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Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2011
Numerical analysis on the effect of embedding detached short splitter-plates in the downstream of a circular cylinder Behzad Ghadiri Dehkordi and Hamed Houri Jafari*
Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran 14115-143, Iran E-mail: email@example.com E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org *Corresponding author
Abstract: In this paper, flow over a circular cylinder with detached short splitter-plates is numerically simulated so as to assess the flow behaviour and its characteristics. A finite-volume solver based on the Cartesian-staggered grid is implemented. Furthermore, the ghost-cell method in conjunction with Great-Source-Term technique is employed to enforce directly the no-slip condition on the cylinder boundary. The accuracy of the solver is validated by simulation of the flow around a single circular cylinder. The results are completely compatible with the experimental data. Eventually, the flow over a circular cylinder with splitter-plate in its downstream in Re = 40, 100 and 150, 0 ≤ G / D ≤ 10, and 0 ≤ Z / D ≤ 1.25 (where D is the cylinder diameter, G and Z are the horizontal and vertical distances between leading edge of the splitter-plate and the cylinder base, respectively) are simulated and analysed. For these configurations that are being studied, the drag and lift coefficients, the Strouhal number and the flow visualising parameters are obtained. The same simulations are also performed for the cases where dual splitter-plates are in a parallel arrangement embedded in the downstream of the cylinder. These compounds can be applied in many mechanical types of equipment to minimise flow-induced forces and suppress periodic vortex shedding. Keywords: circular cylinders; splitter-plate; vortex shedding; finite-volume method; Cartesian-staggered grid. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Dehkordi, B.G. and Jafari, H.H. (2011) ‘Numerical analysis on the effect of embedding detached short splitter-plates in the downstream of a circular cylinder’, Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp.6–17. Biographical notes: Behzad Ghadiri Dehkordi received his PhD in Mechanical Engineering from McGill University, Montreal, Canada. He is now Faculty of Energy Conversion at Tarbiat Modares University in Tehran, Iran. His general fields of interest are CFD-based simulation of the flow around bluff bodies, fluid–structure interaction and aeroelasticity problems.
Hamed Houri Jafari received the PhD in Mechanical Engineering from the Tarbiat Modares University of Iran in 2009. Currently, he holds the Chair of Energy Conversion at the Azad University of Parand, Iran. Also, he is the Head of Energy Management Group in the Institute for International Energy Studies. His research interests include numerical simulation of the flow fields through complex geometries such as tube bundles.
Vortex-induced vibration is a kind of phenomena that can occur in the fluid–structure interaction problems, which can result in the failure of the structure. The reason is induced forces from fluid to the structure. Many cases such as heat exchangers, steam generators, marine structures (e.g., risers), bridges and even power transmission lines are potentially provided to oscillate due to these forces. Thus, reduction of the flow-induced forces and control or suppression of the vortex shedding, which causes
oscillation in these forces, is a matter of great importance, especially in deep water marine structures, where reparation is so expensive and difficult to perform. Splitter-plates or a cylinder in the downstream/upstream of the main cylinder could be embedded to reduce the flow-induced forces and suppress the periodic vortex shedding. Many studies were experimentally (Strykowski and Sreenivasan, 1990; Ozono, 2003) and numerically (Dipankar et al., 2007; Mittal and Raghuvanshi, 2001; Dalton and Xu, 2001) carried out on the suppression of vortex shedding by another cylinder called ‘control
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the results are presented and analysed for the flow around the circular cylinder with detached short splitter-plate in its downstream. respectively. and u and v are the velocity components in the x and y directions. generally. (2000) have comprehensively investigated the vortex-shedding suppression for flow over a circular cylinder near a plane boundary. the cylinder base pressure and the Strouhal number will change suddenly. Using splitter-plates for vortex-shedding suppression and reduction of the flow-induced forces have been rather studied (Rathakrishnan. with decreasing G/D (where D is the cylinder diameter. the accuracy of the solver is validated by simulation of the flow around a single circular cylinder. Before starting with the solution of the main problem. there was no free . Ozono (1999) has initially developed the idea of using the detached splitter-plates. In Section 4. 