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“On line Railway Reservation System”
In this emerging world of computers all most all manual system automated and computerized but maximum of them are so complex and a common user is unable to operate that software system. We are developing the “Online Railway Reservation System” to model the present system and to remove the drawbacks. This project explores how computer technology can be used to solve the problem of user. We specifically props way to computerize the administration and engineering offices of Indian Railway Online. A high speed communication network needs to be developed for interconnecting the offices of railways. This same communication network can be used to provide high speed internet connection to the public and leas out network capacity to internet service providers.
Railway Reservation System
TABLE OF CONTENTS
a. Current system b. Need of proposed system
2. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE 3. ANALYSIS
a. Requirement analysis b. Requirement Specification
a. System Flow Diagram b. Modules identified c. Database Design i. E-R Diagram
a. Platform Used i. Hardware Platform ii. Software Platform b. Implementation c. Testing i. Testing Technique used
a. Important Features b. Limitations c. Future Work
Railway Reservation System
Bulk of long distance traffic is carried by the Indian Railway as a result Indian railways. To make work easy. The long distance road network is very poorly developed in most parts of India. Introduction 1. simple and error free. 1.2 Need of proposed system To reduce complexity of existing system. Interactive graphical user interface. finance . User friendly. weather the overall project cost is affordable.1 Current System India is the 7th largest country in terms of geographical size. Effective management of time. The efficiency of the railway will increase result of computerization due to dramatic reduction in communication time among geographically dispersed offices. To enhance the efficiency and diversification of services activities. Time describe the weather the projection finishing point will be achieve on time or before time resources required should be available at the rate of cost and time. time and resources best define in technology weather the defects can be reduced in the project and up which level financially. For the reservation of the ticket a person go to ticket counter of the railway reservation office and expend its valuable time in standing queue.Railway Reservation System 1. This means there is a need for efficient means for long distance transportation. The scope of project define the project feasibility the technology . Now to save that time we have a facility of Online Reservation now we can book cancel or search other train information just by click on computer. . Effective utilization of available resource. Therefore forms a backbone of public transport in India.
Railway Reservation System System Development Life Cycle .
The spiral model is favored for large. prototyping may be used to proceed with the available data and find out possible solution in order to deal with the potential changes in the requirements. This model of development combines the features of the prototyping model and the waterfall model. 3. 2. This usually involves interviewing a number of users representing all the external or internal users and other aspects of the existing system. This is usually a scaled-down system. also known as the spiral lifecycle model. This phase has been added specially in order to identify and resolve all the possible risks in the project development. the methods and tools to be used and the controls and deliverables that are required. System development life cycle 2. The system requirements are defined in as much detail as possible.1 Definition A software process model or a software engineering is an abstract representation of a software process. It is a software development strategy that encompasses the process. A process model is chosen based on the nature of the project and application. A preliminary design is created for the new system. This phase is the most important part of "Spiral Model". 2. and complicated projects.2 Spiral Model The spiral model. A first prototype of the new system is constructed from the preliminary design. which can help in developing a cost effective project are analyzed and strategies to use them are decided. If risks indicate any kind of uncertainty in requirements. The steps in the spiral model iteration can be generalized as follows: 1. development phase and support phase. In this phase all possible (and available) alternatives. expensive. is a systems development lifecycle model used in information technology (IT). and . methods and tools layers plus the generic phases namely definition phase.Railway Reservation System 2.
Spiral Model:- . 3. 4. Planning and designing the second prototype. Constructing and testing the second prototype. 4. A second prototype is evolved by a fourfold procedure: 1. Evaluating the first prototype in terms of its strengths. and risks. 2. weaknesses.Railway Reservation System represents an approximation of the characteristics of the final product. Defining the requirements of the second prototype.
