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BANG CNG THC VN DUNG SINH HOC 10

a. ADN. - S nucleotit mi loai trong gen: A = T ; G = X. - S nuclotit mi loai trn tng mach n cua gen: A1 = T2 ; T1 = A2 ; X1 = G2 ; G1 = X2 A1 + T1 + G1 + X1 = A2 + T2 + G2 + X2 = N/2 - S nucleotit mi loai cua gen: A = T = A1 + A2 = T1 + T2 = A1 + T1 = A2 + T2 G = X = G1 + G2 = X1 + X2 = G1 + X1 = G2 + X2 - Tng s nucleotit trong gen: N = 2A + 2G = 100%N (nucleotit) - S chu ki xon trong gen: C = N/20 (vong) - Chiu dai cua gen: L = (N/2) . 3,4Ao (Ao) - Khi lng cua gen: M = N . 300 vC (vC) - S lin kt hir: H = 2A + 3G (lin kt) - Tng s lin kt hoa tri trong gen: HT = 2 . (N 1) (lin kt) - S lin kt hoa tri gia cac nucleotit: HT = N 2 (lin kt) * C ch t nhn i cua ADN. Goi k la s ln t nhn i. - S phn t ADN con c tao ra: 2k - S phn t ADN c tao thm: 2k 1 - S phn t ADN c tao ra hoan toan t nguyn liu mi: 2k 2 - Tng s nucleotit ma mi trng cung cp: Nmt = N . (2k 1) - S nucleotit mi loai mi trng cung cp: Amt = Tmt = A . (2k 1) Gmt = Xmt = G . (2k 1) - S lin kt hir bi pha v: Hp = H . (2k 1) - S lin kt hir hinh thanh: Hht = H . 2k - S lin kt hoa tri hinh thanh: HTht = N 2 (qua 1 ln t sao) HTht = (N 2) . (2k 1) (qua k ln t sao, k: lin kt gia cac nucleotit) HTht = (2n 2).(2k 1) (qua k t t sao; k: lk gia cng thc trong pt ADN) - Thi gian t sao: TG = (N/2) . dt (dt- la thi gian tip nhn va lin kt 1 nucleotit) Hoc TG = N/tc t sao b. ARN. - Tng s ribo nucleotit: rN = rA + rU + rG + rX = N/2 = 50%N - Chiu dai: LARN = rN . 3,4Ao - Khi lng: MARN = rN . 300vC - Tng s lin kt hoa tri: HT = rN 1 (lin kt gia cac nucleotit) HT = 2rN 1 (lin kt gia ng va axit photphoric) * C ch tng hp ARN. Goi n la s ln sao ma. - S ARN c tao thanh = n. - S ribonucleotit cac loai ma mi trng cung cp rNmt = rN . n c. Prtein. - S aa trong phn t protein hoan chinh = (N/6) 2 = (rN/3) 2 (aa) - S lin kt peptit = (N/6) 3 = (rN/3) 3 (lin kt) - Chiu dai = s aa . 3 Ao (Ao) - Khi lng = s aa . 110 vC (vC) d. Cng thc Nguyn Phn Gi x l s tbo m ban u c b NST lng bi 2n. k l s ln nguyn phn lin tip. 1. Tng s TB con c to thnh = 2k .x 2. S TB mi c to thnh t nguyn liu mi trng = (2k 1).x

3. S TB mi c to thnh hon ton t nguyn liu mi trng: (2k 2).x 4. Tng NST c trong cc TB con: 2n. x. 2k 5. Mi trng ni bo cung cp nguyn liu tng ng vi s NST la 2n.(2k 1).x e. Cng thc Gim Phn. Gi x l s TB m ban u( b NST lng bi la 2n). 1. x t bo sinh dc s khai sau k ln nguyn phn co x. 2k TBSD chn 2. Mi trng ni bo cn cung cp nguyn liu tng ng vi s NST n cho k ln nguyn phn lin tip la x. 2n.(2k 1) 3. Vi x. 2k TBSD chn gim phn 4. x. 2k t bo con. Vi 4. x. 2k t bo con th c 4. x. 2k tinh trng ging c va x. 2k trng ging ci. - Tng NST trong 4. x. 2k tinh trng la n.4. x. 2k - Tng NST trong x. 2k trng la n. x. 2k 4. Mi trng ni bo cn cung cp nguyn liu tng ng vi s NST n cho qu trnh gim phn la x. 2n .2k - Tng nguyn liu mi trng cung cp cho x t bo sinh dc s khai sau k ln nguyn phn v gim phn la x. 2n ( 2.2k 1) 5. Gi n l s cp NST tng ng c cu trc khc nhau. r l s cp NST tng dng xy ra trao i cho ti 1 im(r n). * Nu khng xy ra TC : - S loi giao t to ra la 2n - T l mi loi giao t la 1/2n - S loi hp t to ra la 4n * Nu xy ra TC : - S loi giao t to ra la 2n +r - T l mi loi giao t la 1/2n +r - S loi hp t to ra ph thuc vo TC xy ra 1 hay 2 bn c , ci.

