English Vocabulary

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LEARNING PROCESS

ENGLISH BASICS

ENGLISH SPEAKING

FLUENCY DEVELOPMENT

PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

ENGLISH SPEAKING CURICULLUM

English Basics

English Grammar

English Vocablary

English Speaking

English Pronunciation

Fluency Development

PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT COURSE

GroupDiscussion Public Speaking

Leadership

You
( + ) ve Thinking Soft Skills Interview Training

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Topic No
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

NAME OF CHAPTER The English Alphabet Common Symbols Capitalization Appearance Compound Words Computers English Families English Greetings English Numbers Telephone Calls Season Time Weather Building Vocabulary Clothes Vocabulary Eating Vocabulary Education Vocabulary Election Vocabulary Entertainment Vocabulary Food Vocabulary Job & Work Vocabulary Birth, Life and Death Vocabulary Money Vocabulary House Vocabulary Shopping Vocabulary Sports Vocabulary English Abbreviation & Acronyms Common Names Daily Household Common Professions Common Vocabulary English Phonetics Pair of Things Parts of Car Pair of Clothing Parts of the Body
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Pg.No
5 6 6 7 9 10 11 13 16 18 19 20 21 22 26 29 34 37 40 42 43 46 49 52 57 60 62 64 70 80 81 82 82 83 83

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36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 53

Special Occasion Weather Weekend Art & Music Banking & Finance Containers Natural Disasters Household Chores Office Supplies City Sights Daily Activities Days Electronic Devices Hobbies House & Apartment Location Meals Must Know Vocabulary Vocabulary List
PICTURE VOCABULARY

83 84 84 84 85 85 85 85 86 86 86 87 87 87 88 88 88 88 88

55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71

Basic Food Body & Health Classroom Items Clothing & Accessories Colors Dishes Fruits Home & Furniture People & Occupation Personal Items Sports fun & Recreation Transportation Vegetables Amphibians , Reptiles & Birds Musical Instruments Shapes Tools

93 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 98 99 100 101 101 102 105 105 106

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T

THE ENGLISH ALPHABET

V

The alphabet A-Z Aa Ii Qq Yy Bb Jj Rr Zz Cc Kk Ss Dd Ll Tt Ee Mm Uu Ff Nn Vv Gg Oo Ww Hh The Phonetic Alphabet Pp Xx When spelling (especially over the phone) use the phonetic alphabet to avoid confusion. A C E Alpha Charlie Echo Golf India Kilo Mike Oscar Quebec Sierra Uniform Whisky Yankee B D F H J L N P R T V X Z Bravo Delta Foxtrot Hotel Juliet Lima November Papa Romeo Tango Victor X-Ray Zulu

VOWELS
A E I O U

G I K

CONSONANTS B L V C M W D N X F P Y G Q Z H R J S K T

M O Q S U

THE RHYMING ALPHABET
The following letters rhyme with each other:ä sound ë sound e sound ï sound A H J K B C D E G P F L M N S X I Y O yü sound Q U W Symbol . , ? RZ W Y

COMMON SYMBOLS

Word (common term in brackets) Full Stop Comma Question Mark

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! : ; & / \ @ # £ € $ ' ~ * ´ ` " () [] {} <>

Exclamation Mark Colon

be written in CAPITALS and when they need to be written small. There's a guide to capitalisation here. "How do you

Semi-Colon Hyphen (Dash)

spell UNESCO "Capital U-N-E-S-C-O." please?" "How do you

Ampersand Virgule (Forward Slash)

spell T-Online please?" "How do you

"Capital T dashcapital O small n-l-in-e."

"The number one then an ampersand small r-o-f-i."

Reversed Virgule (Backward Slash) At Hash Pound Symbol

spell 1&1 Profi another one, followed by capital P please?"

APPEARANCES - HOW TO DESCRIBE SOMEONE IN ENGLISH
Height

Euro Symbol Dollar Symbol Apostrophe Tilde Asterisk Acute Accent Grave Accent Quotation Mark Left / Right Parentheses Left / Right Square Bracket Left / Right Brace Left / Right Angle Bracket

He is tall. He is very tall.

He is short. He is normal height. He is quite short. He is relatively normal height.

+

CAPITALISATION
When spelling a word for someone it is sometimes necessary to let the person know when letters need to Confidence, Fluency & Personality

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Build

Eyes

grey eyes

green eyes

blue eyes

brown eyes

dark eyes

She is skinny. (negative) She is fat. (negative)

! Note!

She is underweight. (negative) She is thin. (negative)

She is overweight. (negative) She is plump. (neutral) Type of hair She is stocky. (neutral)

This is a black eye!

She is slim. (positive)

She is slender. (positive)

She is bonny. (positive) ^ She has long hair. He has

She has mediu m length hair.

She has mediu m length hair. She has short hair.

She has short hair.

no hair. = He is bald.

!Note - if a man is fat (especially round the waist) we often say he has a beer belly.
She has Hair She has short, black hair. -

She has mediu m ,blond e hair. She She has short, straigh t, black She has mediu m straigh

She has mediu m red hair. She has mediu m wavy, She has short, e hair.

+

long, black hair.

length length, blond

blonde/fai r hair
blonde

brown hair brunette

red hair

black hair -

grey hair

+ +

has long, straig ht, black

She has short, curly, blond

redhead

-

length, length,

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hair.

hair.

t, blonde hair. Her

red hair.

e hair.

Her

Her hair is short, straigh t and black. -

hair is mediu m length, straigh t and blonde .

Her hair is mediu m length, wavy and red.

Her hair is short, curly and blond e. eyebrows cheeks fringe lips teeth

o r

hair is long, straig ht and black.

COMPOUND WORDS
A compound word is made when two words are joined to form a new word. Look at the red word. Look at the words in the row. Click on a blue word to make a compound word. There may be more than one correct answer. Use a dictionary to learn the meaning or definition of the compound word.

Type of complexion

A
afterthought, airplane, another, anybody, anyhow, anyone, anything, anywhere white. She is white. white. He is asian. He black. She He She has She has light-brown has has very has skin. lightly fair pale dark tanned skin. skin. skin. skin. He is She is She is

B
backbone, backspace, backwoods, become, bedroom, beeswax, birthday, birthright, blackberry, blackbird, blackboard, bloodvessel, bluebell, bodyguard, bookkeeper, brushwood

C
cardboard, carefree, caretaker, carpet, chairman, clockwork, commonsense, copyright, cupboard

D OTHER FEATURES
Point your cursor over the named feature, if you're correct the word will appear. daylight, dead weight, downfall

E
earring, earthwork, evergreen, everybody, everyday, everyone, everything, everywhere, eyeball

F
fatherland, ingerprint, firearm, fire-engine, firefly, fireman, fireplace, firework, first-rate, floppy disk, football, footlights, footman, footnote, footprint, footstep moustach e chin forehea d nostrils

beard

G
gasworks, goldfish, goodlooking, good-morning, goodnight, gunboat, gun-carriage, gunmetal, gunpowder

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H
handbook, handwriting, headdress, headland, headstone, headway, hereafter, herewith, herself, highlands, highway, himself, horseback, horseplay, horsepower, hourglass, houseboat, housekeeper, however

T
themselves, today, tonight, toothpaste, tradesman

U
underclothing, undercooked, undergo, undergrowth, undermined, undersigned, undersized, understatement, undertake, undervalued, undo, update, upkeep, uplift, upon, upright, uptake, uptight

I
inasmuch, income, indoors, inland, inlet, input, inside, instep, into, itself

V
viewpoint.

J,K
joystick, keyboard

W
wallpaper, waterfall, weekend, well-being, well-off, whatever, whenever, whereas, whereby, wherever, whichever, whitewash, whoever, windpipe, within, without, woodwork, workhouse , workman

L
landmark, landslip, lighthouse, lipstick, loan shark, looking-glass

M manhandle, manhole, meeting room, moonlight, myself N network, newspaper, nobody, nothing, nowhere O
offspring, oncoming, oneself, online, onlooker, onto, ourselves, outburst, outcome, outcry, outdoor, outgoing, outhouse, outlaw, outlet, outline, outlook, output, outside, outskirts, outstretched, overacting, overall overbalancing, overbearing, overcoat, overcome, overdo, overdressed, overfull, overhanging, overhead, overland, overleaf, overload, overlook, overseas, overseer, overshoe, overstatement, overtake, overtaxed, overtime overturned, overuse, overvalued, overweight, overworking

X
x-ray

Y
yearbook, yourself

Z
zookeeper

COMPUTERS
PC (Personal Computer) I presume that as you're visiting this page you are on some kind of computer, but do you know what all the parts of a computer are called? Find the items listed, hover over the item or click on it to see if you're right. Find these items on this computer desk:computer(s) cupboard(s) disc drive(s) drawer(s) filing cabinet(s) keyboard(s) monitor(s) mouse(s) mouse mat(s) pigeonhole(s) speaker(s) screen(s)

P
pincushion, plaything , policeman, policewoman, postman, postwoman, postmark, postmaster, postoffice

Q,R
railway, runway, runaway

scarecrow, seaman, secondhand, shorthand, shutdown, sideboard, sidewalk, somebody, someday, somehow, someone, something, sometime, somewhat, somewhere, starlight, startup, steamship, suchlike, sunburn, sunlight, sunshade, sweetheart

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Laptop Laptops are similar, but need some extra vocabulary. Find these items on this laptop disc drive(s) keyboard(s) hinge(s) screen(s) touchpad(s) Keyboard The keyboard is one of your input devices, but do you know your way around an English one?

00.01 - 1st January

"Happy New Year!"

"Happy Easter."

or

"Good Luck!"

etc....

ENGLISH GREETINGS
Every day Greetings "Good morning." or "Congratulations!"or"Well done!"

"Good afternoon."

etc...

Good evening."

"Get well soon."

"Goodbye." Shaking Hands "Good night." When meeting someone formally for the first time, we shake their hand and say "How do you do?" or "Pleased to meet you." "How do you do?" isn't really a question; it just means "Hello". When young people meet informally they sometimes say Special Greetings "Happy Christmas."Or"Merry Christmas." Generally we do not shake hands with people we know well. "Give me five!" and slap their hands together (high five).

+ +

"Good night."

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NATURALLY SPEAKING

It's good to see you.

you?

You say hello, and I say goodbye! Follow the dialogue. Mr. Bean meets Mrs. Breuer, one of his students, and her husband in the street.
Mr. Bean: Mrs. Breuer: Mr. Bean: Good morning, Mrs. Breuer. Good morning, Mr. Bean. How are you? I'm fine thanks, and you? Not too bad. Mr. Bean, this is my husband Michael, Michael this is Mr. Bean my English teacher. Pleased to meet you. Pleased to meet you too. Are you from Germany, Mr. Breuer? Yes, East Germany, from Dresden. And you are you from London? No, I'm from Derby, but I live in London now. Well, goodbye Mr. Bean, it was nice to see you. Yes, goodbye.  
Hello Lynne. How are you doing?

Fine thanks. What's new with you?

Hi, Lynne! How's it going? Hi, Lynne. How are things?

Not too bad, busy as ever.

Oh fine. You know how it is.

Mrs. Breuer:

Mr. Breuer: Mr. Bean: Mr. Breuer: Mr. Bean:

Note - on first meetings say, "It's nice to meet you". For future meetings say, "It's nice to see you again".
LOOKING AFTER VISITORS COMMON ENGLISH PHRASES Greeting the visitor:Good morning/afternoon. Can I help you? Do you have an appointment? I'll let (Mr Smith) know you're here. What name is it, please? Explaining there's a problem:-

Mrs. Breuer:

Mr. Bean:

Formal to Informal Greetings and Introductions Subsequent meetings Formal Possible Greetings 
Hello, Mrs. Hand. It's nice to see you again.

Possible responses 
What a pleasant surprise! How are you? It's been a while.

I'm afraid (Mr Smith) is in a meeting.

I'm sorry, but he/she's out of the office at the moment.
Offering help / refreshments etc:Would you like to take a seat?

Good morning Mrs. Hand. How are you today?

I'm very well thank you. And you?

Maybe I can help you?

Would you like some tea/coffee whilst you wait? Milk and sugar?

Good afternoon, Mrs. Hand.

Thank you. It's nice to see you too. How are

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Would you like to read through our company brochure? Making small talk:Did you have a good journey? What was the weather like in (London)? Have you been to (Germany) before?

17 18 19 20 21

Seventeen Eighteen Nineteen Twenty Twenty-one ... Thirty Forty Fifty Sixty Seventy Eighty Ninety One hundred One hundred and one ... One thousand One million One billion

17 18 19 20 21 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

ENGLISH NUMBERS
30 Whole Numbers also known as Cardinal Numbers used for counting Symbol 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Word Nought One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twelve Thirteen Fourteen Fifteen Sixteen Pronounce It 50 0 60 1 70 2 80 3 90 4 100 5 101 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1st 14 2nd 15 3rd 16 4th Confidence, Fluency & Personality the fourth 4th the third 3rd the second 2nd the first 1st 102 1,000,000 1,000,000,000,000 101 40

1,000 1,000,000 1,000,000,000,000

Ordinal Numbers - used for ranking In figures In words Pronounce It

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5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th

the fifth the sixth the seventh the eighth the ninth the tenth the eleventh the twelfth the thirteenth the fourteenth the fifteenth the sixteenth the seventeenth the eighteenth the nineteenth the twentieth the twenty-first the twenty-second the twenty-third the twenty-fourth the twenty-fifth the twenty-sixth the twenty-seventh the twenty-eighth the twenty-ninth

5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th

30th 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th 100th

the thirtieth the fortieth the fiftieth the sixtieth the seventieth the eightieth the ninetieth the hundredth the hundred and first the thousandth

30th 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th 100th

101st

...

1000th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th
1 8

1000th

Ordinal numbers are often used in fractions:-

Fractions Symbol Word Pronounce It

/

One eighth

1 8

/

20th ... ... ...
3 4 1 5

/

One fifth

1 4

/

One quarter

1 4

/

/

Three quarters

3 4

/

... ... ...
2 3 1 3

/

One third

1 3

/

/

Two thirds

...
1 2

... ...

/

One half

1 2

/

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TELEPHONE CALLS - COMMON ENGLISH PHRASES. Answering the phone:Good morning/afternoon XYZ Ltd. How can I help you? Connecting a caller:I'll put you through now. One moment please. Explaining there's a problem:I'm sorry, but the line's engaged at the moment. I'm sorry. There's no reply.

Telephone calls - Common English phrases. Asking for someone:Good morning/afternoon. Could I speak to (Mr. Smith), please? Could I have extension (219), please? Giving a message:Could you tell (him/her) that (her tickets are ready). Could you tell (him/her) that I called? Could you give (him/her) my number, please? Giving your name and number:-

I'm sorry, but he/she's out of the office at the moment.
I'm afraid he/she's on the other line at the moment.

My name is (David Bean) and I'm on (0117 294658). It's (David Bean) and the number is (0117 294658). THE SEASONS

Offering help:Would you like to hold? Is there anyone else who could help you? Can I take a message? Maybe I can help you? Offer a return call:March Spring April May

Perhaps he/she can call you back? Could he/she call you back?
Offering to take a message:June

Summer July August

Can I take a message for him/her?
September

Autumn October November

Would you like to leave a message?
Asking for the caller's name and number:Could I have your name and number, please? Could you give me your name and number, please? December Checking the information:Winter January February

Could you spell that, please? Can I just check that again, please?
Could you repeat that, please?

Each season has distinctive weather and cultural significance:-

Spring

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In spring the days grow longer, the weather is warmer but it often rains and can get very windy. We celebrate Easter in the spring.

Summer The adjective is summery. For example:-

Summer

I like summery weather.

Autumn

The adjective is autumnal.
In summer the days are long and the weather's usually warm and sometimes even hot. We usually go on holiday in the summer.

For example:There is an autumnal feeling in the air.

Autumn September October November

Winter

The adjective is wintry. For example:The forecast said there would be wintry showers tomorrow. TIME

In autumn the days get shorter, it gets colder and the leaves fall from the trees. We celebrate Halloween in autumn.

Twelve Winter o'clock

Six o'clock

One o'clock In winter the days are short and it is generally cold and often wet, sometimes it snows. We celebrate Christmas in the winter. Two o'clock . Spring There is no real adjective, but you could say "spring like". For example:The weather is very spring like. Four o'clock Three o'clock

Seven o'clock

Eight o'clock

Nine o'clock

Ten o'clock

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Five o'clock

Eleven o'clock

It's snowing (The snow is falling.) It's thundering

Time (2) Twelve fifteen Twelve o'clock or Quarter past twelve Twelve thirty or Half past twelve Twelve fortyfive or Quarter to one

Sweltering = It's sweltering. Or It's a sweltering day. Warm = It's warn. Or It's a warm day.

Freezing = It's freezing. Or It's a freezing day. Cold = It's cold. Or It's a cold day. Cloudy = It's cloudy. Or It's a cloudy day. Stormy = It's stormy. Or It's a stormy day. Foggy =

Sunny = It's sunny. Or It's a sunny day.

PREPOSITIONS USED WITH TIME At a point in time "When shall we meet? Let's meet at 12.30."

In a length of time

Clear = It's clear. Or It's a clear day.

"It's 12.45, when will you be ready?

"I'll see you in an hour, at about 1.45."
Misty = It's misty. Or It's a misty

It's foggy. Or It's a foggy day.

THE WEATHER
Using verbs to describe the weather The sun is shining The wind is blowing

day.

Windy =

It's drizzling

Breezy = It's breezy. or It's a breezy day

It's windy. Or It's a windy day.

It's raining (The rain is falling.) It's

Showery = It's showery. Or It's a showery day.

Rainy = It's rainy. Or It's a rainy day.

It's hailing

pouring (The rain is pouring

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Snowy = Frosty = It's frosty. Or It's a frosty day. It's snowy. Or It's a snowy day.

Northwest Pacific = a typhoon Rest of the world = a cyclone

Describing the weather generally hot, wet, miserable, damp

Drizzly = Icy = It's icy. Or It's an icy day. It's drizzly. Or It's a drizzly day. Wet = It's wet. Or It's a wet day.

scorching

warm, mild, fine, dry dull, grey

. Dry = It's dry. Or It's a dry day.

cool, refreshing

cold, chilly

What to say Other things associated with the weather sunshine lightning How to ask about the weather.    What's the weather like? What's the weather doing? Is it raining where you are?

puddles

raindrops

A lot of nouns about the weather are uncountable, so we have to create or add a counting word:Fog / Mist A wisp of mist / fog. A hailstone

hailstones

snowflakes

Hail Rain

A drop of rain / A raindrop
A snowflake A ray of sunshine A gust of wind

The frost weather forecast

Snow Sunshine Wind

flood

drought

BUILDINGS VOCABULARY
Useful Vocabulary tidal wave tornado / twister Places Where We Live

Atlantic / Eastern Pacific = a hurricane

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semicottage(s) detached house(s) detache d house(s) bungalow(s) block of flats

Church

Cinema

terraced house(s)

high-rise flat(s)

Fire Station

!Note - no matter what kind of building you live in, it's your home.
Places Where We Work

Garage

Hospital

Hotel office(s) factory (factories) skyscraper(s) Mosque Miscellaneous Places Museum

tower(s)

mill(s)

windmill(s)

castle(s)

Police Station

Build Up

Railway Station

Airport

Restaurant

Art Gallery

School

Bank

Synagogue

Theatre Bus Station

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and ensures the developer puts them right within a reasonable time.)

DIALOGUE Here is a conversation between Mrs. Smith (Joan) and her husband Steve. Naturally Speaking Talking to a builder / developer. Can you provide references and examples of your previous work? (Here references are comments on the abilities and character of a candidate organization for a position or job.) (Here a bank reference is a statement regarding the financial standing of an individual or organization.) Steve: It's amazing how quickly the houses are selling round here, the Browns only put it on the Will you provide a list of all the materials you'll use and provide samples? (A subcontractor is a person or organization that performs Do you use sub contractors? work for the main contractor, but is not on their payroll and does not receive company benefits.) (A warranty is a written guarantee of the integrity of a product and of the maker's responsibility for the repair or replacement of defective parts. Joan: Yes, and maybe we'd better start thinking of (Here snagging means to write We will be using a snagging company. Is this ok? a list of defects at the end of a build process/phase/stage (a "Snag List" or "Snagging List"). A snagging company goes through a house to find faults Confidence, Fluency & Personality Steve: Hmm. selling too. I'd like a detached house in Sorption as well! Steve: Ha! Maybe we'd better pop next door and say hello. (Here a sample is an amount of something that shows you what the rest is or should be like.) Steve: I think he told me they were buying a detached house in Sorbet on. Joan: Sounds nice. I hope the new neighbors are nice. Steve: Well, I was speaking with Mr. Brown last week. He told me they were a young couple with two daughters. They liked the house because it is near a good school. Joan: Two daughters! That will please John. Joan: Where did they move to? market a month ago. Joan: Steve, what's all that noise outside? Steve: Just a minute, I'll have a look. ....... Oh! It looks as if the new next door neighbors are moving in. Joan: Oh, it's a bit early, isn't it? Ah well I guess we'd better get up. It's Saturday morning and something is happening next door.

Are you able to provide a bank reference?

What warranty do you offer, and what is the time period of this warranty?

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VERBS AND PHRASAL VERBS ABOUT BUILDINGS Many verbs have different meanings; however this section deals with verbs and phrasal verbs connected with buildings. An example is provided only where the verb is commonly used in everyday conversation. One irregular verb in bold is shown in all its forms.
The Verb (infinitive form) An example ( Simple Past Tense) build up build in

To incorporate something as an integral part of something else.

They built new safety S features in.

To add a new build on part to an existing structure

They built a double garage on to improve their house. They built the business up bit by bit. They tore S S

To construct or erect gradually, little by little

The Meaning

Regular /Irregular

To construct To build for a dwelling.

He built his own house

Irregular tear down To destroy or take apart.

the village down before the dam was built. S

To pile up, To construct arrange or build

They constructed the new offices in record time. Regular

CLOTHES VOCABULARY
To pull or To demolish tear down a structure. They demolished the old slums in 1951. Regular Men's Clothes

To increase in size or To extend area. To add to an existing building. To change To move dwelling or business.

As the family grew they extended the house. Regular

suit(s)

shirt(s)

tie(s)

Women's Clothes

To be nearer moved to London. Regular dress(es) blouse(s) skirt(s)

ones place of his job he

PHRASAL VERBS The Phrasal Verb The Meaning An example ( Simple Past Tense) S=Separable I=Inseparable coat(s) jacket(s) t-shirt(s)

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ACCESSORIES

trouser(s)

jean(s)

short(s)

belt(s)

handbag(s)

Headscarf (headscarves)
jumper(s) pullover(s) cardigan(s) sweatshirt(s)

scarf (scarves)

Glasses
glove(s) mitten(s)

sunglasses watch(es)

Baby Clothes

Glove

hat(s)

romper suit(s)

nappy (nappies) Jewelers

Hanger

Nightwear

nightdress(es)

pajama(s)

dressing gown(s)

Bracelet ring(s)

necklace(s) earring(s)

Footwear Parts of clothes

shoe(s)

sandal(s)

boot(s)

wellington(s)

slipper(s)

sock(s)

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Shop assistant:

I'm afraid everything in the sale is out on display. Oh dear, it's just a bit too tight. I think we have a size 14 in red. Oh no. Red's just not my colour. It's not bright red, it's a nice dark

Mrs Smith: Shop assistant: Mrs Smith:

Shop assistant:

red. Here it is. Why don't you try it on? There's a changing room free over there.

Later... It fits like a glove. What do you think Lucy? It looks really nice. I guess red suits you after all.

Mrs Smith:

Lucy: NATURALLY SPEAKING Does it fit? It's too big. It's too loose. It's too long. It's too small. It's too tight. It's too short.

EATING AT HOME VOCABULARY
Useful Vocabulary

knife (knives)

fork(s)

spoon(s) teaspoon(s)

Dialogue

It's Saturday and Mrs Smith has gone shopping with her friend Lucy for a new dress in the sales:Mrs Smith: Well Lucy, what do you think? Mmm, it's nice, but I think you Lucy: need a slightly bigger size. The top is gaping. I think this is the only one. I'd better ask an assistant. glass(es) tablecloth(s) Excuse me? Do you have this in a size 14? Confidence, Fluency & Personality plate(s) bowl(s) cup(s) saucer(s)

Mrs Smith:

placemat(s serviette ) (s)

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MEALTIMES
Early Morning (am) - Breakfast Mid Morning (11.00 am) - Brunch - a mixture of breakfast and lunch (US) / Elevenses - a light snack (UK) Noon (12.00 ish) - Lunch Evening (pm) - Dinner / Tea / High Tea (very old fashioned) Night (pm) - Supper The differences between tea the drink, tea the meal etc.

John:

I'm getting up mum. Well come down stairs and have your breakfast. Can I have cereal and toast? Yes if you hurry, I have to leave for work. Morning mum. Fetch a chair and sit at the table, there's a

Mrs S:

John: Mrs S: John:

NATURALLY SPEAKING

Mrs S:

bowl of cereal, a plate of toast and a cup of tea. You'll have to get your own cutlery. I've got to go now, I'll see you tonight, bye.

Sometimes there are things you like or don't like or even things you don't eat.

John:

Bye mum.

It's 5pm and John's mother has just come home from work. John: Things you do eat / like. I like fruit. I love spinach. I'm a vegetarian; I only eat fruit and vegetables. Things you don't eat / like. I don't like fruit. John: I hate spinach. I'm a vegetarian; I don't eat meat or fish. I have allergies, so I can't eat anything containing nuts. Mrs S: I eat fish on Friday, for religious reasons. I don't eat pork, for religious reasons. John: Yes you can set the table. Set it for 3, your father should be home any minute. Should I put spoons and bowls out? No we won't have a starter, just put out plates and knives and forks, we'll have fruit for Here we have two conversations between Mrs Smith and her younger son John:It's 7am and John is still in bed. John's mother must leave for work. Mrs S: Get up John or you'll be late for school! John: I want to invite Mark for tea on Saturday. Can he come? Mrs S: pudding. We'll need cups and saucers too, your father will want a cup of tea when he comes in. John: Oh. Well ok, can I help? Fish and chips would be nice. What's for dinner tonight mum?

Mrs S: What do you fancy?

Mrs S: What did you have for lunch at school? John: Pizza and chips.

Mrs S: Well how about a nice healthy salad then? I have allergies, but I can eat fruit.

DIALOGUE

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24

Mrs S:

Yes of course, as long as it's ok with his mother.

Fast Food Restaurant Pub Bistro Restaurant Hotel Restaurant

EATING OUT VOCABULARY

PARTS OF A MENU
Starters/Appetizers/Entrees/Hors D'oeuvres Soups Main Courses (Meat/Fish/Vegetarian) Desserts Beverages (Coffee etc.) Wine/Drinks List (sometimes on a separate menu)

waiter(s)

waitress(es)

chef(s)

NATURALLY SPEAKING
menu(s) Booking a Table Placing Your Order I'd like the .............., please. For starters I'll have the soup and for the main course I'd like the roast beef. Could I have chips instead of new potatoes, please? What is the house special today? Is there anything you would Complainin g Excuse me, but my meal is cold. Excuse me, we've been waiting for over half an hour for our drinks. I'm sorry but I ordered the side salad not the vegetabl es. Excuse me this steak is over done, I

I'd like to reserve / book a table for four at 8pm, please. glass(es) bottle(s) I'd like to reserve / book a table for a party of six at 8pm, please. I'd like to book a table for two at 8 in the name of Hand, please. Could we have a table by the window, please? Could we have a non-smoking table, please? taxi(s) Could we have a table away from the kitchen/toilets, please? Could we have a booth, please? Could you make Confidence, Fluency & Personality

candle(s)

bill(s)

credit card(s)

tip(s)

See also eating at home and food vocabulary.

PLACES TO EAT OUT
Cafe Snack Bar

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25

sure it's a quiet table, please?

recommen d? Could I see the wine menu, please? I'll have a bottle of the South African Cabernet Sauvigno n. I'll have a glass of house red/white, please. Which wine would you recommen d?

ordered rare. I'm afraid this wine tastes corked. Excuse me this wine isn't chilled properly .

the window. Could we have an extra chair, please?

me the salt, please? That was delicious. My complime nts to the chef.

No, please. This is on me. (When you wish to pay for everyon e.)

