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GLUCOZO V S CHUYN HA VT CHT.

a/. Thnh phn cu to gluxit


Gluxitc cu to t cc nguyn t C, H, O theo t l 1C : 2H : 1O , gm gluxit n gin v gluxit phc tp. Gluxit n gin nh glucoza, fructoza, galactoza, c cng thc C6H12O6. Gluxit phc tp nh disaccarit, trisaccarit, c cng thc (C6H12O6)n. ng vt, gluxit c d tr di dng glycogen gan v c. Cn thc vt, gluxit c tch ly di dng xeluloz v tinh bt.

b/. Vai tr ca gluxit trong c th


- L ngun cung cp nng lng ch yu ca c th. Khi xi ha 1gam gluxit gii phng 4,1 KCal. - L thnh phn cu to ca mu. Hm lng glucoza trong mu t 80 -120mg%. Khi lng glucoz trong mu gim xung bao gi cng i km vi cc triu chng suy nhc v th lc, gim thn nhit v cm gic mt mi. Nu lng glucoz trong mu gim di mc 40 mg% th c th b co git, hn m v mt thc. Ngc li, nu lng glucoz trong mu tng t 150 -180 mg% th thn khng ti hp th c ton b ng, s b tiu ng. - L thnh phn cu to t bo di dng polysaccarit, hoc kt hp vi protein nh glucoprotein, vi lipit nh glucolipit. - L thnh phn cu to ca axit nucleic nh ng C5H10O5 trong ARN,ng C5H10O4 trong ADN. Gluxt c nhiu trong cc loi ng cc nh tinh bt gao, khoai, sn; trong cc loi tri cy , trong ma, ko mch nha, sa, gan ng vt

c/. Chuyn ha gluxit trong c th


c.1. Tng hp glucoza v d tr glycogen.
Glucoza l sn phm ca qu trnh tiu ha, c hp thu vo trong mu i n gan. gan di tc dng ca insulin, mt phn glucoza c chuyn thnh glycogen d tr. Lng glucoza cn li phn ln s c chuyn n cc m tng hp thnh glycogen d tr, nht l c vn. Mt lng nh glucoza c li trong huyt tng. Glucoza n t bo gan, di tc dng ca cc enzim hexokinaza v glucokinaza, b bin i thnh glucoza -6 photphat, ri tip tc c bin i thnh glycogen nh enzim glycogensynteraza. Khi hm lng glucoza trong mu gim xung thp th glycogen d tr trong gan s c phn gii thnh glucoza. Khi c th cn mt lng ln glucoza cho cc phn ng ca c vn th di tc ng ca photphorylaza, glycogen trong gan s c chuyn ha thnh glucoza - photphat glucoza + photphat. Khi c th cn glucoza m lng glycogen trong gan thp hoc khi c th cn glucoza khn cp th gan sn xut glucoza t protein v lipit qua cc qu trnh chuyn ha to sn phm trung gian l axit pyruvic ri thnh glucoza. Lng glycogen d tr trong gan c th ln ti 200 300 g. Nu thc n n nhiu polisaccarit hoc disaccarit th glucoza vn vo trong mu mt cch t t do s tiu ho din ra chm v gan vn th gi bin i glucoza tha thnh glycogen d tr. Nhng nu cho mt lng gluxit d tiu ho qu ln vo cng mt lc (chng hn trn 150 g n 200 g ng mt ngy) hoc tim nhiu glucoza vo trong mu th lng glucoz

trong mu s qu mc, gan khng kp bin i ht glucoza thnh glycogen, khi lng glucoza trong mu ln ti 0,15 n 0,18% th phn glucoza tha s b thn thi ra ngoi (chng i ng do n ung nht thi v v hi). Tri li nu chng i ng do gan mt kh nng chuyn glucoz thnh glycogen hoc do thn khng c kh nng hp thu tr li glucoz trong nc tiu l mt triu chng bnh l.