1999. Spatial discretisation is based on a hybrid scheme whereas temporal discretisation is in conformity with fully implicit scheme. viscous. 17.6 in Re = 100 and 160. He showed that in a given Z/D. He clarified that the variation of both base suction coefficient and Strouhal number with G/D depends on Z/D significantly. ρ ∂y ∂t (1) (2) (3) where ρ is the fluid density.000 by embedding a detached short splitter-plate (length of splitter-plate is same as the cylinder diameter) in different distances related to the cylinder. which with the assumptions of two-dimensional. They achieved 38. Hwang et al. flow fields are computed in Re = 40 as a non-vortex shedding case and Re = 100 and 150 as cases with vortex-shedding effects.001002 kg/m. vortex shedding will be suppressed. 1997. Hwang and Yang (2007) have numerated drag reduction due to use of dual short splitter-plates one in the upstream and another in the downstream of the cylinder. ∂u 1 ∂P + div(uu ) = − + υ div(grad u ). Strykowski and Sreenivasan (1990) have conducted their experiments in low Reynolds numbers using a control cylinder with smaller diameter than the main cylinder. instead of adding feedback-forcing to the Navier–Stokes equations. They have shown that in the low distances between the cylinder and the wall.000 and 25. the fluid has been assumed to be incompressible and its properties have been taken as ρ = 1000 kg/m3 and µ = 0.5 and G2/D = 2. υ = µ / ρ is the fluid kinematic viscosity. A Ghost-cell method in conjunction with Great-Source-Term technique is employed for enforcement of the no-slip condition on the cylinder and setting the flow field values on every arbitrary grid point. Furthermore. Kwon and Choi. He has experimentally analysed the flow behaviour in Re = 6700. To achieve this goal. P is the pressure. They have also concluded that operation mechanisms of the upstream and downstream splitter-plates are reduction in stagnation point pressure and increment in the base suction pressure. Anderson and Szewczyk. in the performed numerical simulations. respectively. Lei et al. The cited studies are dedicated to the splitter-plates attached to the end of the cylinder. As can be seen. boundary conditions and numerical formulation of the problem. They calculated the critical gaps between the cylinder and the wall in Reynolds numbers of 80–1000 and concluded that there are no significant differences between critical values of 80–200 Reynolds numbers. In this work. the conclusions are drawn in Section 5. respectively. Ozono (2000) has also carried out similar investigation on the detached long splitter-plates (length of splitter-plate is six times longer than the cylinder diameter).6% reduction in the drag coefficient in the situation of Re = 100. whereas the experiments of Ozono (2003) were implemented in high Reynolds numbers and a control cylinder with a same diameter as the main cylinder. G1/D = 1.1 Governing equations The governing equations for the flow field are continuity and momentum equations (Navier–Stokes equations). respectively) in a certain value of G/D. The numerical procedure is based on the Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equations (SIMPLE) algorithm (Patankar and Spalding.Numerical analysis on the effect of embedding detached short splitter-plates cylinder’. Section 3 validates the approach for the flow around a single circular cylinder and evaluates the accuracy in various Reynolds numbers by comparing the results with the other experimental and numerical data.s. the numerical and experimental studies of flow over cylinder with detached splitter-plates are scarcely done. (2003) have numerically studied the effect of using the detached short splitter-plates on the centreline of the cylinder (Z/D = 0) and found the critical value of G/D = 2. unsteady and laminar flow can be written as follows: div(u) = 0. flows over a circular cylinder with detached short splitter-plate on and off the centreline of the cylinder are numerically simulated to assess its influences on the flow-induced forces and the flow development patterns. incompressible. based on the reviewed papers. G and Z are the horizontal and vertical distances between leading edge of the splitter-plate and the cylinder base. 1995). We employ the finite-volume method on Cartesian-staggered grid to solve the flow field. to the cylinder).4 (G1 and G2 are the distance between trailing edge and leading edge of the upstream and downstream splitter-plates. u is the velocity vector of flow field. the performed numerical investigations are limited to the replacement of the splitter-plates on the centreline of the cylinder. which is called ‘critical value’. Finally. 7 In this paper. ρ ∂x ∂t ∂v 1 ∂P + div(uv) = − + υ div(grad v). The following section of this paper outlines the governing equations. In addition. 1972) to improve the convergence rate. 2 Problem formulation and numerical modelling 2.