DIALOGUE Mr and Mrs Smith are out celebrating their wedding anniversary. It's 8pm. Mr Smith (Jack) and Mrs Smith (Jill) are celebrating their 10th wedding anniversary. They have just arrived at the restaurant. Mr Smith: Well here we are. What do you think? It's lovely Jack. Are you sure we can afford it? Well I may have to do some washing up, but you're worth it. The waiter arrives.

Mrs Smith:

Mr Smith:

Arriving at the Restaurant Good evening, the name is Hand. I have a table booked for six. Do you have the menu in English/German/Fr ench ..., please? Do you have a high chair for young children, please? Could we have a table over there, please? I'm sorry but I asked for a table by

During/After the Meal Could we have some more bread, please? Do you have a pepper mill? Could I have some dressing, please? Could you pass

Paying Waiter: Could I have the bill, please? Do you take Visa? Mr & Mrs We'd like separate bills, please. Is service included ? Smith: Good evening sir, Madame. Good evening. We have a reservation for a table for two in the name of Smith. Yes sir. May I take your coats? Waiter takes their coats and hangs them up.

Mr Smith:

Waiter:

Thank you.

Your welcome. Would you like to come to Waiter: the table or would you prefer to order in the bar? I wouldn't mind an aperitif. We'll order in the bar. Please follow me, I'll bring you the menu

Mr Smith:

Waiter: Confidence, Fluency & Personality

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in a moment.

Mr & Mrs Smith Yes, lovely thank you.

Mr & Mrs Smith order their drinks at the bar and sit down to look at the menu.
Mrs Smith: Oh dear Jack, it's all in French! Well that's what we're paying for. Don't worry I've got an idea. Are you ready to order sir?

The whole meal was delicious, our Mr Smith: compliments to the chef. Unfortunately we have to be back for the baby-sitter so could we pay now?

Mr Smith:

Waiter:

Certainly sir, I'll bring you the bill. Would you like me to order you a taxi.

Waiter:

Mr Mr Smith: Not really. Could you recommend something. Mrs Certainly sir. The fresh lobster is Waiter: particularly good this evening and for starters may I recommend a light consomme? Mr Smith: Sounds lovely, what do you think dear? Mr Smith: Smith: Smith:

Yes that would be great, thank you.

What a nice man, we must leave him a good tip.

Yes of course.

Mrs Smith: Oh yes, I love lobster. So, that's two consomme and two Waiter: lobsters. Would you like to look at the wine menu? Why don't you bring us what you think Mr Smith: will go best. Nothing too expensive though. No problem sir. I'll call you as soon as your table is ready. The waiter walks away. You are clever Jack, but what about dessert. Don't worry, they bring round a sweet trolley, so we just point at what we fancy!

EDUCATION VOCABULARY
General furniture and equipment

PC(s) desk(s) chair(s) personal computer(s)

Waiter:

Mrs Smith:

chalkboard(s)

book(s)

shelf (shelves)

Mr Smith:

A while later Mr & Mrs Smith have finished eating and are drinking their coffee. OHP(s) Waiter: Was everything to your satisfaction? overhead projector(s) beamer(s) TV(s) television(s)

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projector(s)

Special geography equipment

globe(s)

map(s)

copier(s) photocopier(s)

hole punch(es)

Special math equipment stapler(s)

calculator(es) scissors sell tape drawing

set square(s)

protractor(s)

General writing equipment

compass(es)

pen(s)

biro(s)

paper

Special science equipment

exercise book(s)

ruler(s) bunsen burner(s) beaker(s) flask(s)

SPECIAL ART EQUIPMENT

paint brush(es)

palette(s)

paint

funnel(s)

test tube(s)

Things you learn/study at school - subjects

1+1=2
crayon(s) pencil(s) pencil sharpener(s) Maths / Numeracy

Aa Bb Cc
English / Literacy History

Je suis
rubber(s) eraser(s) glue craft knife(knives) Geography Science

Ich bin
Languages

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Sam: Mr Smith: Business Studies Music Art

I know. I've been very busy at home. Well, maybe I should come and speak to your parents. Oh, please don't Mr Smith. I'm really sorry. I promise I'll bring it tomorrow. Ok. But make sure you do. Or I will have to speak to the head.

Sam:

Mr Smith:

IT Drama Information Technology Sport

VERBS AND PHRASAL VERBS TO DO WITH EDUCATION Many verbs have different meanings, however this section deals with verbs and phrasal verbs connected with education. An example is provided only where the verb is commonly used in everyday conversation. One irregular verb in bold is shown in all its forms.
VERBS

NATURALLY SPEAKING Asking about someone's education Where did you go to school? What university did you go to? What did you study? What qualifications have you got?

The Verb What year did you graduate? What made you decide to study that? To teach Have you done any vocational training? To DIALOGUE Here is a conversation between Mr Smith (a maths teacher) and Sam (his student). Where's your homework? Mr Smith: Sam: Mr Smith: Hello Sam. Have you got your Maths homework? No, I'm sorry Mr Smith. I forgot it. That's not good enough Sam. It was due last week. To learn educate someone, (infinitive form) The Meaning

An example ( Simple Past Tense)

Regular /Irregular

especially using He was the formal system of school, college or university. To obtain knowledge or skill in a new subject or activity: To learn about a I studied information subject systems at He learnt English at school. Irregular educated at a public school. Regular

To study

Regular

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University. To give someone To teach knowledge or to instruct or train someone.

postal vote(s)

She taught geography before she retired. voting booth(s) Irregular vote(s)

PHRASAL VERBS The Phrasal Verb (infinitive form) "As a young To study under someone To be taught by someone. artist he studied under Monet." I block vote The Meaning An example ( Simple Past Tense) S=Separable I=Inseparable

Main Political Parties in the UK - from left to right. Their Colours and Logos Words you might see or hear during an election
A way of voting in which your vote represents other members of your organization, especially at trade union meetings. A special election, held between

ELECTION VOCABULARY
Useful Vocabulary Things you might see around election time

by-election

regular elections, when an area votes. A by-election can be 'called' if an existing M.P. dies or retires. In an election a campaign is a political campaign is an organized effort which seeks to win the vote of the electorate. Often called a 'political campaign' or an 'election campaign'. The things a candidate does to be

ballot paper(s)

campaign (n)

leaflet(s) / pamphlet(s) campaign (v)

elected. (Kissing babies, shaking hands, giving speeches to the WI etc.)

party political broadcast candidate (n)

The person who is running in an election. If there's no outright winner in an

poll card(s)

coalition (n)

election a government can be formed in which several parties cooperate?

poster(s)

constituent (n) A citizen who is represented in a government by officials for whom Confidence, Fluency & Personality

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30

he or she votes. Each of the electoral areas or constituency (n) divisions in the UK which elect one or more members to parliament. A formal discussion of the merits of something.

Commons House of Lords

parliament. The upper house of the British parliament. A candidate who is not controlled by a political party. The person who runs a political

independent

debate (n)

leader debate (v) To argue for and against something.

party. (Margaret Thatcher was the leader of the Conservatives). County, unitary authority,

The sum of money that a candidate deposit (n) must pay in return for the right to stand in British parliamentary elections. The termination of the current dissolution (n) parliament, which has to take place before a general election. Once the dissolution of parliament dissolved (v) has been announced, we say it has been dissolved. The act of voting to select the winner of a political office. The formal decision-making election (n) process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. The people who are eligible to vote in an election. An election held for a nation's primary legislative body. To redraw electoral district boundaries for political advantage.

local election

borough, district, city, town or parish elections. Abbreviation of Member of Parliament. The person who represents their constituency in the House of Commons. The major political party opposed

MP

Member of Parliament

opposition

to the party in office and prepared to replace it if elected.

elect (v)

party

An organization formed to gain political power. A deliberate act of government

policy

that in some way alters or influences the society or economy outside the government.

electorate (n)

political politician

Related to politics. A person active in politics. The process by which governments make decisions. Abbreviation of Prime Minister. The person who holds the position of head of the government. The delegation of someone to vote

general election

politics

gerrymander

PM The political body with the power government to make and/or enforce laws for a country, House of The lower house of the British prime minister proxy vote

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on someone else's behalf. The art of using language as a rhetoric means to persuade someone to your way of thinking. To campaign to stand for a political position. To present the facts in such a way as to sway public opinion.

DIALOGUE Mr and Mrs Smith are discussing the elections. Election - Conversation Mrs Smith: Are you coming to vote? The polling station will be closing in an hour. Mr Smith : It's raining! Mrs Smith: So what? I can't be bothered. It doesn't matter who I Mr Smith: vote for, we always end up worse off. They're all as bad as each other. Well don't complain to me if you don't like the policies of whoever wins. I don't think anyone will win. They're predicting a hung parliament. Well if no one bothers to vote, I guess they'll be right. I'll be back in ten.

run

spin

spin doctor veto A vote that blocks a decision.

Mrs Smith: NATURALLY SPEAKING Voting Mr Smith:          I'd like to register to vote. I'm on the electoral registry. I haven't had my poll card, yet. Where is the polling station? Have you voted, yet? Are you going to vote? Which party are you voting for?* Who are you going to vote for?* Who got the most votes?

Mrs Smith:

ENTERTAINMENT VOCABULARY
Entertainment - Going Out - Places to go

*Be careful about asking this. For many people in the UK, voting is a personal matter.

Museum(s) Fun Fair(s) Zoo(s) Art Gallery (Galleries)

Theatre(s)

Cinema(s) Casino(s)

Circus (es)

Disco(s)

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Build Up If you go to any of these places are you a customer, a visitor or a member of the audience?

Ordering refreshments:-

"I'd like a large popcorn and a small soft drink please. Do those nachos come with cheese? Oh and I’ll have a box of chocolates too. Thanks."
Mr. and Mrs. Smith are trying to decide what to do at the weekend. Mr. Smith is reading the entertainment section in the newspaper. Mr Smith: There's a new casino opening. Do you

If you go to the theatre, cinema, or circus you are a member of the audience. If you go to a museum, zoo, fun fair, or art gallery, you're a customer or a visitor. If you go to a disco or casino, you're a customer. If you go to a casino, you're a customer (or a mug).
What do you do when you're there?

fancy going this weekend?
Mrs Smith: Mr Smith: Mrs

No way! It's a mug's game.

Well how about seeing a film instead?

You go to the cinema to watch a film or a movie. You can say, "I'm going to the cinema / films / flicks / pictures." We also call it the silver screen. You go to the theatre to watch the performance; it could be a play, a show, a musical, a gig, a pantomime, a puppet show, an opera or a ballet. You go to a museum or an art gallery to see an exhibition. You go to a casino to gamble and to try and win money, but you'll probably lose it instead. You go to a zoo to watch or look at or see the animals. You go to a disco to listen to music and dance.

Smith:

I don’t know. What's on?

Mr Smith: Blood Diamond is showing. I quite

fancy seeing that.
Mrs Smith: Oh dear. I don’t think I want to watch that one. The reviews say it is a very violent flick.

Mr Smith: We could go to the theatre and see a

play instead.
Mrs Smith:

That’s a good idea! I think Calendar Girls is still playing. I heard on the radio that it is a wonderful stage play. Oh. Well to be honest, I would rather go to a concert and hear some good music.
Well we haven't been to a concert in ages, but I still fancy the theatre.

Mr Smith:

Mrs

You go to a circus to watch the acts. You go to a fun fair to go on the rides, see the side shows, and to play the games.
NATURALLY SPEAKING

Smith:

Mr Smith:

Well why don't we go to the matinee performance and then take in a concert later? What a good idea. Phone up the box office and book some tickets.

Mrs Buying a ticket:   “I`d like one adult and one child for Cinema 3, please.” “Can I get one ticket for the matinee?” “Are there any seats left for the 1:45 show?” Confidence, Fluency & Personality Smith:

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33

FOOD VOCABULARY
Build Up

bread broccoli

A slice of bread. A piece of broccoli. A pat of butter. An ear of corn. A piece of fruit. A bulb of garlic. A pot of honey. A jar of jam. A leg of lamb. A pot of pepper. A joint of pork. A grain of rice. A pinch of salt. A strand of spaghetti. A cube of sugar.

Animal

Masculine

Feminine

Young butter

Bull

Cow

Calf

corn fruit garlic

Ram

Sheep

Lamb

Boar

Sow

Piglet honey

Cockerel

Hen

Chicken

jam lamb

Things to do with eggs egg

pepper pork rice salt

boiled egg

scrambled egg

spaghetti sugar

fried egg

NATURALLY SPEAKING
Uncountable Nouns

DIALOGUE It's Friday afternoon and John's friend Mark is coming for tea tomorrow.

A lot of food is made up of uncountable nouns, to make them countable you need to put them in another form. For example:"A ...... of ......".="A piece of fruit." Here is a list of some of the uncountable nouns in this quarter's vocabulary and some ways to make them countable.
asparagus beef A bunch of asparagus. A slice of beef.

Mrs S: John: Mrs S: John:

John, is Mark coming for tea tomorrow? Yes mum, I told you yesterday! Oh did you? Sorry, I must have forgotten. What are we having? I don't know yet, I was just writing out the

Mrs S:

shopping list. What sort of things does he like?

John:

Anything, just about. I know he hates pasta though, he never eats school dinner if it's

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pasta. Mrs S: OK, what about pizza. Yeah, pizza would be great, not too much salad though please mum. John: Mrs S: How about a fruit salad for pudding instead? Mrs S:

Don't worry Mark, it's not your fault, we can eat the salami pizza and you can have the mushroom one. Why don't you both go and play upstairs, tea will be a little bit longer than expected! This way Mark.

John:

JOBS AND WORK VOCABULARY
John: Mrs S: John: With ice cream? Useful Vocabulary Yes, ok. Great, I can't wait! accountant(s) baker(s) barber(s)

Entertaining at Home - It's Saturday and John's friend Mark has just arrived John: Mark John: Mark John: Mrs S: Mark: John Hi Mark! Hi John, how's it going? Fine, and you?

barman (barmen) Oh you know. Yeah, tell me about it. Hello Mark, how are you. carpenter(s) Very well thank you Mrs Smith. Mum, can we go and play in my room? Yes, after tea. We're having pizza tonight Mark, is that alright? Yes Mrs Smith that should be fine, but I am a vegetarian. Oh John, you didn't tell me! doctor(s) John Sorry mum, I didn't know. Well it's just as well I bought mushroom pizza as well then, isn't it? I'm sorry if it's any trouble Mrs Smith. fireman chef(s)

builder(s)

butcher(s)

cashier(s)

chambermaid(s)

Mrs S:

cleaner(s)

dentist(s)

Mark:

Mrs S:

electrician(s)

engineer(s)

Mrs S:

Mark:

fishmonger(s)

flight

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(firemen)

attendant(s)

Build Up Work - What do they do? Where do they work? Job What do they do? Look after the Accountants finances in an organization. Where do they work?

hairdresser(s)

judge(s)

lawyer(s)

They work in an office.

Bakers nurse(s) optician(s) painter(s)

Bake bread.

They work in a bakery.

Shave men's Barbers beards and cut men's hair. policeman (policemen) Barmen/women Serve drinks.

They work in a barbers.

photographer(s)

plumber(s)

They work in a bar, pub or restaurant. Prepare and sell They work in meat. Clean and tidy rooms. Prepare and cook food. Look after people's teeth. a butchers. They work in a hotel. They work in a kitchen. They work in a dentists. They work in a hospital or surgery.

Butchers

porter(s)

postman (postmen)

receptionist(s)

Chambermaids

Chefs

reporter(s)

sales assistant(s)

sales representative(s)

Dentists

Doctors

Look after people's health.

scientist(s)

secretary (secretaries)

surgeon(s)

Fishmongers

Prepare and sell They work in fish. Look after passengers. Cut and style people's hair. Judge and sentence a fishmonger. They work in an airplane. They work in a hair salon.

Flight attendants

vet(s)

waiter(s)

welder(s)

Hair dressers

Judges

They work in

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people.

a law court. They work in a law court and in a lawyers office. They work in

Leaving or Losing your job

Defend and Lawyers prosecute people.

There are many different ways to express leaving or losing a job.
To Leave Your Job:-

Nurses

Look after patients .

a hospital or doctor's surgery.

To resign | To quit | To leave your job = to give up a job or position by telling your employer that you are leaving. To retire = to leave your job or stop working because of old age or ill health.
To Lose you’re Job:-

Look after Opticians people's eye sight. Carry other Porters people's bags and luggage. Meet and greet visitors. Sell goods and Sales Assistants look after customers. Arrange appointments, Secretaries type letters and organize meetings. Operate on Surgeons people who are sick.

They work in an opticians.

They work in a hotel or train station. They work in reception.

Receptionists

To be dismissed | To be fired | To get fired | To be sacked | To get the sack | To get the chop | To get your P45 | To lose your job = to be asked to leave a job, usually because you have done something wrong or badly, or sometimes as a way of saving the cost of employing you. To be made redundant = to lose your job because your employer no longer needs you. BIRTH, LIFE, AND DEATH VOCABULARY Birth

They work in a shop.

They work in an office. pregnant pregnancy

They work in a hospital. antenatal

A woman becomes pregnant. We say she's pregnant. She's having a baby. We call also call it a pregnancy.
She goes to an antenatal clinic for check ups. Antenatal means "before birth", it's also called prenatal. Eventually she starts to

Look after Vets people's animals.

They work in a veterinary surgery or vets. labour They work in

have the baby. We call this going into labour.

Waiters/Waitresses

Serve people

food and drink. a restaurant.

birth newborn
Confidence, Fluency & Personality

When the baby arrives we say the mother has given birth. The baby is

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37

called a newborn baby.

toddler, or a girl / boy. Between the ages of 3 to 5 years you are a preschooler, a child, a kid, or a girl / boy. Between the ages of 5 to schoolchild schoolgirl schoolboy 10 years you are a child, a schoolchild / schoolgirl / schoolboy, or a girl / boy. Between the ages of 11 to 12 years you are a

baby

We also say the parents have had a baby.

preschooler child kid

milk

Babies drink milk. They can be breast fed.

bottle

They can be bottle fed.

nappy

Babies have to have their nappy changed.

preteen

preteen, a schoolchild / schoolgirl / schoolboy, a child, or a girl / boy.

All babies are registered certificate at birth, and issued with a birth certificate. Some babies are christening christened by their parents. The ceremony is called a christening. man pram Babies can't walk so they get pushed in prams. woman From the age of 18 you are legally an adult, or a man / woman. This is the age at which you can get married without having to ask your parents (called parental consent). When babies are older pushchair they go for walks in pushchairs. teenager Between the ages of 13 to 19 years you are a teenager.

Growing Old
When you are an adult

Growing Up - The stages of childhood

graduate(v) graduate(n)

you might graduate from University. Then you become a post graduate. When you are an adult you need to work and get a job.

baby infant girl boy
toddler

Between 1 to 12 months you are a baby, an infant, or a girl / boy.

work
Between the ages of 1 to 3 years, when you start to walk, you are a Confidence, Fluency & Personality

job

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38

marriage

When you are an adult you might get married.

wreath

People send a wreath.

When you're an adult family parent you might have a family and become a parent. When you're an adult you might decide to housewife househusband stay at home to look after your family. Then you become a housewife or a househusband. When you are 65 you can retire. Then you become a pensioner. About a wedding. Death and dying About a graduation.

will

Hopefully your wrote a will before you died.

NATURALLY SPEAKING
Things we say / write:About the birth of a baby.

Congratulations! Congratulations on the birth of your baby girl / boy. Congratulations! Well done! All the best for the future. Congratulations on graduating. Congratulations on your graduation. Congratulations! All the best for the future. Best wishes on your marriage. Best wishes on your wedding day. Congratulations! All the best for the future. Congratulations on your retirement. Best wishes for your retirement.

retire pensioner

die dead death undertaker coffin funeral
grave

When you die you pass away and you are dead. You become known as the deceased. Your body is taken to an undertakers and placed in a coffin. Then your family and friends hold a ceremony - a funeral. You are buried in a grave.

About retirement.

About a death.

I'm sorry for your loss. I'm so sorry to hear that. When you hear someone has died you offer your condolences to the family and friends of the person. Sometimes there is an orbituary printed in the paper. Please accept my sincere condolences.

mausoleum

You may end up in a mausoleum

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DIALOGUE Here is a conversation between Mr Smith and his doctor It's Saturday morning and Mr Smith is reading the newspaper.

General Money Vocabulary

cash bank(s) cash box(es) machine(s) / ATM(s)

Mrs Smith : Mr Smith:

Anything interesting in the paper?

Not much. I was just reading the announcements.

Mrs Smith: Mr Smith:

That's a bit morbid.
Not at all, it's births and marriages as well as deaths. But I did read one of the oribituaries. It seems that the old lady down the road passed away.

cheque book(s)

coin(s)

note(s)

piggy bank(s) Mrs Smith: Really? That's a shame. I know she went to hospital, but I hadn't heard any more. I shall have to phone up and offer my condolences. Mr Smith: Rather you than me. I never know what to say in those circumstances. rich

poor

purse(s)

safe(s)

till(s)

MONEY VOCABULARY
$ = Dollar € = Euro

wallet(s)

BUILD UP A - Z OF MONEY TERMS

account £ = Pound (Sterling) ¥ = Yen balance

n. a record of money a person deposits into a bank n. the difference between credits and debits in an account

bank Ways of paying

n. a building in which commercial banking is transacted.

bank charges

n. money paid to a bank for the bank's services etc

banker's draft n. a cheque drawn on the bank (or cash cheque(s) credit

building society) itself against either a cash deposit or funds

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taken directly from your own bank account.
barter borrow v. to trade without using money. debit v. to ask for the temporary use of money on the condition of repayment and at a set rate of interest. branch building society n. local office or bureau of a bank n. A building society is like a bank, but it is owned by its members savers and borrowers - and not by shareholders. Its traditional purpose was to lend money to individuals to purchase or remortgage their homes. This money used to come exclusively from individual saving members who are paid interest on their deposits. Now, an increasing proportion, but still a minority of the funds is raised on the commercial money markets. Cash f low n. cash earnings minus cash outflows for fixed- and working-capital investment. cashier n. an employee of a bank or building society who receives and pays out money. Cheque book cheque n. book containing detachable cheques n. written order to a bank to pay the stated sum from one's account interest rate interest fill in deposit debt debit card

drawn at any time; checking account US n. a sum deducted from a bank account, as for a cheque - also v. n. you use a debit card in much the same way as a credit card but instead of receiving credit after making your purchase, the funds are automatically (within a few days usually) withdrawn from your bank account. n. the state of owing something (especially money). denomination n. a number that expresses the value of a coin or bill. A five pound note and a ten pound note represent two denominations. n. an amount of money placed with a bank deposit account n. bank a/c on which interest is paid; savings account US. v. to add written information to a document to make it complete. n. money paid for borrowing money, or money that a bank or building society pays a customer for putting money into their bank. n. the percentage of an amount of money which is paid for the use of that money over a period of time. lend v. to give the temporary use of money on the condition of repayment and at a set rate of interest. loan n. money lent by a bank etc and that must be repaid with interest - also v. mortgage n. most of us do not buy our homes outright for cash - instead we borrow money to do so. overdraft n. deficit in a bank account caused by

counterfeit

n. fake money made in order to deceive - also v.

credit

n. money in a bank a/c; sum added to a bank a/c; money lent by a bank - also v.

credit card

n. (plastic) card from a bank authorizing the purchasing of goods on credit

currency

n. money that is used by a country such as the United Kingdom.

current account n. bank a/c from which money may be

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withdrawing more money than is paid in pay in v. to deposit or put money in to a bank account payee n. person to whom money is paid Joan paying-in slip n. small document recording money that you pay in to a bank account pence n. more than one penny. Cashier Cashier Joan

Yes, I bought my pay slips for the last three months. Good. You could also apply for a credit card at the same time, if you like. Yes, that would be great. OK. If you would just like to fill out these forms...

standing order n. an instruction to a bank to make regular payments statement n. a record of transactions in a bank account withdraw withdrawal v. to take money out of a bank account n. the act of taking out money.

ROOMS IN A HOUSE VOCABULARY

Attic | bathroom | bedroom | kitchen | living room Build Up

DIALOGUE
Here is a conversation between Mrs Smith (Joan) and the cashier at her new bank. It's Saturday morning and Joan's gone to the bank. Joan I'd like to open a bank account, please. Certainly. Do you have some form of identification? Yes, I bought my passport. Is that OK.

Other Rooms Attic People store things in the attic. A room in stately homes where Ballroom rich people dance and concerts are held. Box Room Cellar A small room used for storage. Underneath the house. A small room where people put their coats. A greenhouse attached to a house for the display of plants. A room where people eat (see eating at home). A room in stately homes where rich people entertain. A room in large houses where games are played.

Cashier

Joan

Cloakroom Yes. We also need proof of your current Cashier address. Do you have a utility bill or your driver's license with you? Joan I've got my driver's license. Dining Room Cashier What kind of account did you want? Well I want a deposit account and a savings account. That's fine, we do both. Do you have any proof of income? Games Room Drawing Room Conservatory

Joan

Cashier

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Hall

The entrance passage to a house. A small room used for the storage of food. A room where books are kept. Another name for living room. Naturally Speaking A room where people play music. A room where people work. A small room used to store kitchen and dining items. Old fashioned word for living room. Another name for living room. Dialogue plug(s) battery (batteries) photo(graph)(s)

Larder

Library Lounge

Music Room

Ceiling | door | floor | wall | window

Office

Pantry

Parlour

Sitting Room Spare Room/ Guest Room

A room where guests sleep.

Here is a conversation between Mrs Smith (Joan) and husband Steve. It's Saturday and Joan and Steve are decorating. Joan Steve, you missed a bit. Where? Here, on the wall just by the window, you can see a patch of white. Oh yes, I see it. It's difficult in this light. I know, well at least we have finished this room, only five more to go. Are you sure you want to put wallpaper up in the lounge? Yes, but don't worry, I'm really good at

Toilet

A room where people go to the toilet (often known as WC) A room where appliances such as washing machines are used.

Utility Room

Steve

Things you may find around the house

Joan

Steve

light bulb(s)

plug(s)

socket(s)

torch(es)

Joan

Steve

ceiling light(s)

Joan lamp(s) curtain(s)

wallpapering. I just wish that John would decide on what he wants his room doing in. I know, it's difficult when you're a boy. At

Steve

least he's grown out of Star Wars, I keep thinking he'll ask for red and black or

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something equally gruesome. Yes, but it is his room. I'm glad we decided Joan not to move though. Maybe we should think about building an extension to the kitchen instead. One thing at a time please! Lets get this decorating over and done with first. Ha! Oh by the way you missed a bit by the door too! Hmmm, thanks. Here's a brush. Things we do in the bathroom What people do in the bathroom towel(s)

Steve

Joan

Steve

ROOMS IN A HOUSE - BATHROOM VOCABULARY
Bathroom Furniture

People get dressed or undressed in the bathroom.

People have a shave in the bathroom.

chair(s)

basin(s)

bath(s)

toilet(s) / loo(s) People brush their teeth in the bathroom.

Other things you may find in a bathroom

People take a shower in the bathroom. toilet toilet roll(s) / brush(es) loo roll(s) / loo brush(es) hairdryer (hairdriers) toothbrush(es) People have a bath in the bathroom.

^

ROOMS IN A HOUSE - BEDROOM VOCABULARY
Bedroom Furniture

toilet shaving foam razor(s) seat(s) / loo seat(s) bin(s)

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bed(s)

bedside cabinet(s)

bedside table(s)

ROOMS IN A HOUSE - KITCHEN VOCABULARY

table(s) dressing table(s) wardrobe(s) chest of drawer(s)

chair(s)

bin(s)

Other things you may find in a bedroom

cooker( microwa brush(es) comb(s) hair dryer(s) s) / ve fridge(s) oven(s) (oven)(s)

dishwasher (s)

tap(s)

pillow(s)

sheet(s)

clothes

coffee maker(s)

food mixer(s)

liquidiser(s )

Build Up Things we do in the bedroom Cooking Equipment

People listen to music in the bedroom.

saucepan(s frying ) pan(s)

sieve(s)

kettle(s)

teapo t(s)

People sleep in the bedroom.

People get dressed or undressed in the bedroom. spatula(s)

tin opene r(s)

knife (knives)

whisk(s)

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Things we do in the kitchen What people do in the kitchen

Purse(s) (f)

Shelf People prepare food in the kitchen.

Shelves

Barcode(s)

People cook in the kitchen.

Trolley(s)

Lift(s)

Bag(s)

People sometimes eat in the kitchen. Basket(s) Changing Room(s) Escalator(s)

Ways to pay People make coffee or tea in the kitchen.

