Neil Chakrabarty William May

To Be Tackled Review of Threading Algorithms  Hyper-Threading Concepts  Hyper-Threading Architecture  Advantages/Disadvantages  Applications  2 .

 High expenses. CPU resources are given to other processes 3 . especially if one of the processes is in the wait state.  Switch-on-event  Task switching in case of long pauses  Waiting for data coming from a relatively slow source.Threading Algorithms  Time-slicing A processor switches between threads in fixed time intervals.

Threading Algorithms (cont.)  Multiprocessing  Distribute the load over many processors  Adds extra cost  Simultaneous multi-threading  Multiple threads execute on a single processor without switching. 4 .  Basis of Intel’s Hyper-Threading technology.

 Extremely useful in desktop and server applications where many threads are used.  5 . for example. with parallel execution of another thread/application.Hyper-Threading Concept At each point of time only a part of processor resources is used for execution of the program code.  Unused resources can also be loaded.

6 .

Hyper-Threading Architecture     First used in Intel Xeon MP processor Makes a single physical processor appear as multiple logical processors. Each logical processor has a copy of architecture state. Logical processors share a single set of physical execution resources 7 .

execution units. control logic.  From an architecture perspective we have to worry about the logical processors using shared resources. branch predictors. 8 . and buses.   Caches.Hyper-Threading Architecture Operating systems and user programs can schedule processes or threads to logical processors as if they were in a multiprocessing system with physical processors.

Increased performance with multiple threads Better resource utilization. 9 .Advantages    Extra architecture only adds about 5% to the total die area. No performance loss if only one thread is active.

 Threads are non-deterministic and involve extra design  Threads have increased overhead  Shared resource conflicts 10 .Disadvantages  To take advantage of hyper-threading performance. serial execution can not be used.

Applications  Video Watermark Detection  Two  stages Video Decoding  Image-domain watermark detection  Video Processing 3 stages Reading Video information  Processing Video information  Writing Video information  11 .

Video Watermarking 12 .

Performance Results 13 .

Video Processing  Most time is spent in processing. Divide the video processing into threads 4  Threads in this example  Have to worry about waiting until all processing threads are done before writing back the data out. 14 .

Video Processing (cont.) 15 .

To Be Tackled Review of Threads  Hyper-Threading Concepts  Hyper-Threading Architecture  Advantages/Disadvantages  Applications  16 .

Volume 6 Issue 1.html 17 .arstechnica. Superthreading and Hyperthreading  http://www.com/paedia/h/hyperthreading/hyperthrea ding-1.com/articles/pentium4xeonhyperthreading/ http://www. 2002 Intel Hyper-Threading Technology Review  www.digit-life. February 14.tomshardware.References   Intel Technology Journal.com/cpu/20021227/   HyperThreading Threads Its Way into Application  Introduction to Multithreading.

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