.'ltrd.1.10) (e.816.1 j0.jI"xU E'*= v" ..1 j0.0933 pu Theplefurult.9 power factor leading and a terminal voltage of 10. The rest of the network beingpassive rentains unchanged.= Current in fault 1.This method is faster and easily adopted .28 + pu Voltage behindsubtransient reactance (motor) El.0336 . .l.1s E'lr= v" . )1 i 0 . The transfbrmers are ratecl 25 MVA.9636/_ tr i0.15 x 0. The line has a reactance of lTTo on a base of 25 MVA. 66 kv.6226 j1...9" = 1.jI"4 (e. . I I kV having l5Vo subtransient reactance are connected through transfbrmers and a line as shown in F'ig.9 . 0.1783I 36.9"pu currenlI" = _9{__ = 0.6'f. . 0. 0.03i6 rooc)? 1 i0. The motor is drawing 15 Mw at 0.4) A _ = I'J= 1.9636 l0 pu Load = 15 NfW.6 kV when a symmetrical threephasefault occurs at the motor terminals.'. 9. '. 6 7 4 6 p u =0 I'.: ".tgt. 21t 00 .8 pf leading 25 prefault _ 136. = _g . .45 x 0.nclit i o n( l r i g .3 I Example .. j0.0. 0. 1 5 r +l I I I (b) Prefault equivalent circuit (c) Equivalent circuitduringfault Fi9..9636 0.9.77g3I 36. t I i I'J ._ A 1tjtt.3 12._ A synchronousgenerator and a synchronousmotor each rated 25 MVA.8 pflEading ( a ) C i r c u i tm o d e l f o r c o m p u t i n g subtransient current (b) Circuit model for computing transient current F i g .8 x Voltagebehindsubtransient reactance (generator) E". :t t/o Prefaultvoltage V" = J'9 l1 = 0.9.340  I Modernpo*s1_qqe!l inslygs _Symmetrical Fault Arralysis solution Aii reactancesare given on a base of 25 MVA and appropriatgi voiiages." i 0. motor and fault.O4L8) (. . 1 1 Synchronous motors have internal emfs and reactances similar to that of a generatorexcept that the current direction is reversed. 'dtI.. . circuit in Uncler fhrrltecl c.1 t Tt'  '! Line J3xll = 1.6746) (816. . Gen  I J = I : i + 1 .
342 
I
I
Modern Po*er SystemAnalysis
to ,yrtlatic computation for large networks. While the method is perfectly gcncrerl, rs illustratcd it hcrc tlrrougha sinrplccxanrplc. generatorfeeding a synchronousmotor over a line. Consider a synchronous Figure 9.I3a showsthe circuit model of the systemunder conditions of steady As a first step the circuit model is replacedby the one shown in Fig. 9.13b, wherein the synchronous machinesare represented their transientreactances by (or subtransient reactances subtransient currents of interest) serieswith are in if voltagesbehind transientreactances. This changedoes not disturb the prefault current I" and prefault voltage V" (at F). As seenfrom FG the Thevenin equivalent circuit of Fig. 9.13b is drawn in prefault voltage V" rn serieswith the passive Fig. 9.13c.It comprises Thevenin impedancenetwork. It is noticed that the prefault current 1" doesnot appearin that the passivcThcvcninirnpcdancc nctwork.It is thcretore t<lbe rcmcnrbcrcd this current must be accountedfor by superposition after the SC solution is obtainedthroughuse of the Thevenin equivalent. now a lault at 1,'thloughan irnpedance .liigure 9.13dshowsthe Zl Consider Thevenin equivalent of the system feeding the fault impedance. We can im m e d i a te lw ri te y ', l '  V" jXrn + Zt
AI^
Xle +X (xlh,+x + xi
(e.14)
Postfault currents and voltages are I{= I" + alr I{=Postfault voltage vf where Av = ix^tf
obtained follows by superposition: as
I" + AI^ (in rhedirection of AI^)
(9.15)
fffl:liiwith
respect thereference ct;;;..d to bus by theflow
vo + (  , r xn, I f ) = v" + Av = eJ6) is the voltage of thefaultpoint F/ on the Theveninpassive of
faurt
incethe prefault current flowing out of t curent out of F.is independeniof load on is summarizedin the following four Step I: Obtain steady state solution of loadedsystem (load flow study). step 2: Replace reactances of synchronous machines by their subtransienU transient values. Short circuit uit sources.The result is the passive Thevenin network. "rr 'Step 2 at the fault point by negarive of ies with the fault impedanc". 6o_pur" rterest. r areobtainedby adding results of Steps The following assumptions be can safery madein SC computations reading :ation: ragnitudes are I pu. tre zero. to actual conditions as under normal nity.
(e.r2)
Current causedby fault in generatorcircuit
AI,  
x'd^
(xhs+x + xl^
f
(e.13)
(a)
G
(b)
G
ruc cnanges ln current caused by short circuit are quite large, of the order of 10_20
(c)
(d)
equivalent Fig.9.13 Computation SC current the Thevenin of by
tion 2. Fi9'e't+ Let us illustrate the above method b, recalculating results of Example the 9.3.
F is the faultpointon the passive Thevenin network
Modern Power SystemAnatysts 9'3 for computationof postfault The circuit model for the systemof Example conditionis shownin Fig' 9'14'
,Qrrrnmalrinal
E^..t+
A r.
!
70.60 =  78.565 pu _ 0.9636x
current due to fault' Change in generator
If sc MVA (explainedbelow) is more than 500, the above multiplyingiactors are increasedby 0.1 each. The multiplying factor for air breakers rated 600 v or lower is 1.25. The current that a circuit breakercan intemr
rng voltage over a certain range, i.e.
Amperes at operating voltage
io'+ Pu , , B_ AI^= rl8.s6s j 0 . 6 0   i2'141 "." "_ t
Change in motor current due to fault'
x Ptt At^= 78.565 j.$*i  i6'424
current to obtain the subtransient To these changeswe add ttre prefault current in machines.Thus I'l= I" + AIr  (0.623 j1.67$ Pu P In =  I" + AI^= ( 0.623 76.891) u calculated already which are the same (and shoutd be) as through th9 Thevenin we have thus solved Example 9.3 alternatively in4eecl,is a powerful method for large theorem ond ,up.rposition. This, networks. 9.5 SELECTION OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS Rated intemrpting MVA (threephase) capacity
= '6ty(tifle)lrated x 11(line)lrated inremrpting cunent
where V(line) is in kV and 1 (line) is kA. Thus, instead of_computing the sc current to be intemrpted, ' r ' we cbmpute threephase MVA to be intemrpted, where SC SC MVA (3phase)_ Jt x prefault line voltage in kV x SC currentin kA. If voltage and current are in per unit values on a threephase basis
SC MVA (3phase) = lylp,..roul, 11116 (MVA)uur. x x
O hL i' o r r ul'ru J r J ' irc if i o A l \ / \ / '' v Y rs r q uu
(e.r7)
. I w o o t t h c c i r c u i t b r c a k c r r a t i n g s w h i c l r r c c ; u i r c t h c c t r n l p t l t t t t i o n o f S C c u r r e n t rnurcthln (or cclualto) thc sc MVA required to be intemupted. symmetrical interruptirtg c:nrrent' For the selectionof a circuit breakerfor a particular are: rated momentarycurrent and rated location,we must find. using subtransient reactancesfor the maximum possible SC MVA to be intemrpted with Syrnmetrical SC current is obtained by respectto type and by location of fault and generating capacity (also Momcntary current irms) is then calculated synchronous synchronousrnachines. rnotorl load) by a factor of 1'6 to accountfor connectedto the system. A threephase fault though rare is generally the one multiplying the symmetricalo"nory current which gives the highest SC MVA and a circuit breaker of the presence DC offset current' must be capable of subtransient interrurptingit. An exception is an LG (linetoground) is computedby r'rsing currentto be intcrrupted Symmetrical f.ault close to a for synchronous and generator*.In a simple systemthe fault locationwhich gives generators transientreactances synchronous tor reactances synchronous the to be addedto The DC offset value highest sc MVA may be obvious but in a large system motorsinduction motors are neglected*. various possible multiplying the accounted for by locations must be tried our to obtain the highestst nava obtain the current to be interrupted is requiring Lp"ur"a SC computations.This is ilustrated by the examplesthat by a factor as tabulated below: symmetrical SC current follow.
Circuit Breaker SPeed 8 cyclesor slower 5 cycles 3 cyclcs 2 cycles Multiplying Factor 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.4
 l v t v AA ii  +i^ *i,r u. pi i i l g  c a p a c l t y o f a c i r c u i t n e  : breaker is to be
r.; Iii"'n" I
Three6.6 kv generators B and c, eachof I0o/o A, leakagereactance MVA and ratings 40, 50 and 25, respectively are interconnected electrically, as shown in
tThis will be explained in Chapter 1l.
during a short currentscontributedby induction motors t'In some recent attempts, circuit have been accountedfor.
15:!"'l
.";: I
T
{d46..t
AnalysisPowerSystem Modern
currentscan then be calculatedby the circuit model of Fig. g.l6acorresponding to Fig. 9.13d.The circuit is easilyreduced rhat of Fig. 9.16b, ro where 7 ( 0. 069 + j0. 138) + j0. r 2s il 00. 15+ jo. 22 j0. 44)
reactance Fig. f.i5, by a tie bar through curent timiting reactors,each of I2Vo A to which it is connected. threcphase baieclupon the rating ofthe machine of 6'6 kV' feeder is supplied from the bus bar of generatorA at a line voltage
^ f n 1 a
short Q/phase.Estimatethe maximum MVA that can be fed into a symmetrical far end of the feeder. circuit at the
= 0.069 j0.226 = 0.236173 + SC MVA = Volf = V"('+') = + pu (sinceVo = 1 pu) \Z) Z I Z
(MVA)Ba."
50 = 2 1 2M V A 0.236
Tie bar
Fi g. 9.15 Sotution Chooseas base50 MVA, 6.6 kV' Feeder imPedance Considerthe 4bus systemof Fig. 9.17. Buses1 and 2 aregenerator busesand 3 and 4 are load buses. The generators are rated l l kv, 100 MVA, with transientreactance l07o each. Both the transformersare 1ll110 of kV, 100 MVA with a leakagereactanceof 5Vo.The reactances the lines of to a base of 100 MVA, 110 kv are indicated on the figure. obtain the short circuit solution for a threephase solid fault on bus 4 (load bus). Assume prefault voltages to be 1 pu and prefault currentsto be zero.
(G)
=
%
=(o.o6e+/0.138)pu
 o'1[50 = 0.125Pu Gen A reactance 40 = 0.1 Pu GenB reactance * 4 G e n C r e a c t a n c e = 0 . 1 = 0.2 pu 25 = o't''I tn = 0 . 1 5p u A Reactor reactan." 40 = B Reactor reactance 0.12Pu x 0.12 50  0.24 pu Reactor C reactance =
j0.2
1
Fig. 9.17 Fourbus g.5 system Example of Solution Changesin voltages and currentscausedby a short circuit can be calculatedfrom the circuit model of Fig. 9.18. Fault current 1/ is calculated by systematic network reduction as in Fig. 9.19,
(b)
j0.12 +i0.138) (0.069
yo = 1Z0o(
(a)
jo.24
Fig. 9.16
,^o
I
I
Moclern Power Svstem AnalYsis
=  jt.37463 pu tt = *= j0.13s60
lo*
14
!o;E
_ jo.2
jo 1,), 7 I 4+
D':
r  rnTl
[ 0t ,
i0.1
A, l,zs
I
t,= rsx i: i3;:: =  j3 837or pu j0.37638
12=r, x {: i:::: =  j3.53 pu 762 '' j0.37638
Let us now computethe voltagechanges busesl,2and 3. From Fig. fclr 9 .l 9 b , w c g i v c AVr  0  ( / 0. 15)(  j3. 8370r ) =  0. 57555 pu
ib.rs
Izt
2
t, ti, ,
10.15
i ro'rs
o)
\
AV, = 0  (iO.l.s)( .i3.53762)  0.53064pu = Now
'AtiA'
r fI l, i0 1'':,
t 
i.0.11
5 V , ' = l + l V t = 0 . 4 2 4 4 .p u
F'tt r l r ' ' r),} o' rs i o.t\P I I (
2 i I 0 6 ' )I
V ) ,= l + . / lt=
N ow
AVz=0.46936pu
, , t , . ( .^l
4T ( tvl=to * irt
t l
iots
(a) (b)
(. )vl = t.o ir
l
v , J v J = J0'17964 pu ,of tr.o.t
fr'
AVy= 0  [(/0.15) j3.83701) Q0.15) (+ (/0.17964)l =  0.54fi(r0 pu V t t = I  0 . 5 4 8 6= 0 . 4 5 1 4 u 0 p
(e)
(c)
l ' ' l
+
I ( ) v?= t.o
vlo= o
The determination currentsin the remaining of lines is left as an exerciseto tltcrrr'ldcr. Short circuit study is completewith the computation SC MVA at bus 4. of (SC MVA)^ = 7 .37463 x 100 = 737.463MVA It is obvious that the heuristic networkreductionprocedureadoptedabove is not practical for a real power network of even moderate size. It is, therefore, essentialto adopt a suitablealgorithmfbr carryingout short circuit study on a digital computer.This is discussed Sec.9.6. in 9.6 ALGORITHM FOR SHORT CIRCUIT STUDIES
l
'' ,j;0. uuuo
(
, ,l J 10.04166
Tr
i
(
t
tt*)
\.. ) V ?
.
= 1.0
Ill I
reductionof the network of Fig' 9'18 Fig. 9.19 Systentatic
So far we have carriedout short circuit calculations simple systemswhose for t can I wc l l i tssi vc t ct wor ks be easilyr educed.n t his scct ion ext cnd our st udy t o
i*.3€0l
Modern Power System Analysis _ Symmetr.ical  , . . . . . , *", , ; FaultAnat lr sis
large ,tyrt"r. In orcler to apply the four steps of short circuit computation it to developedearlier to large systems, is necessary evolve a systematicgeneral algorithm so that a digital computercan be used.
_.rr.vv\, network.
rrrv u(rr vurraegcs oI mls
Now
4V = Z"urJf
where
otn Gen 2
.7 'l '
(e.20)
I
i = busimpedance matrix of the I Znn passive Thevenin network )
u// = bus current injection vector Since the network is injected with current 
e.2D
Fig. 9.20 nbussystemundersteadyload in Consideran nbus systemshown schematically Fig.9.20 operatingat steady load. The first step towards short ciicuit computation is to obtain prefault voltages at all buses and currentsin all lines through a load flow study. Let us indicate the prefault bus voltagevector as
0 0 : /rf I, : I', f
1/ only at the rth bus, we have
(e.22)
(e.18)
:
Substituting Eq. (9.22) in Eq. (g.20), we have for rhe rth bus AV, =  ZrJf By step 4, the voltage at the nh bus under fault is
Let us assume that the rth bus is faulted through a fault impedance Zf . The postfault bus voltage vector will be given by
V{ur= VBus AV +
(e.1e)
where AV is the vector of changes bus voltagescausedby the fault. in As'step 2, we drawn the passiveThevenin network of the system with generators reactances with their emfs shorted replacedby transient/subtransient ( F ie.9 .2 1 ).
v!= vor+avo, vor Z,Jf
However, this voltage must equal Vd = 7f 1f We have from Eqs. (9.23) and (g.24) zftf  vo,_ z,Jf
(e.23) (e.24)
or
f=
V: Zr, + Zf
(e.2s)
At the rth bus (from Eqs (9.20)and(g.22)) AV, =  Z,Jf
Fig. 9.21 Network of the system of Fig. 9.20 for computingchanges in bus voltages caused by the fault
v{= v? Z,Jf, i = 1,2, ..., substituting // from Eq. (9.25).we have for
(e.26)
vI= vf  : zl';rv! z*+L
(e.27)
Fault ,Analysis Siimmetrica! 352 i Power System Analysis rtllodern Fori=rinEq.(9.27)
I ?53 rca 
matrix for the network of Fig. 9.18 is formed First of all the bus admittance as fol l ows:
(e.28)
In the above relationship V,o'r, the prefault bus voltagesare assumedto be known from a load flow study. Zuu, matix of the shortcircuit study network of Fig. 9.21 canbe obtainedby the inversionof its furr5matrix as in Example in 9.6 or the Zru, building algorithm presented Section9.7.It should be observed here that the SC study network of Fig. 9.2I is different from the correspondingload flow study network by the fact'that the shunt branches do reactances not appearin the load flow study to corresponding the generator are network. Further, in formulating the SC study network, the load impedances much larger than the impedances of lines and ignored, these being very ginerators. Of course synchronousmotors must be included in Zuur tormulation for the SC study. Postfault currents in lines are given by For calculation of postfault generatorcurrent, examine Figs. 9.22(a) and (b). From the load flow study (Fie. 9.22(a)) Prefault generator output = PGr+ iQci
r I
I
t
1
r
I
  j28.333
l Y trL. > = Yt r t = _ L
l
j0.2
175.000
Y3= Yy =
;r* 1 Yrq= Yq= J,3.l
 i6. 667
= i10.000
Y z z = :  + +j0.1s + jj.r . j0.15  + + : ^
" Y z t =Y n = + =
Yzq= Yn=
l
j0.2
= j28.333
f u= yu (vri vt)
Q.29)
j0. 1
j10.000
 i6. 667
F; 'Y 3 3 .=
I I =i16.667 + ' j0.15 jo.1
Ytq= Yqt= 0.000 I v Yqq= ,(a)
*
I ,.""

i76'667
(b)
Fi1.9.22 f", = &#; = (prefault generator output Pci + iQci) (9.30)
(9'31) By inversion we get Z",tt as
v,u
E'Gi = V, + jXt"/t)",
From the SC study, Vf ,is obtained. It then follows from Fig. 9.22(b) that
rrc,=tfr! iir;rnr;;.; I
(e.32)
j0.0s97 j0.0719 j0.0903 j0.0780 j0.0780 j0.13s6 jo.o719 j0.0743
Now, the postfault bus voltagescan be obtainedusing Eq. (9.27) as V { = r V Z  Z t oo VaP o o r
above,we shall recomputethe short circuit To illustrate the algorithm discussed solution for Example 9.5 which was solved earlier using the network reduction technioue.
,2.tr!A
JJ'
I

^/lndarnl lYlVVVll
Pnrrrar I Vltvl
Qrratarn Vtvlvlll
, rlrsrtvre
Analrrcic
malriaal   tglt tvql
E qa t u
I
The prlfault conditionbeing no load, V0r= Voz= V03 Voo= 1pu
r
, J

_
9 r . o  i 9 9 1 9 x 1 0= 0 . 4 2 4 8 p u
i0.1356
r
1.000 2,,{or Zzz)

1.00 =  j I L 0 7 4 I 9 7 pu j0.0903
vrz=v:  o?': L L z o
= 1.0 
r,',
By Inventing Y"u" /nus = Yrus Vsus or
or
oi 0 .0 7:1 0 x 1 . 0 = 0 . 4 6 9 8 p u :
j0.1356
7
v{= v\  1* vf Zoo
 :: _: = 1 . 0 ' i0.0743 1 . 0= 0 . 4 5 2 1 u p j0.r3s6
= Vsus [Y"ur]t /eus = Znus/eus
(e.33)
Zsvs= [Yuur]t The sparsity of fsu, may be retained by using an efficient inversion technique [1] and nodal impedance matrix can then be calculated directly from the factorized admittancematrix. This is beyond the scope of this book. Current Iniection Technique
vi = o'o
Using Eq. (9.25)we can obtainthe fault currentas =, j7.3j463pu 7r= .r^0.9^o=j0.13s6 earlierin Example9.5.Let us also with thoseobtained agree Thesevalues in the calculate shortcircuitcurrent lines13,12, l4,24 and23. v,r v{ [,r 2 = : 1 z.n 0.42480.4521 j o ' 1 8 2 Pu i0.15
Equation (9.33) can be written in the expandedform
V 1: 2 1 1 \ * Z t z l z 1 . . . * Z n I n v2:22111+ 22212 ... + zznln + V, : Zntll * 2,,21r* .. .+ Z,,nl,, It immediately follows from Eq. (9.34) that
(e.34)
 r r z = v,r v{2  :  0.42480.4698_ j 0 . 2 2 5 u '_ ' tr p zrz .i0.2 r ,r t4 yr v{ 4q zz+ _ o.4z4vo jo'l  i4.248pu
 j3.132pu
"ii
zv'l 
I r l , r : r z: . . . : r n = o
I1r0
(e.35)
q . irq = ' u'l  v{ I 
0.46e8o =
i0'15

Also Zi,  Ziii (Znvs is a symmetrical matrix). As per Eq. (9.35) if a unit currentis injectedat bus (node)7, while the other ere buses kept oponcircuited,the bus voltagesyield the valuesof theTth column of Zuur. However, no organized computerizabletechniquesare possible for finding the bus voltages.The technique had utility in AC Network Analyzers 'where the bus voltagescould be read by a voltmeter.
0.4521 r v{ v^ = 0.4698 =  ./0.177 IIzt=tiutt Pu TOFor the exampleon hand this method may appearmore involved compared to the heuristicnetworkreductionmethodemployed in Example9.5. This, however, is a systematicmethod and can be easily adopted on the digital computer for practical networks of large size. Further, another important feature of the method is that having computed Zu's, we can at once obtain all the required short circuit data for a fault on any bus. For example,in this particular system, the fault current for a fault on bus I (or bus 2) will be Consider the network of Fig. 9.23(a) with three buses one of which is a Evaluate Zsus. reference. Sotution Inject a unit current at bus I keepingbus 2 open circuit, i.e., Ir = I. andIr= 0 as in Fig. 9.22(b).Calculatingvoltagesat busesI and 2, wehave Ztt=Vt=7 Zzt=Vz=4
It is a stepbystep programmabletechniquewhich proceedsbranch by branch.Then Zrur (old) Zo:branch impedance Zsus (new) Figure 9. knew bus..f Modern PowerSystemAnalysis Fault Analysis Symmetrical !. Zuconnects old bus to the reference This is type3modification. Zu connectstwo new buses(Zeus remains unaffectedin this case). rlsfelence bus. new loop is formed but the dimensionof two old buses 4.24 shows a passive (linear) nbus network in which branch with impedance2. jold buses. branch(i.It follows from this figure that . f5l Now let It = 0 and 12= 1. This is typeI modificution.. Z"vs Building Algo4ithm the dimension of Zsu5 goes up by one). Type1modification Fig. Type. a new loop is formed an 3. 9. 26 is added from a new bus to the referencebus (i. It has the advantagethat any modification of the network does not require complcte rebuilding Z"ur.1 Modification .356  .t t Zm = Zu Hence Upon adding a new branch.. This situation can be avoided by suitable numbering of busesand from now onwardswill be ignored.25. 5. This is type2 modification.. 9." (e. matrix is referredto as the 'opencircuitimpedance matrix'. is addedto the new bus k and the referencebus r. (i. . i = 1 .36) Passive linear nbus network Fig. Type2 Modification t . dimensionof 2o. Zuconnects Zuu.24 .e.. Now V*= ZJ* Z r i = Z * = 0 .the Zru. 9. does not change).This rs type4 rnodittcation. Zsvs (new)  (old) s.23 Current injection method computing of Zru. 2 . ." doesnot change). It similarly fbllows that Ztz=Vt=4= Zn Zvus= 6l l+ l7 41 Becauseof the above computationalprocedure.e. Notation: i. . 4r. of Consider that Zrur has been formulated upto a certain stage and another branchis now added.e. . Zo is addedfrom new bus ft to the old bus7 as in Fig. one of the following situations is presented. a new branch is added and the dimension of Zry5 goes up by one).
40) Z l z l z+ ./o)+ .iiy'. (9.?::"i"t i.39) (e.38) (e'I )' 3 Eriminate { inthe 3":'.+. + 2 .. (s.+ lp J Passive linear nbuS network modification Fig.43) Similar equationsfollow for other buses. ..35S.y>. V*=4lt+ Consequently Zti Zzj : Znj V. .^i{zu Equation (9.I*+ ZiJr+ Zlzlz+..l ZsLr5 "jjT"ulz. + Zinln Rearranging.27 Equations be writtenas follows for all the networkbuses. t"f (e..42) zu connectsan old bus (l) to the referencebus (r) as in Fig. This case follows from Fig. = 2. 9.40) in Eq..25 by connectingbus ft to the referencebus r. 9. + Zii ei* I) + .9. l TypeModification .>)r. 9. v*=o' (l. as two zo connects old buses in Fig.= lr^ h(z* * 1rr]a lr.. 9. by setting can . (9. .i:ation Fig..25 TypeZ modification oI lzyziz.4t) + + lr^.26. + Vi= Z.37) zjj + zb IYpe3 Modification : ltz't"Zv) = (new) znvs(old . rz uz. . 9.I zii + z. / r SubstitutingEq. + .. 11... )lI* 'o= 12 1 or Now (\1Ir+ Zi2Iz+ "' + ZlnI) (9'39) Vo= Zdo + V. .. = Zr. "h 2. i.. + "' + Z'nI n+ Z. +Z i ..... 1 .1 MorJern Powcr Srrctarn anatrroio 1O_ Zrj lr n Passivelinear nbus network zzj Zsvs(old) I : (e.I" a. r I .zi.26 Type3 modification "' + Zr i ( I i + / ) + ZU Q i.+ ZiJ"(9. Z..27 TYPe4 Fig. l n + ( Z i i + Z ) l k . 111+Z..1)r.37) can be written in matrix form as (e. lr + .e.
(9.24s8l Step5: Acldbranchizr= 0.zs 0.45) zsvs='.0417 [o.1ro3 o.r4s8 o.12501 lo.= Z . + I _I earTangtng 0 =(Zit.e.21.8... + I ) * Z i i ( I i . . type4 modification.8 For the 3busnetworkshown Fig.tsI to.it follows that (new) = Zsuts (old) Z131. .28build Zsus in I I I [o. Ref bus r Fig.46) on lines similar to whar was done modification.zi)) fo. + Z l U .l4s8 0.) In + (Zu * Zii * Zii .1 (from bus 2 (olct)to brrs31old)): type4 modification [o. + zi. = zsvs o.1250  I  0. + (Zti.360  Modern power System Analysis Fault Analysis Symmetrical Step I: Add branch 2. + Z .36).(9.. 2 4 5 8 .251 zb+zii*Ziizzij l'" lZ. (e.to42l8 l  0 .lo42  lzit .0.25l 0.47) bus impedancematrix can be built by a stepbystep procedure(bringing in ng hci one bra n c h a t a ti n l e ) a s i l l trs tra tc 'itl l i xrrrnpl e9. (see Example9. l O 4 2 + ) 10.trj [0. 1 0 .+ (Z* .1 o. constrained by the equation (Fig. .l Step 4: (ii) (iii) Collecting equations similar to Eq.1250 0.0417] I  j Example9.37). 9.0411 0.45) we can write vl Step 3: Add branch .l [0 = 0. .2s o.zs 0.In + = Z t l * + Z .1458o.r3e7 = 0. Thi s pror.Z) Ii +.27) V. .2s 0.. ili . 9. .25 (from bus I (new) to bus r) = ZBUS t}.2s  o'3so + [0. .zs 0..1042 0.2s 0. r l "+ .46) Add branch zz.t I i. .28 I Zsus=Zuur(olcl) (01)+ol?5 # .44) (i) Add branch Zzt = 0.ro+z o.8).2s   lo.to+z 0.17sol an to o Oltenirtg tinu (line 32): This is equivalent connecting intpeclance 0. however.25 l. Lo.2s o.Zi .21) Ir+ .3s..42) and (9.. (zi.0.3s  o.3s o.I betweenbus 3 (old) and bus 2 (old) i..Z) Ii+ eu. (from bus 2 (old) to bus r).2s1 (9.1 (from bus 3 (new) to bus I (old)).ro42o.lZ:11. Thc opeling o1 a line (Ztt) is equivalentto adding a branch in parallel to it with impedance . When the network undergoes changes.1 (from bus 2 (new) to bus I (old)).25'l =  Zet)s o.14s8 0.l4s8l with the useof fbur relarionships Eqs (9. type3 modification 10. + Z i t ( 1 ..1042 0.' (I l I r 9 z 'irl l I l L.o+tzl 0.2so.14s8l = I o..6"11. 31i] = zsvs o.l4s8 O.2s o3sl " Ln.I ) + . 0.1250 0.2. (9. typeZ modification V vn 0 Eliminating 1o in Eq. 9.s lo.2 x O .rl o + V i or 2 1 1 1 1 \ 2 1 2 + .z1t).3s 0.tott o.cdrrrc n a mechanicalone can be easily computerized.25l Step I fOt I he voltages of the buses i and j are. (9.zs 0. r l .Z) 11.24s8 1042.43) and Eq.'oo. (9.tO42 0. !. .zs o. typeZ e. I tr 3 0.J or. the modiflcationproceclures be can cttrployccl rcviscthc bLrs to irtrpcdance rnatrixul'thc nctwol'k.rt = 0.I3e7 0.1103 0. 1 4 5+ 0 .
_1 (b) As per Eq. Find (maximum momentary current)' the first current maximum currentntaximum occurs at the sametime as [Hint: Assumethat the first ttrcuit current') the first current maximum of the symmgtricl.286 .. uxl Il.fv i  vl' . (9..1042 0. are For a solid 3phasefault on bus 3.j2'86 io.1042l.0.2+io. (9. 9.:non V: 2. (d) 1fr.01470. .filf. 9.r.tr raull Ana*raio rurqryo's ffir r** L o.osoo_J I [ 0. to 0.286.29) Iri = Y. (sameas in step 4) 0.09 1 (d) 0.j(vl ./ 'l // .1 \.: j0. (iv) of Example 9. given in Eq. (a) As per Eq. 86 Solution The Thevenin passivenetwork for this systemis drawn in Fig.2458  and i' li = ( F^ E .28 with its Zru.25) Jt  LE PROB MS 5 0. j l .lid..29 I f cz= i2. (9. \.86 As per Eq.8.= GtSimilarlY 10'286=.29 the pu reactances shown therein.os Fig.j s . 9.0s001   Now . g ' j0. 1 A transmission of inductance H as shown in Fig' P9'1' Write the shortcircuitedat t =0 at the bar end approximatelythe value of for expression short circuit current i(r).32) .1 and (b) V\ and vt (c) It. ModernPower System Anatysis rr^r :)ymmelrlual r^.1 anclresistance ohms is suddenly line 9 ..2 JIc)  i.vl) For the power system shown in Fig. andIf. I\t=tt= ro. + Zl or 1f  zn Y o .186o) fr .14s8 0.1458 0. Assume prefault voltage be I pu.Ztyu zrr+zl'r .0147 l 10./'0. . (9. o '' \ \ / . calculate the following (a) Fault current = Irtz=+(0. I'\.0147 0.r r GrE' orvrf ixtic + ixr ffr F 0.) = 0 .26) rr.1042 0..i2.. l 3 ' But no = E'Gr 1 Pu (Prefault load) IL..175. 0. 2 8 6 2[ Z zu) symmetry of the given power These two voltages are equal becauseof the network (c) From Eq.0147l t 0.
4 9 .3 kV. unit is connected to a line through a circuit 9 .r The systemis loadedso that the motor is drawing 15 Mw at 0. 7 A generatortransformer breaker.d= 0. 12 kV' X. 11/33 ky. 3. vol as I I kv.1H SO i u = 1 OOn(100 f + 15.o U.1 T2 Fig.5. l\Vo subtransient reactance Motor: TransformerT.: Transfbrmer Tr: Line: 20 MVA. laggirrgp0w0rl. P9. Fig. 6.9133kV.reactance0. 4 4 0 v . The ratings of vanouscomponents are: Motors (each): 1 MVA. the motor terminal voltage being 3. is supptying a passiveload of 400 kW at for a threephasefault factor.0.9 loading power factor.1 = 0'80 Ptt X.2) find the symmetrical currents to be interrupted by circuit breakersA and B for a fault ar (i) p and (ii) e. 12166 Transtbrmers 12 Reactance ohms' resistanc:negligible' Line: that the circuit breakersA and B will Calculatethe syrnmetricalcurrent fault occurring at be called upon to interrupt in the event of a threephase B' F near the circuit breaker Line T .1 kv. 6 A s y n c h r o n o u s g e n e r a t o f r a t e d 5 0 0 k V A . 9 . 4 For the system in Fig.08pu of 30 kv.f' w c chooscgcrrcrator. when a threeThe systemis operatingno load at a line voltage breaker'Find phasetault occurson ih" tin" just beyondthe circuit symmetrical rms current in the breaker' (a) the initial offset currenr in rhe breaker. 8 The systemshown in Fig' P9'8 is delivering ils infinite.'l I power System Analvsis rr]logern vyrrrrlvt"vE' errrnrnorrinal Farrlt Analvsis "' " J I I geS I fl 'i 64A' v^/v\ 0.8 (Example 9. calculate the short circuit cuffent (symmetrical) fed into a threephase fault at motor bus.3 kv. lHint: Assumea suitablevoltagebasefbr the generator.6. Calculate tfr" in'itiui symmetrical rms current at generator terminals. 3 For the system of Fig. p9.8 lagging . 5 Two synchronous motors are connectedto the bus of a large system through a short transmission line as shown in Fig.1 so rhar the DC offset current is maximum? 9 . Xi= o. kV' X = 0'08 pu (each): 80 MVA. 0 .8 . I \Vo reactance 20 ohms reactance Fig.) si n Fig./ = 0'35 Pu Generator. P9.itctttrillttlltbrrswhichrtriryberegirrdecl are: of Particulars various systemcomponents 60 MVA.1 9 '2 (a) What should the instantof short circuit be in Fig.564.4 kV.1 pu transientreactance Line: 0. l5%o subtransient reactance 25 MVA. p9. iui tt. 9. the line voltage baseis 33 kv and motor voltagebaseis 3."u"'tun". p9.1 so that the DC offset current is zero? (b) what should the instantof short circuit be in Fig.4 the ratings of the various componenrs are: Generator: 25 MVA.The unit ratings are: pu. 8 9 .2o pu and Generator: 10 MVA. per unit reactances calculatedaccordingly. when the motors are operating at 440 v. maximum possible DC current rating of the breaker' (c) the momentary kVA' (d) the current.8 kV.. The voltagebase for transformers.line and motor would then be given by the transforma_ ti 0 n ri l ti < l sF rl r c x a n rp l ci.] are Transformer:10MVA. tagcbasc . Find the subtransientcurrent in generatorand motor for a fault at generator bus.05 ohm reacrance Large system: Shortcircuit MVA at its bus at 440 V is g. X. 12. 440 v. p9. 33/3. p9.5 ansi 9 . intemrpted by the breakerand the intemrpting and short circuit current in the breaker' (e) the sustained 50 MVA at 1 1 k v . gVoreactance 20 MVA. p9. 0 .6 kV. l p u s u b t rpowele n t 0.
p_9. l\Vo reactance.1 Fault Fig.the system given below: Transient reactanceof each generator= 0. zp . Both the transforners are 100 MVA of with a leakage reactance 5%t.'.15 pu Leakage reactanceof each transformer = 0. 20Vo reactance Transformer Tr: 100 MVA. are 9.0 pu to flow into the fault.1. 223 70.choose a baseof 100 MVA.05 pu = Ztz = i0.S tgdern power Svstem Anatvsis t . . 9'9 A two generatorstaticln suppliesa f'eeder througha bus as shown in Fig. on With the generator no load and with 1. a threephase Assume prefault voltagesto be 1 pu and prefault currents to be zero.25 line Transmission 0. The reactanceof each of the lines to a base of 100 MVA.08 Pu For a solid 3phasefault on bus 3. a threephaseshort circuit occurring on bus 1 causesa current of 5.f"'Ter 4v<rl\er rr ru JJJ rvtyA (Iault close to breaker). the ratings of the various componentsare: j0.12. Determinethe equivalent reactanceof the power network.9. ti Tz The power network can be representedbi a gene ator with a reactance (unknown) in series. A reactor X is included bus 2 of the system. impedancedata are of 9. P9. a symmetrical short circuit occurs at mid point F of rine r. 757o reactance Generator Gr: 50 MVA. p9. 0.9 T1 G) k 1 1 /1 1 0 V f l rn kv\xxx" ^T" T '2 9'10 For the threephase power network shown in Fig. with transientreactanceIjVo each. P9'9' Additional power is fed to the bus throJgh a transfoilner from a large system which may be regardedas infinite. The generators 100 MVA.28 and.10 Fig. P.Obtain the short circuit solution for solid short circuit on bus 3.13 In the systemconfiguration Fig. 12 Generators Gr: 100 MVA. Fig. with the network initiaily unroaded and a rine vortageof 110 kv.'jT:^"1^:t::1u1.0 pu voltage at each bus under operating condition.i0.10 pu reactance Inductive reactor X: 0.30 pu reactance Gz: 60 MVA. 110 KV is 707o. neglect resistance. P9.1"!T to limit theSCrupruring capacity of :. system data are: Generator Gr: 25 MVA.20 pu on a base of 100 MVA Lines (each): 80 ohms (reactive). Find the inductive reactanceof the reactor required.Buses 1 and 2 are connectedthrough a transformer and a transmissionline.10.I2.*Sf. Per unit reactancesof the various components are: to Generator(connected bus bar 1) 0.8Vo reacrance Transformer T2: 40 MVA. Assumethat all reactances given on appropriate are voltagebases. 0.12. p9. calculate the short circuit MvA to be intemrpted by the circuit breakers and B at the ends of the line. find all bus voltagesand sc currents in each component. what A would these values be.12 Considerthe 3bus systemof Fig. 0. if the reactor X were eliminated?Comment.18 pu reactance Transformers(each): 50 MVA.
' r New York.i . B I r r w t t . l n a l y s i s can proceed on a singlephase basis. Iowa.1 INTRODUCTION ERE S REF NCE B oo k s l.ft' A l t t r n u l i t t . M c ( i r z W s Ncw York. Alternatively.5 pu reactance 0. N c w Y o r k .sivcly displaced in tirne phase by 120' (phase u leads/laesphase b by 1 2 0 ' a n d p h a s e i r l e a d s / l l g sp h i t s e c b y 1 2 0 " ) . AIEE Trani. H . Analysis of Faulted Power Systems.s i s . McCrawHill Book Co. t . l9tl2.o l . H. "Digital Calculation o[ ThreePhase Short Circuits by Matrix Methods". r ' / r . t h c y h u v c c r p r i r l n u r g r r i t u t l c sn c l r c h p h u s c u n d t r c i prtrgrcs.E.. Prefaultsystemis on noloadwith 1 pu voltageand prefault currents are zero. f . 2 .) lirults  5t/o (LG) faults Single linetoground 7jVo tL)'7 5. .i r r t c r r t a t i t t r t a j eorrrplny.I4. g . Computer Methods in Power SystemsAnalysis.Ames. l c t r c t t s w a r t d uj'. . P9.14 110 111 kV 0. f I . r. ( ' i n ' t t i t A r r t t l . 4. 1960. linetoground fault or linetoline fault. toi. .l .H. 6 ... a r .itt lhct.3. D . J r . find the sc currentsin lines 1.M. W i l c y . L ) . 1943. 1971. ol' lnot'econlnroll occurrence+thalt the syrnntetric:al(threephase) fault. Unbalanced system operation can result in an otherwise balanced system due to unsymmetrical fault.o f P o w c r S y s t e m sA n u l y . 1968. .2 and 1.W. '3. c . e e t w r t r k l t y M u t r i r M c t l u t d s . et al. . New York. L J l r r l c rs u c l t o l t c t ' a t i o t t l t c s y s t c r l r i r u l t c d a n c c si n c a c l r p h a s c a r e identical and the thrcephasevoltages and currents throughout the system are c o l l t p l c t c l y h l t l i t n c c t l . and A. 4 t hc d n ..g. Use Zuu. Ncw York. The knowledge of voltage and current in one phase is sufficient to completely determine voltages and currents in the other two phases. E l e t r r c n t . . method and compute its elementsby the current injection technique.V. ll I 'r[bl Q9 Fig.. Real and reetctive powers are simply three times the corresponding per phase values. 79 : 1277. S o l t t t i o t rt t . . These f'aultsatrc.14 For the fault (solid) location shown in Fig. Brown.1 pu reactance 10. r l . qC t r r r c r t l l ' t t w r r S \ . Analysis under unbalancetl conditions has to be carried out on a threephase basis. . Systern operation may also become unbalanced when loads are unbalanced as in the presence of laree singlephase loads. ( ' f r r t ' k c .. a nlore convenient method of analyzing unbalanced operation is through symtnetrical components where the threephasevoltages (and currents) which may be unbalanced are transfbrmed into three sets of balanced voltages (and * Typical relative frequencies occurrenceof different kinds of faults in a power of (irr syst(:llt ordcr ol' dccrcasing scvcrity)are: Threephase(3L) faults 5Vo Double linetoground(LLG) faults lj%o I)outrlc lirrc (l1.Iowa State Press. . e. we have considered both normal and abnormal (short circuit) operettionsof power systern Llncler cornpletely balanced (symmetrical) c o l t t l i t i o t t s . Stagg. S t c v c r r s o n . I . l . Anderson. In our work so far.365 j t ModernPower SystemAnalysis 9. 1973. I n a b : r l l n c e d s y s t e n r . P9. G. P ap e r "7. N 'i'cxtbook M t t t i t : t ' t t i ' t n v ' u ' 5 ' v s ' / e l l . P.i t . ElAbiad.
V61=crV61 V6fo?V11 (10.negative Vr= & V o V o = V o . is indicatedby the phasordiagramof Fig.According to Fortesque'stheorem* the three phasorscan be * The theorem is a general one and applies to the case of n phasors [6].1) is sequence). lines) to symmetricalcomponentsare decoupledfrom each other resulting in independentsystem networks for each component anced set). which in generalmay be unbalanced. V" is charactertzed equal and interphasedifferencesof 120'.2) components obtain to of addition the symmetrical Fig. V6.4) Consider now a set of three voltages (phasors)Vo. (10. V6. lags Vuby I20". the impedancespresentedby various power system elements (synchronous generators. Vo. (10. (say V. V61. 10..) and its phasesequence A Suffix 1 is commonly usedto indicatepositive sequence. V6. V. V6g = Vo1.5) to (10.air20" It has the following properties .&Vu1. The set is said to have a phase magnitudes if sequenceabc (positivesequence) Vulags Voby l2O" and V.A set of (balanced) negative sequencephasorsis written as Vo2. Vrz= Q'Voz (10. negative and zero) are called the of components the original phasorset Vo. Vrr = aVot (r0.8) Vo= Vot* Vozl Voo Vu= a.Vot * bYbL Voz I vbz Voo (10. in sucha transformation currents)called symmetricalcomponents.Thus (10. in be The three phasorscan^then expressed terms of the referencephasor Vo as Vo = Vo. 10.2 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENT TRANSFORMATION ! .1.*2:ei24o':eilAo" (o')* : o a3:l l+ala2:0 _* The three phasor sequences(positive.1 Graphical in the set of phasorsV".7) to generate Vo.s) ( r0. V.e) (10. (10. Vr.V. V. AS Vng.5) to (10. The addition of symmetrical symmetricalcomponentsas per Eqs.7) in termsof reference Let us now express Vo2and Voe.2Vor+ aVor* V"= cVol+ o2vor* Voo Voo Similarly.. V62= dVn2. set of (balanced) positive sequencephasorsis written as Vo1. transformers. This is the basic reason for the simolicitv of the svmmetrical component method of analysis.V" (unbalanced general) phasors Voy Eqs. V6 = a"Va.10) These equations can be expressed in the matrix form .then If the phase sequence acb (.{fii Thus above.compo1gnlg symmetrica! Fortunately.7) Vr= VrI * Vrz * Vro by A set of three balancedvoltages (phasors)Vo. V u = tu Vo . = aVo where the complex number operator cr is defined as sL . suffix 2 is used to indicate negativesequence. Vr1 = Vo1 (10.a?.3) A set of three voltages(phasors)equal in magnitudeand having the samephase Thus a set of zero sequencephasorsis written is said to have zero sequence. V6. TO. Thus a set of balancedphasorsis fu'lly characterizedby its referencephasor (positive or negative).
1 " V.17) (10.24) (10. the zero sequencecomponent of line voltages is always zero. Therefore.+ v"o) o (10. Io = il' (10. (Io+ azlu+ aI. [t o2 tl I rl o nt I Ir= dot+ azlor* Ioo (ii) Obtaining symmetrical components of current phasors: (10. In expanded form the relations (10.o_i Of course A and Ar are the same as given earlier.ana I LI. we get .= 1 e"+ du+ o2lr) We can wrire Eq. 10.5) to (10. I r o = .7) of give the relationships for obtaining original phasors frorn the symmetrical components. (10."1 of originalPhasors = vector Ir=lIu I.20) can be expressed as follows: (i) Constructionof current phasorsfrom their symmetricalcomponents: Io= Iot * Ioz * Ia= o2lott Ioo loo dozr l ''l [r.19) (10.* r. = vobo trr** = vu. (10. In expandedform we can write Eq.16) to (10.e.2. V.16) (10.<V"+ cVu+ a2VS (10.19) and (10. = 4'V.1 Ia [' A.11) and I' = ArI' where Vp = AV. (10. 10.20) (10.12) as (10.) Equations (10.1).) Lr.14) d o'] ComputinE . (10.21) (r0.2 Threephase systemwith neutral return The sum of the three line voltages will always be zero.22) (r0.23) (ro. = l'u  1.18) Vao V"" voz= ! fr"+ ozvu+o%) 3 Vuo= I .) i . (r0.1s) r rl Certain observationscan now be made regarding a threephase system with neutral return as shown in Fig.while Eqs.' I Lv.2s) . ) % =  Voz  = vector of symmetrical components Iu'l Lu"'. The symmetrical component transformationsthough given above in terms of voltageshold for any set of phasorsand thereforeautomatically apply for a set of currents.' = * l r c r 2a I 'Lt (r0. Q o +I u + I r ) (ro.12) v.14) as Vor= I . i.{r and utilizing relations (10.ffi#d __r_: ModernPo*et sytttt Analysi.26) o . l.27) .+ Vr.=lIo.Thus ln Fig.13) Iot= * t.r.18) give the necessary relationshipsfor obtaining symmetricalcomponents the original phasors.
On the other hand. Do you notice any relationship betweerisymmetricalcomponentsof line and delta currents ? Comment.2) Im= 141282"A Inz= 4'6518"A Iao=oA Check: Ia= Iat * I.. c .we can redraw Fig. + 3V"oI). + 3V"r!). Power Invariance We shall now show that the symmetrical componenttransformationis power invariant. r rl l1 0 0l [r o? 'Tt o16.to= 8'65 + j5 = 10130" Convertingdelta load into equivalentstar. 0 = 18 1154" A Ioo=lr. which means that the sum of powers of the three symmetrical componentsequalsthe threephase power. 10. 3 Solution or Io + I" * Is = Q 10130" + l5l.1  T A delta connectedbalancedresistive load is connectedacross an unbalanced threephasesupply as shown in Fig.60o+ 240") + I8l(154' + 120")) J (i) I S = f p $ = 4 1 .60o+ Ic = O I c= .16.l.e.2e) t. 10. in the absence of a neutral connection the zero sequence line current is always zero. may exist.3 = 4. (10.=o 3 (ro.651248" A Iao= I t^ (lo + IR + J (ii) (iii) /c) = 0 = v! 'qr'q.28) i.Q0130' + 151(. = 3V^1. Flg.35 j9.24) (10.rz* I. the currentin the neutralis three times the zerc sequence line current. we have _\ B _____}_ Ioo=!U"+16+r")=!+ (10.3. Total complex power in a threephasecircuit is given by to From Eqs. la . With currents in lines A and B specified.3 as in Fig.. 10.=341. 10.26) Itr= :0Ol3O" + 751(60"+ l2O" ) + I8l(154" + 240")) 5 1 = 10. tI Now (10. Also find the symmetrical componentsof delta currents.rl:ro r olt.7.32) "tll I JLa. = sumof symmetrical powers component (10.31) FromEq.j4. + V u t t +V .If the neutral connectionis severed. (10.e..651128"A Ico=oA I Example10. the sum of phasevoltages(line to neutral)'may not be zero so that their zero sequence component Vn. Since the sum of the three line currentsequals the current in the neutral wire. .l l L 0 0 l l [r r s=31yti.(10. 2+ j8.3 = 14142"A + Iez= .30) = 1. (10.]'t'lAl.4.33) Icr = 141162" A Icz = 4. find the symmetrical componentsof line currents.=lta a n' . t ! or s = [Av.
(iv) and (v). and12with directions of flow as indicatedin the diagram are in phase.5 Polaritymarking a singlephase of transformer\ Consider now a star/delta transformer with terminal labelling as indicated in Fig.(6 1 8 6 " + IO. Ircz.41.6(b) the phaseshrft reverses(the readershould draw the phasor diagram). 1 l 2O" ) + 8. If the delta side is connectedas in Fig. we need to discussthe standard polarity marking of a singlephasetransformer as shown in Fig.Ir) Io ItB=zAB)R Similarly.31(173"+ 240" ))(i v) = 8172" A (v) I.41.qaz=:6186" + 1051(.The following interrelationship betweenthe voltages on the two sidesof the transformer is immediately observedfrom the phasor diagram VtBt= x Vabrl3V. enteringthe dotted end cancelsthe demagnetizing ampereturns the secondarycurrent 1. Ice=!frr5 Io) Substituting the values of Io. Comparing Eqs.'ld apply to linetoneutral voltages on the two sides).$i. 1.5' + J Flg. and 1.5 l ( . 10. we have r5l. 7 1 2 1 8A " Ie n o = 0 Incr. Therefore. so that of I.6 (a). Windings shown parallelto eachother are magneticallycoupled. Assuming that the small amount of magnetizingcurrent can be neglected.. we can immediatelydraw the phasor diagramof Fig. the following relationship between symmetrical componentsof line and delta currents are immediately observed: (vi) IeBr=+130" V J Ienz= \ zzo" t ' (vii) (viii) ! J The reader should verify theseby calculatrng Io'. Iu and Ir.Before considering this phaseshift.the delta side quantitieslead the star side quantities by 30".If the direction of 1. tUo ru) rnc=er.rol3o") 8 . Iga2 and 1. 10.4I. will be in phase opposition. and (ii) and (v). (10.lsn1.5"+ 240")+ 8.M I Delta currents obtained follows are as Qrrmmatriaal lamnnnanla tffiffi veB= U^.5. Assume that the transformer is excited with positive sequencevoltages and carries positive sequencecurrents. The same also applies for line currents. The transformer ends marked with a dot have the same polarity. the positive sequence line voltages on star side lead the corresponding voltageson the delta side by 30" (The same result wo. (vii) and (viii) and comparing the results with Eqs. 10. is reversed..phasetransformation ratio (10. is in phase with voltage V. With the polarity marks shown. andl*2from Eqs.5"A lOsz. voltage Vun. 3 1 1 7 3A = rcn= " !W2154" The symmetricalcomponentsof delta currents are Ie m= .Ir) I 5 Positive and negativesequencevoltagesand currents undergo a phaseshift in passing through a stardelta transformer which depends upon the labelling of terminals. (i) and (iv)..34). .60")= 6186 A Ien= Oozzo" ! rnc= 60" rllr54") = lO.Modernpower system anatysis $..2). (10. IBC. 10. 10.the prirnary current 1r.oo can be found by using Eq. r .34) As per Eq.5l.7.31(173" 120")) + J I = 2 .
The return path for 1.8 Negative sequence transformer IO.sitive sequencequantities on the HV side lead their V6 vc lr= l"+ lo+1" ( Fig. 10. Let X" = sell'reactance o1'each line X.The phaseshift in comparison the positive sequence to casenow reverses.4 SEOUENCE IMPEDANCES OF TRANSMISSION LINES Figure 10.6(a) is now excited by negative sequencevoltages and currents..ixmlc Vec'l Fig.ar System Analys'is A ________ Componentg Symmetricat o a  3?9 I l /\ correspotxding positive sequence quantities on the LV side by 30'. The reverse is the case for negative sequence quantities wherein HV quantities lag the corresponding LV quantities by 30".6(b)also correspondingly reverses. 10. if the transformerof Fig. vsc2 (a) Star side quantitieslead delta side quantitiesby 30o (b) Delta side quantities lead star side quantities by 30o Fig. i.10. 10.V'o= jXJo + jX*Iu + . 10. = mutual reactanceof any line pair The fbllowing KVL equationscan be written down from Fig.e. 9 .9 shows the circuit of a fully transposedline carrying unUalancecl currents.8. the star side quantitieslag the delta side quantities by 30'. 10. The result for Fig. 10. Vo .9.the voltage phasor diagram will be as in Fig.is sufficiently away for the mutual effect to be ignored.7 Positive sequence voltageson a star/delta transformer Instead. 10..6 Labelling star/delta of transformer vcea Vcrcz Vesz voltages a star/delta on Fig. It shall from now onwards be assumed that a star/delta transformer is so labelled that the po.