Railway Reservation System Analysis .
negotiating a solution. At last. Analysis 3. function.1 REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS: Requirements are a feature of a system or description of something that is capable of doing in order to fulfill the system‟s purpose. we can say that the requirement specification makes available. data behavior. function and behavior that can be converted to data. assessing feasibility. indicates software‟s interface constraints. requirements analysis provides software developer with a representation of data. Moreover. requirements analysis let the software engineer (called analysis) to refine the software allocation and construct models of data. validating the specification and managing the requirements as they are translated into an operational system. specifying the solution unambiguously. architectural. Software requirements analysis can be categorized into four areas of effort. the developer and the customer. interface and component-level designs. functional and behavioral domains. While requirements engineering specifies software‟s operational characteristics i. Requirement Analysis is a task done under software engineering and software design. It provides the appropriate mechanism for understanding what the customer wants. analyzing the needs.e. a means to assess quality. as followsEvaluation and synthesis Modeling Specification Review . once the software has been built.Railway Reservation System 3.
Also. communication for analysis must be established.e. understand software behavior in the context of the system affected events. Also. functional processing. so as to ensure problem recognition. the data objects. he must define and describe all software functions. the review of the software scope. the analyst creates the system model so as to better understand data and control flow. input and output). quality standards. After evaluating the current problems and desired information (i. He must evaluate the content and flow of information. The reason behind is to recognize the basic problem elements perceived by customer. establish the characteristics of system interface. processing functions and the system behavior are defined in detail. Use cases are also known as Functional Requirements. During the evaluation and synthesis activity. the analyst then considers basic architectures for implementation. Once establishing this information. the engineer and analyst synthesizing one or more solutions. The next major area of effort for analysis is problem evaluation and solution synthesis. Initially. operational behavior and the information content. or design constraints). The model provides a base for software design and the creation of specifications for the software.2 REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION: A Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is a complete description of the behavior of the system to be developed.. and uncover additional design constraints. It is then important to understand the software in a system context. It includes a set of use case that describes all the interactions that the users will have with the software. is necessary.Railway Reservation System The analyst starts with the studies of system specification and the software project plan. The engineer (or analyst) must define all data objects that are extremely observable. . Non-Functional Requirements are requirements which impose constraints on the design or implementation (such as performance requirements. 3. Thus the process of evaluation and synthesis proceeds until both analyst and the customer are sure that software can be adequately specified for subsequent development steps. used to generate planning estimate. Next.
technical details. and a rationale.2. stakeholders and other experts within the organization. . The core of the requirement is the description of the required behavior. a brief summary. correct unambiguous. specific and verifiable. This behavior may come from organizational or business rule.Railway Reservation System 3. data manipulation and processing and other specific functionality that show how a use case to be fulfilled. Functional requirements may be calculations. a requirements analyst generates functional requirements after building use cases. However. this may have exceptions since software development is an iterative process and sometime certain requirements are conceived prior to the definition of the use case.1 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS: In software engineering. A typical functional requirement will contain a unique name and number. A function is described as a set of inputs. which must be a clear and readable description of the required behavior. Software requirements must be clear. Both artifacts (use cases documents and requirements documents) complement each other in a bidirectional process. a functional requirement defines a function of a software-system or component. and to track the requirement through the development of the system. the behavior and outputs. This information is used to help the reader understand why the requirement is needed. or it may be discovered through elicitation sessions with users. Typically.
non-functional requirements can be divided into 2 main categories: 1. unit measure of the output. Execution qualities. Other terms for non-functional requirements are “constraints”. rather than specific behaviors. shape.2. how to handle unexpected or abnormal situations Outputs The form. exact timing of each operation (if needed).2 NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS: In systems engineering and requirements engineering. Qualities. Evolution qualities. “quality goals” and “quality of service requirements” . such as extensibility and scalability. range of parameters in the output. output timing. 2. ”quality attributes”. includes any validity checks on the data. process by which the output is stored or destroyed. The nonfunctional requirements in our projects are:Time:The project should be completed within the stipulated time period. in what form will they arrive. Nonfunctional requirements are often called qualities of a system. are observable at runtime. Purpose Inputs a description of the functional requirement its reason(s) what are the input. such as security and usability. non-functional requirements are requirements which specify criteria that can be used to judge the operation of system. . from what sources can the input come. process for handling error message produced as output 3. embody in the static structure of the software system.Railway Reservation System Detailed Description of Functional Requirements: Template for describing functional requirements. description and volume of output.e. what are the legal domains of each input Processing Describes the outcome rather than the implementation. i.