It implies that all three . Figure 1 2. 100 and 150. The pressure is also calculated on the main scalar grid points. 2007... 2000). respectively. . v = 0). Simulations have been performed for Re = 40. the outlet and the lateral boundaries of the computational domain. The velocity components are calculated for the points lying on the faces of the control volumes in the staggered grid. The temporal discretisation has been done in conformity with the fully implicit scheme. Jafari The no-slip condition on the splitter-plate has been applied by setting u = 0 and v = 0 for the grid points sitting on the surface of that. the velocity components are computed using the momentum equations and a guessed pressure distribution.3 Boundary conditions Boundary conditions should be enforced at the inlet. where U is the free-stream velocity. as well as also on the surfaces of the embedded bodies.04 m. 2001.9 and 2. cylinder and splitter-plate) grid points by the Great-Source-Term technique described in Section 2. Farrant et al. The cylinder diameter has been taken as D = 0. 2003. The value of these mentioned residual sources must be lower than the adjusted convergence criterion to stop the iterations in each time step. The boundary conditions were imposed in a way that the fluid flows from left towards right into the downstream of the domain. It should be noted that the pressure correction equations are obtained from the discretised continuity equation.G. 2.e. Then. the application has been simply done. 2. But.6 Numerical solution algorithm The position of the splitter-plate is specified by Z and G. a rectangular domain was used to simulate the flow around a stationary circular cylinder with splitter-plate placed in the downstream (see Fig. The values of the flow field variables have been arranged to be the solution at the embedded boundaries (i. The pressure is prescribed at a point on the inlet boundary. The splitter length and thickness are D and 1/20D. Computational domain of the flow around a circular cylinder and detached short splitter-plate 2. For the spatial discretisation. A uniform velocity profile U was specified at the domain entrance. respectively. The Dirichlet boundary conditions in the inlet of the flow consist of u = U and v = 0.8 B. A symmetry boundary condition has been used at the lateral boundaries of the computational domain (∂u / ∂y = 0. The SIMPLE algorithm (Patankar and Spalding. 2.2 Calculation domain of the problem In the performed simulations. So et al.5 Discretisation of governing equations The governing equations have been discretised using the Finite-Volume method.8. the Hybrid scheme has been employed. Dehkordi and H. denoting. in Sections 2. The value of convergence criterion has been safely set at 10−6 in this study. The domain had the length of 40 D and the width of 20 D where D is the cylinder diameter.0). These dimensions were chosen to safely minimise the boundary effects on the flow development (Hwang and Yang. The discretised equations including momentum equations. the mass residual (b) is calculated and the pressure and velocity components are corrected to satisfy the continuity equation (b ≈ 0. a Dirichlet and a Neumann boundary condition has been employed for the inlet and outlet. The SIMPLE procedure was applied for calculation of the flow field. enforcement of the no-slip condition on the cylinder was the main difficulty of the method that is described. First.4 Grid generation A fixed Cartesian-Staggered grid with non-uniform grid spacing has been used. The grids in the region of the embedded boundaries are sufficiently fine to achieve the reasonable accuracy. 1). The above-mentioned Reynolds numbers are defined based on the cylinder diameter D and free-stream velocity U. 1972) is based on a cyclic series of guess-and-correct operations to solve the discretised governing equations. 2. the vertical and horizontal distances between the leading edge of the splitter-plate and the base suction point of the cylinder. respectively. whereas. The residuals consist of the sum of mass source (b) and the sum of residual source within the calculation domain for the continuity and momentum equations in the x and y directions. surface in the numerical domain and the body forces have been correspondingly neglected in the governing equations. pressure and velocity correction equations are described in detail by Patankar (1980) and we avoid reiterating their presentation here. The cylinder was placed inside the domain so that its centre had the coordinates x = 10 D and y = 10 D. Tseng and Ferziger.10. respectively. According to the rectangular shape of the splitter-plate and Cartesian grid type of the mesh system.. Neumann boundary conditions at the outlet of the computational domain include ∂u / ∂x = 0 and ∂v / ∂x = 0.7 Convergence criterion Residuals are the main factors for setting the convergence criterion in the solver.H.
g. In this manner. This practice will lead to correct solution when the grid is infinitely refined. First.and ghost-cells Since the boundaries of circular cylinders have curvatures. The cells that lie in the exterior region of the boundary are fluid cells. Finally. Therefore. the cell is interior if all these four distances are smaller than the cylinder radius. 5(a) of Section 3. in Figure 2. The cited operation consists of setting known values of a relevant independent variable in the inactive control volumes. the grid points of Cartesian grid both in staggered and in scalar grid do not fit on the boundaries. Location of u in flow field. In this technique. We performed this practice with a finite (practical) grid size (not infinite). 1980). In Figure 2. Location of v-velocity in ghost-cell of v-staggered grid. which need the interpolation. They have shown that the assumption of linear variation of the flow field values near the boundary has approximately the same accuracy with quadratic variation assumption. where the method has yielded the jagged pressure distribution (see Fig.. a solution is the cut-cell technique.. and finally cut-cells are selected if some distances are larger and the others are smaller than the cylinder radius. the cell is ghost and their value will be calculated by interpolation. high computational expenses and complexity (Ye et al. the locations of velocity components and pressure are different for a cell where this point should be seriously considered.10 Enforcement of the no-slip condition Setting the values of velocity components for selected boundary cells (both ghost-cells and flow cells near the boundary) to zero. which in this work is performed by implementing the Great-Source-Term techniques. the cells that are cut by the boundary are selected. where limitations on computer resources may play a role. If the embedded boundary had rectangular shape. The goal of the ghost-cell technique is to prevent this jagged pressure distribution.. are shown by the solid arrows and the locations where values are calculated in the flow field are shown by hollow arrows. there is no need for any interpolation and their value will be calculated by solution of the flow field. 9 2. 