Cheque(s)

Cash

Note(s)

People put the food away in the kitchen cupboards. Coin(s) Credit card(s) Debit card(s)

SHOPPING VOCABULARY

Build Up Where to buy what

Shop(s)

Customer(s)

Cashier(s)

Chemist's

Ladies Clothing Shop or Boutique Wallet(s) (m) Scales Till(s)

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Mens Clothing Shop or Tailor's

Delicatessen

Shoe Shop or Cobbler's

Grocer's

Jeweler’s Off Licence Electrical Store Florist's Toy Shop or Toy Store Post Office Record Shop All or most of the above Book Shop Dialogue Newsagent's Here we have two conversations. The first is between Mrs Smith and her younger son John at the shops. The second is between Mrs Smith and a shop assistant. Ironmonger's It's Saturday morning and Mrs. Smith is going Optician's Haberdasher's All or most of the above Mrs S: shopping. John, I'm going to the shops. Is there anything you want? Yes please! Can you pick up my magazine from the newsagents? Of course. Do you want to come with me? No way, I'm going round to Mike's house, sorry. No problem. I'll be about an hour, be home by 5 o'clock at the latest. O.K. I'll see you later.

Supermarket

Department Store

John:

Butcher's

Mrs S:

Fishmonger's

John:

Greengrocer's

Mrs S:

Baker's

John:

A bit later......

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Mrs S: John

John are you home? Yes mum, I'm up stairs. Come down here, I bought you a new Nike T-shirt, I want you to try it on. Nike? Great I'm coming!

Assistant Mrs S:

or extra large, which would you prefer? I think large will be fine, it's for my son. That's fine, if it doesn't fit just bring it back again. If you take it to the customer service desk, they'll sort it all out for you. Thank you. Just as a matter of interest do you give refunds? Yes, of course. You can bring any clothing items back up to three weeks after purchase, but you must keep the reciept. I see, thanks again.

Mrs S:

Shop Assistant

John

A few minutes later..... Mrs S: John Well, does it fit?

Mrs S:

Shop I think it's a bit too small. Let's have a look. Hmmm, I think you've grown again! Shop John Mrs S: John I can't wear it though. Do you like it? Assistant: Assistant

Mrs S:

Mrs S:

You're welcome.

SPORTS VOCABULARY
Yeah, it's a nice colour. Common Sports Mrs S: I'll take it back to the supermarket and see if I can change it.

Mrs Smith had bought a nice new T-shirt for John, but when he tried it on it didn't fit.
Badminton It's Saturday evening and Mrs Smith has to return the T-shirt. Mrs S: Shop Assistant Excuse me, can you help me? Football Golf Horse Racing Cricket Cycling Darts

Yes of course, what can I do for you?

I bought this T-shirt for my son this Mrs S: afternoon, but it doesn't fit him, it's too small. Shop Assistant Snooker Squash

Do you want to change it or get a refund.

Table Tennis

Tennis

Mrs S:

I'd like to change it for a larger size. Do you have these in large? I'll just check. Let's see, yes we have large Confidence, Fluency & Personality

Shop

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Contact Sports

Build Up How do you play / do some of these sports? Badminton A racquet sport played by either two players (singles) or two pairs (doubles). Played on a court divided by a net with racquets and a shuttlecock. You play a game of badminton. /th>

Boxing

Judo

Rugby

Wrestling

Water Sports Cricket A teamgame, usually played outdoors, on a cricket pitch, with a bat, a cricket ball, and stumps, There Angling Canoeing Kayaking are11 players on each team. You play a cricket match.

Darts

Rowing

Sailing

Water Skiing

Darts is played by two players. Darts are thrown at a dart board. You play a game of darts or a darts match.
Football

Winter Sports

A team sport, usually played outdoors, on a football pitch, with a round football, a goal, with two teams of 11 players, and a goalie. You play a game of football or a football match.
Golf

Curling

Ice Skating

Skiing

Usually played by individuals, golf is played on a golf course, using several types of golf clubs and a golf ball. You play a game of golf or a round of golf.

Less Usual Sports

Rugby A team sport, played outdoors, on a rugby pitch, with an oval rugby ball, and two teams of 15 players. Croquet Fencing Hockey You play a game of rugby or a rugby match.

Tennis A racquet sport played by either two players (singles) or two pairs (doubles). Played on a court Lacrosse Polo Skeet divided by a net with racquets and a tennis ball. You play a game of tennis or a tennis match.

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DIALOGUE
Mr Smith is discussing the football with his wife. Sport - Conversation Mr. I`ve been thinking about exchanging our game, I think we should go on Saturday. Then, John and his friend Mark could come with us because they wouldn`t have school the next day. What do you think? Mrs I think that`s a great idea. I didn`t really like got to a football match. Mr Smith: Mrs Mr Smith: Mrs Smith:

(Hangs up the phone)

So, is he coming?

Smith: football tickets. Instead of going to Friday's

Yes. Let`s go and change those Friday tickets.

ENGLISH ABBREVATIONS AND ACROYNMS
& ~ @ ° $ = € > ∞ < # ¶ % + £ § \ ¥ 24/7 404 addr. approx. asap b/c BTW cd. CEO Ch. c/o corp. CRM ct. ctrl. CV And approximately / about / more or less At Degree Dollar equals/is the same as Euro greater / better / more than infinity less / smaller than minus number paragraph per cent plus, in addition to Pound section therefore Yen 24 hours a day, 7 days a week I don't know address approximately as soon as possible because by the way could chief executive officer chapter care of corporation customer relationship management contrast control curriclum vitae

Smith : the idea of keeping John out of school just to

I know. So, shall we swap them?

Well, first, let me check with Mark`s parents

Smith: to see if he`s free on Saturday. Mr Smith:

OK, go for it!

(Dials the phone) Mrs Smith: Hello Mark. It`s Joan, Joan Smith, John`s mother. I was wondering are you free this Saturday? And if you are would you like to come to the match with us?

Mark:

Yes, I'm free and I'd love to, but I'll have to check with my parents. (Pause) Yes, they say it`s fine. I can go. Could you give me a lift though?
That`s great! John will be glad, and of course

Mrs

Smith: we can pick you up. How does 2pm sound? Mark: Mrs Sounds great. I`ll look forward to it. OK, we`ll see you on Saturday and John will

Smith: see you at school tomorrow. Mark: Mrs .OK, thanks Mrs. Smith. I can`t wait! OK Mark, we`ll see you then. Have a good

Smith: evening, give my regards to your mum and dad.

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dept. devt. diff. diy edn. educ. e.g. encl. EOB EOM esp. ETA etc. FAQ(s) fifo filo fwd FYA FYI gigo GMT Govt. HQ hr. HR ht. i.e. impt. info. ISBN ltd max. MD min. movt. MPH no(s) p. para. PLC pls. ppl. PR prob. PTO qtr.

department development difference do it yourself edition education exempli gratia (for example) enclosed end of business end of message especially estimated time of arrival etcetera (and so forth) frequently asked question(s) first in first out first in last out forwarded for your attention for your information garbage in garbage out Greenwich Mean Time Government headquarters hour Human Resources height id est (that is, that means) important information international standard book number limited maximum managing director minimum movement miles per hour number(s) page paragraph public limited company please people public relations problem please turn over quarter

R&D rep. RSVP SME SWOT TBA temp. USP vgc VP vs wd w/ w/o wt. wysiwy g BA BEd BSc MA MBA MSc PhD 404 A3 B4 B/F BTW FYI G/F GA IC ICWUM IM IMO IOW KISS L8R LOL LTNS MOF X! Y! ZZZZ Confidence, Fluency & Personality

research and development representative respondez s'il vous plait (please reply) small and medium (size) enterprises strengths weaknesses opportunities threats to be announced temperature / temporary unique selling point very good condition vice president against would with without weight What You See Is What You Get Bachelor of Arts Bachelor of Education Bachelor of Science Master of Arts Master of Business Administration Master of Science Philosophiae Doctor (Doctor of Philosophy) I don't know Anytime, Anyplace, Anywhere Before Boyfriend By The Way For Your Information Girlfriend Go Ahead I See I See What You Mean Instant Message In My Opinion In Other Words Keep it Short and Simple Later Laughing Out Loud / Lots of Love Long Time No See Male or Female Typical Woman Typical Man Sleeping / Bored

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COMMON NAMES DAILY HOUSEHOLD
Fruits (Phal) Apple Apricot Avocado Banana Cantaloupe Cranberry Fig Gooseberry Cape Grapes Grapefruit Guavas Jackfruit Java Plum Lime Loquat Lychee Mango Mulberry Natal Plum Olives Orange Orange - Navel Papaya Peach Pear Pineapple Plum Pomegranate Sapodilla Plum, Sapota Star fruit Sugar cane Sweet Lime Watermelon Chickoo Kamrakh Ganna Musambi Tarbooj Vegetables (Subzi) Aloe Vera Beans Cluster fresh Gowar ki phali Gawar Patha Rasbhari Angoor Chakutra Amrood Kathal Jamoon Nimboo, Lemon does not exist but same as Nimboo Lokat Leechee Aam Shehtoot Karonda Zetoon Santra Mosambi Papeeta Aadoo Nashpati Anna-naas Aloo-bukhaara Anar Seb Jardaloo, Khumani Makhanphal Kela Kharbooja Karonda. In reality, Karonda is 'Natal Plum' Anjir

Beans French fresh Aubergine Beet root Bell Pepper, Capsicum Celery Cabbage Carrot Cauliflower Cilantro Colocasia, Taro, Eddo Cluster beans Corn Kernel Corn on the cob Cowpea Cucumber Cucumber English Skinny Eggplant Gourd - Ash Gourd - Bitter Gourd - Bottle Gourd - Ridged Gourd - Snake Jackfruit Kohl Rabi Lotus stem Mushrooms Mustard Greens Natal Plum Okra Onion Peas Green Peppermint Leaves Fresh Potato Pumpkin Radish Red Sorrel Scallion Spinach Sweet Potato Tomato Hara Podina Aloo Kaddu. In Reality Kaddu is closer to butternut squash Mooli Chukka Leaves Hari Piyaz Paalak Shakar-kandi Tamatar Kakri Baingen Petha Karela Ghiya. Lauki Torai Chichinda Kathal Ganth Gobhi Bhein, Kamal Kakri Khumbi Sarson Patta Karonda Bhindi Piyaaz Mattar Arbi, Arvi Guar-phali Makki Bhutta Lobhia Kheera Simla Mirch Ajmud Bandh-Gobi Gaajar Phool-Gobi Hara Dhania Pharas Beans Baingan Chukandar

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Turnip Water Chestnuts Indian

Shalgam Singhaara Spices and Herbs (Masala)

rhizome Ginger Dried rhizome Gold leaf edible Gum Katira Sap Green Chili Honey Illaichi Licorice Lime Pickling Long Pepper Lotus seed pops Jaggery Mace Mango powder Mustard Seeds Mustard Seeds cracked Rai Kuria Sarson Tel Kalonji Jaifal Piyaz Mustard Oil Nigella Nutmeg Onion Paprika (Kashmiri Paprika) Peppermint fresh Pomegranate seeds Poppy Seeds Red Chili Rose Rose water Sage Saffron Salt Salt Sea Salt Sanchal Black Scallion Screwpine essence Sesame Silver edible leaf Confidence, Fluency & Personality Kewra Til Chandi Varak Anar-daana Khuskhus Lal Mirch Gulab Gulab jal Kamarkas Kesar, Zaafraan Namak Saindha Namak Kala Namak Hara Piyaz Podina Degi Mirch Saunth Sona Varak Gond Katira Hari Mirch, I use Serrano Shahad Chhoti elaichi Mulathi, Jethi-madh Paan-Choona Pippali Makhna Gur, Raw sugar cake Sources: Sugar cane, Palm Javitri Amchoor, Amchur .... Dried Tart Green Mango Powder Sarson, Rai

English Name Alkanet Root Alum Anise Seed Arrowroot Asafoetida Basil Holy Bay Leaf Indian Black Cumin Black Mustard Seeds Black Mustard seeds Cracked Black Peppercorn Black Rock salt Cardamom Black Cardamom Green Carom Seed Cassia Cayenne Pepper Celery seeds Cilantro Citric Acid Cinnamon Cloves Coriander seeds Cumin seeds Curry Leaf Dill Fennel Fenugreek Leaves dried Fenugreek seeds Garcinia indica Garlic Fresh Ginger Fresh Kali Mirch Rai Kuria Rai Ratan Jot

Hindi Name Fitkari, Phitkari Choti Saunf, Suwa, Shopa Paniphal, Tikora Hing Tulsi Tej Patta Shahi Jeera, Himali Jeera, Kala Jeera

Sanchal, Kala Namak Bari Elaichi Choti Elaichi Ajwain Jangli Dalchini Lal Mirch Ajmud Hara Dhania Patta Nimboo Phool, Saji na Phool Dalchini Laung, Lavang Dhania Jeera Meetha Neem Patta, Kari Patta Soa Moti Saunf, Saunf Kasoori Methi Methi Daane Kokum Lassun Adrak

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Star Anis Sugar Sumac Tamarind Turmeric Turmeric - Fresh rhizome Thyme Vinegar White Pepper Yeast Live sour dough Yeast Essence (generic) Rose Essence Screwpine Essence Vetiver Essence

Chakraphool Chini Sumaq Imli Haldi Kachi Haldi Ajwain ke phool for substitution purposes only Sirka Safed Mirch Khameer Samunder Jhag, Cuttle Stone soft rock, Toddy Khusboo, Attar, Ruh, Ittar Gulab-Jal Kewra Khas Dried Fruits

Safflower Sesame Seed Sunflower Watermelon seed Walnuts

Kusam Kusumbo Til Sooraj-mukhi Tarbooj ke beej Akhroat/ Akhrot Grains Lentils Flours

Barley Buckwheat Cracked Wheat Cream of Wheat Farina Flour Flour - Bread Flour - Chickpea Flour - Pastry, All purpose Maize Millet - Barnyard Millet - Finger Millet - Foxtail Millet - Great, Sorghum Millet - Little Millet - Pearl, Spiked Oats Rice Rice flattened flakes Rice puffed Semolina Sorghum Tapioca (Cassava) Vermicelli Wheat Wheat flour Legume Beans Alubia Black Matpe (Black beans) Chickpea Confidence, Fluency & Personality

Jaun Kuttu Dalia Sooji Sooji Atta Atta. Durum wheat whole-meal whole-grain flour Besan Maida. Super refined soft wheat flour Makki Jhungori Ragi Kheri Jowar Kodo Bajara Vilaiti Jaun Chawal Chewara, Poha Murmura Sooji, Rava Jowar Saboo-daana Seviyan Gehoon Gehoon Atta Safed Rajma Urad Chana, Desi Chana, Kabuli Chana

Apricot dried Dates Dates Dry skin Fig Gooseberry Indian (Emblica) Prunes Raisins Raisins seedless yellow Nuts and Seeds Almonds Cantaloupe seed Cashews Coconut Flaxseeds Gorgon Nut Puffed Kernel Peanuts Pine Nuts Pistachio Nuts Pistachio Soft Pumpkin seeds

Khubani Khajoor Chhohara Anjeer Amla Manukka Kishmish Sultana Badaam Kharbooza ke beej Kajoo Naarial Khopra Alsi Makhana Mungphali Chilgoza Pista Chironghi Kaddu Beej

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Fava Field pea split Garbanzo Beans Mung Beans Red Kidney Bean Lentil Pigeon peas Soya bean Whole beans Split beans Split skinless black chickpeas Decorticated Skinless beans

Vaal, Sem Matar Dal Kabuli Chana Moong Rajma Masoor Arhar, Toor Bhatma Sabut Dal

Marrow Minced ?ground Meat Stomach Stomach Skin Spleen Testicles Tongue Udder

Guda Keema Ojhari, But Bhuri Tilli Kapura Zabaan, Jeeb Khiri Fish Seafood

Bombay Duck Chana Dal Dhuli Meats Butter Fish Indian Carp varieties Cat Fish Clams Cod Rock Crabs Fish generic Herring King Fish Lady Fish Mackerel Mullet Murghi Chooza Battakh Anda Bada-Battakh Bada-Teetar Teeter Kabutar Battar Haddi Bheja, Magaz Paya Sir, Matha Dil Vajri Gurda Raan Kaleja Phaypara Mussels Pearl Spot Perch Climbing Pomfret Pomfret,silver Prawn Red Snapper Roe Salmon Indian Sardines Sawfish Shark Shad Indian Silver belley Snake head Sole Sorrel Red Squid Tuna Turbot - Indian Confidence, Fluency & Personality

Bombil,Bumallo. Pabda, Puptai Rohu, Rui Sangtam Teesrya Gobro Kekda, Kurlya Machli Bhing Surmai, Visonu Kane, Nogli Bangda Boi, Parshey, Andawari, Shevto Teesari Karimeen Koi Machli Paplet Chandava Jhinga, Chingri, Chemen, Sungat Rane Machli Anda Raavas Pedvey Kandere Zori Llish Hilsa Surgutta Murrai Repti, Morrul Chukka Sag Samudra-pheni (or feni) Chura Kuppa machli

Beef Cow Goat Meat generic Pork Rabbit Venison Fowl Chicken Squab Duck Egg Goose Guinea fowl Partridge Pigeon Quail grey Parts Organs Bone Brains Feet (Trotters) Head Heart Intestines Kidney Leg Liver Lung

Gai ka Gosht Gai Bakra ka Gosht Gosht Sooer ka Gosht Khargosh Hiran ka Gosht

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Turtle White bait

Kachhua Katai Handi Hamam Dasta Taste Expressions Imrit Baan Kaddu Kas Kalchhi Karahi Katori Palta Sancha Seekh Sil Batta Surahi Tandoor Tarazoo Tawa

water Earthen cooking pot, narrow neck, round bottom Mortar & Pestle. Pickling Crock made of Porcelain Grater Spoon Ladle Traditional Indian Wok. Small curry bowl Turner Mould Skewer Flat black stone and a Triangular Stone to crush spices with Long neck earthen pot used to store water Drum shaped clay oven Weigh Scale Iron griddle to make bread Common Dairy Products Churned homemade Yogurt with Chach, Mattha Chenna Dahi Doodh Ghee Khoya Kheer Lassi Makhan Malai Paneer Raita butter removed Cheese similar to small curd cheese Homemade Yogurt Milk Rendered butter Reduced whole milk Rice Pudding Churned homemade Yogurt Butter Cream Cheese similar to farmer's pot cheese Cold Yogurt Soup Common Breads Bread looking like bun cooked Baati Bhature Chapati Kulcha Naan over ambers in Rajasthan Deep fried Maida flat bread Basic whole wheat un-leavened flat bread, aka Roti Baked Maida flat bread Leavened flat bread baked in clay

Aroma Bad Burnt Bland Cold Fresh Good Gravy Hot Mash Raw Reeks Ripe Rotten Salty Savory Sharp Sour Stale Sweet Tasty

Khush-boo, Sugandh Kharaab Jalaa Feeka Thunda Taaza Bhariya ... "Achha is just okay" Tari, Rasa, Salan, Shorba Garam Bharta Kuchaa Bad-boo Pukka Galaa Namkeen Chat-pata Teekha Khatta Baasi Meetha Swaad Cooking Tools

Hindi Name Atta Chhalni Belan Bhigona Chakla Chakku Chalini Chamcha Chamchi Chimta Choolah Degchi Donga Ghara

English/Explanation Flour sifter Rolling pin Cooking pot with a lid Stone rolling board Knife Sieve Large Spoon (Approximately Tablespoon) Small Spoon (Approximately half teaspoon) Tongs U-shaped traditional stove Brass or Copper cooking pot, narrow neck, round bottom Large mixing or serving bowl Large earthen pot to store food or

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oven. Paratha Phulka Poori Poori Loach Roomali Roti Roti Missy Roti Makki Griddle Fried flat bread Light weight version of Basic whole wheat bread (Roti) Deep fried flat puffed bread Deep fried Maida flat puffed bread Very Very thin bread Basic whole wheat un-leavened flat bread, aka Chapati Multi grain basic flat bread Corn (Maze) basic flat bread

Bhuna Dal Dhansak Do Piyaz Dosa Idli Guda Kebab Kofta Korma (Qorma)

Pan fried or Pan roasted Legume soup Parsi curry with legumes Damp curry containing half or more onions South Indian Rice/Bean crepe South Indian Rice/Bean dumpling Pulp Whole food roasted Meatball shaped minced food dish Mild aromatic curry made with yogurt and nuts Yeast Flaky or crumbly Rice Pudding Rice and Beans cooked together Buttery Curry Maasahari Deep fried fritter Papad Thin wafer cracker Mild aromatic vegetable or meat curry made with yogurt Alum Achar Pulao Rice cooked with Vegetables Meat spices Chilka Bright red color meat curry from Kashmir Conical shaped deep fried stuffed pastry Chaasni Broth like curry Whole- muscle or chunk food roasted or baked Minced food Patty Shakahari A spicy hot Portuguese style (Goa) curry Colors

Beverages Chai Daroo Kanji Paani Sharab Shikanjami Thandaii Toddy Desserts Diamond shaped cake from Burfee Chikki Firni Gajak Halva-Carrot Halva-Sooji Kheer Rasgulla reduced milk or Garbanzo flour. Form of brittle, commonly made with peanuts or cashews Rice flour pudding Form of Fudge, commonly made with sesame seeds Carrot cake Cream of wheat cake Rice Pudding Cheese balls in syrup Hot tea Country Liquor Fermented Carrot beverage Water Alcohol Limeade Sweet Beverage made with combination of seeds and nuts Natural sap wine collected from Palm trees.

Khameer Khasta Kheer Khichree Makhni Non-vegetarian Pakora Papadom Pasanda Phitkari Pickle Pilaf, Pulao Rind or Peel Rogan Josh Samosa Sugar Syrup Tari Tikka Tikki Vegetarian

Miscellaneous Achaar Bhagar, Tarka Bharta Bharwa Bhajji Bhujia Bhurji Pickle Tempering Dal Mashed food Stuffed Batter laced minced food Pattie Damp Dry Curry Damp Dry Curry Black Blue Brown Crimson Vindaloo

Kaala Neela Saanvla, Khaki Lohit (Bloody), Gehra Lal Rung

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Deeper shade Green Grey Indigo Lighter shade Maroon Orange Pink Purple Red Saffron Violet Yellow White

Gehra Rung Hara Bhoora Rung Gehra Neela Rung Halka Rung Anaabi Rung Naarangi Gulabi Jamni Lal Kesari Baingani Rung Peela Safed

promotes physical fitness by increasing the body's oxygen intake. Agriculture: The art. Science or practice of cultivating the land and growing crops.Fruits, vegetables etc on it. Agronomy: Science of study and controlling of tile soil to produce crops, fruits. Vegetables etc. Airhostess: A female in a passenger aircraft who serves food/beverages to passengers and helps them with a smiling face. Anatomist: Anatomy is the systematic study of the structure of animal and human bodies. A person who studies anatomy is called as anatomist. Anchor: Person who compeers and co-ordinates tile discussion of a group, especially that of participants, in a radio or TV broadcast or a stage show. Archaeology: Study of ancient history and

COMMON PROFESSIONS

A
Accountancy: Profession to write, keep or inspect financial accounts. Such as income and expenditure. Actuarial Science: Study of calculations of insurance risk and premiums by studying rates of mortality and frequency of acts of nature. Calamities, accidents, fires, theft etc. Administrator: A person who looks after or manages the day-to-day affairs of any body, organization or government. Admiral: A post in the Navy. Chief Commander of the navy.

civilizations by scientific analysis of physical ruins found in the ground. Architecture: The art and science of conceptualizing, designing and constructing buildings. Art Director is an individual employed in the print media or advertising who handles the designing of all forms of art on printed matter. Artist: Person who practices any of the fine arts, especially painting, Acting, designing, sculpting, or even acting etc. Astrology: Study of the position of the planets, the

Advertising: Business that deals with, the publicizing of. Making known of and making propaganda of goods/ services to encourage people to buy or use them, increasing sales/volumes. Advocate: A lawyer who presents a client's case in a court of law argues the case and otherwise deals with it. Aerobics Instructor: Person who instructs people in energetic and rhythmic physical exercise that

asterisms stars and their movements and their co? Relation with human affairs. Astronomy: Scientific study of the solar system and beyond. The sun, moon, stars, planets etc. Astrophysics: Science and study of the chemical and physical structure and function of heavenly bodies like planets etc.

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Auctioneer: Person who conducts auctions, by calling buyers and sells goods in public at the auction. Author: Writer and creator of books, plays and stories.

Cameraman: A professional who operates the camera for photography, filmmaking, television production or other purposes. Caretaker: Person employed to look after a house,

Aviation: The art Science or practice of flying an aircraft.

building/farmhouse, hostel or any other enterprise. Carpenter: Person skilled in the art of making wooden

Avionics: Science of electronics in its application to aviation.

objects and furniture. Cartographer: Person who is skilled in the art of

B
Bacteriologist: Person engaged in the scientific study of bacteria for medical and other purposes. Baker: The person who bakes and sells baked items like bread, biscuit, cakes and other bakery items. Banker: Owner, director, manager or important functionary of a bank. Biochemist: Specialist in the chemistry & chemical functions and processes of living organism. Biologist: Person engaged in the scientific study of the life and structure of plants and animals. Biotechnology: Branch of technology dealing with forms of industrial or other production that use microorganisms and their biological process. Blacksmith: Person specializing in the making and repair of products of iron like ploughs instruments etc. Bodyguard: Person who physically protects another person. Book Critic: Person who evaluates and describes the content and quality of a book or literature.

drawing maps and charts. Cartoonist: Artist who draws a humorous drawing called cartoons for newspapers or other visual mediums. Cashier: Person who receives and pays money in the form of cash or cheques in banks, shops, hotels or offices. Caterer: The person who commercially provides food and beverages for large social gatherings. Censor: Person or body authorized to examine books, films, plays, letters & other such material and remove parts considered indecent, offensive, and politically unacceptable or a threat to the security of the country or people. Chauffeur: Person employed to drive a car, bus, van etc. Chartered Accountant: Now days, Chartered Accountancy became a popular career field from last decades. A chartered accountant (CA) is basically a person who deals with money that makes him indispensable for any organization. Choreographer: An expert in the art of designing and arranging steps for a dance or ballet.

C
Call Centre Operator: A person engaged in the work of collecting & communicating information sought by his clients.

Computer Programmer: A person who constructs and feeds detailed instructions to the computer to solve any given problem or to make a given theme.

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Company Secretary: The career of company secretary is one who is accountable for efficient management of the corporate sector.

Crew: The group of people working on a ship, aircraft, oilrigs, film unit etc. Cryptographer: An expert person who uses a secret or

Conductor: Person who directs the performance of an orchestra or any performance. One who collects fares on a bus? Consultant: Person who gives expert advice in any field. Contractor: Person who does jobs under contract for a specified amount like constructing building, roads or any other wok. Copywriter: Person who makes copies and writes advertising or publicity copy. Correspondent: The person who collects and contributes news or reports regularly to a newspaper, radio station or TV Channel. Cosmetician/Cosmetologist: An expert of cosmetics; one who sells cosmetics and advises on their use. Cosmologist: Person specializing in the scientific study of the universe, it's structure, its origin and development. Costume Designer: The person, who makes, deals in or hires out costumes and clothes and other material for wearing for theatrical performance, cinema or TV. Cost Accountancy: Cost accounting is primarily a product of the twentieth century. Scientific management has today recognized cost and management accountancy as one of the most essential management services. Coast Guard: The Coast Guard was formed within the Indian Navy on 1 February 1977 to respond to smuggling and poaching by foreign vessels, as well as to contribute to marine pollution control. Court Reporter: Person who reports and keeps record of proceeding of the court or in court cases.

code language to protect confidential information, documents and computer software from thieves, hackers, copycats and pirates

D
Deep-sea Diver: The person who specialized in techniques of diving into deeper parts of the sea or ocean for search operations, research or any other purposes. Dentist: The person qualified to treat malformations and injuries to teeth, gums, oral bones etc. Designer: A person specializing in conceptualizing and designing (machinery, homes, furniture, fashionable clothes, Jewellery). Detective: A person, especially a police officer, whose job is to investigate and solve crimes and find the real facts. Dealership: Dealer is a person who purchases and sells the goods or services of a company, firm, or individual. Dietician: An expert in food diet and nutrition, eating habits, their values and their physiology. Director: Person who manages a company, body or institution, especially as a member of the board. Also one who directs a film or drama or any performance. DJ (Disc Jockey): A person who handles the announcements for radio, TV, stage shows etc. particularly in modern context. Doctor: A practitioner trained in medical science and qualified to diagnose diseases and treat patients. Draftsman: Person responsible for the exact wording of legal document or drawing of parliamentary bill and the like.