36) (10. o^rrol vyuar ^^o.x. It is further observedthat the sequencecircuit equations (10.  v ! ) : zuIs r// .'s jx.. 3phaso or or Now A (I/. EMFs are involvedonly in a positive sequence network of synchronousmachines.X* 0 10.4s) Zz: j(X.42) are in decoupleclfbnn. .I (r0. o ll r. voltage drops of the same sequenceappear. . negative and zerosequences. are the inducedemfs . x_x*x.3s) t.5 SEQUENCE IMPEDANCES AND SEOUENCE NETWORK OF POWER SYSTEM Power system slernsnfstransmission lines.3e) (a) Positive sequence network (b) Nagativesequence network @)Zero sequence network I// / n zIo AIZAI.37) (10.6 sEQuENCg I. This fact leads to considerable simplications in the use of symmetrical rnethod unsymmetrical in components fault analysis. o{__]Z1 o 12 "f}22 o ls Zs o)f_l.IpTDANCES AND NETWoRKs SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE oF l " rlo Jl l'rltr:t 'JL o I o Lr z 0 0 wherein Zr:  41 l'tr( I I x". elementin questionis subjected currentsand voltagesof that the to only. these networks are suitably interconnectedto simulate different unsymmetrical faults.10. + 2X) /t.Modern PgwgfSy$gln Snalysis Svmmetrienl cnmnonent( tflIlFffi T 4 .5 times). in rlachine (generator motor) or Figure 10..r) : positive sequence impedance (10.'. .r[: jxJo + jxh + jx*[" l'.tequence impedance ^:^^)^^^strqu{rrruE rrup€uallutis.e. I x. Each eleurent can therelbre be representedby tlree decoupledsequencenetworks (on singlephase basis) pertaining to positive. vb v" V.. :J L: Thus Eq.42) can be represented network form as in Fig. 1 0 The decouplingbetween sequence networks of a fully transposed transmission holds also in 3phase synchronousmachines and 3phasetransformers.40) l*.. We conclude that a fully transposed transmission has: ^^^+i ut/ts4Lrvg (ii) zero sequenceimpedancemuch larger than the positive (or negative) sequenceimpedance(it is approximately 2.11depictsan unloadedsynchronous groundedthrougha reactor (impedanceZ). v.\ \r. thcrrearc no rnutual scqucncc inducternccs.X.38) (10. jx^ (10. respectively.. For finding a particular sequence impedance. AI ZA : JX^ jx^ jx^ jx.coupling appearsbetween sequence networks and the method is no more helpful than a straight forward unalysis.complete positivel' negativeand zero sequencenetworks of any power systerncan be assembled.X^) : negative sequence impedance Zo: i(X. transformers and.i+i"o pvrrlryu ^ ( tr ll r l : zero . In case of three static unbalancedimpedances. With the knowledge of sequence networks of elements. the elementspossessonly self impedancosto sequencecurrcnts. Ib I" (10.x^ t 0 2 2 0 z llr. far"rlt 10. (10. r vI vi  = J x^x. F i g . sequence the impedance can be determined analytically or through experimentaltest results.37) can be written as 0 X.4l) .8o.l lLr.x.43) (r0.42) j(X.l 0 l[ /' 0 o 0 o (l o. 10. i ll. With the elementoperating sequence undertheseconditions.c. The sequence currentsand voltagesduring the fault are then calculatedfrom which actual currentsand voltases can be found.  o x.V!: iXJ" + jxmlb + jxJ" or in rnatrix form ^a (10. As will be explained in the next chapter. . F)quation (10. synchronous nlachineshave a threephasesymmetrybecause which when'currentsof a of particular sequenceare passed through these elements. i. i.1 0 . E6andE. *zx^ )j.44) (10.
as the short circuit transient progressesin time.when a fault (not shown in the figure) takes place at machine terminals. Currents at double the stator frequency are thereforeinduced in rotor field and damper winding.IZa shows the threephasepositive sequencenetwork ntodel of a of the three phases.e.[5].13a phase and singlephase referencebus is of course at neutral potential which is the same as ground potential. doesnot appearin the model as Iu = 0 for positive synchronous by currents. negative and zero sequence culrents. it is stationary as with respect to field excitation.. i. With the flow of negative sequence induced rotating field is createdwhich rotates in the opposite direction to that of the speedwith respect field and. Figure lO. t:. voltagt: lirrnr kradccl the shortcircuit occurs constitutesthe positive (subtransient.. flow in the lines. The machine equivalently offers a direct axis reactance whose value reducesfrom subtransicntreactance(X. Since it is a balancednetwork it can be represented the sequence network model of Fig.whenever the 1...transient or synchr:onous) reactance uence voltage.lZ2l<lZrl 2 machine. Z . we must machine. Z.on a threenetwork models of a synchronous Negative sequence The andb. reference no since current flows from ground to neutral. The negative sequence impedance presented by the machine with considerationgiven to the damper windings. lat > a * )e" .s0) . The singlephase bus for a positive sequencenetwork is at neutral potential. lc't m (a)Threephase odel b I I (b) Singlephase odel m machine of network synchronous sequence Fig.3S2 ].. 10.46) = jX'a Gf 34 cycle transientis of interest) L ( I ln't .and /.the positive sequence impedanceof the machine is 21= jXtj (if I cycle transientis of interest) (10. In sweeping over the rotor surface. the negative of with reluctances direct and quadrature mmf is alternatelypresented sequence axes. Because of winding symmetry currents of a particular sequence produce voltage drops of that sequence only. is often defined as = jXa (if steady state value is of interest) (10.. currents I.if *'fhis can be shown to be so by synchronousmachine theory. it induces emfsof positivesequence only.. Further.48) If the machine short circuit takes place from unloaded conditions. (10. respectively.currentIn= In+ Iu + ^I"flows to ne'tral from ground "i^I^'. t =j xt: + x.4e) and Network Negative Sequence Impedance (10.n Referencebus '( t + \=\'.hin" to by the flow of positive. i. thi s ntodeof operationis the balancedmoclediscussedailength in Chapter 9.l= E.12 Positive voltageof terminal c With referenceto Fig. respectively.47) sequence has zeronegative rnachine It hasalreadybeensaidthat a synchronous currentsin the stator a voltages.Zll. fault involvesground..12b for purposesof analysis. 10.a) to transient reactance (Xtr) and finally to steadystate (synchronous)reactanJe(Xa).! .the neutral is at ground potential. la yyrrrr r(rLrll 4rr.at double synchronous positivesequence to rotor.6 dn>_ u \ t6 > b ____l_" Fig' 10'11 Threephase synchronous generator withgrounded neutral Positive Sequence Impedance and Network Sincea synchronous machineis clesigned with symmetricalwindings.l (10.1IyJIs (\_napler i l). therefore.. basisare shownin Figs.I _ powerSystem Modern Anatysis Symmetrigel_qg4pe!e$s _ behindappropriltc thc conditiorts.thereis a no coupling betweenthe equivalent circuits of varioussequences*. If armature resistance is assumed negligible.e. 10. The armature reaction field caused by positive sequence currents rotates at 'synchronous speedin the salneclirection the .. Hrvvvvs know the equivalentcircuits presentecl the *u.the positive sequence to the referencebus is given by with respect V. the terminaivoltageconstitutes positivesequence the voltage.on the other hand. no negatrveor zerosequence voltagesare inc lt rc e n i t' Wh c n th c tttl tc l ti nc u rr i cs id posi ti vcscqucncc gl curr.cnts l y.12b. 10.otu. Therefore.
The zero sequenceimpedanceof transmission lines usuallv ZefO.fl$4.7 SEOUENCE IMPEDANCES OF TRANSMISSIO\ LINES (b) Singlephase model Flg. 10.6 kV. + Z0)loo e0. r0. negative and zero sequencereactances of a synchronousmachine refer to Tablu 9. Hence. the referencebus. the return currentsin the ground wires are not necessarily uniform along the entire length.14aand b.Zorlno=.000 rpm are: Zr = lZ%o(subtransient) Zr = 20Vo(transient) Zr = 7l0Vo (synchronous) Zz= I2Vo Zo= 5Vo For typical values of positive.s1) (10. while the rest return throu h the overhead ground wires.14bcarriesonly per phasezero sequence current.13bthe negative sequence voltage of terminal a with respecr to referencebus is Voz= . The flow of zero sequence currentsthroughthe transrnission iln"r.14 Zerosequence network a synchronous of machine Zero sequence network models on a threeand singlephase basis are shown in Figs.l4a. 3.the impedances set In offired by ii to positive and negative sequence culrents are identical.14b zero sequencevoltage of point c with respect to the Voo = . T\e ZefO . Sincethe singlephase zero sequence networkof Fig. IO.The reference bushereis.The zero sequence voltage of t"rinul a with respect to ground. at From Fig.3znioo. it is esseniialto make some simplifying assumptions obtain io analytical results. The flow of zero sequencecurrents creates three mmfs which are in time phase but are distributed in space phase by 120".:rl t powLr Mooern System nnarysis  symmetricat Components Zs= 3Zra Zos (10. 10. In Fig. /66 Reference bus a Iao (a)Threephase model (b)Singlephase model 1o. the cu'ent flowing in the inpedance zn betweenneutral and ground is In = 3lno.1. other words. of course. ground wires and ground createsa magnetic field pattern which is very different from that causedby the flow of positive or negativesequence currentswhere the currents h. the rotor windings present leakage reactanceonly to the flow of zero sequence currents (Zos < Zz < Z).r. When only zero sequence currents flow in a transmissionline. part of these currents return via the ground.13 Negative sequence network a synchronous of machine Zero Sequence Impedance and Network we state once again that no zero sequence voltages are induced in a synchronous machine. 10.53) in orderfor it to havethe samevoltagefrom a to reference bus.to+ 3zri. groundpotential. Order of Values of Sequence Impedances of a Synchronous Generator laz a Typical valuesof sequence impedances a turbogenerator of rated 5 MVA.ro rrqYv ^ (r Prrd'Ds' urrrsrtrIlutr ^L^^^ J:ff^^^^ UI ^f ILV t ^no an(l tne fetufn Cuffent lS sequence impedance of a transmission line also accounts for the ground impedance(zo = z.Zzloz FjSiffi (10. 6. is the zero sequence impedanceper phase of the machine. the currents in each phase are identical in both magnitude and phase angle. its total zero sequence impedancemust be A fully transposedthreephase line is completely symmetrical and therefore the per phase impedanceoffered by it is independentof the phase sequenceof a balanced of currents.r.52) wh11eZo. The tesultant air gap field caused by zero sequence currents is therefore zero. (32. The expressionfoi its per phase inductive reactanceaccounting for both self and mutual linkages ias been derived in Chapter 2.54). 10.Z{oo From Fig' 10.since the ground impedance heavily dependson soil conditions. is therefore Vr1= . The ground wires being grounded at severaltowers.
however. betweenthe two parts of the system connectedby the between H and L. thesecannotflow star and consequently. as transformer shown in Fig. ter" "*" "tt " transformers 10. a {> .15 Flowof zerosequence (iii) No zero sequencecurrents can flow in the lines connecte. 10. The zero sequence magnetizingcurrent is somewhathigher in a core type than in a shell type transformer.Hence.1 [uL+ (& + a) aMllo.15aand b.L and mutual inductance M between any two lines (completely symmetrical case).Thus. Case I. currents a deltaconnection Fig. for a transformer Zt= Zz= Zr"ukug" networks of various types of transformer Beforeconsideringthe zero'sequence are three importantobservations made: connections. zero sequence is If any one of the two neutralsof a YY transformer ungrounded. of causedby the presence zerosequence This f act is illt r st r at ed Fig.Since a transformeris a static device. current only if there is cunent florv on the secondary currentscan flow in the legs of a star connectiononly if (ii) Zero sequence the star point is groundeclwhich proviciesthe necessaryreturn path for culrents..an open circuit existsin the zero sequence i.This fact is illustratedby Figs. the leakageimpedancedoes not changewith alterationof phasesequence balancedapplied voltages. This difference does not matter as the magnetizing curent of a transformer is always neglectedin short circuit analysis.17. This ratio is on the higher side for double circuit lines without ground wires.e.Zero sequence connectionas no returnpath is availablefor these currents can.16 Flowof zeroSequence Let us now consider various types of transformerconnections. zero sequence /ao= 0  ':o __.5 timesthe positivesequence impedance*. Positive sequencereactance= a(L. (10. howevet.000 kvA) the reactanceand impedance of a transformerare almostequal and are thereforenot distinguished. 10.dto a delta culrents.It is..The voltage drop in line a causedby positive sequencecurrents is VAnt= uLlnr+ uMI. . = a(Ltu)Ior ii'. The positive sequence seriesimpedanceof a transformerequalsits leakage impedance.r+ aMI.a transformeroffers a zerosequence impedancewhich may differ slightly from the corresponding positive and negativesequence values. normal practiceto assumethat the seriesimpedances all sequences of are equal regardlessof the type of transformer. have smaller spacerequirements and higher efficiency. 10. 16' bY /ao= 0 a *We can easily compare the forward path positive and zero sequenceimpedances of a transmission line with groundreturnpath infinitely away. currentscannot flow in the ungrounded network in the grounded star.Assumethat eachline has a self inductance. side.8 SEOUENCEIMPEDANCES AND NETWORKS OF It is well known that ahnosl all present day installationshave threephase transformerssince they entail lower initial cost.55) Assuming suchtransformerconnectionsthat zero sequence cunents can flow on both sides.3Sd I ModernPower SystemAnatysis Symmetri a ranges fromZ to 3.45).fuI) The voltage drop in line a causedby zero sequencecurrents is VAno= aLloo+ utMluo+ uMlrs = a(L + 2M)Ino Zero sequence reactance= w(L + 2W Obviously.The of transformernegativesequence impedanceis also thereforeequal to its leakage reactance. YY transformerbank with any one neutrttl grounded. Above a certain rating (1. /co= 0 f' /oo=o star (a) Ungrounded (a) Grounded star in currents a starconnection Fig. 10. r'l ( r0.zerosequence reactance much more than positive sequence is reactance. flow in the legs of a deltasuch currents are in voltages the delta connection. 10. This result has alreadybeenderivedin Eq.
in the sequencenetworkCasb Zg YA tran rmer bank with ungroundedstar tll d L YYtransformer bankwithone neutral grounded its zero and sequence network Case 2: YY transforrner bank both neutrals grounded When both the neutralsof a YY transformerare grounded.transformersand lineshave been given.To start with. it can circulate in the delta windings*.20. an impedance3Zn appearsin series with Z. there is an open circuit between H anE L and Zo is connectedto the referencebus on both endsto accountfor any circulating zero sequencecurrent in the two deltas (see Frg.in the zero sequence network 11andL areconnected by the zero sequence irnpedanceof the transformeras shown in Fig. . If the star neutral is groundedthrough 2.zero sequence currentscan flow in star becausea path is availableto ground and the balancing zero sequence currents can flow in delta. Theretore. windings.. a path through the transformer exists for zero sequencecurrents in both windings via the two groundedneutrals.19 Y1 transformer yneutral and its zero bankwith grounded sequence network If the neutral of star side is grounded.ffi (seeFig. the positive sequencenetwork is constructed by *Such circulating currents would exist only if zero sequencevoltages are somehow induced in either delta winding. 10. 10.Of courseno zero sequence currentscan flow in the line on the delta side. complete sequencenetworks of a power system can be easily constructed. The zero sequence network must therefbre have a path from the line 1{ on the star side through the zero sequence impedance of the transformer 10.1g. 10.21 AAtranstormer Fig.19). Using thesq.9 CONSTRUCTION OF SEOUENCENETWORKS OF A POWER SYSTEM In the previous sections the sequencenetworks for various power system elementssynchronous machines. Thereiore no zero sequence curent can flow in the transformer network then modifies to that shown in Fig. however.Hence. the zero sequencecurrents cannot flow in or out of AA transformer. 10. 10.1 ^r a _. 10. Case 3: YA transformer bank with grounded y neutral This is the special case of Case 3 where the neutral is grounded through Zn = oo. 10.20 star bankwith ungrounded and its Yl transformer network zerosequence Case5: AA transformer bank Reference bus o4TdL=o H Z s Since a delta circuit provides no return path.2I). The zero sequence { L bus Reference "ifr6L H 2 . 10. o L Fig. I Reference bus network bankand its zerosequence Fig. L Fig.18 YYtransformer bankwith neutrals groundedand its zero sequence network dE.
Draw the positive and negative sequencenetworks of the system with reactances markedin per unit. IYA Motor . rrrv LrltlJ vrrarr ffi MVA base in all other circuits and the following voltagebases.5 MVA.22 (2) .3 Since all the negative sequence reactances of the system are equal to the positive sequence reactances. Zero sequencesubnetworks for various parts of a system can be easily combinedto form completezero sequence network. of T lr cgcrrc ri tto ru p p l i c s o rrto to rs v 0r' r. I0. r.the negative sequencenetwork is identical to the . Special care needs to be taken of transforners in respect of zero sequence network.25 x ?1.2 1 t _ _ _ _ _ _ : _ ..Omit resistances.23 Positive Reference bus Ir t.8/L2I kV.1 ) Eara l + ioz:). The procedure for drawing sequence networks is illustrated through the following examples. I0.1 I Assume that the negative sequence reactance of each machine is equalto its subtransientreactance. rf Lo)t = 0.2 ++ = 11 kV 121 to line of The reactances transformers.66XLg . Select generator rating as basein the generatorcircuit.1 pu reactance x =. Thethreephase transformers both rated30 MVA. 1l kV.3 sequence Fig. Since the positive and negative sequence irnped. q \ .8 neclessary positive sequence in network to obtain negatit'e sequence network in respect of synchronous machines.0s05 Transformer 3 0 \ 1 1/ loo x 25 : Line reacl a n c e = ffi =o. Any impedanceincluded in generatoror transformerneutralbecomes three tirnesits valuein a zero sequence network.) \rrrrvD qrtu Lt otrJltrt ttlvt Jrr.Modern Power SystemAnalysis examination the onelinediagrarnof the system.ttive sequence impedance. Each machine is representedby neg..r iio6e 9 . i 0.Any impedance connectedbetweena neutraland ground is not included in these sequence networks as neither of these sequencecurrents can flow in suchan impedance.22.x t 15 \lll Reactance motor 2 . e Es( ) +l I I Enrt( ) +l I t! . The requiredpositive sequence Referencebus r Example 10. f":' = x Motor voltagebase 123.23.r s tw o transnri ssi on w i Lhtral tsl ol l rrcl ' s l i nc at both ends as shownin the oneline diagramof Fig.0805 j4164 loo8o5 Fig. f++) = 0. 10.0.I6XU j0'164 i oo8o5 . connection are AY with leakagereactance 70Voeach. andmotorsareconverted pu values as bases follows: on appropriate = 0."xfi i 00805 P r' In network Example for 10. 10.5 \ ll / in network is presented Fig. No voltage sourcesare presentin the zero sequence network.s ' t o p ' u910' (t. i o 3 4 5 :.25 x . 10./ r \ ' t Fig. both 10 kV with 25Vosubtransient reactance.2kY 10. Zero sequence networks of all possibletransformer connectionshave been dealt with in the preceding section.69 pu of 7. threephase generator has a subtransient reactance 20Vo.24 Negative sequencenetworkfor Example 10. The transitionli'orrr positil'e sequence network to negative sequence network is straightforward. The referencebus for positive and negativesequence networks is the system neutral. 'r' ) .l A 25 MVA.345pu of Reactance motor I = 0.164pu 2s /10\2 =  0.It is to be noted that positive of sequence (gcnerators motors) voltages present synchronous are in machines and only. The motorshave ratedinptrtsof 15 and 7.The seriesreactanceof the line is of 100 ohms.r: i . d . negativesequence the voltage being zero. line voltase base= 11 x Transmission 121 123. 10.
I.900 V. Vt = 2001245" and V.D2 = 0.494pu The zero sequence networkis shownin Fig.24. 10.il8 jo164 io06 Zost Fig.06 pu Zero sequence reactance motor 1 : 0. 1Example10.The following are the voltages at the resistor load = lVo6l 2..25 Solution The zero sequence network is drawn in Fig. Current limiting reactorsof 2. j1548 Reference bus 32n Reference bus j1.. Fig.500 V.2 Thlee identical resistorsare star connectedand rated 2. = 0. For the power system whose oneline diagram is shown in Fig.i .l 3..sketch the zero sequence network.1.000 Y.164 pu = Reactance currentlimiting reactors of ffi positive sequence network but for the omission of voltage sources. 10. ::i.It may be assumed that the load neutral is not connectedto the neutral of the transformer secondary. 10. lV.26. 750 kVA.0805 pu Generator zero seqllence reactances: 0.06 per unit.. Assumezero sequence reactances the generator for and motors of 0. 10.ol = 2. 10. 750 kVA and determinethe line voltagesand currents in per unit on the delta side of the transforrner.25 IEIvIS PROB i .. The zero sequence reactanceof the transmission line is 300 ohms.500 V.4 *" 1 Draw the zero sequencenetrvork for the system describedin Example 10.i3t = 0. = 2001105' y : 0.3 Determine the symmelrical components three voltages of Vo= 2001ff.' rti. 1O. This thre.:1 .27 Zero sequencenetworkof Example 10.a (iii) 3 d + 4cy+ 2 (iv) ja "? 10.l = 2.5 Zrt Fig. 2.ephase unit of resistors is connected to the I side of a AY transformer. 10.06 of 2 " +.42'l l4odern Pov"'ei' SvstemAnalvsis symmetricat compblents _1 Zerosequence reactance motor . lVu.06 x of 10.082 .500 V Choosebaseas 2.2.5 ohms eachare connected the neutral of the in generatorand motor No.516 .516pu (11)'._ * . Hence : Transformer zero sequence reactance 0. T1 T2 Reactance current of limiting reactor included zero sequence in network' = 3 x 0.548 u p Zerosequence reactance transmission = ry:21 of line (r23..10. Solution The zero sequencereactance of the transfonner is equal to its positive sequence reactance.27.25. 10. sequence (i+)' ''.26  Z6(line) 26(line) 272 Zero sequence network of the system presented in Fig.0.1.The negative network is drawn in Fig..1 Computethe following in polar form (i) o2t 1ii.
7 The voltagesat the terminalsof a balancedload consistingof three 20 V. of 10.6. Xo = 0. 15. 11 LlI20 Y kV. P 10. 2.9draw the positive. 100 1255. and Choosea baseof 50 MVA. I 1 Lll20 Y kV. The supply neutral is earthedwhile the load neutral is isolated. Use the method of symmetrical components' la X = 5o/o at machine. The generators sequence l: G ener at or 25 M VA.4 A singlephase of components the the symmetrical supply of 3 kV. of 25OVo their positive sequence 250 f) B ABC Fig. ohm Xconnected Find the line currents from the symmetrical components of the line What relationexistsbetween voltages the neutralof the load is isolated.8 r0. The ratings of the generators are: \7 Fig.10. X0 = 0. X = I5Vo Threephase The negative sequencereactanceof each synchronousmachine is equal of machine is 8Vo. ll Y1220Y kV.5. Xz= 0. 15 and 2O ohms are connectedin star acrossa threephasesupply of 200 V per phase as shown in Fig. Xz= 02.5'and 200 llsf arc resistors 2OO4O". 15. lines. P10. I I kV in the circuit of generatorl. I2O Ylll Y kV. if the syrnrnetricalcomponentsof the line and phase voltages'/ Find the power expanded in three 20 ohm resistors from the symmetrical componentsof currentsand voitages. 10. X = IIVo 2: 12. T1 I r '0.8.:"t I tB te ls Fi g. impedancenetworks for 10.9For the power system of Fig. 9 Note: Zero sequencereactanceof each line is 250Voof its positive reactance. P10.1 pu Synchronous Transformerl: 25 MVA. Find the symmetrical componentsof line cunents and delta currents. X .IjVo Choosea base of 50 MVA. negative and zero sequence the power systemof Fig. Xt t =0. sequence .5 Phasesequence of 400 V as shown in Fig. P10. P.6 Three resistances 10. P10.6 c1 1 _L__ _l tb 10. 11 kV. Draw the positive. 2. X2 = 0. 11 kV. 11 kV.Xo = 0. P10. Find the currentsin each load branch and the voltage of load neutral above earth. Compute a balanced line currents.Assume that the zero sequencereactances lines are reactances. 11 kV. X = l07o 3: 10 MVA.5 MVA. 220 kV in the 50 0 transmission and transformers in mark all reactances pu.l rating at machine 2 rating Fig. 03 pu 2: G ener at or 15 M VA. Xt =0. Xtt = ZOVo transformer(each):20 MVA.Power SystemAnalysis acrossiines bc of resistiveload of 100 kVA is connected 10. Xt = 02. negative and zero and transformersare rated as follows: networks. P10.8.5 A delta connectedresistive load is connectedacross a balanced threepnasesupply ' ""*' 2: 25 Generator " MVA. 05 pu Motor 3: 25 MVA.
.j. Fortescue. P 10.2nd edn. Clarke. 1933. Chapter 9 was devoted to the treatment of symmetrical (threephase)faults in during suchfaults. P10. (b) Calculate Io. Kothai. however. 2..London.symmetrit:al componenfs. singlephase switching and system stability studies(Chapter 12). stcvenson.P.J. Austin Stigant. I.Ncw york . Nagrath. AIEE. In this chapter. without using symmetrical component. 1.stem oJ' Analysis. Sincethe systemremainsbalanced basis. "Method of SymmetricalCoordinatesAonlies to the Solution of Polyphase Networks'.F. 5.I INTRODUCTION NCES REFERE Books l. 1982.analysis a power system. (3L) fault being the most severe It was statedin Chapter 9.D.C. Wiley. 1918.10 (a) Calculate Io. Evans. Apart fiom tliS. Circuit Analysisof Alternating Current Power Systems.D.and 1" using symmetrical component.10 Considerthe circuit shownin Fig. when compared to the unsymmetricalfaults listed above. we shall could conveniently proceed on a singlephase deal with unsymmetrical faults.37: 1O27. II. w. 3. unsymmetrical fault analysis is important for relay setting.even though must be usedto calculate this type of fault has a low frequency of occurrence. = L00 l0 Xr=12 Q = 60 160 vbn Xob=Xbr=X*=5d) F i g .syrt"r Rn"tu"i. 16. that a threephase the rupturing capacity of circuit breakers. Vol.10. 1997. New York.. Elcments Power Sy. Tata McGrawHill. and D. Various types of unsymmetrical faults that occur in power systemsare: Shunt Wpe Faults (i) Single linetoground (LG) fault (ii) Linetoline (LL) fault (iii) Double linetoground (LLG) fault Series Type Faults (i) Open conductor (one or two conductorsopen) fault. The probability of two or more simultaneousfaults (crosscountryfaults) on a power system is remote and is therefore ignored in system design for abnormalconditions. and R. .E..and 1. Macdonald.4thedn. situationswhen an LG fault can cause greater fault current than a threephasefault (this may be so when the fault location is close to large generating units). Paper 6.L. McGrawHill. 16.McGrawHill..5.. Electric Machines. c. Master Equationsand Tablesfor Symmetrical ComponentFault Studies.Suppose Vo.. New Delhi. 10. There are.W voo"inpo*". 1943. wagncr. 1964. Ncw York. 4.
*g9.1.3a. leading to a particular connection of sequencenetworks. 11. the sequence constrained.b. v6. is a powerful tool for study of unsymmetricalfaults and witl be fully exploited in this chapter.'l l r " . c with respectto ground. Figures 11. 0 olr". 16.the sequence voltages at F can be expressedin terms of sequencecurrents and Thevenin sequence impedances as networks seen as Fig. v"are voltagesof lines a. negative and zero sequence networks.1lt"1 lt. It is assumedthat a shundtype fault occursat point F in the system. * l Lv"o)Lol Io o zo)lr"o) (11. l = l o lo l 2 2 o l l .S.1) (LG) fault at F Fig. Vat (a) UNSYMMETRICAL FAULTS Consider a general power network shown in Fig.1 A general powernetwork Let us also assume that the system is operating at no load before the occurrence of a fault. and c respectively. Il. The referencebus is indicatedby a thick line and the point F is identified on each sequence network.4 Single linetoground . the positive sequence voltages of all synchronous machineswill bc identicaland will equalthe prefaultvoltageat F. a result of which currenm is Io. flow out of the system. The phasesare so labelled that the fault occurs on phase a. /.We shall now consider the varioustypesof faults enumerated earlier. Let this voltage be labelled as Eo. 11. 11.3 STNGIE LINETOGROUND (tG) FAULT fault at F in a power systemthrougha fault Figure 11. 1r".give the Thevenin equivalents the three sequence of networks.4showsa linetoground impedanceZI. Therefore. 11.I Modernpower System Anatysis Fault Analysis Unsymmetrical The method of symmetricarcclmponents presentedin chapter 10. which are schematicallyrepresented Figs. and vo. As seenfrom F.2a. b and by c. the power systemwill presentpositive. Recognizingthat voltageEo is presentonly in the positive sequence network and that thereis no coupling betweensequence networks. 11.3 Thevenin equivalents the of sequence netWorks seen as fromthe faultpoint F cunents and voltages are Dependingupon the type of fault. (b) (b) Vao (c) (c) _l lao Fig. The sequencecurents and voltages and fault currents and voltages can then be easily computed. 11.2 Sequence fromthe fault point F Fig. b. Sequence voltagesat F and sequence currentsflowing out of the networks at F are also shown on the sequencenetworks.
D zr (Zr*22+Zo)+3Zt (11. t /a\ (b) Fig' 11'5 Connection sequence of network a singlelinetoground fault for (LG) In terms of the Thevenin equivalent of sequence networks.5a for computing sequence currentsunder fault In casethe positive sequence network is replacedby its Thevenin equivalent as in Fig.1=t.t= = t"o= h laz t l"s=I.*1.7) I u =o Ir= 0 vo = zllo The symmetrical components of the fault currents are (rr. the currentsout of the power systemand the line to ground voltagesare constrainedas follows: fffiH r 'at = (zr * zz * z) +3zr E o .ar Eq Vot * Voz * (zr * zz t Z) +3zr componenrs. 11.This change does not disturb the flow of prefault positive sequence currents (see Chapter9). Fault Occurring Under Loaded Conditions la. transientor synchronous (dependingupon reactances the time after the occulTenceof fault. (11. Thus (Eo. (11.6) by using Vop Vo2and Voefrom Eq. we can write from Fig. wehave (11.4) Fault current /o is then given by (zr * zz * zo)+32 The above resultscan also be obtained directly from Eqs.the Theveninvoltage equalsthe prefaultvoltage Vi atthe fault point F (under loaded conditions). when currents are to be determined) and voltages behind appropriate reactances. (11..5b. 11. Therefore.5) Ior = Expressine . theseequationssuggest a series connection of sequencenetworks through an impedanie 3zf ut rrio"*n in Figs. (11..5) and (11. the synchronous machines in the positive sequence network are replacedby subtransient. can be similarly obtained.e) The expression for V. (11.positive sequence currents alone flow in power system before the occurrence of the fault.6) all sequence currentsare equal and the sum of sequence voltagesequals3zf lot Theiefore.2) 11 .ij.I"&d = 3Zf lot I(4+ 4+ Zo)+ 3zfllor= Eo Eo (11.we ger Va= Eo =o.1). This positive sequence network would then be usedin the sequence network conhectionof Fig.'..The Thevenin impedanceis th6 impedance betweenF and the reference bus of the passivepositive sequence network (with voltage generatorsshort circuited). 11.5b.a)+ zo(& .r':l. .8) and reorganizing.IolZ) + (. When a fault occursunderbalancedload conditions.The positive sequencenetwork must of course carry the load current. 3 ) (11.Unsvmmetrical Anatvsis Fault At the fault point F.6) Voo = ZfIo = 3zflor The voltage of line b to ground under fault condition is Vu= &Vor+ aVo2* Voo As per Eqs. +) (" 3rl2 + Z2(& . 11.To account for load current.+).*..IorZr) + (. Substituting for /o from Eq. .5) and (11. negativeand zero sequence networksare the sanleas without loacl.2^+)* (n' 4'.'.5 aa n c ib .
Of course.. Since loo= 0 as per Eq.11) and (11.ull Iu from which we get 3(va.8a and b.15) (11.the zero sequence network is unconnected.I o t . (11.15)in Eq. we get from Fig.0= 0 The symmetrical components of voltages at F under fault are (11.(11. 11.&zf t u Fig.12) I v.Therefore.. 11.8 (LL) fault Connectionof sequencenetworksfor a linetoline The symmetrical components the fault currents are of In terms of the Thvenin equivalents. t7. we Writing the first two equations. 11.It is seenfiom this by figure that while the prefault currents flow in the actual positive sequence network <lfFig. (11.10) Fig.voz) (a .when the Theveninequivalentof positive sequence network is used fot calculatlng fault eurre+ts.f .&1zrtu iJi y' to Now 16= (& a) Iot (: I o z = .8b ( 11 . 11. b (11.6a.i'4ot'. from whlch we get Io2= . illustratecl a two machinesystemin Fig.6b.13) lL".7 Linetoline(Lt) fault through impedance Z/ F lat _1 laz The currents and voltages at the fault can be expressedas [1":o I Io= I l I u Ir t ' lI. + (tr + . l = i l a 2 " l l r .V o  Vr= IoZf (11.4 LrNETOLrNE (LL) FAULT 3voz= v. 1 7 ) .6. 11.z r r a ) t1 I LV"o) Lr (b) (c) (11.Iol 1. the positive sequeneeeurrents within the network are those due to fault alone and we must superimpose on these the prefault currents.6 Positive sequence network and its Thevenin equivalent before occurrence a fault of The aboveremarksare valid for the positive sequenienetwork. have 3vot = vo + ( a+ &) vu .16)suggest parallelconnection positive and Equations of negative V sequencenetworksthrougha seriesintpedance as shown in Figs..the prefault current into the fault being zero.1 ModernPo@is fni. [t a o'fl'' I l r " . 11. l6 Vaz Fig.r ( 11 . samcdo not exist in its Theveninequivalent the network of Fig' 11. i. the positive sequencecurrent into the fault is directly the correct answer. independent of the type of fault.12). : _i l .we get Vot .l) vo ..Voz= Zf I ot ( 11. 11.11) (11.7 showsa linetolinefault at F in a power systemon phases and b c through a fault impedanceZf .16) Figure I 1.such that the fault is on phasesb md c.14). 1 o o= 0 ) . The phases can always be relabelled.jJt I"r 16 Substituting from Eq. 1 4 ) = .
Z1 Ea _.22a) and (t I. 11.. (11.o (l 1.2.)l I fiom which it follows rhat a l!:'1 [r a 2 "']lr.3. 1r.."1 z.23) ( 11 . e g e t w I u. 11.9 showsa doubre linetoground fault at F in a power system.23). 11. + Io.10 Connectionof sequence networksfor a double linetoground (LLG) fault ln terms of the Thevenin equivalents. o _ J ol[r. v. 1 8 ) \.ztrut o lln..' I o z. 2. + (a + r11V.' I o o voo... + Ir) = 37rf 1.24) l l vI u (rr.r.1 5 ).the positive sequence network can be modified on the lines of the later portion of Sec.. . (11. (LLG) fault through impedanceZl The current and voltage (to ground) conditions at the fault are expressed as Fig.nl +3zf Io o z o t ) L o )L r .t Fault Analysis Unsymmetrical _1 or Voo= Vot * 3Zf Ino I SQt* F ro m Eq .l ' o rll. + I"o =o l ( 11 . = Zf (lt. at L  .19).jJi u n..z= Llv..o= + 2vu) 1"" From Eqs.ur) En zt + z2(zo *3zI ) I (22+ zo+ 3zt ) (11.. . vorfromwhich vsltages thefault. we can write from Fig.trwecarlcalsqld{e and. I I (rr.l_l 1"v. ( 11..' ll E. J ' .r. I..__r:]tr" (b)  I :1 Vaz laz II + Vss I Fig.20) V.The fault may in generalhave an impedanceZf as shown.r"..22a) and (11.10b I .1 3"' (Il .' ! be found. Z t * 22 + zZ l " + 4 ..\.t= V. The symmetricalcomponentsof voltagesare given by @ Eo l ! : ' l =* . = l ot Io=o i". in Eq. * in t er m sof E..= V.9 Double linetoground. we get v.. 11.10aand b. If the fault occursfrom loadedconditions. Vuz and V. ilt?l l'..Z2b) (rr..&1 vu= vt = 3zfloo '=17' . 11. ab tr a Y/u=9 .22a) v..__ r"l t'o  ___ z! t'"o _.we can draw the connection of networksas shown in Figs.2s) . 1 9 ) (r 1. (1 1 . The readermay verify this sequence by writing mesh and nodal equationsfor these figures.21) The above result can be obtainedanalyticallyas follows: f or Vut . 1) and S ubst ir ut ing impedance premultiplyingboth sidesby Zt (inverseof sequence matrix).(ll.r.. From Eqs..22b\ lt.++2 22 +f Knowing l.5 DOUBLE LrNETOcRouND (Lrc) FAULT Figure 11.vot= tr.
Solution (a) Figure 11. (11.12 gives the sequencenetworks of the generator. in generator.13.( .*3X. It is so because.gltiitiUying (1I.o .i i Syne hronous generator grounded through neutralreactance (a) Draw the sequence networks of the generatoras seen from the terminals. From Eq. An important observationis made here that.Z rl o t= Z z (Io r+ Io s) or E ^o 'I u = ..!utrl. = Xz > Xo.Zzloz Substituting loz= . 11 .As stated earlier voltage source is included in the positive sequence network only. (11.22a). when the generator neutral is solidly grounded.f .the positive sequence network will be modified as discussed Sec. 11. in r. we ger be more than the threephase fault current. 1 Fig. E o . 3lE"l (i) (c) If the neutral is solidly grounded llolLG= = 2\+xc 3lE"l (ii) For a solid threephase fault (see Fig..such that the LG fault current is less than the threephase fault current.E:o:l t xn l'FJf[\:  : """ / I Ea (iii) lqs= 131. from which we can write the fault current as ll)rc  3 lE ." 1"' Substituting this value of Iooin Eq. Xo * Xr = X. 1 4 ) _ l I ) r r = . we finally get f "l = If the fault takesplacefrom loadedconditions. X. have we Eo.12 Sequence networks synchronous of generator grounded through neutral impedance .The generatorhas balancedemfs and sequence reactances X1.\"/ ) +)) Comparing (ii) and (iii)..11 showsa synchronous generator whoseneutral is groundedthrough a reactancaXn. 11.14 Threephase fauft . (rr.However..20). l zxt+&.l i e+tflP.r Figure 11. and Xu such that X.13 LG fautt . (d) Write expressionfor neutral grounding reactance. 11.Ztlot=. E"() ft n q I l \ l l I Xt'4 7 _ _ li L Fig. (b) Connectionof sequence networks for a solid LG fault (ZI = 0) is shown in Fig. i l . for a line Xo D Xt = Xz.3. 11.19) and 1. it is easy to seethat llol Lc> llol3L b c Fig' i i.. 11. (11. so that for a fault on a line sufficiently away frorn generator.19)] O< \ ? lx.406t'l Modern powe1_syglgll 4!g!yg!s both sides by row marrix tl 1 1l and using Eqs.LG fault is more severethan a 3I_ fault.. fault will be ntore severe 3L than an LG fault.l zt+z'\' Negative Fig.(Ior + Io) fseeEq.26) and simplifying. (b) Derive expression for fault current for a solid linetogroundfault on phase a.
2 vj (prefault voltage at g) Iy (fault current for LG fault) ...7o.Therefore. For the systemof Example 10. in 11. = 0 . I(xr . Xr.} l ! .r ine diagr am t hesyst em Exam pr 11.827 . .8 leading power factor.965 = 6 . 10. [f nreforrlt n urrfrfv rn f D vr a rlo ara qrv nanlo^+^.1 1 .i rrvSlvvL(/\I Sincethe star point cf the second generator isolated.' A A A r : A A 4 E .) Since the two identicar generatorsoperatein paralrer. th c p o s i ti ve.Io = 3lo. the motors are loadedto draw 15 and 7.9e 0.respectively.2i are connected Fig.26s s+ + + 24 + Xo+3X.} .075 Fig. Unsymmetrical Fault Analysis l'i (d) with generatorneu. 4 s ^ & g .10 pu. n r tltrffi f J j 0. . + Xo + 3Xn> 3Xl *^.t= E'. Estimate (i) the faurt current. j0.j0.756) 2X.932 j0. Zo"q=7O.27Before the occurrenceof a solid LG at bus g.g27 _ j0. 0.xo) J (iv) . negati vc andzero sequence reactances of eachbeing.926 x :L" J3 xll (c) Voltageacrossgrounding resisror= = 3. 10. . 1 3k V i. connectedgenerators star operatein parallel a s s h trw ni n F i g ' l l ' 1 5 ..g2i .o = j0. 3 a .0..99 j0.23. = 2.Xr"q=t'# = j0.1+ 0. and (iii) the voltage acrossgrounding resistor. 11. 10. (11.} .07 j0.!. = 3E X t" o+ X z" ql Zo" . we have for LG faurt current to be less than 3L fault 3 lE .' r } .1g). j0. * ' * .eoe . 1 . the positive.. A single linetogroundfault occurs at the terminals of one of the generators. 1 5 Solution (Note: All values are given in per unit.17to simulatea solid LG fault at bus g (seeFig. } ' Q t p t  408 usqelrl@ (a) Ir= If J . I 1. 11. threephase.comparing Eqs. 10.16).249 = 0. On a baseof 25 MVA and I 1 kV in generator circuit.tralgrounded through reactance. we ger 4:+ (ll)'. l 3x1 : . 20 MVA.j0. Ifiprefault currentis neglected.1g.ili".3 the onelinediagramis redrawnin Fig. (i) and (iii).24 and r0. using Eq.23.r5.07 kA *1 2 r e.756 (b) Cunent in the grounding resisror= If = 2.calculate the fault current and subtransientcurrent in all partsof the system.16.5 MW at 10 kV.0g.06pu Tz e F i g . (ii) current in grounding resistor. 3 of of e solution The sequence networks given in Figs.10+3x +3R For an LG fault. zero sequence is its reactance doesnot comeinto picture. 1 = E'l= E'. 16 one. = = pu 1+ o.5A (H+d )(  Xo = 300 fl = i0.0 ohm resistor.i:rl Two 11 kV.1. The star point of one of the generators isolatedand that of the otheris earthed is through a 2.18 2.0e j0. . } .24and 10.a .nega"tiue and zerosequence networks of the systemhave been drawn alreadyin Figs.10 n=j0..756 llrl = 2. What voltage behind subtransient reactancesmust be used in a positive sequencenetwork il prefault current is to be accounted fbr'/ Xo = 0. 9 9 +ri0 .
are currents shownon the diagramin pu for a solid Subtransient fault linetoground at g The positive sequencenetwork can now be easily replaced by its Thevenin a e q u i v a l e n ts s h o w ni n F i g .Mlpu Ioz= Ioo= Ior = .?s?s= j0.4 j2. E"o( ) I rb6T___ '> Z z = Z r = j 0 .032 io'szs 0.447 !: ?:= = . .136+0=0 Iu and I.447 Fault current= 3loo= 3 x (.136 i0.oo.311 =pu j0. 1l 3 6 l6 pu Lr.i o .70.jo.Ml* i.712 .3.608 11.J lo u2 rJL o j L jo. see Frg.e. l l l l I r u l = l a z G r l l .17) Line a current on the transmission line =Q. r r = l 7 0 .j0.] [t I t o" l .17 Connectionof the sequence networksof Example 11. Unsymmetrical Anatysir Fautt .447 pu l.jo. the component of Io2from the generatorside is .I36) = 0.7ss Similarly.136) . All of Iosflowstowardsg from tnotor2. 11.136_l The positive and negative sequence componentsof the transmission line cunents are shifted 90" and +90o respectively.t+z + i0.l''.jL341 pu The componentof Io.j0.j0.1 36 *_..99+i0.J la I [t.447J Lj0.136 pu Negative sequence current .2721 I r.la 2l a l ^ e" l llfro.rl.' there are no zero secluence currents on the transmission line.r o .. Reference bus I rl [ro.311.. i.0. ll.1l [ rl l .607 = q'901 = . r 3 6 l p u l l " l l ' l ' I)Lj0.j0.ltt1 [. 1 6p u Fiom thescquence network connection ' o rf _ J T mbl l02:l ( dt f Vf 737.i o .j0. from the corresponding componentson the generatorside of Tr.136 pu Zero sequence current = 0 ('.06el r l l .410 I I Analysis Modern PowerSystem .136 x pu j0. Fig.447) = .r30lli0.311 . 1 8 . flowing towards g from the generator side is j0.136 pu and its component from the motors side is 70. s u: l .7ss and its component flowing towards g from the motors side is i 0. Positivesequence current = . can be similarly calculated. 1 1 .136+0. Fault currentsfrom the generatortowards g are I p.j(jO.r36j and to g fiom motors are T r Now L/.j(.io.
more than) the fault current.0e) ("' /oo = 0) = 0. j0."u and Xr"u from Example 11.^l^ 3orExample 11.496 Motor 2: E!"2 =l.99 j0. becauseof large zero sequence reactance.il r" Total cuffent drawn by both motors = 0. assume that the grounded generatoris solidly grounded.4125136. (1I.(.99 + j0.99 + j0..33+ j0. Solution For the LL fault. Thus. 9 1 = 0. we get ( not e Zf =0.74' + Ir= el. 11.5 /0.11.909 + j0.i0 10.86'= 0. Using the Thevenin eqtrivalentapproach.8 25x0. Find f}ro ^"1+ rrrv frcrlrrL n r r * a * # ttursrrl auLr vurLil$tr ^J .07s 0.66+ j0.306 .I^/'og Voltage of the healthy phase.2. the Thevcnin equivalent circuit will still be the same as that of Fig.99 + j0.we have 1y(fault current) = Io = i Now Vot = Voz = Eo Iorxleq = 1'0 .hefault current in each phase and voltage of the healthy phase for a double inetogroundfault on terminals of the generator.23 .Find is .743 j0.19.s + 70. The per unit motor currents are: x*q* Xr". In a large practical system.866) (j7. Therefore.306) j3.23 = . pu It may be noted that with thesevoltages behind subtransient reactailces.j4.j6.323 j0.(.^.136 = 0. laUlt r a.86" Motor 1: tr'^' =llltr:'. (11.866) + U4.s3) + (0. in calculating fault currents taking into account prefault loading condition. )olution Using Eq. Assume solid fault (Zf .323 I _ ra2 0..607 andtheactualvalueof positive sequence current from the motorsto thefault l s ' Vot= Vo2= Vo1= Eo Ior Zr.10.15). 10 ^ x . 10 = 0.06 25x0.09) = 0.909x0.. so that it is normal practice to neglect load current without causing an appreciableerror.866) (j4.however.248 j4.q= 1 .06) 3Xj6.735145.99 jr. can first calculate currentscauied by fault to which the we load currents can then be added.load current is comparable with (in fact. the actual value of positive sequencecurrent from the generator .. Z0"q=j0.E'{ = 0.743 pu The voltages behind subtransient reactancesare calculatedbelow: u0. rom E xam ple1l.l:t.I7) and substituting the values of X. (11.0). using Eq.52 + j0.455 Voo=.5 j0.^lr^^ ul ^f eL^ ttl9 l^^trr^ lr€artlly r pllase .24) and substitutingthe values of Zp* Zr"rand Z*. + ozlor* Ino = (0. _Voz  Zr.Yilii.j7. l'. 2.01.075 = _ j6. r IOf a lfnetollne r.306)+ j3.4l:iN Modern power System Anatvsis t tal u Unsymmetricat Anglysis Fault lll4#hF F a Let us now calculatethe voltages behind subtransient reactancesto be used if the load currents are accountedfor.86 = 0.3341154.743 j0.5+ _i0.075 j0.2375136. 7 < ? 0.2.0.53)+ (O.323 .248pu UsingEq.495pu = 0.r. Voo Zo. i0.525 x I.8 136.Assume solid fault (Zf .909x0.866) (j7.we get = (0. the reversewill be the case.842 .^ A^ / 1 tta 0  t 1 Iu= rllot + alo.:::iir:tfi il r" Generator.. 075 i 0.2.054 In this problem.:: ="ri.assume that the groundedgenerator solidly grounded. 1) I _ ral  t '+r 7 0 '  ruw:lrus ule Iault ls rl f^lr ! io.311= .52 = 0.oe.. Vo= Vot * V n z * V o o= 0 .09+ i0.06):10. + Ioo For Example I1. On terminals of the generators. we need not calculate EIy E/ft and E(.53) (/O. Yj:+ J:: {: l: j0.
11.Q 'tD I I I (rr.842 .'I 1v.2l representsthe fault at FF /with conductors b and c open.J lVou'o ) networks can be drawn for the power system as seen from FF/ The sequence and are schematically shown in Fig.28" Fault Analysis Unsymmetrical  Positivesequence network .19 Currents voltages openconductor Figure 11. F'.). V o = 3 Va t = 3 x 0 .21 Two conductors pen Fig.2O.3 2 3= 0. 11. ". 11. we can wrlte Vonl * Voo.. Two Conductors Open F IF' t. while the conductorends are identifiedas ua /. ..l ' ..27) (11. l: v":l v^. I : v : l l '. These are to be suitably connected dependingon the type of fault (one or two conductorsopen). 'r p l..28) c " c ' I o Fig 11.22 Connection sequence of networks two conductors for open .20 Sequence networks for open conductor laull at FF/ [n terms of symtnctrical cotnponents. of The symmetrical components currents and voltagesare l " ' l  L/....1''P I Fig. ll.71.l lt ' . The currents and voltages due to this fault are expressedas Voo'= 0 1 6 = I r ." I " " " ' l [ /.19 shows currentsand voltages in an open conductor fault. The set of seriescurrentsand voltagesat the fault are ll I f v .415 Voltage of the healthy phase. Line currents and series voltagesbetween broken ends of the conductorsare required to be determined. =  I^. L V .10. bb / and cc'.g = O I o t = I o 2 = I n o + 1 " L/I .248+ j4.4!4" 1 I ModernPower SystemAnalysis .6 OPEN CONDUCTOR FAULTS An open conductor fault is in series with the line..2* Vno.334125.969 11.1 Figure lI. The ends of the system on the sides of the fault are identified as F. " l l l v oo'l . Negativesequence network lc cic' Zerosequence network fault in and Fig.
34) suggesta parallel connection of sequence networksas shown in Fie.23 One conductoropen Fig. t I [l V""'z I for networks LG fault of Fig. [/'' I e bus Jrsus= l t t . network For the passivepositivesequence Vr"us= ZrnusJr"ut where (11.32) for passive positive sequence network In terms of symmetricalcomponents theseconditionscan be expressed as Vool= (11.the circuit conditionsrequire Vbb.30) suggesta seriesconnectionof sequence networksas shown in Fig. indicate prefault and postfault values.Sincenegative network (all voltagesources prefault voltages are zero. Onc Conluctor Open For one conductoropen as in Fig.36) bus lao Fig. Superscripts o and /respectively. 1I. of bus r in series with the passive positive sequence and zero sequence short circuited). both these are passivenetworks only. Equations(11. canbe easilyextended the caseof unsymmetrical to faults.7 BUS IMPEDANCE MATRIX METHOD UNSYMMETRICAL SHUNT FAULTS FOR ANALYSIS OF and Bus impedance method of fault analysis.e.c+c'.positive sequencebus impedance matrix /1 1 2?\ t \ L r . Sequence currelrtsand voltagescan now be computed. given for symmetrical faults in Chapter9.i.24. 11.31) (11.23. c/ i positivesequence voltagevector (1 1.34) Iot* In + Ioo=0 Equations(11.tt'6 il t Modern Power System Anatysis prefault voltage Vf_.29) and (11. while integer subscript is introduced for bus identification.33) (11. 11.25. The connectionof sequence networks to simulatethe fault is shown in Fig. '  = p o s i t i vs e q u e n c e cunent injectionvector l : l r l (l1.38) .22. J Reference bus (11. I1.35) a = Vtuus t . 11. J ) II. The positive sequencenetwork has been replacedhere by its Thevenin equivalent.=Vrr. 11.' ryl F la It may be noted that subscripta has been droppedin sequencecurrents and voltages.Consider fbr example an LG fault on the rth bus of a nbus system.=O Io = O 1 Voor2= Voory= *Voo.24 Connectionof sequence networks for one conductor open Ztrl Zrnus Ztnn ) : l.33) and (1I. II.25 Connection sequence network sequence on the r th bus (positive equivalent) by represented its Thevenin l L'i.
46) That is. voltages Knowing sequence transformation easilycomputed by the useof the symmetricalcomponent Vr. .i{ .. (rr. 17) and ue (11.3 9 ) i n E q .IJr_.t4l8  I todern power SvstemAnalvsis network connectionof Fig.47) ( 11 . 3 e ) other types of faults can be simila*Seomputed using Zlrr. the zero s.= ZosusJ. . the zero to sequence cuffent l'*r. 0 zr rrlf. For line uv.. having sequence ( V f t .Jfr.. .rlfs_.. . = V i .r r = ! 2 .35)... Jz'. For the negativesequence network = Zz_sus Vzuus (11.Zs_.IIr.rl'fr.r. f r .Vf o. Zrr.equencenetwork off'ers zrn intpeclance Zrr_.r l andcurrentscanbe voltages phase and currents. and Zon in placeof Zr . .r u 0 ( l l. the postfault Since the prefault negativesequence bus voltagesare given by sequence negative Vf''=0+ Vzr ..rr= ltu.Z r . Therefore. we have therefore rf vro. (11 44) ..43) where Thus. 0 0 Josus= .. = irth component Zt"ut bus voltages are zero. Zr and Zoin Eqs.s2) I f r .25. ( 1I .. r . . ..+3zf (rr.= (l 1. the negative sequence network offers an impedance Zr_rrto the negative sequence currentltr_. . I Zor.(1 1 .Vi. * zz.u. ) .41) Jz_nus The negativesequence network is injected with current lfr_.Zrrrlfr.sequence With postfault sequence as: linescan be comPr'rted yl adrnittarlces ur.we can now write From the Sequence t2r As per the sequence network connection.Zr. r ( V t . ( 11. (r 1. where l r . I (1r.40) Thus the passivepositive seguence network presentsan impedanceZr_ r."..and yor. = AI. j = l' 2' "'' tI (i l . s 0 ) The negative sequence voltage at the rth bus is then given by Yr. t Similarly. = AV" Ir. the postfault zero sequence bus voltages are given by . and currentsin voltagesknown at the buses.Zu''lfu''. Vd' = ..48) Vtr=. at bus r is (11.24) with E. ( 11..the voltagedeveloped bus i owing Foi passivepositive^sequence to the injection of .. I i.t .r ) f . . voltageat bus I is givenby postfaultpositivesequence Hence V l .current . s1 ) = irth component tlf Z9. 2r.ur = Jo.i = l ' 7 ' " ' ' t t where voltageat bus i prefaultpositive sequence ( l r.r^{ . = i r t l t c o l l l p o l l c l t to l ' Z t . Sirnilarly.49) 0 0 = Jzsus of Zr. at network.... by at voltages anybuscannow be computed superposing sequence Postfault on prefault bus voltage. at the rth bus only.4s) Vo_.. = .zr. 11.V 5 . .. is injected only at the faulted rth bus of the positive sequence network.42) (l r . s ub s ti tu ti n g q ..' = .. (11. to the positivesequence currentI{_r. the voltage developed owing to the injection of appropriatesequencecurrent at bus r'.( Vio.w e can w ri re the posi ti vesequence E voltage at the rth bus of the passivepositive sequencenetwork as V.u.v [ .u.fbr the zero scqucncenetwork Vuuu.r . 7) .sLr.
as it requires computation of bus impedancematrices of all the three sequence networks.0s1 I I =i16.# .422 12..446 0 o 6 r4. which.69 For Example 10. 11. Assume the prefault currents to be zero and the prefault voltages to be 1 pu.24 and 10:27. however. as if this methodis more laboriousthan computingfault at currents from Thevenin impedancesof the sequencenetworks.6e o Yoar= 'o .422 io. 10:24 and 10.26to find the elements the bus admittancematricesof the of three sequence nefworks.e e .0805 Yofs= 0.UUUs v I O _ B U S_ v/ orl 0 " r r0l 0 d 0.62I j1.t88 d t7. 10.519 0 6.4v+ /U.584 lnverting the three matricesaboverendersthe fbllowing threebus impedance matrices .26 Connection the sequence of networks Example 1.1 = j2.422 19 6.M6 2.26 shows the connection of the sequencenetworks of Figs.3.z io. Moreover. Y. 10. in liffiffi Yt_.i78.024 Yo.345 j0.494 @ @ 'vo .446 j0. 70.422 v v r IBUS _ I2_BUS_ e f I 0 0 12..0 Zero sequence network { @ @ JU.097 .be pointed out herethat once the bus impedance matriceq have been assembled.r= jofu @ @ i0.23.097 t2. is the aim of a fault study..23.769 + j0.621 e 0 f 0 2.5 0 16.find fault currents for a solid LG fault at (i) bus e and (ii) bus I Also find bus voltages and line currents in case (i).t : jr24zz It appears first.=_ jtj.18. in fact.024 14. fault analysiscan be conveniently carried out for all the buses..'Y t. positive.s1e i6..= Yrn= #* Yr"f *h: j0.'i[di. Solution Figure 11.085 * .422 .6 for an LG of 1 faultat bus e Refer to Fig. bus impedancematrices can be easilymodified to accountfor changes power networkconfiguration. Using the bus impedancemethod of fault analysis. .024 0 Fig.345 v r odd  I = _ j0..t 1 Yrrr= Negative sequence network iO'345 jth=io'584 i 0.27 for a solid LG fault at bus e. 11. negative and zero sequencenetworks have been drawn in Figs.l Modern powSr Jy$ern_4nglysis Fault Unsymmetricalnnarvsis l_+ Yraa= _+^.It must.608 1 j0.18.as follows: 0 0 0 0.o'os Yra"= Yrreto.769 12.422 0 0 I E"* Positive sequence network a 10.t t .0805 ' =i14.
Z r _ " o .j12.os Sirnilarly.o.ns4j(r.097 (0. (Vfrr .j0.j0.26..703 0.j2..0.88 + (.422 (0.49)(tI..70. the currents in various parts of Fig.. 1I..07061 0.other currentscan be computed.j2. + {* = ..07061 0 The fault currentwith LG fault on busc is 0 0 0 0 r.i0.i0.r) Irr __3x1 + .0.07 636 061 The fault curent with LG faulton bus /'is il= e II+= Yrp UI+. .Vf.j2.j2..023+ 0.t2s7s(' 7'0ttb = 0.jO.71233 Vfzr=. 212+ 0.sZ).zr.08558 j2. 097 ( .88)+ (. IJrsf = YFcf (vf '.jz.t= If tf" * If t.363)= 0.362 which is the same as obtainedearlier [seeEq. 8 7 1p u (ii) Bus voltagesand line currentsin case(i) can easily be computcdusing Eqr.Z.7 6 ./0.j6.272pu x .29I pu Ittn (a) = IJrf" * It)r.0 .l J r_" = 1.167) = . 11.Find .0706x (.0.422 (0.= nt1a(Vtt1 Vfrr.436s9 a = .s84) = _ 70. 417)= .vI+.88 If .j0.362)= .167pu 0 0.vf ') . = . (i)l where If. Given below is a sample calculation for computing voltage at bus f and current in line ef FrorrrEq. (11.00989 0.0.7O . .086pu j 0J7636+ j 0. = 3lut..j2. j0.362) Vfor= =x = _ 0.z.49) VIa= Vi_a.52).00989 0." ..798 .362) = .024 (. = r.Zr_0".it was requiredto be the sameas llrs".08558 x(.70.202pl Vfus=ZurJfu"=O Using Eq. tu.0.4r"llr1 =j0.703 pu \ " 3 )) Vftt= Vit .00989 (. = .tl ..798 (pu vfzf= .023pu .If .fJfr" = .0"= Yr4" (Vf .728.Zof"Ifo.tr.291) = t.88 + (.0. (11.t82gg iOlAZgg +/O"O?Gi ) j0.417pu VL" = .584) .0.i0. 884 IL.j0.Analysis .362) .482) .26 can be as cornputed follows: (i) 0 3x1 = .r7 + j 0.j12.) .t.zzs p.j6.0.17638 j2.363)= 0.728) = . (11.j0.11547 (.) = .27. 11.0.j7. A single line to ground fault (on phasea) occurs on the bus I of the system of Fig.Ifo. Izf" = Yrr.jo.r) = .584pu (vIr= vis .jL482 I.a Vf ."= V " r .Ifr_" = = . ) V J r .i2. = 1.r"I{.0. orru = o.Zu.88 Notice that as per Fig.