3. Usability:This requirement is present. Each use case expresses a “complete thought” or end-to-end transaction. but could be other systems or devices as long as long as they are outside the system being specified. Communicate system behavior in user‟s terms.Railway Reservation System Cost:The cost involved in marketing the project should be less. Use cases are studied to determine what objects are required to accomplish them and how they interact with other objects.3. 3.3.1 GOALS OF USE CASE ANALYSIS: Design system from user‟s perspective. CONNECTIONS: Connections from actors to use cases. Performance:It should be fast enough to produce the output. as this system will interact with user. 3.3 SOME KEY COMPONENTS OF USE CASE ANALYSIS: ACTORS: Entities that use or are used by system.3 USECASE ANALYSIS: Use Case Analysis is an object-oriented method for designing information systems by breaking down requirements into user functions. . RELATIONSHIPS: Relationships between actors or between use cases. 3. Each case is a transaction or sequence of events performed by user. 3. Reliability:This system must be highly robust. typically people.2 CHARACTEISTICS OF USE-CASE ANALYSIS: USE-CASE: The specific ways in which the system is used.
3. . represented as a sequence of simple steps.and the system itself.2 GOAL: Without a goal a use case is useless.4. or time. Each use case is a complete series of events.4. Actors represent the different roles that something outside has in its relationship with the system whose functional requirements are being specified.a primary actor – or is acted on by the system.e.4. Actors are something or someone which exists outside the system under study.. should describe an achievable goal and should be sufficient for the end user to understand what the use case is about.4 USE CASE DIAGRAM: A use is a description of a system‟s behavior as it responds to a request that originates from outside of that system. It should be written in verb-noun format. 3. and that takes part in a sequence of activities in a dialogue with a system. other systems. There is no need for a use case when there is no need for any actor to achieve a goal.3 ACTORS: An actor is someone or something outside the system that either acts on the system.1 USE CASE NAME: A use case name provides unique identifiers for the use case. That is. 3. the behavior of the use case is indeterminate.4. a device. describes the state of the system) for the trigger to meaningfully cause the initiation of the use case.a secondary actor. if the state describes in the preconditions. Use cases describe the interaction between a primary actor. describes from the point view of the actor.Railway Reservation System 3.4 PRECONDITIONS: A preconditions section defines all the condition that must be true (i. A briefly describes what the user intends to achieve with this use case. to achieve some goal: they may be end users. An actor may be a person. An individual in the real world can be represented by several actors if they have different roles and goals in regards to a system. 3. or hardware devices. another system. The use case technique is used in software and system engineering to capture the functional requirements of a system.the initiator of the interaction.
5 POSTCONDITION: The post conditions section describes what the change in the state of the system will be after the use case completes.Railway Reservation System 3.4. Post conditions are guaranteed to be true when the use case ends. SIMPLE USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR ONLINE RAILWAY RESERVARION SYSTEM: USER REQUEST FOR BOOKING TICKET REQUEST FOR TICKET CANCELATION REQUEST FOR OTHER QUERY SYSTEM ADMINISTRATOR VALIDATE USER VIEW TRANSACTION .
would lead us to an identification of use case? Table shows the result of the process of identifying the use case. Table shows the result of the process of identifying the use case.5 USE CASE DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION: In the ticket reservation system.e. in turn. i. Take each user and identify the roles played. passenger. A passenger as a user may play one or three roles. let us take the passenger (a user of system). counter clerk. users are the passenger. . reservation and ticketing system. Which. the counter clerk and the reservation and ticketing system (R & T system).Railway Reservation System 3. which would lead us to identify the roles played.