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Driver: Person who drives a vehicle a car, bus, van, train etc

Fabricator: One who makes differenthings out of any material, like iron and steel? E.g. Items like grills, furniture etc.

E
Earth Science: Any of the sciences such as geology, mining, or dealing with the earth. Ecologist: Expert in scientific study of the relation of plants and living creatures in relation to each other and their surroundings. Economist: Expert in science or principles of the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. Editor: Person who handles the editing of a Newspaper, magazine, book, periodical or journal. Electrician: Person trained to install, operate or repair electrical equipment, lines and connections etc. Engineer: Person, who conceptualizes, designs, builds, maintains engines, machines, bridges, railways, mines, structures etc. Entrepreneur: Person who sets up or organizes a commercial enterprise, especially one involving financial risks. Environmental Scientist: Person who is concerned about the improvement or protection the environment through scientific means. Event Manager: The person who organizes, arrange and coordinate activities involved during any event, function, program. Executive Secretary: Person in a business organization, club, institution having managerial and administrative power and reporting to the director or chief executive.

Farmer: Person who owns/manages a farm and produces crops, food grains, vegetables, fruits or poultry. Fashion Designer: Person who designs fashionable clothes. Finger Print Expert: Person trained to analyze the pattern, lines or impressions made by individual fingers and palms on a surface and used for identifying people, especially criminals. Fisherman: The person who makes his living by catching fish and selling them. Food Analyst: Scientific examination of food for its nutritional value, contamination or presence of bacteria. Foreign Exchange Dealer: Person who deals with buying and selling of foreign currency, money or other transactions. Forest Ranger: Person who does the job of looking after a forest, protecting animals, birds and trees.

G
Gardener: The person who works in a garden of flower or fruit trees either for remuneration or as a hobby. Gastronomist: A person specialized in the art of preparing, sampling and cooking various items and recopies of food. Genealogist: A person specialized in the study of family history, family tree they are known as bhats in Maharashtra.

F

Geographic: A person engaged in the scientific study of the earth's surface, divisions, climate and other physical features

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Geologist: An expert in the scientific study of the earth's structure, crust, rocks, strata, etc. and the history of its development

Insurance Agent: Person specializing in providing or selling insurance policies, schemes, products etc. Interior Decorator: Person specializing in decorating

Gerontologist: An expert in the scientific study of old people and ageing processes, their psychological and physiological aspects. Guide: A person who shows another the way used specially for a person employed to show tourists interesting sights, structures, ruins etc. Gynecologist: A doctor who has specialized in the scientific study and treatment of diseases and disorder of tile female reproductive system.

the inside of a room, house, office or building using different items like paint, wallpaper, furniture and other decorative pieces. Internet cafe: A places where computers are kept for people to visit and use them for surfing the Internet. Interpreter: Person who gives a simultaneous translation of any talk done in another language.

J
Jeweler: Person who keeps, sells, makes or repairs jeweler or ornaments. Job Consultant: The person who suggests proper jobs and employment opportunities based on the qualifications, aptitude etc. Journalist: Person involved in collecting, writing, editing and publishing material in newspapers, magazines and periodicals. Judge: Public official with a statutory authority to decide cases in the court of law or in tribunals.

H
Hairdresser: A person specializing in cutting, styling hair, moustaches, beards etc. HOME SCIENCE: Home Science is generally used by women. Home Economics and Home Science, for a long time, was supposed to be 'reserved for women' since it deals with the home and its management Horticulturist: Person expert in the art of growing fruits and vegetables, a skilled gardener Hostess: Woman who receives and entertains people as guests during dinners, entertainments etc. HOTEL INDUSTRY: Hotels are amongst the most visible and important aspects of a country's infrastructure. Hotel industry is a closely linked one to the tourism industry. A number of factors like promotion of tourism and rapid industrial progress have given a boost to hoteliering. The recent liberalization of trade and opening up of economy will further lead to revolutionary growth in this sector

K
Keeper: Person who looks after animals in a zoo or a collection of items in a museum or such other places. Kirtankar: The person who does public education by talks and songs from religious scriptures. Knowledge Editor: Person handling the content and composition of knowledge for books, newspapers or websites. Knowledge Engineer: Person who looks into the

I
Immunologist: Person/ Doctor qualified in the scientific study of the immune system of the human body, which involves protection against, and resistance of infection.

technological aspect of knowledge management.

L

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Lecturer: Person who gives lecturers to teach especially at a school, college or university. Lexicographer: The person who writes or compiles dictionaries, lists, lexicons(special vocabulary of a particular author, field of study, etc), encyclopedias etc.

& UK. Europe or other places, on their behalf, and sends those to them for a fee. Metallurgist: Expert in the science of the properties of metals and ores, their uses, methods of obtaining them etc. Meteorologist: An expert in the scientific study of the

Librarian: Person in charge of or assisting in a library, a center where books, cassettes, tapes, CDs, DVDs etc are kept. Lineman: Person engaged in the job setting, repairing and maintaining electrical or telephone lines. Linguistics: Scientific study of and language or group of languages. Lyricist: Person who writes the words and lines of songs or poems (especially popular songs).

earth's atmosphere and its changes, used especially for forecasting weather. Especially rains, storms, snowfalls etc. Mineralogist: Expert in the scientific study of minerals and their various uses. Model: Person employed to pose for all artists. Photographer or sculptor: one employed to display clothes or fashion accessories or other advertising material to prospective buyers by w caring them. Multi-service Provider: The person who provides all

M
Machinist: The person who makes repairs or operates machine or machine tools. Macrobiotics: Science of diets that consists of whole grains and vegetables grown organically without chemical treatment.

types of services to the customers such as plumbing. Payment of power/telephone bills etc. under one roof. Musician: Person who performs or composes music, songs, duets etc.

N
Naturalist: The person who studies animals, plants, birds and other living creatures. Naturopath: Person who treats illness through

Marine Biologist: A scientist who studies life in the sea for scientific and commercial purposes. Marriage Counselor: Expert specializing in guiding married couples with marital problems. Mathematician: An expert in the science and discipline of Mathematics. Matron: Woman in charge of the nurses in a hospital or a Hostel. Medical Representative: The person involved in marketing the medicinal products of a drug or pharmaceutical company. Medical Transcription: The person who writes down notes from taped statements of medical doctors in US

changes in diet, exercise, and manipulation, posture and other natural means like using mud etc. Neurologist: An expert in the scientific study of nervous system of the body and their diseases. News Reporter: The person who collects news and information for a newspaper, magazine or periodical or TV, Radio etc. Nurse: Person (usually female) trained to help doctors look after the sick and injured.

O

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Occupational Therapist: The person who treats a physical or mental incapacity or handicap through a regulated course of creative or productive work. Oceanographer: Specialist in the scientific study of the seas and oceans. Operator: The person who operates equipment, machines. A telephone switchboard, a cinema machine etc. Ophthalmologist: A person or doctor specializing in the scientific Study of the eye and its diseases. Optician: Person, who makes and sells optical instruments, especially contacts lenses and glasses. Orthodontist: The person who specializes in preventing and correcting irregularities in the teeth and jaw

Pharmacist: The person trained in the preparation and dispensation of drugs and medicines; one who sell medicines. Pharmacologist: Person who specializes in the scientific study of drugs and medicines and their use in treatment. Photographer: An expert in the art of taking photographs on film or by digital Physiologist: An expert in the systematic study of the normal functions of living things and the way in which the body of a particular living being functions. Physiotherapist: Person trained in the treatment of disease, injury or weakness in the joints or muscles through exercises, massage, postural manipulations and the use of light, heat etc. Pilot: The person, who flies, operates the controls of an

Orthopedics: Branch of surgery that deals with tile bones, correction of bone deformities and diseases, accidents etc.

aircraft. Plumber: The person who specializes in the fitting and repair of water pipes, water tanks, cisterns, drainage etc in a building. Politician: The person who is well versed in the art and science of governance and public affairs. PRO: A Public Relation Officer specializes in presenting a good image of an organization, firm, government or person to the public, especially through the selective dissemination of information and by developing channels of communications. Producer: Person who produces a film, TV, radio, video or stage programme or shows etc. Psephologist: Expert in the study of the way in which people vote in elections, especially by means of opinion Polls. Psychiatrist: Specialist in the study and treatment of mental abnormalities and illness. Publication: The profession of publishing books, magazines, weeklies etc.

P
Pediatrics: Branch of medicine concerned with children and their diseases. Pageant Director: An expert in public entertainment consisting of a procession of people in costumes or fashionable dress or one who organizes beauty contests, fashion shows etc. Painter: An artist who paints pictures Paleontologist: An expert who makes a systematic study of fossils as a guide to the history of we on earth. Pathologist: A doctor who specializes in the study of the disease processes. A person who performs the various tests for tile detection of diseases. Penology: Study of crime and its punishment, and the management of prisons, correction homes, etc. Petrology: Scientific study of rocks.

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Q
Quiz Master: A person who conducts a quiz or competition, especially on TV, radio or stage in which people answer questions to test their knowledge, particularly general knowledge and current affairs.

Sociologist: An expert in the scientific study of the nature and development of society and social behaviour. Software Engineer: An Engineer who develops software that involves the systematic application of computer tools and techniques to develop high quality, reliable and user-friendly applications and programs as well as system software. Speech Therapist: Person trained to help people with speech problem. Speleologist: A scientist who studies and explore caves, tunnels, etc. Sports Editor: An editor in a newspaper or magazine

R
Radio Astronomy: Astronomical study by means of radar. Study of radio waves generated in space. Radio Therapist: Expert in the treatment of diseases, especially cancer and other malignancies by radiation, such as X-rays. Radiologist: A doctor specializing in the diagnostic use of X-rays, ultrasounds, magnetism or methods of imaging the internal structure of the body. Receptionist: Person employed to receive visitors or callers (a hotel. office. clinic or other establishment).

who specializes in reporting of sports. Stock Broker: Person who buys and sells stocks and shares. For clients on a commission basis.or advises them Surveyor: Person who surveys and values vehicles,

S
Sailor: Member of ship's crew, especially one Wow the rank of officer. Salesperson: The person whose job is to sell goods in shops or from door to door or by other means like telephones. Sanitary Inspector: An official who checks hygienic conditions in shops. Restaurants and other establishments

buildings or other property, one who surveys land and terrain. System Analyst: A computer professional, who develops a programme, analyses the system and supervises how a company's computer software runs.

T
Tailor: The person who specializes in cutting and stitching garments clothes etc. Tax Consultant: The person who advises on how to

Script Writer: The person who writes the actual dialogues called scripts for TV serials, cinema and documentaries or adapts a novel or story for television, radio or cinema. Security Systems: The profession of manufacturing various security equipments such as security alarms, sirens, metal detectors etc. Seismologist: Scientist who studies earthquakes and predicts their happening.

save taxes within the framework of law. Travel Agent: Person who makes arrangements for people wishing to travel e.g. buying tickets, making hotels and airline reservations, giving them proper packages for leisure and vacations.

U

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Underwriter: Person or organization that underwrites (accepts liability or gives guarantee) insurance policies. Especially for ships, aircraft etc.

Yoga Teacher: The person who teaches the principles and practice of yoga, Hathyoga, Patanjali yoga etc.

V
Valuer: A professional specializing in estimating the monetary value of a company, property, land, jeweler, goods or other items.

Z
Zoologist: An expert in the systematic and scientific study of the structure and functions, form and distribution of animal life.

COMMON VOCABULARY
Vastu Consultant: The person who gives advice on the relevance of various directions like cast, best directions with respect to residence and commercial buildings, based on ancient Indian principles of layout and constructions. Veterinary Surgeon: A person skilled in the surgery and treatment of animal diseases and injuries. Video Shooting: The profession of making a film by video camera, digital camera etc of various public functions such as a marriage ceremony Virologist: An expert in the scientific study of virus and viral disease. VJ (Video Jockey): A person who acts as an anchor in television/video show Bedroom alarm clock / bed / blanket / books / closet / doorknob / drawer / dresser / glasses / hangers / hat / keys / lamp / light switch / mirror / pajamas / pants / picture / pillow / shirt / shoes / socks / toys Dining Room apple / bowl / chair / corn-on-the-cob / cup / French fries / fork / glass / hamburger / hot dog / knife / napkin / pepper / pie / plate / salt / spoon / table Kitchen broom / cabinet / can opener / chair / clock / cold water faucet / dishwasher / freezer / garbage pail / hot water faucet / oven / pot holders / refrigerator / sink / stove / Warrant Officer: Non-commissioned officer of the highest grade in the army, air force or navy. Living Room Welder: The person who specializes in joining two or more metal surfaces by raising the temperature at the joints by means Thermal beat. Wildlife Specialist: An expert in wildlife who implements measures for the conservation of wildlife. Utility Room broom / bucket / clean laundry / clothes pins / dirty laundry / dryer / dustpan / iron / ironing board / laundry basket / laundry detergent / mop / outlet / Confidence, Fluency & Personality books / clock / coat rack / coffee / table / couch / fireplace / lamp / light switch / newspaper / painting / plant / rocking chair / rug / stereo / television / window table / telephone / window Bathroom bathtub / comb / hair dryer / hairbrush / hamper / lights / mirror / outlet / rug / scale / shampoo / shower head / sink / soap / toilet / toilet paper / toothbrush / toothpaste / towel / wash cloth / waste paper basket / window MY HOUSE

W
Warehouse Man: Person who stores goods in a godown before they are sent to shops or other places for sale.

Y

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shelf / vacuum / cleaner / washing machine / wastebasket

juice / pizza / salad / sandwich / soup / spoon / student / trash can / tray / tray return Classroom alphabet / blackboard / blackboard eraser / book / book bag / calendar / chair / chalk / clock / computer / desk / map / pencil / pencil sharpener / ruler / scissors / stapler / student / teacher / waste paper basket Hallway bannister / bell / boys' restroom / bulletin board / clock / drinking fountain / elevator / exit sign / fire alarm / fire extinguisher / girls' restroom / lock / lockers / stairs / student / teacher / wheelchair Library book return / books and magazines / card catalog / cassette tape / chair / clock / computer / desk / film projector / head phones / librarian / table / tape player / T.V. / VCR Music/Art Room artwork / bulletin board / crayons / cymbals / drum / drum sticks / easel / glue / guitar / horn / microphone / paintbrush / paints / piano / piano bench / ruler / scissors / smock / student Playground ball / basketball hoop / bell / bench / door / fence / flag / grass / jungle gym / school bus / seesaw / slide / student / swings / tree / yo-yo

MY TOWN
City Neighborhood apartment building / bus / crosswalk / fire escape / fire hydrant / fire truck / grocery store / manhole / newsstand / office building / phone booth / police car / sidewalk / street / taxi / traffic light Dentist's Office bib / dental floss/ dentist / dentist's chair / drill / hygienist / instruments / light / mask / paper cup / paper towels / patient / patient's chart / rinse bowl / rubber gloves / sink/ soap / toothbrush / X-ray / X-ray machine Doctor's Office blood pressure unit / cast / crutches / doctor / ear scope / examining table / eye chart / medicine / needle / nurse / paper towels / patient / patient's chart / scale / sink / soap / stethoscope / thermometer / tongue depressor Park bicycle / boy / dock/ duck / girl / grass / grill / kite / park bench / path / picnic basket / picnic table / pigeons / pond / radio / rowboat / squirrel / trash can / tree / water fountain Restaurant cash register/ cashier / check / coffee maker / counter / customer / exit sign / front door / men's room / menu / napkin holder / no smoking sign / place setting / please wait to be seated sign / salt and pepper / stools / tip / tray / waiter / waitress / women's restroom Suburban Neighborhood apple tree / bicycle / bushes / car / children / dog / door / driveway / fence / flowers / garage / house / mailbox/ road/ school bus/ window / yard

ENGLISH PHONETICS
Sometimes wrongly called the International Phonetic Alphabet When speaking on the telephone, it is sometimes useful to spell a word using English Phonetic Spelling. To spell "Club", for example, you would say: "C for Charlie, L for Lima, U for Uniform, B for Bravo." It is very easy to learn English Phonetic Spelling. Start by spelling your name, then your company or address. Soon, you will know the whole alphabet. It also helps to remember that there are several groups of words that go together Dances: Foxtrot, Tango

MY SCHOOL
Cafeteria bananas / cashier / cash register / cupcakes / fork / hot dog / lunch box / menu / milk / napkin holder / orange

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Shakespeare: Romeo & Juliet Men's first names: Charlie, Mike, Oscar, Victor Cities: Lima, Quebec A B C D E F G H I J K L M Alpha Bravo Charlie Delta Echo Foxtrot Golf Hotel India Juliet Kilo Lima Mike N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z November Oscar Papa Quebec Romeo Sierra Tango Uniform Victor Whisky X-ray Yankee Zulu

a pair of tongs a pair of dice a pair of eyes a pair of lungs a pair of kidneys a pair of wings a pair of skiis a pair of skates a pair of crutches a pair of chopsticks a pair of speakers a pair of headlights a pair of windshield wipers a pair of knitting needles

PARTS OF CAR
Exterior Headlight(s) Hood Top Door(s) Window(s) Windshield Wipers Sunroof Trunk Interior Seat(s) Seat belt Steering wheel Horn Dashboard Speedometer Car stereo Airbag(s) Gear shift Accelerator Brake(s) Head rest Glove box / jockey box Rearview mirror Engine Radiator Battery Piston(s) Spark plug(s) Distributor Transmission Washer fluid Fan belt Water hose(s) Oil pan Dipstick Muffler Exhaust pipe Gas tank

PAIR OF THINGS
Single items referred to as pairs: a pair of pants/trousers a pair of underwear a pair of swimming trunks Things that commonly come in a pair of shorts a pair of jeans a pair of shoes a pair of glasses a pair of sunglasses a pair of binoculars a pair of goggles a pair of scissors a pair of pliers a pair of clippers a pair of tweezers a pair of boots a pair of shoe laces a pair of gloves a pair of cuff links a pair of earrings a pair of contacts a pair of slippers a pair of socks pairs (two separate items) a pair of handcuffs a pair of headphones Things that may be considered either one or two items:

Tail light(s) Blinker(s) Wheel(s) Tire(s) License plate

PARTS OF CLOTHING
Jacket Suit Suit coat Raincoat Pajamas Night gown Bathrobe Parts of a shirt pocket collar sleeve button Sneaker(s) Boot(s) Sandal(s) High heel(s) Underwear Swimming suit Bikini Parts of pants zipper snap belt loop seam Hat Cap Scarf Headband Glove(s) Mitten(s) Bracelet Parts of shoes (shoe)lace buckle heel sole

PARTS OF THE BODY – INTERNAL
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ski Brain Heart Lung(s) Windpipe Tooth / Teeth Tongue Throat Esophagus Stomach Liver Nerve(s) Skin (external) TALLENT AND SKILLS Do you . . . ? / Can you . . . ? / Do you know how to . . . ? play basketball play tennis (play) golf paint draw knit sew Intestines Colon Blood vessels Artery/-ies Kidney(s) Bladder Bone Spine Rib(s) Muscle Tendon sing dance act perform do sculpture/ceramic s do flower arrangement do handicrafts play the piano play the violin play the drums fish bowl ice skate lift weights

cook write poetry give presentations speak a foreign language work well with your hands work well with numbers work with tools work with wood / leather / metal / plastic(s) use a computer design things build things repair things

SPECIAL OCCASIONS
Birthday Graduation Day Engagement Wedding Day Anniversary Holiday Vacation Retirement TRAFFIC TERMS Intersection Within a city/town Trail Path Sidewalk Narrow passageway Alley Lane (Residential street) Drive Stop sign Confidence, Fluency & Personality (for vehicles) Traffic light/stoplight Related items Narrow passageway (for foot traffic) Outside a City Description Expressway Boulevard Avenue Street

Road

(Two lanes)

Highway Freeway Toll

(Several lanes) (Superhighway) (Paid superhighway-

Road/Turnpike with toll booths) Interchange On ramp (Entrance to a Off ramp superhighway) (Exit from a superhighway) (Crossing roads or superhighways)

Parking Parking lot

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go dancing Crosswalk Zebra Crossing Bridge Overpass (crossover) Underpass (subway) Traffic jam Tunnel Traffic circle Other Parking space Parking Meter go downtown have a party go to the beach go on a picnic

ART AND MUSIC
Visual Art Painti Picture Styles of Music Mode Classical rn Rock Jazz Count ry Fol k ng Sculpt ure Ceram ics

Corner Block WEATHER
Sun Rain Moon Snow Stars Wind Cloud(s)

BANKING/FINANCE
Items at Bank ATM (machine Teller Window Withdra wal Cash Loan Currenc Check y Credit Account ) Drivethrough Stateme nt Credit Card

It's raining. It's snowing. It's windy. It's cloudy. It's sunny. It's a nice day. It's warm. It's cool outside. It's freezing.

Depos it

Expressions Cash a check Write a check Deposit money Withdraw money Get a loan (borrow money) check book check register deposit slip withdrawal slip loan application

WEEKEND OR LEISURE ACTIVITIES
What are you going to do this weekend? I am going to . . . watch a movie go to a ball game see a concert rent a video surf the Internet work out visit friends stay home relax sleep in play cards play computer games go out to eat

CONTAINERS
Containers bottl bag package box carton oun pound cup ce pint e jar gra m qua rt can jug kilo(gr am) half gallon gallon liter ton pack contai ner Measurements roll

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Other Quantifiers piec bunch e loaf slice stick hand ful

In the kitchen (A) sweep the floor (A) vacuum the floor (A)

Other rooms (A) answer the phone/door (A) get the phone/door (A) open the door/window sweep the porch (A) cut the grass (A) mow the lawn (A) water the flowers (A) turn on the sprinklers (A) trim the hedges (A) weed the garden (A) fix the roof (A) shovel the snow (A) scrape the windshield (A) wax the car (A) Outside (A) check the mail(box) (A) hang out the clothes (A)

NATURAL DISASTERS
Earthquake Hurricane Typhoon Tornado Flood Fire Storm Tsunami

mop the floor (A) scrub the floor (A) set the table (A) clear the table (A) wipe off the table (A) I feel . . . / I'm . . . unhappy, sad sick, ill terrible awful, horrible rested, awake uncomfortable nervous, stressed out strange, weird We/They are . . . angry, mad I feel . . . / I'm . . . bored interested excited, ecstatic embarrassed amazed shocked surprised scared, afraid frightened confused puzzled frustrated overwhelmed disgusted depressed irritated Folder (A) (Loose-leaf) binder (A) Confidence, Fluency & Personality Poster paper (A) Clipboard (Index) card (A) Envelope (A) Notebook (A) Notepad (A) clean the sink (A) take out the garbage/trash (A) put the food away (A) wash the dishes (A) rinse the dishes (A) dry/wipe the dishes (A)

(A) close/shut the door (A) wash the windows (A) pick up the toys (A) clean up your room (A) clean up this mess (A) make the bed (A) move the furniture (A) dust the shelves (A) clean the tub (A) do the laundry (A)

EMOTIONS
How do you feel? happy okay, fine great, wonderful terrific, fantastic tired, sleepy comfortable calm, relaxed all right He/She is . . . hurt, upset, lonely The situation is . . . boring interesting exciting embarrassing amazing shocking surprising scary frightening confusing puzzling frustrating overwhelming disgusting depressing irritating

OFFICE SUPPLIES
Printer paper (A) Lined paper (A) Stationery (A) Pen (A) Pencil (A) Eraser (A) Pencil box/case (A) Crayon (A) Marker (A) Highlighter (A) Paper punch (A) Razor blade/knife (A) Paper cutter (A) File (A) File folder (A) Tape Glue (A) Paper clip(s) (A) Stapler (A) Staple (A) Thumb tack(s) (A) Rubber band (A) Scissors (A)

HOUSEHOLD CHORES

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Sheet protector (A) Divider(s) (A) Tab(s) (A) Wastebasket (A) Sunday Last night Next week The day after tomorrow The day before yesterday Two days ago In three days Over the weekend Afternoon Evening Night Noon Midnight File box (A) File cabinet (A) Ink (A) White-out (A) Paste (A) Ruler (A) Protractor (A)

CITY SIGHTS
Store Shop Bank Post Office Supermarket Shopping Center Mall School Church Hospital Building Office Hotel Street Light Street Sign Restaurant Park Field Fence Gas Station Convenience Store Sidewalk Bridge Street Road Freeway Expressway Traffic Light Stop Sign

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday

ELECTRONIC DEVICES
Appliances Refrigerator Freezer Microwave oven Washing machine Dryer Stove Oven Vacuum cleaner Entertainment Television Blender Mixer Toaster Rice cooker Food processor Electric fry pan Crock pot Hot plate Telephone Cell phone (Digital) Camera Video camera Camcorder PDA (personal digital assistant) Calculator Other Iron Fan Air conditioner Humidifier Hair dryer Electric razor Electric toothbrush Computer Monitor Keyboard Printer Speaker(s) Laptop

Electric can opener Heater

DAILY ACTIVITIES
wake up get up eat breakfast drink coffee read the newspaper have lunch go to school get out of class start work finish work ride the bus drive a car buy something come home use a computer listen to music change clothes cook dinner wash the dishes watch television study English do homework help my mother call a friend play games clean my room take a shower brush my teeth go to bed sleep

Big screen TV Radio Stereo CD player Tape player recorder) DVD player

VCR (video cassette Fax machine

GREETINGS
Hi Hello Good morning Good afternoon Good evening Good night

DAYS
Today Tomorrow Yesterday Weekend Weekday Holiday Morning Time of Day

Thank you Thanks You're welcome

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Excuse me Pardon me (I'm) Sorry Good-bye Bye

Garage Porch Wood

Steps Deck Brick(s)

LOCATIONS
Here (near the speaker) (away from the speaker) (undefined location, usually in positive statements) (commonly used with negatives and questions) (all locations) I'm here! Are you there yet? That smell is everywhere! I know I put it somewhere. I can't find it anywhere. Although the meaning may be slightly different. Painting Gardening Cooking Are you going anywhere this Bird watching
Knitting

HOBBIES
Listening to music Watching movies Making movies Singing Dancing Ballet Photography Taking Rock collecting Postmark collecting
Needlework

There Somewhere

Martial arts Kung fu Karate Judo Tae Kwon Do Stamp collecting Coin collecting

Making models Pottery Sculpture Woodwork Leatherwork Reading novels Writing poetry Anywhere Everywhere Examples:

pictures

(emphasis on activity)

weekend? Are you going somewhere this (emphasis on location) weekend? Put that box somewhere in the (exact location not specified)

HOUSE AND APARTMENT
Types of Accommodati ons House Apartment Building Townhouse
Condominium/ Condo

Parts of a Building or House Wall(s) Ceiling Floor Carpet
Window(s )

Outside a House Lawn Garden Fence Gate Sidewalk Driveway (Back) Yard Mailbox

living room. Put that box anywhere you'd like. (at a random location)

Dining room Utility room Basement Balcony Closet Foyer Lobby Hall(way ) Elevator Stairs Roof

MEALS Breakfast Brunch Lunch Dinner Supper Snack Eat breakfast Have breakfast Eat lunch Do lunch Have dinner Have supper Have a snack Have a drink Take medicine Go out to eat_________ food. (Chinese, Italian, Mexican?)

Duplex Hotel Motel

Door Room(s) Bedroom Bathroo m Kitchen Living room

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Fast food Restaurant MONTHS
Months January February March April May June July August
September

learn by heart / memories = try to remember facts etc, without necessarily understanding them test yourself = try to test your knowledge of something so that you really know it, rather than just learning it by heart Season(s) Summer Winter Spring Fall/Autumn Popular Holidays Christmas Thanksgiving New Year's Day Independence Day Mother's Day Father's Day Valentine's Day Halloween Labor Day Easter What sort of student are you? Stellar = a star performer hard-working = someone who tries straight A = a student who always gets top marks plodder = someone who works consistently, but isn't particularly brilliant mediocre = not bad, average abysmal = terrible get a good / high mark = do well in the exam get a bad / low mark = do badly in the exam pass with flying colors = pass with high marks scrape a pass = only just pass During the exam cheat / copy / use a crib sheet = use dishonest methods to try and pass the exam, such as copying someone else, or hiding notes so you can read them during the exam

October November December This month Next month Last month

MUST KNOW VOCABULARY ENGLISH STUDYING VOCABULARY
How do you prepare for an exam? Do you study regularly, or leave it all to the last minute? Here are some common words and phrases to talk about studying and taking exams. Exams take an exam / sit an exam = do an exam pass an exam = get a good enough mark to succeed fail an exam = not pass :(( Studying take extra lessons / have private tuition / private coaching = pay for a personal teacher to help you with the subject

IMPROVING YOUR ENGLISH VOCABULARY
Having a great English vocabulary doesn't just mean that you can understand lots of words and phrases: it also means that you can use these words and phrases and that you can remember them when you need them. This is the difference between an active and a passive vocabulary. Generally, most people's passive vocabulary is far bigger than their active vocabulary, and the secret is to try and "activate" passive knowledge. There are a number of ways that you can activate your

Before the exam revise = go over everything you've studied swot up = an informal synonym for "revise" cram = try and force as much information into your head as possible

passive vocabulary in English, ranging from simple five-minute activities to longer periods of study. Most activities work best if a) you have a good English dictionary, and b) you keep a vocabulary notebook.