15 Current in the fault. (b) sc current on the transmissionline in all the three phases..r r o t 5 Bus2 to reference bus . o so .70. =.. Solution Figure 11.l1.27 0.OO5 0. Z r . II.1[0.0051 = .04s ZosusJZIO.1S . 600 v . : (c) SC current in phase a of the generator.1s1 r o l5t = .tr * Zz_tr Zo_r+3Zl * Bus I to referencebus Zt_svs= j[0.I qU.15 0.451 (ii) l0. Z. Vot .8 t .451 Bus 2 to referencebus 7 zOBUS  l 'Lo.4s1 10.o+s matnx ls i t0.=f (a) Fault current. Note: Use Z"u.os _ l 0.05 = /Lo. 4 s l + 0.0s 0.. ="/Lo.Bus impedancematrices are computedbelow: Reference bus (a) 0. = I Pu (sYstem Then j1.05] Bus 2 to bus I l0. 11.rs r.05 bus Bus 1 to ref'erence Zosus= i [0..0451 0.1o5. Each threephase transformeris rated rz0o kvA..[o'15 o35J** "" [o'ls o'3s] Lo.. This also represents negativesequence the network for the system.05 0. 11. 3300 V. = rTvo.27.05 As per Eq. The reactances of the neutral grounding reactors are 5Vo on the kVA and voltage base of the machine.05 0.0451 Zz.105+0.05 0. I\ = 3If .rt. 0.j3.92 pu .r'4l# ( i) = zrws rLo.J: Tero sequencenetwork of the system is drawn in Fig.os 0. method. l0. Given: Rating of each machine 1200 kvA.0s _ lt o . =  . = x.28 shows the passive positive sequencenetwork of the systemof Fig.28 0. 92 = 0.051 . (11.45 0.0 fr_.15] Bus 2 to Bus I unloaded before fault) But V". 105x . 11. = Ztrr lfrt = 1. bus Reference Ftg.051 or 0.045 Ifrt=ltr.l Modern Power System Anatysis Fault Unsymmetrlcal AnalysisT f. = ^2Pu z L Brs. (d) Voltage of the healrhy phasesof the bus 1.l lO.l 0.sus o. 29 0.051 Zonus 0.105+0.29 and its bus ted below.lfO '.4 Fig.j3.47) IIt = VO .105 0. 600 v with x. xo = 5vo.2 Flg.nlgroo VY with leakage reactance SVo. of The reactances the transmission of line are xr = Xz = 20vo and Xo = 40vo on a baseof 1200 kVA.tst O) Vfvr = Vo r.05 0.0. 588.
0.Vf tr= Vorr. 11 kV. z ..zurrlL.f D _.a v I r o _ r J.588ll20' .. 4 1 2 0 .1s to r.r0 .92 = 0.j0.37.1glZ4V + il. (iii) double linetoground fault. Ignore resistances.j3.4 linetoground fault. to of For the generator ProblemI 1.20 and Xo = 0'08 load at rated pu.38 . . + Vfu' = 0. It is starconnected 11.n ^^ + Jv.412 x .3 A synchronous is with the neutral point solidly grounded. Ifr.1 A 25 MVA.( 0 .Vfur) IIoc= 0 (seeFig' 1I'29) If o_c= et37 . 1 7 6= i 1 .j0. V{z= .866= 0.176 rLc= vtz=.1 pu.4L2 1120". ..j3.176 = .1 8 + 7 1 .= .Vfr_r) = .ZrrJfrri Vora = 1.0. _ .Sle Iro _ tz =j l .j0.905 l107" VIrt= Vf.0.412))t3o" .:= j0. 1 8 + ) j0.0'176 o. and (iv) symmetrical threephasefault.37 i2. the generatoris operating at no load at rated voltage.0.0. Its reactances Xt' = Xz = 0.Zrr. and (b) an LLG fault.92 = .j3. .1 for (a) an LL fault.ro .2' If o_r.(.005 .264.37i2. so thatlinetogroundfault included ..045x ..t + Vfr.92 = 0.Zuy IL.The generator operating at no are voltage.o.calculatethe valueof reactance be in the generatorneutraland ground.92 = _ 0. 11. t a ru .18 lI20 + 71.0. Compare these currents and comment. generatoris rated 25 MVA.= lo_tz(Vfu. = .02 x I{rz= yvrz (VI_r. rr^r^ir^+^ \aruulalLE +l^^ Llls .. (.0.0.3g = j0.045x . 8 2 4 ) =j l .o2o) io. Assume that before the occuffence of the fault. 'r1 r o .0 (c) 4c = r l (1 .M5 x .j2.7O.866= 0.m. The neutral of the are reactances respectively sequence current in the generatoiis solidly grounded.Determine the subtransient conditions when generatorand the linetoline voltagesfor subtransient an LG f'ault occurs at the generatorterminals.105 .j0.76 can of b Currentin phases andt:c the generator be similarly calculated.2 RepeatProblem 11.Vfrr) = *. (ii) double line fault.3s = + LEIVIS PROB has a x"o= 0'2 pu' Its negative and zero 11.3.92 = _ 0.o+einol DJrluuvlrrv4r o r rv r feoa c i c n t ou l u r r n line etrrre.176 = vfot .Jy = _ j07g If.905 1107" = . r 8 j0. 5 8 8 0 .zrtrfrt = 70. .g24 = 1.39_ j 2.38)+ (1.75 + 7 .588 1240".1 .38) = _ j4. (d) Vfor= ZVfvr + Vf.79 ll.2 Ifrrr= !zn U{t .412 1240".j3.176 ..1 8 j 0.3 and 0.i2./1A r 4 .rz= jl.Ji lr .t.264+ i0.0 (system unloaded beforefault) .38 vtr.o's88)t33" 1. /7^fr z_tLv . + Vfur = 0.nfs for (i) S in o .j3. 11 kv geaerator 0.
The phase sequence are of the generator is RYB with a no load voltageof I I kV betweenlines.A linetoground fault occurs at the far end of the feeder. base are reactancesof the machines and lines referred to a common xo Xz xl 0. Use R phase voltage as reference. ancl (b) il the generator neutral is isolated.P .0.0. What will be the value of the groundingresistance achicvcthc samcconclition. = Xz = Xo' Calculatethe current fed into a double linetogroundfault on the line '2.25 andj0. calculate the double line fault current ancl rlso double linetoground faul sub^ t*t.4 j0.The reactances the transmission 4oToon a baseof 1. assuming prefault currents to be zero.g the A double linetoground fault occurs on lines b and c at point F in in phase c of current system of Fig.4 j0.8 A generator supplies a group of identical motors as shown in Fig. o l v .30 2 Machine 0.300 5%.=X.'r' . The impedances sequence to currentsof eachgeneratorand feeder are given below: Generator (per unit) jo.g and 0.40 0. negative and zero sequence reactances phase per respectively.300V' line areX.1 transformerof reactance pu to a machine2 generating 1 pu voltage' For both transformers X. 3. P11'8.600 v with reactances trtnslorutcris rutcd 1. The motors are rated 600 V. u . The positive. 9O%o efficiency at full load unity power factor with sum of their output ratings being i rrrrW.l to with the reactance value (as calculated above) included between neutral and ground.8 fauft X'= Xz= 2oo/o Xo = 5o/o Xn = 2'5o/o Yr6i* F i g .lW:il Mqdernpower Syst€m Anatysis current equals the threephase fault current.3/0.L € u v. current prelault 7. 11. 35 Machine 1 0.0 ohm.' a g e .2 i0._L i^ vn6l : lagging and 90vo efficiency whea an LG fault occurson the low voltage side of the transformer.P ' 1 1 . r t ll \vt r r rv i^ltr l. Determine:(a) the fault current.4 ohm.20 0.200kvA. The of winding resistances negligible.15 j 0.6 X = 10o/o 11'5 Two 25 MVA.08 Feeder (ohms/phase) j0.200kVA.o pu.j0.l "orilg" the star point of the groundedgenerator with iespect to ground.a. Both machines of x//= xz=lUvo and xo= rated 7. 8 n.35. The star point of one of the generatorsis groundedthrough a resistanceof 1. Specify completely the sequence networks to simulatethe fault so as to include the effect of prefault current.The motors afe sharino enrrqllrr _r_rr* "1_ F l g .l r ^ ^r s r^ os u ^ ^ '.200kVA.are soiiriiy grourrded.20. (b) the voltage to ground of the sound phasesof the feeder at the fault point. 'side terminals of the transformer fed from machine The star point of The machine I and of the two transiormers. The group of motors can be treatedas a singleequivalent motor.04 0.70. 11 kv synchronousgenerators are connected to a common bus bar which suppliesa feeder.q.5MVA kv 3.l 1 . while that of the other generatoris isolated. Find the subffansient are machine 1. respectively.40 Line (each) . Calculate sequence currentsin phaseR and currentin the earth return circuit. negative and zero sequencereactance of the generator are. 80 0. Positive sequence Negative sequence Zero sequence rI'6 Determine the fault currentsin each phase following a double linetoground short circuit at the terminals of a starconnected synchronous generator operating initially on an open circuit voltage or i. and its star point is isolated from ground. and bi r. itf.=20vo andXo= The reactancesof the neutral grounding reactors are 5Vo on the kVA base of the machines. llac5 thrccphirsc of Vts with leakage reactanceof 5Vo.05 0.10 A synchronous 0. ignored.25 0. 9 . The other ends of the lines are connected through a YN 0. 600 VA/3. 1. 6 p o w e r \€ / v tactor 1 machine1 generating pu voltageis connectedthrough 11. (a) if the gencrator neutralis solidly earthecl.1 pu to two transmissionlines in transformerof reactance a Y/Y parallel. A short circuit occurs between lines I and B and earth at the generatorterminals. 11'7 A threephase synchronous generatorhas positive.
a rinetogrouncr faurt occursat .15 Write a computer programme to be employed for studying a solid LG fault on bus 2 of the sy'stemshown in Fig.1 Injectingunit currentat bus 1 (i. Therefore it is convenientto obtain Zt.H / " . Bus bar I rs connected to bus bar 2 thro'gh a star/crerta lt'itnsl0t'ttlcl' scrics with a ilt transmissionline.25 0.rerr. find the faurt current for single line_ toground fault on bus bar l.] .05 0. a current of 4'0 pu is fed to a threephase short circuit on bus bar Z.i""i. L 2 sequence networks of the power l. #.Deitrmhe the positive sequence reactance X of the equivarent generator of the . For a solid LG fault at bus 1.12 0. svs directly rather than by inverting Ir. Ir = tr. (Brounding reactance)= 0.x lI_ J  l .il:i ff un ri te u il.*.p .{:.ne of "a terminars the of the starconnected winding of the transformerA. 11. Assume all transformers to be YlA type with their neutrals (on HV side) solidly grounded."in pEr fiit *:" Positive GeneratorI Generaror2 Each rransformer Infinite bus Line 0.:"# fl:f{". representedby a star_ connectedgeneratorwith equar "quiuutently' positive incr ncg.l5 0. .04 pu Form the positive. For a twobus case _t F i g .r: : i. use the impedance data given in Example 9. neutral isolated) 0.Assumethat a solid LL fault occurson busf Determinethe fault currentand voltage(to ground) of the healtlry phase. . sus.T1".15 0.q 6L_' \7  )r I I ]L . we get Ztz = Vl 7:tz= Vz ll.:^::l:l.)l'.r1:#. 1 _f6lY €fff . Itz2.05 0.1 pui Xo = 0.'. X X 0.:il".o pu voltage on no road. 9.:ni fr. .ffi*"#.30 Nc. The power network connectedto bus bar 2 can be.J'#::. BUS cannot be obtained from it.:i il"lili ": :i::. star porntsare Alr solidry connected ground.P .i"il"ti .15 0.il.05 pu X.7... 1 3 Hint: Notice that the line reactancesare not given. Zero 0. we get Zn= Vt Zzt = Vz S ir nilar ly injcct ingr r uitcur r cutut bus 2 1i. In such "us situations the method of unit current injection outlined below can be used..":t' viltr'om vv'rv\. . For the same initial conditions.H .'.e.1 1 .0 go voltage at each bus bar.er Xr = Xz = 0.. by Considerthe 2bus systemof Example 11.. lz = l) . . it singular and zs..l4 Zou5could thus bc dircctly obtained this technique.1..15 0. caiculate the currents flowing (i) in the fauli.e. our aim is to find the fault current and all bus voltages and the line currents following the fault.'A+\l Thepot+: q"geEye zero uno seque. Also ro.20 OJZ 0..f nerwork twogenerators with connecred iltr"::."._ (b) P_.ffi. 1 1 rl'r2 A star connectedsynchronous generatorfeeds bus bar r of a power system.1 1 .15 0. negative and zero sequence bus impedancematrices. calculate the fault current and its contributionsfrom the generatorand ffansformer. and (ii) through rhe transformer A. in s j..5.20 i..* *'' .il. (grounding reactance)= 0.."11'::::1.3. power network.15 0.irfr ""*"t.r0rccs rcactances.15 0..50 li.Y \ ' rTftYA F i g .30 Generator Transfbrmer Transmission Line PowerNerwork Zt:ro 0.10 Under no load condition with 1.5.12 0.ffi# Hffi flffi 1:' f:"9.17. c.tivc sc(rr..iJl.itive 0./ r = 0. .il#.25 0.02 pu = 0J?u Transformer: Xr: Xr:Xt Generator: X..1=17.1T:Toow. !2= 0).the with borh generarors and infinite bus op"rutinf r.The to per unit sequence re:lct*nces v'rious corrlponents of are given berow: pol.15 0.20 Negative 0.40 :T"tl' ".Modernpower ' ll'll I lncrrrnmatrinal Farrlt Anahraio lL..gutivt: 0..0g oo (i.
D. 6. generatorsare equal. it falls out of step. cannot stay in synchronism. IEEE. O. ComputationalMethods for Analysis.. McGrawHill.PnS. KAP.dynamic and transient. instability means a condition denoting loss of synchronism or have beenrecognizedas an essential falling out of step. Involving Open Smith. New York. Modern Power Systems. W. 3. 1982. 2000. parts of a power system. New York. Elgerd. Stability considerations part of power system planning for a long time. 1967. New York. H. D.. and C. while their zero sequencereactanceis onefourth of their positive sequence reactance.1826.A. The systemis basically a springinertiaoscillatory system with inertia on the mechanicalside and spring action providedby the synchronoustie wherein power transfer is proportional to sin d or d (for small E. Khapardeand Shubha Pandit. Person.e. 19i2.. Bergan. 1979. and V.. 12 NCES REFERE Books 1. Soman.. 2nd edn.T INTRODUCTION Papers 7. 2. it is bdtween various becomingincreasinglymore difficult to maintain synchrortism '.E.il reactances of the Assume that the positive and negative sequence. Brown.PearsonEducation Asia. Gross. 8. "Digital Simulation of SimultaneousUrrbalances IEEE Trans. Electric Energy Systems Theory: An Introduction.. the equation determining system dynamics is nonlinear for disturbances causing large variations in angle d. Vittal. by The dynamicsof a power system are characterised its basic featuresgiven tjElt w. 2.C. International Textbook Co. . Synchronoustie exhibits the typical behaviourthat as power transfer is gradually increaseda maximum limit is reachedbeyond which the system i. 2002. *There are no universally accepted precise definitions of this terminology. With interconnectedsystems continually growing in size and extending over vast geographicalregions. Conversely. Wiley. 5.4th edn. Stevenson. Elementsof Power SystemAnalysis.R. PICA..p.. Proc.I. Accordi^rglypower system stability problemsare classified into three basic types*steady state. The zero sequence reactances the of reactances.5 times their positive sequence Set all prefault voltages = 1 pu.A. Delhi. 6 being the relative internal angle of machines). McGrawHill."Short Circuit Studiesof Large Systemsby the Impedance Matrix Method". 4. Ncuenswander. Ncw York.A. 1970. Power System Analysis. S. refer to IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronic Terms. Stability phenomenonpeculiar to nonlinear systemsas distinguished from linear systems is therefore exhibited by power systems (stable up to a certain magnitude of disturbance and unstable for larger disturbances). New York. 335.E. 1.. 3. S. Analysis. and FaultcdConductors". Power System J. 1971.R. For a definition of some important tenns related to power system stability. Boston.A..R. 1982. Because of power transfer being proportional to sin d.2nd edn. Large SparsePower Systems T2. power systemis its ability to returnto normal The stabilityof an interconnected or stable operation after having been subjectedto some form of disturbance. lines are to be taken as 2.
Following a sudden disturbance on a power system rotor speeds. but also on the type of fault. Whetherthe systemis stableon occurrence a fault depends of not only on the systemitself.each with severalgenerators and many loads. Dynamic instability is more probable than steady state instability.. I2. whether clearedby the sequential opening of two or more breakersor by simultaneousopening and whether or not the faulted line is reclosed. electrical power from nearby generators is reduced drastically.^ x 106 MJ 2 where / = rotor moment of inertia in kgm2 aro..it may exhibit different valuesdepending on the nature. M = J ( ? \ ' u .6 ' \P/ = moment of inertia in MJs/elect rad We shall detine the inertia constantH such that G H = K E =u % M J ! 2 G = machinerating (base) in MVA (3phase) H = inertict constant in MJ/I4VA or MWs/MVA .appiicableto transient stability s t udie s . For in angulardifferencesmay be so large as to .:ausethe machines "hung. but unlike the latter.Dynamic system study has to be carried out for 510 s and sometimesup to 30 s.434 .The machineJlocatedatany one point ln a systemnormally act in unison. kind of instability behaviour constitutesa seriousthreat to system security and createsvery difficult operating conditions. rapidity of clearing and method of clearing. ttrern'achinei eaitr gioup stay togetheralthough they go ii of out of step with other groups.It is. a fault on a heavilyloaclecl which requires but line openingthc lipc t<l clear the fault is usually of greatestconcern. Dynamic stability can be significantly improved through the use of power system stabilizers. is ln some cases'the system may be stable even with a sustainedfault. of course. x .to infinite system. common practice in stability machines which are not separatedby lines of high reactance are lumped togetherand consideredas one equivalent machine. The samesimulationprogrammesare. computer simulationis the only effective meansof studying dynamic stability problems.) which are small enough not to cause the systemto lose synchronismbut do excite the systeminto the"itate of natural oscillations.. is of the two machine system is extremelyuseful in describingthe general concepts of power system stability and the influence of varioust'actors stability...changesin turbine speeds. on It will be seenin this chaptertbata two machine systemcan be regardedas a single machinesystemconnected.The tripping of a loadJd generator or the abrupt dropping of a large load may also causeinstability.i. Thus a multimachine system can often be reduced to aq equlyalg4t fery lq4qhrue system. the systemis welldamped). providedthe loading is increased gradually.e. Small disturbances are esntinuaHy oeeurring irr a po*. There is a large rangeof disturbanceiwhich may occur on a power system. whereas other systems will be stable only if the fault is cleared with sufficient rapidity.)* L M. = synchronous speedin rad (mech)/s But whorc u. the most severetype of disturbance to which a power systemis subjected. the system is underdap"a.1 0 . location of fauit. The effect of short circuits (faults).. rotor angulardifferencesand power transferundergofast changeswhose magnitudes aredependent upon the severityof disturbance.while power from remote generators scarcelyaf1'ecte4. 2 ' .Because its simplicity...The system is said to be dynamically stable if the oscillations do not acquiremore than certainamplitudeand die out quickly (i.e. system r"#"ti"* i" loadings.In a dynamically unstablesystem. therefore.'l ' l Modernpower SystemAnalysis Dnrrrn' Qrra+^ Or^L:l:r.n= rotor speed in rad (elect)/s P = nuurbelo1'rnaclrine poles = KE +(t(?)'c. I ^ Th"t study of steady state stability is basically concerned with the determination the upperlimit of machineloadingsbeiore losing of synchronism.The transientstability limit is atmost always lower than the steady statelimit. to fall out of step' This type of instability is known as transient instability and is a fast phenomenon usuallyoccurringwithin I s fbr a generator close to the causeof disturbance. rni.Qualitative behaviour of machinesin an actual system usually that of a two machine system. Stability study of a multimachine systemmust necessarily carried out on be a digital computer.2 DYNAMICS OF A SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE The kinetic energy of the rotor at synchronous machineis K E = 1 JJ. xro. a large disturbanc". Modern power systemshave many interconnected generatingstations.must be determinedin nearly all stability studies' During a fault.r.If Synchronlsm lost. the oscillation amplitude is large and thesepersist for a long time (i.etc.e.location and magnitudeof disturbance.
per 0. the first figure applies to the smaller MVA sizes. Rewriting Eq. by changes insignificant magnitude for the time period of interest 0. = angle in rad (elect) nod = Mi. (12.\.P^ P. each classof machines.).12.l .{36 i I '. = electromagnetictorque developedin Nm.Mw where * Rcprinted with permission of the Westinghous Electric Corporation from Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book.4) 2. speedand flow of mechanical windage. ( 12.. thzrn steamturbogenerator tbr watc:r unit is that of the priine mover. the rotor' speed (1s) [Sec. it acquiresnegativevalue for a motoring machine machine = H ffi The inertia constant H has a characteristicvalue or a range of values for Table 12.ll l..vvrvr Tnrm tvrrlt NonCondensing Water wheel Gencrzttor (< Slowspeed 200 rpm) Highspeed(> 200 rpm) +' C S y n c h l o r r o u so r r d c r r s c r4+ Large Small Motor with load varying li'ortr Synclrrcnous 1.00 peed(ur. t ot(r2. stator negligible.000rpm 3..25 cent less.1 th'atthe value of H is considerably It is observed Thirty to sixty per cent of wheelgenerator. triction and wersin a synchronousmachine.0 to 5.^'we can write t':t).ure 12.r) and electrical .including water. The differential equation governing the rotor namicscan then be written as M is also calledthe inertia constant.0 and highcr lor hcavy l'lywhccls 1.r ( U n U Ur r . \..1 Typicalinertiaconstants synchronous Type oJ Mat:hine Turbine Generator Condensing Intertia Con.P. (12'3). Taking G as base.r.3) can therefore be converted into its more convenient lnrltar . machines* of .  mechanical ptlwer inPut l n electrical power outPttt t n MW lossis assumed copPer MW. 2. * . degree s'lelect 'here 0* = angle in rad (mech) T* = turbine torque in Nm. Mw (t2. it acquiresa negative value for a motoring T.000rpni 96 74 43 LJ .. Multiplying both sidesof Eq..800 rpm 3.) u.00 'ttt p  higher for from Table 12. l t n lrvcl nqrr al i n : l r t l l r t l J U Lv I cv nr nrs rt r:rt n t a t t h g S V n C h f O n O U S ! r u q 24 t.3)by u)." x lo(' .25 l.l =l y : * * n l l vJ ' e rl !l c a *t nl r r^.3) nf s2lelectrad )..4) / )\2 x ul. = .1 lists some typical inertia constants. the total inertia of a steam turbogenerator whereasonly 4 I5Vo of the inertia of a hydroelectric generatingunit is that of the waterwheel.pP" (12.P^ J6"n.1 shows the torque. *tc+ HydrogenCooled.: : il Power SystemStability MociernPower Sysiemnnaiysis e Swing Equation I I 437 It immediatelyfollows that 2GH = GH MJs/elect rad M = (ts lt f = ffi 14Js/electdegree 180f (r2. the inertia constantin pu is M (pu) = + .i. 1o6) ff s2a .Lv. Table 12. Equation (12. +* Where range is given.5) ol .1 Flowof mechanical electrical While the rotor undergoesdynamics as per Eq.' \ .slunt H Stored Energy in MW Sec per MVA** t m o_> machine powers a synchronous in and Fig.2) r " Nt (r2.It is assumedthat the nloss torque is negligible.d ' o ^ =T^J :. D t  . dtt where P.
.8) { " " " ' o ' ! = 'P*.14) .Gt""'n / (t:. the swing equationis a nonlinear secondorderdifferential equation.P"PU sYstem in base dl "f = **" Hryr. four pole turbogenerator rated 100 MVA. (12. and it describes rotor dynamicsfbr a synchronous the machine(generating/motoring).1 is called thestvingecluatioy This equation 1))."* Hu"ht'+*l \.* (r2. = [r= [ A ddi ng Eqs ( 12.P e M w otWith M as definedin Eq. (12.yr.o= system base It is more convenient measure angularposition of the rotor with respect to the to a synchronously rotating frame of reference.r2) (r2.18) The aboveresultsare easily extendable any numberof machinesswinging to coherently. (12. = Hl .1).7) or (12.rs) H2 d262 =+ M(Pu) lrj or H dzb = P*^nf dt" P.g'"" +" (Yry*l =(p.r3) where = machine inertia constantin system base fVP*P"Mw Dividing throughoutby G.1I) "f Since the machinerotors swing together(coherentlyor in unison) 6.17) can be wrirten as H"q. A.1D)l}q. In a multimachine systema common systembase must be chosen. Let ffimel"L2rl 1 A 50 Hz. a (r2.. 15) H"q d26 = P*trf dtz whcrc Prr=P*r+ Pn Pr=P"l * Prz H"q=Hr+ H.nu. Hr d261 M(pu) = P*. we can write GH d2d .p.The equivalentinertia in Eq.. (12.r0) a.29)).P . 14)and ( 12.P"zPu (r2.[' .11) can then be written as (r2. (12. d26 M. (12. (12.9) Machines Swinging Coherently Consider the swing equationsof two machinesor a common systembase. (12. (12. This assumptionleads to pessimisticresultsin transientstability analysisdampinghelps to stabilizethe system.P.16" (Eq. _ Power System Stabitity Grnu"h= machine rating (base) Gryrt".16).5) can be written in terms of d as ' . in Sincethe electrical power P. + dt' in pu of machine rating as base where "f (12.6) From Eq. .?. It is a secondorder differential equationwhere the darnpingterm (proportional to d6ldt)is absent because the assumption a lossless of of machineanclthe fact that the torqueof damper winding has been ignored.h Gl ^ach/Grystem* Hz ^u"h G2 u"h/G. pu (IZ.."':?: f# (called torque angle/power angle) ul ar di sP1 ement fro m sy nchronou sl y ac  _ I +Sl Equation (12. = P*r ..P"t Pu = P*2.43S I Modernpower SvstemAnalvsis t .Jt2 dt2 Hence Eq. 11 kv has an inertia g6nsf anf nf R O MI/I\/IVA . P" (r2. _ d 2 6 . depends uponthe sine of angled(seeEq.Let o= (a.Dampingmust of coursebe considered a dynamic stability study.r7) The two machinesswinging coherentlyare thus reducedto a single machine as in Eq.(12.6) d rg ..: = P ^ . the MVA rating of the machine.) Gsystem \/ dt' \ ) "t c' Grrr. Multimachine System (r2.
'2.it is necessary determinethe of dependence the electrical powel otttput(P.21) and (12.23) . as a also This assumption constant. (b) If the mechanical input is suclcJenly raisedto 80 MW fbr an electricalload of 50 MW. 12.r) X. Rotor speedat the end of l0 cvcles x'a = xq (r2.75 elect degrees in = 60 x 337'5 2x360J . In other words.337 elect '5 deg/s2 (c) 10cycres = Change d= !{ZZI. )olution (a) Storedenergy= GH = 100 x g = g00 MJ For a nonsalientpole machine.10)).19)during the transientmodifiesto (12.2. These are: 1.2)2= 6..5 0 = 3 0 M W = M 4 r. resultsvoltage regulator to leads pessimistic to Before the swing equation can be solved.)upon the rotor angle. . t4/s' I torJern Power Srrctarn Anarrraio mqtsqllvteryerSvele 3.. but Xn remainsalmost unaffected.This assumptionleads to pessimisticresultgoverning loop helpsto stabilizethe sysrem.Xq)Id The phasor diagram colrespondingto Eql (12. X'a 1X.certain simplifying assumpticns are usually made.2 + x 4 = 1505.r where I=Ia+ Is ( b )P . but the differenceis less than in Eq' (I2. (c) If the acceleration calculated part (b) is maintainedfor 10 cycles.Ie) E =V + jXolu+ jXol. it meansthat the effect of the turbine governing loop is ignored being much slower than the speedof the transient. machineemf remains the consequence generated the helps to stabilize system. = 8 0 .'. Rotor speedchangesare insignificantthese have alreadybeen ignored in formulating the swing equation. ! = zo ' 11 ^ E 6 2r {PnVs "lT .X. tind rotor acceleration..3 POWER ANGLE EQUATION In solvingthe s'uving equation(Eq (12.2 Phasor diagramsalient pole machine .r2ox5o 'z8. the per phaseinduced emfterminalvoltage understeadyconditionsis equation (r2.22) = (Y + jxp + j(X'a .S) x (0.I) + jXotlo =V + jXq(I ' (12. Mechanicalpower input to the machine (P*) remainsconstantduring the period of electromechanical transientof interest.2 or r ) c . Since under transient condition.22) is drawn in Fig. Simplified Machine Model (a) Find the stored energy in the rotor at synchronous speed.neglecting rrlechanicaland electrical losses.625 rpm I2.find in the changein torque angle and rotor speedin revolutionsper minute at the end of this period. condition Undertransient XaX'a1Xa but X'o = Xn since the main fleld is on the daxis Xtd< Xo . 1 . Effect of voltage regulating loop during the transientis ignored. that it is fairly valid to assttme 4 d26 = 3o +'j 6.20) dt' CH 180/ 800 1 8 0x 5 0 4 MJr/elect deg andusual symbolsare used. Fig. 12.I9) Equation(12.2r) Et =V + jxt lo+ jXnln .tz5 0. (r2.
24) D' o O f @ r synchronous reactance) The machine mod also applies to a cylindrical rotor machine where X.4..n"* sin (6 . t i.=P^*sin 6 Systemnetwork (IZ.'. Complex power into bus is given by Pi+ jQiElf At bus I Pr + jQr .ower Angle'Cunre For the purposesof stability studies lEl1. = 0).+' (r2. P. E / = l E ' z l1 4 . J = 0 P.0 .ZB) Fig.6=6 Qn = x/2 1 Then Eq./ and 4. r l c o s ( .=V+jXnI = V + jXotl atysis _ \ Power Svstem Stabilitv t 2 equation (12. Yr z= lYr zl l0 p (r2. while the machine reactance (Xu) is absorbed the systemnetwork as in clifferent from a load flow sttlcly' Fttrther. the generatordeterminedterminal voltage is a dependent variable'Therefore. 2 ) u 2 .firZlll r"orrr r E.1). (YpEil* But E't =lEil l6.3 Simplifiedmachine model (r2. 12.cpiacetl will by equivalent static admittances (connected in shunt between transmission network buses and the referencebus).Er' (YyE1)* + E.26) I r t = l E l i 2 G t r + l E r tI i E i i i y . remains constant or is the independent variable determined by the voltage regulatingloop but v.5 f Y. YI . = P.5 Twobusstability study network For the 2bus system of Fig. loirtls (othcrthrrn lhe liu'gcs.j ' . 2 7 ) A similar equationwill hold at bus 2. l E t' l lEztI lY7l = Pn.ynchronous riitittir.26) Y. h . This is so becauseload voltages vary cltlringa stabilitystutly (in a loaclllow stucly.22)now becomes T* [ECAC. 12.. * P.: ' l . the. * . Y"1 = Y n u s I . Let lEllzG. z =Y z r LY^ Yr.s) bc r.29a) . we have from Eq.27) can be written as Pr = P.se remain constant within a nalrow bancl). (12. (12.[ Fig.2s) The simplified machine of Fig.4 (12. 12. transient emf of generatormotor. 12.: . 12. lossless network } t z = n 1 2 . Power Angle Equation For a purely reactive network Gtt = 0 (.l = X*/(transient Fig. P. nodes(buses) the stability the of study network pertainto the ernf terminalin the machinemodel as shown in rig.. u = G r t + jBt i Since in solutionof the swing equationonly real power is involved.3 will be used in all stabilitv studies. 12.
5 X = transfer reactancebetween nodes (i.e.7(b).. formulation for the stability study. These are illustrated by the simple system of Fig. 12. 12..is a nonlinear secondorder no damping. Therefore.t* Peo Generator lE'lt6 1lo" (b) Fg. 12..29)) is shown in Fig.6 at faultoccurs the a case now a morecomplicated wherein 3phase Consider that becomes diagram the case reactance midpointof oneof thelinesin which of Fig.8(b) += .25 at( U lE/lt6 1t t r (a) ..the networktransforms wherein Fig.P^ sin Pn'u* dpu 7rI dt differential equation with which.10)) can now be written as Yl aZt 0.29b) i0.In this simplesituation..7Asimpesystemwithitsreactancediagram Fig.5 X r z= 0 ' 2 5+ 0 ' 1 + (12. j0.8(a). where 'Ihe p"l I D I max (Ps6+APe). (12. the load buses must be eliminated. 12. between E{ andEi) graphical plot of power angle equation (Eq.7(a) whose reactancediagram is by bus 3 getseasilyeliminated drawn in Fig.j0. Three methods are available for bus elimination. I2. parallel combination of the lines. T2. Thus o  (. in Y"u.30) = 0.12.5 I I where I lE''  ' P^^.(12. as already stated.4 NODE ELIMINATION TECHNIOUE In stability studies. 12.6 Poweranglecurve The swing equation (Eq.6. = lE'' x ' ' simplified power angle equation (r2. StarDelta Conversion to that of the Converting star at the bus 3 to delta. it has been indicated that the busesto be considered are thosewhich are excitedby the internal machinevoltages(transientemf's) and not the load buseswhich are excited by the terminal voltagesof the generators.
For this network. Power SystemStability Node Elimination Technique lE/lt6 Formulate the bus admittances for the 3bus system of Fig. tho Thcvcnirr'sccluivalcntlbr lo thc network portion to the left of terminals a b as drawn in Fig. 12.^tt )'' .?r.5 x0.8(a).55 ruus The bus 3 is to be eliminated..Y. 9 v _ 0. l2.32) 0 .3 5 x 0 . In general for a 3bus system This method for a complex network. Yr.25 = 1. . +(ty.8(c)wherein bus t has been modified to 1/.rYr.646* *This value is different from that obtained by star delta transformation as V* is no longer lEtl I { in fact it is 0. rr h = v 0. =(". vu (r2. (. (12.146+ 0. Yrt Y.ti(a). however.31) is at Sinceno source connected the bus3 =o It Y r r V r +Y r r V r + Y r r V r = O = 0 .9 wherein instead of reactance branch.2 5 035+025 .t _ . Thevenin's Equivalent With ref'crcncc Fig.25 lEtl l5 025+0." ) u ' [ ' ' !+)v" Yr.I Llrl Lv. (r2.446 L power System Modern Anatysis l u. 12.35x 0. cannot be mechainzed for preparing a computerprogramme. admittancesare shown. thereby eliminating Vy It =Y. Yn rrrJL%l or Y"t"lIu'I f''I=fr' Y.4 1 7 Et I 16 xrh = Itlow or vz=?rr. .5 = 0.Vt * YrzVz+ YttVt Xt2 =0.o'146 Substituting this value of V3 in the remaining two equations of Eq. This method obviously is cumbersometo apply for a network of even small complexity and cannot be computenzed.This network is redrawn in Fig.8 Fig.31).417 lEtl 16. 12.35+ 0. CD @ o (r ra (c) Fig.5 lh  lY^ llv. 12. 12.5 + 0..25x 0.
5 5 ) = j0./ 1 .2 YrtYt.646 L It then follows that X.11 Converting star to delta. 5 4 8 (= 1 .1 i1. equivalent of trasferreactance i1.rr t 22= y 'zz . X(_ lt.0 pu. . in eliminating node n i1.0 ll. =lt.34c) lEnl= 1. 1j1. p'e65 j1.25 io.r1.12.j3. 0 ) X J 1 .34b) (r2.Y r t Y t yT In general. get the reactance (3) With capacitive ster Converting to delta. x =l f fr lil =^m = o ' 4I9ZPI u (2) Equivalent circuit with capacitive reactor is shown in Fig.r y " Y'12= Y'21= Ytz  Q23aa) (r2.o Y ' t l = Y '33.l i0. 12.11(a)is reduced to that of Fig. the network of Fig.e35 7X(transfer) F i g .34) to the example in hand Flg.11(b)where 7 X ( t r a n s f e r ) . Ytt vt.33) Solution E E l . 1 0 . ) (12.12. l.1 static capacitive reactorof In the systenrshown in Fig.12 x.0 = lEml= 1.3s) (a) (b) Applying Eq.35 x.10. 2 x 1= .12. Calculatethe limit of steadystatepower with and without reactorswitch closed.0 . 12.35 i 1. 12. 1 + / 1 .35 i1.646 = 1 .' (reduced) Ynus lY'r. Fig.l.'1 Y'r..In compactform to be 1.(new) = Yry(old) Yo^(old)Y. 12. 3 5 . Recalculatethe power limit with capacitive reactor replaced by an inductive reactor of the same value.o jo.0 Yo.i.(old) (r2.gzt = (reduced)./ 1 . 3 5 X / 1 .a threephase reactance 1 pu per phase is connectedthrough a switch at motor bus bar.l+ "11.we havethe circuitof Fig.965 1 . . ( 12.1 2 .1x + 11.0 _ j1.t1.0 J 1 .71 (a). 12.t=:o. 0 ) + ( . Ysu5 1 0. pu 1244 statepowerlimit = Steady ffi we by replaced inductivereactance.
*=tit^o]t =r.3 The generatorof Fig.\ PU x. 12. 12. .9". Po. that can be transferredunder the following conditions: (a) Systemhealthy (b) One line shorted (3_phase) rhe middle in (c) One line open. Find the maximu. Et =tltr + . = 0.9".0 pu power to the infinite bus (lVl = 1'0 pu).265 Pn=1'O 0.9" 0 33.s (a) Systemhealrhy p^u* = lv )lEt  . calculate the generatoremf behind transientreactance. Solution Vt = lV..7(b) that X r z= 0 .79 jx  1 2 0 . .. 2 5 + 0 . = P.935 Example12..8 9 2+ j 0 .1g) x = 0 .016 10. (i).6e4 pu P.In this simple case through a line of reacthnce . 12.l _v t.14 is the circuit model of a single machineconnected infinite bus Xr..13 Poweranglecurue. I _ lV. the rotor angle can not change t.3s =l+j0. at the point P on the power anglecurve 1.l la From power angle equation L.!5o' l ""attt t"t.5 " Current into infinite bus.1x 1.!. 12.13. 8 5 P*. t 9 . 5 = 0 .j0.et =  la or = !". 5 I l 0 1.6 (l + 70. the systemis operatedwith P. Xn = l'55 hiffi Steadystatepower timit ':'!] = 0.075133.075= . with the generatorterminal voltage of v.0 pu and 6o= 33. = 1. = I'79 sin d (b) One line shorredin the middle: (i) I2. suddenly.694sin dat d= 33. 6 9 4s i n 6 i0.5 SIMPLE SYSTEMS to Infinite Bus Machine Connected to Figure 12.0 pu (governing system act instantaneously)and is further assumedto remain fixed throughout the transient(governing action is slow). PowerSystemStability in As alreadycalculated this section.7(a)is delivering 1.694 0 .90 I 900 A Fig..6 .265 0.remains fixed at 1. while the operatingpoint instantly shifts to of Q on thc curvc 0.79 sin d As one line is shortedin the middle.t ' F.llalVll0" 1..85 or P" = I.694 sin d (ii) (c) One line open: It easily follows from Fig. c.Noticcthutbccuusc machineinertiu. Under healthy condition. 1 + 0 .r = 1.e.l v I s t n o = p " X ( t"t ) < t= I [025+oJJsrn or rr = 2 0 .i.3" 1 Voltage behind transient reactance.304 pu 3.18=1. Plot all the three power angle curves.io*".0 pu.5 P.1.!! = 0. (ii) and (iii)) is drawn in Fig.265 sin 6 (iii) The plot of the three power angle curves (Eqs.
Fig.6)=^r(':jr!.(12.14 Machine connected infinite to bus Two Machine System The caseof two finite machines connectedthrough a line (X") is illustrated in Fig. the electrical power output of the generatormust be absorbedby the motor (network being lossless). write the swing equationupon occurrence the fault. ):ut t rr. (12. the mechanicalinput/outputof the two machinesis assumedto remain constant at these values throughout the dynamics (governor action assumed slow). What is the initial to can be assumed remain constantfor If this acceleration angularacceleration? at the end of this time interval and the new Lt = 0.41) and the power angle equation F.3.29b) and Xt urrrf. find the rotor angle acceleration.26 .39a) P ) t L _"_ ir ( P ^ r _ " r_ _ " ( p . Thus a to twomachine systemis equivalentto a single machineconnected infinite bus.P " r \ "tlH') it l2?:)= d26" (rn) (r2. ='4U sin d= p.36) SubtractingEq.39b) (r2.44) The swing equation Eq.r m . the singlemachine studied extensively in this chapter.38b) *"t#=l0'694 dt" s i n6 t4 = z2so .15 Twomachinesvstem P*t=P*z=P.Under steadycondition.u*sin d .39a) The dynamicsof this sysremare describecl Eq.+ \ . l .in6 + (12.. . .42) (r2. 12.12.. (12.the generatorhas an inertia constant of 4 MJ/ of MVA. beforethe system goesinto dynamicsand p"= ..11) as in d2@.38a) Swing equation upon occurrenceof fault H 1 g 0 fd v 4 d'6 _o . 12. ="f( P .r .39b)from Eq.q.] . .. During steadystateor in dynamic condition.'D e d.aa) have the same form as for a single machine connectedto infinite bus.15whereone of the machinesmust be generating und th" other must be motoring.0. Solution (12. I lt5' From Eq.er =X'a* X. HtH. (1 sin (12.43) #ft= P^P" Pu where lE/lt6 6=4 6. x.Thus at all time Prl=Prz= P" The swing equationsfor the two machinescan now be written as (12..6e4 d..4r) (r2. (12. (12.40) (r2. + xd2 .P.t  Power System Stability I Xtransf. bus) qYstemwould be (connected intinite to Becauseof this.05s. =Pn7rI (ltP.) (r2. ) or H"q d26 * . In the system of Example 12. (12..' dtz ff.. rr "eq Hl + Hz The electrical power interchange is given by expression Fi1.J dtz \ HrH.E!4!' X'0.
46)is given in Fig.. =o whosc two roots are f / t \ t r .L. Consider the sirnplesystemof Fig. (disturbancc) and the bound upon occurrcnccol a small powcr incretrtent synchronismis soon lost.6") .0. Assume a small increment AP in the electric power with the input from the prime mover remainingfixed at p*(governor r. the roots are real.o aP.E!!".4#jirf I vooern powersysremAnatysis Initial rotor angle do= 33. (i n A.P.if .1&t LP.3) a2 l s = 2 2 5 0 (l . d.\ u 1 t 0 o ) ol L M I As long as (0P/0 0o it positive.which have been ignored in the abovemodelling.0 5 s )= I x 1379 (0.l d t ' l .7" 6 t = 6 + 4. The systemis therefore unstablefor @ Pe/aDo < 0 cofficienr. is negative.9+ 1.t = 0 . electrical power output of the the generatorincreasesand so the accelerationof the rotor reduces.. o. one positive and the other without increases The torqueangle therefore negativebut of equal magnitude.l34I elect deg/s2 Observethat as the rotor angle increases.6. the direct axis reactance (X.694 si n 33. 12./aa > o (12.t For determinationof steadystate stability.r) ant.r A.46' (aP. 0 5 s . (12. 12. voltagebehind X4 are usedin the above equahons.the systemis unstable.9" ) .6 STEADY STATE STABILITY where P d dt The system stability to small changesis determined from the characteristic equation Mp.05)2 x 2 t .:' ]i. The excursionsof A d are then describedby #l l ll r : o* C + = 0.6 = 33.n + Linearizing about the operatingpoint Qo (P"0.. . 12. Assuming lEl and lVl to remain constant. 1 ( \ f { The steady state stability limit of a particularcircuit of a power system is defineclas the maximutnpower that can be transmittedtri fhe receivinoen.8) ln Pu sYstem ) . cause the system oscillations to decay. (12.7"= 35.') .Line resistance windings of machine.6" M d'+' * dr (r2. the roots are purely imaginary and conjugate and damper and the system behaviour is oscillatory about do. d r ll r = 0 .694sin 35. 4) *" can write ffi L ltc.9" (calculatedin Example 12.Let the system be operaring with steadypower transferof P^ = P^with torque angle as indicated in the d figure. The system is therefore stable for a small increment in power so long as M = H 7 and p. Eq. The plot of Eq.14whose clynamicsis describect by equations M* dl = P^ P " M W. +[#].=(*).4s) (12.0.(P. = !4)! (12.. rotor speed cannotchange suddenly = + no9i+' .P^. v'r6 vrru without loss of synchronism.in 6'= p^u*sin d P = + l .rforrr" is slow compared to When (0 P/AD.47) a26l = 2250(l . This is also called stffiess known as synchronizing @p/A[ois (electrical) of synchronousmachine..48) x.
1" 6 rqa) \ 05 )rr.po*e.0pu. (q+k)* =* i3s6 Frequencyof oscillations = 3..e. steady state stability limit with lv. Solution The systemis shown in Fig.systmst"uititv lEllvl c o sd ^ < o X b{dffi r (12. Persistent oscillations are a threat to system security.l anrt lvl constantis consiclered in Example 12..20pu and the voltage of the infinite bus is 1.50 pu connectedto an infinite bus through a series is gf of rcactance 1. 12.sr) If the system is operating below the limit of steady stability condition (Eq.i t ' ')* Find the steady state power limit of a system consisting of a generator equivalent reactance0.20 pu and its inertia constantis H = 4 MWsilvIVA.6.Let the voltage of the infinite bus be taken as reference.0 pu. excitation is held constant).The result is that as loading increases. The terminalvoltage the generator held at 1. Calculate the frequency of natural oscillations if the generatoris loaded to (1) 50Voand (ii) 80Voof its maximum power limit. The generatorno load voltageis I . 12'48).76 FrequencYof oscillations= 4.s0) and is given by P^u* lEnvl H = o*r o From characteristicequation (12. The above procedure is also applicable for complex systems wherein governor action and excitation control are also accounted for.4e) 4>90" Themaximum powerthatcanbe transmitted withoutlossof stabili or Iaee 1 l  1.20pu is connected an infinite bus of to bar (l Vl = 1. Thereforc.1" 1.8or =53.we must consicler steadystatestabilitylimit the by assuming that excitation is adjusted for every load increase to keep lv. The describing dif f er e n ti a le q u a ti o ni s l i n e a ri z e c l bout the opcrati ngpoi nt. Solution (i) For 50Voloading s m d o.This is how the system will be operaiedpractically.the terminal voltage lv.16. P max = 0 . The resistance and machinedamping may be assumednegligible. The study oi system damping is rhe study of dynamicalstability. 5 o r4 = 3 0 o .r'Zxrcos 53.60 pu.8 L 06 Jro" = 0.577MW (pu)/elect rad M ( pu) = 4 t r x5o r s?/ cr cctat r L_x _ _ _2_ r c o s 3 0 " ( r2."1*)' +i(WiY")u == i4.76 railsec 4'76 0. 758Hz 2r (ii) For 807oloading = s i nd o + Pu* =0. a C oncl i ti ep fbr steady state stability is then determinedfrom the correspondingcharacteristic equation (which now is of order higher than two) It was assumedin the above account that the internal rnachinc voltage lEl remains constant(i.l constanr. it may continue to oscillate for a long time if the iamping is low. .l dips heavily which cannot be toleratcdin practice.8 = 0'4 MW (Pu)/elect rad p =!.0pr) throughtransformers a line of total reactance and of 0. P=tr[(*).96 radlsec ?q6 A synchronous generator reactance1. The systemfrequencyis 50 Hz. It may be understocdthat we are still not considering the effect of automatic excitation control.
1.332+ jr.Thus. 2l g A knowledgeof steady state stability limit is important for various reasons. the steady state power limit would be It is observed regulating generator that the emf to hold the terminalgenerator '.2 l0 + j0. Numerical solution of the swing equation (or equationsfor a multimachine case) is then obtained in the presence of such disturbancesgiving a plot of d vs..P** sind otAs said earlier.f f .Series capacitorsare sometimesemployed in lines to get better voltage regulation and to raise the stability limit by decreasing the line reactance.728 + I90.. L2.= 0 (not a practicalcase)which involves elliptical integrals. The practical approach to the transient stability problem is therefore to list all important severe disturbances along with their possible locations to which the systernis likely to be subjected according to the experienceand judgement of the power system analyst.219 I V = 1. 8 c o0 . 1 5 2 . this is how thevoltageregulating loop helpsin power system stab'ity.002 j1.the methodsof improving steadystate stability limit of a systemare to reduceX and increaseeither or both lEl and I Vl. (12. 12.r52pu.E = l.0.0 J I .P " M iF where or P.g cos e_ 0. 12.g l0 _ 0.5(1.g pr'ro r.7 TRANSIENT STABITITY .r52+ 70.728= 1.51).0 jI Xa= O'5 lE4t6 Vt=1. of i.+V If instead. b:rt thesehave not been of partical use so far.For small disturbance(say.earing speedsjt is possible to make the transient limit closely approach the steady state limit.332+ j t .669 = t. If d starts to decrease after reaching a maximum value.it frorn0.2107. If the transmissionlines are of sufficiently high reactance.No closed form solution exists for swing equation except for the simple case P. .2/. Nowrwith increased fault el.4 that the dynamics of a single synchrono.7 L p ^ u .No generalizedcriteria are available* for determining system stability with large disturbances(called transient stability).5= (t. V t= ! . = P*"* i# =o'8 Pu _ d26 (r2.87" Vt = 1.A system can be operated above its transient stability limit but not above its steadytatelimit. the stability limit can be raisedby using two parallel lines which incidently also increases reliability the of the system.152 j0.332+.rs machine connectedto infinite bus bars is governed by the nonlinear differential equation 0 = 73.5 L I rr .2 pu raises at thepowerli. the equation can be linearized (see Sec. gradual loading).87"= 0.668) + .m Analysis Then Now Power SrrstemStahilitu EsE V = 7 .s2) M + . d'6 = P ^ . As is clear from Eq.l E l l V l = i5 2 8 x= *= l'152 Pu V. 1 .t52 E 0.73. it is normally assumed that the systemis stableand the oscillation of daround the equilibrium point will decay tRecent literature gives methods of determining transient stability through Liapunov and Popov's stability criteria. this equation is known as the swing equation.g 0 Steady state porver rimit is reached whenE hasan angle 6= 90o. = P* sin d r _ 0. 0 / .5)+ sin 71.e. generator is held fixed the emf at a valueof r.0 .ir.6) leading to the concept of steady state stability where a unique criterion of stability (APrlAd>0) could be established. 2 l 0 I_ 1.2pu. 5 = 0 s or Now It has been shown in Sec. Steady statepowerlimit is givenby 1. r called the swing curve.0100 Fl g.its real part is zero.P*.'oltage r. I2.16 E = Vt + jXdI = 1.rs2_r + j0.Higher excitation voltages and quick excitation system are also employed to improve the stability limit.
ffiffif I power Modern System Anatysis StabilitY S'. Fig. 3. causing the machine torque angles to swing relatively. determine the power transfer equation Pr(A during 2. no greatly significant error is caused.11. in fact. this system completely falls apart.17 In the caseof a perrnanentfault. again find P" (0 and continue to calculate d (r). 7. the chances of system stability are greatly enhancedby using autoreclosebreakers. determine the voltage behind transientreactance of and the torque angle 16o the machine with reference to the infinite bus. This also leads to pessimisticresults for the transientstability limit. This leads to pessimisticresult as resistance introducesdamping term in the swing equationwhich helps stability. 4 . The circuit breakers near the fault disconnect the In a systemwhere one machine is swinging with respectto an infinite bus. are Where ignored. 4. 1.e. It also leadsto pessimisticresults. In Example I2.the system is Calculation regardedas stable. Note: Sincerotor speedand hencefrequency vary insignificantly.t\\ a rr 11consequences upon accuracyof results. the network parametersremain fixed during a stability study. 5 . If 6 (t) goes through a maximum value and starts to reduce.9. regulating action of the generatorloop is ignored. fault. In this system P" = 0 for a threephasefault' ' as obtained in step 1. A digital computer programme to compute the transient following sudden disturbance aan be suitably modified to include the effect of governlr action and excitation control. .12. Transmission line as well as synchronous machine resistance are ignored. the power transfer between machines is greatly reduced.For the single machineinfinite bus bar system. This is a reasonablv accuraterepresentation. i. (A and solve further for d (r).i. after a suitable length of time.In fact it varies insignificantly during the course of the stability transient. From prefault loading. 1.8 EOUAL AREA CRITERION Upon occulTenceof a severedisturbance. After the transmissionline is switched on. 6. /1 /l <.ntly till cleared manually. it is possible to study transient stability by means of a simple criterion. action of voltage regulating loop is ignored.It is unstableif d(r) continuesto increase. without resorting to the numerical solution of a swing equation.'stem Power ffiffi andfinally die out. Rotor speed is assumedto be synchronous.P"(A = 0 as when the fault is cleared. Shunt capacitances not difficult to account for in a stability study. Loads are modelled as constant admittances. Mechanical input to machineis assumedto remain constantdurins the transient. apply to a system of any size.e. For the specified ' ^ault. Voltage behind transientreactanceis assumedto remain constant. 2. For easeof analysiscertainassumptions and simplificationsare always made (some of thesehave already been made in arriving at the swing equation (Eq.The stepslisted. stability can be conveniently determined by the equal area criterion presented in the following section. 5.. calculate 5 . As alreadypointed out in the introduction. say a short circuit.important severe distulbancesare a short circuit or a sudden loss of load. once again determine P. After clearanceof the fault. From the swing equation starting with fi das a function of time using a numerical technique of solving thetnonlinear differential equation.the system getsCisconnected. This will not be the case in a multimachine system. is ceased An important numericalmethod of calculating d(t) from the swing equation will be giurn in Section 12. Damping term contributedby synchronousmachinedamperwindings is ignored. 6 . I2.. p"rrnon. This leais to pessimisticresults. Since in the majority of faults the first ieclosure will be successful. In this case. line iesistance has been taken into account.
6(t) performs oscillations (nonsinusoidal)whose amplitude decreasesin actual praetice because darnpingterms (not included of in the swing equation)."= accelerating power (r2.56). However. From Eqs.s3) The stability criterion for power systemsstatedabovecan be convertedintc a simple and easily applicableform for a single machine infinite bus system.t9 shows the transientmodel of a single machinetied to infinite bus bar. the positive (accelerating) 'equal area' criterion of the negative (decelerating)area and hence the name lstability.1g. since the system is non_linear.depending upon the nature and severity of disturbance.19 (12.we have (r2. 12. experienceindicatesihai the response 6!'l j" a power system generallyfalls in the two broad categoriesas shown in the figure' It can easily be visualizednow (this has alsobeenstatedearlier) that for a stable system. the condition for stability can be written as Fig. o (r2.s7) The condition of stability can therefore be stated as: the system is stable if the power) dcurve reduces zero at some value of to areaunderPo(accelerating areaunder Po.ss) > Pm . (12.6curve must equal d In other words.if d . that the system is stableif at some time d6 =o (r2. we get M=! rf ln pu system 2P" d6 M d t Ifrtegrating. Multiplying both sides of the swing equation * [t#).This fact can be stated as a stability criterion. 6 or [r"ad 6.These two situations are shown in nig.s6) where dois the initial rotor angle before it begins to swing due to disturbance.s4) dt and is unstable. Sudden Change in Mechanical Input Figure 12.55) and (12. To illustrate the equal area criterion of stability.rg. 12. The electrical power transmittedis given by Infinite bus bar lvlr0o Fig.. we now consider several that may occur in a single machine infinite bus bar types of disturbances system.6 > 0 <lt for a sufticiently long time (more than 1 s will genera'y do). if the system is stable.indicationof stability will be given by observation the of first swing where dwill go to a maximumand will Jturtto reduce. the nature of its response160l is not unique and it may exhibit instability in a fashion different from that indicated in Fig.on the other hand. 12.Considerthe swing equation d26 AF = I *@^ = P ' 1 &rt . rz.1g protof 6 vs tfor stabreand unstabre systems lf the system is unstable dcontinuesto increase indefinitely with time and the machine loses synchronism.