2003). enforcement of no-slip condition has some difficulties. We used the linear interpolation scheme proposed by Tseng and Ferziger (2003) to apply the ghost-cell method. Another applicable technique in finite-volume solvers is the ghost-cell. as illustrated in Figure 2.2). boundary (G1. Location of v in flow field. The interpolation procedure of the ghost values is described here. the locations of u and v. as described in the previous section. Location of u-velocity in ghost-cell of u-staggered grid. F2. any desired value of every independent variable (e. 1999). The cell is exterior if all these four distances are larger than the cylinder radius. Figure 2 Cells that are cut by the cylinder boundary and calculation location of flow field values for main grid. interpolated values for u and v on the boundary of the cylinder) can be arranged to be the solution at a grid point by setting linearised source term as a number large enough to make the other terms in the discretisation equation negligible (Patankar. is the simplest way to enforce the no-slip condition for the cylinder. This has been done by making some of the control volumes of the regular grid ‘inactive’ so that the remaining active control volumes formed the desired irregular domain. Location of pressure in main grid. Before the interpolation. The values of the ghost-cells are calculated with the aid of interpolation and use of the exterior points to satisfy the no-slip condition on the true surface of bluff bodies (Tseng and Ferziger. The goal is to remedy the problem with minimum computational cost. Cut-cells are in grey and internal cells are hatched.g. this problem would not exist. Distance of four corners of all the grid cells from the centre of the cylinder location is calculated to select these cells.9 Selection of cut. the ghost-cells must be indicated. the ghost-cell is a cell that has been cut by physical boundaries of obstacles (bodies) and location of its flow field values (e. As it was previously mentioned. velocity components or pressure) lies in the interior region of the boundary. If the location of flow field values rest out of the boundary (F1. and F3 points). Location of pressure for a cell located in the flow field 2. Thus. the cut-cells are shown in grey and the interior cells are hatched for the main grid (not staggered). which leads to different discretisation for boundary cells. 2. If the location of flow field values rest into the The above-mentioned procedure is also inclusive of u and v staggered grids and has been identically repeated.Numerical analysis on the effect of embedding detached short splitter-plates residual sources must be smaller than the convergence criterion.8 Method of irregularity recognition The computer programme is written for Cartesian grid but can be improved to manage an irregularly shaped calculation domain. this method is not very practicable for large problems. G2 and G3 points). then its variation near the boundary is as follows: . If φ stands for flow field variables (pressure and velocity components). Regarding the use of staggered grid in this work.
the grids are finer in the region of the cylinder place in a manner that 25–10 cells lying along the cylinder diameter in the super-fine grid through the coarser grid. P is the pressure. Three points mentioned and used in this work are as follows: 1 A point on the real surface of the cylinder is obtained from the cross point of the cylinder boundary and a line defined by the cylinder centre and the ghost point location. the accuracy of the solver is validated by simulation of the flow around a single circular cylinder. Two exterior points (F points). various parameters have been used such as the Reynolds number Re = ρUD / µ . respectively. because for this higher Reynolds number the higher cell Reynolds numbers has a stronger effect for the hybrid discretisation scheme used..0 in the case of stationary cylinder). As it is observed in Table 1. Strouhal number of periodic vortex shedding is also included for Re = 150. This difference is 8. respectively. Three points with known flow values are needed for calculation of constant coefficients and finally φ in the ghost-cell (φG). The results of the study are shown in Table 1. the free-stream characteristics are applied everywhere of computational domain as initial conditions to start the simulation.G. the results of super-fine grid A′ and fine grid A are very close. Grid sizes include: super-fine grid A′. For low Reynolds numbers. which are the nearest to the real boundary. φ = 0. the Strouhal number St = fD / U and the dimensionless time T = tU / D. respectively. In the table. View of the mesh for flow around a circular cylinder problem: (a) complete view of the domain and (b) zoom view of the refined region (a) 3. coarse grid C and coarser grid D. FD and FL are the drag and lift forces (including pressure and friction drags and lifts).4% for Re = 150. sensitivity analysis with respect to the time step sizes and finally validation of the flow around a circular cylinder have been presented here. the Great-Source-Term technique is employed to set the interpolated values as the solution of the ghost-cells. b and c are constants and x and y are the coordinates of φ ′ s calculation position. the drag coefficient CD = FD / 0.1 Investigation of grid-independency and sensitivity analysis of time step size Five grid types with various sizes have been studied to investigate grid-independency of the results.5 ρ U 2 D. Jafari (4) in Re = 40 and 150 are summarised for five grid sizes. standard grid B.H. where a steady-state solution exists.5 ρ U 2 . pressure drag coefficient. Figure 3 φ = a + bx + cy where a. Thus. friction drag coefficient and total drag coefficient in the flow around a single circular cylinder (b) .436. the lift coefficient CL = FL / 0.10 B. all presented results have been obtained by the grid type A with 200 × 200 cells (Fig.5 ρ U 2 D. of course. 2 It should be pointed out that in the staggered-grid. The grid-independency is proved in this section and it is shown that the results are not sensitive to the grid size. It must be mentioned that the simulations were carried out as unsteady with a time step of ∆t = 10−3 s. To compare the results. the pressure coefficient C p = P / 0. ND in Table 1 represents the number of cells lying within the cylinder. Here. the results are fairly grid-independent of the grids used. In this work. for Re = 40. Value of φ in these two points is obtained from the flow field in the previous iteration of SIMPLE algorithm. total drag coefficient for simulation type D is equal to 1. as the study has shown that the results exhibit no significant variations for grids finer than grid type A.5%. Dehkordi and H. whereas it is equal to 1. There are also many numerical simulations to compare with our results. In all grid types. In this table. For example. fine grid A. 3).g. Investigations of grid-independency.52 for simulation type A. which represents a still tolerable deviation of 5. The value of this point is the boundary condition (e. the time integration leads to a steady-state solution. f is the vortex-shedding frequency (if vortex shedding exists) and t is the time. On the other hand. the constant coefficients of Equation (4) are quite different for the pressure and the velocity components owing to the different places of calculation of them. assuming that these grids provide a sufficient grid-independency for all Reynolds numbers considered. 3 Flow around a single circular cylinder In this section.