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Choose a new word or phrase from your notebook and Good English dictionaries A good English dictionary should be up-to-date (no more than five years old!) and should be easy to understand. Make sure that the definitions are written in clear English. Pictures also help you to understand some words. I strongly recommend the Longman range of dictionaries, as there is good coverage of spoken and written English, British and American English, as well as clear example sentences. Vocabulary notebooks 2. Review When you come across a new English word or phrase, make a note of it! Look up the meaning in the dictionary, making sure you are aware of any grammatical information. (For instance, if you are looking up a verb, check to see if the verb can be used in a passive form, if it is followed by any particular preposition, and so on.) Check also for the pronunciation and use of a word. Is it particularly formal or informal, or used in certain word partnerships? For example, we say "do housework", but "make an effort". When you read a page of a book or newspaper, decide When you find a new word, check to see if you can use it in other ways. English is a flexible language – nouns, verbs and adjectives often share the same stem. For example, a house, to house, housing policy, and so on. When you write down your new word in your notebook, try to include an example sentence in English. Some people find it helpful to organize notebooks into themes. So rather than having a list of words without any obvious connection, you divide your notebook into themes, with one page containing words to do with the house, another page with words to do with jobs, and so on. Take a prefix (such as "en", or "pre") and make a list of all the words that can follow. (For example, encircle, enclose, enlist; prenatal, premature, pre-war.) Here are some more prefixes you can use: dis, il, im, ir, pro, anti, de, un, con, re you will only look up one word in a dictionary. When you write it down in your notebook, also make a note of any synonyms (words that mean the same) or the opposite of the new word. 4. English word building 3. One word at a time The next time you have a spare couple of minutes, flick through your notebook. You'll be surprised how much comes back to you! Choose a page where you have already stored a number of words and expressions, cover the page, and try to remember what you wrote. Then look at the page and see how many you remember. Some people find index cards useful. You can write down the word on the card and carry it around with you for a day, taking it out of your pocket whenever you have a moment and trying to put it into a sentence. try to use it as often as possible in one day. Think of situations where you would need to use it, and write down a couple of example sentences. Go back to this word or phrase after a week, to make sure you still remember it.

LONGER ENGLISH VOCABULARY LEARNING ACTIVITIES
1. Read Read something that interests you. It could be a

QUICK ENGLISH VOCABULARY BOOSTER ACTIVITIES
1. An English word a day

newspaper, a novel, a magazine, or even an English "graded reader" (a simplified book). Working page by page, underlines the words or phrases that you don't Confidence, Fluency & Personality

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know. Look up only those that are important for understanding, or which are repeated. Use a good dictionary, and make a note in your English vocabulary notebook. 2. Blitz Focus on a theme, such as sport. Divide one page of your notebook into three columns. In the first column write down as many sports as you can think of. In the second, write down all the equipment you need for the sport. In the third, write down the scoring systems. You might end up with something that looks like this: Tennis racquet, ball, net umpire, love, linesman Football pitch, ball, goal posts referee, offside, penalty

cruise (holiday on a ship), an activity holiday (a holiday that involves walking, cycling, climbing or other sports), a city break (a weekend or a few days in a different city) and so on. A lot of people choose a package holiday, where flights and accommodation are included in the price. But many people prefer an independent holiday, where they make their own travel arrangements. If you travel independently, you will need to book your flights or train tickets. Unless you have an onward destination, you will probably book a return journey. Then you will need to make a reservation at a hotel, or another place to stay, such as a campsite (if you are camping in a tent), or a caravan site (if you are staying in a caravan), or a B&B (a bed and breakfast). For all types of foreign holidays, it is essential that you

You can use this method for many different themes: houses (rooms of house, furniture, styles); jobs (names of jobs, places where these jobs are done, characteristics of the job) and so on. 3. Word association Write a key word in the middle of a page and draw a bubble around it. Then draw lines out from this word connected to smaller bubbles. In the smaller bubbles you can add words associated with the main word. For example, you could write "email" in the middle of a page. Then the smaller bubbles could contain words such as "write", "compose", and “receive”, “delete “,” reply and so on.

check you have all your travel documents. Make sure your passport hasn’t expired, and that you have a visa if necessary. If you are travelling to some countries, you also need to make sure that all your vaccinations (protection against illness) are up to date. For some countries you might need a vaccination against hepatitis, or yellow fever, for example. As your departure date gets nearer, you can start to plan the details of your journey. Perhaps it will be a good idea to buy a guide book, or a phrase book, if you don't speak much of the local language. Some people like to read up on (= get lots of background information) on where they are going, and find out about the places of interest and "must-see"•sights. It's also fun to make a packing list, so you don't forget any vital clothes or toiletries. It's also a good idea to buy local currency in advance, if your flight gets in (= arrives) in the middle of the night, when no banks are open. Most airlines also advise you to take out (=get) travel insurance just in case your flight is delayed or cancelled, or if you get ill and need to be repatriated (sent back to your country). Don't forget to make arrangements for your pets and your house while you're away. Put your dog into kennels (a dog hotel), and leave a key with your neighbor just in case! Hopefully your neighbor will

PLANNING A HOLIDAY
Many people take their main holiday in summer, and although some people choose a last-minute break, others plan their holiday months in advance. The beginning of the year is a good time for people to start looking at holiday brochures. Tour operators (companies that organize holidays) as well as travel agents (the people that sell holidays) give lots of information about holiday destinations and types of holiday. Apart from the traditional two-week beach holiday, you can choose from a range of holidays: a

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keep an eye on your house while you're on holiday! Finally, get to the airport with plenty of time to spare. Nowadays it can take much longer to get through security and onto the plane. Have a nice trip and send your neighbor a postcard!

turn the dining room into a spare bedroom = convert a room into one with a different purpose knock down a wall = demolish a wall knock through from the kitchen = demolish the wall

RENOVATING AND DECORATING YOUR HOUSE
Many people in the UK like renovating or "doing up" their houses to keep up with fashions and trends. Here are some useful English words and phrases to describe this.
DECORATING

from the kitchen into another room build a patio = build a paved area around part or the whole of the house rewire the house = put in new electrical wiring install central heating / solar panels = put in a new heating system re-plaster the ceiling = take off the old plaster (covering the bricks) and replace it with new re-tile the bathroom = put new tiles on the floor and walls
Other useful expressions

give something a lick / a coat of paint = paint walls hang / put up wallpaper = to attach new paper to the walls fit/ put up blinds or curtains = cover the windows either with curtains (fabric hanging across the window) or blinds (strips of plastic or fabric that cover the window) throw out / replace the old light fittings = change the lights go for a (name of fashion) effect = recreate a particular look put the finishing touches to = complete the decoration with the final details
Renovation

diy = Do it Yourself (doing maintenance and building works in your house) be handy around the house = to be practical and able to do jobs in the house draw up plans = to make technical plans before you do building or renovation work get planning / building permission = to get authorisation from the town hall to do work on your house

have an extension = build on to the existing house to provide more rooms put in a conservatory / a fitted kitchen / a new bathroom = to install a conservatory (room between the back of the house and the garden), a fitted kitchen (where the units are connected, rather than being single pieces) or a new bathroom convert the loft (have a loft conversion) = convert the attic into a liveable room

GOING BACK TO SCHOOL
After the long relaxing summer holidays, September means a return to school. Those long summer days are over, and instead, school children have to get up early and sit in classrooms for most of the day. In Britain, pupils wear a school uniform. As well as a particular skirt or pair of trousers, with a specific shirt and jumper, they also have a school PE kit (clothes that they wear to play sports at school).

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Some children walk to school, and some parents drive their children to school. But others come to school by a school bus – particularly if they live outside the town. Most children go to state-run primary and secondary schools. Schools are mostly mixed (girls and boys sit in the same classes), although there are some single-sex schools (schools for girls or boys only) and a few schools are private, where parents pay school fees. Schools try to have clear rules for acceptable behaviour. For example, pupils (school children) have to show respect to their teachers. Often they have to stand up when their teacher comes into the classroom and say "Good morning". If pupils break the rules, they can expect to be sent to the headmaster or headmistress, or to do detention, when they stay behind after the other pupils go home. Most schools have lessons in the morning and in the afternoon. Pupils can go home for lunch, or have their lunch in school. Some have a packed lunch (where they bring lunch from home, such as sandwiches, fruit etc) and some eat what the school prepares. These "school dinners" vary in quality, and there has recently been a lot of media interest in providing healthy school dinners for pupils. Pupils can expect to get homework for most subjects, and there are regular tests to check progress. At the end of each of the three school terms, teachers give each pupil a report. Schools also have a parents' evening each year, when the parents can meet the teachers to discuss their child's progress. School isn't just lessons and homework though. Most schools arrange a sports day once a year, as well as school trips to places of interest.

The cinema

Many people regularly go to the cinema (or the pictures). Most towns have a multiplex (= multiscreen) cinema which shows a wide range of films, from feature films to family films. Films are classified in Britain, with U suitable for all ages, PG (parental guidance) suitable for everyone over the age of 8, 12 (where no children can watch unless they are with an adult), 15 (where no one under the age of 15 can watch) and 18 (only suitable for adults).
The theatre

Large towns as well as the major cities have theatres, where you can see plays, musicals or pantomimes (a comedy play performed over Christmas). You can choose to go in the afternoon, for the matinee (pronounced "mat – in – ay") performance, or in the evening. Generally, the more you pay, the better seat you get. The stalls are the seats at ground level in front of the stage, and these have the best views. Then there are the seats in the Dress Circle (or Royal Circle), which are in the first balcony. They also have good views of the stage. Then there are the seats in the Upper Circle, which are in the second balcony. Above this are cheaper seats in the Balcony or the Gallery, which are so high up that it's often difficult to see the actors. There are also seats in the Boxes, which private rooms are built into the side walls of the theatre.
Live music

Large cities can offer you a huge range of musical performances, from opera to classical concerts to jazz, folk, rock and pop gigs (= concerts). In summer there are often music festivals, with Glastonbury Festival being one of the most popular.
Family entertainment

WORDS FOR ENTERTAINMENT IN ENGLISH
What do you like doing in your spare time? Do you go somewhere with your friends or your family? Here is some useful English vocabulary for talking about entertainment.

Bank holidays and weekends are favourite times to go out with your family. Some things, such as circuses, zoos and water parks can be quite expensive. But other events, such as fun-days, parades and carnivals are much cheaper. Children often like to go by themselves

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to funfairs, where they can go on the rides and eat candyfloss.
A cheap night out

get out of bed on the wrong side = wake up in a bad mood: "Don't expect any sympathy from Joe. He got out of bed on the wrong side this morning." be rubbed up the wrong way = to be put in a bad

There are also plenty of cheap activities available in English towns and cities. Bingo is popular, and in London, people still go to the dogs, to see and bet on dog racing. You can often find a leisure centre in towns, which offer sport facilities. Many English people go to their local (= pub) where they can play darts or pool (= a type of snooker), as well as have a drink with friends. At the weekend, younger people often go clubbing (= night clubs) or to a disco with their friends.

mood by someone: "Don't worry too much about him. He was rubbed up the wrong way when we started talking about promotion." get up your nose = irritates: "It really gets up my nose when they start talking about football." get hot under the collar = become angry: "He got really hot under the collar when he couldn't buy a train ticket." be in a strop / stroppy: easily angered: "She's turning

TALKING ABOUT ANGER IN ENGLISH
How can you describe someone who is angry? These words and expressions can be used to describe different strengths of anger, from mild anger to rage.
Mild anger

into a stroppy teenager."
Very angry

pissed off (British slang) = angry: "I was really pissed off by her attitude." furious = very angry: "She was furious when he told

grumpy = someone who is often in a bad mood and complains a lot (esp old people): "He's such a grumpy old man!" crotchety = someone who is easily irritated: "I hate it when you're in a crotchety mood." irritated = when something makes you a bit angry: "To be honest, I'm a bit irritated with my husband. He promised me dinner, then told me he had to work late."

her the news." livid= very angry: "I was absolutely livid when I found out." in a black mood = be very angry: "He always gets in a black mood when he sees his team lose." spitting mad = be very angry: "He got me spitting mad!" see red = be uncontrollably angry: "When I realised

annoyed= irritated: "He really annoyed me, talking through the film."

she was lying, I just saw red." like a red rag to a bull = provoke someone to anger:

snappy = when you are in a bad mood and speak sharply to people: "She's in a very snappy mood today."

"Talking about politics is like a red rag to a bull to him." be in a foul mood = be in a bad mood: "She was in a

cross = angry: "It makes me very cross when people don't stop at the pedestrian crossing."

foul mood all last week."
Your reactions

What can you say to someone who is mildly angry? Confidence, Fluency & Personality

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Keep your hair on! (Don't lose your temper.) Calm down! Take it easy! Don't let it get to you. = don't let something make you angry. Turn the other cheek. = Ignore it. Don't get your knickers in a twist! (British slang) = Don't let it affect you.

Personal finances

High street banks (see our page on banking vocabulary) lend money to customers in the form of loans (such as car loans or personal loans) or in the form of mortgages to buy houses. Sub prime mortgages, now often referred to as toxic mortgages, were sold to people with poor credit ratings. It is a combination of this type of risky lending, falling house prices and high interest rates which led to defaults on mortgage payments and foreclosures (=repossession). This in turn triggered the global financial crisis. A number of banks have already gone bust or have been nationalized (= bought by the government) who try to reassure customers that their savings accounts are safe. In the UK, the government has announced that all savings accounts are guaranteed up to a threshold of £50,000. However, consumer confidence is low.
Unemployment

CREDIT CRUNCH!
Here are some common words and phrases to talk about problems in the economy. Credit crunch = when borrowing money (from banks) becomes harder to get and more expensive. (In the present credit crisis, banks stopped lending to other banks, then stopped lending to their customers, which means that there is now a shortage of credit and no more cheap credit).
Economic terms

People worry about losing their jobs, or being made redundant. Some industries are cutting their workforce, and laying off staff. These job losses / job cuts / redundancies mean that there will be more claimants (for unemployment benefit) – or more people on the dole. (dole = unemployment benefit).
Phrases

The Central Banks and Finance ministers are trying to decide whether to inject more money into the financial markets (places where stocks or commodities for example are bought and sold). (Read an in-depth definition of financial markets.)

weather the storm = survive bad times Many people now believe that we are now heading towards a downturn / recession / depression / financial crisis. Apart from the credit crunch, there are other signs that our economy might slide into recession, such as rising inflation and an increased cost of living. The government may respond by cutting interest rates (to bring down the rate of inflation). To compound the misery (=make things worse), falling house prices mean some home owners face negative equity. Overall, the forecast is pessimistic or gloomy. Confidence, Fluency & Personality be in good shape (the economy is in good shape) = to be strong live beyond your means = not have enough money for your spending (so you need to borrow it) pay the price = pay for your mistakes foot the bill = pay for someone else at rock bottom = to be so low you cannot go any further down in free fall = keep falling without anything stopping the fall

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ENGLISH VOCABULARY ABOUT ACCIDENTS
I hope that you'll never be involved in an accident, but if you have conversation about one, these words and phrases will be useful.
Types of accidents

The results of an accident

There were no fatalities (people killed) Five people were taken to hospital with major / minor injuries / for shock. The driver was shaken, but unhurt. The passengers were escorted safely from the train. Firecrews had to cut the passengers out of the wreckage. The car was a write-off. (The damage was so bad there was no point in claiming insurance) Fortunately, there was only minimal damage / we escaped with only a couple of scratches on the bodywork.

a collision = when two vehicles drive into each other. a mid-air collision = when two planes collide in the air a head-on collision = when two cars collide front to front a car crash = when there's a serious car accident – involving another car or object, or not involving anything else a derailment = when a train comes off the rails a (multiple) pile-up = when more than one car crashes into another car, especially on a busy road or motorway
Describing an accident

WAYS TO DESCRIBE FRIENDSHIP IN ENGLISH
From best friend to deadliest enemy, and all the variations between. Here are some common words and phrases to describe friendship in English.
BFF (best friends forever)

An accident occurred / happened between two cars travelling in the same / opposite direction. One car was travelling at speed (at X miles per hour) a good friend = someone in your "inner circle" of As the driver was rounding the corner, he drove straight into another car which was on the wrong side of the road. The driver lost control of the car and ploughed into the other lane / overturned / drove into an oncoming vehicle / into a tree. As the driver was overtaking another / went through a red light / he drove straight into oncoming traffic A lorry jackknifed, spilling its load over the road. A car skidded on a wet / oily surface and the driver lost control. The brakes failed / the car driver misjudged the distance. The car was speeding / doing 80mph in a 30mph area. The driver was under the influence of alcohol / drugs / on his mobile phone at the time. The accident was due to pilot / human error. buddy (best buddy) = friend (mainly US English) to go back years = to know someone for a long time: "Steve and I go back years." an old friend = a friend you've known for a long time: "He's an old friend of Dave's." a friend of the family / a family friend = someone close to your family: "John was an old family friend." a trusted friend = someone you can trust a childhood friend = a friend from when you were very young Confidence, Fluency & Personality pal = friend (UK slang) to be really close to someone = be good friends with friends. best mate = your best friend.

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a circle of friends = all the friends in your group: "She's got a great circle of friends." be just good friends = when you want to say you're only friends with someone of the opposite sex: "We're not going out. We're just good friends, that's all."
More casual friendships

a frenemy = someone who's a friend and an enemy at the same time.
Other expressions

strike up a friendship with = make friends with someone be no friend of = not like someone / something: "I'm

penpal / epal = someone you know from corresponding / writing: "Find a penpal on our Penpals forum!" someone you know from work (or another interest group): "Andy? Oh, he's someone I know from work."

no friend of his!" have friends in high places = know important / influential people: "Be careful what you say. He's got friends in high places."

DESCRIBING STORIES IN ENGLISH
someone you know to pass the time of day with = someone you know to say "hello" to. casual acquaintance = someone you don't know very well: "She's just a casual acquaintance of mine." a friend of a friend = someone you only know because they're a friend of one of your friends. "Dave's a friend of a friend." legend = story often about historical figures: "We a mutual friend = someone that two people know: "Karen's a mutual friend of both me and Rachel." urban legend = a modern (untrue) story where the
Mates Types of stories

There are lots of words to describe types of stories in English. Here are some of the more common ones.

myth= something that isn't true, but is believed by lots of people: "Don't believe in that old myth."

studied ancient Greek legends in school."

origins are unknown: "Have you heard the urban legend about the guy who discoverd a dead mouse in his Coke and sued the company for millions?" tale = story: "She told an incredible tale about how they first met."

classmate= someone in your class at school. workmate = someone you work with flatmate (UK English) roommate (US English) = someone you share a flat or house with soul mate = someone you're very close to because you share the same opinions and beliefs

fairy tale = a story with a happy ending: "Her six-yearold daughter loves listening to the classic fairy tales by Hans Christian Anderson." old wives' tale = something which people believe to be

Not good friends

true, but which doesn't have any scientific basis: "Saying that if you go outside with wet hair you'll get a cold is just an old wives' tale. It's not true!" saga = a long story.

on-off relationship = where you're sometimes friendly, and sometimes not: "Cath and Liz have an on-off relationship." fair-weather friend = a friend who's never around when you need help: "She's only a fair-weather friend."

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Also ongoing saga = a long story with no end: "Have you been keeping up with the ongoing saga of Sue and Bill?"

thriller = a fast-paced story: "Have you read the latest Dan Brown thriller?" teen fiction = fiction especially aimed at teenagers.

account = the facts of what happened: "He gave a good account of the meeting." eye witness / first hand account = account by someone who was there at the time: "Eye witness reports mention that police fired the first shots". report / newspaper report = a factual account: "Newspaper reports from the time referred to a blue BMW parked on the corner of the road." memoirs = the story of your past – especially written
Stories in newspapers

children's fiction = stories for children. biography = the story of someone's life, written by another person: "I'm reading George Orwell's biography." autobiography = the story of someone written by that same person: "His autobiography is fascinating."

by politicians or public figures: "When her memoirs were published, there was an outcry."

report = factual account romance = love story. exposé= a report that uncovers the truth: "Read our damning exposé of the money for peerage scandal!" undercover reporting = when a journalist pretends to be someone else to get to the heart of a story: "His undercover report shows the real extent of organised crime." article = report opinion piece = an article based on the author's opinion, rather than on the news or facts. The two or three-week period over Christmas and
Type of books

science fiction = fiction about aliens, or strange worlds. short story = a complete story in a few pages. ghost story = a story about ghosts or hauntings. novel = a longer story.

ENGLISH WORDS FOR SOCIAL OCCASIONS

New Year is often a time when people socialise – either going out, or entertaining guests at home. Some social occasions are formal, while others are informal parties for family or friends. Here are the names for some common social occasions: carol concert = a Christmas occasion where people

fiction = non-fact: "This is a great work of fiction." historical fiction = story about an event of person in the past. detective story = a story about a detective: "Agatha Christie's Inspector Poirot detective stories are a great read."

often go to church to hear carols sung. Carols are religious songs on the theme of Christmas. school play = a play where school children play the

murdery mystery (whodunnit) = a crime story where someone is murdered and the detective has to find the killer. "Whodunnit" is short for "Who done it?" (slightly ungrammatical English but means "Who was the killer?")

roles. A nativity play tells the story of the birth of Jesus. office party = an evening or afternoon party organised by your place of work. It could include lunch, or

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drinks, or a "secret santa" where each employee anonymously buys a present for another employee. family gathering = when family members meet for lunch, dinner, or the whole day. cocktail party = a party in the early evening, where people dress quite formally for drinks. informal drinks = an informal party at your house where you serve drinks and snacks. a drink-up = a party in a pub organised by your colleagues or friends. pub quiz night = when a group of friends go to the pub to take part in a quiz. They organise themselves into teams, and try to get the most answers right to win a prize. fundraising event / charity do = "do" is a more informal way of saying "event". At these events, the aim is to raise money for a worthwhile cause. Often they involve a formal dinner, well-known speakers, or a raffle / auction (where people bid to buy an object.) fancy-dress party = a party where everyone wears a costume on a particular theme.

So if you have a sweet tooth, and like eating cakes, sweets or chocolate, it's likely that you will eventually put on weight. As you get older, it becomes more difficult to lose / shed weight. In fact, you might see some middle-age spread, where you put on weight especially around your waist and hips. What's the best way to lose weight? Do you wait until you can pinch an inch (i.e. measure at least an inch worth of fat around your middle) and then go on a crash diet? Maybe it's better not to wait until you notice you're piling on the pounds (gaining a lot of weight) but to watch what you eat all the time. Some people always count the calories, and avoid snacking between meals. Others cut out certain foods altogether (never eating bread or pasta, for example) to avoid going up a size. Eating sensibly all the time is a good way to watch your figure. Cut down on (= reduce the amount of) fatty or sugary foods, take plenty of exercise, and make sure you're getting your five a day. (= Five portions of fruit or vegetables every day.)

ENGLISH VOCABULARY: HOUSE AND HOME
English people often talk about their homes: their

a ball = a formal evening occasion where people dance. For example, a fancy-dress ball is a more formal equivalent to a fancy-dress party. bingo = where people buy a card with numbers on it, then listen to an announcer reading out numbers. If you hear your numbers, you call "Bingo!" and win a money prize. dinner dance = an old-fashioned, quite formal occasion, where couples eat dinner, then dance waltzes etc.

mortgages, the interest rates, and rising property prices. Here's a guide to some of the English words and phrases you might come across.
Your dream home

It's a good idea in the UK to arrange a mortgage with a bank before you start looking. This is when the bank tells you how much money they will lend you so you have a good idea of how much you can afford. The next step is to go to an estate agent (= a company which represents buyers and sellers of properties) to see what sort of properties they have available in your budget range and in your area. If you see something you like, the estate agent will arrange for you to view the property, so that you can see the house or flat for yourself.

ENGLISH WORDS TO DESCRIBE DIET
"You are what you eat!" = a common expression meaning that your body shape is directly related to what or how much you eat.

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If you see something that takes your eye, you put in an offer. The vendor (seller) can accept or decline this offer, and if the vendor accepts it, you can move forward with the sale. However, as you don't pay any money at this point, the offer isn't legally binding, and in theory, you can pull out of the offer at any time that you like. Your next step will probably be to get a structural survey done. A qualified surveyor will inspect the house and write a report that illustrates any structural problems, like damp or drainage problems. If you still want to go ahead with the sale, you need to appoint a solicitor (a lawyer) to do the conveyancing (= the legal paperwork.) If you already own a house, you might also be busy trying to sell it. Many house owners prefer to sell to first time buyers (those people who don't already own a home), as they are not in a chain (=waiting for other people to buy their house before they can buy their next house).

the oven; and serving dishes made from glass or china. You could also find other kitchen implements such as a blender (= food processor) and kitchen scales (for measuring and weighing food). Often the top part of a floor level cupboard has a drawer, where various items are kept, such as cutlery (knives, forks and spoons); aluminium foil (metal paper), cling film (thin plastic wrap), freezer bags, and other kitchen items such as a bread knife, tin opener, corkscrew (to open bottles of wine), potato peeler (to take the skin off potatoes), a rolling pin (to roll out pastry) and so on. On the top of the floor level cupboards you often find a worktop or work surface, where you can prepare food. These surfaces are sometimes made of marble, or hard wood, and they can be easily cleaned. Some people keep a toaster or microwave on the work surfaces, along with things they need frequently, such as oil, salt, or various sauces. Most kitchens also contain a cooker with an oven and

Finally, once the contracts are signed and exchanged, you complete on your house. You get the keys and you can move in whenever you want. Then you might want to throw a house-warming party. Congratulations!

four rings, (although some modern cookers are split level, where the oven is separate from the rings), a fridge-freezer, and perhaps a dishwasher or even a washing machine. You'll probably find a kitchen sink, where you wash the plates and dishes, and larger kitchens also contain a kitchen table and chairs, so you can eat in the same room.

ENGLISH VOCABULARY FOR THE KITCHEN

ENGLISH BEDROOM VOCABULARY
English words connected with the bedroom.

Some people have a fitted kitchen, where all the kitchen units have been bought together, and they are assembled according to a plan. Other people have a kitchen where the units are free-standing: not necessarily bought together at one time. In a kitchen you are likely to find cupboards (or cabinets), either at floor level, or at eye level. In the eye level cupboards you will probably find dry goods (such as flour, sugar, rice, pasta, spices) and maybe glasses and crockery (plates, bowls etc). In the floor level cupboards you might find pots and pans: saucepans for cooking pasta etc; frying pans for frying food; baking tins and roasting tins for cooking food in Confidence, Fluency & Personality Bedrooms come in all shapes and sizes. You can find bedrooms which contain just a single bed, or those which have a double bed (bed which is big enough for two people), or even twin beds (two single beds side by side). Some people choose to sleep in a futon (a Japanese bed which is low on the ground) and some people who like luxury might have a four-poster (a bed which has four posts – one in each corner – and from which you can hang curtains or mosquito nets). When children share a bedroom, they might sleep in bunk beds, where there is one bed on top of the other. The upper bunk is reached by a small ladder.