6o the speedreduces below ur andthe rotor angle begins to reduce. 12. (areasare shaded).Po now becomesnegative(decelerating). . thedeceleratingarea A. As the oscillations decay out because of inherent system damping (not modelled).P.s lEtllvl P. Od 0.19 o This is indicatedby the point ainthe Pr.21thatthe system so long as the equal area beyond though the rotor may oscillate {^=. # sin d.6t= 6. hat .. Since the rotor is decelerating. Let the mechanical input to the rotor be suddenly increased to Pn (by opening the steam valve). = u. 12.e.6 diagram sudden for increase mechanical in inputto g e n e ra to rf F i g . causes'the rotor speed to increase (u> a. Po= P*r. Under steady operating condition P. 12.on the two sides.The statepoint now traversesthe P.s)..90"' for use in steady state = criterion is met.the rotor speed begins to reducebut the anglecontinuesto increasetill at angle 6...6 diagram of Fig. areaA.* sin dl .ffifftl Modern Power svstem nnarys.6 curvein the oppositedirection as indicated by arrows in Fig. It has thus been increasein mechanicalinput areacriterion that thereisan upper limit to sudden (P^r...58) 6 b f % ?'i i 6 2 (' s Q <(4 Flg.It is easily seenthat the systemoscillatesabout the new steady statepoint b (6= 4) with angle excursionup to 6 *d 4.Pr(= P* sin 4) = O (statepoint atb)but the rotor anglecontinues to increaseas t.P** sind ndT^e . is lessthan A1' e Any turther increas in P^.1 2 .l2.o = Pro= P** sin do 4n Ar=)(PnP")d6 Az=i<r.20.2L Under this condition.r)and so does the rotor angle.20. The acceleratingpower 1o = P*t . At c). = J . At angle 6r.for the systemin question to remain stable' ' 'ii will remain stableeven '.Po. 12.. = Prn. meansthat the area the kinetic energy causes d to increasebeyond point c and so that the excess power. equals the accelerating bc input with mechanical stability case of transient Fig.P^)d6 6l be possible to find angle d2 such that rg condition is finally reached when 41 own in Fig.uy'ulso be not"i from Fig. The condition of d 90" is meant apply to the transientstability case' stability only and does not j.20 P".21 Limiting increased suddenlY for available A. = 6^o= T n'sinl +: (12. with the system decelerating power changes over to accelerating shown by use of the equal consequentlybecoming uistable. 12.) ur.the systemsettlesto the new steady state where P^t = P. These oscillations are similar to the simple harmonic motion of an inertiaspring system except that these are not sinusoidal. a= ur once again (statepoint at c..
The accelerationareaA. All angles are in radians. i. 12. Pe D .22 be operatingwith mechanicalinput P^ at a steady angleof d0 (Pn.24 that 4nu*=T.ou. the state point shifts to d on the original P.. d sin i. Effect of Clearing Time on Stability Let the system of Fig. explicit relationships for 6..lt___j l  l /'\ \/ co ) \ I d". < Ar The maximum aiiowabie vaiue of the clearing time and angle for the systemto remain stabie are known respectively as critical clearing time and angle. attd 4 are respectively known as clearing time and. the faulted line is cleared by the opening of the line circuit breaker. p.d._ ruooern A Fower uvslem Anarvsrs Power a l':fiffn#._r_. " (3phasefault) 61 Az= P"=o .fuu.P^) d6 = P.e. The system once again becomeshealthy and transmits p. = 0 during fault). 12. 12. (critical) and t" (critical) are establishedbelow. increases find A2 = Ar till 6r = 6^ as shown in Fig. .trs#ffi {i. 12. rresponding to a clearing angle can be t only by numerical integration except in this simple case. and Now uct (12..For a clearing time (or angle) larger than this value. 12.e.6"i) Fig. the systemwould be unstableas A.23.P* (6^o . 12.60) P*= Pr* sin 6o Pm A t = J h (P^ 0) d 6 = P^ (4. begins to increaseand so does the rotor angle while the statepoint movesalong bc..= P") as shown by the point a on the Pr./ i Clearing angle 6. to As the clearing of the faulty line is delayed.  6) and 6^^ 6 e l f .59) (r2.If a 3phasefault occurs at the point P of the outgoing radial line. . 6r"* + Criticalclearing angle angle Fig. J (P** sin d.24.u* (cos d.clearing angle. Pe 'D max Pm  .xdr  r.23 . max and so\oes d.The equal established area criterion therefore gives only qualitative answer to system stability as the time whgn the breaker should be opened is hard to establish. corresponding to angle 6.d curve.6 cliagramof Fig. = p.i.A. begins while the state point moves along de.. The values of /. = 0 and the statepoint drops to b.22 If an angle fi canbe found such that A2= Ap the system is found to be stable. The systernfinally settlesdown to the steadyoperatingpoint a rn an oscillatory mannerbecauseof inherent damping. the electrical output of the generatorinstantly reducesto zero. At time /. For this simple case (P. The rotor now decelerates and the decelerating area A.12.cos d*) . It is easily seen from Fig..24 Criticalclearing F19.
12. 1r: Integrating twice d. = # P . Immediately on switching off line 2. power angrecurve is given by P"r= lE'llvl P"n= g:+ .wing equation can be integrated in closedform. (12. This will not be the casein mosi other situations. > 60" This is so becausea single line offers larger reactanceand larger rotor angle is neededto transfer the same steadypower. porisiblc I'rrr r. in this caseas tluring the faulted condition p" = o and so trre . Acceleratingenergycorresponding areaA. _ Z6l sin do_ cos 6o] During the period the fault is persisting. circuit model of the sysremis given in Fig. 12. the electrical operating point shifts to curve II (point b).r. Assuming that an area A2 correspondingfo deceleratingenergy (energy out of rotor) can be found such that At = Az. (1259) and (12. Before switchingoff.64) Both thesecurves are plotted in Fig.60) in Eq.62) IVVO" = rf P^: P.61) Pm For the systemto be stable.the swing equation is where (a) (r2.62) An explicitrelationship clctenninirtg i.12.6s) where d. (12.1 6 0 where /cr = critical clearing time 4.which yields (5..6a) Fi1.61).25a. = o d.The systemis operatinginitially with a steadypower transfer Pr= P^ at a torque angle 4 on curve I.ffil uoo"rnpo*"r system Anatvsis cos{. /__\ tt \l W (r2. . is given by the expressionof Eq.2 d (12.rf. (12.4) .^^" d) + cos 4o"* \ tniu( Prn* ) l_Lr__l  I L r l l I Infinite bus IVVO" 4. A2= A1. = !^ . r2. = critical clearing angle From Eq.26 Equalareacriterion applied the opening one of the two to of linesin parallel .. Sudden Loss of One of parallel Lines considernow a singlemachinetied to infinitebus throughtwo parallellinesas in Fig.\d T rt7 sin d= pmaxr d sin Fig." / (both lines in) 2H(6. 2 " . Let us study the transientstability of the .25 Singlemachine tiedto infinite bus through par:allel two lines (12. is put into rotor to followed by decelerating energy for 6 > q.. poweranglecurve is given by sin d= Pm*l sin d xa i xt llx2 Immediately on switching off line 2.yir"rn when one of the lines is suddenly switched off with the system operating at a steady road.774 .wherein Pu*n ( P_u*ras (Yo * Xr) > (Ya + Xr ll X). we get 4r = cost [(r. the system will be stable and will finally operate at c correspondingto a new. TrfP* (r2.26. 12.rotor angle 6.P*tz + $ 2H (b) 0 " .25b..63) 6 = . = critical clearing angle Substituting Eqs.
12.'rlr. clearing time must be less than a certain value (critical clearing time) for the system to be stable. 12. clearing angle (and time) and thereforequicker fault clearing would be needed to maintain stable operation. the clearing time. The rotor therefore accelerate. synchronism will be lost unless the fault is cleared in time. Instead. the generator getsisolatedfrom the power systemfor purposes of power flow as shown by Fig. dependsupon clearing time /.24a). Power Syt. there is some power flow during the fault thoughconsiderablyreduced.27a. The system will be stable if a decelerating areaA.)4. Critical clearing time can be obtained by numerical solution of the swing equation (discussedin Section 12. which is the samecondition as in the previous example.) increases for a given A. The rotor now starts to decelerate as shown in Fig.27 Shoftcircuit one end of the line at Before the occurrenceof a fault.St"blllry via the healthy line (through higher line reactance X2 in place of Xl ll Xz)7. prefault (2 lines) postfault (1 line) P6n1. P"y. . The power angle curve during fault is therefore given by P"t=  Ellvl '1r'II s i n d = P m a xs irn d r .. can be found equal to accelerating area A. Po[ ( P"*r.surt* Mod"rn nrryr'. I2. X2 .ll faultapplied.Thus during the period the fauit lasts.At areaA.28 Equalarea criterion applied the systemof Fig.25.12. to I systemnormal.i.as different from case a where Pen= 0. 12. (b) ? t 6 F19.29cthrough one deltastar and one stardelta conversion.. before d reachesthe maximum allowable value 4o*. sin . with power angle curve sln sin d 4=4o*_T_6. Upon occulrenceof a threephase fault at the generatorend of line 2 (see Fig. It is to be observedthat the equal area criterion helps to determine critical clearing angle and not critical clearing time. Circuit model of the system during fault is now shown in Fig. disconnectingthe faulted line. Case b: Short circuit away from line ends ' p"t= d ' xi xltx2 sind= p_*.This circuit reducesto that of Fig.8).27b. 12. The circuit breakers at the two ends of the faulted line open at time tc (corresponding angle 4).3 could be employed profitably.ffiffi4l po*rr.i"s dincreases.node elimination technique of Section 12.t:.We shall assumethe fault to be a threephaseone. to When the fault occurs away from line ends(say in the middle of a line). faultedline isolated. + which is plotted in Fig.29a.28. lll It also easily follows that larger initial loading (P.a.24a. the power angle curve is given by Ffg. 12. Sudden Short Circuit on One of parallel Case a: Short circuit at one end of line Lines Let us now assume disturbanceto be a short circuit at the generatorend of the line 2 of a double circuit line as shown in Fig. 12. 12. (correspondingto clearing angle {). obviously. 12.
. .wherein it is possibleto find an area A.1 cos d + 16o = Q P"11. duringfault or P^ (6".30.24a with d"< {.4l Modern Power svstem Analvsis '!'vev" ' ' 'v' v. case of criticalclearingangle (c) Fig.. 12.28 and Per as obtained above are all plotted in Fig. 12. corresponding to a given clearing angle d is less Pe Annlvins eoual areaeriterion to the caseof critical clearing angle of Fig. < 4nu*. increasestill it has a value 4n*' t6" ooi*..31' we can wnte 4. '" ' ' " ''. .3L Pe I x. 12. we get l6* cos (P^a + Pmaxrr d)  * (P'*.t X6 Pr1.cos 4J = 0 Fig. Accelerating area A.* =T V maxIII (r2. At the clearing angle d.66) .u as in Fig. ' ls#z#i system operationis shown in Fig. I2./ Integrating.a postfault line) (1 P"11.sinr (:t_) 4. dntn' j (P^. t2. for q. is increased. 4..ollnrvohle stahilitv This caseof critical clearineangleis shown fnr in Fig.prefault (2 lines) postfault (1 line) P6111. 12. area ai increat"t und to nna Az = Ar. equalto A. . 12.. 12..30 Faulton middleof one line of the systemof Fig.6) * P.cos do) I P* (6** . 12.l4a. G xc @ (b) Xr Fig.u*u (cos '[.P^)d6 6. 12. ..29 P"rand P.3O. 60 where P"'Prefault (2 lines) .4n*u sinfldd= J {r^*r sind.6"r) * Pom (cos fi* .ffiil +t*F.31 Faulton middleof one lineof the systemof Fig.
67) critical clearing anglecanbe calculated from Eq. = o (Clearing angle) (Angle reclosure of ) \ .05 = 0.(12.:"o Fig.Prnaxn Give the system of Fig.. T = time betw.0.t=rysind: = 2. T\e reactance values of'various components are indicated on the diagram.do) . 12. the power transfer once again becomes P"N = P"r= p*u*I sin d Since reclosure restores power transfer. equation The mooiiiesas belowif the angJes are :lt::t1on ln oegrees. 12.0 pu power at the instanr preceding the fault.e..45 radians fault It is clear from Fig.een clearing anclreclosure. i0.  ft r..6 6r. f.27a where trrj tr. Normal operation (prefault) 4 = 4r* = 1T sinl 1p_/p*. 12. A case of stable operationis indicated by Fig. Xr=0.e.1232 Faurtin middre a rineof of the systemof Fig.*r. i. the chances of stable operati'n improve. three separate power angle curves are involved. 12.8" = 0.2s+ffi+0.*r sin d_ p^) d6 6. + r.t cos {r = 4naxtn .(6 ^i* . 12. cos {.*m sin d_ pm) d.0 = 2.31 that no power is ffansferredduring fault.s Infinite bus vFlloo Case c: Reclosure If the circuit breakersof line 2 arereclosed successfully (i.Pmaxrr do * prnu*ru d.32. t + J (P. Solution With referenceto Fig.* (12. The generatoris delivering 1.67) above.31. the fault was a transient one and therefore vanishedon clearing the faurty line).33 Find the critical clearing angle for clearing the fault with simultaneousopening of the breakers I and 2.3 sin d ffirino (il Prefault operatingpower angle is given by 1. t ucr 6rc 60 sin J @r. dru.ou* cos cos Pmaxltr . The angles in are in radians.33 where a threephascfault is applied at rhe point P as shown.522 pu p. 12.3 sin 6 or IL During 6o =25.PmaxII :otd". trin 1n 1A .Pmaxrr 0 dd = J (p. For critical clearing angle Flg.
= 0.5 Applying equal area criterion for critical clearing angle { Ar = P^ (6".84311..293 Setting A = Az and solving U E rrr.0. = 55. A2 (Sge flg..41.l=1.45) = 6c.5cos 6r.36 for a threephase fault at the point P.0. The generator is delivering 1..45 = 1. 5 c od _ d l s  6". are The corresponding Pn=1 'O Find the critical clearing angle for the system shown in Fig.1 .otoo 66=0.5cos 6".633 rad The positive sequencereactancediagram during fault is IL Durtng fault presentedin Fig.0 pu power under prefault conditions.15+0.4Lradians 1.69 .+ 6r. 12.8" poweranglediagrams shownin Fig.15 = 0.0 n Perrr= ff sin d= 1. =  (1.0= 1. .cos 6.35) is Solution f. 71 power angle is given by The operating sin 1.rLurr ^*:^^:Ll^ psllluDDlulc ^l^ alilBrtr C Omax f^l()f given by I = 2.71 2 (i) Az= !{r. .2xl.45 4ou*=rsinl dr* 12.0 (6".562 Pe or 4.(2. jo.1. + 6r.1.36 TTto rrrw ooi*"* urour. 6 9s i n 6 .35 Pu lF. 5 i0.10.41rdd Fig.17+ 0.6") = 1. Post fault operation (fault cleared by openingr the faulted Iiae) 6r.6 6. 12. 12.35. 2.iffi powerSystem Modern Anatysis = . 1s lnfinite bus lvF1.15 Flg. r2.5 in6.2 . .41...293 l. 0.41 I 6. 12.5sin 6 (iii) or cos {.I.np^)d.28+0.37a.0.41 Pc' = r ' Z x l s i n d = 1 .25+ 0. .fr or do = 0..1) dd s J = .15 afea ^ Al = . Prefault bus is operation Transfer reactance between generator and infinite & = 0.5 0.) .5 (cos2.45 rad 6^rr=2.6) = 1. 12.1 i 0.
'15 V=1.495 cos 6.075 _ 2.15 j0. upon converting star to delta.37(c). (12.I" Converting delta to star*. 0( 2 .we have + ) E1=t.z To find the cqitical clearing angle. 2 8 + 0 .t55 + 6.OlOo Az = Now dmax f J 6cr   1 .145) + + + (0. 6". A fault takes place reducingthe maximum power transferable 0. Further. 0 *Node elirnination techniquewould be'used for complex network.0.5 pu whereasbefore the fault. = 49. 12.63 J J 0. arc to be equated. to this power was 2.30and Eq. 1 5 5 4 ) At =Az (b) Network afterddltastar conversion or 6r. Ftg.633) .a/.17 sin d = r'2 sin 6 (iii) j0.155 o.495 d dd sin = (c)Network stardelta after conversion . .145) 0.orr la. Postfault lal! i. 12.37(b).25 0.072s (0. 12.17 At = l. determine the critical clearing angle.. .r eI = fir. .0 pu and after the clearance the fault.r2. or .32 J 6cr [ t.14 j0.0.495 olo' = .66).1 .424 p. sin d = 0. By the of use of equal area criterion.Z rin 6 d6 . = 0.2.14s 0.1.25 j0. we obtain the reactance network of Fig.+Z+ uur v .399 = 0.0.0 With referenceto Fig.155 + cos lo.0100 2.145 j0. The transfer reactanceis given 6y (0. = 0. 12.Power System Stabilitv J 000 L Mi#ffi r* j0.633 0. (a) Positive sequence reactance diagramduringfault j0.30.17) + + 0.145 0. it is 1.14 j0. 1 5+ 0 . X r l = 0 .0725 (0.145 '. j0.633l9l=1'z V=1. the reactancenetwork is changed to that of Fig. 1 5 + 0 .2 cos 6". and J o. Solution All the three power angle curves are shown in Fig.17) + Xu= 0.633 + 0. 2 5 + 0 .655 U 6r.o (6.+e5 d dd sin 60 lE'l=1.v. 2s i n d d d .. . 1 7= 1 .2s 0.2cos ol"tt 2.2.661 + 1. areas A1 and A.2 V=1.495 sin 6 off) (ii) operation (faulty line switched A generatoroperating at 50 Hz delivers 1 pu power to an infinite bus through a transmission circuit in which resistance is ignored.155 or cos 6r..25 0 ' + / 000 Lr \000 Perrr=U!l ' jo..0.5 pu.. ' or .
rewe shall treat the pointbypoint method of solution which is a conventional. Accelerating power and changein speed which are continuous functions of time are discretrzedas below: 1. He.38 n1 n Pointbypoint solution of swing equation Af In Fig. causedby the Pa@r).112 . Pmaxl= 0.41 + cos = o ??? cos {.6n2= A'tun4'2 and during the nth interval L6r 6n.5 0.9H orinpu system = +) M \ 7t iTf) (12. the critical clearing time cannot be obtained from equal area criterion and we have to make this calculation numerlca[y ! . We shall illustrate the pointbypoint method for one machine tied to infinite bus bar. 6nz Jn2 Fig. The change in d during the (nl)th interval is L6rt= 6r1.68) where d_1 has been previously calculated.5 6r. (r2.0 pu 2.5 0.38.5 pu Initial loading P^ = 1.t = / \ t un. approximatemethod like all numerical methods but a well tried and proven one. L2.3t 2=( Lt / M ) Pa@.P* sh 4r Q2.'2wn. there is no choice but to solve thp swing equation of each machine by a numerical techniqueon the digital computer.5 2..0 pu. Therefore.6n.rrrr n2 p3l2 n'l r>112 n t Af mrougn l swulg :  equauulr.6e) (12. general and can be appliedto every machine of a multimachine system.0(2.. At the end of the (n l)th interval. 12.523 1. 1. Even in the case of a single machine tied to infinite bus bar.38. zFL^^  ^Ll^+i^^+^l *^+L^lt rttrIc aIU ssvtrIilr JuPurDtruilL('(l lllELlluLlD $ni now available for the solution of the swing equation including the powerful RungeKutta method.5 r>2 U n1 solution Discrete n Continuous solution t Af Applying Eq.67) .assumedconstant over At from (n312) to (nll2) is w n. t2. Ll^. The procedure is. however.after machine lumping has been done.70b) The solution c(r) is obtained at discrete intervals of time with interval spread of At uniform throughout.5 pu and Pmaxrrr 1. there are still more than two machines to be considered from the point of view of system stability. = 70'3" T2.The changein velocit! (a= d6ldt). the accelerationpower is Pa (n_r)Pm.41 cos 1.70a) (12. sEl!"nAn"lytit = P"*r =2.523)0.T .4!rad 1.r ) (* .ro= I zr sin tffiJ \ E7sinl 1 :2.9 NUMERICAT SOTUTION OF SWING EOUATION un/2 t unI/T+tsn4l2 u13/2 In most practical systems.e*P^*sind): PolM. the numbering on tl\t axis pertains to the end of intervals. .'ffi Ilere Mod"rn Po*.The angular rotor velocity u= d6ldt (over and above synchronous velocity ( p 6r. Consider the swing equation d26 1 = . The acceleratingpower Po computed at the beginning of an interval is assumed to remain constant from the middle of the preceding interval to the middle of the interval being consideredas shown in Fig.0.
(I2.7I) becomes 7. we can write (A r)2 D r M a(. L6r*tand d*t.39b. II During fault A positive sequence reactancediagram is shown in Fig.52 MJA4VA at rated speed. ^+^ ^rl. Mepu\ = G2. The procedure of calculating solution of swing equation is illustrated in the following example.rl b r ) power SystemStabilitv [i{8il.0 10". 12..0 L52 x 180 50 = 2. normally 0. 35x 0. (12.39a. (12.Thus. Plot swing curves with fault cleared by simrrltaneous opening of breakersat both ends of the line at2.evedby reducing the time duration of intervals. 35x0. (12. infinite bus voltage V = 7. Wtr lltrC(l t() Calculate . Immediately before the fault the system is in steady state. 39 .5 cycles and 6..1 pu and has R = 0 and a reactance of 0.^^ SubtractingEq. then the averageof the values of Po before and after the discontinuity must be used. 3 5 + 0'2 =0. in calculation for this interval one should use for Pa@r)the value llP"6r>is + Po6_9*).72) The processof computation is now repeatedto obtain Pa61. 2x0.44sin4=0.38. Also plot the swing curve over the period of 0.35 pu. The generatorhas kinetic energy of 2. Greater accuracy of solution can be achi.88sin 6 1... i + A.The increment of angle during such an interval is calculated.45 2 Pd= Pr.nI) (12. Base MVA = 20 IneRia coflstant. we obtain the network of Fig. as usual.v. 2 . we get nsluls E ^f^^ ws Lall aPPt. 12.lxt r = '. .1'1x1 r.9 pu 20 Initial power angle is given by 2..lf such a discontinuityoccurs causesa discontinuity in accelerating at the beginning of an interval.^ t ^ .^l lIIculUU.64" \ (i) where Pos* is the acceleratingpower immediately after occurrence of fault.25 (ii) A 20 MVA.6. in computing the incrementof angle occurring durirrg the first interval after a fault is applied at t = 0. 12.6n 180 / x 1.t + Using this.69).= (Ar)t o M * P a2 + 6n= 6nt + L.y ultt ^*1.9 or 6o= 21.u = Pmaxtt sin d 1 AI. Continuous form of solution is obtained by drawing a . Each transmission circuit lE/l = 1. Fig. = trtr = 0l P.r ra L'6.Z) pu . The generator transient reactanceis X/o = 0.Converting star to delta. no speciai proceciure is neecled.8 x 10+ s2le\ect degree I I Prefault &' = 0 . The occurrence or removal of a fault or initiation of any switching event power Po..ir Yirtvt r t Ar lr. A threephaseshort circuit occurs at the mid point of one of the transmissionlines. i + 0.5 s if the fault is sustained.70a\ from Eq.n d = 0.t Q^t.= A6. so that Poo= 0 and ds is a known value.*r sin d !.7r) the inertia constant M and the power angle equations under prefault and postfault conditions. 12. from the value of Po at the beginning of the interval.r \rvtu. The time solution in discrete form is thus carried out over the desiredlength of time. +L^ ^+^ stEPUyslttP L. If the discontinuity occurs at ihe miciciie of an intervai. in which 0.M sin 5 Prefault power transf'er = + = 0.25 cycles after the occuffence of fault.sin . If the fault is cleared at the beginning of the nth interval.mooth curve through discrete values as shown in Fig. 50 Hz generator delivers 18 MW over a double circuit line to an infinite bus. Eq. d = 2...2 pu on a 20 MVA bgqe.70b) and using Eq..5 s...the acceleratingpower immediately before clearing and Po6_r)+is that immediately after clearing the fault. where Pa@_r).1.
30 2. 736 0.25 0. andhence Po.38 11.88 0. r 6 88.65 .44 0.288pu I o t l 0. 12.88 0.46r 0.2 f (s)  l i 0..439 ( At\2 t l l 0.20 0.J. ^aia* fUllll'UyPulllt rratinnc t/vlllPutqrrvrro n{ vr c r r r r nV er' rir n n ur' n / a vr fnr qtrctainarl fattlt / f = 0.524 P. The secondcolumn of the table showsP* the maximum power that can be transferredat time r given in the first column.50 2.1s) + qL M P.98 15.89 56. P"(0)= 0 pu and Po (0*) = 0.1 fault cleared at 2. 1 5s ) = 31. 87 2.9 . 055 J.59" P.88 0.5 cycles l Sustained Fault Calculations are carried out in Table 12.88 x 0. Pu Pu a deg 6 6 deg YP.4 i 0.15 s. l. Postfault With the faulted line switched off. (v) and (vi) above.*sin6 P.45 0.88 0.46I sin P.88 0.=:::.0. 852 0. 0 0. 368 0.953 0.57 7.t 5 0.1s) U \ = J.32r 2.1 s) = 0. 0.88 sin d (0.64" = 0.3 0.02 20.929x 0. (0. 88 0.145 0.1 s) = 8. (0.439 0.578 0.64 2r .35 0.021 0.P** sin 4_r (iv) L6n= L6nt* (Lt)z M 6n= 6nt + A. 1' x'1s i n d = 2 .5 _ r l 0.163 0.43 15. 88 0. M (0.87 72. 55 0. 92 2. 856 0.75 138. 1 5s )= d ( 0 .8r 3.59 42.657 0324 0.1 s) = P.439.2 which it is obvious that the systernis unstable' : :t . = (0'l sec) 31.10 0 .40 0.30 0.05 s The recursive relationshi'ps for stepbystep swing curve calculation are reproducedbelow."* = 0. 64 74. 576 0. the average in in valueof po mustbe usedfor the first interval.0. I = 1: .3. (0.92"= 11. 1s ) + A d ( 0 .100 o 8 0 o) c (5 o ' 'oa(nl) (v) (vi) Sincethereis a discontinuity P.18 0.33" d ( 0 .92 6 (0.6 fault and for for for Fig.1 s) = 0.40 Swingcuryes Example12.P. 8 8 r2r. Pn * in the case of a sustainedfault undergoesa sudden change at t = 0* and remains constant thereafter. Pa(n_r)=P^ .0.154 0.1ss) = Ad (0.9 .88 0. 05s t sec P^u pu sin 6 P"=Prrr.1 s) = 0.05 0.The procedure of calculations is illustrated below by calculating the row correspondingto t = 0. 368 0.44 r 7 .524 0. 06 0.= 0'9.0.576pu = 9t#ZQ Po(ouu.426 1.. 288 0.5 and 6. 41 0.. 5 8 r04.2 in accordance with the recursive relationship (iv).524 . 88 0.680 0. 90 1s9. 30 r 6 .89" = + 0+ o^u.59" 11. 28 1 6 . 88 0.88 sin 2I.6n t o E @ ..lil.999 0. 88 0.25 cYcles aaDle !A A aZ..10 a sustained in clearing 2.u* 6 (0. 838 0. 598 0. 539 0..968 0.us"l L ioo P = 0.46I .30' 42. 0 s i n d Let us choose Al = 0.21 31.048 0. 301 0. 837 0. 45 0.361 0.38"+ 3.68 r . 879 0. 368 0.57 4.30 13.98 2r.Z n^i.
t :tlt Modern po@is o E ntA.t2 0 . 00 2.92 . In this example.0 .J r. 8 8 0.by step (pointbypoint method).4.00 .6 0.60 0.89 .9.8 2 0 ..This establishesgeneratoremf magnitudes lEll which remain constant during the study and initial rotor angle 6f = lEt.38 s Table 12.576 0. 78 0. 3 0 2 .05uus 0 .59 42.493 0 .85 25.0 5s ).31 4.O0 2.71 2.597 0.64 21.46t 1.. 125s)Af = 0.9. 3 5 2 .41 0 .29 .524 0.oo T2.s cvcles (0 .44 0.no 4 deg 6 6 deg pu A6 deg 6 deg 21.613 0. The values obtained are: Critical clearing angle = 118.^ pu .sin. find generator outputs from power angle equations (generalizedforms of Eq.0 .00 2.57  2.t9 I.025 s to 0.82 0.TO MULTIMACHINE STABITITY _ _  Fault Cleared in 6.337 0 .0.72 34.W ' \ N 0 2.36r o.15 0. 50 T 0.The swing curve is plotted in Fig. 368 0.53 1. 734 0.00 0 .96 0.9 0.0 5. .08 0. 25cycles( 0.a Flaae^'J vtcrete.56 1.64 24.439 4. i 5 Z .22 .0 0 0 .56 2.54 34.680 0.5 6 0.5 = 0.& 21.00 2.33 19. 92 11. (12.9 8 6 I.3.41 0.086 .4 Computations swing curve for fault clearedat of .66 r .0.31 . 54 5. 05s sin 6 P"=P^ *sin6 Po= 0.i.089 0 . 86 u. fryCIeS ltr progressively greater clearing time till the torque angle d increases without bound. 6. 1.430 u.0 0 0 .PoGk 2.0 0 0..075 s. reactancefor all generators.57 4.21 24.21 24.64 21.08 0 .327 0.20 0.02 2. 38 3.88 0.U 24. 0.63 47.52 5.10 36.16 29.6 / 2r.25 Cycles Time to clearfault= ua?t = 0. End Inus for various network conditions*during fault.=P. the following steps easily follow for determiningmultimachinestability.54 0 .rr.28 37.s8 2. 288 0.35 0.05s P.767 1.57 2.40 A 2.05 s 50 Pu^ suddenly to 2.494 0.0 0 o. we can first find the critical clearing angle using Eq.45 2 .3 6 8 0.05 0.12.0 0 . 56 0.= 0.70 37.324 0.13 0 0+ ouu. 368 0.*.89 50.10 0.9 8 9 0.5" but is stable as c5finaily begins to decrease. 12. 1 0 2.t2 T.64 24.04 u.tin5 pr. 00 2.00 Z.40 from which we find that the generator undergoesa maximum swing of 37. (12.pu pu pu P.615 0.20 5.539 0.29 .4 1 0.561 0.67) and then read the critical clearing time from the swing curve corresponding to the sustainedfault case.12.66 0.0 at t = 0.46 0.56 4.43 2. 05+ 2 .324 0 .79 0. 0. z11 0.88 2.73 17. however.22 0. 09 51.U U o..3 6 8 0 .368 0 .u.4J4 .37  u.81 7.4c)0  0.96 2.58 1.35 5.P" Time to clear f'ault= 2.0 0 0. From the prefault load flow data determine E/ovoltage behind transient .22 . Augment the load flow network by the generator transient reactances.50 l_J. post fault (faulted line cleared). a t t l t su. after line reclosure.10 7.33 4.64 zt.9 0.57 2. Shift network busesbehind the transient reactances. 35 .I f F .3 6 0 .60 2. 05 0 .288 0 .44 0.35 0. Also record prime mover inputs to generators. For faulted mode. Table 12'3 Computations swing curyesfor fauttcleared of at2.5 Pr.9.767 0.I9 r..s91 0.25 0.27)) and solve swing equationsstep.0 0 0.30 0.21 29.t .8 8 ouu. 368 0.4J A ? 0. 08 . 2r 3t. 88 0. Since the be assumedto remain constant from 0. 40 2 .P*o .63 0. 4. 0 .225 2.30 4.41 0.46 r.C 0 0.125 s s0 From what has been discussedso far.50 2. 3.576 0. ) u 5.767 0.0. 2.0 0. 20 2 .05.36 1. The rest of the prtrcedureis the sameanclcomplete calculations are shown in Table 12.25 2 .62 Critical clearing time = 0. At = 0.0.
lltI' Se ).35" 3 t.113 0. Examine d(r) plots of all generators and establish the answer to the stability question.5.098 0.275 s and (ii) 0. 3 1 x 0.9661jo.0194 1. 12.04 0.ollz [5.3.335177 1.354398" 1.= ''9 .0 l0' (slackbus) r 2 .41 Data are given below for the two generatorson a 100 MVA base.6 Bus data and prefault 100M VAbase S.0705 lI8'2459" + .2sj0. 25 kV.167 0 0.6 is 'rz _ PriQ.6986 0 3. The transformer and line data are given in Table I2.490 Slack  1.0166979 j0.071 10. 12.6986 x 0. and Bus No.00 t.O217.25i0.15811' = = 1. 8083 0.004 0.0!(0.007 0.0328. 100M VAbase Bus to bus Series Z HaIf line charging A 50 Hz.23519" v: 3.u Solution Before determining swing equations.3110 0 0.4ffi  Modern power SystemAnalysis 5. loadflow Tabfe 12. _ 3.31845 rad by The loads at buses 4 and 5 are represented the admittancescalculated as follows: yrr.0318.1 l9O" + E4 .7.337l tad I El = I.0340929 j0. H = 12 MJAyIVA Gen 2 300 MVA.0174)" . l. H = 9 MJA4VA Plot the swing curves for the machines at buses 2 and 3 for the above fault which is cleared by simultaneous opening of the circuit breakersat the ends of the faulted line at (i) 0. Gen 1 500 MVA.5+j( 22. Line 45 Line 51 Line 4I Trans.24 Trans:35 0. Find the swing equation fbr each generatorcluring the fault period. 0 1.4zsr) 6 (1.04 o.0g s.j = 0.23519' + + E{= (1. 0 0.1475) o Fig.16o ( )vs=1. 0 1 1 2 1 2 .32"PQ 5 1 . Voltage Polar Form Bus Upe Real e Voltage Imaginary f Generation Load o Vz=1.16 PV 4 1.0102 .1271 2.067 pu.2350 o i ) v i F1. 6.1r 0.2199 0 0 0. 20 kV.1271) r.No.Q.010" PV 2 t. The above stgps are illustrated in the following example.4I.m 220kV. Keep repeating the above step for post fault mode and after line reclosuremode. = 1. we have to find transient internal voltages. 25 0. 1 j 0 .0217. 220 kV transmissionline has two generatorsand an infinite bus as shown in Fig.018 0. 0 0 0. X.021.06719V r.6986 r.0146 1.0439 6) i6. The current into the network at bus 2 basecion the <iatain Tabie i2. 041 valuesin pu on 220 kV.0194 j0.!.0960lo. 44 0 0.o3l.0121 1.022 0. The prefault load flow solution is presented in Table 12. A threephasefault occurs as shown.10 1.1..8.017414.0235 0. XJ = 0.3632368 + = = 1.16 0 0.:.10 pu.03l8.0960333 119.6.0I2r + j0. 1475 0 0. 6 9 "P Q 1.5 0.
245 + j24. 12.297202 _ The complete augmented prefaultlzuu.2214 j7.@ = .0901 j6.4488 +j8. 8 5 3 8 +0 .I43 = yst = .11. we . 5_ j 0 .2214 j7. from the other busesduring the fault which clearly depicts that bus 2 decouples and that bus 3 is directly connected to bus 1.0975 + .s.97695s js7."J###:: Since the fault is near bus 4. rault) 7.0901+ j6.8.84512 = Y++lporrfault)Y++(prefault) = 6. 1 1 3 _ j r t .be obtained by deleting 4th row prefault Y".236 0 .:T:.::::^'l:.159.1 + j0.6289 + 0.j7. simultaneouslyopening the circuit breakersat the either ends of the line betweenbuses4 and 5.039 + j4r.9769 + j57.i r r . 113 = 5. 448+ 78.039+ j41. Y s s =Y r s * Y s q * Y s r * 9* *' r3 .1661 + 0 .j44.0.1168 1 Post Fault Bus Matrix Once the fault is cleared by removing the line.0 and of subtracting the seriesadmittance of line 45 and the capacitive susceptance half the line from elements Yooand Ytt. 853 j0.23s9 0 0 j7. for admittancespu in Bus s.' ) * L Yzq Bus I 2 a J = 0.2737 0.2571+ 1.8771 = Similarly.23sg 0 6 4. it must be short circuited to ground.0.355 0 0 0 .:nt il::H. designateas buses2 and3. .528I i48. Table 12. It may be noted that 0 element appears in 2nd and 3rd rorvs.473 2 3 4 0 _i1r.t428 6.0. ' "5 2 2 . 1 6 During Fault Bus Matrix I a.off (0'488e i0'1s647) therefore' now :::.6598_j44.6289 + . This is done by substituting Yqs= Ysq.039r j41. therefore. 6179.Thus we get reactanles the machines wlll. Reduced fault and 4th column from the above augmented matrix (to the generatorinternal nodes)is obtained by eliminating the new 4th row and column (node 5) using the relationship Y*iqn"*1= Y*j@tat Yt n(oltt) ynj(old Yrn )/ @ta) 2 = Y^2 .i7'143 Y u = Y t q + y q t * y q s + Bo.j7.j24.1.7898 0 . 2 3 6 Yzq= j11.6179 _ Ur.11.j6. 12.617 1.098_ j7.4250785 + 4.6598977 j44.iri'Table 12.4889 j0.284_j6s.0. ) Bo.T Theaugmented prefaurt admittance bus matrix Ex. al prefaulr *Trl "r" rr. showing that the fault at bus 4 reducesto zero the power pumped into the system from the generatorat bus 2 and renders the second generator at bus 3 to eive its power radially to bus 1.jrr.7986j35.3932 jr3.2III .257 jll .. rnatrix. in Reduced during fault Yu^ io'04+io] Yzs= j7.O975 0 0.236= yqz Ytt = The reducedfaulted matrix ()'eus during fault) (3 x 3) is given in Table I2. Ysr(oo*. 0 4 1 r O .Yqs.matrix is show n.0681 j5. the prefault Y"u5 has to be modified again. 65989.0.2972 .335 + /O. _ .257 7.8538 8.2359 7.8 Elementsof Yrus (duringfault) and Ysus(post fault) for Ex. 2 3 5 g + _ 6.0.0.4488 _ j i 8 .9660877 j0.r.873r .5563 The reducedpost fault Y"u5 is shown in the lower half to Table 12.'#.245+ j24.8538 0 + j7.admittances pu.35s j11.::.PowerSystem Stability v 0 .1428 1.1565 r.grr.245. The Ynus during the fault conditions would.1.4488 j8.1362' Reduced post Jault Yurt I 2 J r.j35.1428 0 4. of we wlr.8538 + _ + 7.8. the fictitious internal nodes between the internal voltages and the transient reactancesof the machines. rr.166l + 0 j6. Table12.1..t42} 13 _ 8.068175.6301 0 .4488+ j8. Load admittances. This shows that.
n* (6. 5 3 1s i n ( 6 t . 5 3 1 i n( h .0962 0. . 6 0 r + 8 .o) elecr deg/sz 12 d.1591 1 x 1.0712 0.7) Solution of Swing Equation P.t .0. 0 7 1 )( 0 ..275s.g466.1 tlle lrrryr'ruarry' generarors I an0 Z are not Interconnected when line 45 is removed. _ 0zr) cos = 1.Pr.6321 x cos ({ .P.2s . 12. 1 6 6 5 o s( d 3_ 9 0 . Modern power System Anatysis Stanitity PowerSystem I 491. rr.90. 7 5 5 " ) 2 ) c = 0 .1823+ 6.662") = 0.6012+ 8. ntay be written in general as follows: sin Pn= Pr..{ 0 . The plots of E and 4 are given in Fig.1 0 . both machinesare stablebut of damper winding is considered.1823 dt' 9 . #={f dtd.eg/sz at) (0.r.7. _ 0. sinceyy= 0 * = E{2 Gn + lEil lEil lrr.^:^^lr.)}lelect deg/sz 12.l cos (6zr_ Lzt) = ( 1 . 1 5 6 1 5 .{92  L.275s faultcleared Swing EquationsPostfault p .1 3 6 2 + I x 1 .42 Swingcurvesfor machines and 3 of Example at clearing 0.5282 sin(d3 0.215 s and in Fig..10{0.365sin (d._ 0rr) .42 for a clearing time of 0. If the fault is a transient one and the line is reclosed.531 (d.P. while the machine 3 is stable but it oscillates wherein the oscillations are expected to decay if effect For the case(ii). 2 s . For the case (i). 0 7 1 x 5 . 180 f * =*12.43for a clearing time of 0.755")l electd.3 = tE{ 2q3 + Ell tElt t\l cos ( 6r.El* El* \F(].g466") x + = 0.3= Re [YrrEr.5. During Fault Power Angle Equation Prz= 0 It rnay be noted that in the above swing equations.5005+ I x 1.5282 (d.z)= = t:9/ e.09gcos (dr .9466") sin Swing EquationsDuring Fault The above swing equations(during fault followed by post fault) can be solved by the poinrbypoint method presented earlier or by the Euler's method presented in the later part of this section.12. 12.1for 2 F\g.0 .g43g .0 .9I.q _ 180 f (PnP"t) a'r= k = t*:/ 9 = Y + e . 1 s 6 1 5 . 6 6 2 " ) }e r e c d e g / s 2 z s J t _ + 6.096x 7. r . the machine 2 has large angular swings. (lnfinite bus) 1 Machine is reference #=ff (P^zP. 3 6 5 i n ( d ) .08 s. _ I.power angle and swing equations are neededfor the period after reclosure.Thesecan be computed from the reduced Ysus matrix after line reclosure.07rx 6.662) p. 7 5 5 ) P"3 + s Postfault Power Angle Equations p"z= lE/P G22+ lElt lEll ly2Ll (dr. the machine 2 is unstable. 7 s s ) } l sin l. .
(12. Cortrpute first estimates E^('+t) = BQ+D E? lcos x.. lreference slack Compute.cl +.74).').). the period is divided into uniform discretetime intervals(At) so that time is countedas /(0). 6. .05 s.11 clearing 0.*. 0 * r= . Ysu5 (during fault. 5 . This givet Pg}. Corttputc I'ilslstutc ir r t ir lc's t = . t l o + i [ .m r7. ComputeP8.k .. ..it is more convenientto organiseEq.p " ) . urr= ][iu. . 2 .'}.... Set time count r = 0. a 4. 2 . [ .9  _ 1.494  Modern power System Analysis Machine 1 is reference (lnfinite bus) PowerSystemStabilitv l... (12. k 10. . line reclosed). 2 . m l f i o m E q s .P c o )k..31).2 M a c h i n e2 Initial state vector (upon occurrence of fault) is xoLk=fr= lEot x " z k =0 The state form of swing equations (Eq. ... Define xrk= 6r= lE*' xz*= 6t Then i t*= xzt = + l iL').2.*V)+ *$'o) (r2. Compute t(i[. Compute generatorpower outputs using appropriatgts"us with the help of the geniral form of Eq.A typical value ol' lt is 0. .*I*\: .. J.43 Swing curves for machines 2 and 3 of Example 12.{in').0 Faultcleared after4 cycles Fig.k 1 . Compute voltage behind transient reactancesof generators(Eo*) using and initial rotor angle emf magnitudes Eq.it:o*t'). 'pr r liu' cst thc 7. (9. .. 7 4 ) .27). mf fromEqs.i\7'). Note: After the occurrenceof the fault.( 1 2 .72))' (12.4PFr (t2.t(l).(i*r)+7 sin *\lf')) g..f i u Hk' For the multimachine case. c) o q.r . 12. (12..0gs for at Gonsideration of Automatic voltage Regulator (AVR) and Speed Governor Loops Carry out a load flow studY (prior to disturbance) using specified voltagesand powers..73) is state variableform. l.for / 1 /'). . (appropriate Y"u5and Eq.74) 500 .. = 1 . state variable Formulation of swing Equations The swingequation the hh generator for is I = .2. 0 a t .2.8 0. . valuesof statederivatives the 11.73) of the 8. post fault. compute[t.ffi + t' d = + ( p ' o o .f. = r. . {t +l) ) . Compute average i[i.74)) can be solved by the many available integration algorithms (modified Euler's method is a convenient choice). . 2 .tt'i" . . L at) o) ! o (t c 100 Algorithm Computational Modified Euler's Method i l l t l for Obtaining Swing Currzes Using _L__ I _ 0. (12. i * = # ( P " o r ..ff') . bus voltag" Y?).This fixes generator.l[*t)] k=1. rrt At .
Usually. Incidentally this also raises system voltage profile. of course. n o t.:o*D k = I. These conclusionsalong with the various transient stability casesstudied. . nutnber<lfrnachines drasticallyrecluced is using various methodscoherency based rnethodsbeing most popurar and widely used by v anous p o w e r u ti l i ti e si n th e w o rl d . the conductor configuration is fixed by economic considerationsquite apart from stability.t to other machines increases without bound.. Test for time limit (time for which swing curve is to be plotted). In the last article we have studied ihe algorithm for determiningthe stability of a multimachrnesystem. Increaseof system voltages.30. it is easily seen from the angle through which it swings in a given time interval offering thereby a method of improving stability but this cannot be employed in practice because of economic reasons and for the reason of slowing down the response of the speed governor loop (which can even become oscillatory) apart from an excessiverotor weight.9*t). m ).+r) + 7 sin *f1r) 14. In ou. so that a power systemanalyst must at the very outset of a stability study decide on these two factors. the accelerating area decreasesbut the decelerating area increases as the maximum power limit of the various power angle curves is raised.. these are sensed by the automatic voltage regulators which help restoregeneratorterminal voltagesby acting within the excitation system. Lompute tne lrnal state estimates for  = t\r+t) A  491. at .32).rat k = 7'2'"'' frt factors which affect transient stability and therefrom draw th" .The study subsystem is modelled in detail whereas approximate modelling is carried out for the external subsystem. the conductor spacing is controlled by other features such as lightning protection and minimum clearanceto prevent the arc from one phase moving to another phase. *. The computational algorithm given above can be easily modified to include simulation of voltage regulator. Otherwise print results and stop. However. r. Use of high speedreclosing breakers (see Fig. Compensation for line reactance by series capacitors is an effective and economical method of increasing stability limit specially for transmission Compute the final estimate for Eo at t = r('*l) using BQ+t) = l4llcos xf.use of AVR. 1. i. When a fault takes place on a system.T7 SOME FACTORS AFFECTING TRANSIENT STABILITY We have seenin this chapterthat the twomachine system can be equivalently reduced to a single machine connected to infinite bus bar.37)).Power System Stabitity 1't LL. The swing curves of all the machines are plotted.In the externalsubsysteln.it is easily seenthat for a given clearing angle. At generator terminals.r+ r and repeat If fromstep5 above. Use of high speedexcitation systems. 12.on"llsions. thereby adding to the transient stability limit of the system.an effective means of reducing series reactance. Reducing transfer reactance is another important practical method of increasing stability limit.. ch e c k i f r> rn n u r. we have selected "*uples a 3phase fault which is generally more severe from point of view of power transfer' Given the type of fault and its location let us now consider other . The reactance of a transmission line can be decreased(i) by reducing the conductor spacing. such a machine (or grouf of machines) is unstable and eventually falls out of step. I2. Print (".Iu" = *([)+ ill) uus.^.2. It has been seen that transient stability is greatly affected by the type and location of a fault. 4. saturation of flux paths and governor action Stability Study of Large Systems To limit the computer memory and the time requirements and for the sake of computationalefficiency.([l + if). The use of bundled conductorsis.. Reduction in systemtransfer reactance.Mo&rn tendency is to employ singlepole operation of reclosing circuit breakers. regarding methods of improving the transientstability lirnit of a system and making it as close to the steady state limit as possible.The conductor diametercan be increasedby using material of low conductivity or by hollow cores. the voltagesat all buses are reduced. however. a large multimachine system is divided into a study subsystemand an external system. For the case of one machineconnected to infinite bus. With referenceto Fig. norrnally. 3. The qualitative conclusions regarding system stability drawn from a twomachine or an equivalent onemachineinfinite bus system can be easily extended to a multimachine system.suggestthe following method of improving the transient stability limit of a power system.*.The total study is renderedby ihe modern techniqueof dynamic equivalencing.. 2.and (ii) by increasingconductordiameter (see Eq.. (2. field excitation response.e..&*r). 12. If the rotor angle of a machine (or a group of machines) with r"rp". 15. The maximum steady power of a system can be increasedby raising the voltage profile of the system and by reducing the transfer reactance.Modern exciter systems having solid statecontrols quickly respondto bus voltage reduction and can achieve from onehalf to one and oneh'alfcycles (l/2l]) gain in critical clearingtimes fbr threephase taults on the HT bus of the generator transformer.
. i:: distancesof more than 350 km. nd dr++^s^^L L stzeof rotor reducesinertia constant. single pole switching is adopted to prevent large swings and consequent vortage dips. A dc link is asynchronous. The breakingresistorsremain on for to a matter of cycles b<lth during fault clearing and after system voltage is restored.the resistors are applied to the terminals of the generators through circuit breakers by means of an elaboratecontrol scheme. Iowering thereby the stability margin.1. easy to see why the single pole swiiching and reclosing aids in stability problem and is widely adopted.1. lz.and as a faster system valving to be discussed later in this article. This load compensates at least sonreof the reduction of load for on the generatorsand so reducesthe acceleration. discussetl above. ab uurereni rrom zero power transfer for the case of a threephase fault. A stage has now been reached in technology whereby the methods of irnprovinE=stability. feasibility and applicability of new methodsfor maintaining and/or improving system stability.^Ir I. which is achieved by reducing machine air gap with consequentsavings in machine mmf. With .siy.. Another recent method of improving the stability of a unit is to decrease the mechanical input power to the turbine.The control schemedeterminesthe amount of resistance be applied and its duration.These facts arelilustrated by means of Example 12'12. Turbine Fast Valuing or Bypass Valuing Recent Trends Recent trends in design of large alternators tend towards lower short circuit ratio (scR = r/x). it is immedi ately ol. modern circuit breakertechnology has now made it possible fbr line clearing to be done as fast as in two cycles.. therelbre.g. if a transient LG fault is assumedto occur on the generator bus. size. It is. and overvoltagesdrrring linetogroundfaults. The ciegreeof series compensation. Single pole switching and reclosingis. normal voltage profiles.. Aclditional line circuits are not likely to prove economical unit I aftet all feasible improvements have been carried out in the first two circuits. Also when the circuit breaker pole corresponding to the faulty line is opened.e. During a fault.expensiu.lnt the fault therewill now be a definite amount of power rransfer. clearing times of circuit breakers have been brought down to virnrally irreducible values of the order of two cycles. Short Circuit Current Limiters These are generally used to limit the short circuit duty of distribution lines. Reduction in the The two methods just discussedabove are an attempt at replacing the sysrem load so as to increase the electrical output of the generator during fault conditions. The loss in stability margin is made up by such features as lower reactance lines. This can be accornplished . With the trend to reduce machine inertias there is a constant need to determine availability."f"r".rapid switching and isolation of unhealthy lines followed by reclosing has been shown earliei to be a great help in improving the stability marginr.. a resistive load called a breaking resistor is connected at or near the generatorbus. These may also be used in long transmission lines to modify favourably the transferimpedance during fault conditions so that the voltage profile of the systemis somewhatimproved. weight and cost. accentuatesthe problems of protective relaying.2) but the MVA rating of shunt capacitors required is three to six times the rating of switched series capacitors for the same increase in stability limit. Seriescornpensation becomesmore effective and economical if part of it is of compensationupon the occurrencec Switehed series eapaeitorssimultaneot and raise the transient stability limit tc limit.:l_.*s of relaying and introducesthe as. ::. control of voltage profile."" to Fi.Methods are available to nullify these capacitive coupling effects.i. the other two lines (healthyones)remain intact so that considlrable power transfer continuesto take place via theselines in comparison to the caseof threepole switching when the power transferon fault clearing will be reducedto zero.. Further.It adds at the same time to reliability of the transmissionsystem. a great majority of transient faults a'e linetoground in nature. fastercircuit breakersand faster cxcitation systenrs tliscussetlalreacly. of course. As the majority of faults are transientrn nature. A brief account of some of the recent methods of maintaining stability is given below: HVDC Links Increased use of HVDC links ernploying thyristors would alleviate stability problems. have been pushed to their limits. e. Thus series capacitors are preferred unless shunt elements are required for olher pu{poses. It is natural that methodshave beendevelopedfor selective single pole opening and reclosing which further aid the stability limits. Breakingr Resistors For improving stability where clearing is delayed or a large tn)a i. .'4lI I Modern power System Analysis I I :. ih. therebyraising the systemload level durins the fault.socjatec! problernsof overvoltagescausedby single pole opening owing to line capacitances. Switching shunt capaciiors on ol stability limits (see Example 12.however. Even when the stability margins are sufficient. There is no risk of a fault in one system causing loss of stability in the other system.':/tlltt. Increasing the number of parallel lines between transmission points is quite often used to reduce transfer reactance. the two ac system at either end do not have to be controlled in phase or even be at exactly the same frequency as they do for an ac link. and the power transmitted can be readily controlled. in t.r7. suddenly lost.
t0.075 sec) and reclosure occllrs at 16. causesseveral hours of delay before the unit can be put back into operation.45 0.'  irT60 t. as sensedby a control scheme.line found healthy.2 sec) and immediately reopened.45a.&f! AYl Fig.47 Transferimpedance an LG fault for When the circuit breakerpoles correspondingto the faulted line are opened (it correspondsto a singleline open fault) the connectionof sequence networks is shciwn in Fig. the unit could be resynchronized and reloaded.49 the rransfer reactance with faulted line switched off is Solution The sequence networks of the systemare drawn and suitably reduced in Figs. 12.. Switching occurs at 3. in FUII Load Rejection Technique rJ . 12.38 to that of Fig. however.1 idT L_r6TT\_ 7 Fast valving combined with highspeedclearing time will suffice to maintain stability in most of the cases.. 12. 12.*u1n"" = C xo 0. Calculate the swing curve and ascertainsysternstability for: (i) LG fault threepole switchingfollowecl reclosure.46 Connection sequence of networks an LG fault for = Xr o3Oj xo= o.However.15 . r . All values shown in the figure are in pu. 'L Fig. a full load rejection scheme could be utilized after the unit is separated from the system. Briefly. 12.12._ .t.l 0'3 0.45 For an LG fault at P the sequence networks will be connectedin seriesas shown in Fig. the unit has to be equipped with a large steam bypass system. The main disadvantageof this method is the extra cost of a large bypasssystem.r I I fl /' . where the differenee between mechanicalinput and reduced electrical output of a generator under a fault.1 to 0. 1 '.'r".4+ nOII''O = 1.44is loaded to I pu.325 sec).47 from which we have the transfer reactance = Xr2(LG faulQ 0.4+ 0.fXr n r r t f\ 'lr ___J t Fig. hy linc lounclhealthy. H = 4. normal procedureis to automatically the trip the unit off the line.48. After the system has recovered from the shock caused by the fault. The schemehas been put to use in some stations the USA. X r =0 . From the reduced network of Fig. This. l = ?. To remedy these situations.by rneansof fast valving.In such cases. 0'1 p I L z rfd]uir I  l  I (b) Negative sequence network t .75 cycles (0. To do this. ) I rrd 60 0'4 I P o'4 l . This procedure increasesthe critical switching time lons enoush stable for faults with stuckbreakerclearing times. (ii) LG fault singlepole switchingfbllowed by reclosure.167 Xt=0'15 I ( lEl=1'2 . A stardeltatransformationreducesFig. I2. initiates the closing of a turbine valve to reduce the power input. 12.t ?*f ( / h'Ir!. the interceptor valves are rapidly shut (in 0. during a fast valving operation.0e15 l = networl Fig. there are still situations where stabilitv is difficult to maintain.44 (.25 cycles (0.46. l]o t Ti t ) l go '' I_  tI p 1'o    I L. b and c.246 The systetnshown in Fig. 12. .The loss of a major unit for this length of tirne can seriouslyjeopardize the remaining system. 12.12. ao '' .
