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The steam engine converted heat into mechanical power. • The machine was used to pump water out of coal mines, but the principles behind its operation were not well-understood. • In 1712, Thomas Newcomen built an improved steam engine, but it was expensive to build and not very reliable. • James Watt invented the first inexpensive, reliable steam engine in 1765. Watt’s steam engine was more than six times more efficient than Newcomen’s ! • Watt’s steam engine catalyzed the industrial revolution. • In 1798, Count Rumford noticed that canons became hot as they were bored out. • Rumsford showed that more heat was released in the boring process than could hav e been originally contained in the metal. • He concluded that the mechanical boring process was producing heat. This was a major departure from the caloric theory that was widely accepted at the time. • In 1824, Carnot introduced ideal gas cycle analysis in his work “Reflection on the Motive Power of Fire” • In the 1840’s Mayer, Joule and Helmholtz developed the idea that energy could not be created or destroyed. Energy is conserved. • This principle is now known as the 1st Law of Thermodynamics. We will learn mor e about it in chapters 4 and 5. • Rudolf Clausius stated that no cycle can transfer heat from a low temperature re gion to a high temperature region with no other interaction with its surrounding s. • This principle is known as the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics and we will learn a gre at deal more about it in chapters 6 and 7. • The contribution of these scientists and many others led to the development of t he broad field of thermodynamics that we know today. • So, what areas of thermodynamics will we study in this program ? Flip the page and see.