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On your bed, you'll have at least one sheet (normally in cotton, but in a variety of colours or patterns), and you normally lie on top of this sheet. Some people also have a sheet over them, with blankets (made from wool) to keep them warm. Alternatively, you can replace the top sheet and blankets with a duvet (a warm, but lightweight quilt). You're likely to sleep with your head on a pillow, which is often filled with feathers. Pillows are normally put inside a cotton pillow case, and the duvet is also put inside a cotton duvet cover. If it gets really cold, you can also have a quilt or eiderdown over your blankets. Some people also have an electric blanket that they use to warm up the bed. In England, many people use a hot water bottle (a flat rubber bag that you fill with hot water then seal) to put into the bed to warm it up. As well as a bed, you're likely to have other furniture in your bedroom, such as a chest of drawers (a piece of furniture with several drawers to put clothes in); a wardrobe, which is a piece of furniture with doors where you can hang shirts, trousers, or skirts and dresses on clothes hangers; and a bedside table, which is a small table next to the bed. On the bedside table, you might have a bedside light and an alarm clock. Some people also have a dressing table, which is a small table that you sit in front of, with a mirror to see your reflection in when you do your hair or makeup, and a couple of drawers. Other people might have their mirror on their chest of drawers, as well a hair brush and even a clothes brush (a special brush that you use to clean jackets and shirts).

If your aunts or uncles have children, they are your first cousins. (In English, the word cousin is used, whether the cousin is female or male.) Your female cousin is your mother (or father's) niece, while a male cousin is the nephew of your mother and father. In-laws When you marry, your husband (or wife's) family become your in-laws. The mother of your spouse (husband or wife) is your mother-in-law and his or her father becomes your father-in-law. The term inlaw is also used to describe your relationship with the spouses of your siblings. So the husband of your sister becomes your brother-in-law, while the sister of your husband becomes your sister-in-law. If you are a woman, you become the daughter-in-law of your husband's parents, and if you are a man, you become the son-in-law of your wife's parents. The same term in-law is used for all generations. The husband of your aunt is still your mother's brother-in-law, for example. Grandparents / grandchildren The parents of your parents are your grandparents – grandmother and grandfather. You are their grandchildren – either a granddaughter or a grandson. If your grandparent has a sister, she is your great-aunt. If your grandparent has a brother, he is your great-uncle. (And you are either his or her greatniece or great-nephew.) The mother of your grandmother or grandfather is your great-grandmother. The father is your greatgrandfather. If you go back another generation, the grandmother of your grandmother / grandfather is your great-great-grandmother. The grandfather of your grandparent becomes your great-greatgrandfather. Second families If your mother or father remarries, you can acquire a new family and set of relatives. For example, if your father marries a second wife, she becomes your stepmother. Any children she already has become your step-sisters or step-brothers.

TALKING ABOUT YOUR FAMILY
English Vocabulary for talking about your family. Your family tree Your closest relatives are your parents: your mother and father; and your siblings (brothers or sisters). If your mother or father is not an only child, you also have aunts and / or uncles. An aunt is the sister of your mother or father, while an uncle is the brother of your mother or father. Your female child is called your daughter, and your male child is your son.

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If your mother or father remarries and has children, they become your half-brothers or half-sisters. You might also hear people talking about their biological brother / sister etc, to mean a brother who is related by blood, rather than by marriage.

to run in the family = a characteristic that is common among family members: "Baldness runs in his family." to bring up / raise a family = to have and look after children: "It's difficult to raise a family on one income." a family car = a car big enough to transport a family:

Types of family

"The Volvo Estate is a popular family car." family-size = large quantity item: "We need to buy family-size packets of biscuits!" family-friendly = a policy that favours families: "This hotel is family-friendly." family doctor = a doctor who looks after general medical needs: "There are a number of good family doctors in this area." family man = a man who prefers to spend his time

nuclear family = mother, father and children: "The traditional British family unit is a nuclear family." single-parent / one-parent family = a family which only has one parent (because the parents are divorced, or because one of the parents has died): "There are more and more single-parent families in the UK." immediate family = your closest relatives: "Only immediate family members attended the funeral." extended family = your entire family: "The wedding invitations were sent to the entire extended family."

with his family: "John is a family man." family values = traditional ideas about what a family

close-knit family = a family where the members have close relationships with each other: "They are a closeknit family."

should be: "Some political parties often emphasise family values and the importance of marriage." family name = surname: "What's your family name?"

dysfunctional family = a family where the members have serious problems with each other: "He comes from a rather dysfunctional family." Children often quarrel with each other, and these blood relative = a relative connected to you by "blood" rather than through marriage: "She's not a blood relative, but we're still very close."
Expressions with family Describing family relationships

arguments – or squabbles – are often quickly resolved. In fact, sibling rivalry (the competition between brothers and sisters) is quite common. More seriously, if arguments continue into adulthood, family feuds can develop where both sides can end up hating each other and even trying to hurt or destroy each other. A person who no longer speaks to a family member is

family gathering = a meeting / celebration of family members: "There's a small family gathering next week." family resemblance = where members of the family look / act similar: "You can see a distinct family resemblance between the father and the son." to start a family = to start having children: "They want to wait a couple of years before starting a family."

estranged from his / her family. Often estrangement is voluntary. However, if parents decide they no longer want anything to do with their children, they cut them off (= break off communiation), or even disinherit them. (Decide not to leave them anything when they die.)

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Most people feel loyalty to their family, and will defend family members saying "He / She's family". There's also a saying "Blood's thicker than water" which means that your family ties are stronger than any other relationships.

many other people with a pale complexion, I get freckles from the sun – small brown dots on my face and arms. In contrast, my father has dark-brown hair and he is quite dark-skinned. You are born with a colour – white or Caucasian, black or Asian. People whose parents are of different ethnic origin are mixedrace. Southern Europeans are sometimes described as Mediterranean.

DESCRIBING PEOPLE IN ENGLISH
There are many ways to talk about physical appearance.
Age

Face

Faces, like build, vary a lot. Some people have oval faces – their foreheads are much wider than their chins. Other people have heart-shaped, square or round faces. Features also vary. My grandfather has bushy

My grandfather is quite old. In fact, as he has a pension, he is an old age pensioner, or a senior citizen. His daughter, my aunt, is 55, and middle-aged. She has three sons. One is a young adult, at 24 years of age, and the other two are both teenagers. They are 16 and 17. My sister also has two children – one toddler who is a two-year old, and a baby who is 6 months old.
Build

eyebrows (he has lots of hair!), a hooked nose and high cheekbones. His eyes are large and set quite far apart. My mother has a broad nose, which she hates, as she prefers narrow noses. But she is lucky to have even or regular teeth. My sister corrected her crooked teeth by wearing a brace which straightened them. She has rosy cheeks, small ears and a snub nose, which goes up at the end. I have long, curly hair, though my sister is the opposite, with short, straight hair. Her hair is fine and doesn't weigh very much, but mine is thick and heavy. My mother's hair is wavy – in between straight and curly. It's cut in a bob and she also has a short fringe, where it is cut horizontally across her forehead. My father is losing his hair – in fact he is going bald, which makes him very sad. My brother looks like he is going to lose his hair too – it is receding.

People are built in all shapes and sizes. There are those who are fat and overweight. Some people are extremely overweight and are obese. Other people are naturally slim, but others look have absolutely no fat on them and are thin, or skinny. Personally, I am stocky – small, but well-built. My father is tall and lean – with very little fat. My sister is short, but wiry – she is quite thin, but muscular. Both my brothers are athletic and well-proportioned. My mother looks like a 1940's film star. She is curvaceous, with an hour-glass figure. My grandfather is fit for his age and takes plenty of exercise. He doesn't want all his muscles to get flabby.
Colouring

ENGLISH WORDS FOR EMOTIONS
The A-Z of English words that describe emotions.
A

angry: "She was angry with her boss for criticising her work." annoyed: "I'm very annoyed with him. He hasn't returned any of my calls."

My sister is an English rose – she has fair hair and fair skin. She doesn't tan easily and has to be careful in the sun. My mother is blonde, also with a fair complexion. I am a red-head – with red hair. Like

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"She was annoyed by his comments." appalled = very shocked: "They were appalled to hear that they would lose their jobs."

down in the dumps = sad and fed up: "What's the matter with him? He's so down in the dumps these days." disappointed: "She was disappointed by her son's

apprehensive = slightly worried: "I felt a little apprehensive before my interview."

poor results at school."
E

ashamed: "How could you say such a thing? You should be ashamed of yourself!" at the end of your tether = completely fed up: "The children have been misbehaving all day – I'm at the end of my tether."
B

ecstatic = extremely happy: "When he asked her to marry him she was ecstatic." excited: "I'm excited by the new opportunities that the internet brings." emotional = you have strong feelings (happy or sad) and you cry: "When he heard the news, he became quite emotional." envious = when you want something that someone

bewildered = very confused: "He was bewildered by the choice of computers in the shop." betrayed = when someone breaks the trust you have in them: "He betrayed my trust when he repeated my secret to everyone."

else has: "I'm very envious of her happiness – I wish I was happy too." embarrassed = slightly ashamed: "I felt so embarrassed

C

that I went bright red."
F

confused: "I'm sorry I forgot your birthday – I was confused about the dates."

furious =very angry: "I was furious with him for confident = sure of your abilities: "I'm confident that we can find a solution to this problem." frightened: "As a child she was frightened of the cheated = when you don't get something that you think you deserve: "Of course I feel cheated – I should have won that competition." cross = quite angry: "I was cross with him for not helping me, as he said he would."
H D G

breaking my favourite vase."

dark."

great = very good: "I feel great today!"

happy: "She was happy to hear the good news." depressed = very sad: "After he failed his English exam, he was depressed for a week." delighted = very happy: "I'm delighted that I got the job. It's just what I always wanted."
I

horrified = very shocked: "I'm horrified by the amount of violence on television today."

irritated = annoyed: "I get so irritated when he changes TV channels without asking me first." Confidence, Fluency & Personality

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ENGLISH WORDS THAT DESCRIBE BEHAVIOUR
An A-Z of English words and phrases that describe behaviour.
A

catty = saying nasty or spiteful things about other people: "I know you don't like her, but calling her names is a bit catty." cautious = being careful, so that you avoid mistakes: "He's cautious about investing money in the stock market." charming = pleasant and likeable: "What a charming man!" cheeky = being rude or disrespectful: "It was a bit cheeky of him to ask for more money." clever = intelligent: "She's a clever student and picks things up quickly." conceited = thinking you're very clever, or better than others: "He's so conceited – he thinks everyone should admire him." conscientious = doing something carefully, because you want to do it well: "She's a conscientious student and always does her homework." considerate = thinking and caring about others: "My neighbour brought me flowers when I was in hospital – he's very considerate." ("That was considerate of him.")

active= always doing something: "She's an active person and never wants to stay in." aggressive = being angry or threatening: "He's aggressive and starts arguments." ambitious= wanting to succeed: "He's ambitious and wants to lead the company." argumentative = always arguing with people: "He won't accept what you say – he's argumentative and loves to disagree!" arrogant = thinking you are better than anyone else: "He always behaves as if nobody else's opinion is important – "I find him very arrogant." assertive = being confident, so people can't force you to do things you don't want to do: "It's important to be assertive at work."
B

coy = pretending to be shy so that you don't have to bad-tempered= in a bad mood: "What's got into him lately? He's so bad-tempered." big-headed = thinking you're very important or clever: "I've never met anyone so big-headed!" bossy = telling people what to do all the time: "He's so bossy- he never lets me do things the way I want to do them."
C

give information: "He's very coy about his qualifications – maybe he doesn't have any." creative = someone who can make or design things, or can think of solutions to a problem: "She's creative and artistic." curious = wanting to know things: "I'm curious to find out what you think of the situation."
D

careless = not taking care: "He's a careless driver – "I'm sure he'll have an accident." caring = wanting to help people: "My boss is caring and often asks me how things are going."

deceitful= trying to make people think something, so that you get what you want: "He lied to get this job – he's so deceitful."

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docile = quiet and submissive: "She's a docile child and always does what she's told." dogmatic= wanting others to accept your ideas without discussion: "He's a dogmatic politician and always thinks he's right." domineering = trying to control other people: "He's loud and domineering in the office – it's difficult to get him to listen to us."
E

MARRIAGE AND WEDDING VOCABULARY
It all starts with a proposal. Traditionally the man goes down on one knee to pop the question. If he receives a "yes", the couple areengaged. It is customary for the man to buy his fiancee an engagement ring, most commonly a diamond ring. Engagements can last for years, and if neither of the couple breaks off the engagement, the next step is marriage.

enthusiastic = having a lot of interest in something: "He's an enthusiastic supporter of equal rights." excitable= someone who easily gets excited: "He gets very excitable about politics – it's one of his passions in life." extroverted = outgoing and lively: "She's extroverted and loves going out with people."
F Planning the wedding

Most weddings in the UK take the form of either a civil ceremony (conducted at the Registry Office) or a traditional white wedding, held in a church. (There are other ceremonies for different religions.) If the couple chooses a church service, the planning can become quite complex. The church must be booked, the service has to be chosen, flowers arranged and so on. Other arrangements (for both traditional and civil) are to draw up a guest list, send out invitations, book a reception venue (for after the ceremony), choose bridesmaids (the girls who traditionally accompany the bride in the church) and the best man (the bridegroom's friend who accompanies him to the ceremony), buy the wedding dress, arrange a honeymoon (the holiday after the wedding), compile a wedding list (a list of presents that guests can choose to buy the couple) and of course, to select the wedding ring(s).

faithful= being loyal to someone or something: "She's a faithful friend." fickle = changing your mind and being unpredictable: "Politicians can be fickle when it suits them!" flaky= slightly unstable and unreliable: "She's a little flaky at times, but otherwise she's a good worker." full of himself = acting proud of yourself: "He was full of himself after he got the promotion – it got annoying after a while."

The big day

The groom and best man arrive at the church first, and funny = making other people laugh: "He can be extremely funny when he's in the mood." fussy = only liking certain things: "She's fussy about what she wears." then the guests arrive. Last to arrive is the bride, normally dressed in a long white wedding dress with a train (material from the dress that covers the floor behind her), her face covered in a veil, carrying a bouquet of flowers, and accompanied by a couple of bridesmaids in matching dresses. Usually the bride's father walks her down the aisle until they reach the priest / vicar at the altar. The church organ plays the Wedding March, and the guests rise to their feet to watch the procession. Once they reach the altar, the Confidence, Fluency & Personality

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bride stands with the groom, and the service begins. The service lasts for about half an hour, and contains readings (extracts from the Bible) and a couple of hymns (religious songs). The priest always asks if there are any objections to the marriage (someone can speak or forever hold their peace = never have the opportunity again to object), and at the end of the service, the couple exchange rings and are proclaimed "man and wife". At that point, the groom is allowed to kiss his wife. The guests leave and the couple then sign the marriage register. When they come out of the church, the guests often throw confetti(small pieces of coloured paper), and the photographer takes various formal photographs.

ENGLISH BABY VOCABULARY
How to talk about pregnancy and babies in English. My friend got pregnant / conceived in April and her baby was born in January. She waited until the second trimester (after three months) to tell people, as by then there is less risk of losing the baby / having a miscarriage. During the pregnancy she had terrible morning sickness and she also had cravings (a strong desire to eat something) for cheese and pickle sandwiches. The birth itself was uncomplicated. She went into

Next in the big day is the reception, which is often a formal lunch in a hotel. After lunch there are various speeches. The bride's father normally gives a speech, then the best man gives a speech (which is often a funny speech designed to embarrass the groom), and the bridegroom and / or the bride give a short speech to thank their guests. Some couples also arrange an evening reception, and hire a disco or band to play music for their friends. At the end of the day, the happy couple traditionally leave on honeymoon.
Other wedding vocabulary

labour at midnight, and the baby was born at 7 a.m. She didn't feel too much pain and didn't need an epidural. Instead, she was on drips to make the contractions come a little quicker. Her midwife (special nurse who follows a woman throughout pregnancy) was with her during the birth, just to make sure that everything went well. Luckily, it was a normal delivery and she didn't need a Caesarean section (operation). The doctor cut the cord and put the baby on her stomach. He said "Congratulations! It's a healthy baby girl!" She and her husband prepared their house before she went into hospital. They decorated the nursery. They also had to buy some baby equipment, such as a baby bath, a changing mat (on which they will change the baby's nappies), a carry cot (so they can carry the baby around), a cot (for the baby to sleep in), a mobile (to hang over the cot so that the baby can see moving shapes) and more teddy bears than any baby can surely need. Friends have bought them baby clothes already, so they are as ready as they can be for their new baby.

pre-wedding nerves = when you are nervous before the wedding wedding bells = the traditional tune that the church bells play as the couple leave the church wedding vows = the promises that the bride and groom make to each other during the ceremony. Some of these vows could be to love each other "until death do us part" and to love "for richer or poorer, for better or worse, in sickness and in good health". wedding cake = a traditional cake with three "tiers" eaten at the end of the wedding meal

ENGLISH MEDICAL VOCABULARY
English words and phrases connected with injury. Boil = infected swelling with liquid inside it: "You'll need to go to the doctor to have that boil lanced." (lance – puncture and clean)

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Lump = swelling: "I have a strange lump on my arm. I wonder what caused it." Rash = allergic reaction which makes your skin go red: "When she used the soap her skin came out in a rash."

Scratch = like a graze, but more painful: "The cat scratched me – it stings a little." "He was picking berries and got a couple of scratches from the thorns." Sprain = twist a part of your body: "She sprained her

Scab = dry skin that forms over a cut: "Don't pick at your scab – you might make it bleed." Spot = red mark on the skin (much smaller than a boil): "When he was a teenager he had a lot of spots." Swelling = an irritation or infection that makes the skin rise: "After the wasp stung her, she had a swelling on her leg for days." These words can be used as nouns and verbs Bruise = when the skin goes blue and yellow: "She fell down the stairs and bruised her arm." "He has a bruise just under his eye." Bump = when you hit yourself and get a slight swelling: "Ow! I bumped my head on the desk!" "It's only a little bump – nothing serious." Cut = when something sharp breaks your skin and you bleed: "He cut himself badly on the bread knife." "Fortunately, nobody was seriously injured in the accident. There were only a few cuts and bruises." "She got a nasty cut on her hand while she was diving." Gash = deep cut: "He gashed his hand badly on a piece of broken glass." "That's a nasty gash. You might need stitches." Graze = slight cut – not enough to bleed much: "When she was little, she was always grazing her knee." "I got a small graze on my hand when I fell onto some gravel." Itch = when a part of your body makes you want to scratch it: "My eyes are itching – this atmosphere is too smoky for me." "I've got a terrible itch where the mosquito bit me. "

ankle when she slipped on the ice." "My ankle looks swollen, but it's only a minor sprain." (See also "Going to the doctor" in the Real Life English section.)

ENGLISH CHEMIST VOCABULARY
In England, high-street chemists stock a huge range of toiletries (items for personal hygiene), baby products, cosmetics, perfumes and medicines. Dispensing chemists also fill prescriptions (given to you by your doctor) and some even develop films for you. Baby care Many people buy nappies (diapers) for their babies at chemists. Along with the nappies are other products for babies, such as nappy cream, cotton wool buds (lengths of plastic tipped with soft cotton to clean a baby's ears, for example), baby wipes (to help clean a baby) and so on. Hair care Chemists also stock a range of hair products. You can buy shampoo and conditioner (to wash your hair) and products to colour hair. For styling your hair you can buy gel or mousse, which act a bit like glue to keep your hair in a particular style. You can also buy hair brushes or combs, to make your hair neat, and hair grips and hair slides, which are plastic objects that keep your hair in place. Personal hygiene There's normally a wide selection of personal hygiene products. Many English people like to soak in a long, hot bath, and so there's a huge market in bath oils, bath salts or bubble bath – all ways to add nice smells to your bath! You can also buy nail scissors and emery boards (to file your nails) and pumice stone, to rub away dry skin from your feet. For oral hygiene, you can buy toothbrushes, toothpaste and dental floss,

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which is like string that you use to clean between your teeth. You can also buy face and body creams, moisturizer (cream to prevent your skin from going dry), soap and deodorant. Other items you can find in this section of the chemist are razors, to shave hair from your body, shaving foam; and feminine hygiene products, such as tampons and sanitary towels. Make up If you are looking for cosmetics or make-up, you can find eye-liner (or kohl), mascara (for your eyelashes) and eye-shadow, which is colored powder to put on your eyelids. You can also buy foundation (a cream to put on your face to give an even surface), blusher (to add color to your cheeks), lipstick (which adds color to your lips), and lip-gloss which adds shine to your lips. To color your nails you can use nail polish, also known as nail varnish.

Poultry = chicken, turkey, goose, duck Game = rabbit, hare, partridge, pheasant Fish = salt water fish / sea fish, fresh water fish Seafood = prawns, shrimps, lobster, scallops, mussels, crab Vegetables Fruit
Dishes

Starter / hors d'oeuvre / appetizer Main course Dessert / pudding

ENGLISH FOOD VOCABULARY ENGLISH VOCABULARY FOR THE
Words and phrases to help you talk about food in English.
How food is cooked

BEACH
What do you take with you onto the beach? You will probably need to protect yourself against the sun's rays, so high-factor sun cream or sun block will be useful. Sunglasses and a sun hat are also recommended.

Boiled – cooked in boiling water Steamed – cooked over a saucepan of boiling water Fried / sautéed – cooked in oil in a frying pan

Some people sit under parasols, which are like large Stir-fried – fried fast in hot oil Pan-fried – fried in a frying pan Roasted – cooked in oil in the oven What do you wear to sunbathe, or to get a tan? A Grilled – cooked under a grill Baked – cooked in the oven Stewed – cooked for a long time on a low heat Casseroled – cooked slowly in juices
Types of food

umbrellas. On English beaches, where the weather is more unpredictable, a wind-break (piece of fabric stretched between wooden poles) will keep the wind away!

bikini (or two-piece) for women, or a swimming costume. Men will probably wear swimming trunks. Sandals or flip-flops are useful for walking on the sand. If your skin is delicate, you might need to cover up with a sarong – a long piece of cotton you wrap around your waist to cover your legs – a T shirt or a pair of shorts. (Short trousers.) You can sit on a deckchair, or recline on a sunlounger. Some people even lie on an inflatable Confidence, Fluency & Personality

Meat = lamb, pork or beef

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mattress in the sea – a lilo. Or you can lie out on a towel under the sun to catch as many rays as possible. Finally, entertainment. Children like buckets and spades so they can build sandcastles. Personally, I prefer to read a good book on the beach. But some people take a long beach balls, or frisbees (plastic discs) to throw to each other. The more sporty play volley ball or badminton. My father used to take along the radio to listen to the cricket scores – very English! Nowadays, people take along their walkman or ghetto blaster to listen to music. Perhaps the most common sound nowadays, though, is mobile phones. Aaaagh!

You can attach paper with a paperclip, which is made of metal or plastic. A paperclip is the icon you can see in your email program when you want to send an attachment. If you want to attach paper more permanently, you can use a stapler (which contains staples) to staple the pieces together. A staple is a small, sharp metal bar which has two ends that curl through the bottom sheet of paper to hold all the pieces together.
How you cut things

You can use a pair of scissors to cut paper. If you want to make two holes in the left hand margin of paper so that you can put the paper in a file, you can use a holepunch. Line up the hole-punch on the paper, push down and you will get two circular holes in the paper. If you want to cut something thicker than paper, you will probably need a knife. If you want to cut many pieces of paper together, you can also use a guillotine. This is a flat piece of metal with a sharp blade along one side. You lift the blade then bring it down onto the paper. (It's named after the implement used in the French Revolution.)
Office equipment

OFFICE VOCABULARY
Words to help you describe objects in an office.
Where you store things

Perhaps you have a tall metal cupboard in your office with three or four drawers to put files and correspondence. This is a filing cabinet. Other people have drawers in their desk or portable drawers (drawers on wheels) in their offices. In your filing cabinets you usually have hanging files, where you can put loose correspondence. If you want to put correspondence together, you can use folders or plastic wallets. You can also put papers in a folder and put the folder on a bookshelf. You can also store small things on your desk. For example, perhaps you put pens in a pen holder or in a container. You might even have a desk tidy with different components for pens, rubber bands, erasers and so on.
How you attach things

You probably have access to a printer (which needs ink cartridges), a photocopier (which needs toner), a fax machine and maybe even an overhead projector, also known as an OHP. An OHP is useful if you want to present information and project text or images onto a screen at the front of a room. You might also have a whiteboard (to write on using whiteboard markers) or a flipchart. A flipchart is a stand with very large pieces of paper which you can write on, then flip over, to get the next piece of blank paper.

To stick things together, you can use one-sided sticky tape, known in England as 'sellotape' but not as 'Scotch', which is a type of whisky! You can use a stronger type of sellotape for cardboard boxes and this is called masking tape. Or you could use glue – a sticky liquid that comes out of a bottle to stick things together. Confidence, Fluency & Personality You might have a place in the office where you can leave messages and notices for other people. This is called a notice board and you need to use drawing pins to attach your notice to the board.

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SCENERY VOCABULARY
How to describe the landscape.
The coast

a – acquit / acquittal

Acquit = to decide that someone is not guilty of a crime: "All the defendants were acquitted."
b – barrister, bail

Often at the edge of the sea there are cliffs (high mountains), which give a great view over the sea. But they can also be dangerous, especially if they are eroded, when rocks and earth fall away into the sea. Most people prefer sandy beaches rather than pebble beaches (beaches with small stones). The coastline can be straignt, or it can have bays which are often semicircular in shape.
Mountains c – Court, custody, conviction, cross-examination

Barrister = a lawyer who is trained to defend or prosecute in a court: "The barrister asked many difficult questions." Bail = a sum of money that can be paid in some situations to allow someone accused of a crime to stay out of prison before the court case: "He won't get bail – he's extremely violent."

Mountain ranges are spectacular as you can often see snow-capped peaks against the skyline. From the top of a mountain (the summit or the peak), there are breathtaking views. Not much grows on mountains, as generally the terrain (ground) is rocky, but the air is often pure. However, the valleys (low areas encircled by the mountains) are more fertile.
Inland

Court = the place where a crime is discussed and judged: "He's in court again – this is the second time this year!" A court case = what happens in a court: "This is an interesting court case, as many people are involved." In custody = when the police keep someone in prison before the person goes to court: "He's being kept in custody until the trial begins." Custodial sentence = when someone is sent to prison for a crime: "Custodial sentences are getting shorter." Conviction = when someone is found guilty of a crime: "He had a string of convictions going back twenty years." Cross-examination = when what someone says is questioned by the barrister representing the other side: "Under cross-examination, her evidence showed some inconsistencies."
d – Defend, defendant

From the foothills of the mountains (the small hills nearest mountains), the scenery inland tends to be less dramatic with rolling hills and open countryside. You can find more farmland, but also forests or woods (smaller forests). The land is generally irrigated by rivers or lakes (areas of water which are enclosed) and streams (narrow paths of water). In some countries, there are vast areas of open, flat land called plains (or prairies) which are used to grow various crops such as wheat (the grain used to make flour for bread.)

ENGLISH WORDS FOR CRIME AND PUNISHMENT

To defend – to argue the innocence of the person who There are many words in English dealing with crime, the courts and punishment. is accused of a crime (the defendant):"The barrister defending him is going to have a hard time."

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e – Evidence

l – Life sentence

Evidence = information that proves someone is guilty: "The forensic evidence shows that he committed the murder."
f – Fine

Life sentence = when someone guilty of murder or other serious crimes is sent to prison for "life": "He's currently serving two life sentences for murder."
m – Magistrate, magistrate's court

Fine = a sum of money that is paid as a punishment for a minor crime: "He got a small fine for speeding."
g – guilty

Magistrate = someone who judges less serious crimes: "She was in the magistrate's court for shoplifting."
n – Not guilty

Find someone guilty = when it is decided that someone has committed a crime: "He was found guilty of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment."

Not guilty = when someone is found to be innocent of a crime: "The jury found her not guilty."
o – Old Bailey

h – Hearsay

Old Bailey – famous law courts in London, where Hearsay = when you hear something from someone, but you don't know if it is true or not: "Although the police are suspicious, they can't prosecute him on what the neighbors think – it's all hearsay."
p – Prosecution, parole, plea, plaintiff I – Illegal

serious crimes are tried: "The public gallery at the Old Bailey is a good place to witness the British justice system."

Prosecution = the lawyers arguing against the Illegal = against the law: "The brothers carried out an illegal trade in rare and endangered animals."
j – judge, jury, justice

defendant: "The doctor was a witness for the prosecution." Parole = when a convicted criminal is allowed out of prison before the end of the sentence: "He was sentenced to ten years, but with parole, he'll serve seven years at the most." "She's on parole." Plea = a statement in court saying whether a person is guilty or not: "The defendant entered a plea of not guilty."

Judge = a person who is in control of a court. The judge makes sure that both sides of the argument are heard, sums up or explains things to the jury, if necessary, and passes sentence if the defendant is found guilty. "She's a well-respected judge." Jury = 12 citizens who are selected at random to decide whether someone is guilty or not in a criminal trial: "I have to do jury service next month and I'm a little nervous." "The jury took five hours to find him not guilty." Justice = how people are judged: "The British justice system is unlike other European systems."