Y.^ ^ll
(fettlterl
\*
line
nnen\

0.  A t  v
Aa L A1 v.
r r
(l A _
V..+
1 ..
L../L
I .o.ro
Under healthy conditions transfer reactance is easily obtained from the positive sequencenetwork of Fig. 12.45 a as Xrr(line healthy)= 0.8
Pettt = 0
PrN= Pd = 1.5 sin d Now
46, A6n, @LP^,  l ,, + 'a(n )
M
o'1 P
Negative sequence
H = 4.167MJA{VA
 4.63 x 10a sec2lelectricaldegree 1,1= JU1 8 0x 5 0 Taking At = 0.05 sec
Zero sequence
Flg.1248 Connection sequencenetworks of with faultedline switchedoff
(at)'
lEl=1'z
P
l v l= 1 ' o
P/ o:4
4. 63xI 0 4
5.4
Time when single/threepole switching occurs = 0.075 sec (during middle of At) Time when reclosing occurs = 0.325 (during middle of at) .,
Fig. 12.49 Reduced networkof Fig. 12.49givingtransferreactance
Power angle eguations PreJault p,= rE vr sin d= 7 . 2 x 1 S l I l X,, 0.8
d= l.) stn b
L
Table 12.9 swing curyecalculationthree poleswitching
P,u,o
6
sec
)
P " (pu)
P,, (pu)
.5.4P,,
ifi
elec deg elec deg
6 elec deg 41.8 41.8 41.8 43.0 46. 6 55. 6 70. 0 89. 8 I 15.0
0
o*
ouu, 0.05
Initial load= 1.0 pu Initial torqueangleis givenby
1 = 1.5 sin 5o
or Duringfault
6o= 47.8"
F'",,= I)uring
l.Zxl
lff
sin d = 0.827 sin
single pole switching
= Perrr
+#
sin d = 0.985 sin
0.075+ 0.10 0.15 0 . 20 o.25 0 . 30 0.325+ 0 . 3s 0.40 0. 45 0. 50 0 . s5 0 . 60 0.65
1. 5 0. 667 r . 0 0.0 0. 827 0. 667 0. 552 0. 448 0.224 0.827 0.682 0. 564 0. 436 0.0 0. 0 0.0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 5 1. 5 1.5 1. 5 1.5 r.5 0.726 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.85 0.078 0.827 r . 48 0.98 0. 146 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.15 0.922 r.827 2. 48 1.98 0. 254
1.2
N A
1.2 3.6 9. 0 r 4. 4 19. 8 2s. 2 30.6 31.4 36.4 46.3 59.7 10.4 71.8
5. 4 5. 4 5. 4 5. 4 5. 4 0. 8 5. 0 9. 9 13.4 10.7 t.4
0. 565 0. 052  0.55  0. 984 0 . 6 5 10.497
r45.6 177.O 2r3.4 259.7 3r9.4 389.8 461.6
The swing curve is plotted in Fig. 12.50 from which it is obvious that rhe
\4gqe!_lg',gf tyq]g1_Analysis 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.10 1.15 1.20 r.25 1.30 1.35 r.40 1.45 1.50
r
PowerSystem Stability l.s 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 0.998 1.5 1.0 1.5 1.0 1.5 0 . 9 9 8 51 . 5 0.96 0.894 0.781 0.62 0.433 0.2s9 0.133 0.079 0.107 0.214 0.38 0.566 0.738 0.867 0.946 0.983 0.997 t.44 1.34 t.l1 0.932 0.6s 0.39 0.2 0.119 0.161 0.322 0.57 0.84 1.11 1.3 t.42 1.48 1.5 0.5 0.5 0.s 0.5  2.7  2.7  2.7 2.7 2.8 0.1  2.6
505;  86.6 89.4 89.5 86.9
I
I
300 !
t I
I
I 250 I
i
I
\
r pote ii switchoff i
I
L
6 q)
g)
o E o
L
2oo / / l iI
I
r. 0 5 r . 5
MACHINE UNSTABLE
q)
(.) 1 5 0
100
J)
to
 0.44  2.4 0.34 1.8  0.17  0.9 0.068 0.4' 0.35 r.9 0.61 3.3 0.8 4.3 0.881 4.8 0.839 4.5 0.678 3.7 0.43 2.3 0 .1 6 0.9  0.11  0.6  0.3  1.6  0.42  2.3  0.48  2.6  0.s  2.7
10.3 12.r 13.0 12.6 10.7  7.4  3.r 1.7 6.2 9.9 12.2 l3.l 12.5 10.9 8.6 6.0 3.3 \ '
73.7 63.4 51.3 38.3 25.7 15.0 7.6 4.5 6.2 r2.4 22.3 34.5 47.6 60.1 7r.O 79.6 95.6 gg.g
r
I
,r
l,r r Time (sec)
]...r
o'5
1.0
The swing curve is plotted in Fig. 12.51from which it follows that the sysrem is stable.
Single pole switch off
Fig. 12.50 swing curuefor threepole switching with reclosure Table 12.10 swing curvecalculationsingle pole switching
I SEC I',uu^
A
/'/'
I I
 ' /
(fault Reclosure cleared)
,s:itth
t,,,
(pu)
I
BO MACHINE STABLE 60
(pu)
l'r, (pu)
5'4P,, elec deg
Ab
elec deg
b elec deg
0
o,
f
1.5 0.661 1.0 0.827 0.667 0.s52 0.827 0.682 0.s64 0.98s 0.726 0.98s 0.784 0.985 0.848 0.98s 0.908 0.985 0.956 1.5 0.7Ls 0.77 0.834 0.893 0.940
oory
0.05 0.0750.10 0.15 o.20 o.25 0.30 4325+ 0.35
0.0 0.448 0.224 0.436
1.2 2.4
r.2 3.6 5.1 6.3 7.2 1.8 8.1 5.5
4t . 8 0 41.8 41.8 43.0 46.6 5r.7 58.0 65.2 73.0 81.1
(Contd....)
o) o o) o) o
L
C)
o o o)
ra
0.285 1.5 0.230 r.2 0.166 0.9 0.107 0.6 0.060 0.3 0.485  2.6
i
lr
05
Time (sec)
0.988 1.485
Fig. 12.51 Swingcurvefor singlepoleswitching with reclosure
506 
po@is Modern
I ina
PROB TEIlIS
t 2 . l A twopole, 50 Hz, 11 kv turboalternatorhas a rating of 100 Mw,
powel factor 0.85 lagging.The rotor has a momentof inertia of a 10,000 12.2 Two turboalternatorswith ratings given below are interconnectedvia a short transmission line. Machine 1: 4 poIe, 50 Hz, 60 MW, power factor 0.g0 lagging, moment of inertia 30,000 kgrn, Machine 2 pole, 50 Hz, 80 MW, power factor 0.85 lagging, moment of inertia 10,000 kg' Calculate the inertia constantof the single equivalentmachine on a base of 200 MVA. t 2 . 3 Power station t has four identical generatorsetseachrated g0 MVA and each having an inertia constant 7 MJA4VA; while power station 2 has three sets each rated 200 MVA, 3 MJA4VA. The stations are locatld close togetherto be regarded a single equivalentmachinefor stability as studies. Calculate the inertia constant of the equivalent machine on 100 MVA base. I2.8
from its prefault position, determine the maximum load that could be transferredwithout loss of stability. A synchronousgenerator is feeding 250 MW to a large 5O Hz network over a double circuit transmissionline. The maximum steadystateDower that can be transmitted over the line with both circuits in operation is 500 MW and is 350 MW with any one of the circuits. A solid threephasefault occurring at the networkend of one of the lines causesit to trip. Estimate the critical clearing angle in which the circuit breakersmust trip so that synchronismis not lost. What further information is neededto estimate the critical clearing time? 12.9 A synchronousgenerator represented a voltage source of 1.05 pu in by serieswith a transient reactanceof 70.15 pu and in inertia constant F/ = 4.0 sec, is connectedto an infinite inertia system through a transmission line. The line has a series reactance of70.30 pu, while the infinite inertia system is representedby a voltage source of 1.0 pu in series with a transient reactanceof 70.20 pu. The generatoris transmitting an acti're power of 1.0 pu when a threephasefault occurs at its terminals. If the fault is clearedin 100 millisec, determine if the system will remain stable by calculating the swing curve. 12.10 For Problem 12.9 find the critical clearing time from the swin! currrefor a sustained fault.
/..^^+^+r
\Lt,t:ltdlllr.
12.4 A 50 Hz transmission 500 km long with constants line given below ties
up two large power areas R = 0 .1 1 f)/k m C = 0.009 lFlkm
F i n d t h e ,s. f  ' : ,t,rJl v s l z f e c f e h i lrirtr r r r i mrirtr lrrr c. J
,,
L  1.45mH/km G = 0
i f ,l rl ,, t/t  _
 v
ll/
Rt
 _
t \n v l l , r
A
t,\/
V
What will the steadystate stability limit be if line capacitanceis also neglected?What will the steadystate stability limit be if line resistance i s a l s o n e g l o c tc d C o rn n rc l tt tl rc rcsul ts. '/ on t 2 . 5 A power deficient area receives 50 MW over a tie line from another area.The maximum steadystatecapacityof the tie line is 100 MW. Find the allowable sudden load that can be switched on without loss of stability. 1 2 . 6 A synchronous motor is drawing 30vo of the maximum steady state power from an infinite bus bar. If the load on motor is suddenly increasedby 100 per cent, would the synchronismbe lost? If not, what is the maximum excursionof torque angle about the new steady state r<ltorposition.
t 2 . 1 The transfer reactancesbetween a generator and an infinite bus bar
o p e ri l ti n g rf 2 0 0 k V trn d e r a r i ouscondi ti ons fhe i nterconnector i v on aro: Pretault During fault Postfhult S0 0 per phase m O per phase 2ffi {) per phase
A synchr t ) nous gener at or epr esent cd a volt ageof l. l5 pu in ser ies r by with a transientreactanceis c<lnnected a large power system with to volt t t gc 1. 0 pu t hr ot lgh l powcr r r clwor k.Thc cquivalcntt lar r sient transf'er reactanceX betweenvoltage sourcesis 70.50 pu. After the occurrence a threephase grouncl of to fault on one of the lines of the power network, two of the line circuit breakersA and B operate sequentially as follows with correspondingtransient transfer reactance given therein. (i) Short circuit occurs at 6 = 30", A opens instantaneouslyto make X = 3.0 pu. (ii) At 6 = 60o, A recloses, X = 6.0 pu. (iii) At 5=75o, A reopens. (iv) At d = 90o, B also opens to clear the fault making X = 0.60 pu Check if the systenrwill operate stably. 12.12 A 50 Hz synchronous generatorwith inertia constant H = 2.5 sec and a transientreactanceof 0,20 pu feeds 0.80 pu active power into an infinite bus (voltage I pu) at 0.8 lagging power lactor via a network with an equivalent reactance of 0.25 pu. A threephase fault is sustainedfor 150 millisec across generator terminals.Determine through swing curye calculation the torque angle6, 250 millisec, after fault initiation.
l 2.l l
PowerSystem Stabitity
12.13 A 50 Hz, 500 MVA,400 kV generator (with transformer) is connected to a 400 kV infinite bus bar through an interconnector. The generator has F1 2.5 MJA4VA, voltage behind transientreactanceof 450 kV and is loaded 460 MW. The transfer reactancesbetween generator and bus
5(D I
12. Kundur, P., Power SystemStability and Control, McGrawHill, New York, 1994. 13. Chakrabarti,A., D.P. Kothari and A.K. Mukhopadhyay, Performance Operation and Cqntrol of EHV Power TransmissionSystems,Wheeler Publishing, New Delhi, 1995. 14. Padiyar,K.R., Povter System
lcatlons, Hy Stability and Control, Znd
During fault Postfault
1 . 0p u 0.75pu
15. Sauer,P.W. and M.A. Pai, Power SystemDynamics and Stabiliry, PrenticeHall, New Jersey,1998.
Calculate the swing curve using intervals of 0.05 sec and assuming that the fault,is cleared at 0.15 sec. I2.I4 Plot swing curves and check system stability for the fault shown on the system of Example 12.10for fault clearing by simultaneousopening of breakers at the ends of the faulted line at three cycles and eight cycles after the fault occurs.Also plot the swing curye over a period of 0.6 sec if the fault is sustained. For the generator assumeH = 3.5 pu, G = 1 pu and carry out the computations in per unit. 12.15 Solve Example 12.10 for a LLG fault.
Papers
16. Cushing, E.W. et al., "Fast Valving as an Aid to Power System Transient Stability and Prompt Resynchronisationand Rapid Reload After Full L,oad t Rejection", IEEE Trans, L972, PAS 9I 1624. 17. Kimbark, E.W., "Improvement of Power System Stability", IEEE Trans., 1969, PAS88:773. 18. Dharma Rao, N. "RouthHurwitz Condition and Lyapunov Methods for the TransientStability Problem", Proc. IEE, 1969, 116: 533. 19. Shelton, M.L. et al., "BPA 1400 MW Braking Resistor",IEEE Trans., 1975,94: 602.
NCES REFERE
Books
1 Stevenson, W.D., Elements of Power SystemAnalysis, 4th edn., McGrawHill, New York, 1982. Elgerd, O.I., Electic Energy Systems Theory: An iniroduciion, McGrawHill, New York, 1982. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 2nd edn.,
20. Nanda, J., D.P. Kothari, P.R. Bijwe and D.L. Shenoy,"A New Approach for
Dynamic Equivalents Using Distribution Factors Based on a Moment Concept", Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Computers, Systemsand Signal Processi4g, Bangalore, \ Dec. 1012, 1984. 'Dynamic Modelling 2 r . Dillon, T.S., and Control of Large Scale System", Int. Journal of Electric Power and Energy Systems,Jan. 1982, 4: 29. 2 2 . Fatel,R., T.S. Bhatti and D.P. Kothari, "Improvement PowerSystemTransient of stability using Fast valving: A Review", Int. J. of Electric Power components and Systems,Vol. 29, Oct 2001, 927938. 23. Patel, R., T.s. Bhatti and D.P. Kothari, "MATLAB/simulink Based rransient Stability Analysis of a Multimachine Power System,IJEEE, Vol. 39, no. 4, Oct. 2002, pp 339355. Patel R., T.S. Bhatti and D.P. Kothari, "A Novel scheme of Fast valving Control", IEEE Power Engineering Review, Oct.2002, pp. 4446. 25. Patel,R., T.S. Bhani and D.P. Kothari, "Improvementof Power system Transient stability by coordinated operation of Fast valving and Braking Resistor", To appearin IEE proceeriingsGen., Trans and Distribution.
. A
Anderson, P.M. and A.A. Fund, Power SystemControl and Stability, The Iowa State University Press,Ames, Iowa, 1977. stagg, G.w. and A.H. oAbiad, computer Methods in Power system Analysis, Chaps9 and 10, McGrawHillBook Co., New York, 1968. Crary, S.8., Power System Stability, Vol. I (Steady State Stability), Vol. II (Transient Stability), Wiley, New York, 19451947. Kimbark, E.W., Power System Stability, Vols 1, 2 and 3, Wiley, New york, 1948,
L+.
Veuikorz,Y.A., TransientPhenomena Electrical Power System(translatedfrom in the Russian),Mir Publishers, Moscow, 1971. 8. Byerly, R.T. and E.w. Kimbark (Eds.), stability of l^arge Electric power Systems,IEEE Press,New York, 1974. 9. Neuenswander, J.R., Modern Power Systems,International Text Book Co., 1971. t0. Pai, M.A., Power SystemStability Annlysis by the Direct Method of Lyapunov., NorthHolland, System and Control Services, Vol. 3, 1981. I 1. Fouad, A.A and V. Vittal, Power System Transient Stability Analysis using the Transient Energy Function Method, PrenticeHall, New Jersy, 1992.
13.1
INTRODUCTION
In Chapter7, we have beenprimarily concerned with the economical operation of a power system' An equally important factor in the operation of a power system is the desire to maintain system security. System security involves practicessuitably designedto keep the system operating when componentsfail. Besideseconomizingon fuel cost and minimizrngemission of gases(co, cor, Nox, sor), the power systern should be operationally,.secure,,. operation_ An ally "secure" power system is one with low probability of, systern black out (collapse) equipment or damage. the pro."r, uf cascading If failurescontinses. the systernas a whole or its tnajor parts may completely collapse. This is normally referred to as system blackout. All these aspects require security c ons t r a i n ep o w e r s y s te m p ti mi z a ti on C O). d o (S Since security and economy normally have conflicting requirements, it is inappfopriate treat them separately. to The fina.laim of economy is the security lunction of the utility company.The energy management system (EMS) is to operate the system at minimum cost, with the guaranteed alleviation of emergency conditions.The emergency condition will dependon the severity of t iolat io n s f o p e ra ti n g i rn i ts(b ra n c h l ow sand bus o l f' vol tagel i mi ts).The most severeviolationsresult fiom contingencies. irnportant An part of securitystudy, therefbre,moves around the power system'sability to withstanrjthe effects of contingencies.A particular systemstateis said to be secureonly with reference to one or more specific contingency cases, and a given set of quantities monitoredfor violation. Most power systemsare operated in such a way that any singlecontingencywill not leaveother.opon"nts heavily overloaded,so that cascading failures are avoided.
Sll I Most of the security related functions deal with static "snapshots" of the power system.They have to be executedat intervals compatiblewith the rate of changeof systemstate.This quasistatic approach to a large extent,the is, only practical approachat present,since dynamic analysisand optimization are conslder4bly mole {!fficu!! 4nd cqmpurallo44lly 1aqtelime corrsulurg, System security can be said to comprise of three major functions that are carried out in an energycontrol centre: (i) systemmonitoring, (ii) contingency analysis,and (iii) comectiveaction analysis. System monitoring suppliesthe power systemoperators dispatcherswith or pertinentuptodateinformation on the conditionsof the power system on real time basisas load and generation change.Telemetrysystemsrneasure, monitor and transmit the data, voltages,currents,current flows and the statusof circuit breakersand switchesin every substation a transrnission in network. Further, other critical and important information such as frequency, generator outputs and transformertap positions can also be telemetered. Digital computers in a control centre then processthe telemetereddata and place them in a data base form and inform the operatorsin case of an overload or out of limit voltage. Important data are also displayed on large size monitors. Alarms or warnings may be given if required. Stateestimation (Chapter 14) is normally used in such systemsto combine telemetereddata to give the best estimate (in statisticalsense)of the curreltt systemcondition or "state". Such systemsotten work with supervi$orycontrol systemsto help operatorscontrol circuit breakersand operateswitches and taps remotely. These systemstogetherare called SCADA (supervisorycontrol and data acquisition)systelns. The second maior security function is contingency analysis. Modern operation computers havecontingency analysis programs storedin them.These loreseepossiblcsystetntroubles(outages)beforethey occur.They study outage events and alert the operators to any potential overloads or serious voltage vi ol ati tl ns. For exalnple, he sir nplest ir r m of cont ingency t f analysis can be put together with a standard LF program as studied in Chapter 6, along with proceduresto set up the load flow dafa for each outageto be studied by the LF plogram. This allows the system operatorsto locate def'ensiveoperating stateswhere no single contingencyevent will generateoverloadsand/or voltage violation:;.This analysis thus evolves operatingconstraintswhich may be cntpi oycdin t hc liD ( ccot r olnic dispat ch) and UC ( unitcor nnr it r nclrpr ogr ar r r . t) Thus contingencyanalysiscarricsout ornergcncy identil'ication ancl"what if'' simulations. The third major security function, corrective action analysis, permits the operatorto changethe operationof the power systemif a contingencyanalysis program predicts a serious problem in the event of the occurrenceof a certain outage.Thus this provides preventive and postcontingency control. A simple example of corrective action is the shifting of generationfrom one station to another.This may result in change in power flows and causing a change in loading on overloadedlines.
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Dyliacco [13] and further clarified by Fink and Carlsen l23l in order to define relevant EMS (Energy ManagementSystem) functions. Stott et. al [15] have also presenteda more practical static security level diagram (see Fig. 13.1) by incorporating correctively secure(Level 2) andcorrectableemergency(Level4) security levels. In the Fig. 13.1, arrowed linep represent involuntary transitions between Levels 1 to 5 due to contingencies..The removal of violations from Level 4 normally requiresEMS directed "corrective rescheduling" or "remedial action" bringing the system to Level 3, from where it can return to either Level I or 2 by further EMS, directed "preventive rescheduling" depending upon the desired operational security objectives. Levels I and 2 representnormal power system operation.Level t has the ideal security but is too conservativeand costly. The power system survives any of the credible contingencieswithout relying on any postcontingency corrective action. Level2 is more economical,but dependson postcontingencycorrective rescheduling to alleviate violations without loss of load, within a specified period of time. Postcontingencyoperating limits might be different from their precontingencyvalues. 13.3 SECURITY ANALYSIS
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System security can be broken down into two major functions that are carried out in an operationscontrol centre: (i) security assessment, and (ii) security control. The tormer gives the security level of the system operating state. The latter determines the appropriate security constrained scheduling required to optimally attain the target security level. The security functions in an EMS can be executedin 'real time' and 'study' modes. Real time application functions have a particular need for computing speed and reliability. 'fhe static securit.v level of a power systemis characterised the presence by or rrtherwise of emergency operating conditions (limit violations) in its actual (precontingency) or potential (postcontingency)operating states. System security assessment the process by which any such violations are detected. is System e.:^ sstlt€rrt involves two func tions: s€ (i) system monitoring and (ii) contingencyanalysis.Systemmonitoring provides the operator of the power system with pertinent uptodate information on the current condition:;clf the power system. In its simplest form, this just detects violations in the actual systemoperating state.Contingency analysisis much
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Only a small proportion of work on optimal power flow (OPF) has taken into account the security constraints.The most successfulapplications have beento the security constrained MW dispatch OPF subproblem. The contingencyconstrainedvoltageivar reschedulingproblem, as of the writing of this text, still remains to be solved to a satisf desree. The total number of contingency constraintsimposed on SCO is enormous. The SCO or contingency constrained OPF problem is solved with or without first optimizing with respectto the base case(precontingency)constraints.The general procedure adopted is as follows: (i) Contingency analysis is carried out and cases with violations or near violations are identified. (ii) The SCO problem is solved. (iii) The rescheduling in Step 1 might have created new violations, and therefore step 1 should be repeatedtill no violations exist. Hence, SCO represents potentially massiveadditional computing effort. a An excellent comprehensiveoverview of various available methods is presentedby Stott et. al [15]. There is still great potential for further improvement in power system security control. Better problem formulations, theory, computer solution methods and implementation techniquesare required. T3.4 CONTINGENCYANALYSIS
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In the past many widespreadblackouts have occurred in interconnectedpower systems. Therefore, it is necessaryto ensure that power systems should be operatec! mosf economic:r!ly such that povrer is cle!i.rerecl reliably. Reliable operation implies that there is adequatepower generation and the same can be transmitted reliably to the loads.Most power systems designedwith enough are redundancyso that they can withstand all rnajor tailure events.Here we shall sttrdy thc possiblc consccprcnccs rcrncdialactions rcquircd by two nrain :rncl f ailur e ev e n ts ;l i n e .o rrta g e s c lg e n e ra t i ng tfai l ures. an rrni To explainthe problelnbriefly,we consider fivebussystem Ref'erence the of LI0J. The basecaseload llow resultslbr the exampleare given in t ig. 13.2and, s lt r r wir f ' lo w< tf2 4 .7 MW a n d 3 .6 MV AR on the l i ne f} om bus 2 to hus 3. L.ct t ls lls s t llll c a t a t p rc s c n l w e i l rc o n l y i n tcrestecl the MW l oadi ngof the l i ne. , th in Let us examinewhat will happenif the line from bus 2 to bus 4 were to open*. ' l' lr c r c s ulti n g i n c l ' l o w sa rtc v o l ta g c s l c show ni n l ri g. 13.3.tt nray be notcd l l u that the flow on the line 23 has increasedto 31.5 MW and that most of the other line flows are also changed. It may also be noted fhat bus voltage magnitudesalso get aff'ected, particularly at bus 4, the change is almost2To less from 1.0236to 1.0068pu. Supposethe line from bus 2 to bus 5 were to open. Figure 13.4shows the resultingflows and voltages. Now the inaximum change t:fgl.g.j 5 which is almost 107o less. ",jus xSimulation line outageis more complex than a generatoroutage, of since line outageresults a change system in in configurations.
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7.{offi 'l ' ''l'''' l'r'.5 all the generationlost from bus 2 is picked up on the generatorat bus 1._ 1 l 2.no*rifii.1t.7 <_ 4 1 .ation is shared by the remaining units is quite significant.6 <_i __22..V_21.6 depictsa flow chart illustrating a simple method for carrying out a contingency analysis.5is an exampleof generator outageanclis selected explainthe to tact that generatoroutagescan also result in changes in line flows and bus voltages.'518 t  5LAUK HUS rr.2j4. The differencesin Iine flows anclbus voltagesvrould show how the lost gener.8 25. To find the eff'ects outages.6 + ^ 1l I _j7.6+16. 13. then full AC load flow analysishas to be carried out.lostgeneration 2 is picked by generator up 1) Figure 13. Figure 13.s . o o 6 1 ts .8 1.o _ _ l 't A.5_j4.An erpproxirnate rnodelsuclras DC load flow may be used to achievespeedy solution if voltage is aiso required. One of the important problems is the selection of "all credible outages.5 Postoutage AC Load Flow(Generator outage.rr\=_ violation? >*t_qJ ves jciventarn T . Noi 'I I Ail \ FIg.6 A simpletechnique contingency for analysis .*" .3 +j0.5 16.t I .o24st3.]u+ _+ _53. {oo*iro GiveAlarm signal Fig.s <52..In the exampleshowr in Fig. Execution time to analyseseveralthousand outagesis typically I min basedon computerand analytical technologyas of 2000.5 5 o 9 9 5 6 / _ . 1 " _ 1t.9 Li1I {nze+iz1.For each outage. 13....all lines ancl voltagesin the netrvork are checkedagainsttheir respective limits.4 j2. t ( .71 " .r z o . Contingency analysis models single failure events ( i' e' one l i n co u ta g c s iro l l c u n i t o u tu g cs) nrul ti pl c o or ccpri pnrcntri l urccvc^ts fi (failure of multiple unit or lines or their combination) one after another until all "credible outages"are considered.iuior". 7 " 3 1  1 .' .4 + 1 . 1. Had there been more thanZgenerarors in the sample system say at bus 3 also. 13.zo 1lo l l r I t i '''" GiveAlarm signal fzs7s.6 _22 .contingencyanalysis of techniques are empioyeci.s _ 4s.7l { t. 0 6 t 0 "'l_ !. . O 0 4 3 t .g t s . It is important to know which line or unit outageswill render line flows or voltagesto crossthe lirnjts. i Y + l..rodern Po@is e t 4 s+ l 1 5 l+o*1s _ 1 .6 . it was possible the loss of leneration on bus 2 is made up by an increase in generation at buses 1 and 3.""i.
. or "contingency ranking". Let us now study the outage of a large generating unit and assume that all the lost generation (Pod would be supplied by the slack bus generation.. ne s I may uate an equrvalent should be used for neighboursconnectedthrough tielinos. Then (13..f. for checking the /th line flow. The factor al. Let us assumethat the loss of the ith generatoris to be made up by governor action on all generatorsof the interconnectedsystemand pick up in proportion to their maximum MW ratings.^maximum MW rating for rnth generator g*i= proportionality factor for pick up on kth unit when ith unit fails.6) Here. Thesefactors give the approximate change in line flows for changes in generationin the system and can be calculated from the DC load flow. For In Eq. The line outage distribution factor is defined as: d. .. One of the simplest ways to present a quick calculation of possible overloads is to employ network (linear) sensitivity factors. Reference [7] gives their deri iation. fi ?.= * where dt. the effects of simultaneous principle of superposition.4) where.i = line outagedistribution factor when monitoring /th line atter an outage of ith line.lau. .. where.security analysisprogramis run in a load dispatchcentre very quickly to help the operators. (13. the proportion of generationpick up from unit k (k * i) would be (13. APo. Aft = change in MW flow on /th iine' . Thus.620j.8) it is assumed unit limit violation. takes place at the ith bus that no unit will violate its maximdm limit.7) where = Pn.P1i (13. We can eliminate all nonviolation casesand run complete exact program for "critical" casesonly. ft for all lines V / (13. (13. AP".8) (13.u. \ri LPotl E. it is assumedthat LPotis fully compensated an equal and opposite by change in generation at the slack (reference) bus. necessary generation shift sensitivity factors are linear estimatesof the change in The line flow with a change in power at a bus. Generation shift factors 2.This can be attempted by carrying out an approximate analysis and using a computer system having multiple processors or vector processors y anarysts. = ff * 0r.o (13. Thus it will be easy to warn the operation staff in advance to enable them to take corrective action if one or more outageswiil result in seriousoverloadsor any violations.= ff *d. They are mainly of two types: 1.:f I ^ uodern PowerSystem Anatysis Y .C a ? DIIIYDIIIVII frErrarE?rtrElt A .. ft = f i * dti APc.are defined as: limits and those violating their limit can be informed to the operator for control action. Similarly the line outage distribution factors can be used for checking if the line overloadswhen solllc of the lines are lost. Thus.s) and the new power flow on each line could be calculatedusing a precalculated set of " d' factors as given below.then gives the sensitivityof the /th line flow to a changein generationat ith bus. algorithm can easily be modified. This can be achievedby using techniquessuch as "contingency selection"or "contingency screening"..power flow on /th line after the failure of ith generator f i = power flow on /th line before the failure or precontingency power flow ^d foi =precontingency or preoutageflows on lines / and i respectively fr = power flow on /th line with ith line out. tlre power flow on line / with line i out can be found out employing "d" factors. Now. we may write j.10) ...e) Ji APo. The generation shift factorsl cr. with all other generators remaining fixed at their original power generations. Here.. 4t = Change in MW power flow on hne I when a change generain tion.precontingency line flow on ith line fi lf precontingency line flows on lines / and i.FAUIL'I(s IJ. Line outage distribution factors Briefly we shall now describe the use of those factors without deriving them.
However.0.6662 0. the sensitivity factors must be updated.0714 0. Alvil is the difference between the voltage magnitude as obtained at the end of the lPlQ FDLF algorithm Alvlu* it the value fixed by the utility.13095 It has been found that if we calculate the line flows by the sensitivity close to the valuescalculatedby the methods.05143 0.2 Generation Shift Distribution Bus I l=1(line12) /=2(line13) /=3(line23) I=4(line24) /=5(line25) /=6(line34) I=l (line45) Bus 2 .5451 0.4545 0  = = = = 4 5 6 7 0.0. Llne tlows can be louncl out usmg If telemetry systemsor with stateestimation techniques. 00010. 2094 0. together with the generation shift distribution factors and the line outage distribution factors are given in Tables I3.Jt ^u* as well as h **.18i6 0.0002 0. Any good P1(performanceindex can be selected)is usedfor rankirig.t572 o.2222 0.22220. then the following PI can be employed. . the network undergoes any significant structural change.0 1.6226 0.09514 0.1819 0.07886 0.03772 0. Table 13.8428 . 2685 . The security arraiysistrray rrow startedfor the desired numbel of casesdown the ranking list. It may be noted that a line flow can be positive or negative.4418 0. 0 v = J (line L .0 (line 25) 0. Suitable number of candidatesthen can be chosen for largest further analysis[7].05857 0. One such P/ is (13.07886 0.04714 0.0 0'3321 1.5580 0.4542 0.0. If voltagesare to be included.0.3634 0.1 X Matrixfor FivebusSampleSystem(Bus 1 as a reference) 0 0 0 0 0.1818 0. where reactive power flows are mainly required.J ) 3 \ r r \ r w 23) 0.5580 0.0 0.2835 0.0571 0. 0. This can be repeated fbr the outage of each line one by one and overloads can be found out for corrective action. (line 12)(linel3)(Iine 23)(line24)(line25)(line34)(line45) (l i n e l.05857 0. The simplest AC security analysisproceduremerely needsto run an AC load flow analysis for each possible unit.12) Here.11) For large n.3488 0.4443 0. 3331.o.04029 0. Hence we must check / agarnst .3 respectively.3321 0'0 Find the generationshift factors and the line outagedistribution factors for the fivebus sample network discussedearlier. 2091 0. Such techniquesfonn the foundationfor many realcontingency selection/screening time computer security analysis algorithms.4476 (hne 24) 0. ciur be done fbr P1. and will be large if one or more lines are overloaded. P1 tablecan be orderedfrom For rr = I exact calculations value to least.2835 (line 34) 0.2) 1.0.08914 0.6642 O. line and transformer outage.04029 0.5451 0.0857 .2 and 13. the calculations carried out by sensitivity methods are faster than those made by full AC load flow methodsand therefore are used for real time monitoring and control of power systems. 3735 0.7161 (line 45) 0.4714 0.3488 0.44r8 0.One normally does ranking or shortlisting of most likely bad caseswhich are likely to result in an overload or voltage limit violation and other casesneed not be analysed. $ummary and Further Reading: Reference [25] has discussedthe concept for screening contingencies. a full AC load flow method (NR/FDLF) is preferred for contingency analysis.1818 0. ue Largest vaiue oi Pi is piaceciat the top. Factorfor Fivebus System Table 13.iii l a Po Modern j=l j=2 j=3 j=4 j=5 j=6 J"srr j = 7 'd' factors ali the lines for Thus one can check quickiy by precaiculating overloading for the outage of a particular line.0286 .05143 0.they come out to be reasonably full AC load flows.0285 (13. PI will be a small numberif all line flows are within limit.05057 0.1 gives the [x] matrix for the five bus sample system. Solution Table 13. However.3636 0.03772 0.
Reg.agestability..7 Voltage stabilitVphenomenaand time responses . washington DC. which have resulted in several major system failures in the world.:. y (longer term).r. 5th July 1990 (longer rerm. (vi) Belgium. following any small disturbance. . 1992. po*Lrru excitation systems.l#GrffiE IE!F}ILfr Reference [15] gives a broad overview of security assessment contain an and bibliography covering the literature on"security assessmenrup to .instability ot uoitug" collapse."r"ur"h. As opposedto angle ffiri#il. Voltage collapse may be total (blackout) or partial. insecure for hours) Hence. 1gg7irorg". Reference [11] gives an excellent bibliography on voltage stability. 13.. voltages near loads are identical or close to the predisturbancevalues.t]r". z0 min) (v) NREB grid disturbancein India in 19g4 and r9g7.ilir. Ref [11] provides a comprehensivelist of books. 4 sec) (ii) French systemdisturbancesof Decembe r 19. reports.roblem is now not that serious because of fast short circuii clearing.. (i) south Florida. Aug 4. A power systemat a given operating stateand subject to a given disturbance undergoes voltage collapse if postdisturbanceequilibrium voltages are below acceptable limits. ElectriJ *rnpuni"s are now required to squeezethe maximum possible power through networks owing to various constraintsin the construction of generation "ii.Becadseof this. Voltage instabilitv and rterchangeably.."rriu" and uncontrollable decline in voltage Inadequate reactive. transfers. . but also to remain stable following any reasonably crediblebontingency or adverse system change such as load increases[2].raqr'or. 4. A power systemat a given operating stateand subject to a given disturbance ts voltage stable if voltages near loads approach postdisturbanceequilibrium valuei.. Transientvoltage stability Inductionmotor dynamics Generator/excitation dvnamics Longerterm voltage stability Increase in load/powertransfer LTCtransf& Distvolt. (transient. The analysis of voltage stability normally requires simulation of the system modelled by nonlinear diffdrentialalgebraic equations.. The concept of smalldisturbance voltage stability is related to steadystatestability (Chapter 12) and can be analysedusing smallsignal (linearised) model of the system.+:r:a:^^ A power system at a given operating state is smalldisturbance voltage stable if. Th"y ". r97g and Januar 12. and other special stability controls.G transmission and facilities.o+^.A power system is said to have entereda state of voltage instability when a disturbante resurts in a pro!. workshops and technical papers related to voltage stability and security. Voltage stability involves dynamics. The term voltage security means the ability of a system.power support from generatorsand transmission lines leads to voltage. term. a full understandingof voltage stability phenomena and designing mitigation schemesto prevent voltase instabilitv is nf o. Definitions: [2] Power transmissiol tuglgility has traditionally been Iimited by either rotor angle (synchronous) stability or by thermal loaoing capabilities. usA. 55 sec) (iv) Japanese(Tokyo) system disturbance of July 23. rgg3 (longer term. The concept of voltage stability is related to the ffansient stability of a power system. . (iii) swedish systemdisturbanceof December 27. Luckily this . lf phenomena.5 min) (vii) Baltimore.. This topic is discussedbriefly in the next section. the dynamics mainly involves the loads and the means for voltage control. 13. rgg7. voltage 'ent engineers. system disturbanc e of 17 May r9g5.by many . switched capacitors/reactors Gasturbine startup Under voltageload shedding '. is now a main issue in planning and operating electric power systemsand is a factor reading to limit pow.6 POWER SYSTEM VOITAGE STABILITY stability. voltage (load) stability. Sometimes it may take up to tens of minutes in which case the term longterm voltage stability is used. but load flow based static analysis methods are generally used for quick and approximate analysis. however. usA.". voltage instability or co[apse is a faster dynamicprocess. The blackout problem has been linked with transient stability. Protective relaying includingoverload protection 100 Timeseconds Fiq. not only to operate stably. The voltage instability and collapse may occur in a time frame of a second.7 depicts how voltage stability can be classified into transient and longterm time frame l2l. Load diversity /thermostat Excitationlimiting Primemovercontrol Mech. Figure 13.. voltage stability is concerned with the ability of a power system to maintain acceptable voltages at all busesin the system under normal conditions and after being subjected to a disturbance...In this case the term transient voltage stability is used. (longer term.
2 0.112itiu Seneratorstability. if any loss of a line takes place. on" indicates stable . 13. iNMW (i) Generator terminal voltage shourd be raised. 13. Practical aspectsof Qflow problemsleading to voltage collapsein EHv lines: (i) For lons line. 1400 1200 1000 P> P.. as voltage stability is affected by ..8) and methods to quantify nose puted. > P. strategic load shedding should be resorted to' System reinforcement may be carried out by instpiling new transmission lines between generation and load centres.'31^ wffi.*:.e. load areas and load rvr^rvlv vv'Yvr Pr'lurs tu a large system over long transmission lines."::..wex reactive power control.ourrr.8 1. Unity powerfactor (knee) Nosepoint t ^. I2x loss increases resulting in increase in voltage drop. 9 51 .*. (ii) Generator transformer tap value may be increased.Ewe desirable.s urifh 'r^^nrrnu^r L^^uus's. The slower forms of voltage instability are often analysed as steadystate problems' 'snapshots' in time following an outage or during load buildup are simulated' In addition to postdisturbancl load floivs.oto.. the voltage drops rapidly with an increasein load demand. At limiting of voltage stability i. Nearer the nose point.?::^s.'''.h.A#".:IJHI# Fig..'e' increase for light load conditions and decrease for heavy load conditions.. 9 0 .i. At the 'knee' of the VP curve. Power flow analysis cletermines voltage exist for each value of load. lesser is the staLility maigin. PplP6zy 0. voltage stability is concern"o *itt.i.In a large interconnectedsystem. 13. at nose point single l!ug" ioad flow solution exists. Effective counter Instability Measures to prevent or contain voltage and . series and shunt compensationmay be carried out and svcs (static var compensation) may be installed. This j+Allowable range ffuo. (iv) Loadend oLTc (onload tap changer) should be suitably used. same for const Z load for other types of load. whereas lower one is the unacceptable value (multiple load flow). thenimport of e Fig. (v) For under voltage conditions. .4 0.g). Boo Systemcharacteristics Capacitor characteristics 0 . voltage stability and rotor angle (or synchronous) stability are more or less interlinked' Rotor angle stability. (iii) Qinjection should be carried out at an appropriate location. Powerflow solution fails to convefgebeyond this limit indicating instability.4 1.voltage coilapse of a load area is possible without lois of synchroni* or any generators..If thereis a shortage rocal q of .2 1. (ii) For radial transmission lines.a3.SPfti*f uooern po@is I Voltage stability problems normaliy occur in heavily stressed systems. The uppe. V degradationis faster. capacitorMVAr shown at rated voltage . Operation at or near thel stability limit is impractical and a satisfactory operating condition is ensured by permitting sufficient "power margin". Generation rescheduling and s_tartingup gas . / curves (Fig..0 1. 13.. 0 1 . 0 5 Vin pu should be suitably compensated local by e injection."ungl"stabilityis basicauy \ Loaw of V6 and Pr"r.of course this involvescost..6 0.y i" .6 as vanous parameters svstem and ""lT:ir'#n#'f HI'I. Voltage ':::i:y.9 Systemand shunt capacitor steadystate QV characteristics.8 PV curveswith different load powerfactors Only the operating points above the critical points represent satisfactory operating conditions.rrui"* of . two other load flow based methods are widely used: PV curves and ev curves. 'ig.. recelvlng_end or road voltages "!' s'vv'Lr. reactance goes up.'. pV curves are used for especially for radial systems. eV curves (Fig.t out.
voltage goes up as the reactive burden is reduced. (ii) Compensating the line length reduces net reactance and power flow increases. Power SystemStability and Contol. McGrawHill. Mukhopadhyay. voltage stability can be improved by adopting the following rneans: (i) Enhancing the localisedreactivepower support (SVC) is more efl. 1994. T. 9. and as new transmission lines and new generations would be increasingly difficult to build or add. New Delhi.{^*. D. 4.J. Narguthand D.John Wiley and Sons. (v) HVDC tie may be used between regional grids.New Jersey. 3. Gratngerand W. 1998. controlJ. ComputerAidedPower SystemsAnalysis.'fataMc0raw. Methods of Improvlng Voltage Stabllity NCES REFERE Books L l. A. and Control. 10.Hill. McGrawHill.K. The time frame of collapse in such caseswould be of the order of several minutes.V.W. 1986. Kothari.analysts. P.ltvgD. New York. Taylor.M Voltage Collapse . Voltage collapse may be characterised as follows: SUIvIMARY Power system security (including voltage stability) is likey to challenge planneqs. Future (i\ \. more and more utilities will face the security challenge. VoltageStability of Electric Power Syslerns. . New York. (ii) Betterand probabilistic loadmodelling. As load grows.P.Miller. example.eStabiliry. Perforurutnce. 1994. Luckily many creative persons are working tirelessly to find new methods and innovative solutions to meet this challenge. New York.E. ll. A. chakrabarti. John Wiley. ReactivePower Control in ElectricSyslens.ective and Cbanks are lnore economical. Ontirnql . 1995. 7. It (iv) Enhancing excitation of generator.F.PrenticeHall. E. PttnterSystem Engincering. New York.2 and Chapter 14. Kothari and A. Wollenberg.J. New Dclhi. can (vi) Training in voltage stability basis (a training simulator) for control centre and power plant operators should be i Voltage collapse is the processby which the seguence events accompanying of voltage instability le_ads unacceptable voltag6 profile in a significant part to of the power system.e systems. 6.London.Operation.12. It is the result of an accumulative process involving the actions and interactions of many devices.L. 1994. 1968. Stagg and A.Power SystemAnalysis. ElAbiad. 5. Kusic. Deregulation and socioeconomic ffends compounded by technological developmentshave increasedthe likelihood of voltage instability.W. Computer Methods in Power System Analysis. researchersand operators for the foreseeablefuture. Editor./ Trends and Challenges oifiurrrrr6 n'F IEA/'nr vr nv i.P. and protective iyrt"*r. also improves reliability. Znd Edn.Wheeler Publishing. Sections2. (iii) The voltage collapse generallymanifests itself as a slow decay of voltage. (iii) Additional transmission linc muy be crectccl. (vi) By resorting to strategic load shedding. It may be manifested in ieverat different"ways. John J.:^^^ \rlvv. Power SystemVoltag. (v) Postdisturbance MwA4vAR margins should be ffanslated to predisturbance operatinglimits that operators monitor. 1982. (iii) Developtechniques models studyof nonlinear and for dynamics largr of siz. 1994.D. G. Vournas. Kundur. operation and Control of EHV Power Transmission Systems. 2. (iv) Reactivecompensationcan be made most effective by the judicious choice of a mixture of shunt capacitors. New York. G. McGrawHill. Stevenson.McGrawHill. Wood and W. New york. for . Cutsemand C.J. C. T. For new methodsto obtainnetworkequivalentr suitable voltagestabilityanalysis. Voltage collapse is strongly influenced by system conditions and characteristics. system voltage improves and e is supplied to the system. Power Generation. ratS devices or synchronous condenser may also be used.Kluwer Academic Publishers. static var system and possibly synetuonouscondensers.H. 1996.
12. carlsen. Vol. pp 13101321. Kothari and S. PAS86. thesis. on Power Systems. S. Most state estimation programs in practical use are formulated as overdetermined systems of nonlinear equations and solved as weighted leastsquares(WLS) problems. "Bibliography on voltage stability".J. L. "An Effective Approach to Voltage 'Int.P. March 1978. Alsac and A. however. "Line switching for Alleviating Overloadsunder Line OutageCondition Taking Bus Voltage Limits into Account". Int. IEEE. the system voltage and phase angles keeping in mind that there are errors in the The output measuredquantities and that there may be redundant measurements. IEEE Trans. Both have been developed for power systems. D. A. First. pp lI5125. IEEE Trans. "Alleviation of Line Overloads and voltage violations by corrective Rescheduling". pp 16231644. l9gg.R. of EPES. 1994.D. No.P. 18. "Overload Ranking of Line Outageswith postourage generation rescheduling". O. ln a power system. of Electric Power and Energy Systems. Vol. pp. 23. No. P.R.P. Ph. 1999. No. Bijwe.e.P.This chapter will introduce the basic principles of a staticstate estimator. "Voltage Security Analysis and Enhancement". Voltage Instability: "Phenomena. pp 557568. the state variables are the voltage magnrtudes and phase angles at the buses. 1988.C. P.P. the aim of state estimation is to obtain the best possible values of the bus voltage magnitudes and angles by processing the available network data. The inputs to an estimator are imperfect (noisy) power The estimator is designedto give the "best estimate" of system measurements. Two modifications are. it is noted that there are a larger number of variables in the system (e. Bijwe. No. Bijwe. c. introduced now in order to achieve a higher degreeof accuracy of the solution at the cost of some additional computations. 2000. J. February 2000. Kelapure. J. 1990. 4. State estimatorsmay be both static and dynamic.and Analysis Methods"."Oscillatory Stability Lirnit Enhancement by Adaptive Control Rescheduliig. of EMPg Vol 23. PhD thesis.D. Chaube and D. measured) values of a function.D.2000. Special issue of Proc.9. 12. 15. vol. B. No. Yol. Stott. Proc. of Electric Machines and Power Systems. Int. 17. 26. pp 4g34g6. Kothari and L.Vol. IEEE Trans. al. Lee.M. Nov. Int. No. Kothari. May 1967. 20. et. pp 345352. 24. G. v. No. 2000. Yol. Arya. t4 T4.A. 25.D. it is recognised that the numerical values of the data to be processed for the state estimation are generally noisy due to the errors present.P. July 1993.Counter measures. data are then used at the energy control centres for carrying out several . Arya. As in case of load flow analysis. VoL 75. "Post Contingency Line Switching for Overload Alleviation or Rotation". the process involves imperfect measurements that are redundant and the process of estimating the system statesis based on a statistical criterion that estimates the true value of the state variables to minimize or maximize the selected criterion. P. Thus. 22. L. 3. pp 249255. February 1998. 13.D. 1. 3. 4. 4850. Kothari et al. Kothari and K. Dyliacco. IIT Delhi. 22.vol. 22. "Fast Contingency Screening and Evaluation for Voltage security Analysis". P. J. Yol. pp 15821590. 5. 140. pp 507514. 16. 88. "Dynamic Security AssessmentPractices in North America". Kelapure. Ejebe. "Security ConstrainedPower System Optimization". Arya.E. Security and Enhancement". 13.D. of EPES. T. IEEE Trans. Second. D. No 7. 22. IEEE. 2000. pp 208227. 2. Q line flows) which can be measured but arc not utilised in the load flow analysis. IEE proc.R. Kothari and L.K. Arya. 3. on pAS. 21. T. No. 3.M. D. Ajjarapu and B. D. Arya.I INTRODUCTION State estimation plays a very important role in the monitoring and control of modern power systems. No. Vol. A well known and commonly used criterion is that of minimizing the sum of the squares of the differences between the estimated and "u1le" (i. "operating under sttress and Strain". IIT Delhi. Fink and K. 21. P. 1995. Dec. Monticelli. 1987. 19. IEEE spectrum. S. No. pp 213ZZl. 3. Bijwe. D. Van Cutsen. Saxena. L. L. 7. Feb. on Power Systems. Fouad. proc IEEE.Vol. Kelapure.Papers 11.R. "The Adaptive Reliability Control System". J. Int J. S. "security Analysis and Optimization". on Power systems. pp 517531 (This is a key paper on system security and energy control system) 14.C.
y'H*. weightageson the ditt'erentcomponentsof put.rz by using the data for a thret: vector y.31) and (14. One possibleway of obtainingthe bestpossibleestimate of the vectorx from y lies in the use of the method of leastsquareestimation (LSE).one gets the following expression the index: ( r4. we must satisfy the tollowing condition. x' that y is another vector of m (> n) random variables !1.H'yO (14.(.e.. dimensional Assume l' 0.rrrr(uJ r1.Il)t Ht y (14.g. assllmethat i rcpresettts desirecl the estirnateof .Howeu"r. . (r4. This shows that the load flow methods of chapter 6 could be used to estimate the mean valuesof the bus voltages.IeI ns wilf be seen iater in Section r4. 5 ) ( +/ 4 \ \ r42 LEAST souARES ESTIMATION:THE BAsrc soluTroN I7l.. Assume that x is a vector of n random variabres x1tx2. .. (14.2) I .t) It is easyto check (see.o n e ma y ta k e th e e x p e c ta ti o n f E q. the probrem of power system state estirnation is a special case of the more general problem of estimation of a random vector x from the numerical values of anotirer related random vector y with relatively little statistical information being available for both x and y.or. The problem is basicallyto obtain thc best possible value of the vector x from the given values of the vector y.01li.8) 'notmal equation' and may be solved explicitly This equation is called the for the LSE of the vector i as *. the following estimateof x is obtained. HtH*. .1) where H is a known matrix of dimensionmx n ancl is a zero mean rancklm r variable of the same dinrension y.T'o achievethis we define othersand these the estimation index as . (14.'HtH*.il. systeT^studics as cconornic such clisplrch (Chaprcr 7).il] r . /1 It is easy to form the vector Hty and combining this with the itrverse of (H'H).3.3) Weighted mI . respec:tively.1) o anclget the rel ati on f = Hx (r4. tn. woulcl like to estimatethe actual values of bus voltagesrather than their averages.e) E. i ln orclerto illustrate the methodof LSE. J2.1 H=10 ll Lrrl I is u'u =12 I unaits inverse Ll 2) l The matrix Ht F1 is then given bY =f u3 :':1 (H'm' ''':' 2131 ^ f rrt lat .r:. [1]) that Eq.l ) suggests . \!+.r so that y given by the equation whcre A lrr for From Eqs. Since the variable r is assumedto be zero m ean.. to An lntroduction State Estimationof Power Systems J =7'V / r1.7)leadsto the following result. J^ and both are related as !=Hx+r (r4. ::if.6) J =yt!. For minimizing J = f$).4) The estimate i is definecl irc thc IsE if it is to cornputccl rninirnizingthe by estimation index J given by squaresestimate and is obtainedby minimising the index function that puts of equal weightage to the effors of estimation of all components the vector y. and . = (H.. l L(t t1\/ r l j' = Hf. = cxpcctcclvalue ol' x iurd y.the method of leastsquarederror estimation may be utilised with good results and has accordingly been widely employed. J .dift'erent It is often desirableto may be more reliable and accuratethan the y since some of the measurements should be given more importance.61ir lnq grsllll:. representsthe estimateof the vector y. The vector as x represents the variablesto be estimated. To developthis rneth<td.4).2) ls ulrerr lrrsrrsu r\. . gradoJ = 0 \r+.jl:t a n a l y s t s ( L n a p t e r strLurly lJ)...i<'H'y+ *.. In such cases. The effor ! of the estimation of y is then given bv LSE Eilv€il !rl D9. (ri) rrru \rr\.while the vector y representsthe variables whose numerical v aluesa re a v a i l a b l eE q u a ti o n l 4 . let us considerthe simple problem of estimating two random variables x. \Ltr)/r\rrt)\/2Yz)  * = /3)yr*(2/3)yr1(r/3)v. ( thatthe measurement vectory i s linearly related to the unknown vector x and in addition is corrupted by the vector r (error vector). (1a.iltr (r4.
1sb) ) The choice of W above yields unacceptablylarge estimation error variances.l t L0 1 0..1..1 1.W y (14.. Some Properties: Rewriting Eq.Ila) [o.14) it is assumedthat the error r is statistically independent of columns of H and the vector r has a zero mean.U3 2/3 1/3J 6 3] The error covariance matrix is then given by D / \ r . (14. (14. (r/2\ y. HWH?_ H'Wy _0 This leads to the desired weighted least squares estimate (WLSE) *. It is relatively straightforward to extend the method of LSE to the weighted form of "I and to derive the foilowing form of the normal equation. . (lr/21) y.1. (t0/2t) yr where i=ky k = (H'WH)' Ht W. An lntroductionState to Estimation Power of Systems l" .Eq.r w =t l I I L The matrir HLWH ts I o. (1a. (r4. This is often chosen as a diagonal matrix for simplicity. .lJ and the matrix HtW is obtained as H '  w = f o 'o o t .rvtouern Power I = l'wf / 1 4 1 n \ \ r.1j Theweighted leastsquares estimate the vector is thenobtained (from of x as E q .15c)) of (14.3iiSl: T where W is a real symmetric weighting matrix of dimension m x ru.::1  r34 L67 where R is the covarianee the error vector r.W H)t H. .x = \ r / tn> ) [ L L_ E 6 J The error variances are now seen to be much smaller as is to be expected.The optimum value of the error covariance'matrix is then given by P. (14.lzb) it is easy to get the relation as follows.wH o'tl 10.15b) suggests that the best possiblechoice of the weighting matrix is to set w .= (1tr47)*:_ .15a) rc=lrr/21 L. the effect of introducing the weighting on the estimate is apparent.R1.(r}/Zt) y. x =kr The covariance of the error of estimation is therefore given by P. r vi.I2a). (14. Eq.( l a .2 Assumethat in the Example I4. The matrix ft is in this case found to be (Eq. Note that the covariancep" o1 is a lneasureof the accuracy of the estirnaiion and a smaiier trace of this matrix indicatesa better estimate. we want to obtain the WLSE of the variable x by choosing the following weighting matnx Nonlinear Measurements The case of special interest to the power system state estimation problem corresponds the nonlinear measurement to model. ) I r Or and =f::. ** t*1Et<ample14.r3) (14.Note that the choice of W in this case suggeststhe data for y2 is consideredmore valuable and this resultsin the components of x being more heavily dependenton )2. This implies that the estimation error ls zero on an averase. (2ot2r) y.r4) X =r + kr E{i} =E{xl If this result is compared with the result in Example I4.12b)) ln IJq. (l 4)4) is calledan unbiased estimate. (14.1) and (r4.wH) + kr x (14.11b) This pertains to minimization as the hessian 2HWH is a nonnegative definite. = KRK (14.rzb) Here the matrix k dependson the value of H and the choice of w. .ilb) as G4. = (H. using Eqs. Let us now choose the weighting matrix W = I. An estimate that satisfied Eq. The matrix Kis then obtained AS P.i.(HtRrH)l (14 15c) *=l''3 1/3t/3f L. (I4.7. 1 1 b ) ) ^ *=[ L.ellr) y.rlzt ro/2r ro/zrf 20/21 r/21J If the covariance of the measurementerror is assumedto be R = L the covariance the estimation error is obtained as (Ref.tj l l''' H.
re) where H (fr) is the Jacobianof h (x) evaluatedat i.x 1 ) +r (14.7.r fI r t u c i r u s e s i l t .possibly after / exceeds2 or 3.h ( x o ) =H s A x + r where Ay is the p^rturbed measurementand Ax is the perturbed value of the vector r.r.*'ever. A major sourceof computationin the algorithmlies in the need to updatethe Jacobianat every stageof iteration..H()' ]l' {r .)} (+.r7b) j =y_ h(3) the index of estimation In ordcr to obtain the WLSE of . t l t r ' . tyh(x)lH(i)=o (r4.4..ion t . Usualiy the iterative process is terminated wheneverthe norm of the differenceof two successive values of the estimate i 1t + l) . = .ll .Equation (14. the processof linearisationis repeatedas many times as desiredand this leads to the {qllq*tng 4erylle {qryq qf the qqb]ro4 of thq 4onlinear estimationproblem.i (/) reachesa preselecred rhresholdlevel. The index / representsthe iteration number and H lrepresentsthe value of the Jacobian evaluated at x = i (l)..As discussed earlier in Chapter6 (seeEqs." ) eq. l ' . An \\LSE of .16). c"l::'1: ) \.q.22) No from E q. In general this nonlinear equation can not be solved for the desired estimate.1e).227 i .2a. It is assumed that the components the vector h(x) arecontinuous of in their arguments and therefore may be differentiated r. (6.86) and (6.rrr..24) K(t) . . r11.vith respect to the components x.23) (r4.h t t ( / ) l } where the matrix K(D is deflned as (r4. 14. T. rl ) J \ .22) prot'ides us wirh a very I t .ris is in general. The problem is to extendthe methodof least squares order in of to estimate the vector x from the data for the vector y with these two variables being relatedthrough Eq.t. Having obtainednew estimatei .i... estjmat.we get ! = h ( x d + H u & .00". (14.i o b tai ned (Dtirnal ydue rf rhe \ect()r x. r+. n way out of this technique. i. (14.18) The necessarycondition for the index .16) !=h(x)+ r where h(x) represents rz dimensional vector of nonlinear functions of the an variablex./ :\ I / ''!' ls . i ( t + 1 ) = i ( t )+ K ( t ) { y . Hrt.20) where 1/o standsfor the Jacobian evaluated at x = x9 and the noise term r is now assurned include the effects of the higher order terms in the'Taylor to series. t ' r t t t ' t c ' s t i r l u t e .20)can be rewrittenas: (14.x.2I) A ) ' = y .1 .h t.17a) (r4.' I+'HQ].87)) it is often possibleto reducethe computations holding rhe by value of H a constant.22r i s goi ngto be I r is no r l i k e l v th a t th e e s ti ma te. ' c .is given by Eq. Using Taylor seriesapproximation. permissible in view of the fact that the change in estimate tends to be rather small after a couple of iterations.=n . Let us assumethat an difficulty is to make use of the linearisation a priori estimate xu of the vector x is available (say from the load flow solution).LH/ wHil' al w I = h(i) This yields the error of estimationof the vectol y (1.I to have a minimum at . r i .we nrust cho<lse J as follows. A flowchart for implementing the iterative algorithm is shown in Fig. (11. J=U h(fi)l'WlJ h(i)l (14.(14. F.r is then ea^silv obtainedasdiscussedearlier and this leads to the desired expressionfor the lineaized solurion of the nonlinear problem..[H. i r t t e n e r . case.I l r r t h ' c l o s e t i r t h f r Yes \ Stcp rig..* ! _I\.536  I I I Modern Power SystemAnalysis An lrylfgduction to_State Estimation PowerSystems of I S3T I (14. assumethat i To mimic our treatment of the linear measurement y represents desired estimate so that the estimateol the measLlrement could the be obtained using the relation useful result in the sensethat it shows a mechanismfor improving on the initial estimafeby making use of the available nleasurements. r i .