Railway Reservation System DESIGN .
it is first necessary to understand its operation in detail.Railway Reservation System 4. The flowchart is a simple mapping tool that shows the sequence of actions within a process.1 SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM: A System Flow Diagram (SFD) shows the relationship between the. must be taken. out of an alternative set of action. Describing this in text lacks the clarity of a pictorial diagram. The steps in a process are shown with symbolic shapes. in a form that is easy to read and communicate. major components in the system. . It is a systematic representation of an algorithm or a process. DESIGN 4. Process becomes more complex when decisions must be made on which. and the flow of the process is indicated with arrows connecting the symbols. The mapping of „what follows what‟ is shown with arrows between sequential action boxes. as in the illustration. In order to improve a process. The decision is shown in a flowchart as a diamond shaped box containing a simple question to which the answer is yes or no. where individual steps are more easily seen. This also shows the boxes for process start and end points of which there are normally one each.
Railway Reservation System PASSENGER PROCESS RESERVATON ADMINISTRATOR CHACK DATABASE PROCESS CANCELLATION CANCELATION AUTHORITY DATABSE CHECK STATUS ENQUIRY AUTHORITY DATABSE .
5. Make cross reference to supporting information. 3. Note each successive action concisely and clearly. 4. begins to draw diagram by first describing the event which initiates the process.Railway Reservation System Here are 6 steps which can be used as a guide for completing flow diagrams: 1. when we reach a point at which the flowchart branches into a number of alternatives. and the resulting complexity threatens to overwhelm the exercise. Go with the main flow i.e. Start with a trigger event i. choose the most important alternative to continue flowcharting with. Describe the process to be charted and to give a chart the title.e. Follow the process through to a useful conclusion (end at a target point). . 6. 2.
Railway Reservation System SYSTEM FLOWCHART: START USER NAME & PASSWORD IF VALID GO BACK ENTER LOCATION Respond to Request And Ticket Booked End User Respond to Request and Ticket Cancel CUSTOMER -1 CUSTOMER-2 CUSTOMER-3 .
Source & Destination Logout Stop Is Train Available X . no.Railway Reservation System COMPLEX FLOW CHART FOR ORRS DECISION CONTROL: Start Input User Name Compare it to valid user list Maintained at Server Yes Is User Valid No Want to Logout Yes Deny Login No Enter the Train Name.
Railway Reservation System X Is User Authorized Access Denied Enter the Operation to Be Performed Is Option Reservati on of Ticket Yes No Book Ticket Is Option Cancel of Ticket No Yes Cancel Ticket Y .
Railway Reservation System Y Yes Is Option Other Information No Give Information Ask What You Want .
Railway Reservation System System User Request Server Server Response LEVEL 1 DFD OF ORRS .
Railway Reservation System User and Password System User User Validation File Request Services to User Server Response LEVEL 2 DFD OF ORRS .
DESTINATION Railway Reservation System RUNNING_DAY SOURCE TRAIN TRAIN_ NO TRAIN_NAME 1_AC 2_AC BELONG_TO TRAVEL STATION TRAVEL DATE DISTANCE SECOND _CLASS CHARGE FARE DISTANCE BELONG_TO SLEEPER TRAIN_NO CLASS TIME RESRVATION SEAT FIRST_CLASS STATUS DATE_OF_JRNY PNR_NO. SOURCE PASSENGER_DTL .
Railway Reservation System IMPLEMENTATION .
1 Platform Used 5.Railway Reservation System 5.1.Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 Back End: .1.Windows Xp Front End: .Sql Server 2005 .2 Software Platform: Operating System: . IMPLEMENTATION 5.1 Hardware Platform: Client side: Processor: 166 MHz or above RAM: 64 MB Hard Disk Space: 100 MB Server side: Processor: 166 MHz or above RAM: 64 MB Hard Disk Space: 300 MB 5.