Figure 4 Mean drag coefficient vs.179 0.239 0. Dimensions of the computational domain are 20D × 40D Re = 40 Re = 150 CD CD. C. the choice is ∆t = 10−3 s.970 0. Main considerations of the analysis for choosing time step size were as follows: I II Time step size must be small enough to detect the flow variations in time Small time step size can increase the stability of the system owing to the making diagonal dominant the matrix of coefficients (positive effect) 1 2 staircase approximation of the boundary without special treatment that has led to jagged pressure distribution ghost-cell interpolation method that has cured the problem and got perfectly zero velocities (interpolated with Eq.246 1. p CD. friction.509 0.497 0.957 0.524 1.507 1.250 0.2 Verification and analysis of the results Results of the flow around single circular cylinders are verified and analysed in this section.010 0.209 1.511 0.469 1. B. Good agreement exists between this work and the other studies. and D in flow around a circular cylinder. For a more detailed comparison between the methods for enforcing the no-slip boundary condition. For Reynolds .999 0. Pressure distribution obtained by this work in comparison with some experimental and numerical results in the literature: (a) Re = 40 for both staircase and ghost-cell method and (b) Re = 100 for ghost-cell method only Figure 5 III Small time step size can increase the number of iterations of the system and consequently increase the needed CPU-time of the solver (negative effect).S CD St Simulation Ncells ND CD. the flow field is fully symmetric and steady.436 1.276 1. time step size for the flow around a single circular cylinder in Re = 150 (a) 3.024 1. Twin vortices are formed behind the cylinder that are stationary. As the flow is symmetric and steady. p CD. 4) at the real boundary of the cylinder. 4).998 0.173 0.247 0. an optimum time step size must be chosen to satisfy the three above-mentioned concerns.013 1.Numerical analysis on the effect of embedding detached short splitter-plates Table 1 11 The pressure.020 0. A.168 A sensitivity analysis with respect to the time step size has also been made for Re = 150 (Fig.162 0.177 0.179 0.967 0. On the basis of Figure 4. two cases are compared in Figure 5(a): (b) Our simulations generally show that for Reynolds number equal to 40. Thus. Figure 5 demonstrates the pressure distribution for Reynolds numbers of 40 and 100.520 1. and total drag coefficients (plus the Strouhal number of periodic vortex shedding in Re = 150) obtained in grid-independency investigation for simulations of different grid sizes A′.206 1. the lift coefficient is zero for this Reynolds number.510 0.270 1. using the dimensionless parameters defined earlier.S A′: Super-fine grid A: Fine grid B: Standard C: Coarse grid D: Coarser grid 225 × 250 180 × 200 140 × 160 100 × 120 80 × 100 25 20 16 12 10 1.472 1.975 0.252 0.