.2 may be used. v c c l tl rtl l ' l l tc N .. are generally comrpted by noise and the problem is that of processing an adequate set of available data in order to estimate the state vector. N Qn . . . (t) 0 I 2 1. Q r u Pr z . .t6 e..6 .56 2. . To develop explicit solutions. .6i * 0. + 5 t + 0 . . v2.J 1.5 to 2. . In fact.The active and reactive componentsof the power flow from the ith to the7th bus. (r4. on the other hand are given by the tbllowing relations. The readily available data may not provide enough redundancy (the large geographical area over which the system is spreadoften prohibits the telemeteringof all the available tnedsurements the central computing station).30) /rur o o IN (N .28) Let us assume that fhe vector y has the general form J = lPt . Let the correct value of x/ be eclualto 2 and assumethat due to the effect of r the measuredvalue of y is found to be 8.l. . . defined to as the ratio m.j=  vil I Vjl I Yij I cos (d. P.2s) (r4. .. The table below gives the results of the first few iterations. The load flow data..6t + 6. . H.= D N I Yj   Vjl lYij I cos (.I sin Iij lrollr2l As noted earlier. assumethat the initial estimatex (0) is taken to be equal to 1.the state vector x may be defined as t hc 2N . H2 is the of the partial derivatives of the active .26) j r . Y = x 3+ r The JacobianH.. Q7.ti (Dl3} where we have used W = 1. 14. it is necessaryto start by noting the exact forms of the model equations for the components of the vector y (k). if so desired. . Also.:83E.) .8 in order that the computedvalue of the statemay have the desiredaccuracy. is easily obtained in this caseand the iterative algorithm takes the explicit form i (t + 1)= i (t) + t3i (Dlz {y .3 STATIC STATE ESTIMATION OF POWER SYSTEMS the uragnitudeand l/U representsthe angle of the where I IU I repre5ents admittance of the line connecting the lth and7th buses. Pu )2 l..dependingon type of bus. the voltageangles to svstem is assumed have reacheda steadystate problem is then a static problem and the methodsof Sec. I I todern powerSystem Analvsis of to An tntroduction State Estimation Power Systems  539 _r Consider simple caseo1'ascalar variablex and assunlethat the relationship the _xls glven Dy It is thus apparentthat the problem of estimation of the power system state 'is a nonlinear problenn or and may be solved using either the batchpr:ocessing Section 3.27) Q . j = l % l I V j l l Y i j l s i n ( d ' 6 i * 0 t ) I viP I Y.3 of Reference 1]. PN Q t .'.2e) The Jacobian H will theh have the form Ht H3 Hs H_ H7 Hz H4 H6 Hs (14. (14. v o l l agcangl cs62. 6" and thc N vol tage magnitudes/1. . * N 4ti) (r4. for a system with N buses.  ll b i n v 1 l .0 3.. Let P.= D j:1  % l I v j l l Y i j l s i n( .. arfi Qi denote the active and reactive power injections of ith bus.. ) _) a It is apparent the algorithmwould yield the correctsolutionafter several that iterations. Also. 9 P.I y N I l / (r4. is the N x power injections wrt 6's. 7s.5 2. 14. .. These are related to the components of the state vector through the following equations.l v i P l Y . l c o s ./n should have a value in the range 1.5. if the sequentialprocessingformula [see condition.The redundancyfactor. some 'psuedo measurements' which represent the computedvalues of such quantitiesas the active andreactiveinjections some remotebusesmay alsobe includerlin the at vector y (k). v".It may be necessary to irlehrde data for the power flows in both the directions of some of the tie the lines in order to increase the redundancy factor. submatrix where /" is the iclentity matrix of dimension N.
(14. (14. andH^ become null result that the linearised model equation rnay be approximatedas: with the of to An tntroduction State Estimation Power Systems ^ fH.N1 j H q ( i . There are several forms of fast decoupled (seee. the submatricesH.J".2. tl4l).N . . . However.  yil I vjl I IUI  COS \Oi. 1. N . "'. . this case is very close to the case of load flow analysis and therefore provides a good measure of the relative strengthsof the methods of load flow and state estimation.N+2. Q) + tHl u) w.37) is being used in order to estimatethe angle part of the statevector.Oj+ / C a  Aij) I = n \ . The injections only stateestimation algorithm is then obtained directly from the results of sec 14..38) respectively. 6 t+ 0 t ) i = 1 . N' (r4. (14. one should select Wo = R o' and Wn = Rq" j:1 Qa32a) .2. Hq (j)l' nl u) wo ur.g.6 i +7 i i ) n i=N+1.. Eq. it is possible to ensurea good enough redundancy if there are enough tie lines in the system.2.o*^:::: = Av f A y . . then. (14.we obtain the following nearly decoupledstate estimation algorithms. . n I.1:' rrwe . 2 . A Z) .2.37) (14. One can obtain two measurements using two separatemeters at the two ends of a single tieline.2.33) may be used to determinethe Jacobianat any specifiedvalue Equation of the systemstatevector. . i u Q + r ) = x d 0 + t H i 0 w p H tU ) l . and Ho are then determined easily as follows.2. Two special casesof interest are those correspondingto the use of only the active and reactive iniections and the use of onl flows in the vector y.l= 0. similarly one may assume 6i U) = 0o for all i and 7 while using Eq.[x)= D N l V i l l V j l l Y i j l c o s( 6 .35) Alp= H1 Ax5+ ro Alq= H4 Axr . and x6 as therr suppose<iiy and Eq.1 components of the state x. 1 '= l A r r l '= l j l^'r'r. .h r l i U ) l } . j ) = l V i l l V j l l Y i j I s i n ( r { .34) parrition. ( D { t o .In the second case. .. if the covariances R* 11d Rn of the effors r. \ (14.i = I . . 2 .22). 'Note i .' H . lY. (14.2N j:1 (r4.. l s i( 6 . ine.6 i + 0 ..A flow estimationalgorithmsbasedon suchconsiderations chart for one schemeof fast decoupled stateestimation in shown in Fig. As mentioned earlier.6i * 0. There are other advantages this arrangement of as will be discussed later.. .36) In this case. j = I..33) that Eqs. (14. ..34) may be rewritten in the decoupledform as the following two separateequationsfor the two partitionedcomponentsof the statevector (14. there are a total of 2N components of y compared to the 2N .38) in order to estimate the_yllltage part of the state vector. Such approximations allow the two equationsto be completely decoupledbut may not yield very good solutions.A betterway to decouplethe two equationswould be to use the load consnnt vaiues in Eq.54q f Modern Po T N x N submatrix of the partialderivatives of the active power injections wrt  7l' and so on. Since the problem is nonlinear. (/ + 1)= i.31) Based on thesetwo equations.32b) The elements of the submatrices Hp H2. It may be possible to assume that vi U) = I for all i and 7 while' Eq. and r(t are assumedknown."'.D t v * _ i l l v j l l y N _ i . it is convenientto employ the iterative algorithm given in Eq.37) and (14.37) flow sglutions for x. the model equation has the form !=hlxl+ r with the components the nonlinear of functiongivenby (14. + r n (r4. . The Injections Only Algorithm I 541' I (14. ol ' rol (r4. . H t ( i . In the first case.i ) j = 1. . N . j=I. N' Ia3 \tt J)= r f / r ! \   r t I I t r   r . j=I.j' Lor"l.N1 = l v i l l Yi j I c o s (d. There is thus almost no redundancy of measurements. H z Q . ..... Since these two data should have equal magnitudes but opposite signs. ) = l V i l l Y i j l s i n( { .6 i + 0 i ) . . N i. (14.."'.hq ti (j)ll j = 0  2 p where the subscripts andq are usedto indicatethe partitionsof the weighting and the nonlinear function h (.) i = 7.2."'..) which correspond to the vectors yp matrix W *rd lerespectively. H. ) i = I . Jacobian H will also be a sparsematrix since I is a sparse matrix. . [13].2. . this arrangement also provides with a ready check of meter malfunctioning. I4.38) are not truly decoupledbecausethe partitions of the nonlinear function dependon the estimate of the entire state vector. L.38) h.
= lB.^t t\u AT. j = 9 0 " . I j Example14. .requiressome approximation linear estimation ln the line tlow only algorithm.26AQr AV' = g39 AQ ' + 0'14 AQ r values of These equationsshould be used in order to translatethe measured int power inject ions o t heist inr at es in thc pcrturhat ions t he act iveanclr eact ive of of the perturbations the state variables. Q t = i r i l i i V r i ' .is the vector of the errors where B is the nodeelernent Since this is a linear equation. The value of the Jacobian matrix evaluated at the above nominal values of the variables turns out to be I This algorithm has been developed in order to avoid the need for solving a nonproblem.0.39) incidencernatrix and r.AP.l y t 2 l l y r   v r l c o s6 I f we c h o o s e e i n i ti a lv a l u e s Vf l = l V . o . wBl.40) is that the vector z is not directly measurablebut needs to be generatedfrorn the tie line flow data. l = 1. I .78 AQz . . techniqueto generatethe estimate as  *.Bt wz (r4.one may use the WLSE in the voltage elata. 14. y n l l y l   V r l c o s$ Q z = l Y z z l V r l ' . The main problem with Eq. Yr  V2l lYrrl sin E Pz=lVtl lVzl I Y.which as seenearlier.2 . .the data tor the active and reactive tie or other. The Line Only Algorithm ls . r l l i 1 i * 1 t ) . 3 *11 Application of the LSE then yields the following expressions for the estimatesof the perturbationsin the three state variablesaround their chosen initial values: A i .AP. A l s o l e t Y r r = j z z = 2 a n d y n = y z t = l . Qf = Qi = 1.rlsin 6.0.40) where the weighting rnatrix may be set equai to the inverse of the covariance of rrif this is known. A s s u m i n go s s l e s lsi n e . consider the "imple 2bus system shown in Fig. are estimators the sameas thosegiven that the decoupiedstate null matricesso above. 0 . 'j on.* ( j ) l l = .2 \ an2 > \\r' \ (3'9) Fig.Let z denote this vector. the correspondi ng th l power values are P f = Pf .A model equationfor this vector as may be expressed z= Bx + r (r4. The power relations in this casewould be Pt= . (14.1 4 .542  Modern Po*er System Analysis of to An Introduction State Estimation Power Systems  543 1_ F i g .4 In order to illustrate an applicationof the injections only algorithm. 1"".3. 14. partitionsHranrl Htare to It is interesting note that for lhe sirnpleexample. 6o2= 0" . the in line flows are processed order to generate vector of the voltage difference acrossfte tielines.= 0.
maybe expressecl theform in i = LB. is well known. [1] in order to obtain the state estimate at any given time point. 4 . CONSIDERATIONS ^1^*i+L*^ ai^.42).44) Note that the original problem of estimation of x from the data for z is a linear pr ob l e m s o th a t th e s o l u ti o ng i v e n by E q. I4. to T4. which in turn has necessitatecl use of iterative Eq. \" Internal system Boundary system . 14.42) In view of this nonlinear relation. ot state vartables). A techrrique reduce computationalburden is describecl Ref. the buseswhich provide links betweenthese internal and external subsystems constitute the third subsystem referredto as the 'boundary' subsystem. to in []91.tV 7. for of This shows that the vector z is related to the vectorsx and ashion and one ffidy use the notation  545 T (14. One of as these is referredto as the 'internal' subsystemand consistsof those buses in which we are really interested. y) (14.The maftix M becomesmore and more illconditioned as its condition number increases magnitude.i ] Here Z. W B]t gr I4z.tdenotesthe voltage acrossthe line connectingthe ith ancltheTth buses. The concept decoupled of estimationis easily extencled the case of the lirre flows [15].44)' Compared to the injections only iterative algorithm. For any given power network./ \ . being a nonlinear relationship.the followine relation holds. the data for z needto be generatedusing the nonlinear transforma_ tion in Eq' (14.41) z = g (x. the identification of the three subsystems may be done either in a natural or in an artiflcial way.Whether or not these errors create illconditioning of the information matrix may be determined from a knowledge of the condition number of the matrix./= 0 .lJ PIEi)t'f lttrlt illl rL^ tll€ ^r: pICL:CUlllg sections are computationally intensive. t. not be solvedexceptthrougha can numerical approach (iterative solution). the power network is said to be observable.25) and./ Flg.43) This. Problem of lllconditioning i (j + r) = lBt wBll H w s [i (i). subsystem'Finally. (14. 1 ..40) Ecl.26) are still valid bur must be rewritten after indicating that the voltage rnagnitudes and angles are new functions of the discrete time index ft. This number is defined as the ratio of the largestand the smallest eigenvaluesof the inforrnation rnatrix. the voltagesof all real systemvary As randomly with time and should therefore be considered to be stochastic processes' is thus necessary make use of the sequentialestimation It to techniquesof Ref.6 EXTERNAL SYSTEM EOUTVAIENCTNG [20] Trackingthe stateestimation a given power systemis importantfor real tirne of monitoring of the system. (14.Wnyr B. 14. the (14. so if lt1 has a rank n. we need to first considerthe question of existenceof a solution of the state estimation problem. The power relationsin Eqs. y]. the prese1t algorithm has the advantage a constantgain matrix [8. However.This will happenif rank of f/ ls equal to n (no.It is. / SOME COMPUTATIONAL qtafin qnd fhe trqo r 16 r r u v rl \z lrn o o r )frirmro qiln u l r v c r rf r  . Factorization helps to reduceillconditioning but may not reducethe computationalburden.r^61^r Ctr5\Jl tLllll.there is no guarantee that the required inversion of the information matrix will exist.there is some small but definite error introduced due to the finite word length and quantisation.43)is Considerthe staticWLSE formula lEq. 2 .5 Brrfh the One of the widely practiced methods used for computationalsimplification is to divide the given system into three subsystems shown in Fig.very important t o pa y a tte n ti o nfo s u c h c o m p u ta ti onalssuesas i l l condi ti oni ng. therefore.lnverse of information matrix Mn.4 TRACKING STATE ESTIMATION SYSTEMS t16l OF POWER Even if the given power system is an observable system in terms of the measurements selectedfor the state estimation purposes. (14. .W I (i.4. of This resultin a considerable computational simplification.llb)l which servesas the srarting point fbr all the algorithrns. y) 04. . . The secondsubsystem consistsof those buses which are not of direct interest to us and is referred to as the 'external. i computer storageand tinnerequirements.j Qi . (74. Vi i = Z i i [@ i i . (r4. The iterative form of Eq.Somedetailedresultson power systemstateestimation in using Cholesky factorizationtechniquesmay be fbund in tl8l. (14.40) i s the opri nralsol rrti on.stands the impedance the line..Since one can always choose a nonsingular l4l. 14. = Ht wH should exist otherwisethere is no stateestimate...r++  I power System Analysis Moctern An lntroduction state Estimation powersystems to of Network Obsenrability [17] V. However. particularly for large power networks which may have nlore than200 importantbuses.(14.V i Y . During multiplications of the matrices.
+ Ayu. Quite often. If we assLlme measurement residualshave the Gaussiandistribution with zero mean and the varLance 4. Ayi H.fl6 l I Po Modern An lntroductionto state Estimationof Power systems Bad Data Detection [231 t{7 I To illustrate the simplification of the stateestimation algorithm..then for corresponding data is taken to be a bad data.l(x\ exceeds of Bad Data [231 Identification Once the presenceof bad data is detected./r. Axr).47) The conrponent Ayu" may be estimated if the terms Ayy...rattsduccr Transtlucers malfunctioning so that it simply no longer gives accuratereadings.46) the where Ayo" represents injections intc the boundary buses from the external Ay66is the injection from the boundary buses znd Ay6. This '..Since the system measurement linearised this equation may be written as is partitioned into three subsystems.] l^. The estimation the remaining data and the bad data detection and identification tests are is The ability to detectand identify bad measurements extremely valuableto a load dispatch centre.h(i)l'w ly in y by computingthe value obtainedon the basisof the concernedy.fbr example.If it is closeto 1. flrst nc:te that the trrethod tll least square ensures that the /ltgr haritrminimum rflLW Ta: 1r (t)lvalue when x . Care must be exercisedwhile choosing where o.x\.1 ..45) to be rewritten as of Ayo. Ihus. by more than t 3e.nlAxl.It is therefbreimportant to develop techniquesfor detecting the presenceof faulty data in the measurementvector at any given point of time.i + Aynr.. If this happenS more than one t r lur t t con)p ot r ct ol'_y.h(r)].:..tl i ol lTl tc may be employed with the line or conceptof external systemequivalencing also.It is assurned approximatedas n A*. i . A*. (. dependson the boundary subsystetn state Axr.I. the estimationalgorithm of will yielcl unreliableestimates the state.tion.in is also a random quantity. we may start by choosing the level d of the test by the relation' significance I'lJ (x) > cLlJ (. H"" A*.. shouiciiie in the range. l s.and H1.c L.it is simple to cary out the cL. On the other hand. rnixedCatasituations 14.Once the valuc of c is determined. Huu Hra o Ho. where A It estimated from the relation H = Ayt. deviationof r. and Ayuo ne Ax1. and then subtractedfrom the measuredvalue computedas H.1.the minimum value . (= Ht. This implies that if all the data processedfor state should be close to the estimatiorrare reliable. considerthe equationfor the injections only case. i being the estimate of [y . . Hu. is the injection buses.. m. bacl nr will be consiclerecl if it deviatesfrom the tneanof r'. (14.r. if one or ntore of the data for )' tre estimation are violated and of unreliable. to identify the fauity data and eliminate these from lbr the vector y befble it is processcd state estinration. .t U pcrprcscrnts cffccf Jacohiltn if the hottnclitry the external subsysternon the that accounts for the eff'ects of subsystern Equation(14. Ol. is the standard c.3o i ( )i ( 3or with 95Voconfidenceievel.221 ( r4. To appreciate this. Ayr. If the scalarso obtainedexceedssome threshold Ti . 0 H.cornponenty..h. and Ax6 depends on Axr.i...it is iraperative that these be before identified so that they could be removed from the vector of measurements it is processed.re c hy making use of the table sitrrltign..)l*. = H t.)=l'. then the magnitucieof the resiciuaiy. then the computed value of .n averagevalue (=L). the test maf producemany parameter the value of threshold 'talse alal1s' anclil it is ttrtr large.[..t.rrerrrert vector Ayt is not completely of inclepenclent the external subsystem state Axu since Ay..BAD DATA 127. c: being a suitable nuutber."] (r4.1.ol .[t is alstl ilttpoltant to rnodify the estirnationalgorithmsin a way that will permit tnore reliable state o i es t i ma ti o nn th e p !e s e n c e f b a d d ata.One way of doing this is to evaluatethe components of the that the residual !..2.2. then the assumptiorrs the least squares the computed value of J*1nwill deviate significantly from I. .48) ivc fhc whcrc Ht. that the term Ayu.o1n equal to L and its variance is equal to 2L.. (Note that the data for the. if any one of tlte cotnputedresidual turns out to be significantly larger in magnitude than three times its standarddevia. or instruments the data transmission ing of either the measuring itscll rttay be rnay have becn wilcd incorrcctlyor tlto l.48) has a lower dimensionthan the original boundarysubsystem.. Since the variable r is random. u cc t nc a s u rc l n c rtt l L rl ti o n n d w o rrl rltl tcrcl orc i rtvol vcrcss ctl tttl l tr(. It turns out that the mean of ... the test worrld fail to detect nlany bad data. whether or not . To select an appropriatevalue of c.7 TREATMENT A convenient tool fcr detecting the presenceof one or more bad data in the vector y at any given point of time is based on the'Chi Square Test'. One or more of the data may be affected by rnalfunctionsystemor both..).. A*. (14.05 which corresponds a 5Vofalse alarm of to [t is thcn possible find the valr. + ru (r4. If such faulty daia are included in the vector Ay./. woulc! result in part of Eq. Ax. for It is thus possibleto developa reiiable schetrre the detection of bad data .r) lbllows chi squaledistribution) = 6/ to We rnay select.I*1nwould follow a chi squaredistribution with L = m n is degrees of freedom. r may be assumed to be a Gaussian variable and then . hcn t hc con'lponcnt vinglhc lar gcst csidualis assunt edo r( algorithmis rerun with be thc bad dataand is removedfrom y.4s) ay" It may be noted that the internal me .. we conclude that the vector y includes some bad data. i = 1. test X@). . may be fiom the internal buses. = y.d = 0. Ayr= Ayt.
5 small or zero during factoization. Obviously.49) for the estimation in index is that it is still a quadratic the function g(.49b) where a. (14. . we power system beyond the measurements MWs and MV ARs at generators through pormally know the generated telemetry channels (i..r) for the quadratic and the nonquadratic choices. UbsefvaDlllty Can De CIICCKCU UUtrrlB I I ./("r)may bc cxpressed as I(i) = Dy.5 this is true when the rank of measurentent to the number of unknown state variables.rrrlr . the index assumesa large value for a data that is too far removed from its expectedvalue. In this casethe network is observable. are the functions of the observability analysis algorithm. I4.' r. To finil the value ol an injection without nteasuringit. To avoid this overemphasis the effoneousdata anclat the same time to retain on the analytical tractability of the quadratic: perlbrmanceindex.providing appropriateweightage pseudomeasurements.5ra) as are and its elements computed wherethe matrix C is diagonal Ct = l. 14. to improve observability. In this case.the componentsof the function g (y) are defined by the following relation. The reason that the LSE algorithm does not perform very well in the presence of bad data is the fact that becauseof the quadraticnature of J(x). let us choose 549.' ^i"^+ L^^^^. Selection of sy. we tlrust know the currently being made. the performance indcx . = ai. There may be several possiblechoicesfor this f'unction.remote terminal or telemetry and software data processing in the central computer. Hr(D CTWCH Q)Tfl (D WCtfiDI (74.The ability to perform state estimation depends on whether are .49) is to ensurethat the data producingresidualsin excessof the thresholdlevel will not changethe estimate.rI l:^ C^^t^i^+l^ lilulullzittLltrll. it is seen that the main effect of the particularchoice of the estimationindex in Eq. f ot l.s b) 1 Comparing this solution with that given in Eq.e.eliminated and replaced by pseudoor calculatedvalues. A minimum amount of data is necessaryfor State Estimation (SE) to be effective./o . explained earlier in Jacobiantlratrix is equal Sec. (14.For example. When sufficient measurementsare available SE can obtain the state vector of the As whole system.rvtrrr.49a) where 8(t) is a nonlinearfunction of the residual !. A more analytical way of determining whether a given data is enough for SE is called observability analysis. is a preselectedconstant threshold level.8 NETWORK OBSERVABILITY MEASUREMENTS AND PSEUDO /(i) =s'(t) w sG) (14.i) and so the LSE theory may be mimicked in order to derive the following iterative formuia for the state of to An tntroduction State Estimation Power Systems estimate.A convenientform is the socalled'quadratic flat' form. the gain matrix may be singular.l o . (. An auxiliary problem in state estimation is where to add additional data or to pseudomeasurements a power systemin orderto improvethe accuracyof the calculated state i. As we will see later bad rneasurement clataare detected. lo.5 shows a typicai variation of J. filling of missing data. g i (j ) = l i . ftx ' l . 1 a. and the systemmay not be observable. f or lilo.) . The additional measurements represent a cost for the physicat transducers. (r4.sufficientmeasurements well distributedthroughoutthe system. Figure 14. . c. of Bad Data The procedures described so far in this section are quite tedious and time consuming and rnay not be utilized to remove all the bad data which may be presentin the vectory at a given point of time.! I powerSystem Modern Analysis performed again to find out if there are additional bad data in the measurement set.> u. S ai = 0.s0) and each componenthas a quadratic nature for small values of the residual but has a constantmagnitudefor residual magnitudesin excessof the threshold. fo r j . '^. these measurementswould generally be known to the . > a' (14. It forms an integral part olany real time state estimator. I t The main advantage of the choice of the form (14.YvrJ \ Fig.548 . This is achieved by the production of a null value for the matrix C for large values of the residual.e.I I m (14. 14. The rank of the measurement Jacobian matrix is dependent on the locations and types of available as rneasurements well as on the network topology.22). Tf Il 4IrJ Prv\rr ^. This would be possible if the estimation index J(x) is chosen to be a nonquadratic function. It may often be desirableon the other hand to modify the estimation algorithms in a way that will minimise the influence of the bad data on the estimatesof the state vector.stem.
E E E E C O e C N'E topology.rk configurator. kceps 6n .Yt = t h l m I drx F ]U tr o t o g a CnF a trJ I I o 1f o o o U) I Io (! (E I o o o o L E a L n v ^ v o (L I I c o o o a U) L .! I LUI q sf E.Further. Figtrrc 1r4.An introduction state Estimation powqr systems to of stateestimator). care must be taken in assigning weights to various types of measurements. Il ' In realtime environment state estimatorconsistsof different modules the such as network topologyprocessor.tor or netwc. Before running the SE.6 it schcrnatic is cliagtarn showing the info.clentetered currertt breaker'/switch stertus must be used to restructurethe electricalsystem model. However. n F  I I t . the state estimatorwith a reasonable value to use as a pseudomeasurement at any bus in the system. if required. we can perhapscommunicate with the operatorsin the plant control room by telephoneand ask for these values and enter them manually. If this approach is adapted. n e l w o r K r a E . u . we must know how the transmission lines are rnnnenfprl fn l l ^^ L \ / fLrror u lrn\^/'c u ( r J r L rl i c r r r s r .'is run periodic:ally) pseudorlreasureftlents.we can give . as Thus.. we could use the most recentlyestimatedvaluesfiom the estimator(a. t i i [261.tpop.A conventional network topologyprogram usescircuit breaker statusinformation and network connectivity datato determinethe connectivity of the network.i. o a U) o L o f a (! . [251. The analog measurementsof generator output would be rJirectlyused by the AGC program (Chapter 8). L bA l ! o 9 F G .l .us c l.tgy program or system status proce. The system gets information from remote terminal unit (RTU) that cncodc lllcasLlrclllcnt tl'ullsduccr 0rrtputs opcnccl/closccl ancl staLus inlbmration into digital signals which are sent to the operation centre over communications circuits. If thesechannelsare out. ( r rl .ssgming that i'. Control centre can also transmit commands such as raiseflower to generators and open/closeto circuit breakers and switches. i. Similarly.rnationflow between the variorrs functions to be performed in an operationscontrol centre compurer system.hc r. rest of the data will be processed by the stateestimator befbre being used fbr other functions such as OLF (Optimal Loacl Flow) etc. if we require a loadbus MW and MVAR for a pseudo measurement' could use past recordsthat show the relationship we between an individual load and the total qyrtemload. e .tl ncl l 6 i l_ o o I = E o) o o) i LLI > i o .  q o o I E o L A '=.A review of the principal observability analysis and m et erp l a c c rn c na l g ' ri th rn s s a v u i ra hrcn I(cr' . T4.o 0(E L o I I I I I I I XH z 8 F .pseu4g to the measurement locations obtaininga completeobservabilityof the sysremare fbr available in Ref. This is called the network tr. ll U) F O o 6 E o b 8g E E. lhrs changingand hcncel. observabilityanalysis. Pseudomeasurements increasethe data redundancyof SE.9 APPLICATION ESTIMATION OF POWER SYSTEM STATE I I FSI t  U ' E t.stateestimationand bad data processing.The network topology processoris required for ail power systemanalysis. Techniques that can he usecl cleternrine rnctcror. if we have just had a telernetry failure.\.oii' >. We canestimate the tstal systetn load quite accuratelyby f)nding the total power being generated and estimating the line losses.
P .P.K.031 j0.Operation and Control.6 if the power injected at buses are given as Sr = 1. 2. P. Bus I is a referencebus. I q94. 2 14.F. 6. 6.) + 8 +4 + 0. 14. A'J. 14. 1 4 . Tolerance= 0. I. 19gg.P.wer System Analysis and Control. V'. and B. N.t tr /1  LEMS PROB 14.assume have the followine characteristics.. Kusic.01 0.356. D. Q. lvl.1864". It was earlier originated in the aerospaceindustry. P.with latestmodel form the basis for the economic dispatch (ED) or minimum emission dispatch (MED). P.l and {.0001. Wood.791. [31]. contingency analysis program etc.1. ComputerAidetl pr.5 . p 14. G'L. NY.2. and D. = 0. Nagrath. Reviews of the state of the art in stateestimation algorithms basedon this modelling approach were published by Bose and Clements[27] and Wu [28].1. Tata McGrawHill.jtogether.0 4.PrenticeHall..0 30.L Ahson..1 For Ex.9982q l2.4297".0and 'S3= . 3 Full scale (MW) Meter Standard Deviation ( o ) in full scale (Mw) 32 26 l1.3Given a single line as shown in Fig. state estimators have been installed on a regular basis in nern'energy (power system or load dispatch) control centres and have proved quite helpful.1. Va . Mtrnticclli' A.stutus and parameterestimation capabilities has recently been proposed by Alsac et al [30]. Since 1970s.recl A Apprctat:h. Sz = 0. 1999.02 0.j0.J. Boston.5 + 71.080215 l.8 0.r1..rtinrution in Eler:tric: Power Sysrems Gcnerali. two measurementsare available. John Wiley.. A. Wollenberg. Kothari. V\ lAns: Vl = l/0".03831 Final values: Vt . = t. ComputerAided Power Systems Analysis. New Delhi. using DC load flow.. Kothari and S. Kluwcr Academic Publishers.3. that the threemeters 14.J.j. ( . 19g6. Reviewsof externalsystemmodelling A are available in 1291. Meter 1 Mt2 y0. Mahalanabis. Consider Wt= Wz= Wz = l.0"./. The new role of stateestimationand other advancedanalytical functions in competitive energy markets was discussedin Ref.ilr l I Po Modern An lntroductionto State Estimationof Power The output of the stateestimator i. t/l I lUl lL. 4. generalisedstate estimator with integrated state..'11. 1996. State li. [32]. Using flat start.15 pu.:  1rl l\. Meter Mrz Mtt Mzz Full scale (MW) Accuracy (MW) o (pu) Mrz Mzr 100 100 1 4 REFEREN CES Books l. calculate the best estimate of the power flowing through the line. 5. 100 r00 100  I lU{lDLll nmnnf t. 3. Power SystemEngineering.. Znd Ed.A comprehensive bibliography on SE from 196889 is available in Ref. Tata McGrawHill.. find the estimatesof lV. W   l5 Meter Meusured value (MW) Mtz Mrz Mt.736"1.5 . V2 = 1.e. F i g .04223 10. 70.002 d2 given the Calculate the best estimate for the phase angles 4 *d f. 4= 0 rad.2 For samplesystemshown in Fig. Power Generation.1pu (1ooMVAbase) [l Mzt 2 l Meter Reading Fig. Further Readin The weighted leastsquares approach to problems of static state estimation in power systems was introduced by Schweppe 11969741. Ncw Dclhi.3.04.
554. pp. Debs. pp 329337. inc. Grainger. Int. l. Jan 1990. Clements. aI. Elec.91.. 32.IEEE Trans. ParameterEstimation.. pp 345359.C.. et. and A. 100. nl "Flqd T)cre Detecfion and ldentification". 1994. and Clements. Sept/Oct 1979. 100.E. r Lt. Aug.^r:6 r\V6lrrrt rJ r . Monticelli. PAS98. and V. Quintana.. . g. IEEE Trans. NY. EleC. Power System Analysis. al. 1974.J. pp 972982' and C.pp 120135' ll.R. al. anclR. May 1990.J. Larson. SimgcsCosta. "A Dynamic Estimatorfor Tracking the Stateof a 16.A. pp 12601268' A. Int. Mafaakher. "Power SystemStatic StateEstimation.t2 4J.. Proc. 4. "Estimation of External Network Equivalentsfrom Internal System Data". 3. Rossicr. Power and Energy Syst. et... for Electric Power Systems". IEEE Proc. O.F. 31. Wildes. Schweppe. 2. SirnoesCosta. 1970.pp 950961.. and A.. I i i r.pp 16701678' A iZ.. ibid. IEEE Trans' 89. F. Wu. A. Jan/Feb1976. Oct 1983. C.. et. J.M. F. K1upholz. Quintana. and R. Garcia.. Hanson. IEEE Trans."A Fast DccouplcdStatic Statc H.3. pp 8087.C. IEEE Trans.W.J. 1998. No.. et. al.IEEE Trans. K. pp 691698' Algorithm Row Processing "An Orthogonal A 19. "Observability Methods and optimal Meter Placement".. Horisbcrgcr.. Int.McGrawHill. Management Dispatch and Congestion D. 7979."Power SystemObservability: PracticalAlgorithm Using Nctwork Topology".C. and F. Aug. April 1990. "RealtimeModelling of Power Networks". J. Monticelli. "Power System State Estimation: A Survey". BoSe.. H. and W. pp 6268. al. 27. in the No.. no. 1965 g. et. Rom. ll and lll".'l I j I t . "Genetalized State Estimation".J. for Power System SequentialState Estimation"..pP 556564. 22. F. 1975. 1975.. 12.. aI. No.K. 12. No. Vol. Dcbs. PAS90. PAS95. Vol.Mercel Dekker. et. 1 4 .Vol. J. Papers F. "Optimum Metering Design Using Fast Decoupted Estimator". "Fast DecoupledStateEstimationand Bad 21. Parts I and II.C. NY'. Estimator pp 2 O8 2 1 5 . Vol. 75. NJ. and E. April 1990. Dee 1987...E. IEEE Trans. M. Handschin. Int: J.R.A.S. PAS89. 1980' 26. Alsac. lZ. 16981708.Vol 13.P. eL. Richarcl 13. 2. of the IEEE. Power. and V."static State Estimation in Electric Power System".. 99' 1980' pp 15341542' A lg.Vol. "Transmission Emerging Energy Market Structures". Solving Least SquaresProblens. 13. 94."A Robust Numerical Techniquefor Power SystemStateEstimation". PrenticeHall Inc' NJ. 1981. Estimation Theory.L. al. 1989)". IEEE Trans' Power Sys/. Coufto. 30. "Fast DecoupledEstimators".pp 14661474. PAS94. R. Abreu. Stevenson. Schweppe. IEEE Trans. 1970. 5. et.IEEE Trans. 12. Elec.. MeJjl.Parts 10.. "Bibliography on Power System State Estimation (1968Vol. 12. IEEE Trans. Elec. Vol. Power System". or @ e . J. et.89.B. Vol.l Analysls PowerSystem Modern  of to An Introduction State Estrmation Power Systems _TI 555 6. Power and Energy Syst. A.H. i974. Nov 1998. IEEE Trans'. Schweppe.F. J.D. H. IEEE Trans. Lawson. E. on Power Systems. Special Issue on Computersin Power Svstem Operations. Deautsch.pp 8993. 1 5 .. A. Sorenson. J. 1971' pp 27182725' 25. pp 16451652. PAS98.H.F.pp Measurcments. POWer. Garcia. No. A. IEEE Trans. 1981' pp 3'79r3799. 5.7.F. Dopazo.Power Sysr.. al. 1990. 20. 1972. "A Critical Review on External Network Medelling for Online Security Analysis". Estimation".. Shirmohammadi. Dara Processing". "Bad Data Analysis for Power System State Estimation". 29. G. 62. Wu. 145151. PrenticeHall. Handschin.pp 10691075.S.Vol. PP 94103' in "Bad Data Suppression Power SystemState 24..aP 76ff7=1ffi2: 28. "State Estimation in Power Systems". 7.IEEE Trans.A.pp 222235. IEEE Trans. Monticelli and P. Larson. "State Calculation of Power Systems from Line Flow PartsI and ll". Power System. D. ..
Yet another way of irnproving the system is performanee to operate it under near balancedconditions so as to reduce the ho* of legative sequence currents thereby increasing the system's load capabilityand reducingpower loss' ( loading( ii) st eadyline A transm ission hast hr cccr it icalloadings i) nat ur al line and (iii) thermallimit loading. Here the reactive power flow is controlled by at installing shunt compensating devices (capacitors/reactors) the load end reactive power.:_. dynamic resonance. These include steadystatestability. the latest technology of Flexible AC TransmissionSystem (FACTS) will be introduced towards the end of the chaPter.It is not easy to acquire new rights of way. However. voltage collapse and subsynchronous topics.8) are available these Several technology can certainly be used to overcome any of the stability limits. the power generationand load mttst balance at all times. stability.Thesecompensators support. essential alleviate some of to theseproblems'series/shunt compensation has beenin usefor past many years to achieve this objective.the system rnay havc voltagecollapse.. thereisinadequate if reactive power. and the need to provide open access to generatingcompanies and customers have resultedin less securityand reduced quality of supply. To some extent. transient stability. steadystate . There is a possibility of converting a singlecircuit to a doublecircuit line to the loading caPabilitY. and ground clearance. There are certain stability issues that limit the tlansmission Stability Issues. there is only a few percent margin for such selfregulation. to alleviatethe problemsof power system outlined above. In a power system. increase are however.lf systemcollapse' Alternatively. compensationin power systemsis..3 LOAD COMPENSATION 15.:. For a given nominal voltage rating it is often possible to normal operatingvoltagesby l07o (i. cailccr . wind conditions.^r+^ :. therefore.greaterdemands have beenplacedon the transmission network.:t#'ji.1 INTRODUCTION For reduction of cost and improved reliability. [See Chapter 13 of Ref. 71.availability of sor to loads at minimum cost and pollr deregulatedelectric service environme to the competitive environmentof reli Nowadays. many lines are designed very conservatively. conditions of the conductor. given the insignificant erectricarstorage.The FACTS on gooclbooks l. absence of longterm planning.ensurethat dynamic and transientovervoltages within limits.For a compensated the starestability limit is the lowest and before the thermal loading limit is reached.l:ffL. increase Dieletric Limitations From insulationpoint of view. most of the world.urr. Increased demands on transmission.2 LOADING CAPABILITY There are three kinds of limitations for loading capability of transmission system: (i) Thermal (ii) Dielectric (iii) Stability Thermal capabitity of an overhead line is a function of the ambient temperature. generation If is less than roacl. It is desirable power factor. 15. l. capability.iilTi: .440 kV). natural loading stability limit is arrived.7 .e.f compensating power systems various and typesclfcompensating crevices. 6.rrj". and these demandswill continue to rise becauseof the increasingnumber of nonutility generators and greatercompetitionamong utilitics the'rselves. in which casethe final limits would be thermal and dielectric' 15. and thereby reducing the road. V profile and pf.rru. and consurned generated bringing about proper balancebetween the power transfer capability of the system This is most effective in improving both economicallyand technicallyto ancl its voltagestability.e.voltageanclfrequency d'op. frequency collapse. 2. 400 kV . This is why someutilities impose operatethe systemnear uriity a penalty on low pf loads. in series and irr shunt at ihe line (or even in the midPoint)' ends Apart from the wellknown technologies of compensation.s electric power systems continueto be intercor of diversity of loads.in Compensation lglver Systems  I 55? in can be connecteci the system in two ways.. . with Load compensation is the managementof reactive pcwer to improve power quality i. One should. load rhen increase con"se.the electrical system is self'regulating. This chapter is devoteclto the stucly of various methods..
When solidstatedevices are used for switching off capacitorsand inductors. Various compensatingdevicesare: o Capacitors . So a series capacitive reactance reduces the reactance voltage drop of the line. These are normally connected at the end of the line and/or at midpoint of the line. This results in improvement in performanceof the system as below. is known as a bank of capacitors. The purpose of series compensationis to cancel part of the seriesinductive reactanceof the line using series capacitors. (ii) Preventsvoltage collapse.This effective reactance eiven bv is Xr=XX. which is an alternative wav of saying that X't= \X. it (iv) As a result of (ii) rransientstability limit increasbs. shall we briefly discussboth shunt and seriescompensation. 15. The location of series capacitorsis decidedby economical factors and severity of fault currents. endvoltagevariations.it will behave as a purely resistive element and would. . Active voltage source (synchronousgenerator) When a number of capacitors are connected in parallel to get the desired capacitance. The natural frequency of oscillation of this circuit is given by. is inversclyproportionalto Xl.For example. When switched capacitors are employed for compensation.esJ I T5. it similarly a Uant< incluctors. It needs to be pointed out here that shunt capacitors/inductors can not be distributed uniformally along the line. (i) Voltage drop in the line reduces(getscompensated) minimization of i. For increasing power transmitted over the line other and better means can be adopted. where Xl = line reactance Xc = capacrtor reactance It is easy to see that capacitorrcduccsthe cffectivc line rcactance*. The benefitsof the seriescapacitorcompensator associated are with a problem. The capacitive reactanceXg fbrms a seriesresonantcircuit with the total series reactance X = Xt * X*. Before proceedingto give a detailedaccount of line compensator. (ii) Underexcitedoperationof synchronous generatorsis not required.This helps in (i) increase of maximum power transfer (ii) reduction in power angle for a given amount of power transfer (iii) increasedloading.5 SERIES COMPENSATION A capacitor in series rvith a line gives control over the effective reactance between line ends.while synchronous generator is an active compensator. higher transmission voltage.Series capacitor reducesline reactancethereby level of fault currents. which can only be achieved by loading the line with its surge impedance loading while this may not be achievable.HVDC etc. Shunt capacitors raise the load pf which greatly increases the power transmitted over the line as it is not required to carry the reactivepower.Modifying the characteristicsof a line(s) is known as line compensation.n * Xoun.the characteristicsof the line can be modi so that (i) Ferranti effect is minimized. Capacitors and inductors as such are passive line compensators. Shunt compensation is more or less like load compensation with all the advantagesassociatedwith it and discussedin Section 15. There is a limit to which transmitted power can be increased by shunt compensation as it would require very iarge size capacitorbank.cessive voltage rise and ferroresonancein presenceof transformers. From practical point of view. (iii) Steadystttte power transferincreases.seriescompensation.e.3. on on vanous lssues ln in series and shunt compensatorsnow follows. cause series resonance even at fundamental frequency. which would be impractical.4 LINE COMPENSATION Ideal voltage profile for a transmission line is flat. Capacitors and inductors . (iii) The power transfer capability of the line is enhanced. I ii ti ti .these shculd be disconnected irnmediately underlight loacl conclitions avoicl to er. ^ rfL  2rJrc '2n where l= system frequency xReactive voltage drops of a series reactance added in a line is I2x It is positive if X is inductive and negative if X is capacitive. of A bank of capacitors and/or inductors can be adjusted in stepsby switching (mechanical). this is regardeclas active compensation. it is compensated.
The mechanical switching arrangementfor adjusting the capacitance of the capacitor bank in series with the line is shown in Fig. During ontime of the thyristor capacitor is short circuited i. counter the excessivevoltage rise As the line load and.Currenuimitins I fc<f which is subharmonicoscillation.capacitoris switched capacitorsin seriesare either fixed or thvristor switched. In each half cycle when the thyristor is fired (at an adjustable angle). referred to aS resonance(SSR) first observedin 1937. Depending on (i) kind of solidstatedevice to be used (ii) capacitor and/or reactor compensation and (iii) switched (stepwise) or smooth (stepless) control. being startedby a bypass switch. Some of the corrective measuresare: (i) Detecting the low levels of subharmonic currents on the line by use of sensitiverelays. 15. During the offtime of the thyristor current is conductedby the capacitor and capacitor voltage is vr.Some of the more common compensationschemesare as under.The latest device called a Gate Turn Off (GTO) thyristor has the capability that by suitable firing circuit.c Fig. switch under any emergent whole bank can also be bypassedby the starting conclitions on the line.but sustained oscillations below the fundamental system frequency can cause the phenomenon.In no case the VI rating of the thyristors should be exceeded. but got worldwide subsynchronous attention only in the 1970s.?nd uncontrolled (fixed) series compensators require a protective arrangement.. This meanswider range and finer control over capacitance. thereis need to vary the compensationfor an acceptablevoltage profile. C r i i l t ] 7. generallyavoided thesedays the. l+{___a. Capacitanceis with the capacitance of varieclby openingthe switchos individualcapacitances The C1. pointed out that interaction between a series capacitorcompensated oscillating at subharmonic frequency.By this scheme capacitancecan be controlled smoothly by adjusting the firing angle. 15. several compensatron schemeshave been devisedand are in use. ModernPower System AnalYsis rL X =degree of compensation = 25 to J5Vo (recommended) ' technology. . The sameprocess is repeated in the other half cycle. angle (time) at which it goes on and off can both be controlled. This is demonsffated by the schematicdiagramof Fig. (i) Thyristor Controlled Series Cappcitor (TCSC) (ii) Thryristor\Switched Series Capacitor (TSSC) (iii) Fllyristor controlled Reactor with Fixed capacitor (TCR + FC) (iv) GTO thyristor Coniiolled Series Capacitor (GCSC) . in particular the reactive power flow over the line varies. Similarly confrol is possibleover seriesreactorin the line. = 0 and current is conductedby the thyristor.1. This means that v. both stepwiseand smooth control. which at a certain level of currents triggers the action to bypassthe series capacitors. 15. This is a stepu'isearrangement. Theoretical studies line. 2 Thyristors are now available to carry large current and to withstand (during offtime) large voltage encounteredin power systems.2 wherein the capacitoris shuntedby two nstors ln antl current in positive half cycle and the other in negative half cycle. the capacitanceof the series capacitance bank can be controlled much more effectively.I . measurescan be and protective major problem. v.Protection can be provided externally either by voltage arrester or other voltage limiting device or an approximate bypass switch arrangement. All controlled. after two turbinegeneratorshaft failures occurred at the Majave Generating station in Southern Nevada. and low cost countermeasures applied. reactor ^  o ' l l  "r' " i l1<r . and torsional mechanical oscillation of turbinegenerator set can result in negative damping with consequentmutual is resonance often not a Subsynchronous reinforcementof the two oscillations.e. it conducts current for the rest of the half cycle till natural current zeto. which is equivalent of reducing the capacitanceas C = vJi.". (ii) Modulation of generator field current to provide increased positive damping at subharmonic frequency' under light load conditionsto for are Seriesincluctors neeclecl line compensation (Ferranti effect). can be controlled for any given i. breaker carrying suitablecircuit breaking arrangementare necessary. Even though series compensationhas often been found to be costeffective compared to shunt compensation. As the switches in series with capacitor are current However.