Plaintiff = someone who takes a person to court and brings a legal action against them: "The plaintiff stated that the defendant had deliberately destroyed his fence."
q – QC

QC (Queen's Counsel) = a senior barrister.

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r – Diminished responsibility

ENGLISH EUPHEMISMS
Some subjects are considered personal, sensitive or taboo in English. For this reason, people avoid mentioning them by name and instead use a "euphemism" or humorous expression to refer to them. Here are some common euphemisms in English.
To refer to death

Diminished responsibility = when someone cannot be held responsible for a crime, because they are mentally ill: "A plea of diminished responsibility was accepted."
s – Statement, sentence

Statement = something that a person says is true and which is officially written down: "In your statement to the police, you said that you had left the party at 11 pm." Sentence = the punishment that a judge gives someone who is guilty of a crime: "People are no longer sentenced to death in the UK."

Pass away: "Her uncle passed away last year." Fight a long battle with: "He fought a long battle with cancer." Humorous expressions to refer to death Meet your maker: "He's gone to meet his maker."

t – Trial

Six feet under: "I won't worry about money When I'm six feet under." Pushing up daisies: "Last I heard about him, he's pushing up daisies." In your / his / my box: "When I'm in my box you can argue all you like about the inheritance." Snuff it: "I've heard that poor old Ernie has snuffed it." Popped his clogs: "Harold popped his clogs last year." Kick the bucket: "So Joe has finally kicked the bucket."
Animal euthanasia

Trial = the court process which decides if someone is guilty or not: "The murder trial is being reported in all the newspapers."
u – unsafe

Unsafe conviction = when someone has been found guilty because the evidence was wrong or the witnesses didn't tell the truth: "The judge ruled the convictions unsafe and they were released from prison."
v – Victim, verdict

Put down: "We had to put our cat down as she was very ill." Put an end to its suffering: "We put an end to her suffering."
To refer to the bathroom

Victim = the person who has the crime committed against him or her: "The murder victim was aged between 25 and 30." Verdict = what the jury decides: "The jury returned a verdict of not guilty."
w – Witness

Restroom: "Can I use the restroom?" Where can I wash my hands? Public conveniences: "Are there any public conveniences nearby?" Ladies / gents: "The ladies and gents are down the corridor on your right." Can I use your bathroom? Humorous expressions to refer to the bathroom

Witness = someone who sees a crime being committed: "The police are appealing for witnesses to come forward."

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The bog: "He's in the bog." The smallest room of the house: "I'd like to pay a visit to the smallest room of the house." Powder my nose: "Where can I powder my nose?" See a man about a dog: "He's gone to see a man about a dog."
Other themes

HOW TO USE "MAKE" AND "DO" IN ENGLISH
It can be difficult to know when to use "make" and when to use "do". Here are some tips to help you make the right choice. We use "make" for more creative activities: "She makes her own clothes." "He made a beautiful hat for the wedding." We also use "make" to describe functions of speech – what we are doing when we speak: You make … an offer (I'll pay you $500 for your car) … an appointment (Can we meet at 9 am?) … an arrangement (Let's meet at the station.) … a promise (I'll help you with this photocopying.) … a threat (If you do that again, I'll tell him.) … a compromise … a suggestion … a promise … a mistake … a decision … a point … a complaint … an excuse There are also some "fixed expressions" with "make": "They made friends when they were at primary school." "He made fun of her new hairstyle." Other expressions are: … make a fuss … make a fortune … make money … make a profit / a loss … make a journey … make an effort … make progress … make a mess Confidence, Fluency & Personality

Unemployment Between jobs: "Steve is between jobs at the moment." a resting actor: "Harry's a resting actor." (Only use for unemployed actors.) Pregnancy In the family way: "She was in the family way, so they got married." Have a bun in the oven: "Have you heard that Katy has a bun in the oven?" Drunk Tired and emotional: "The newspaper said the president was tired and emotional." Have a bit too much to drink: "He had a bit too much to drink last night." To be a bit worse for wear: "He was a bit worse for wear by the time he came home." To have over-indulged: "I think he over-indulged in the free beer at the party." Lying economical with the truth: "The boss is known for being economical with the truth." Arguments full and frank discussion: "The directors had a full and frank discussion in the meeting." Have words with someone: "Those two have had words." Being poor is disadvantaged: "The government is introducing new schemes to help the disadvantaged." Financially embarrassed: "I'm afraid I can't come to the restaurant with you. I'm financially embarrassed at the moment."

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… make a telephone call … make a choice One expression that uses either "do" or "make" is: make a deal / do a deal (I'll do it if you help me.) Using do We use "do" to refer to jobs, or responsibilities. These are often routine things, which do not involve much creativity or fun: In two weeks' time (Thursday 22nd). "I do the shopping once a week." Two weeks today (Thursday 22nd). "He does the gardening every weekend." In two weeks from now (Thursday 22nd). "We have to do a lot of work on the house." In a week tomorrow (Friday 16th). You also do: … your homework … the housework … a job … the paperwork … an exam There are some fixed expressions that you can learn which use "do": "She does a lot of good in the community." "This chemical can do a lot of harm." "She always does favors for her colleagues." (Do someone a favor – help someone) Other expressions are: … do something well / badly … do your best … do something right / wrong … do the minimum / the maximum … do damage from time to time = occasionally: "I see him from time to time." time and time again = repeatedly: "She's told the children time and time again to be careful of the road." on time = at the right time: "She's always on time for work." in time = before the deadline: "They bought him a card in time for his birthday." at times = sometimes: "At times she felt that nobody understood her problem." time out = take a break: "OK, time out – let's come back to this later." For the time being (from now until further notice).
Other time expressions

Today is Thursday, 8th. In a day or two (Friday 9th, or Saturday 10th – perhaps even Sunday 11th). Sometime next week (any time from Monday 12th to Sunday 18th). In a fortnight (Thursday 22nd).

This time next week (Thursday 15th). A week ago (Thursday 1st).

DATE AND TIME VOCABULARY
Here are some ways to talk about dates in the calendar.

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ENGLISH TWO-WORD PHRASES
In spoken English, we often use two-word phrases, such as "bye-bye". Here are some of the more common two word phrases. So-so = OK: "How was the meeting?" "So-so – it was nice to see everyone, but we didn't get anything decided." On-off = not constant: "They have a very on-off relationship." Love-hate = having feelings for someone / something which swing from love to hate: "I have a bit of a lovehate relationship with my car." Mish-mash = when things are combined together and so appear untidy: "The new policy is a bit of a mishmash of the last two policies we've had." Riff-raff = quite a 'snobby' expression to describe people you think are lower in class than you: "Lets send out invitations for the party. We don't want the town's riff-raff turning up and eating all the food." Chit-chat = small talk or unimportant conversation: "He asked us to stop our chit-chat and get on with our work." Knick-knack = an ornament: "She's got a lot of knickknacks – I'm always afraid I'm going to break one." Ship-shape = everything in its right place: "I want to leave the place ship-shape when we go on holiday." Zigzag = diagonally: "He lost control of the car and it zigzagged across the road." Ding-dong = an argument: "They've had a bit of a ding-dong and they're not talking to each other at the moment." Higgledy-piggledy = in a mess: "That bookshelf is all higgledy-piggledy!" Wishy-washy = weak opinion, argument or person: "His argument is a bit wishy-washy – I don't get the

impression that he really knows what he wants to think." Easy-peasey = something that children often say to emphasize how easy something is: "This program is easy-peasey – I understood it in half an hour!" Flip-flops = rubber sandals with a thong that goes between your big and second toe: "I lived in my flipflops when I was staying on the beach." See-saw = something that goes up and down (like the piece of wood in a playground – a child sits on each end and these ends go up an down): "The English pound has see-sawed against the American dollar for the last two weeks."

ENGLISH THREE-WORD PHRASES
Three word expressions are common in English. Practicing them and using them when you speak will help you sound more natural. Here are ten common English expressions, along with an explanation and example sentence. Black and white Dos and don'ts Haves and have nots Ins and outs Kiss and tell Odds and ends P's and Q's Pros and cons Rights and wrongs Tried and tested Black and white = something which is extremely clear: "He told her in black and white that she couldn't leave the house while he was out." Dos and don'ts = the rules: "There are various do's and don'ts about driving in the UK." Haves and have not’s = people who are rich and those who are not: "In London you can find the haves and have nots of the population."

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Ins and outs = the details: "I don't know the ins and outs of the situation, so I can't really advise you." Kiss and tell = when someone sells a story of themselves and a famous person: "The British tabloids are famous for publishing kiss and tell stories."

getting sick of going back and forth every day. Now my journey to work will be a lot quicker." Dribs and drabs = not a steady amount of something: "The marathon runners finished in dribs and drabs." Said and done = to have the final word on something:

Odds and ends = small pieces of various items: "She made a stew with the odds and ends she found in the fridge."

"When it's all said and done, the new reception area is going to be a credit to the company." Cat and mouse = doing something in the same way

P's and Q's = manners (such as please and thank you): "Mind your P's and Q's when you visit them!" Pros and cons = advantages and disadvantages: "There are a few pros and cons that we should consider before buying a new house." Rights and wrongs = all the good points and bad points of a situation: "Regardless of the rights and wrongs of company policy, you need to give a month's notice." Tried and tested = something which has been well tested: "Using salt is a tried and tested way of getting red wine out of a carpet." Here are ten more expressions: Ups and downs Come and go Back and forth Dribs and drabs Said and done Cat and mouse Trial and error Flesh and blood Down and out By and large Ups and downs = very good times and very bad times: "They have a lot of ups and downs in their relationship."

that a cat plays with a mouse: "The guerillas played a cat and mouse game with the much better-equipped army." Trial and error = to do something new by making experiments and occasionally failing: "The new computer system has been installed. But it's a bit trial and error at the moment – nobody really knows how to use it." Flesh and blood = your family: "I have to help him if I can – he's my flesh and blood." Down and out = someone who has no money at all who has to live on the street: "There are too many young down and outs in London." by and large = generally: "By and large, our customers prefer good service to low prices." And a further ten expressions: Up and running = in operation: "The new company is now up and running." Noughts and crosses = a game where you take it in turns to put your symbol (either a nought or a cross) into one of nine spaces. The idea is to have a row of either three noughts or three crosses, but your opponent tries to block you. The game looks like this: OXO

Come and go = use somewhere as your base: "Feel free to come and go as you please!" Back and forth = not to stay still, but to keep travelling between two places: "I'm so glad I'm moving. I was

XOX XOX Bring and buy = a fair where people try to raise money for a cause by bringing something that other

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people might want to buy: "I'm making a cake for the school's bring and buy next week." Hide and seek = a children's game where one child hides and the others try to find him / her: "Someone's been playing hide and seek with the TV remote control again!" Around and about = a vague phrase to avoid saying where you have been exactly: "Where have you been – I've been worried!" "Oh, around and about, you know." To and fro = another way of saying "back and forth": "I'm exhausted – I've been going to and fro all week!"

Invest in a good English dictionary. It's one of the best things that you can do to improve your English. Learn the phonetic alphabet. At the beginning of most good English dictionaries, you'll find the phonetic table, which tells you how to pronounce the phonetic symbols given with each word. If you learn these symbols, you'll find it much easier to pronounce new words. Learn how to use the stress marks. Most English dictionaries show where the stress of a word is by using the mark '. This means that the following syllable is stressed: 'pho-to-graph

Over and out = something you say to show you have come to the end of your message: "The last thing they heard from the pilot was 'over and out'."

pho- 'to-gra-pher pho-to-'gra-phic The best way to improve your pronunciation is with

Done and dusted = properly finished: "Well, that's this project done and dusted. We need a holiday now." Dead and buried = something that will not happen: "That idea is now dead and buried – the Executive Committee decided some time ago to go with another proposal." Wine and dine = to entertain someone lavishly: "He's well-known for wining and dining his business partners." Bread and butter = your main source of income, or the most important issue: "Health and education are the bread and butter issues facing the UK government." Spick and span = very tidy and clean: "Her house is spick and span at all times." Wheel and deal = to make deals when buying and selling things: "If you need a new car, try speaking to John. He's a bit of a wheeler and dealer!"

correct word stress, as making mistakes with stress causes more misunderstandings than mispronouncing the word. Make sure you know the grammar of the new word. If it is a verb, does it need a preposition, such as 'in' or 'of'? Does the verb have an irregular ending? Look at the definition of the new word. If you don't understand it, try a simpler dictionary. Good dictionaries give definitions that are simpler than the word they describe. Look at the example sentence given. It should show the new word in a way that explains its meaning.
Other things to think about

Is the new word typically spoken or written? Formal or informal? American or British? Which other words can you use it with? This information will help you to start practicing the new word, confident that you are using it in the right situation.

HOW TO USE AN ENGLISH DICTIONARY
Tips for getting the most from an English Dictionary.

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Don't try to learn every new word - concentrate on the words or phrases you think you will need to know. Many English words have more than one meaning. Some dictionaries put the most common meaning first in the list of definitions. Pictures of words, or word groups, can help you to remember more easily.
Questions about dictionaries

new, as any dictionary older than a few years may be out-of-date. If you're looking for a special or technical word, it might be a good idea to invest in a specialized dictionary.

WORD BUILDING IN ENGLISH
English is a very flexible language and you can build on your vocabulary and learn how to make new words. One way of doing this is to add prefixes (such as dis, pre or co) before the word. Here's a list of common prefixes with their meanings and some examples. anti (= against) antibodies, anti-social auto (self) autonomous, autobiography, automobile bi (= two) bicycle co (= with) cooperate, coordinate contra (= against) contradict, contravene de (= remove) deregulate, deselect dis (= not) disappear il (= not)

1. Should I use a normal English dictionary, or a bilingual one? It's generally better to use a normal English (monolingual) dictionary. There are three main advantages of these dictionaries. * They give you practice in understanding English. * As the definitions and examples are in English, you can see immediately how a word is used. * Because many English words won't translate directly into your language, you have to be careful with bilingual dictionaries when you write down the meaning of the word. 2. Why can't I understand the definitions? Perhaps your dictionary is too complicated. Try using one that's especially designed for learners of English at your level. It's annoying if you can't understand the definition or example sentence of a new word. It's much better to start off with a simpler dictionary, such as Longman Active Study Dictionary, then move on to a more complex one later. 3. How many words should there be? No dictionary contains all the words and expressions in English (currently estimated to be around 1 million). The average person knows at least 60,000 words, so a useful dictionary will have around 80,000 words and expressions. 4. Why can't I find the words in my dictionary? English is changing – every year there are new words and expressions. Make sure your dictionary is fairly

illegal im (= not) immaterial, immature inter (= between) international mis(= badly/wrongly) misinform, misbehave, misunderstand

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multi (= many) multinational

Houses

Washing up liquid = Dish soap non(= opposite) non-profit out(= more than) outperform, outdone Clothes peg = Clothes pin over (= too much) oversleep, overwork post(= after) postpone, postnatal pre (= before) predict re(= again) rewrite, relive sub (= under) submarine super (= higher/improved) supermarket trans(= across) transatlantic Indicators = Blinkers uni(= one) uniform under (= not enough) underpaid, underfed Windscreen = Windshield Bonnet = Hood Boot = Trunk Fridge = Fridge / Refrigerator Living room / lounge = Living room / Den Chest of drawers = Bureau Wardrobe = Closet Armchair = Easy chair Larder / pantry = Pantry Oven = Oven / stove
Cars

Hoover = Vacuum cleaner Washing powder = Laundry soap

Mirror = Rear view mirror Wing mirror = Side mirror

AMERICAN AND BRITISH VOCABULARY
There are differences between British and American English – but there are also regional differences in British and American dialects. If you spot something that you think is strange, or if you have an alternative for any of the words, please let us know! In the list below, the first expression is always British English. Motor / wheels = Wheels (Informal expressions for your car) Put your foot down = Step on the gas (To drive fast)

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ENGLISH VERBS AND ADVERBS THAT GO TOGETHER
Some verbs and adverbs go together naturally in English and it's often helpful to learn them as expressions. Act quickly: "We have to act quickly if we want to agree to their deal." Listen attentively: "She listened attentively to what her boss was saying." Play fair: "I don't feel that you are playing fair – you seem to change your mind when it suits you!" Search thoroughly: "The police searched the house thoroughly, but couldn't find any evidence." Sigh deeply: "He sighed deeply when he heard the news." Sit comfortably: "She was sitting comfortably on a sofa when he walked in." Speak softly: "It was difficult to hear her as she was speaking softly." Think carefully: "Please think about this carefully – it's a big decision." Vary widely: "Marriage customs vary widely from culture to culture." Work hard: "We work hard in the office."

caprice = whim (impulse) stifle = suffocate (smother) latent = potential (inactive) concur = acquiesce (accept) tranquil = serene (calm) lethargy = stupor (lazy) furtive= stealthy (secret) cargo = freight(load) efface = obliterate(wipe out) pretentious = ostentatious(affected) compunction = remorse (regret) cajole = coax (wheedle – sweet talk) Embrace = hug (hold-cuddle) Confiscate = appropriate (to take charge) lament = mourn obstinate = stubborn metamorphosis = transform annihilate = to destroy whet = sharpen adage = proverb ovation = applause Efface = obliterate discretion = prudence amiable = friendly incentive = provocation latent = potential merry = gay instigate = incite belief = conviction scrutiny = close examination fuse = combine brim = border divulge = reveal adhesive = tenacious to merit= to deserve inert = passive latitude = scope momentary = transient admonish = cautious volume = quantity meager = scanty misery = distress belated = too late renounce= reject hamper = obstruct baffle = frustrate

SYNONYMS
----------------------------

admonish = usurp (reprove) alienate = estrange (isolate) dispel = dissipate (dismiss) covet= crave (desire) solicit = beseech (seek) subside = wane (drop) hover = linger (stay close) heap = to pile (collect) veer = diverge (turn)

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

English Vocabulary

106

confiscate = appropriate acumen = exactness behest = request penitence = to repeat overt = obvious VOCABULARY DIFFRENCES S.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 INDIAN BISCUIT CHIPS CRISPS JOINT SWEETS PAVEMENT GARDEN (grass) TOILET/ LAVATORY CUPBOARD DUST / RUBBISH FLAT INDIAN LIFT RUBBISH HANDBAG TROUSERS WAISTCOAT LORRY UNDERGROUND TRAIN ENGINE HOOD ECONOMY / TOURIST CLASS INDIAN AUTUMN PETROL (BANK) NOTE / CHEQUE BILL (in a restaurant) LUGGAGE SINGLE TICKET RETURN TICKET CAR PARK FLYOVER RUGBY FOOTBALL BUS STAND DICKEY HIGH WAY AMERICAN COOKIES / CRACKER FRENCH-FRIES POTATO CHIPS ROAST CANDY SIDEWALK YARD BATH / RESTROOM / LOO CLOSET TRASH APARTMENT AMERICAN ELEVATOR GARBAGE PURSE (WOMAN) PANTS VEST TRUCK SUBWAY MOTOR TRUNK COACH (plane/ train) AMERICAN FALL GAS BILL CHECK BAGGAGE ONE-WAY TICKET ROUND-TRIP PARKING LOT OVERPASS FOOTBALL SOCCER BUS DEPOT TRUNK INTERSTATE

38 39 40 41 42 43

WAGON RAILWAYS RAILWAY STATION TAXI BRINJAL CORIANDAR

RAIL CAR RAIL ROAD TRAIN STATION CAB/TAXI CAB EGG PLANT CILANTRO

VOCABULARY LIST
Word alley appetite boast cattle drudgery dull entirely gigantic goofy hatch naked outraged outskirts peddler portion roam slim struggle swell upgrade affiliate analgesic apiece compensation concoct confess crummy curiosity exile fatal fugitive hemorrhage incident juvenile legitimate listless Definition, meaning a narrow passageway or street desire to eat brag; say great things about yourself a general name for "cows" hard, uninteresting labor boring, not exciting; not bright or sharp on the whole huge, large, enormous funny, silly break out of an egg without covering or clothing upset, very mad the suburbs, area around a city someone who sells things small part or section wander, walk around without direction skinny; thin have difficulty doing something; fight get bigger, enlarge improve the quality of something associate as a member something used to reduce pain each, individually payment for service, loss or expense create by combining various ingredients admit to wrongdoing lousy, miserable, or worthless desire to know; inquisitive interest forced removal from one's country causing death one who tries to escape, runaway excessive bleeding an occurrence or even; happening young, immature, youthful lawful, conforming to accepted standards lacking energy or spirit

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

English Vocabulary

107

negligent psychiatry qualm sober alarm alphabet blame blank bounce burglar compassion credentials detect expert finesse frighten glimpse inquiry interfere outstanding ramble rough tap widespread alternative consumer discrimination earn encourage ignore illusion immigrant irrelevant lonely observe own participation poverty practical rise skill vocational

failing to give proper care or attention branch of medicine dealing with mental disorders feeling of uneasiness, doubt or fear not drunk; serious a device that sound a warning a set of English letters to accuse someone or wrongdoing empty, without any marks to spring or leap like a ball one who breaks into a building and steals feeling of sympathy towards another person qualifications or background to discover the existence of something a person with a high degree of knowledge or skill ability to handle difficult situations well to make someone scared or afraid a brief look; an indication the act or process of questioning to get in the way; prevent someone from doing a task distinguished, excellent to talk on an on without saying much having a bumpy surface; not smooth to strike or hit gently covering a large area choice, selection, option person who buys things treating people unfairly because of differences in race, gender, etc. get money through working give help, support or confidence don't pay attention false idea, dream person who comes into a country to live not related or applicable without needed companionship perceive thorough the senses, see possess taking part, getting involved in a group activity condition of being poor useful and realistic go up, get higher ability, talent pertaining to a specific job

volunteer widow axe blade cage cork crook dozen emerald eyelid knot leak lumber ounce plug railing rainbow ribbon sponge thermometer thunder varnish bake barrel bat chew fold hanger log melt owe rinse sand sheet soak

person who gives service without pay woman whose husband has died instrument used in chopping wood the flat, cutting edge of a knife or tool a structure made of wires or bars for confining animals material from the bark of a tree, often used as toppers for wine bottles a thief, criminal, swindler a set of twelve a precious stone of bright green color a fold of skin which covers the eyeball formed when two ropes are tied together a hole or crack which allows water to pass thorough wood which has been sawed into boards unit of weight, one-sixteenth of a pound part of a machine which is connected to an electrical source a bar which is used for support when climbing stairs an arch containing the colors of the spectrum a narrow strip of cloth used for decoration an absorbent material used for washing an instrument used for measuring temperature noise usually followed by a flash of lightning a substance painted on wood to make it glossy to cook in an oven a large round container used for holding great amounts of liquid a small, furry mammal which flies at night to cut and grind with the teeth to lay or bend something over upon itself a device upon which clothing is hung a fallen tree trunk or bulky piece of timber to reduce from a solid to a liquid by heat to be under obligation or indebted to someone to cleanse with water after washing with soap a grainy type of soil found on beaches a large thin cloth which can be spread on a bed to immerse or drench in water or other liquid

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

English Vocabulary

108

to allow something to fall or run out of a spill spoil squeeze swallow swing wrap yawn approach collapse conquer coward evolve expansion fleet incredible inhabitant monopoly peak peasant priceless route severe starvation vast warehouse warrior wilderness bargain blackout challenge charge combination contact deposit enthusiastic inform irrational nationwide personality prevent profit slang teller vessel or container to make the quality of something worse to compress; press closely, usually for extracting juice to move food or drinks down the throat to move back and forth, sway to cover with paper, cloth, or plastic open the mouth in an expression of sleepiness get closer fall down defeat, overcome person who is not brave develop slowly growth group of ships unbelievable resident complete commercial control top of the mountain; highest point poor, simple farmer very valuable path, road, way cruel, harsh terrible hunger huge, immense large building for storage fighter wild, unsettled area something you can buy cheaply electric power outage call for energetic work or action postpone or delay payment until the bill comes joining together of things or ideas to get in touch with; get together to talk with put money into a bank account very interested or excited about something to tell, give the facts impossible to explain reasonably everywhere in the country the nature or character of a person stop something from happening money people make from business informal language a person who works at a bank window

trend waste withdraw workaholic

a fad that lasts for a long time use wrongly, use too much of take money out of the bank compulsive worker

adolescent authenticity cellophane coffin contemporary cracker devout dweller fantasy fascinating former galaxy glance havoc latter opaque perceive subsequent tipping wrap astonish athlete attic bathrobe coward decathlon depending flock glance inquire jogging maid motive narrow octopus rancher revolver risk thrilling

a teenager reality, certainty a plastic wrapping a box in which a dead body is placed for burial from the same time period a hard, salty, cookie-like food very religious inhabitant, person who lives at a certain place imagination, dream world very interesting, exciting, fun the first of two things a group of millions of stars to look at something quickly a lot of trouble, chaos the second of two things not transparent to sense (see, hear, smell, touch) coming after, following giving extra money for services to put paper around something (a gift) surprise, amaze sportsman or woman area between the roof and ceiling of a house clothing worn after taking a shower a person who is not brave ten track and field events trusting, relying on group of sheep to look quickly ask questions running slowly paid housekeeper reason thin, not wide deep sea animal with eight legs person who owns a large farm with animals gun, pistol possibility of danger or loss exciting

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

English Vocabulary

109

trophy almanac antique assemble astronomy carve century chime decorative eclipse estate fortune heir inferior museum patriotic pocket scientist telescope textile wooden bounce cream dessert dip fur harvest jam magician pounding puppet rendezvous revenue sample seal supply toss trampoline trapper treat ardor blissful

prize given in a race or competition book of facts published annually object prized for its age come together, meet science that deals with the universe to create a form by cutting period of one hundred years device that produces a bell-like sound ornamental, with artistic design event obscuring the sun or moon property, land, possessions good or bad luck, fate one who inherits from a parent of lower or lesser quality institute that displays artifacts for the public having feelings of devotion towards one's country a flat pouch sewn into the clothing an expert in a field of study instrument for viewing distant objects fabric, cloth, woven material made of lumber or timber products spring or leap like a ball thick, fluffy milk based product sweet dish served after a meal put lightly into water or liquid thick animal hair gather crops at the end of growing season sweet preserved fruit spread one who performs illusions beating, hitting repeatedly doll or toy which can be animated by manipulation meeting at a pre-arranged place earnings, income from a business try or test food for taste an aquatic mammal prized for its fur materials kept in stock for future use throw lightly athletic equipment used for jumping into the air person who catches wild animals for a living special delight large seal-like mammal with tusks with great intensity extremely happy

cite condominium confront evaluate issue parlance poll premarital proportion region relationship release reluctance survey (noun) survey (verb) therapy unflattering wed banknote cope dent desperate ensure exhausted gallery generous hop instinct lack lecturer mathematics perceive province punish reinforce significantly stow coastline compose condense decent

give reference to individual home within a building of similar homes raise an issue directly and argumentatively give feedback things that need to be discussed language, usually used by a particular group survey from the general population before marriage segment or section, percentage of the whole area, location social connection between people set free, allow to go out hesitation, unwillingness to do something a questionnaire, or a report showing results of a poll ask questions to find out people’s opinions professional psychological counseling not in a complimentary way get married paper money or currency handle or deal with a difficult situation weaken, lessen the value of something, usually by hitting without hope make certain, insure extremely tired place where art is displayed for the public giving unselfishly, usually large amounts jump a short distance, sometimes on one foot natural or innate ability absence, deficiency a university professor course subject dealing with numbers and calculations sense, notice, observe through the senses a designated political area within a country; similar to a state impose a penalty for wrongful behavior give support to, strengthen in an important or meaningful way put something in a small space for storage where land meets the sea put together creatively make smaller or more concise fitting acceptable standards, respectable

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

English Vocabulary

110

doubt encompass estimate exaggerate fortunate income margin moist perspective

uncertainty or skepticism include, encircle, surround calculate generally, figure approximately grossly overstate or overdo lucky, auspicious money gained through work or investment border or edge; space surrounding text slightly wet or damp point of view, outlook

pleasant ponder preside primary stretch surpass tropical

good-natured, enjoyable or agreeable contemplate or think deeply about something have authority over something, oversee first, most important, main expand or extend, lengthen go beyond, exceed expectations of a warm and humid climate