c.2. Phn gii glucoza


Qu trnh phn gii gluxit trong c th c thc hin theo 2 giai an - Giai on ym kh (cn gi l chng ng phn) : phn gii glucoza thnh axit pyruvic, i khi thnh axit lactic, gii phng 1/10 nng lng gi tr - Giai on hiu kh : chuyn axit pyruvic thnh CO2 v H2O trong chu trnh Krebs. Mt phn t glucoza sau mt vng chu trnh Krebs gii phng c 36 ATP, mi ATP khong 10 KCal/mol. Nu thiu O2 th giai on ny khng th thc hin c v cht to ra s l axit lactic

c.3. iu ha chuyn ha gluxit


Qu trnh chuyn ha gluxit cng chnh l qu trnh iu ha lng gluxit trong mu, hay cn gi l ng huyt,. Qu trnh c iu ha bi c ch thn kinh v c ch th dch Trung khu iu ha ng huyt nm hnh ty. Khi trung khu ny b kch thch, xung ng thn kinh truyn n gan, lm tng chuyn ha glycogen thnh glucoza, lm tng ng huyt. ng thi xung ng t hnh ty cng truyn n min ty ca tuyn trn thn, gy tit adrenalin, adrenalin theo mu n gan, lm tng qu trnh chuyn ha glycogen thnh glucoza. Hoocmon glucocorticoit lm gim mc s dng glucoza trong m, lm tng qu trnh tng hp glucoza mi nn lm tng ng trong mu. Hoocmon glucagon ca tuyn ty c tc dng tng ng huyt. Hoocmon ACTH, STH v thyroxin cng tham gia vo qu trnh chuyn ha gluxit. Hoocmon insulun lm tng tnh thm ca mng t bo i vi glucoza, lm hot ha enzym hexokinaza, lm tng qu trnh oxy ha gluxit trong t bo, lm gim ng huyt.

8.2.2. Chuyn ha lipit


a/.Thnh phn cu to lipit
Lipit l cht hu c c cu to t cc nguyn t C, H, O nhng vi t l oxy t hn so vi gluxit. Lipit gm lipit n gin v lipit phc tp. Lipit n gin nh glyxerin, axit bo, triglyxerit gm 1 phn t glyxerinv 3 phn t axit bo. Lipit phc tp nh photpholipit, colesterol, steroit

b/.Vai tr ca lipit trong c th


- Lipit c dng lm nguyn liu kin to, xy dng t bo cht v mng t bo. c bit trong thnh phn ca m thn kinh c rt nhiu. - Lipit l cung cp nng lng cho c th: 1g lipit b oxy ha cung cp 9,3 KCal - L ngun cung cp cc axit bo cho c th. - L dung mi ha tan cc vitamin tan trong cht bo nh A, D, E, K. - M m bao quanh c quan v di da c vai tr bo v v cch nhit Nhu cu mi ngy mt ngi trng thnh cn khong 100 gam lipit. Khi lao ng nng th

nhu cu lipit cao hn. Lipit trong c th c d tr trong cc lp m m.

c/. Chuyn ha lipit trong c th


c.1. Tng hp lipit trong c th
- Sn phm tiu ha lipit l glyxerin v axit bo, khi n biu m mng nhy ca rut c tng hp thnh lipit trung tnh c hp th vo mu v bch huyt, sau c s dng hoc chuyn ti cc kho d tr di da, xoang bng, quanh ni tng v trong cc m lin kt ca c. - C th c th tng hp lipit t gluxit v protein qua cc khu trao i trung gian, ty thuc vo t l cc cht cha trong thc n c nit v khng c nit.

c.2. S phn gii lipit trong c th


S phn gii lipit, trc ht c din ra gan, to thnh glyxerin v axt bo ri li c mu a n cc c quan s dng. Ti y mt phn gylxerin c xiha thnh CO2, H2O v nng lng, cn phn khc c chuyn thnh glycozen d tr. Cc axit bo th c phn gii theo con ng beta oxy ha thnh axit lactic, ri thnh axetyl-CoA , vo chu trnh Krebs v gii phng nng lng.

c.3. iu ha chuyn ha lipit


S chuyn ha lipit chu nh hng ca thn kinh, ni tit, chc nng ca gan v lin quan n chuyn ha gluxit. Trung khu iu ha chuyn ha lipit nm vng di i Hoocmon ca tuyn yn, tuyn gip, tuyn ty, tuyn trn thn, tuyn sinh dcc tc dng chuyn ha lipit. Khi insulin nhiu trong mu, qu trnh chuyn ha gluxit thnh lipit d tr tng cng v ngc li khi insulin trong mu gim th lipit d tr s c huy ng to ra nng lng. Gan l ni phn gii v tng hp cc axit bo, photpholipit, colesterol. Mt s bnh c th gy ri lon chuyn ha lipit trong gan nh giang mai, st rt, nghin ru dn n x gan, nhim c cc cht photphoQu trnh chuyn ha lipit cng c th ri lon do trong thc n c nhiu m, nhiu cholesterol, biotin, thiamin, hoc do thiu gluxit hay khng cc axit bo cn thit.