15.3) compensator consistsof a combination of six ptrlseor twelve plusethyristorcontrollecl reactprs with a fixe<tshunt capacitor bank. In this section SVC will be detailed while STATCOM forrns a part of FACTS whose operafionis explainedin S e c .to. is approach to introducca controllablevoltagc sourccin series An altcrnativo with the line. These compensatorsdraw reactiv (leadingor lagging) power* from the line therebyregulating voltage.) It is to be pointed out here that SVC and STATCQM are stgtic var generatorswhich are thyristor controlled. TCRs are characterised by continuous control.rt Power I transformer I I neaitr i I Fixed caoacitor i] l.(For details see Sec. Statia VAR Compensator (SVC) This is a multicore reactor with the phase windings so arrangedas to cancel the principal harmonics. 5 (Sec. their operating characteristics and compensating features are different.. it is better to use Aconnected TCR.: )tl I I ? {rf '.10.4 and in Ch. also they exhibit different loss characteristics.3 Thyristor controlledeactor(TCR)with fixedcapacitor r *Though ) connected TCR's are used here. no transients and gencration harmonics'k.I u v v v I I Neutral Thesecomprisecapacitorbank fixed or switched(controlled)or fixed capacito bank and switched reactor bank in parallel. (ii)'fhyristorcoilrroll. From the point of view of almost maintenancefree operation impedance modifying (capacitorsand/or reactors) schemesare superior. The reactive power is changectby adjustingthe thyristor firing angle. The two kinds of compensators use are: (1) Static var compensators (SVC): These are banks of capacitors (somea t im e s i n c l u c to rs l s o fg r u s e u n d e rl i ght l oad condi ti ons) (ii) STATCOM: static synchronouscompensator motor running at noload (iii) Sync hronous condenser: It is a synchronous and having excitation adjustableover a wide range. Theseserveihe purposesof voltage control and load stabilization.s since it is better configuration. (i) Sutu.rnc. These differences are related to their inherent attributes of their control circuits.cd reuctor (T'CR) A thyristorcontrolledreactor (Fig. unit Capacitor or capacitor and incluctor bank can be varied stepwise or continuouslyby thyristor control. 15. It f'eedspositive VARs into the line under overexcited conditions and negative VARS when underexcited.10) shunt compensators are connected in shunt at various system nodes (major substations) and sometimesat midpoint of lines.6 SHUNT COMPENSATORS called static var switchesor systems. 15.5.. capacitor/reactor acts as continuouslyvariablein the power circuit. as It is almost maintenance free but not very flexible with reipect to operating characteristics. l O . in damping out electromechanical Though various types of compensatorscan provide highly effective power flow control.the nearbygenerators in mostly clo not arise.'x'. The specific kind of compensator to be employed is very much dependent on a particular application. improv *A rcrrctlrrcc cor)ncctcd in shunt to tinc at voltage V draws reactive power Vzl] It is negative (leading) if reactance is capacitive and positive (lagging) if reactance is inductive.i'r . SSSC has the capabitity to induce both capacitive and inductive wrdenrngme operatmg reglon o voltage ln senes wrtn [lne.Line oi.1 5 . Modern Power System Analysis *562i I I (v) Thyristor Controlied reactor (TCR) Capacitor and/or reactor series compensatoract to modify line impedance. Several important SVS configurationshave been devised and are applied in shunt line compensation. Further this schemegives better stability and is more effective oscillations.It is consiclered a constantvoltageieactive source. controlsystenrconsists voltage(and current) of The of .It means that terminology wise SVC = SVS and we will use theseinterchangeably. 15. Some of the static compensatorsschemesare discussedin what follows. When the circuitary is designeclro adjust the firing angle. This scheme is known as static synchronous series compensator (SSSC). f =. . Basic SVC Configrurations (or Desigrns) Thyristors in antiparallelcan be used to switch on a capacitor/reactor unit in stepwise control. As a result of installation of shunt compensators in the operateat nearunity pf and voltage emergencies system. I Fig. It can be used for power flow control both increasing or decreasingreactive flow on the line.l I n"r. 5.rutcdreuctlr As alreadyexplainedin Sec.
with a converter based var generator. Losses increase steplike with cup. var output decreaseswith the square of the voltage decrease. redundancy. switchingtakesplace when All the voltage acrossthe thyristor valve is zero. With this. cap. which.Modern Power SystemAnalysis measuring devices. by low generations harmonof ics.flexible control and operation. (iii) Thyristor switcherl capacitor (fSC) It consists of only a thyristorswitched capacitor bank which is split into a num De o unrts equal ratrngsto achrevea stepwisecon r o '0d6' Type of Var Generator  .functions as a shuntconnectedsynchronousvoltage source. F ru ' tl tc l rn o rci rl l control o1' botl r i nducti ve and r l capacitiveparts of the cornpensator obtained.where this type of voltagesupportis deemedadequate. low losses.f:^\. 15. a Iinearizing circuit and one or more synchronising circuits.5) is the optimum solution in majority of cases. S a n r ca s i n ( 2 ) (Capacitorscan be switchedout to minimise trattsicntovcrvolt ages) T5. Table 15.This is a very advantageous is { Neutral Max.are basically different from those of the SVC. 15. redundancyand flexibility.a ll r vl . However. load rejection etc) TSC/TCR combinations are characterised continuouscontrdl.1 Comparisonof Static Var Generators TCR.^^lrlrt/q. Max. output. Max cap. no transients. output. line faults. current is proportional to system voltage. ' l. output TCRTSC (3) Same as in (1) or (2) / Damping reactor  (TSC) Fig. TSCs are.9. Losses increase steplike with cap. theoret. which will block when the current reaches zero.Pgr4trlrE rdlrBc ^r ul r. (iv) CombinedTCR and TSC Compensator VI and VQ Max comp. output. in Table 15. the basic operating principles of the STATCOM. Losses decreasesmoothly with cap. no transients.4 Thyristor switched capacitor As suchthey are applied as a discretlyvariablereactivepower source.low losses.ule r t t v l Neutral Fig. This basic operational difference renders the STATCOM to have overall .1.r t h ov Lrr nrn r r ll. Loss Vs var High losses at zero output. Comp.Disconnectionis eff'ected suppressing firing plus to the by the thyristors. Low lossesat zero ouput.r ^*^.FC (1) TSC(TSR) (2) Max. by vcry low htlrnronics. increirse with inductive output Hannorric generation I n t c r n a l l yh i g h (large pu TCR) Requires significant filtering l/2 cycle Poor (FC ('iluscs transientovervoltages in response to step disturbances) A combinedTSC and TCR (Fig. delay Trrnsir:nl behaviour under systent voltagr: disturbances hrtcrnallyvcry low Resonancemay necessirate tuning reactors I cycle Low losses at zero output. output Internally low (small pu TCR) Filtering required I cvcle Cun bc lrcutral. continuousvariablereactivepower is obtainedtirroughoutthe c ot t t l. var output decreaseswith the squareof the voltage decrease. smoothly with ind. fe" system (e. since SVC functions as a shuntconnected. current characteristics is proportional to system voltage. lc tcc o n l l o l rl n g c . charetcLorisccl stcp wisc control.5 A combined TCR/TSC compensator characteristicand functional compensationcapability of the STATCOM and the sVC aie similar l2l. 15. thus providing almost transient tree switching.7 COMPARISON BETWEEN STATCOM AND SVC It ll Capacitor a mqw "'*J he nnterl t hro tL rr q ir r. a controller for errorsignal conditioning. controlledreactive admittance.
are in phase. the voltage on one side of the seriescapacitormay be outof range.9 PRINCIPLE AND OPERATION OF CON\ZERTERS Controllable reactive power can be generated by dc to ac switching converters which are switched in synchronism with the line voltage with whicn tfr" reactive power is exchanged.synchronous condensers are better than SVCs in voltageweak networks. the increasein condenser reactive power output is ilrslantaneous. and FACTS devices ca1 (i) Series capacitorsare inherently self regulating and a control systemis not required. 15. is Because of higher initial and operating costs.vyioading.uscondenserapplications are now associatedwith HVDC installallons. if the input is terminated by a voltage source (charged capacitor or battery). synchronous condensers are normally not competitive with SVCs. Comparison between series and shunt compensation: tto be effectively used for power flow conffol. (v) Series capacitorsand switched series capacitors can be used to controi loading of paralledlines to minimise active and reactive losses. FACTS employ high speed thyristors for switching in or out transmission line cornponents such as capacitors. The best designperhaps a combinationof seriesand shunt compensation. (ii) SVCs control temporaryovervoltages rapidly. Before proceeding to give an account of some of the important FACTS controllers the principle of operation of a switching converter will be explained. 15. Most synchrono. Thus. (ii) For the same performance. but rather a collection of controllers.8 FLEXTBLE AC TRANSMTSSTON SYSTEMS (FACTS) The rapid development power electronics of technologyprovidesexciting opportunities develop to new powersystem equipment betterutilization for of ' O=vI= v(vvo) X . Mechanical switching has to be supplementedby rapid responsepower electronics. enablea line to carry power closer to its thermal rating.t lvlooernPower SystenrAnalysts t superior functional characteristics.and greater application flexibility as comparedto SVC. Single line diagram of the basic voltage sourced converter scheme for reactive power generation is drawn in Fig. Further the input and output terminations are complementar. (ii) SVCs are expensive.6. Technically. (iv) Subsynchronous resonance may call for expensive countermeasures.It may be noted that FACTS is an enabling technology. (ii) During tru. that is. enhancement of transient stability anO mitlgation * FACTStechnology havebeen proposed implemented... Disadvantages SVC of (i) SVCs have limited ovcrload capability. load sharing among parallel corridors. output ii a cuffent source (which meansa voltage source having an inductive impedance) and vice versa.wtrictr can be applied individually or in coordination with others to conffol one or more of the systemparameters. which forms the heart of these controllers. the converter can be voltage sourced (shunted by a capacitor or battery) or current sourced (shunted by an inductor)."^ lvcvLtvly ^'. For reactive power flow bus voltage V and converter terminal voltage V. Then on per phase basis i r=vv4 x'i 'Fha ruv raa^+. The ability of the STATCOM to maintain full capacitle output current at low system voltage also makes it rnore effective than the SVC in improving the transient (first swing) stability.'^PrJw9r ^. and not a oneonone substitute for mechanicalswitches. voltage regulation. reactors or phase shifting transformer for some desirable performance of the systems.A switching power converter consistsof an array of solidstate switches which connectthe input terminals to the output terminals. (iv) Seriescapacitorspossess adequatetimcovelltrad capability. It has no internal storage and so the instantaneousinput and output power are equal. Advantagesof SVC (i) SVCs control voltagedirectly. series capacitors lower the critical or coliapse voltage. series capacitors are often less costly than SVCs and lossesare very low.better performance. (iii) Shunt reactorsmay be neededfor light load compensation. (iii) For voltage stability.^f^^J^^ E^Urr4rrBtr :^ l5 15. Disadvantages seriescompensation: of (i) Series capacitors are line connected and compensation is removed for outages and capacitorsin parallel lines may be overloaded. Following a drop in network voltage. The FACTS technology is not a single highpower controller.
which shows a thyristor arrow inside a box. the second approach employs selfcommutatedstatic converters as controlled voltage sources. All shunt controllers inject current into the controllers of Fig.8dcould be a combination of in a coordinatedmanner or it could be a unified controller. Thus the converter acts like a static synchronous condenser(or var generator).or any Storagesource such as a capacitor. All series controllers inject voltage in serieswith the line.It is a 3phase sixpulse H. The first approach employs reactive impedancesor a tap changing ffansformer with thyristor switches as controlled elements. 15. or a power electronics based variable source. For Vo 1 V. If the voltage is in phasequadraturewith the line. The switching causesthe converter to interconnectthe 3phaselines so that reactive current can flow between thent. Timings of the triggering pulses ate in synchronism with the bus voltage waves. Thereibre. while for Vo > V. If it is requiredto feed reai power to the bus. Combined seriesshunt controllers are either controlled in a coordinated manneras in Fig. Vd. Any other phaserelationshipwill involve real power also. the capacitor voltage cloes not change and the capacitor establishesonly a voltage level for the converter. powergenerator Fig. lines a converter can be constructed It has to carry the line current and provide a suitable magnitude (may also be phase)voltage in serieswith the line. A . The converter draws a small amount of real power to provide for the internal loss (in switching). 15. 15.Transformer capacitoris zero. magnet. A typical convertercircuit is shown in Fig. I leads V and Q drawn from the bus is leading. 15. The series controller of Fig. which meansthat a amall differenceof voltage (VVo) causesthe required . Also at dc (zero fiequency) the capacitor does not supply any reactivepower. It is to be noted that transformer leakage reactanceis. ln general. 15.8e or a unified Power Flow Controller with series and shunt elementsas in Fig. leakagereactance :l J. system at the point of connection. For unified controller. the output voltage of the converter. 15.superconducting added in parallel through an electronic interface other source of energy can be to replenish the converter's dc storage as shown dotted in Fig. In such a connectionit would act as an impedancemodifier of the line. such as capacitor. the seriescontroller only or supplies consumesvariablereactivepower.reactor. GTO's are used).quite small (0.l by a storage battery. there can be a real power exchangebetween the series and shunt controllers via the dc power link.15 pu). 15.10 FACTS CONTROLLERS [1' K Va" C twolevel sixpulse bridge Fig. the capacitor is replace. For this the circuit switching has to be modified ro create a phase difference dbetween Vsand Vwith Vsleading V' The above explained converteris connectedin shunt with the line. The generalsymbol for a FACTS controller is given in Fig. The development of FACTS controllershas followed two different approaches. etc.6 Staticreactive The switching circuit is capable of adjusting Vo.10.1 lags V and Q drawn from the bus is inductive. On sirnilar with its terminals in serieswith the line. Combined seriesseries seriescontrollers which are conffolled separate 15. 15.7 Threephase. Vo" Vot Vo.battery.8(a).7. Reactive power drawn can be easily and smoothly varied by adjusting Voby changing the ontime of the solidstate switches. 15. (iv) combined seriesshunt (i) series (ii) shunt (iii) combined seriesseries controllers.8 (b).8c may be variable impedance.8f. 15. twolevel.FACTS controllerscan be divided into tour categories.J.1and Q flow. variable source or a combination of these.8b could be a variable impedance.bridge with a diode in antiparallel to each of the six thyristors (Normally. Tlte shunt controllers of Fig.563 l I Po Modern System __ibus V 'i ' Coupling transformer I X .
STATCOM STATCOM is a static synchronousgeneratoroperatedas a shuntconnected static var compensator whose capacitive or inductive output current can be i. 15.10. superconducting magnet. These are controlled fo provide concurrent real and reactive series line compensation without an external energy source. and are controlled to provide independent reactive series compensation for the control of real power flow in each line and maintain the desired distribution of reactive power flow among the lines. and angle or. like its conventional countetpart. bu(its output voltage is in serieswith the line. It is a cornbinationof two or seriesconlpensators which are coupledvia a common more static synchronous dc link to facilitate bidirectional flow of real power between the ac terminals of the SSSCs.It can be based on a voltagesourcedoi curtentsourced converter. This is a recently introduced controller 12. It thus controls the voltage acrossthe line and hence its impedance. flywheel. the real . controls transmission voltage by reactive shunt compensation. . the SVC.UPFC. the unified power flow controller (UPFC) and the latest.9 (a) STATCOMbasedon voltagesourced (b) currentsourced and converters.9 shows a oneline diagram of srATCoM based on a voltagesourced converterand a current sourcedconverter.ff. or the transmission line voltage. Interline Power FIow Controller (IPFC) (e) Coordinated series and shuntcontroller (f) Unifiedseriesshuntcontroller Flg.8 DifferentFACTScontrollers The group of FACTS controllers employing switching converterbased synchronous voltage sourcesinclude the STATic synchronous COMpensator (STATCOM). 15. the Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC). dc power link It is a seriesconnectedcontroller. Energy source may be a battery.orrrroiieornoepenoentoi rhe ac system voltage. Though it is like STATCOM. another rectifi erlinverter etc. 15. impedance. Thus it managesa comprehensiveoverall real and reactive power managementfor a multiline transmissionsystem. Normally a voltagesource converter is preferred for most converterbasedFACTS controllers. Statlc Synchronous Series Compensator (SSCC) (c) Shuntcontroller (d) Unifiedseriesseriescontroller I it FCH Coordinated control !.3]. concurrently/simultaneously selectively. ^^^lll ! t a . A combination of STATCOM and any energy source to supply or absorb powei is called static synchronous generator(SSG).TTlFcl T u n " I l / (b) <oc ac lines Fig. Unified Power FIow Controller (UPFC) This controller is connectedas shown in Fig. the static synchronous series compensator (SSCC). is able to control. The STATCOM. by meansof angularly unconsffainedseries voltage injection. Line tffi*ffil T (a)General symbolfor FACTScontroller (FC) (a) l [. It is a combination of STATCOM and SSSC which are coupled via a iommon dc link to allow bidirectional flow of real power between the series output terminals of the SSSC and the shunt output terminals of the STATCOM. Figure 15. STATCOM can bc designedto be an active filter to absorb system harmonics. alternatively.*J power Modern System Analysis in power Compensation Systems Llne Line controller with 'storage is much more effective for conffolling the system dynamics than the corresponding controller without storage. large dc storage capacitor.The.
Thyristor Controlled Braking Resistor ICBR) It is a shuntconnectedthyristorswitched resistor. and quadraturetapchangingtransformerssuch as SVC and TCSC. In the late 1980s. stability and cnnffol line flows. Interphase Power Controller (IpC) sutyffvtARy Since the 1970s. rightof*ay difficulties. which is controlled to aid stabilization of a power system or to minimise power acceleration of a generatingunit during a disturbance.2 A comparativeperformance major FACTS controller of Type of FACTS Controller SVC/STATCOM TCSC SSSC TCPAR UPFC Load flow control X XX XXX XXX XXX Fig.co n tro I I e d p h a s e sh ifti n g Tra n sfo rm er (TCp s r) This controller is also called Thyristorcontrolled Phase Angle Regulator (TCPAR). role of HVDC. UPFC and IpFC. competitive electric energy markets are being developedby mandatingopen accesstransmission services. xxaverage influence. mitigate dynamic disturbances.vslrong influence. for economic The reasons.ice can also exchangereal power with the ac systembesidesconmollingreactive power independently.  r' i: and reactive line flows. Its final form and operation will.10 UnifiedpowerFlowControiler UpFC Th yri s t or. of inductive and capacitive branches subjected to separately phaseshifted voltages. to interconnect is ac system?. SSSC.rr$il#4 I Modern l l"r'. The increasing use of FACTS controllers in future is guaranteed. transmissionline capacity was enhanced. The converter. The two groups of FACTS controllers have quite different operating and performance characteristics. supported by a de power supply or energy storage de. The UPFC may also provide independentlycontrollabte shuntreactive compensation.. Voltage source converter based (selfcommutated) HVDC system may have the same features as those of STATCOM or UPFC.energy cost.g.Two types of FACTS controllers were developed.What benefits are required for a given system would be a principal justification for the choice of a FACTS controller. Recently. ofcourse. Th yristorCon troll e d VoI tdgre R egu trator flCVR) V control XXX Transient stability Oscillation Damping XX XX XX XX XXX x x XX XXX xxx xxx XXX X XXX * a. A phaseshifting transformer controlled by thyristor switches give to a rapidly variable phase angle. STATCOM.using mechanical or electronic switches. The second category was of selfcommutatedswitching converters as synchronousvoltage sources. Due to FACTS.e. depend not only on the successful development of the necessarycontrol and A seriesconnected controller of active and reactive power consisting. HVDC . Thyristorcontrolled Voltage Limiter FCVL) A thyristorswitched metaloxidevaristor (Mov) used to limit the voltage across terminals its durins transient conditions 'TIVDC It may be noted that normally HVDC and FACTS are compleme ntary technologies. postponed the construction of both new generation and transmission systemsin India as well as most of other countries. becauseof adoption of power reforms or restructuring or deregulation.in each phase.wherereliableac interconnection a would be too expensive. along with other legislative sociai and cost problems huu.. 1S. This system also regulatesvoltage and provides system A comparative perfonnance of major FACTS controllers in ac system is given in Table 15. STATCOM Table 15.the vision of FACTS was formulated.The second group usesselfcommutated dc to ac converter. One employed conventional thyristorswitched capacitorsand react<lrs.2 U4l. In this various power electronics basedcontrollers (compensators) regulate power flow and transmission voltage and through fast control aciion. The active and reactive power can be set inpedendently by adjusting the phase shifts and/or the branch impedances. xsmail infruence A thyristor controlled transformer which can provide variable inphase voltage with continuouscontrol. environmentalrestrictions.
r:5?4i I I Modern power System Analysis communieationteehnologiesand protocols.Planning and operational applicationsof load forecasting requires a certain 'lead time' also called forecasting iritervals.E. "A New Look At Shunt Compensation..A'. lVlarch 2@1i. ReactivePower Control in Electric Systems. but also on the final structure of ihre evolving newly restructuredpower systems. Miller. John Wiley. Indulkar. 2. power system vortage stability.P.Iliceto F. 15. New york..A. 2. Nagrath. \'ol.lead times and applicationsare summarisedin Table 16.K. T'J. singapore. 2002. 20. since it determinesthe timing and characteristicsof major system additions. 96 ti. Song. Hingorani. 16.M' and R. 1995. Ptrvlr. operarionilI planning ild unit commitment.rrdrorr. l810. operation and control.and E.rends. is the key to all planning.\8. contingency analysis for system secunfy Allocation of spinning reserve. McGrawHill. maintenance scheduling Planning for seasonal peakwrnter. New Delhi. l. 1994. "Comparative Analysis of Series and Shunt Compensation I0Schemes for Ac Transmission svstems". 6. Y. 1997.tJ. 1994. Vol PAS102.e S.Flexible AC TransmissionSystems. pp lglg "Hou. Kinrbark. to The accuracy of a forecast is crucial to any electric utility. NY. pp 160. indeed.. Wheeler. vol. E.W. Electric Machines. pAs 96 6). Power SystemTransientsA StatisticalApproach. 3.\EEE Pott'er Engirteering Rerieu'.nn 2122!8 Medium term Long term A good t'orecastreflecting current and future r.S19. R.stem Engineering.G. prrris. CIGRE/ 'wG 3801. 1999. and D.t 1977. New Delhi. distribution schedules. Performance Operation and Control of EHV Power TransmissionSystems. Kothari and A.w. .r'srem Stabiliri. 7. P. ThyristorBasedFACTI. Lbndon..P. (Jnderstanding FACTS.T. Kothari. IEEE lr. Kimbark. 4.1 Nature of forecast Very short term Lead time A few seconds to several minutes Half an hour to a ferv hours A few days to a t'ew' rveeks A t'ew months to a few years Application Generation. Kothari. 2000. pp 235245.I.1 INTRODUCTION Load forecasting plays an important role in power system planning.Ji good judgement. to Impror. rg77. Short term 13.E. Kothari. IEEE Trans. Johns. 2000. 9.P. power S). PrenticeHallof India.i 986 l{.P. Mukhopadhyay.IEEE Trans. Taylor.W. CIGRE/. New Delhi. pp f9. John Wiley and Sons. Feb.rrs. Tata McGrawHill. "FACTS Technologv Development: An Update". 12. and D. 2nd edn.IEEE procc'edings.J and D.IEE. REFERE NCES Books I ' Chakrabarti. 5. and Laszlo Gyugyi. TataMcGraw_Hill. Forecasting means estimating active load at various load buses ahead of actual load occurrence.H' and A. Nagrath' I. c. Sept/Oc. lgg2.1" Table 16. 1l . Mathur.K. New York. Cinieri. A forecast that is too low can result in low revenuefrom salesto neighbouringutilities or even in load curtailment. . Forecasts that are too high can result in severe financial problems due to excessive investment in a plant that is not fully utilized or operatedat low .tempered wi. summer Planning generation growth Papers Edris. New Delhi.ithout Risking Suhsrtchnrnous R('s(')nitncc"'.srrzric l/ar Conrp<.S. IEEE press.I. "Llsc'ofHDVC and F. Controllers for Electrical TransmissionSystems. No. 1996. N.J. C. Jan1983. 8. Verma.ACTS". D. f). Nature of forecasts. financial success. u..
the merit of the component approach is that abnormal conditions in growth trends of a certain component can be detected. Recall on temperarure.2) . good judgement a:rd experience can never be completely replaced. may be superior to another. 16. 2.1) where the subscript d indicates the deterministic part and the subscript s indicates the stochasticpart of the demand. It is then possible to make a statisticalanalysisof previous load data in order to set up a suitable model of the demandpattern.3. On the other hand. rrnlnlstlc. it is generally possible to utilize the identified load model for making a prediction of the estirnated demand for the selectedlead time.d upon the ariving at an acceptable forecast.weather data and the like are used in correlation techniques.thus preventing misleadingforecastconclusions. business. . one particular methcd The two approaches to load forecasting namely total load approach and component approach have their own merits and demerits. If k is consideredto be the present time. For a chosenvalue of the indexT.It is generallypossibleto decomposey(k) into two parts of the form T6. With regression analysis the best estimate of the model describing the trend can be obtained and used to forecast the trend. commercial and agricultural activities as well as the The weather sensitivecomponentdepends weathercondition of the system/area. which plays a crucial role in r"ii.3 ESTIMATION OF AVERAGE AND TREND TERMS + y(k)= ya(k) y"(k) (16. variations. a simple decomposition may serve as a cdnvenient starting point.This is best achievedby decomposing load demand at given point of tirne into a number of distinct components. employment. Typically. Correlation Correlation techniques of forecasting relate system loads to various demographic and economic factors. For the sake of load forecasting.There is a continuing need.. the basic technique becomes probabilistic extrapolation. All of these are based on the assumptionthat the actual load supplied by a given systemmatchesthe demandsat all points of time (i. 1 regarding the nature of the daily load curve which has been shown to have a constantpari correspondingto the baseload and other variable parts. however. j > 0 would represbnta future load demand with the index problem 7 being the lead time.iffi I Forecasting techniques may be divided into three broad classes. With a trend curve the forecast is obtained by evaluating the trend curve function at the desired future point. No one forecasting method is effective in all situations. there has not been any outagesor any deliberate sheddingof load). then y(k + j). visibility and precipitation. The aim of the present chapter is to give brief expositions of some of the techniques that have been developed'in order to deal with the various load forecasting problems. cloudiness. building permits. which can be more difficult than forecasting system load.Once this has been done.e. the brief discussions in Ch. This approach is advantageousin forcing the forecaster to understand clearly the interrelationship between load growth patterns and other measurable factors. The disadvantageis the need to forecast demographic and economic factors. Let y(k) representthe total load demand (either for the whole or a part of the system) at the discretetime k = l. Extrapolation Extrapolation techniquesinvolve fitting trend curves to basic historical data adjusted to reflect the growth trend itself. If the uncertainty of extrapolated results is to be quantified using statistical entities such as mean and variance. Although a very simple procedure.Techniques may be based on extrapolation or on correlation or on a combination of both. it produces reasonable results in some instances.. wind velocity.Total load approach has the merit that it is much smoother and indicative of overall growth trends and easy to apply. Forecasting techniques must be used as tools to aid the planner.Such a techniqueis called a deterministic extrapolation since random errors in the data or in analytical model are not accounted for.The load is any dependent on the industrial. to improve the methodology for forecasting power demand more accurately. Choosing a forecasting technique for use in establishing future load ing on nature o requirements is a nontrivial task in itself.LoadForecasting Technique can capacity factors.. (i) Straight line ! = a+ bx (ii) Parabola' !=a+bx+c*2 (iii) Scurve !=a+bx+ci+dx3 (iv) Exponential !=ce& (v) Gempertz ! = Inr 7a + ced''1 ' The most corlmon curvefitting technique for fitting coefficients and exponents(a4) of a function in a given forecastis the method of least squares. such factors as population. A major part of the forecasting task is thus concerned with that of identifying the best possible model for the the past load behaviour. The simplest possible form of the deterministic part of y(k) is given by ya &) = !a + bk + e(k) (r6.2 FORECASTING METHODOLOGY Llif. Standard analytical functions used in trend curve fitting are [3]. the forecasting of estimating the value of y(k +/) by processing is then the sameas the problem adequatedata fbr the past load dernand. No forecastobtainedfrom analytical proceclures be strictly judgement of the forecaster..
14. it is found that the following conditions must be satisfiedl2). 78 r.6b) t / . i16 I t the data .6a)and (16. ta= E{yd&)l. the methodof LSE is helpful. consider the clatashown in the graphs jndust+ial values of the agricirttural and the iopurerion in millionT. Note that Eqs. 16'l which give the (16.2 Variable Population Industrial output Agricultural output Load demand Average T I l E { y a .) represents the expectation operation.yo E{kllt4{k2l (16.0 (16.6b)may then be repeatecl the trend coefficient for each blocks in order to compute the average and window of data. / These two relations may be fruitfully employed in order to estimate the average and the trend coefficient for any given load data. Thus. (16'6a) and ln order to illustrate the nature of results obtainablefrom Eqs' of Fig.54 0.the estimationindex "/is defined using the relation Technique LoadForecasting kt5f. As seenin Ch.5b) 13 million Rs 397 million Rs 420.b{E(k)} b . when little orlo st1listical information is availableregardingthe error term.34 If y(k) is assumedto be stationary(statisticsare not time dependent)one may involve the ergodic hypothesis and replace the expectatiori operation by the time for averaging fonnula. (16.8MW o. These have been substitutedin Eqs' and the trend coefficients of the four in if O.The results are given in Table 16'2' Table 16.rfrupees and the amount of electrical from (toaA demand) in MWs 1n Punjab over a period of seven years starting g5 data have been generatedfrom the graphs by sampling the 1968. bk representsthe 'trend' term that grows linearly with k and e(k) representsthe error of modelling the complete load using the average and the trend terms only.*A I it I I l it J . If this method is to be used forestimating yo and b.lE{ya&)kl. (16.6b) are not very accuratein case the load data behavesas a nonstationaryprocesssince the ergodic hypothesis does not It holcl for suchcases.9million 855.6a) and (16.Equations(16. each having slightly different over the different statistics.Modern PowerSystem Analysis where larepresents the averageor the mean value of yd(k). in millions r.2 0.2) and making use of the first order necessaryconditions for the index J to have its minimum value with respect to ya md b.labLe determining the time averages. A total of (16'6a) and graphs at intervals of 30 days. if a total of N data are assumedto be avai. The questionis one of estimating the valuesof the two unknown model parameters la aldb !o ensurea good model.4b) Trend Cofficient Since the expectation operationdoes not affect the constant quantities. (16. it is easy to solve these two equationsin order to get the desired relations. may still be possibleto assumethat the data over a finite window is stationary and the entire set of data may then be consideredas the juxtaposition of a number of stationaryblocks.6a) peprJlation millions in of in lndustry millions ruPees of millions rupees Agriculture in Loaddemand MW . (16.ya(k)k tdkl . Th= cash energy consumpdon ooiput.y a & )+ b k I = 0 + E {bkz .the two relations may be equivalently expressed as follows.6b). Substituting for e(A) from Eq.3) where E(.5a) (16.E{ez(D} (16.4a) (16.OUI order to compute the avetage variables.
10) . It is observed that tlrg daily load by a power utility some random fluctuations' variations are repetitive from day to day except for from those of the It is also seen that the curve for sundays differ significantly out that the curve ior ihe week days in view that Sundaysare holidays. This may add some unspecified errors to the data which will also affect the accuracy of the estimates.o. (762). th" exponential is to take the natural log of transformed into u linru.f"g'.]rTt of one Sunday till the mid entire weekly period starting fiom. it is simple the relation of the future load ya(k + 7) using (ltJllllllgrr! lrq^r^\ 9 a & + / ) = h ' ( k+ l ) i ( k ) (16.needto be estimated from the index /<and would model above is obviously a nonlinear function of the time approach to nonlinear need L coefficients to be estimated. it may be pointed out that the load model may be generalizedby including second and higher order terms on the right hand side present and a. power supplied the active curve shown in Fig. the graphs in Fig. In addition. used in Example 16.+e(k) i:l (16.'.the method of LSE is the model parametersfrom the given historical data. 16.7) More General Forms of Models Before leaving this section. the mid night periodic waveform with night of the next Sunday behaves as a clistinctty superposedrandom variations' at an hourly interval.Z wtrich givei the variation of over a period of t*o weeks. it is simple to make the prediction of its future value.Finally.. 400 J 3 E 2oo o 0 1 192 216 240 264 k (hours)288 312 336 past load d where the coefficient b.: y(k)fu3. 16. Arsuitable model for the y(k) = y + t i=l Fig.1 are actually based on half yearly data obtained from the planning commission document and an interpolation processhas been employed in order to generate the monthly data.ffi4 I ModernpowerSystem Analysis t I I 600 { I ttr 400 "ertthe load model maY be assumedto be in I . tZ. sin iuk + b. 6. are the where L represents the total number of harmonics and the cosinusoidalcomponents' only amplitudes of respectively the sinusoidal to rlnrrrinqntt'. I. For the simple model in Eq. cos iuk] + e(k) (15'9) v'(k + i) = T. A much simpler form modelling of the load is to introduce an exponential ( 16. and b. All that is required easily extended to estimate the given data. are generally not adequate for making statistical caiculations so that the vaiues given ubour may not be entirely adequate. form. consider for example . In either case. say..q" ut to Z7rl\68rads.e. Prediction of ya &+j) Once the model for the deterministic component of the load has been determined.ilri'. the desired prediction is computed using the relation / 4 [a. the statistical characteristics of the set of variables concernedmay have changed (i.4ESTIMATIoNoFPERIoDIGcoMPoNENTS periodic components in The deterministic part of the load may contain some the tn" uurrage and the porynomial rerms.ormonicsneed be included in the model' to make a prediction Once the harmonic load model is identified.. If it is assumed that the load data are being sampled so that the load pattern may then there are atotal of 168 load data in one period fundamental frequency ul be expressed in terms of a Fourier series with the load y(k) is then given by i.r. the data may in fact be nonstationary) and this alsomav inffoduce some error in the results. 8b) y( k) = c exp [ bk] + e( k) reducing the number of which involves only two unknown coefficients. Besides model has the additional advantageof being readily unknowns.8a) 72 k (hours)_600 120 t I i. + h(k + i\ \ r / J A " U ' J l (i6.II I 3 .2 Hourlyload behaviour Delhiover two consecutive of weeks Caution The 85 data.
In such a case ARMA (n. this method tends to ignore the statisticalinformation about the load data which may often be available and may lead to improved load forecasts if utilized properly.(k). the model identification problem is not that simple.it is possible to make use of intuitive reasoningsto suggestthat an acceptablemodel for load demand would have the form v.rc k:l y. Moie complex can be represented.r) +D b.(k) = y'(k) + v(li) (16. wind velocity and humidity data [2].) + w(k) (16.(k)= Do. ARMA model can easily be modified to incorporate the temperature.'eifrz#d !6. rainfall.r2) where y.6 ESTIMATION OF STOCHASTIC COMPONENT: KALMAN FILTERING APPROACH y. Application to Shortterm Forecasting An application of the Kalman filtering algorithm to the load forecasting problem has been first suggested Toyada et.15) i.the AR model may not be adequate to representthe observed Ioad behaviour unless the order n of the model is made very hrgfi.y. 16.l 3 ) Models where a(k) represents the increment of the load demand at time k and u1@) represents a'disturbanceterm which accountsfor the stochasticperturbationsin y.i) i:l (16.(k) is the true value of this load and u(fr) is the error in the observedload.The incrementai ioaciitseif is assumerito remain constanton an average at every time point and is modelled by the equation AutoRegressive MovingAverage In some cases. (k . (k. However. The problem in estimating the value of n is referred qc tha ntnhtaw )^s rn The time series approachhas been widely employed in dealing with the load forecasting problem in view of the relative simplicity of the model forms. The time series models are easily generalized in order to reflect the dependenceof the load demand on one or more of the weather variables.16) ( r 6 .5 ModernPo@is LoadForecasting Technique h v 2 Hffi T ESTIMATION OF YS(^ft): TiME SERIESAPPROACH = 15(ft) t i:l a.(ft)is saidto satisfyan AR modelof ordern i.(k +I) = y{k) + z(k) + u1&) (16.r7) .14) j:l Autoregressive Models The sequence y. w(k. m) model is used. In addition.For the latter case. The acceptable load model is then utilized online for obtaining online load forecasts.(ft) is the observedvalue of the stochasticload at time ft. if it can be expressed as n Estimation of two structural parameters n and rn as well as model parameters ap bi and the variance d of the noise term w(k) is required. y.&) = D a. In some cases. the dynamics of the true load may be expressedas The variance d of w(k) is then estimated using the relation N n2 (1lnn F Zrrt \ r'l' ) \tr ) /. (16.it is desirable to show the dependenceof the load demand on the weather variables in an explicit manner.11) lie inside the unit circle in the eplane.The identification problem is solved offline.r. [11] for the very shortterm by and shortterm situations. z(k +l) = z(k)+ ur(k) wherethe term uz&) represents stochasticdisturbance a term. filtering techniques are utilized. In ARMA model.for example.it is [AR(n)]. al.(k i_l . These difficulties may be avoided in some situations if the Kalman ' .i) + w(k) (16. y.e.
18a)for the vector x (k+ d)to get the result x (ft+l) = Fx(k) + Gu(k) f. To process these stochastic data..erate the desired load forecast.h'ft(k/kI)l i(ktk 1)= F i((kL)/(kr)) K. the deterministic part of the load may be assumed to be a constant mean term. the data for the short term load behaviour for Delhi have been processed.r(k) = filter gain vector of same dimension as a(ft) Pr(k/k) = filtering error covariance Pr(k/kl) = predictionerror covariance F r onr E q.1e0 Y " ( f t +I ) = h ' i ( ( k + l ) l k ) It may be noted that filtering implies removal of disturbance or stochastic term with zero mean. .1 8 b )o b ta i nth e p re d i c ti o ni ((k+ 1)l k) From this the one step aheadload fbrecast is obtained as GQGDG'.18).(kl k).(klkI)h + R(k)lr P(k/k)= V . the noise terms u(k).19) are shown in Fig...19g) may be utilized to ger. total of 1030 data collected at the interval of 15 minuteshave bee. it is possible to make use of the Kalman filtering algorithm to obtain the minimum varianceestimateof the vector x (k) basedon the data y.] (16.lm In order to make use of the Kalman filtering techniques..g+ d)= pdi(tcttc) of thg load v(k + d\.(1).(kl/kl)F'+ where..(k) h') P. if the prediction The results of application of the prodietion Algonthnn (16.It is noted that the elror of 15 minutes aheadload predictionis around 8 MW which is about 3Voof the averageload and less than 2Voof the daily maximum load. .19b) (16. For example.K. the following a priori information have been used: R(k)= 3. the model equations are rewritten in the form to use the solution of Eq.19e) recursively to processthe data for yr(l).(2) . it is very unlikely that the value of the covariance Q(k) will be known to start with and will therefore have to be obtained by some means. (1 6 . Based on thesea priori information. The value of R(ft) may often be estimated from a knowledge of the accuracy of the meters employed.199) cfeficrinc qnr{ o^o nr}ra k v(k where the vectorsx(ft) and u(ft) are definedas x(k) = ly. yr(k) to generatethe filtered estimate ..15)(16.18a) (16. (16. it is necessarv fhaf the nnisc (16.(k)}. we get y = 220 Mw. Eq.19a)(16. This algorithm consisrsof the following equations.17) easily and have the followingvalues. Q(k) = covarianceof u(k) R(ft) = covarianceof y(ft) ft(klk) = filtered estimateof x(ft) ft (k/kL) = single steppretliction of x(ft) K.(k) = P.(k): {y.74. Using the sample average Formula (16. i (k/k) = i (ktt< 1) + K" (k) ty"(ft). in view of the short time interval over which the total data set lies. An adaptive version of the Kalman filtering algorithm may be utilized in order to estimate the noise statistics alongwith the state vector x(k) tZ)..19d) (16. Let it also be assumed that the initial estimate i (0/0) and the covarianceP"(0/0) are known. (16. The data for yr(k) have then been generated by subtracting the mean value from the measured load data.(k) = (Df and u(k) = fur(k) uz&))r The matrices G andh' arethen obtained 4 from Eqs. (16. Now let it be assumedthat both R(k) and Q(k) are known quantities. Also. = i (oro) [.n A processed.". yr(z). (16. In order to be able to make use of this algorithm for generating the forecast information be available.(k/kl) P. ltl c [1 1l. 16.19c) (16. uz&) and u(k) are assumedto be zero mean independent white Gaussian sequences.a.(k/kl) hlh' P. It is also possible to obtain a multistep aheadprediction of the load from the multistep ahead prediction of the vector x (k).. y. it is possible to utilize Eq. Once this is available. o1.19e) To illustrate the nature of the results obtainable through the allorithm just discussed. ).=[1 1 l ' r=L o l "=L o u ' L o Based on model (16.l)= FP.3.7) (with b = 0). (16.19a) (16. However.(k/k .It has been assumedthat.
arto the nonso stationarysituation. A relatively simple procedure is to rewrite the model equation in the tamiliar vector notation y(k)=h'(k)x+ where e(k) (16. the total load demand y(ft) may be decomposedas M o E O E I I 180 1 6 = l y(k)=D". Use of active load forecast with power factor prediction may result in somewhat satisfactory results. FACTs etc. Ref.21) Most practical load data behaveas nonstationaryand it is therefore imponant to consider the questionof adaptingthe techniquescliscussecl f. sffuctural modifications have to be carried out. 15 mts.(k) arethe choseneconomic variables and e(k) represents the error of modelling.3 Comment 16 17 18 E c o l l where aiare the regressioncoefficients..I. i. It has been shown that the GaussMarkov model described by Eq. 1 6. Such rorecasts are neeoed ior secunty anaiysls. here also.20b) n f L E h'(k)= [yr(ft)yz(k). Actualload 2. In a general load forecasting situation.18) in overparameterised from the model identification point of view in the scnse that the data for y. new generating units. If control action is insufficient. ayl. The load forecasts are then possible through the simple relation i(k + 1) = i'(k) it(k +Ilk) Application of Kalman filtering and prediction techniques is often hampered by the nonavailability of the required state variable model of the concernedload data' For the few casesdiscussedin this section. 16. since reactive loads are made up of not only reactive components of loads. prediction error ECONOMETRTC MODELS If theloadforecasts requiredfor planning are purposes. (16. (ii) Time varying model and (iii) Nondynamic models. [12] that a suitable model that is identifiable andis equivalent to the GaussMarkov model for state estimation purposesis the innovation model useclfor estimation of the stochastic component.or Nonstationanl Load predietion where i (k) is the estimate of the coefficient vector based on the data available till the ftth sampling point ana fr6 + Uk) is the onestepahead prediction of the regressionvector h(k). none of the model parameters may be available to start with and it would be necessaryto make use of system identification techniquesin order to obtain the required state model. f  a . [2] has discussed threemodels for this purposeviz.r6rsHs 1. y. For example. yu&)] and x = far a2. Forecasted reactive loads are adapted with current reactive requirements of network including var compensation devices. is necessary select it to 3 200 E c O I l I the lead time to lie in thrro aJeulyearsIn sucLcasesthe load demand should be decomposedin a manner that reflects the dependence of the load on the various segmentsof the economy of the concernedregion.8 REACTTVE LOAD FORECAST \ (16.The part that has not been available include the state and output noise variances and the data for the initiai state estimate and the conesponding covariance. the (i) ARIMA Models.=1 9 l I I o l '1C L 4 i3 14 15 F i g . Reactive loads are not easy to forecast as compared to active loads. new lines or new var compensatingdevices normally have to be installed..2Oa) o (D 12.e.y. The regression coefficients may then be estimated using the convenient least squares algorithm. only very recent past data (few minutes/hours) may be used. It has been shown in Ref. Therefore. Of course... past data may not yield the correct forecast as reactive load varies with variations in network configuration during varying operating conditions. on'line Techniques f. voitageireactivepower scheduling etc.(k)+ e(k) i:l (16. thus assuming steadystate network configuration.. but also of transmissionand distribution networks and compensatingVAR devicessuch as SVC.(k) dr: not permit the estimation of ali the parametersof this model. a part of the model has been obtainable from physical considerations.
Pabla. Models based on simulated artificial agents may eventually become as important on supply side as artificial neural networks have already become Papers 7. 88.mitul Modrrn Po*"r Syrt"r An"turi. weatherbased. McDonald (Eds).L. New Delhi.Tata McGrawHill.K. Electric Power Distribution. Ramanathan.W. In an interconnectedpower system. "Fuz. Vol.Macmillan lndia Ltd.3 What purposedoes medium term forecastingserve? 16. New York. The time seriesmodel identification problem has also been dealt with through the least squaresestimation techniques developed in Chapter 14. 1977. the arrival of competitive markets has been associated with the expectation of greater consumerparticipation. Overall we can identify the following trends.J. pp 163169. Mahalanabis. Power SystemPlanning.7 Which method of load forecasting would you suggestfor long term and why? 16. load forecasts are usually needed at all the important load buses. McGrawHill Book Co. D. R.. achieving errors of l2%o. Finally. Modern Power SystemPlanning. The intent has been to introduce some ideas currentlv used in forecastingsystem load requirements.4.forecasting is becoming the rnost crucial activity in a deregulated market.I... All methods are strung on a common thread.. Sullivan. 1994. "Forecasting Loads and Prieesin CompetitivePowerMarkets"Pracof the IEEE. lnt R. and that is the judgement of the forecaster. a/.K. 1997. REVIEW QUESTIONS L6. et. New Delhi. Wang. Pabla. No. McGrawHill.P. market shares. Tata McGrawHill. In no way the material presented here is exhaustive. . A recentpaper [7] takesa selectivelook at some of the forecastingissueswhich are now associatecl with decisionmaking a competitivemarket. 2. Kalman Filtering. New Delhi. Forecastingelectricity loads had reacheda comfortable stateof performance in the yearspreceding the recent waves of industry restructuring.P.. Computer Aided Power System Analysis and Control. It may often be necessary make use of nonlinearforms of load models and the questionof to identification of the nonlinear models of different forms is an important issue. sutut ARy ttil Load forecastingis the basic step in power systemplanning. Future Trends ** and integration with conventional timeseries methodsin order to provide a more precise forecasting. 1997.2 Which method of load forecasting would you suggestfor very short term and why? 16. X and J. New Delhi. 13. Kothari.R. short.4th Edn. Electricol Power Systems Planning. 8. Forecasring. (iv) Distributed. Kothari and S.P.zy Neural Network and Fuzzy Expert System for Load Forecasting". al.. Applications of time series.{lrJ. (ii) Day ahead. Tata McGrawHill. 4. Feb 2000. 106114. 1998. embeddedand dispersedgeneration rhay increase..when. Singapore.pp 161174.5. A reasonablyselfcontainedaccount of the various techniquesfor the load prediction of a modern prediction problems. Ahson. Power System Engineering. Nagrath I. Bunn.. No. Proc.. and D. Yol.A. medium and long terms? NCES REFTRT Books 1.5 Why and what are the nonstationarycomponentsof load changesduring very short. Dash. D. 9. (iii) Information is'becoming commercially sensitive and increasingly trade secret. As discussedin this chapter adaptive timeseries techniques based on ARIMA. 1996.Forecasting in loads and prices in the wholesale markets are mutually intertwined activities.4 How is the forecaster'sknowledge and intuition consideredsuperior to any load forecasting method? Should a forecaster intervene to modify a forecast. a point may be made that no particular method or approach will work for all utilities. 1988. However. "Shortrun Forecasts Electricity Loads and Peaks". 3. ef.GaussMarkovand innovation models in setting up a suitable dynamic model for the stochasticpart of the load datahave been discussed. and ultimately shareholdervalue. 5. li':l. 6. 2. A great deal of attention has in recent years been given to the question of setting up the demand models for the individual appliances and their impact on the aggregated demand. (i) Forecast errors have significant implications for profits. of J.1994.5. Vol. why and how? 16.A. or spectral methods are sufficiently accurate in the short term for operational purposes. IEE. l. 143.
Florida. voltagi instability has been responsible for several major network collap$s in New York. Vol. Sweden and Japan [4. 1970. Voltage instability limit is not directly correlated to the network maximum power transfer limit. voltage dynamics mainly involves loads and the means for voltage control. Vol." IEEE Trans.Voltage stability is sometimes also called load stability.A. pAS89. lg7l. syrt"r An"ly. France. et. lggl. Here it is again discussed greaterdetailsby devotinga full chapter. SMC12. 77 T7. A CIGRE Task Force [25] has proposedthe following definitions for voltage stability.i. AC16. "Online Identification of to Kalmann Filtering". "An Application of State Estimation to Shortterm Load Forecasting". Tyoda. R and D organizations and utilities throughout the world. following any small disturbance. pp lZ_21. R. et. analyzing and developing newer and newer strategiesto cope up with the menace of voltage instability/collapse. Smalldisturbance voltage stability A power system at a given operating state is smalldisturbancevoltage stable if. al. Researchworkers. Mohammed. Voltage collapse is also defined as a processby which voltage instability leads ro very low voltage profile in a significant part of the system. 10.@ Mod"rnpo*". Voltage stability* covers a wide range of phenomena. pp 370_3g2.voltagesnear loads do not changeor remain *The problemof voltage stability hasalreadybeenbriefly rackled in Ch. in . Mehra. 5]. IEEE Trans. The terms voltage instability and voltage collapse are often used interchangeably. pp l67g16gg. In recent years. Vol. al. Because of this. are busy in understanding.T INTRODUCTION Voltage control and stability problems are very much familiar to the electric utility industry but are now receiving special attention by every power system analyst and researcher..With growing size alongwith economic and environmental pressures.IEEE Trans. No.K. 3. "Shortterm Load Demand Modelling and ForecastingA Review. voltage stability meansdifferent things to different engineers. Belgium. ll. 13... J.The voltage instability is a dynamic process wherein contrast to rotor angle (synchronous) stability. SMC.. the possible threat of voltage instability is becoming increasingly pronounced in power system networks. 12.
T7. transmissionlines and allied equipment. 12) is well understood and documented t3l.GrlVl Load flow analysis reveals as to how system equilibrium values (such as voltage and power flow) vary as various system parametersand controls are changed.Any attempt to import reactive power through long EHV lines will not be successful. In such a case a small increasein load causesthe system to reach a voltage unstable state. voltage stability studies have attracted the attention of researchersand planners worldwide and is an active area of research. T7. long lines with voltage uncontrolled buses at the receiving ends create major voltage problems during light load or heavy load conditions.Deficit or excessreactive power leads to voltage instability either locally or globally and any increasein loadings may lead to voltage collapse. the bulk system can suffer a considerable voltage drop. Voltage Stability voltagestabilityare related to considered.2 COMPARISON OF ANGTE AND VOLTAGE STABILITY The problern of rotor angle (synchronous)stability (coveredin Ch.Cr!. Detailsof static and dynamicvoltage stability will be 17.Power flow is a static analysistool wherein dynamicsis not explicitly The slower forms of voltage instability are normally analysed as steady state problems using power flow sirnulation as the primary study method. is less than the increasein reactive power required by the load for the same voltage drop.the voltages near loads approachthe postdisturbance equilibrium values.l. two other power flow based . Real power is related to rotor angle instability. Similarly reactive power is central to voltage instability analyses.' In power systems.l l. Under certain conditions the increasein reactive power delivered by the line(s) to the load for a given drop in voltage. The concept of smalldisturbancevoltage stability is related to steadystatestabiiity and can be analysed using smallsignal (linearised) model of the system. (ii) Radial TransmissionLines: In a power system. The analysis of voltage stability normally requires simulation of the system modelled by nonlinear differentialalgebraic equations. Under this condition.lEq!tl#* l. I7. but also to remain stable following credible contingencies or load increases. Voltage security is the ability of a system.Depending on the nature of disturbance and system/subsystem dynamics voltage stability may be regardeda slow or fast phenomenon.ClLr. the voltage instability has become a serious problem.6. Although voltage stability involves dynamics. not only to operate stably. Any loss of an EHV line in the network causes an enhancementin system reactance. Voltage Stability Studies Certain situations in power system cause problems in reactive power flow which lead to system voltage collapse.5. a power system undergoesvoltage collapse if the postdisturbanceequilibrium voltages near loads are below acceptablelimits. Many of the indicesusedto assess NR load flow study. (iii) .lltE l.rc'tr close to the predisturbancevalues.3 REACTIVE POWER FLOW AND VOLTAGE COLLAPSE to a certain disturbance.most of the parallel EHV networks are composedof radial transmissionlines. transfofiners. Voltage Collapse Following voltage instability. with power system becoming overstressedon accourrt of economic and resource constraint on addition of generation. Static Voltage Analysis FORMULATION OF VOLTAGE littD/^t T Erilt r. The concept of voltage stability is related to transient stability of a power system. power flow based static analysis methods often serve the purpose of quick and approximate analysis.Some of the situations that can occur are listed and explained below. "Snapshots" in time following an outage or during load build up are simulated. However.4 MATHEMATICAL crrrr.Sftortageof Local Reactive Power: There may occur a disorganised combination of outage and maintenance schedulethat may cause localised reactive power shortageleading to voltage control problems. furtherin Section considered Some Counter Measures lty are: n counter measuresto avord voltage r (i) generator terminal voltage increase (only limited control possible) (ii) increase of generator transformer tap (iii) reactive power injection at appropriate locations (iv) loadend OLTC blocking (v) strategic load shedding (on occurrenceof undervoltage) Counter measures to prevent voltage collapse will be taken up in Section 17. (1) Long Transmission Lines. Voltage collapse may be total (blackout) or partial.EDllrr I I The voltage stability can be studied either on static (slow time frame) or dynamic (over long time) considerations.? Trnl't rit . Therefore. Besides these postdisturbance power flows.
The pV e curves for various values of pf are plotted in Fig.+^Ll .be determinedfrom lsl = v"3lx". voltage instability occurs above certain bus loading and certain Q injections. .1.^. Noseof the curve 0. type of loads are mixed or predomirrantlyconstantpower type such that system voltage degraclationis inore and voltagelnstability occurs much prior to the theoretical power limit.8 pf lag Fig.17.I 'sls{ analysis.It then follows that o = EY.the systemloaclenclvoltage can be expressed as [l]. _ < \ z e7. 0 = 90".2. the higher voltage solution indicates stable voltage case. This condition is indicated by the singularity of the Jacobianof Load Flow equations and level of voltage instability is assessed the minimum singular value.2) F i g .e.t) It is seenfrom Eq.a. (17.E ) ' .2 is constantimpedance.4) We have so far consideredhow the PV characteristicswith constant load power factor affect the voltage stability of a system.(seealsosec. Considerthe radial two bus system of Fig.s) . conventional load flow programs can be used for approxi lmate PV. This is the same diagrarn as that of Fig. 17.For p flow it is sufficiently accurate to assume X > R i.3) X". dP in lra l^.pv curvesandve curves.t (critical) and Pro*.r.4 x 2 G 2 + o \ l .11 X X (17. by Certain results that are of significancefor voltage stability are as under.2) to unity.It may be noted here that the type of load tir" assumedin Fig' 17. lesserthe stability margin. Reducing voltage causes an "* increasing current to be drawn by the load.i is the critical system reactancebeyond which voltage stability is lost. fhe changeover occurs at v". . 17.r. Any attempt to iniiease the load abov" causes a reversal of voltage and load. curves are useful for conceptual analysis of voltage stability and for The model that will be employed here to judge voltage stability is based on a single line performance...e.z : .p^u* points for variJus pfs is drawn in dotted line in the figure. Here Eis 75 and yis vn and E and v are magnitudes with E leading v by d.panL /\u'Dr.o. dV gV reducing voltage and viceversa).9 pf lead 0.. stability.6) are These two methods give steadystate loadabilitylimits which are relatedto vohags V '<Locus of V66 and Pr". 5.\ 0 and ^rr flrrv rvwwr. Nearer the magnitude in Eq. o Voltage stability limit is reached when (r7. methods oftenused.z z x . 1 7 ._'il r z o x . The locus of v. while the lower voltage lies in the unstable voltage operation zone. (17.1) that Vis a doublevalued function (i. Consideronce again the simple radial systemof Fig. In practical syste.2 PV curvesfor variouspowerfactors As in the case of single line systerrr. This is also brought out by the fact that in upper part of the curve ff. V = load bus voltage L 1: i r . where S = complex power at load bus Yrt= load bus admittance '.. This being unstableoperation causesthe system to suffer voltage collapse. 13. which brings out the sensitivity and variation of bus voltage with respect to reactive power injections (+ve or ve). For each value of pf.'. a general power system.1 In terms of P and e. Ioads and the network of transmission lines. ithas two solutions) of P for a particular pf which determines in terms of p. 'a o The loading limit of transmissionline can. A more meaningful charrcteristic for certain aspectsof voltage stability is the QV characteristic.26 except that symbols are simplified. Line angle"p: tunli XlR and lzl = X.rurc^ pdtL) > U (feduclng lOad means . 17.. In turn the larger reactive line drop causesthe voltage to dip further. It can be expressed as (tan Q+sec Q) X"n= * 2P Fz (r7.1. The voltage performun"" of this simile system is qualitatively similar to that of a practical system with many voltage sources.o ^^* . (r7.
#}+sindffi}=o d (r7. Using this crite rion.r2) a indicates the offnominal tap ratio of the OLTC transformer at the load end. \ (iii) Ratio of source to load reactance is very important dnd for voltage stability Xsource a o2 X load v M d o o o r .8 1.2 V d V X a (r7.a reactiu.".6) (17. (short circuitMVA of powersource) (17. The limiting value of the reactive power transfer at the limiting stage of voltage stability is given by (r7.. =9 ..8) The inferencesdrawn from the simple radial system qualitatively apply to a practicalsize system.such as load level.2 0. operation P I P ^ " . we set dV The QV characteristic on normalized basrs(etf**.EV cos 6+ QX = 0 Taking derivative wrt V gives d Q = E c o s6 .7) Using ihe decoupiing principle 1.17.0 0. must be given due consideration.it.ug. T7. 17. max = Ers6 E cos5l !9 + 2Y] E cos .Other factors that contribute to system voltage collapse are: strengthof transmissionsystem. +) > Ers. (ii) iuiechanismof voitage instabiiity: How and why does voltage instabitity take place? What are the main factors leading to instability?'ulhat are the voltageweak areas? What are the most effective ways to improv" stability? "of. load chaiacteristics.\ dz (lU  0 0.posiible contingencies such as a line outage. V=load voltage).eldV = 0 which may also be termed as the critical operating point.e) . VIE) for various values of P/P^ are plotted in Fig.The system is voltage stable in the region where dQldv is positive. .loss of a generating unit or. dP = 0.0 VIE Fig.rion: (E'=generator voltage.1r) dZ dV Application of this criterion gives value of z".+] or or Isc=cosoO+11 dl LdV X J X J LdV Voltagestability is achieved when o D . cos{#. +=.5 VOLTAGE STABILITY ANALYSIS = Q..3..n^ t"o'26 (17. and reactive power reserye. (# 1. (i) Proximity to voltage instabitity: Distance to instability may be measured in terms of physical quantities.3 QV characteristics the systemof Fig.. 17. 5 Pr". Other (i) 34 Criteria of Voltage Stability .1 tor for variousvaluesof plp^^r. is the maxlmum powertransferat upf . rea power flow through a critical interface. generatorreactive power limits and characteristicsof reactive power compensating devices.6 0.power transfer levels."'r[#. while the voltage stability limit is reached at d.= u = (17. the voltage stability limit is reachedwhen The voltage stability analysis for a given system state involves examining following two aspects.10) cntenon dV voltage instability occurs when the system Z is such that .75 Unstable. po*"rio*.or V" .