33 1.. Wanderley and Levi. Dehkordi and H. the flow over circular cylinder with splitter-plate is investigated and analysed by adding the splitter-plates in the downstream of the computational domain.25 1. 1996). and 150: (a) drag coefficient and (b) lift coefficient (a) (b) Comparison of the mean drag coefficient obtained by the present work with some experimental data and numerical results (the cylinder without splitter-plate case) Unsteady flow Steady flow Re CD Methodology References Re CD Tritton (1959) Kravchenko et al. the drag coefficient oscillates at twice the frequency of the lift coefficient (Wanderley and Levi. 2002). In these Reynolds numbers.12 B. and 0. respectively. 2003.H. Note that there is no vortex street in Re = 40 and indicating effect of the splitter-plate in flow pattern and drag reduction is the goal of the simulations in this .31 1. the results for the drag coefficient are consistent with the results of other studies. 100. finite differences method Wanderley and Levi (2002) Polar grid.163 and 0.37 1. Strouhal number for these Reynolds numbers is 0. the accuracy of this work can be considered to be sufficient.. finite difference method Ye et al.51 1. convergence criterion and remaining data are similarly set as the reference case of the previous section. As it can be observed in Figure 6.48 1.52 4 Flow around a circular cylinder with detached splitter-plate In this section. Evidently. we have nominated a case of Table 2 The drag and lift coefficients vs. Maximum amplitude of the lift coefficients in Re = 100 and 150 are also calculated as 0. (1999) Cartesian cell-centred collocated grid. finite-volume method 100 100 100 100 150 100 100 150 1.29 1. Lima E. the frequency of oscillating lift is similar to the vortex-shedding frequency.39.52 1.52 1. Silva et al. (1999) Park et al. which are in excellent agreement with the literature. (1998) Lima E.52.27 40 40 40 40 1. finite difference method C-grid/domain. Jafari the circular cylinder without splitter-plate as the ‘Reference case’. Comparison between the mean drag coefficients in different numerical and experimental investigations including this work is presented in Table 2. Figure 6 number 47 and above. Moreover. finite differences method Cartesian grid.33 1. To show variation patterns of the drag and lift coefficients. fluid properties.179. Regarding the performed verification of the flow around a single cylinder in this section. finite-volume method Present work Cartesian-staggered grid. 2002). time step.g. As it is observed. the results of Williamson (1996) and Roshko (1955). The results are demonstrated and analysed for Reynolds numbers of 40 and 100. To compare the results in the next section.39 1. we have graphed the drag and lift coefficients as a function of the dimensionless time for different values of the Reynolds number in Figure 6. Thus. Silva et al.54 40 40 1.27.G. respectively. (2003) Experimental Polar zonal grid. In the next section. the Von Karman street is formed behind the cylinder and the flow field is unsteady and asymmetric (Williamson. for Re = 40. the lift and drag coefficients in Reynolds numbers of 100 and 150 oscillate owing to the shedding of vortices. the dimensionless time for cylinder without splitter-plate in Re = 40. the drag coefficients are high at the beginning and asymptotically decay to 1. results drawn in this figures are in good agreement with the same graphs presented by other researchers (e.
(c) Z/D = 0. In Z/D = 0. 2.25 (Fig.0). which are 4. 2. In Z/D = 1 and 1. 3.5.2. In these situations. also indicated in the figure). 8(b)).75. in these configurations. 1. Figure 7 Figure 8 illustrates the pressure distribution and streamlines in Re = 40 and G/D = 0.0). the drag coefficient is reduced due to increment of the negative base pressure. the results of Re = 100 are just presented and discussed as the case study of vortex-shedding suppression.5.75. 7 and 10. whereas a very weak influence is observed for large G/D (G/D> approx.034 for Z/D = 1 and Z/D = 1. for each Z/D = 0. for all Z/D values. Also. G/D = 0) and (Z/D = 0.75.25.8. 0. the negative base pressure of cylinder has experienced diminution or augmentation.5.6 for different values of Z/D. In the cases where drag has increased or decreased. (c) (d) .7. Figure 8 The pressure distribution and streamlines obtained in Re = 40 and G/D = 0. which are attached to the end of cylinder. G/D = 0).5.6. 0. In addition. depending on the G/D value. In the cases mentioned earlier. All the simulations (except Re = 40) have been performed for configurations of G/D = 0.1 Analysis of the results in Re = 40 The drag coefficient as a function of the dimensionless horizontal and vertical distances between the cylinder and the splitter-plate (G/D and Z/D) is illustrated in Figure 7. it has been non-linearly increased with reducing G/D. 2. In Z/D = 0.25 (Fig. (d) Z/D = 0. It should be noted that. the cited vortices are formed but asymmetrically. two vortices will be symmetrically formed behind the cylinder.75 (Fig. with coefficients of −0. the simulations performed in Re = 150 have shown that the key parameters of the flow have similar variation trend with G and Z to the Re = 100. 2. A continuous drag reduction (for all G/D) is observed only for Z/D = 0. 8(c) and (d)).6% more and less than the reference case.25.25. 5. 1 and 1.25. the drag coefficient has been almost linearly reduced along with reduction of G/D. It is interesting to note that the drag coefficient can be smaller or larger than that of the reference case (the case without splitter-plate. a big vortex has been statically formed apart and far from the cylinder.6: (a) Z/D = 0. the negative base pressure drop has led to the drag augmentation. 8(e) and (f)). 0. 4. The figure shows that the effect of splitter-plate is more significant for smaller G/D (G/D <approx. If the splitter-plate is lacking or if it is placed in the centreline of the cylinder (Fig. which prevents normal formation of the vortices due to the limited space for vortex creation.9. two unequal vortices are attached to the cylinder’s backside and cause asymmetric pressure distribution.Numerical analysis on the effect of embedding detached short splitter-plates Reynolds number. 2. respectively. similar investigation is performed whereas dual splitter-plates are placed in a parallel arrangement in the downstream of the cylinder to achieve further drag reduction. 8(a)).3. 2. respectively. for most values of Z/D.25 (see online version for colours) Variation of the drag coefficient in Re = 40 and different Z/D and G/D (a) (b) Inspecting the trend of pressure and friction drag coefficients has shown that variation of the total drag is mainly caused by variation of the pressure drag. 2. Re = 40 did not require high-resolution variation of 2 ≤ G / D ≤ 3. for Re = 40. 2. 0.4. 2.06 and −0.6. 2.1. But for the other values of Z/D. It can be attributed to the situation of the splitter-plate. Thus. The largest and smallest drag coefficients are obtained at (Z/D = 1.75. while no vortices are formed in Z/D = 0. producing some lift forces. 4. (b) Z/D = 0. 13 4. (e) Z/D = 1 and (f) Z/D = 1.5 and Z/D = 0. 2. respectively.25.2% and 2.