8.2.3. Chuyn ha protein


a/.Thnh phn cu to protein
Protein l hp cht hu c phc tp, kch thc ln, c cu to t cc nguyn t C, H, O, N v thng c c S, P. Cc phn t Protein do cc axit amin lin kt nhau bng lin kt peptit. Mii ait amin c mt nhm chc amin (- NH2), mt nhm cacboxin (- COOH) v mt gc cacbua hyro (R). Hin nay c khong 20 axit amin khc nhau do c gc R khc nhau. Cc loi proein khc nhau v s lng, thnh phn v cc sp xp cc axit amin. Ty thuc vo cu trc ca cc axit amin m c cc protein cu trc bc 1, 2 ,3 hay 4. Trong loi Protein cu trc bc 3 c hot tnh sinh hc cao.

b/. Vai tr ca protein trong c th


- Protein c vai tr kin to v l thnh phn kin to t bo, cu trc ca enzim, hoocmon,

khng th, vitamin. L ngun nguyn liu cu to chnh ca h c. - Protein c chc nng xc tc, iu ha trao i cht. - Protein cung cp nng lng cho c th, 1g protein khi b oxy ha cung cp 4,1 KCal - Protein c th chuyn ha thnh gluxit v lipit.

c/. Chuyn ha protein trong c th


c.1. Tng hp protein trong c th
Sn phm tiu ha ca protein l cc axit amin, c hp th vo mu n gan. gan, mt phn axit amin c gi li v c tng hp thnh protein ca huyt tng nh albumin, globulin v fribrinogen. Phn ln cc axit amin c chuyn ti t bo tng hp cc protein c trng nh hemoglobin, cc hoocmon ca tuyn ni tit, protein ca cc m c, ca cc khng th v cc enzim Trong 20 axit amin c 10 axit amin thit yu l lxin, izolxin, valin, metionin, treonin, phenylalanin, histidin, acginin, lizin v tryptophan c th khng t tng hp c phi ly t thc n. Khi c th thiu mt hoc mt s axit amin thit yu th qu trnh tng hp protein b ri lon. C th c th tng hp cc axit amin cn li t cc sn phm chuyn ha gluxit, lipit, protein.

c.2. S phn gii protein trong c th


Protein c phn gii gan, t bo v m thnh cc axit amin. Tt c cc axit amin t bo v m s c chuyn ti gan tip tc phn gii thnh NH3 i vo chu trnh ornithin to thnh ure, axit uric v creatin. Phn cn li l axit xetonic c th bin i thnh glucoza v glycogen, hoc oxy ha to thnh CO2, H2O v gii phng nng lng. Axit xetonic cng c th kt hp vi NH2 to thnh cc axit amin mi.

c.3. iu ha chuyn ha protein


- iu ha theo c ch thn kinh: Trung khu iu ha nm vng di i th. Khi trung khu ny b tn thng, qu trnh phn gii protein tng ln. - iu ha theo c ch th dch: c thc hin thng qua mt s hoocmon +Hoocmon insulin ca tuyn ty lm tng qu trnh s dng glucoza t bo, gim phn gii protein, tng tng hp protein. + Hoocmon tng trng GH ca tuyn yn lm tng qu trnh tng hp protein t bo, tng tch ly protein m. + Testosterol v estrogen lm tng tch ly protein m. + Glucocorticoit c tc dng huy ng cc axit amin vo qu trnh chuyn ha to ra gluxit v gii phng nng lng, gim tng tch ly protein m. + Thyroxin tng cng phn gii protein gii phng nng lng trong trng hp thiu gluxit v lipit. Khi gluxit v lipit d tha th thyroxin lm tng tng hp protein.