CNG THC TNG HP NGUYN PHN V GIM PHN (T 1 t bao me ban u) S lng NST n mi cung cp cho nguyn phn. - Nguyn liu cung cp tng ng: (2k 1).2n - Nguyn liu cung cp to nn cc NST n c nguyn liu mi hon ton: (2k 2).2n - S lng thoi t v sc c hnh thnh (hoc b ph hu) to ra cc t bo con sau k t nguyn phn: (2k 1) - S lng NST n mi trng cung cp cho 2k t bo sinh tinh hoc sinh trng qua gim phn to ra tinh trng hoc trng: 2k.2n - S lng thoi t v sc hnh thnh (hoc ph hu) cho 2k t bo sinh dc thc hin gim phn: 2k.3 - S tinh trng hnh thnh khi kt thc gim phn ca 2k t bo sinh tinh trng: 2k.4 - S lng trng hnh thnh khi kt thc gim phn ca 2k t bo sinh trng l: 2k - S loi trng (hoc s loi tinh trng) to ra khc nhau v ngun gc NST: 2n (vi n l s cp NST). - S loai hp t hinh thanh khac nhau v ngun gc NST = 22n(Vi n la s cp NST) - S cch sp xp NST k gia I ca gim phn: + C 1 cp NST c 1 cch sp xp. + C 2 cp NST c 2 cch sp xp. + C 3 cp NST c 4 cch sp xp. Vy nu c n cp NST s c 2n/2 cch sp xp NST k gia I. - S loi giao t to ra khi c trao i on: + Trng hp 1: loi c n cp NST m mi cp NST c cu trc khc nhau trong c k cp NST m mi cp c trao i on ti mt im vi iu kin n>k thi S loi giao t la 2n + k + Trng hp 2: Loi c n cp NST, c Q cp NST m mi cp c 2 trao i on khng xy ra cng lc vi n > Q thi S loi giao t la 2n.3Q + Trng hp 3: loi c n cp NST, c m cp NST m mi cp c 2 trao i on khng cng lc v 2 trao i on cng lc thi S loi giao t la 2n + 2m

- S loi giao t thc t c to ra t mt t bo sinh tinh hoc mt t bo sinh trng: + T mt t bo sinh tinh trng: ~ Khng c trao i on: 2 loi tinh trng trong tng s 2n loi. ~ C trao i on 1 ch trn k cp NST ca loi: c 4 loi tinh trng trong tng s 2n + k loi. C trao i on 2 ch khng cng lc trn Q cp NST ca loi: c 4 loi tinh trng trong tng s 2n.3Q C trao i on 2 ch cng lc v 2 ch khng cng lc: c 4 loi tinh trng trong tng s 2n + 2m + T mt t bo sinh trng: Thc t ch to ra 1 loi trng trong tng s loi trng c hnh thnh trong mi trng hp:1/2n; 1/2n+k; 1/(2n.3Q); 1/(2n+2m). - S lng t bo con n bi c to ra sau gim phn: + t bo sinh tinh v sinh trng: mi t bo sau khi kt thc gim phn to c 4 t bo n bi. Vy nu c 2k t bo bc vo gim phn th ng vt s to ra: 2k. 4 t bo n bi. - thc vt mi t bo sinh ht phn: khi kt thc gim phn to ra c 4 t bo n bi, mi t bo ny tip tc nguyn phn 2 ln ch to nn 3 t bo n bi, hnh thnh nn ht phn chn. Vy s lng t bo n bi to ra t 2k t bo thnh ht phn bng: 2k.4.3 = 2k.12 - i vi t bo sinh non cu, mi t bo sau khi kt thc gim phn to ra 4 t bo n bi trong c mt t bo kch thc ln li tip tc nguyn phn lin tip 3 t va to ra 8 t bo con n bi, trong c 1 t bo trng chn. Vy nu c 2k t bo sinh non khi kt thc qu trnh to giao t s to c mt s lng t bo n bi bng: 2k.3 + 2k.8 = 2k.11 - Hiu sut thu tinh cua giao t = (s giao t c thu tinh / tng s giao t c tao ra) . 100%