Trend of the Strouhal change with G/D is similar for most Z/D except Z/D = 1 and 1. 0. 2003). The Strouhal numbers are also converged to the reference value higher than the critical points. Jafari The pressure distribution and streamlines obtained in Re = 40 and G/D = 0. especially in low gaps. Our simulations have also shown that the critical values are significantly dependent on the Z/D.75. 2. as G/D escalates.5. The splitter-plate limits formation space of the vortices and suppresses vortex shedding.75.1. vortices of the vortex street are big and strong (Fig. In Figure 10. For Z/D = 0.14 Figure 8 B. After that in a certain value of G/D called ‘critical value’. the drag and lift will suddenly increase.H. It can be understood from this figure. It is noteworthy to mention that. G/D = 2 at tU/D = 100.3.25. This matter is completely compatible with the experiments (Ozono. embedding splitter-plate in the downstream of a cylinder causes drag reduction by mechanism of vortex shedding interrupting. 0. 2. The critical values for Z/D = 0. 11(e) and (f)). 2. (b) Z/D = 0.2 and 2. Dehkordi and H.25. As it is evident. (e) Z/D = 1 and (f) Z/D = 1. 0.25. the vortex shedding is fully suppressed and absolute amplitude of the lift coefficient oscillations is about zero. 2. In this condition. 11(a)). the vortex street is affected and vortex sizes become smaller. respectively. the most reduction in drag and lift coefficients has been occurred in Z/D = 0. when there is no splitter-plate (reference case). the vortex sizes . both drag and lift coefficients reach the values pertaining to the reference case.5. In a constant Z/D. the drag and lift will decrease as long as they get minimum amounts. (b) Figure 10 Variation of the Strouhal number in Re = 100 and different Z/D and G/D Figure 11 demonstrates a snapshot of the vorticity field calculated for Re = 100. the drag coefficient and the absolute amplitude of lift coefficient are graphed in Re = 100 for different Z/D and G/D.25. This fashion is identically reiterated for all the values of Z/D.7. By adding the splitter-plate.75.G. This effect also reduced the lift coefficient and confined its oscillations.25 (see online version for colours) (continued) Figure 9 Variation of the drag and lift coefficients in Re = 100 and different Z/D and G/D: (a) drag coefficient and (b) absolute amplitude of lift coefficient (e) (a) (f) 4.2 Analysis of the results in Re = 100 In Figure 9.6: (a) Z/D = 0.75 and 1 (Fig. This negligible lift quantity appears thanks to variation of pressure distribution pattern from asymmetric to symmetric.7.6. 1 and 1. the Strouhal variation with G/D and Z/D are shown for Re = 100. are obtained as 2. (d) Z/D = 0. (c) Z/D = 0. Over critical values.
(f) Z/D = 1 and (g) Z/D = 1. This figure exhibits the flow development from the very beginning of the simulation to the situation of periodic vortex shedding. (e) Z/D = 0. (f) tU/D = 68. (h) tU/D = 96 and (i) tU/D = 110 (see online version for colours) (a) (a) (b) (b) (c) (c) (d) (d) (e) (e) (f) (f) (g) (g) (h) The time-dependent vorticity field is graphed in Figure 12 for Re = 100.5. 9(b)). As it is observed. and finally the vortices are completely vanished. and tU/D = 110: (a) reference case. These vortices lose their energy due to the viscous dissipation. (b) Z/D = 0.25 (see online version for colours) 15 the plate surface. G/D = 2 and Z/D = 0. Since pressure distribution .75.75. Z/D = 0. The lowest reduction in lift and drag forces is also dedicated to this configuration. (e) tU/D = 55. the vortex shedding of the upper side is higher than the lower side of the cylinder. Furthermore. (d) tU/D = 41. and G/D = 2: (a) tU/D = 1. (b) tU/D = 13. G/D = 2. Figure 12 Time-dependent vorticity field obtained in Re = 100.25. using the splitter-plate off the centreline of the cylinder prevents high strength vortex shedding and finally lead to drag and lift reduction. the gap between the splitter-plate and the cylinder is in a way that impedes regular vortex shedding. Thus. the vortices are again formed in big sizes and shed subsequently from the cylinder. the shear layer is stronger and gives energy to the vortices passing over there. (c) tU/D = 27. (g) tU/D = 82. (d) Z/D = 0. (c) Z/D = 0. especially from the lower side of the cylinder. the dynamics of vortices alternately shed from both sides of the cylinder are not equivalent. For Z/D = 1.Numerical analysis on the effect of embedding detached short splitter-plates decrease to their smallest value and the lift coefficient reaches approximately zero just at this moment (Fig. In this case. because of the forming a boundary layer on (i) Generally.75. Figure 11 Snapshot of the vorticity field obtained in Re = 100.25. particularly in the further downstream.