2 Implementation Level Details: Database table being used is: Field name PNR_Number Source Destination Train_name Train_number Departure_from_source Arrival_at_destination Date_of_journy Name_of_passenger Sex Age Address Telephone_number Class Distance Seat_no. Data type Numeric Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Numeric Char Char Numeric Nvarchar Numeric Varchar Numeric Numeric .Railway Reservation System 1.
. not the whole software system. and the coding phase is sometimes called “coding and unit testing phase”. A good test case should have a high probability of finding an asyet-undiscovered error. Testing emphasizes on a set of methods for the creation of test cases that fulfill overall testing objectives. written contract that the piece of code must satisfy. The goal of Unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts are correct. It is one of the most widely used methods. 2.3. It uses procedural design as a guide to test major control paths and uncover errors within the module boundary. where the program is actually compiled and executed. a software component or module. 5. A test case will be considered successful if it uncovers an as-yetundiscovered error. Unit testing is a dynamic method for verification. software must be tested to uncover and correct maximum possible errors. The goal of unit testing is to test modules or “units”. . It indicates the ultimate review of specification. 3. As a result. design and code generation.e. before being delivered. It is a White box oriented and the step can be conducted in parallel for multiple components.Railway Reservation System 5.3 Testing: Software testing is a critical phase of software quality assurance. The primary objectives of software testing are as follows: 1. it affords several benefits. Once source code has been generated. UNIT TESTING:Unit testing aims the verification effort on the smallest unit of software design i. A unit test provides a strict. 1 TESTING TECHNIQUE USED: 1. Unit testing is most often done by the programmer himself/herself. Testing is a process of executing a program to find an error in it.
VALIDATION TESTING:At the climax of integration testing. At this time. software is developed as a package having all the errors uncovered and corrected. putting all the modules together. This method helps to determine the levels of software development and makes easier to report testing progress in the form of a percentage. sub functions. Validation attempts to uncover errors. global data structure can cause problems and to truncate this list of problems we use integration testing. The major objective of integration testing is to tackle the problem of integration i. One module can have an inadvertent.e. the next level of modules will be formed and can be used for integration testing. In it all the bottom or low level modules.Railway Reservation System 2. Integration testing strategy used is Bottom-Up Integration Testing. INTEGRATION TESTING:Integration testing is a phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. After the integration testing of lower level integration modules. when combined. may not be magnified to unacceptable levels. procedures or functions are integrated and then tested. . It is called validation testing.e. the things that will be immediately apparent to the customer. Validation succeeds when software function in a reasonably expectable manner. This approach is helpful only when all or most of the modules of the same development level are ready. adverse effect on another. 3. It follows snit testing and precedes system testing. a final series of software test May being. but the emphasis is on the requirements level i.
Railway Reservation System CONCLUSION .
The most significant limitation of over project is its dependency over the server because of this when is fail then whole work is to be stopped. which are faced while manual calculation. 6. 1. This is not the end but beginning of the versatile. Response time of the system may vary because of variable network speed. Extra and user defined security needs can be employed during request and response. Records of client activities can be maintained. Searching an efficient security package and studying its usage. Use of the computers has solved many problems.1 LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT: 1.Railway Reservation System 2. 2. 6. 2. 2. 3. Another enhancement would be to add more modules to cover all information off the system.4 CONCLUSION: Rather than designing manually we have made use of computer as once that data‟s are input it performs accurate function. Real time transfer of the file with minimum time delay. CONCLUSION 6. 3.2 DIFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED: There were many difficulties that came in our way in the process of development of this real time project some of them are illustrated below. This is the one which is . 3. efficient and outsourcing railway reservation system.3 FUTURE ENHANCEMENT: 1. There is no chance of fault or miscalculation if the data are feeded correctly. Another limitation of our project is that in this software and hardware requirement is high comparison of existing system. 6. Enabling the multi user environment and simultaneous usage of files.
Railway Reservation System compatible to all operating system. . By making this we project we made a small footstep towards the path of progress of platform independent railway reservation system.