AnHVDClinkcanbe maY refer to [3]' *For dctailcd accountof HVDC.Special techniques VQ sensitivity such as eigenvalue (or reported in literature.. Hence the better approach (NR/FDLF) and continuaflow irethod :ase. As bee ieading to voltage collapse have is considerably differential equations models. and testing voltage coliapse situations..obrrrt difficulties' However' with convergence is to suming. allowing'h.::t"t' vlp qnrt equations algebraic :f vo by computin andvQ "'?'J"6.Stiffnessis also called synchrc (r7.snapshots frames along the timedomain trajectory. as cxprefihcd *=f(X. consider the voltage and frequency dependence Induction motors should also be modelled' Generators and their excitation controls Requirements of various Power system components to redPce purely equations system the Thus.Ytt .:d High voltage direct current* ffansmissiclnanclftrrasynchronousinterconnections.. V) = YxV (Xo' Ve)' with a set of known initial conditions X = system state vector where = but voltage vector Y 1= current injeition vector Ilv = rletwork node admittance matrix' (17.r4) at the voltage stability limit.SVSs (static var system)..t'1tit Tlv:i: ::*:1. Proximity to InstabilitY .litt tl:1r:t. and how the of remedial rneasures.r3) (r7. Dynamic 'lhe AnalYsis by increasing proximity to smalldisturbance voltage instability is determined unstable or the load flow fails in steps until. the loadflow equationsso that they overcomesthis problem by reformulating the possible loading conditions.ninutes. This allows remain wellconditioned at all of the PV forioth upper *d lo*"t portions solution of loadflow problem *fi"t:lltinuationmethod and flexible and of powerflow analysis is . reactive power compensation' voltage regulators of loads' to It is essential.g.ffiiffi . At each of these time frames' X in of system The static analysis techniques permit examination of a wide range the nature of the problem and give the main conditions and can descriUe of specific contributing factors. the reader . overau frame."riuulirv s is determrnedusing static analysis havb been curves at selected load buses. the continuation method method is ns. Analysis System Power Modern Static AnalYsis of systemconditionsat variousdme captures The staticapproach .the system becomes il. A! a result' The Jacobian matril becomes singular have convergenceproblems at operating conventional toadflow algorith*.^". Methods based on methods give stabilityrelated modal) analysis have been devised.13)and (17'14)can be s Equations oi tt e numerical integration methods in clescribed Ch' 6' T analysisnrethocls the special models repl . Dynamic analysis is useful for detailed study coordination of protection and controls. LF is solved using a conventional increasingload levels ns for successively is Hereafter. the continuation point' I exactly at and past the critical Voltage StabilitY with HVDC Links for extremely long distance (HVDC).n and a set of algebraicequations I (X. Normally. rnuy The continuation powerflow analysis conditions near the stability limit. These and also identify areasof potential information from a systemwide perspective problemst13151.vP AVR.t. also be modelled appropriatelyl4l.ffiffi. t16181 discussspecial techniquesfor to converge. representationin a voltageweakarea may be required' subiransmissionsystem and This may includeiransformer ULTC action. load It is necessary to consider the droop chatacteristics of the AGC. instability' of voltage collapse and proximity to volage The Continuation Powerflow Analysis analysis is rc generalstructu of the systcm moclel for voltage stability overall system equations may be similar to that for transient stability analysis. ii h?lrJdil. protection and controls should compensation.ruiion determining the point Refs.Dynamic simulations further tell us whether point wr steadystateequilibrium Modelling Loads Detailed Load modelling is very critical in voltage stability analysis.
transient voltage dips unJ lo* conditions leading to voltage collapse. Pw et al. Voltage stability analysis and techniques have been pushed forward by several researchers and several of these are in commercial use as outlined in researcheffort is being devoted this chapter.aoo uvrrvrrrvJ olrn. Energy managementsystem (EMS) provide a variety of measured and computer processed data.t L ^ ug r^^: ^^) ugsrBlrtru differentiate berween faults. It will be worthwhile developingtechniquesand models for This may requireexploring study of nonlineardynamics of large size systems. Ref. 17.. HVDCrelated voltage control (voltage stability and fundamental frequency temporary over voltages)may be studied using a transient stability program.r. MicroprocessorbasedOLTC controls offer almost unlimitedflexibility for implementingULTC control strategies so as to take advantage the load characteristics. Better and probabilistic load modelling [11] should be tried. In this regard autornationand specializedsoftware relieve the operator of good part of the burden of system management but it does add to the complexity of the systemoperation. and appropriate T7.This is similar to under ir"q1r"rr. ratingrund locations.onJia.y load shedding. Tokyo Electric Power Co.gers T'apchangerscan be controlled.6 PREVENTION OF VOLTAGE COLLAPSE monitoringand analysisto identify potentialvoltage stabilityproblems are remedialmeasures extremelyhelpful. this problem in greaterdetail. FUTURE TRENDS AND CHALLENGES due The present day transmission networks are getting more and more stressed to economic and environmental constraints.7 STATEOFTHE. Transient stability is often interrelated with voltage stability. AI is another approach to centralized reactive power and voltage control. in (ii) control of network voltage and generator reactive output Several utilities in rhe world such as EDF (France). FACTS devicescan be effectively used for controlling the occurrence of dynamic bifurcations and chaos by proper choice of error signal and controllergains. Eigenvalue analyseshas been used to find critical group of busesresponsible for voltage collapse. Offline and online techniquesof determining state of voltage stability and when it entersthe unstable state. has developed a pPbased controller for coordinated control of capacitor bank switching and network transformer tap ctranging. considerable . Some researchers[26] have also investigated aspects of bifurcations (local. it may be necessary to use undervoltageloadsheddingschemes.The trend is to operatethe existing networks optimally close to their loadability limit. global) and chaos and their implications on power systemvoltage stability.HVDC power control is used to improve stability. to it.ART.As it is still hot topic.r. Adequate stability margins should be ensured by proper selection of compensation schemes terms of their size.which is a common practiceto deal with extreme situationsresulting from generationdeficiency. More systematic approach is still required for optimal siting and sizing of FACTS devices. new methods to obtain network equivalents suitable for the voltage stability analysis. so as to reduce the risk of voltage collapse.r orr\_rrll\. The technology has come to such a level that HVDC terminals can be connected even at voltageweak points in power systems.Online . (iv) Control of transfurmer tap chan. either locally or centrally. Controlled system s€paration and adaptive or irrtelligent control could also be used.The availability of FACTS controllers allow operationclose to the thermal limit of the lines without jeopardizing security. Multiterfninal HVDC links are also feasible. Hopf. This is helpful to system operators in taking critical decisions inter alia reactive power management and control. (iii) Coordination of protections/controls Adequatecoordinationshould be ensuredbetweenequipment protections/ controls basedon dynamic simulation studies. t2i . of (v) Under voltage load shedding For unplanned or extreme situations. (vi) Operators' role ^^ su as t() voltage Operators must be able to recognise voltage stabiiityrelated symptoms and take requiredremedial actions to prevenr voltage collapse. ENEL (Italy) are developing specialschemesfor control of network voltages and reactive power. l8l considered an exponential type voltage dependentload model and a new index called condition number for staticvoltage stability prediction. HVDC links mav present unfavourable "load" characterisficsfo fhe nnrr/rr converter consumesreactive power equal to 5060vo of the dc power.provide the tools for system planning and real time control. The reactivepower compensationclose to the load centresand at the critical busesis essentialfor overcoming voltage instability. Tripping of equipment to avoid an overloadedcondition should be the last alternative. Strategic load sheddingprovides cheapestway of preventing widespread VOltaSg C O___r_ _ llanse Lnarl sherldino cnl. An expert system [9] could assistoperatorsin applying Cbanksso that (i) Application of reactive powercompensating devices.f00  powerSystem Modern Anatysis ' VoltaseStability I __{tr*g either a backtoback rectifier/inverter link or can include long distance dc transmission. This consequentlymeansthat the system operation is also near voltage stability limit (nose point) and there is increasedpossibility of voltage instability and even collapse.
I. Here. J. 1 7 ."Voltage Stability using GenericDynamic Load Models". Int. rnore and more utilities will face the voltage stability'challenge.R. on Power Systems.0 pu. of Elect Machines and power systems. A. of Electrical Power and Energy systems. As load grows and as new transmission and load area generationbecome increasingly difficult to build. Cutsem. dv Example:. .'. 4. 1994..05x5000) = + 250 MVAR The capacityof the staticvAR compensator +250 MVAR.A.. 21. 5.1.4pu..'. New Delhi.a00. The shunt compensation K. V o l .n.8 dQn t dQn"t = 2v2v K. voi. N o . No l. Krn = 0.stem P. Voltage Stabitityof Electric power Systems. generatorsoperate near upf. Power SystemEngineering. .= system short circuit capacity Then AV = trg d. Power System Dynamics: Stability and Control. Solution Qrcot= Qno V2 [given] ' Qcomp=Krt V2 1. For operator training simulator [10] a realtime dynamic model of the power system that interfaceswith EMS controls such as AGC is of great help. 3.T Van and CostasVournas. So far. M. Grady. c. EpRI Final Report EL7244. 6 .l reactive Qn"t= Qnua t Qcomp .p p 3 7 9 . Padiyar. Powcr Sy. cIGRE/ Task Forcc 38060l.G. Mukhopadhyay. 9 .K.Say at V . J. i5. and M.plant operators should be trained in the basics of voltage stability..Wheeler Publishing.0givenl dv Sensitivity increasesor decreases with Krn as well as the magnitude of the voltage.McGrawHill. Kothari.P. Both control centre and power.. 1 0 .J. The short circuit capacity is 5000 MVA.6=0. 1994. 6. Pai."Voltage CollpaseAnalysis with ReactiveGeneration and voltage Dependentcons. August 1993. McGrawHill. inductive [ve sign denotes powerinjection. 8 . New Delhi.Vol 9.Fortunately. and D. Tata McGrawHill.l. Power system voltage stability. prepared by EMPROS SystemsInternational. is REFERE NCES Books A load bus is composed of induction motor where the nominal reactive power is I pu. 1998.O. 2. IEEE Trans. 1995. i'. Stubilityatul Control. no. pp 479493.2 Find the capacity of a static VAR compensator to be installed at a bus with x 5Vo voltage fluctuation.P.17. Taylor. Concordia. AQ = reactive power variation (i. Feb 1994.1991. Qn r= v'  Krn vz lQoo^ = 1. The design of suitable protective measuresin the event of voltage instability is necessary. D.1996. providing MW margin type indices. l l .Operation and Control of EHV Power Transmission Systerts. many creative researchers and plannersare working on new analysis methods and an innovative solutions to the voltage stability challenge.. 1994. Series. Xu.). New york. computed PV curves are the most widely used method of estimating voltage security. Nagrath. C (Ed.w. AQ = AVSsk =1(0."Expcrt Systems Applied to voltage and var Control//. John Wilev. New york. the size of the compensator) Srr. Kluwer Int.. "special Issue on Voltage Stability and Collapse. Solution For the switching of static shunt compensator. W and Y Mansour. PostdisturbanceMW or MVAr margins should be translated to predisturbance operating limits that operators can monitor. K. Kunclur.traints". May 1991. 4.*l t ModernPo I . Singapore. "operator Training simulator". Kothari and A. Find the reactive power sensitivityat is the bus wrt change in voltage.3 9 0 . Papers 7 .e. Chakrabarti. Voltage stability is likely to challengeutility plannersand operatorsfor the foreseable future. 1 9 8 9 .Perfurmance.
79. of Electric Power and Energy System. No. S.P. IEEE PICA Conf.D. 4. L. VoI.D. G.4449. Dec 1998.. S. 1997. "Voltagc Stability EvaluationUsing Modal Analysis". VerTna.lt. pp 339347. of Electric Power Components and Systems. pp 483486.pp' 7l77. Kothari and S. 2. T6. 7.pp 126129.. (A2) equaito unity. xp . Carlsen.. pp 507514.e. of EP and. .pp 304311.P. IEEE Trans.IJ. Int J. pp. 76. (A1) 2 3 . Tiansmisiion System calculated by Sensilivity Methods". S. of EP and ES. Chaube and D. D... "The continuation Power Flow: A Tool for Steady StateVoltageStabilityAnalysis".. . 2 5 . IEEE Tians. IZ.) Arya. Kclapure.C. t AppnNDrx A PWRS5. May 1995. 2000. P. J.P. Vol. No. CIGRE Task Foice 380210. "Voltage Stability of Power Systems:Concepts. 5... "A Method to Compute Rbactive Power Margins wrt Voltage Collapse".. '20. and C.M.Int J. T. 147.. T.R.. Christy. Anderson and D.in 14.. P.Proc.Vol. 23. pp 15291542.Vol. 1992. IEEE. VECTORS (realor complex). pp 5464. ReactivePower Loss Minimization".A. convenient rT A fx1. In this appendix. Mark J. No. our aim is to present definitions and elementary operationsof vectors and matrices necessaryfor power system analysis. Saxena.. "Fast Calculationof a Voltage Stability Index".r. 5.. Kelapure. t ? i d t ! l ! F L ..Modern Po 'Yoltage JlaDrtrty DnnansEulenr uy tl. Itothari. L. 13. 2001. Sometimestransposed and is written as the row vector. 8.R. No.No.e.P. 1 5 . Pai. PWRS7.. Nov 1990. Arya. S. "Voltagc StabilityCondition a Power N. i. pp 145156... special Publication 90 TH 03582 PWR.ES. Kundur.. Int. JIE (I). G.C. Kothari. .^ L . Arya ano u.pp 128693.. Van. JIE (1). . AP. IncludihgDynamicPhenomena". Bijwe. Cutsem. Vol. Thus the vector x is form is found to be more a ndimensional column vector.Analytical Tools. 1999. 21. No. Feb 1992. Vol. Vol. Kothari and K. Bijwc. 22.D. 2000."Oscillatory Stability by Limit Enhancement Adaptive Control Rescheduling". April 1993. No. Ldf. Nov. "Line Outage Ranking for Voitage Limit Violations witti Conective Rescheduling Avoiding Masking".Electrical Power and Energy Systems. Chaube and D. 7. i. A vectorx is definedas an ordered of numbers 2t. 24.Int J. pp 615628. and Energy Systems. S. x2. IEEE Trans.C.oman. Collapse 2 6 . Nov. Kothari. Vol. 29. . R. "Reactive Power Optimization using Static Stability Index (VSD". 1 8 . Arya. L. V. Kothari. "Line Outage Ranking based on EstimatedLower Bound on Minimum Eigen Value of Load Flow Jacobian". No. xrf Some Special Vectors The null vector 0 is one whose each component is zero.IEEE Trans.K. Flatabo. pp 213221. Chaubeand D. May 1991.D. 1 9 . Ajjarapu. Chaube and D. 8.e. Arya.Vol. 3.Vol. 7.. No. "Hopf bifurcation control in power system with static var compensators". 19. "Cigre Technical Brochure: Modelling of Voltage Electa. July 2001. Gao. Laufenbergand M. 1 7 .P. .J. The sum vector i has each of its components . set i.t xn are known as the components of the vector r. PWRS6. . No. Morison and P. Ogncdaland T. "Linc Switching for Alleviating Overloadsunder Line OutageCondition taking Bus Voltage Limits into Account". pp 837846.YoL 22. "An Efficient Approach to Voltage Sccurity Analysis and Enhancement". Feb 1991. Int J. Hill.. L.D.C... PWRS7.P.K.. Oct. L. I\. and Industry Experience" 1990. of Electrical Power Vol.. Sined. No. 1.
the number of rows is equal to that of columns.y).. i)th element. matrix or The (A7) If a vector y is to be addedto or subtracted from anothervector x of the same dimension.r a : ^*^ ^. is a rectangular array of mn elements.i.U ^ r ^l^ Yv r r Pvr rf oo L rar D' ' x*!=y+x x+(v+'z)=(x+y)+z ar @zx).g e .= 0 The unit 'tector e the. i. i. t I flTY' 0x. An m x 1 matrix.t the (i.Aytx i:l (A_3) €k: A Also. functions operators.e.e. . Then we sav x = y The product of a vector by a scalar is carried out by multiplying each component of the vector by that scalar.Two nonzero vectors are said to be orthJgonral. the matrix is said to be a square matrix of order n. then each component of the resulting vector will consist of addition or subtraction of the correspondingcomponents of the vectors x and vr. (x. complexnumbers. y.y. and only if. a matrix having only one row is called a rore vector... The matrix A has m rows ano n coiumns and is said to be of order mxn. respectively.(afiz)x (ar+ e)x. if *ty= o MATRICES Definitions Matrix ' ' (A6) '\n m x n (ot m' n) matrix is an orderedrectangular array of elements which may be real numbers. lxl and lyl are the geometric lengths of vectors x and y. . i. a matrix having only one column is called a column vector. . !"notes 7th column.t *Sometimes . y).rest of the componentbare zero. 's.e. ...e. 0 0 1 kth component 0 0 Some Fundamental Vector Operations Two vectors x and y are known as equal if.(x.e. *tv AD".2.i.dF+ a2x inner product is also representedby the following alterr ative forms x . u U <r+ : I t^ lL U u r c v e r ^: t 0 r L .. (A4) (A5) wtere Q is angle between vectors. it is interesting to note that xTx = lx 12 cos d 4 "tY ' lxllyl . i. When m = rt. the elementlocated in the ith row and the .yk= !*for k = r. o.1r\!r The f n l l n u r i n c r r r 6 y n v n n A ! aiv D 4 r v 4 y I .e. i. n.A .e.e. An I x n matix. The multiplication of two vectors x and y of same dimensions results in a very important product known as inner or j9g!g! pfodqcij.
there exists a determinant which is formed by taking the determinant of the elements of the matrix. This matrix is known as a scalar maffix. of a matrix 'l. (Ar)r = A Note that Symmetrtc matrix A square matrix is symmetric. Mij of an n x n rnatrix is the determinant of (n . If a unit matrix is multiplied by a constant().e.e transpose of matrixA denoted by At is the matrix formed by interchanglng the rows and columns of A. and then transposing. L  ^ J ll:Lll. +lrt1 I 4l*l1 3l  1 2l (A10) =2(8)+('6)+(5)=5 Transpose NUII matrix If all the elements of the square matrix are zero.h. For example. the matrix is a nuII or zero matrix. if A is given by Eq. matrix A unit matrix / is a diagonal matrix with all diagonal elementsequal to unity. the resulting matrix is a diagonal matrix with all diagonal elements equal to 2.. (Ae) det (A) = tAt = 213 2l ll 2l . (A8) Minor The mino. of the matrix A is defined as aU = Gl)'*t M. AT=A Notice that the matrix A of Eq.i Adjoint matrix Unit (identity). (A9).i. if it is equal to its transpose. '1..l) x (n .1) matrix formed by deleting the ith row and the 7th column of the n x n matrix.). . (A9) is a symmeffic matrix.frffiH Diagronal matrix Modern Power Svstem Analvsis T A diagonal matrix is a squarematrix whose elements off the main diagonal are a l l z e r o s( a i j = 0 f o r i + j ) . then aoJA= l3 lz tl1 l l 2 I1 lI 3 =4x4unitmatrix Determinant of a matrix lr l 1 l2 lt l 2 l1 For each square matrix. Cofactor The cofactor AU of element a.l =3x3scalarmatrix The adjoint matrix of a squarematrix A is found by replacing each element au of matrix A by its cofactor A.
.tv.rl_ r ['' cnl czrl To add (or subtract)two matrices of the sameolder (same number of rows.6tl I  A square matrix is called singular. it is important to note that in generalmatrix multiplication is not commutative..MotJellr Powor S 6 Appendix A 7 5 _.able.4).r l " . if the only if a i = b i j f o ri = 7 . A(B + C) .re. . in general. Even if BA is defined.L o ' 3. and nonsingular.\ l (A11) )l 15 1l C = A + B = l ' I L2 2) Addition and subtraction definedonly for matrices the sameorder.l .AB + AC added. the product BA may or may not be defined. . For example 1"" Addition (or suhtraction) of matrices Lau where azz)Lbn brrJ Lr^ arzllbn b. f f i . )_rai*0*i k:l (A13) A matrix is multiplied by a scalar a if all the mn elements are multiplied by a.e.cce i e rrrhen frxrn rnqfri/ec A enA Il nf lhe cqrnc o. are of The fbllowing lawshold lbr addition: (+ fhe cammatatLveln+y: A + B B + . are not.if its associated determinantis nonzero. of the product is given bv cii = r .e.IX OPERATIONS Matrix of matrices Two matrices A(m x n) and B(m x n) are said to be equal.l .{ (ii) The associative law: A +. i. .aredef. The element c.1 i? Or f) 11 .(B + C) = (A + B) + C Further (A tB)r= Ar + Br : I . BA equal. The natrices are then said to be conform. if its associateddeterminant is zero. Thus. i. simply add (or subtract)the correspondingelements nf the frxrn rnefr. and samenumber of columns). . AB+BA The associariveand distributive larrshold for matrix mulriplicarion (wtren the 'aryprrtixiateerpernirnys. A= il z .+ a r r b 2 1 czz= azt bt z+ cr r b2 If the product AB is defined.+ arrb^ ctz= anbn + arrb2 c z l = u z l b t . .a new matrix C results such that CA+ whose ryth elernent equals cij= aij * bij B. l___ir1 r l .If amatrix A is of order mx n and B is an n x q matrix. i = 1 . the resulting products of AB and. ELEMENTARY Eguality MATR.ExampleI I : r I IA then. f l Then we write A= B Multiplication of a matrix by a scalar Multiplication The product of two matrices A x B is defined if A has the same number of columns as the number of rows in B. (A12) Thus the elements cu are obtained by multiplying the elementsof the ith row ofA with the correspondingelementsof theTth column of B and then summing theseelementproductp. Asscrica'rv &rrt': 4{B [ = A(BC) = tBC Distibutive law:. the product C = AB will be an m x q matrix.rAcr qrc ctt= attbt. 2 . . 2 . . .
AIIA=A The transpose of the product of two matrices is the product of their transposesin reverse order. e.e. . (A9). (A16) Ll Lo The conventional method for obtaining an inverse is to use the following relation adj A A. (A15) is a useful shorthand representationof the set of linear algebraic equations (A14).. we get . 2 . . (A10). . its inverse (Al) is defined by the relation A_IA_AA_I_I It is clear that the vector:mntrix Eq..qffil*l l.i95I3n D i:l "*t= c i i i = 1 .e. _ det A Multiplication of any matrix by a unit matrix results in the original maffix.tffiWl I Po Modern or n I. + a z r t r = c 2 It is easy to prove that the inverse is unique The following are the important properties charactenzing the inverse: (AB)r = 3t4l (Atf = (Ar)r = 14r1t 4 (A18) : Q^lXl * C^*z+ . .ll . (A8) is added to it. A and B areconformable (A has two columns and B has two rows). thus we have (A1s) 0t '4"8 . Consider such a Set of equations atft + anxz+ .e. + ArJn = C^ (A14) I f A is given by Eq.if a null matrix. . if A is a square nonsingular matrix. Eqs (A14) canle written in the compact notation as Ax=c where Lo z rl Find AB and BA... i. l1 1 3l .m [1 1 3] Using the rules of matrix multiplication defined above. Matrix Inversion .. (A17) 6Dr = BrAr The conceptof matrix multiplication assistsin the solution of simultaneous linear algebraic equations. Division does not exist as such in matrix algebra.g. (A17)...L 2 4 9 l t B ^ =r1 4' 1 =1 . A + 0 = A If a null matrix is multiplied to another matrix A.l [ r 0J[ 3 o l = f o 0 l 0J 0l L0 l. However. . + abJn = ct a L l x t+ a z z x z + . (A1I). then from Eqs.A = 0 Note that equationAB = 0 does not mean that either A or B necessarilyhas to lre a null matrix.j]. " A .l ) A matrix remainsunaffected. the result is a null matrix A0= 0A = 0 Also A . defined by Eq.. i.
xn) It may be noted that ihe derivative of a scaiar function with respect to a vector of dimension n is a vector of the same dimension. ) Let us fincf j{ (A27) 62g) a^ . we can write ^ i . (A24). u. p) LJm\rrUrP)J d Let us now find . Accordingro Eq. y . o*n (A26) In general.u.. u. x2. we can write In general. 0*. e. p) = 21fi(x.:_il det A .. A derivafit'e of a scalar funcritrn 1Alt)) s.eLR)rr. + 2*f*(4.ariable r is as af 0r. i. p) + Lzfz(*.: power Modern System Rnatysis +:if A1 t : si _.. 0fz 0*.g.e.u. J la"l . e.f(x) where x is an ndimension vector. yf(x.ff@.p) DERTVATNTES OF SCALAR AND \ZECTOR FUNCTIONS defind (A23) According to Eq. The derivative of a vector function (A22) with respect to a vector variable r is defined as 0*.ffdffi. 0*.af. af.p) (A2r) where x. .u. Lr 5j L l.rtr) u \. 0*.ith resper. o*n ?fz 0rn (Azs) af. (A24).l:f:i.J SCALAR AI\rD VE CTOFFUNCTI O]NIS A scalarfunctionof n scalarvariables definedas is y ! f\r.. . . o f a }fz (A1e) (A20) 0x It can be written as a scalarfunction of a vector variable x. a vector function is a function of several vector variables. A vector function is defined as Consider now a scalarfunctiondefinedas t . i.. ox s (A2e) yf(x. A t 0x af 0*. a scalarfunction could be a function of sever al vector variables. oJ orn (A24) Lar.g. u. p) + . f (x. u and p are vectors of various dimensions. 0*.. u.
1960. Reading.rtems.. s Z1 Vg lp 22 Y Vp Flg. and bilateral (impedances being independent of direction of current flowing). 2.I^+ Y(Vo+ I^Zr) or (B1) Is= YV*+(l+ YZr)I* *: V*+ I^Zr+ IrZ. 0r. VJI UJ2 af^ 0*. Consider the unsymmetrical Tnetwork of Fig. (A30) NCES REFERE l.where power enters) and two output terminals (receivingend. Inc. 1961. 0*.Z.. 3.where power exits).. This twoterminal pair circuit is passive (since it does not contain any electric energy sources).8. Wiley. McGrawHill Book Co.+ iqY *A transformer is similarly represented by a circuit with two input and two ouput terminals. B1 Unsymmetrical Tcircuit equivalent a general to twoterminal r" nair "network '"_ For Fi g.or zrnetwork..fijfilftf. Intoduction to Matric:r:sand Power Sy. Hadley. . Ofi }fz 0r. Shiplcy.. o*n 0*n 0r. the following circuit equations can be written 1 s . Introduction to Matrix Analysis. New York. .. R. 0*. (impedances of its elements are independent of the amount of current flowing through them).1. Linear Algebra.f I Modern Power'system Anatysts }ft 0f. G. B. )r ^2 AppnNDrx B af^ 0*. B1. New York.Mass.. + I^YZ. Bellman.linear. Co. which is equivalenr to the general twoterminal pair network. + ZrWn+ I^2.as we saw in Chapter 5. We can represent. r976. It can be shown that such a twoterminal pair network can be representedby an equivalent T. AddisonWesleyPub. R. V^ + I^2. a threephasetransmissionline* by a circuit with two input terminals (sendingend.
The constantsA. it should be checked that the relation ADBC = 1 is satisfied. The ABCD constants are extensively used in power system analysis. for any symmetrical network the constantsA and.t0..sis V5= (1 + YZr) V* + (2. C andD arecalled the generalized circuit constantsor the ABCD constantsof the network. B3 Unsymmetrical zrcircuit . B2 :#:::representation of a tworerminar networkusing pair B=0 C=Y /El_a\ \su. as A seriesimpedanceoften representsshort transmissionlines and transformers.+Zr+ yZrZ. It may be noted that ABCD constants of a twoterminal pair network are complex numbers in general. as follows: A= 1 B=Z C=0 D = l (B7) Fig. B. ABCD CONSTANTS FOR VARIOUS SIMPLE NETWORKS D = I We havealready obtained theABCD constants. and they can be calculated for any such twoterminal pair network. (B1) and (B2) can be written in matrix form as (B2) (B3) Lr. The ABCD constantsof unsymmetricalanetwork shown in Fig. areequal. C=Yr+Yr+ZYryz D=I+ YrZ (B6) It may be noted that whenever ABCD constantsare computed. + Z" + yZrZr)Io (B1) and (B2) can be simplifiedby letting Equations Al + YZ. passiveand bilateral twoterminal pair network. (5. Eqs. B5 Shuntadmittance r B = Z. B= 2. B4) can immediately be determinedby inspection of Eqs. and always satisfy the following relationship ADBC=1 (Bs) Also.tlCtf I or Modernporelsyslern inal. B_2.JLt olj^l lyrl = lA Bllv*1 Fig. using these. (B1) and (B2). (B8) we get ADBC=1x10xY=1 . From Eq..while B has the dimensions of impedance(ohms) and c has the dimensions of admittance (mhos). A generaltwoterminal pair network is often represented in Fig.ofan unsymmetrical Tnetwork. This equationis the sameas Eq.. The ABCD constants for such a circuit (as shown in Fig. For examole. using Eq. C=Y D=l+yZ. B4 Seriesimpedance Another simple circuit of Fig. D (B4) it is clear that A and D are dimensionless.1) and is valid for any linear. B3 may be obtained in a similar manner and are given below: A=l+ YrZ Fig. B5 consistingof simple shunt admittancecan be shown to possessthe following ABCD constants A= 7 Fig.
'i+L wrlrl ^^^:. B3. we can write u'l[u^] [u'l_lo' u'11o. Using Eq. (B4).D)l(Br * Ur) l. o.or acircuitcan of be determined solving Eq. When the network is a transformer. (B10) and (B11). or circuit having lumped parameters. but there is no simple method to find the difference in phaseanglebetweenthe quantitiesat the two ends of the line.. the equivalentncircuitof Fig. This combination can be reducedto a single equivalent network as follows: For the first network.Ar) (Dz. also.voltage and current measurements both ends of the line at can be made.as shown in Fig. A t B z+ q D 2 l [ y * I "so  oo'l. 1..l.o. By measuringtwo impedancesat each end of a transmissionline. (B3) or (86) respectively.ilull'uulteo ^^ ^:^ . ) J )lt. whose ABCD constantsare known. It is possible.Ur. B7 Networksin parallel Measurement of ABCD Gonstants Fig.. For tr= (ArBr+ ArBr)/(8. the generalizedcircuit constantscan be measured by making a few ordinary tests on the line. n. generator.c..:fflfuii'l Modernpower: System nnatysis . y* It = It A. the valuesof by for seriesand shuntbranches.. The results are presentedbelow: The generuIized circuit constants rnay be computed for a transmission line which is being designedfrom a knowledge of the systemimpedance/admittance parameters using expressionssuch as those clevelopedabove. Br) + B = B r B z l ( B t +B r ) C= (Cr * Cr) + (Ar . or)j^l I l c rAz + D 1 C 2 CrB ' t D rD . Whenever a power system consists of series and parallel combinations of networks.A.io rvrrulrSvr:\r . 86. [u.+ BtC.r=# ABCD CONSTANTS OF NETWORKS IN SERIES AND FANEr.l Lr. The following impedancesare to be measured: 7 =l f A.. the overall ABCD constantsfor the system may be determined to analyze the overall clperationof the system. we hal'e 'l _ [u. l i*^o'l^^^ uuPv\r(rrrlvs . we can write I I Brll vo] (B11) lrr) l_c.    (B10) For the secondnetwork.: r9L9rvlttEtrlru ^l uP(. these constants can easily be shown to be ratios of either voltage or currentat the sendingend voltage or to current ai the receivingend of the network with the receivingend open or shortcircuited. II ABCD constants a circuit are given. DrJlr*l From Eqs. the ABCD constants the combinednetworkcan found out similarly with somesimple of be manipulations of matrix algebra. Append8B t . Thus rhe ABCD constantscan be determineC.ll. ". : r Zss = sendingend impedance with receivingend short circuited = receivingend zno impedancewith sendingend cpencircuiteci Zns = receivingend impedancewith sendingend shortcircuited The impedancesmeasured from the sending:endcan be determinedin terms of the ABCD constantsas follows: . If\the line is already built. 86 Networks series in Consider the two networks in series. Fig. however'.its equivalentI.r.. L+ 1.. B7. Phasedifference is necessary becausethe ABCD constants are complex.621+ I (B13) (Be) . to measurethe rnagnitudesof the required voltages and currents sinrultaneously at both ends of a transmission line. we liuu. and the phase angles between the sending and receivingend quantities can be found out.the generalized circuit constantscan be computed. Jl t o l If two networksare connectedin parallel as shown in Fig.
(B15).o* below the main diagonal are made zero and the diagonal element of each row is normalized as soon as the processingof that row is completed.stitution. l z * o . (B14) AppENDIX C When the impedancesare measuredfrom the receivingend. Z s o = V s l l s =A l C and with VR= 0. Publishers. we get (B20) (B21) One of the recent techniques of solving a set of linear algebraic equations. (B17) and (B18) we can obtain the values of in the ABCD constants terms of the measuredimpedances as follows.re not used. is possible to proceed columnwise but it is computationally inefficient and is theref.I. (816). l .Zo))''' Z^o p= (zso(z^o.ssion New Delhi. Barber. ADBC AC I C 1 AC.r. 3rd edn. with Is = 0. called triangular factorizatiott. straightforu'ard application cf the iterative proceduretor system studies like load flow is not possiblefor large systems unless the sparsity of the Jacobian is dealt with effectivet).zo))t'' (B22) Consider the linear vectormaffix equation NCE REFERE and Distribution of Electrical Energy.l . (B14).u. In fact. (5. Z n o = V R  I R =D / C and when Vs = 0. H.I L3 t. the direction of current flow is reversedand hence the signs of all current terms in Eq. @.h . and H. GAUSS ELIMINATION Solving Eqs. Zns= VRllR= BIA (B16) (B17) (B18) We know that the nodal maffix Yu. replaces the use of matrix inverse which is highly inefficient for large sparse systems.25).. After triangularizationthe solution is easily obtained by The techniqueis illustratedin the examplebelow' hack sub. B. The Transmi. For large power systems the 'sparsity of these matricesmay be as high as 98Voand must be exploited.R D> L 7 S.whereas their inverse matrices are full. sparsity utilization limits the roundoff computational errors.z n r ) I (B1e) this value of A in Eqs.From Eq. A 1 [usingEq. Cotton. 1'l I ['t = l' .. (B14).' r = . (B17). We can therefore rewrite this equation as Vn= DVs + BIt In= CVs + AIt From Eq. C_ (Zss(Zno .). (B18) and substituting the By substituting value of C so obtained in Eq. 1970. In triangularization the elements of .l1.It . (B5)] AC A2 o=(ffi)''' 1l /2 ( z \. with 1R= 0. Apart fiom reducing storageand time of computation. and its associated Jacobian are very sparse.
but also the computational effort. Jr L t ) x2= 7:2 I _ I Y  Upon back substituting.Procedure 1. 3' Divide the modified row 2 by its selfelement (f).e. the sameprocedure but for substitution i. 2. = J + Where repeatedsolution of vectormatrix Pq.s(f) = o and elimination back the Thus. = 3 ( l ) x 2 +( * ) " r ' = + . Eliminate the element (2.r+(*)r. by element (2.+ * (3)xr+(4)x2+Q)xt=14 (cs) ( l ) x r+ ( t ) r r + ( J ) x . (t)xr+ (t)*t . Following this procedure. i (c6) (t).+ (*)rt = + (1)x. The solution r may These steps are referred to as 'back substitution' operation using Eq. I) and subtract it from row 2. be immediately determined by . The successive reduced sets of equations are as follows: (c2) [ r z+ li [l ' 't . GAUSS ELIMINATION USING TABLE OF FACTORS (3)xr+(4)x2+(7)4=14 ( 1 ) x . = $ (2)xr+(3)xz+(4)xt=) ( 3 ) x r+ ( 4 ) x r + ( 7 ) 4 = 1 4 For computer solution.that is first solvingfor x2 and then for 11. in this case2. _ + (1)x. (t)rr+ (*)".tt + _ + l l l l = o ll_ l l o ? : r L x zl l. it is computationally advantageousto split the 'Table of factors' or 'LU matrix A into triangular f'actor (termed as decomposition') using the Gauss elimination technique. Divide row 1 by the selfelement of the row.we havedemonstrated useof thebasicGauss appliesto procedure a simplesystem. (C1j with cons tant Abut varying values of vector D is required. ()xt z Check (2)xz+ (1)x.s (1)x.t r = t 3x. Gauss elimination using the table of factors is illustrated in the following example. any generalsystem linear algebraic (c1) Ax=b An added advantageof row processing(elimination of row elementsbelow the main diagonal and normalization of the selfelement) is that it is easily amenable to the useof low storagecompactstorageschemesavoiding storage of zero elements. (I)*t + J 3 2 (c_'7\ (c8) x3= I 'elimination' operations. we get (l)xr+ (t)*z+ (*)rt = * (Z)xt+ (3)x2+ (4)xt = ) (3)xr + (4)xz+ (7)x3 = 14 o+ j 1 I _ 1 1 _ 3 \ 5 (c3) ( 1 ) . of equations. (tr)*r+(*)r. 1) by multiplying the modified row 1. and stop. = l (c4) b r + x z =2 ( * ) . . (C8).L t . we get the upper triangular equation as Consider the following system of linear equations: (Z)xt + Q)x2 + (3)x. r+ ( i l r r + . maximum efficiency is attained when elimination is carried out by rows rather than the more tamiliar column order. If the matrix A is sparse.+ 5rz3(+). .so is the table of factors which can be compactly stored therebynot only reducing core storagerequirements.3 ( ( ( 1 ) x 2(+ ) r . +t r ) r r + * ) " .
X . fu ftz fzz 32 lt= lt fn)z .J(3. j) as per the operationsdefined below: g !i= fiiji Number the matrix rows in the order of the fewest nonzero terms in each row. are described below [4]. ) : i and for heading3. z) respectively by back substitution. This scheme requires updating the count of nonzero terms after each step.3 5/2 I I 1.the same as the one which yields least storage requirement. 3. z Number the rows in order of the fewest nonzero offdiagonal terms generated in the renrainingrows at each stepof elimination. which are fully symmetrical or at least symmetric in the pattern of nonzero offdiagonal terms. These are neededfor the back substitution process. l) 2.2 x I I 1 In power systemstudies. Optimal Ordering h 6 9 t4 l. 3.1 3 3 14 2. . 2 reprelent elimination of elements(1.l =(+x+)I = In fact.2 3 3t2 t4 3. I he chotce ot scheme ts a tradeotf between speed of execution and the number of times the result is to be used. e. operation (C10) represents row normalization and (C11) represents elimination and back substitution procedures.fzz= ! . . the multiplier of normalized row 2 l&q.Thus. fzz = *.fi /i Thus for heading 3. Scheme 3 ttj=i lt i + i (c10) (c11) !i = !r. If more than one unnumbered row has the same number of nonzero terms. Scheme I The headingrow (i.I 3 3/2 5 3. 1) an. we by of can write the tableof factors F as below for the examplein hand. 3 lt = fszlz fn fzt ' r ) .the matrix A is quite sparseso that the number of nonzero operations and nonzero storage required in Gauss elimination is very sensitive to the sequencein which the rows are processed. Therefore. The diagonal elements of F are the mulripliers neededto normalize the rows after the row elimination has been completed. succesiive steps appearas columns (left to right) in Table C.2 3 3t2 5t4 a a 2.This schemealso involves an updatingprocedure. the factor by which tow 2 of Eq.( . 1cl) to (cg). Some of the schemesof near optimal ordering the sparsematrices.2 representelimination of elements(3. The efficiency of scheme 3 is not sufficiently establishedto offset the increasedtime required for its execution. 3 represents normalization of row 3 2. The elementsof F above the diagonal can be immecliately written down by inspection of Eq. Scheme 2 Number the rows in the order of the fewest nonzero terms in a row at each step of elimination. L. 3) and (r. scheme 2 seems to be the best. in general. j) of Table C1 represents successiveelimination and the back substitutionsteps.g.2).The row sequence that leads to the least number of nonzero operationsis not. I 3 9 T4 2.2) respectively 3.(])x2. (c6)l to eliminate the element (3. number these in anv order.7 represents normalization of row 1 2.L represents elimination of element(2.g. (C8). For Newton's method of load flow solution.3 represents elimination of element(2. e.3 a J 3 3t) 1 3 1 1. 7.3) by back substitution r. ft.The solutionfor a new set of values b can be easily obtained using for by a tableof factors prepared a carefulexamination eqs. (C1) by use of the table of factors F. The solution vector at any stage of development is denoted by Ut lz y3Jr = y The modification of solution vector fiom column to column (left to right) is carried out for the headin (i. (C4) must be multiplied to normalize the row. 7. some simple yet effective schemeshave been evolved to achieve near optimal ordering with respectto both the criteria. In rapidly solving Eq. l r a L 3 n L Tl Tl (ce) The row elements of F below the diagonal are the multipliers of the normalized rows required for the elimination of the row element.5. It is believed that the absoluteoptimum sequenceof ordering the rows of a large network matrix (this is equivalent to renumbering of buses)is too complicated and time consuming to be of any practical value.l below: Table C.2 represents nonnalization of row 2 3. i'e.
Nov./ exp (i?il lVll exp (7dn) i) \ (Dl) Differentiating partially with respect to 6* (m * = Tvil exp(r4) (Yi^l exp (j5^)) i+ Q0. f .^ Vi= €i+ jfi ' (a^ * jb*) = (c* * jBi) @^ + jf^) Although the polar form of the NR method is being used. 4. Hart.Mffi# t  po Modern Scheme I is useful for problems requiring only a single solution with nq iteration. A properly programmed compact storage scheme results in considerablesaving of computer time during matrix operations.25b) P.P.)L lY.D. Back substitution progressesbackwards through the compact upper triangle table.r.T. NCES REFERE l . Proc. L. elimination of lower triangle elements is carried out a row at a time using the concept of compact working row.W. 'Optimal Power Flow Studies'.S. = lvil exp (.No. Tinney. and C.E..jiQ.* + jB.j(ei . schemes Expressions be usedin evaluating elements the Jacobian to the of matrix of a power system derivedbelow: are From Eq. B. One possible scheme for a general matrix stores the nonzero elements of successiverows in a linear array.i6.. 1967. Nov. Walker. (6. Advanced Power System Analysis and Dynamics. Singh. Agarwal...jf) (a^ + jb^) (D2) where Y. The nonzero modified upper triangle elements and mismatches are stored in a compact and convenient way.K. 3 . Compact Storage Schemes AppBNDrx I) The usefulness of the Newton's method depends largely upon conserving computer storage ucmg the nu oI nonzero computatlons.. 1986. and J.'l'o ettect these ideas on the computer. Ph. as From Eq.New Delhi. W.55: 1801. there are as many compact working rows and upper triangle storageschemesas there are programmers. Wiley fr*rr k:r A k:r Eastern. The column location of these nonzero elements and the location where the next row starts (row index) is stored separately. r970.F.^= G. W. we can write #=(aJib^e)=Hi^ #= . ) =J i ^ b . Thesi. S.=t'. "Direct Solutionsof SparseNetwork Equationsby Optintally Ordered Triangular Factorizations"..( a ^ e i + . Naturally.^)tv^texp +06^ a6^ . 2nd edn. (D2). "Power Flow Solution by Newton's Method".r Pilani.rectangular complexarithmetic employed numerical is for evaluation it is faster. The details of this and various other are given in [2]. IEEE. Tinney. 1967. ll.I. IEEE Trans. PAS86: 1449.F.
E.fi b^e.)exp (/4) Multiplying by lV. and C.) (a^ + jb*) (D4) The above results are'summattzed below: Case 7 m* i Hi^= Li*= Ni*=aJ. we have Jii . We have alv) 0Q.lvil exp (.Nov 1967.l exp (7d.e o:.j6) (lYi*l exp (j0. PAS86:1449. IEEE Trans.F.. we can write = l%l exp(. lz (D8) !.li "". .Pi Giilvr Lii= Qr.No.j(Pi . + jB.)tV.jQ) + jlV.. lV. Hart "Power Flow Solution by Newton's Method". AIEE.t = .l on both sides lv.?: = a.^) exp Qd^)) aPt AO.E. 11. i* 06.ni (j4) tV1.Biilvil.) From Eq. (D. = a4 Now differentiate Eq.)i ty. = L t # .Bii = lv.j6) lY. Aug 1959.l .jtvitexp j6.) (D3) = \FtlQ) + it* (Ds) It followsfromEq. Van Ness. lv.l'(G.pl exp(i0*) lvplexp(7d') k:l + lV.$ (exp exp *06. L.jf.Qli. Ji*= d*€i+ b"ft (D6) atv^tv^tiffiw^t I Yi*= Gt^ + jBt* Vi= ei+ jfi (a* * jb^) = (Gi^ + jBi^) @* + jk) Case 2 m = i H.^ = a l v . Trans. ..78A: 583. Multiplyingby lV^l on bothsides.=Qi.3).j6 ) (tytil exp Q?. (D5)that oPi' av.^l exp (j1i)'tV*l exp (i6^) = (ei.+ .Biilvilz (D7) It follows from Eq. = ' L " a l v ^ l lvil exp (.. (D1) partially with respect to lV^l (m r i). exp. + lV.G'itvil2 J' ao. "Iteration Methods for Digital Load Flow Studies".fi= Ni^ b Nii= P..)ilY. we have I f.12 H" = Pi.j6) lyi expQ0. = .l exp (. J.. + G .et_ avil \v'l = Pt * GiilViP = Nii lvil = Qi .l exp (... W. (D4) that !a r v* tl= !lr ^ a^e. b*e.tvrOtlcItI rOWgf l r ' q . jilf .j6.tv^l l Now for the case of m = i." " For the case of m = i. .lr.) NCES REFERE Tinney.l alvil ' " awil an t Ao' .lzlY. tyat (j0*)tvetexp exp (jQ..t Qfi) " k:l + jlV.t exp (id)) = .Biilvilz alvil "7lvil aPt  jP..
Equation (E5) can be written as AL 0x Ax oL = 0f +rq)' '\aul du 0u In Eq.  ili.n"* lf u.W. Kuhn. "Nonlinear Programming". d = nln / (x' u) subject to equality constraints (El) (E2) K = negativeof gradientwith respectto u (E11) At the optimum. )) where .*o ) 0 ai= .rr* and @. which state that .W. (E9) at any feasible solution. the dual variables associated with the ?re upper and lower limits on control variables.minexists. (E8) is identical with negative gradient. ^in NCE REFERE Equations (E7) are known as exclusion equations.Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability. (E11) as follows: for conditions the minimum.u < 0 ff . .r. ro tf u. \ di= di= 0 di..P)=o and to the inequality constraints uu^u1 0 u^1.u. that is. . . H. ^ tf u. assuming (E5) A. it can either be upper or lower limit and not both simultaneously. 1 .iru* lf ui= 4i. . (E9). Proceedings of the Second. 1951.n1rinz) 0u.rt. The multipliers a. with ) from Eq. . University of California Press. u^u*)+ oT*.^u* \*o0 (Ee) tf Ui ui. a must also satisfy the exclusion equations (E7).p)+ and of*u*{. *in (E3) (E4) Qi= Q. .io if . out o x= o of. either ei. either inequality constraint (E3) or (E4) is active at a time.C is the Lagrangian formed as C=f(x.Thus. and A.ui ) 0 The KuhnTucker theorem makes it possible to solve the general nonlinear programming problem with several variables wherein the variables are also constrained to satisfy certain equality and inequality constraints. u .e. < ui < ui.Berkeley. They are auxiliary variables similar to the Lagrangian multipliers ) for the equality constraints case. x.rnin S which can be rewritten in ternts of the gradient using Eq. u)+ )Tg(x. di= Qi. We can state the minimization problem with inequality constraints for the control variables as a L . . = ui. * 2 0 0 g(x.o< ui < ui.Ai. but never both.i.AppBNDrx E If z. p ) = o O (E10) It is evident that a computed from Eq. Tucker. # A= g ( x . . 0u. theorem givesthe necessary The KuhnTucker [] as convexityfor the functions(E1)(E4).C = 0 (gradientwith respect to u. i.t.rri.u..= ui. violares a limit.o if ur.^* (E12) (E6) (E7) of.^^ of oi.n.
It oversees the distribution systemincluding connectedloads. with enhanced emphasis on IT in power systems. . F. It also allows operatorsto monitor the generationand highvoltage transmission systems and to take action to ccrrect overloads or outoflimit voltages. Emphasis is therefore. Capability of SCADA system is to allow operators control circuit breakers ro ancldisconnectswitchesand changetransformer tapsand phaseshifter position remotely. energy audit and energy management. such as the recording of the load. energy efficiency. These objectives can only be met by use of information technology (IT) enabled services in power systems management and control. Trending plots and measurementson selectedtime scales.The most critical functions. are scannedevery few seconds. coordinate. transmit and distribute electric energy at the lowest possible economicand ecologicalcost.1 which is easily in seen to be distributed in nature. It monitors all status points such as switchgear position (open or closed). The operations involved in power systemsrequire geographically dispersed and functionally complex monitoring and control system.control and operate transmissionand distribution components.the MWmin capability of a generatingunit may changeif one of its throttlevaluesis temporarilyremoved for maintenance. . F. All this would enable an electric power system to generate.It covers generationancitransmission system. Most lowpriority programs (those run less frequently) may be executed on demand by the operatorfor study purposesor to initialize thepower system. SCADA refers to a system that enables an electricity utitity ro remotely monitor. Automation.l Real time monitoring and controlling an electricpowersystem. Other noncritical operations. The specific tasks of SCADA are: o Data acquisition. Thus. substation loads and voltages. Supervisory control.so the unit's share of regulating power must accordingly be decreasedby the code. of In developedcountries the focus is shifting in the power sectorfrom the creation of additional capacity to better capacity utilization through more effective management and efficient technology.It detects through telemetry the failures and errors in bilateral communication links between the digital computer and the remote equipment. being laid on computer control and information transmission and exchange.which provides measurements statusinformation to and operators. scADA has been receiving a lot of attention lately. DAC Distribution Automation and Control System .An operator may also change the digital computer code in the execution if a parameterchangesin the system. The monitory and supervisory control that is constantlydeveloping and undergoing improvement in its control capability is schematically presented Fig. equipment and devices in a realtime mode from a remote location with acquisition of data for analysis and planning from one con[ol location. unit startupsand shutdowns carried out on an hourlv are basis. scADA Supervisory control and Data Acquisition system . The computer softwarecompilers and data handlers are designed to be versatile and readily accept operator inputs.reduced transmission losses. capacitor banks. monitoring and realtime control have always been a part of scADA system. This applies equally to developing countries where this focus will result in reduction in need for capacity addition. Starting from the top. tieline flows and interchange schedules.AppnNDrx F Fig. For example. Immediate and near future priorities now are better plant management. revamps of distribution system. improved billing and collection. improved load management. control system functions EMS Energy Management System . foiecasting of load. mentionedabove. . higher availability.It exercisesoverall control over the total system. which enablesoperatorsto remotely co:rtrcl devices such as circuit breakers and relays. the purpose of SCADA is to allow operatorsto observe and control the power system.
The data acquisition system (DAS) collects raw data from selected points in the power system and converts these data into engineering units. needing the information have direct and efficient accessto it. It results in fbrecastingaccurarte clenrand and supply management.intemrpters and fuses. the monitoring r r t urt r uvrr o r v y z r r v irr a r nra n f < ' horra rrqvw frnia 6vuw rrh up iur ^o. The control processorsinterface with the control interface of the display system. implement timeofday pricing and switch customer equipment to manage load. These systbms can bring in additional revenues and also reduce the time lag between billing and collection.l^^ luL. Data acquisition systems provide a supporting role to the application software in a control centre. remote meteripg and spot billing can go a long way in helping electric utility. automatic meter readers (AMRs).Dictribution automation equipment can monitor selectionalising deviceslike switches. The realtime data baseprovides structuredinformation so that application programs .Modern meteringsystemsusing electronicmeters. f^. power factor and breaker status are telemeteredand displayed. The DAS and ManMachine interface support the following functions: (i) Load/GenerationDispatching (ii) Display and CRT control (i i i ) Dat t BaseM aint cnancc (i v) Alar r n Handling (v) Supervisorycontrol (vi I l) r ogr ar nnr ing lbnct ions (vii) DaLalogging (vi i i ) Eventlogging (ix) Realtime Network Analysis With the introduction of higher size generating units. Distributi'on automation combinesdistribution network monitoring functions with geographicalmapping. ailu l su un. Obviously then there is no clear cut demarcation betweenDAC and SCADA.This would help in achieving better voltage profile. which of course draws power from the transmission/ subtransmission levels.inputs from various locations in the plant and converts thern into engineering'units. This gives the operator an overall view of the entire distribution network.^. I ll ^l^uluttt a^:.Here again. Distribution automation through SCADA systemsdirectly leads to increased reliability of power for consumersand lower operating costs for the utility. This is carried out through switching inlout of shunt capacitors. loss reduction. and control.detect theftandtampering thusreduce and system losses. trippings due to human effors can be avoided. read customers' meters.DAC is a lower level versionof SCADA applicablein distributionsystem (including loads). t  !t'. This equipment significantly improves the functionality of distribution control centres. rl A k t ' y l' c i l tu rc ll ' th c s tr y s tc l l l ss l h c ru r l ol cl i $ contnrll i rci l i tyl l rl t l l l ow s l nstcr execution of decisions.A typicalcontrolcentrecanperformthe following functions: (i) Short. The data are checked for limit violations and status changes and are sent to the data base for processing by the application software.medium andlongterm loadforecasting (LF) (ii) System planning(SP) (iii) Unit commitment (UC) and maintenance scheduling (MS) (v) State estimation (SE) (vi) Economic dispatch (ED) (vii) Load frequency control (LFC) The above monitoring and control functions are performed in the hierarchical order classified according to time scales. Besideson line and rcaltimeinlbnnution. SCADA can be used extensively fbr compilation of extensive data and managementof distribution systems. forecasting.Manual errors and oversightsare eliminated. maintain quality. At the generation level. performance.^ tu lrrrpl'uvc rLule r^ Ixant I rilur! l^^r. control voltage.load despatchand intelligent metering. This enables him to have effective control on the entire network and issue instructions for optimising flow in the event of feeder overload or voltage deviation. the philosophy of 'distributed conffol' has dramatically reduced the cabling cost within a plant and has the potential of replacing traditional control rooms with distributed CRT/keyboard stations. At a systems level. At a central load dispatch 'centre. voltage.It can also operate switches for circuit reconfuration. SCADA can provide status and measurementsfor distribution feedersat the substation. r 1. The DAS in a thermal power station collects the following.aLtuil. scheduling. The interface generally is a colour graphic display system. Data Acquisition Systems and ManMachine Interface The use of computers nowadays encompassesall phases of power system operation: planning. the systenrprovidesperiodic reportsthat help in the analysis of performance of the power system. The ManMachine interface provides a link between the operator and the software/lrardware used to control/monitor the power system.The functions perfotmed in the control centre are based on the availability of a large information base and require extensive software for data acquisition and processing.synchronous condensersand load management.fe An energycontrolcentremanages thesetasksandprovidesoptimaloperation of the system. computerisationcan help manage load. tasterrestoration of power in case of a tailure and ahernative routing of power in an emergency. quick detection of fault and restoration of service. as the flow of power can be closely scrutinised.' tr aISo lntegrates load management. improved reliability. security assessment. pr4rrLD ^ ^ I ( rlrD ( J . t. In a distribution network.() tmprove 1 availaDtlty. Cornputerisation also helps in centralisation of data collection.Pilferage points too can be zeroedin on. . now all the utilities have installed DAS in their generating units of sizes 200 MW and above.rroy\ryvvr *l^^+. data such as culTent.
IEEE Tutorial course. New functional concepts from the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) will be integrated with power system monitoring. turbine. The DAS softwarecontains programs to calculate periodically the efficiency of various equipment like boiler. Computer control brings in powerful algorithms with the following advanpaurly ururzauon rn generailon. Energy control centre Design. maintenance functions. (u) savings in energy and so in raw materials due to increased operational efficiency. IT enabled systems thus not only monitor and control the grid. Power Line Maga7ine. heaters. A. loaclmanagement. Intelligent database processorswill becomemore cornmon in power systems since the search. flows.pp 65_71. and realtime control. automatic restoration of power networks. 199g. (iii) flexibiliiy and modifiability.uppli". " Analog Inputs (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Pressures. Personalcomputers'(PCs)are being used in a wide range of power system operations including power stationcontrol. Fundamentals of supervisory control system. pressureand limit switches All these process inputs are brought from the field through cables to the terminals. l9gr.generatorexcitation control and control of distribution networks. IEEE Tutorial course. New Delhi.fans. Analog input of 010 V DC Thermocoupleinputs RTD input Digital Inpurs: (i) Contract outputs (ii) Valve position. October2002. D. administrative data processing. (i) Display on CRT screen (ii) Graphic disptay of plant subsystems (iii) Data logging (iv) Alarm generation (v) Event logging (vi) Trending of analogue variables (vii) Performance calculation (viii) Generationof control signals Some of the above functions are briefly discussedas follows.7. . but also improve operational efficiencies and play a key part in maintaining the security of the power system. 2. SCAOe systems. (iv) reduction in human drudgery. generator.@E+l I Modern Po@is  ^^ a aDJt. Ahson. RFFERE NCES I. TMH. electrical parameters.K' Mahalanabis.l. protection. (v) improved operator effectiveness. 4.I. operator training. condenser. power system engineerswho are adopting the lowcost and relatively powerful computing devices in implementing their distributed DAS and control systems.P. retrieval and updating activity can be speeded up. l. The computer processesthe information and .etc. etc. No. 19g3.yol. 3. to the ManMachine interface to perform the following functions. Kothari and S. ComputerAided power System Analysis and Control.
Let us now learn some basiccommands.MATLAB stands for MATrix LABoratory. MATLAB gives an interactiveenvironment with hundredsof reliable and accuratebuilrin functions.This is because unlike other programming languageswhere you have to declare rnatricesand operateon them with their indices. You can run this program by typing its name in front of command prompt. Help.There are several optional toolboxes for simulating specializeel problems of rJifferentareas anrdertensions link up to NIATLAB and other programs. G.Each row of matrix is separated from the other by pressing Enter key at the end of each row or by giving semicolon at its potiowing "na. differential equations. It is a powerful software package used for high performance scientific numerical computation.ff$: AppBNDrx G You can start MATLAB by double clicking on MATLAB icon on your Desktop of your computer or by clicking on Start Menu followed by 'programs' and then ciicking appropriate program group such as 'MATLAB Release 12. capabilities. optimization. Flg. flexibility. Click on this to change the cunent directory Command prompt Simulink browser MATLAB has been developed by MathWorks Inc. Matrix Initialization A matrix can be initialized by typing its name followed by = sign and an opening squarebracket after which the user supplies the values and closes the square brackets.as we will see later. multiplication by use of simple mathematical operators. which supports both types of programmingobject oriented and structuredprogramming and is very easy to learn and use and allows user developedfunctions. These functions help in providing the solutions to a variety of mathematical problems including matrix algebra. Each element is separatedfrom the other by one or more spacesor tabs.The most important featureof MATLAB is its programming capability. 7 2 9 3 2 51 The above operation can also be achieved by typing . the reader is referred to MATLAB lJser's Guide/lvlanual. etc. SIMULINK is a program build on top of MATLAB environment.It provides basic operations.1. examplesillustrate this. For a detailed description of commands.. we need not declare the type and size of any variable in advance.nonlinearsystemsand many other typesof scientific and technical computations. MATLAB functions and many other useful features.which along with its specializedproducts. G . subtraction. Also. This will open up a MATLAB File Editor/Debugger window where you can enter your program and save it for later use..The main menu contains the submenussuch as Eile.F. reliability and powerful graphics makes MATLAB the main software package for power system engineers. It facilitates accessto FORTRAN and C codes by means of external interfaces.m extension) one can click on File followed by new and select the desired M'file. you will visualize a screenshown in Fis.enhances the power of MATLAB for scientific simulationsand visualizations. Edit. MATLAB provides matrix as one of the basic elements. But MATLAB is case sensitive and so we have to be careful about the case of variables while using them in our prograrns. data analysis and visualization. linear systems.like addition.It is dynamically decided dependingon what value w