flow over a circular cylinder with detached short splitter-plates have been simulated and analysed. 2007). (1997) ‘Effect of a splitter on the near wake of a circular cylinder in 2 and 3 dimensional flow configurations’. 4.75 for Reynolds numbers of 100 and 150. it has been observed that the drag coefficient can be reduced or increased by a splitter-plate. gets asymmetric.16 B. J. Z/D = 0. and Xu. Exp. A. Vol. G. 42. In the case of vortex shedding. 13). C. Y.6%. The best configuration to achieve maximum reduction in lift and drag forces is Z/D = 0. To examine this idea.R. Dalton.A. bridges. it has been figured out that the current method has no difficulty in resolving the complex flow pattern and geometries and it can be a powerful tool to study the problems of fluid–structure interaction. embedding the splitter-plate off the centreline of the cylinder have led to asymmetric pressure distribution where produced some lift forces (undesirable effect). Also. Fluid Mech. which is achieved by dual splitter-plates: one in upstream and another in downstream of the cylinder (Hwang and Yang. pressure coefficient and vortex shedding Strouhal number obtained from our simulations agree well with the established experimental and numerical data. the flow-induced forces on the cylinder are greatly dependent on the position of the splitter-plate related to the cylinder. Fluids. and Chang. the time-averaged lift coefficient has slight variance from zero in comparison with the reference case. It should be noted that the splitter-plate has no effect on the upstream of the cylinder. The grid was generated finer in the region of the bluff bodies (the cylinder and the splitter-plate). . pp. 100 and 150. pp. It seems that we can achieve dual reduction in flow-induced forces by two splitter-plates in parallel arrangement relative to the centreline of the cylinder (sketch of Fig. 23. However. Dehkordi and H. G/D = 0).G. 5 Conclusions References Anderson. The critical values of G/D are also significantly dependent on Z/D in these low Reynolds numbers.75.161–174. Journal of Fluids and Structures. Figure 13 Sketch of dual splitter-plates case B C D Figure 14 Variation of the drag coefficient in Re = 100 and different G/D for both single and dual splitter-plate cases E Eventually. and Szewczyk.A. respectively) and showed in Figure 14. the drag coefficient is calculated for Z1/D = Z2/D = 0.. A finite-volume approach based on the Cartesian-staggered grid method has been implemented allowing us to simulate unsteady.75 (Z1 and Z2 are vertical distances between the cylinder and first and second splitter-plates. this value is still smaller than the 38. The major results are summarised as follows: A The splitter-plate has slightly changed the drag force in Re = 40. Depending on the position of the splitter-plate. Finally. Key quantities such as the mean drag coefficient. E. 20% diminution in the drag force has been obtained by embedding twin splitter-plates downstream of the cylinder at (Z1/D = Z2/D = 0. heat exchangers and many other mechanical types of equipments with the goal of minimising the flow-induced forces. as a marginal conclusion. This figure shows more drag reduction but not necessarily in dual trend. The maximum reduction is occurred in G/D = 0 with 20% diminution related to the reference case. S. viscous flow over a circular cylinder with detached short splitter-plates. Dennis. In addition. (2001) ‘The suppression of lift on a circular cylinder due to vortex shedding at moderate Reynolds numbers’.C.3 The case of dual splitter-plates As it was previously mentioned. it has been found that these configurations could be applied in marine structures.471–489. (1970) ‘Numerical solutions for steady flow past a circular cylinder at Reynolds numbers up to 100’. Vol. Jafari The simulations of flow past a circular cylinder subjected to a uniform free stream have been carried out in the Reynolds number range 40. which is observed Re = 100 and 150. No-slip condition of the cylinder has been enforced using a linear-interpolative ghost-cells method that preserves the second-order accuracy of the discretisation.H. 15. Interrupting regular vortex shedding is the major mechanism of detached splitter-plates to vortex-shedding suppression and reduction of the flow-induced forces. pp.75 is the best configuration for using a detached short splitter-plate because the drag and lift reduction is at maximum. Vol.617–628.
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