BASIC FOODS

Water

Milk

Coffee

Tea

Juice

Soft Drink

Bread

Corn

Rice

Noodles

Apple

Banana

Orange

Pear

Strawberry

Grapes

Peach

Watermelon

Carrots

Celery

Lettuce

Cabbage

Broccoli

Spinach

Squash

Peas

Beans

Potato(es)

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

English Vocabulary

111

Soup

Salad

Sandwich

Meat

Egg(s)

Cheese

Seafood

BODY AND HEALTH

Nose

Hand

Finger(s)

Face

Eye(s)

Ear(s)

Mouth

Leg

Foot/Feet

Toe(s)

Hair

Head

Arm

Chin

Elbow

Neck

Shoulder

Knee

Waist

Wrist

Ankle

Hip

Chest

Stomach

Back

CLASSROOM ITEMS

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

English Vocabulary

112

Chalkboard

Chalk

Clock

Map

Book

Notebook

Pen

Chair

Pencil

Paper

Table

Desk

Eraser

Marker

Whiteboard

CLOTHING AND ACCESORRIES

Shirt

Tie

Shoe(s)

Slippers

Dress

Jeans

Sweater

Skirt

Coat

Sock(s)

Pants

Blouse

Shorts

Glasses

Watch

Belt

Wallet

Purse

Handbag

Ring

Earring(s)

Chain

Necklace

Umbrella

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

English Vocabulary

113

COLOURS

Black

White

Red

Yellow

Blue

 DISHES

Green

Orange

Purple

Brown

Grey

Plate

Bowl

Glass

Cup

Saucer

Fork

Knife

Spoon

Chopstick(s)

Pot

Pan

Wok

Pitcher

Napkin

FRUITS

Apple

Apricot

Avocado

Banana

Cantaloupe

Cherry

Dates

Grapefruit

Grapes

Kiwi

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

English Vocabulary     

114

Lemon

Lime

Lychee

Mango

Nectarine

Orange

Papaya

Peach

Pear

Pineapple

Plum

Quince

Raspberries

Strawberry

Watermelon

HOME AND FURNITURE

Bath and Shower

Bed

Chair

Computer

Door

Dresser

Fireplace

Lamp

Painting

Sofa

Stairs

Table

Telephone

Television

Window

PEOPLE AND OCCUPATION

Astronaut

Auto Racer

Businessman

Businesswoman

Carpenter

CEO

Chef/ Cook

Clown

Construction Worker

Cowboy

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

English Vocabulary

115

Dancer

Dentist

Doctor/Surgeon

Draftsman

Equipment Operator

Farmer

Fire Fighter

Florist

Foreman

Gardener

Lineman

Maintenance Person

Mechanic

Musician

Nurse

Painter

Patient

Photographer

Pilot

Policeman

Realtor

Salesperson

Scientist

Singer

Surveyor

Teacher

Veterinarian

Waiter

Waitress

Welder

PERSONAL ITEMS

Soap

Shampoo

Comb

Brush

Toothbrush

Toothpaste

Dental Floss

Razor

Towel

Sponge

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

English Vocabulary

116

Washcloth

Nail Clippers

SPORTS FUN & RECREATION

Baseball

Basketball

Biking

Bowling

Boxing

Camping

Chess

Fishing

Football

Golf

Hiking

Hockey

Hunting

Kayaking

Paragliding

Ping Pong

Rafting

Rock Climbing

Roller Skating

Rugby

Scuba Diving

Shopping

Skate Boarding

Skiing

Soccer

Surfing

Swimming

Tennis

Volleyball

Water Skiing

TRANSPORTATION

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

English Vocabulary

117

Airplane

Automobile

Balloon

Bicycle

Blimp

Boat

Bus

Helicopter

Horse & Carriage

Horseback

Monorail

Motor Home

Motorcycle

Rickshaw

Ship

Snowmobile

Taxi

Train

Trolley

Truck

VEGETABLES

Artichoke

Asparagus*

Beans

Broccoli*

Brussels Sprouts

Cabbage*

Carrots

Cauliflower*

Celery*

Corn*

Cucumber

Eggplant

Garlic*

Leeks

Lettuce*

Mushroom

Okra

Onion

Pepper

Potatoes

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

English Vocabulary

118

Radishes

Snow Peas

Squash

Tomato

Turnip

Spinach*

Zucchini

AMBHIBIANS – REPTILES – BIRDS – DOMESTIC ANIMALS - INSECTS

Frog

Salamander

Toad

Alligator

Chameleon

Crocodile

Gecko

Gila Monster

Horned Lizard

Iguana

Lizard

Snake

Turtle

Clam

Crab

Eel

Fish

Fish

Fish

Fish

Fish

Fish

Jellyfish

Lobster

Nautilus

Octopus

Sea Horse

Shark

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

English Vocabulary

119

Slug

Squid

Starfish

Stingray

Turtle

Dolphin

Manatee

Seal

Walrus

Whale

Canary

Chickens

Duck

Eagle

Flamingo

Goose

Hummingbird

Ostrich

Owl

Parrot

Peacock

Pelican

Penguin

Sea Gull

Swan

Camel

Cat

Chickens

Cow

Dog

Donkey

Duck

Goat

Horse

Llama

Mouse

Pigs

Rabbit

Sheep

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

English Vocabulary

120

Ant

Bee

Beetle

Butterfly

Caterpillar

Cockroach

Dragonfly

Fly

Grasshopper

Katydid

Ladybug

Mantis

Mosquito

Moth

Wasp

Bug

Centipede

Scorpion

Spider

Tarantula

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

Banjo

Clarinet

Cymbals

Drum

Flute

Guitar

Keyboard

Maracas

Piano

Saxophone

 SHAPES

Tambourine

Triangle

Trombone

Trumpet

Violin

Circle

Oval / Ellipset

Triangle

Trapezoid

Parallelogram

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

English Vocabulary

121

Rectangle

Square

Pentagon

Hexagon

Octagon

Polygon

Polygon

Polygon

Abstract

Leaf

Star

Crescent

Drop

Arrow

Cross

Bell

Club

Spade

Heart

Diamond

Cylinder

Cone

Pyramid

Cube

Sphere

TOOLS

Allen Keys

Axe

Ball Pean Hammer

C Clamp

Claw Hammer

Cordless Drill

Duct Tape

Electrical Tape

File

Flashlight

Hack Saw

Hand Plane

Hand Saw

Level

Machinist Square

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

English Vocabulary     

122

Micrometer

Nut Drivers

Paint Brush

Paint Roller & Tray

Pipe Wrench

Pliers

Pry Bar

Rubber Mallet

Screwdriver

Sheet Metal Cutters

Shovel

Skill Saw

Socket Wrench Set

Stapler

Tape Measure

Trowel

Vise

Vise Grips

Voltmeter

Wrenches

VERBS (DAILY ACTIONS)

Get up

Have a shower

Brush your hair

Have breakfast

Get dressed

Brush your teeth

Go to school / work

Have lunch
Confidence, Fluency & Personality

Go home

English Vocabulary

123

TELLING THE TIME

It's... 3.00 3.03 3.05 3.09 3.10 3.15 3.20 3.21

It's... three o'clock three minutes past three five past three nine minutes past three ten past three a quarter past three twenty past three twenty-one minutes past three
Confidence, Fluency & Personality

English Vocabulary

124

3.25 3.30 3.35 3.40 3.45 3.50 3.55 3.57 4.00

twenty-five past three half past three twenty-five to four twenty to four a quarter to four ten to four five to four three minutes to four four o'clock

BUSINESS VOCABULARY COMPANY STRUCTURE
1 Accounts Dept. 2 A.G.M.
UK

n. department responsible for administering a company's financial affairs abbr. Annual General Meeting of a company's shareholders n. group of people chosen to establish policy for and control a company n. person who heads a Board of Directors; head of a company; chairperson n. a member of the board of directors n. person managing the affairs of a corporation - chief executive officer n. n. a company's principal or main office or centre of control n. person responsible for day-to-day running of a dept.; executive officerUS n. senior director after the chairman responsible for day-to-day direction n. department that puts goods on market, inc. packaging, advertising etc n. a table or plan showing a company's structure graphically n. department responsible for recruitment and welfare of staff or employees n. the highest executive officer of a company; head of a company n. department responsible for physical creation of product n. department responsible for finding and buying everything for a company n. department responsible for Research and Development of (new) products n. the place where visitors and clients report on arrival at a company n. department responsible for finding customers and making sales n. person who holds or owns shares in or a part of a company or corporation n. any of several executive officers, each responsible for a separate division

3 board of directors 4 chairmanUK 5 director 6 executive officerUS 7 headquarters 8 manager 9 managing directorUK 10 Marketing Dept. 11 organisation chart 12 Personnel Dept. 13 presidentUS 14 Production Dept. 15 Purchasing Dept. 16 R & D Department 17 reception 18 Sales Department 19 shareholder 20 vice president
US

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

English Vocabulary

125

EMPLOYMENT
1 bonus 2 curriculum vitae 3 dismiss 4 employer 5 fireUS 6 interview 7 make redundantUK 8 maternity leave 9 notice 10 perk 11 personnel 12 personnel officer 13 promotion 14 prospects 15 recruit 16 resign 17 retire 18 salary 19 staff 20 take on
UK

n. additional pay given to employee as incentive or reward n. short account of one's education, career etc; CVUK; resumeUS; resumeUS v. to remove or discharge from employment; to sack [colloq.]; to fireUS n. person or firm who employs people - employeen. person employed v. [colloq.] to dismiss v. an oral examination of an applicant for a job - alsov. v. [made, made] to dismiss because of not being needed - redundancyUKn. n. period of absence from work (for a woman) when having a baby n. advance warning of intention to resign - to give or tender one's noticev. abbr. perquisite; something additional to regular salary [eg: free meals; a car] n. the people who work for a firm n. manager responsible for recruitment, training and welfare of personnel n. advancement in rank or position - to promotev. n. opportunity for success, promotion etc n. to look for and employ personnel - recruitmentn. v. to give up a job - letter of resignationn. v. to leave employment, esp. because of age - retirementn. n. a fixed, regular payment, usually monthly, made by employer to employee n. the people who work for a firm or a particular department; employees v. [took, taken] to employ; to hire

MEETINGS
1 A.G.M. 2 A.O.B. 3 absent 4 agenda 5 apologies 6 ballot 7 casting vote 8 chairman 9 conference 10 conference call 11 consensus 12 decision 13 item 14 matters arising 15 minutes 16 proxy vote 17 show of hands 18 unanimous 19 videoconference abbr. Annual General Meeting abbr. Any Other Business [usually the last item on an agenda] adj. not here; not at the meeting; not present n. a written program me or schedule for a meeting n. item on agenda announcing people who are absent; apologies for absence n. a type of vote, usually in writing and usually secret- secret ballot. n. a deciding vote (usually by the chairman) when the votes are otherwise equal n. the person who leads or presides at a meeting; chairperson; chair n. formal meeting for discussion, esp. a regular one held by an organization n. telephone call between three or more people in different locations n. general agreement n. a conclusion or resolution to do something - to decide. n. a separate point for discussion [as listed on an agenda] n. item on agenda for discussion of what has happened as a result of last meeting n. a written record of everything said at a meeting n. a vote cast by one person for or in place of another n. raised hands to express an opinion in a vote adj. in complete agreement; united in opinion n. conference of people in different locations linked by satellite, TV etc Confidence, Fluency & Personality

English Vocabulary

126

20 vote

v. to express opinion in a group by voice or hand etc - alson. - to cast a vote v.

MONEY
1 A.T.M. 2 banknote 3 billUS 4 black market 5 bureau de change 6 cash 7 cash dispenserUK 8 cashier 9 coin 10 currency 11 debt 12 exchange rate 13 foreign exchange 14 hard currency 15 invest 16 legal tender 17 petty cashUK 18 soft currency 19 speculate 20 transaction abbr. Automated Teller Machine; cash dispenserUK n: a piece of paper money; billUS n. a banknote; a piece of paper money n. illegal traffic in officially controlled commodities such as foreign currency n. establishment where currencies of different countries may be exchanged n. 1 coins or bank notes (not cheques); 2 actual money paid (not credit) n: automatic machine from which clients of a bank may withdraw money; ATM n. person dealing with cash transactions in a bank, store etc n: a piece of metal money n. the money in general use or circulation in any country n. money etc owed by one person to another n. the rate at which one currency can be exchanged for another n: the currency of other countries n. currency that will probably not fall in value and is readily accepted v. to put money for profit into business, land etc - investmentn. n: currency that cannot legally be refused in payment of a debt n. a cash fund for small, everyday expenses n. currency that will probably fall in value and is not readily accepted v. (risky) buying of foreign currency, land etc for rapid gain - speculationn. n. a (usually commercial) exchange; a deal - to transactv.

ADVERTISING
1 ad 2 advertisement 3 advertising agency 4 AIDA 5 benefit 6 billboard
US

abbr. advertisement - advertabbr. n. item of publicity for a product or service, in magazine, on TV etc n. company specialising in producing and placing advertisements for clients abbr. Attention, Interest, Desire, Action - the objective of all advertisements n. advantage of a product or service, usually derived from its features n. signboard, usually outdoors, for advertising posters; hoarding UK n. average number of copies of a magazine sold in a particular period n. small advertisements in magazine or newspaper categorised by subject n. paid advertisement on radio or TV n. part of a printed advertisement used for ordering goods, samples etc n. advertisement printed across 2 pages in a magazine or newspaper n. something that especially attracts one's attention - eye-catchingadj. n. special characteristics of a product, usually leading to certain benefits
UK US

7 circulation 8 classified ads 9 commercial 10 coupon 11 double-page spread 12 eye-catcher 13 features 14 hoarding 15 poster 16 prime time 17 promote

n. signboard, usually outdoors, for advertising posters; billboard US n. large sheet of paper, usually illustrated, used as advertisement n. hours on radio & TV with largest audience, esp. the evening hours v. to (try to) increase sales of a product by publicising and advertising it

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

English Vocabulary

127

18 slot 19 target 20 U.S.P.

n. specific time in a broadcasting schedule, when a commercial may be shown n. objective; what one is aiming at - target audiencen. abbr. Unique Selling Proposition; what makes a product different from others

BANKING
1 balance 2 bank charges 3 branch 4 checkbookUS 5 checkUS 6 credit 7 credit card 8 current account 9 debit 10 deposit account 11 fill inUK 12 interest 13 loan 14 overdraft 15 pay in 16 payee 17 paying-in slip 18 standing order 19 statement 20 withdraw n. the difference between credits and debits in an account n. money paid to a bank for the bank's services etc n. local office or bureau of a bank n. book containing detachable checks; cheque bookUK n. written order to a bank to pay the stated sum from one's account; cheque UK n. money in a bank a/c; sum added to a bank a/c; money lent by a bank - also. n. (plastic) card from a bank authorising the purchasing of goods on credit n. bank a/c from which money may be drawn at any time; checking accounts n. a sum deducted from a bank account, as for a cheque - alsov. n. bank a/c on which interest is paid; savings accounts v. to add written information to a document to make it complete; to fill out US n. money paid for the use of money lent - interest rate n. n. money lent by a bank etc and that must be repaid with interest - alsov. n. deficit in a bank account caused by withdrawing more money than is paid in v. [paid, paid] to deposit or put money in to a bank account n. person to whom money is paid n. small document recording money that you pay in to a bank account n. an instruction to a bank to make regular payments n. a record of transactions in a bank account v. [-drew, -drawn] to take money out of a bank account - withdrawal.

MARKETING
1 brand 2 consumer 3 cost 4 develop 5 distribution 6 end-user 7 image 8 label 9 launch 10 mail order 11 market research 12 packaging 14 product 15 public relations
UK

n. a particular make of product - to brand v. - branded adj. n. the person who buys and uses a product or service - to consumer. v. [cost, costed, costed] to estimate the price of making a product - costing. v. to create a new product or improve an existing one - product development. n. the delivering of products to end-users, inc. advertising, storing etc n. the person, customer etc who is the ultimate (and so real) user of a product n. the concept or perception of a firm or product held by the general public n. small piece of paper, metal etc on a product giving information about it v. to introduce a new product, with publicity etc - product launch. n. the selling of goods by post - mail-order catalogue. n. study of consumers' needs & preferences, often for a particular product n. the wrapping or container for a product n. the place where a product is actually sold to the public - point-of-salad. n. something made to be sold; merchandise [includes services] - to produce. n. creation and maintenance of a good public image - public relations officer.

13 point of sale

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

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16 registered 17 sponsor 18 S.W.O.T. 19 total product 20 trademark

adj. registered or officially recorded as a trademark - ®abbr. - to register. n. firm supporting an organization in return for advertising space - alsov. abbr. Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats n. the whole product, inc. name, packaging, instructions, reliability, after-sales etc n. special symbol, design, word etc used to represent a product or firm - " abbr.

INSURANCE
1 actuary 2 assessor 3 claim 4 comprehensive 5 consequential loss 6 cover 7 employer's liability 8 goods in transit 9 insurance broker 10 liability 11 liable 12 loss 13 loss adjuster 14 policy 15 policyholder 16 premium 17 product liability 18 public liability 19 reinsurance 20 risk n. a person who calculates risks for insurance companies n. a person who calculates the value of something [eg: a building, car etc] n. an application for payment under an insurance policy - to make a claim. n. [of an insurance policy] all-inclusive; providing complete protection n. a loss that happens as a consequence of or as a result of another n. the protection given by an insurance policy [e.g.: public liability cover] n. liability or responsibility of a firm for damage caused to one of its employees n. property, merchandise or any goods in the process of being transported n. agent who arranges insurance; middleman between insurer & policyholder n. 1 the state of being liable 2 anything for which a person is liable adj. legally obliged to pay for damage, injury etc; responsible - liability. n. death, injury, damage etc that is the basis for a claim - to lose. n. a person who assesses the amount of compensation arising from a claim n. a contract of insurance [eg: a product liability policy] n. the person to whom an insurance policy is issued n. a payment, usually monthly, yearly etc, for an insurance policy n. liability or responsibility of a firm for damage caused by one of its products n. responsibility of a firm for damage caused to a member of the public n. the insuring of risk by one insurance company with another - to reinsure. n.1 chance or possibility of injury, loss etc 2 person or thing causing risk

CONTRACTS
1 agreement 2 appendix 3 arbitration 4 article 5 clause 6 condition 7 force majeure 8 fulfill 9 herein 10 hereinafter 11 hereto n. an arrangement between two or more people, countries etc; contract n. additional or supplementary material at end of contract, book etc n. settlement of a dispute by a person chosen by both parties - to arbitrate. n. a particular statement or stipulation in a contract etc; clause n. a particular statement or stipulation in a contract etc; article n. anything necessary before the performance of something else n. superior, power; unforeseeable event excusing one party from fulfilling contract v: to satisfy a condition; to complete the required task; to fulfills adv: in here; in this (document etc) adv: in the following part (of this document etc) adv: to this (document etc) [eg: attached hereto] Confidence, Fluency & Personality

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12 heretofore 13 in behalf of 14 null and void 15 on the one hand 16 party 17 stipulate 18 terms 19 warrant 20 whereas

adv: up until now; until the present; before this in the interests of (person etc); for (person etc); on behalf of UK invalid; without legal force; not binding on one side - on the other hand on the other side n. the person or persons forming one side of an agreement v. to specify as an essential condition - stipulationn. n. conditions or stipulations v. to give formal assurance; to guarantee conj: it being the case that; in view of the fact that [in introduction to contracts]

SELLING
1 after-sales service 2 buyer 3 client 4 close 5 cold call 6 customer 7 deal 8 discount 9 follow up 10 guarantee 11 in bulk 12 lead 13 objection 14 overcome 15 product 16 prospect 17 representative 18 retail 19 service 20 wholesale n. service that continues after a product has been sold [eg: repairs etc] n.1 any person who buys anything 2 a person employed by a firm to buy n. a person who buys services from a lawyer, architect or other professionals v. to finalise a deal or sale; to make a sale v. to telephone a prospect without previous contact - alson. n. a person who buys goods or services from a shop or business n. a business transaction - alsov. dealer n. n. a reduction in the price; a deduction [usually expressed as a percentage (%)] v. to continue to follow persistently; to maintain contact [eg: after a lead] n. a promise that a product will be repaired or replaced etc if faulty - alsov. in large quantity, usually at a lower price n. useful indication of a possible customer to be followed up n. a reason given by a prospect for not buying - to objectv.seeovercome v. [-came, -come] to overcome an obj-ection to show an objection is invalid n. something made and usually for sale - to producev.seeservice n. a possible or probable customer; prospective customer n.sales representative person who represents & sells for a firm; salesperson v. to sell in small quantities (as in a shop to the public) - alson.see wholesale n. work done usually in return for payment - to servev.see product v. to sell in bulk (as to a shop for resale to the public) - alson.see retail

POLITICAL VOCABULARY
Government- the institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies Public policies- all of the goals a government sets and the various courses of action it pursues as it attempts to realize these goals Legislative power- the power to make law an to frame public policies Executive power- the power to execute, enforce, and administer law Judicial power- the power to interpret laws, to determine their meaning, and to settle disputes that arise within the society Confidence, Fluency & Personality

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Constitution- is the body of fundamental laws Dictatorship- a form of government in which the leader has absolute power and authority Democracy- a form of government in which the supreme authority rests with the people State- a body of people, living in a defined territory, organized politically, and with the power to make and enforce law without the consent of any higher authority. Sovereign- having supreme absolute power within its own territory; neither subordinate nor responsible to any other authority Autocracy- a government in which a single person holds unlimited political power Oligarchy- a government in which the power to rule is held by a small, usually self-appointed elite Unitary government- all powers held by the government belong to a single, central agency Federal government- powers of government are divided between a central government and several local governments Division of powers- basic principle of federalism; the constitutional provisions by which governmental powers are divided on a geographic basis Confederation- a joining of several groups for a common purpose Presidential government-a form of government in which the executive and legislative branches of the government are separate, independent, and coequal Parliamentary government-a form of government in which the executive branch is mad up of the prime minister, or premier and the official’s cabinet Compromise- an adjustment of opposing principles or systems by modifying some aspect of each Free enterprise system-an economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods; investments that are determined by private decision rather than by state control, and determined in a free market Law of supply and demand- a law which states that when supplies of goods and services become plentiful, prices tend to drop Mixed economy-an economy in which private enterprise exists in combination with a considerable amount of government regulation and promotion

PHRASAL VERB LIST
Verb Ask someone out ask around add up to something Meaning invite on a date ask many people the same question equal Confidence, Fluency & Personality Example Brian asked Judy out to dinner and a movie. I asked around but nobody has seen my wallet. Your purchases add up to $205.32.

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Back something up Back someone up blow up Blow something up break down break down Break something down break in break into something Break something in break in break up break up break out break out in something Bring someone down Bring someone up Bring something up Bring something up call around Call someone back Call something off call on someone call on someone Call someone up

reverse support explode add air stop functioning (vehicle, machine) get upset divide into smaller parts force entry to a building enter forcibly wear something a few times so that it doesn't look/feel new interrupt end a relationship start laughing (informal) escape develop a skin condition make unhappy raise a child start talking about a subject vomit phone many different places/people return a phone call cancel ask for an answer or opinion visit someone phone Confidence, Fluency & Personality

You'll have to back up your car so that I can get out. My wife backed me up over my decision to quit my job. The racing car blew up after it crashed into the fence. We have to blow 50 balloons up for the party. Our car broke down at the side of the highway in the snowstorm. The woman broke down when the police told her that her son had died. Our teacher broke the final project down into three separate parts. Somebody broke in last night and stole our stereo. The firemen had to break into the room to rescue the children. I need to break these shoes in before we run next week. The TV station broke in to report the news of the president's death. My boyfriend and I broke up before I moved to America. The kids just broke up as soon as the clown started talking. The prisoners broke out of jail when the guards weren't looking. I broke out in a rash after our camping trip. This sad music is bringing me down. My grandparents brought me up after my parents died. My mother walks out of the room when my father brings up sports. He drank so much that he brought his dinner up in the toilet. We called around but we weren't able to find the car part we needed. I called the company back but the offices were closed for the weekend. Jason called the wedding off because he wasn't in love with his fiancé. The professor called on me for question 1. We called on you last night but you weren't home. Give me your phone number and I will

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callyou up when we are in town. calm down not care for someone/something catch up check in check out Check someone/ something out check out someone/something cheer up Cheer someone up chip in Clean something up come across something come apart come down with something come forward come from somewhere count on someone/something Cross something out cut back on something Cut something down cut in cut in cut in relax after being angry not like (formal) get to the same point as someone else arrive and register at a hotel or airport leave a hotel look at carefully, investigate look at (informal) become happier make happier help tidy, clean find unexpectedly separate become sick volunteer for a task or to give evidence originate in rely on draw a line through consume less make something fall to the ground interrupt pull in too closely in front of another vehicle start operating (of an engine or electrical Confidence, Fluency & Personality You are still mad. You need to calm down before you drive the car. I don't care for his behaviour. You'll have to run faster than that if you want to catch up with Marty. We will get the hotel keys when we check in. You have to check out of the hotel before 11:00 AM. The company checks out all new employees. Check out the crazy hair on that guy! She cheered up when she heard the good news. I brought you some flowers to cheer you up. If everyone chips in we can get the kitchen painted by noon. Please clean up your bedroom before you go outside. I came across these old photos when I was tidying the closet. The top and bottom come apart if you pull hard enough. My nephew came down with chicken pox this weekend. The woman came forward with her husband's finger prints. The art of origami comes from Asia. I am counting on you to make dinner while I am out. Please cross out your old address and write your new one. My doctor wants me to cut back on sweets and fatty foods. We had to cut the old tree in our yard down after the storm. Your father cut in while I was dancing with your uncle. The bus driver got angry when that car cut in. The air conditioner cuts in when the

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device) Cut something off Cut something off Cut someone off Cut something out Do someone/something over Do something over do away with something Do something up dress up drop back drop in/by/over Drop someone/ something off drop out eat out end up fall apart fall down fall out fall out Figure something out Fill something in Fill something out Fill something up remove with something sharp stop providing take out of a will remove part of something (usually with scissors and paper) beat up, ransack (Br.E., informal) do again (N.Amer.) discard fasten, close wear nice clothing move back in a position/group come without an appointment take someone/something somewhere and leave them/it there quit a class, school etc eat at a restaurant eventually reach/do/decide break into pieces fall to the ground separate from an interior (of hair, teeth) become loose and unattached understand, find the answer to write information in blanks (Br.E.) to write information in blanks (N.Amer.) fill to the top Confidence, Fluency & Personality

temperature gets to 22°C. The doctors cut off his leg because it was severely injured. The phone company cut off our phone because we didn't pay the bill. My grandparents cut my father off when he remarried. I cut this ad out of the newspaper. He's lucky to be alive. His shop was done over by a street gang. My teacher wants me to do my essay over because she doesn't like my topic. It's time to do away with all of these old tax records. Do your coats up before you go outside? It's snowing! It's a fancy restaurant so we have to dress up. Andrea dropped back to third place when she fell off her bike. I might drop in/by/over for tea sometime this week. I have to drop my sister off at work before I come over. I dropped out of Science because it was too difficult. I don't feel like cooking tonight. Let's eat out. We ended up renting a movie instead of going to the theatre. My new dress fell apart in the washing machine. The picture that you hung up last night fell down this morning. The money must have fallen out of my pocket. His hair started to fall out when he was only 35. I need to figure out how to fit the piano and the bookshelf in this room. Please fill in the form with your name, address, and phone number. The form must be filled out in capital letters. I always fill the water jug up when it is

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empty. find out Find something out Get something across/over get along/on get around get away get away with something get back Get something back get back at someone get back into something get on something get over something get over something get round to something get together get up get up give someone away Give someone away Give something away givesomethingaway givesomethingback give in Give something out discover discover communicate, make understandable like each other have mobility go on a vacation do without being noticed or punished return receive something you had before retaliate, take revenge become interested in something again step onto a vehicle recover from an illness, loss, difficulty overcome a problem finally find time to do (N.Amer.: get around tosomething) meet (usually for social reasons) get out of bed stand reveal hidden information about someone take the bride to the altar ruin a secret give something to someone for free return a borrowed item reluctantly stop fighting or arguing give to many people (usually at no cost) We don't know where he lives. How can we find out? We tried to keep the time of the party a secret, but Samantha found it out. I tried to get my point across/over to the judge but she wouldn't listen. I was surprised how well my new girlfriend and my sister got along/on. My grandfather can get around fine in his new wheelchair. We worked so hard this year that we had to get away for a week. Jason always gets away with cheating in his maths tests. We got back from our vacation last week. Liz finally got her Science notes back from my room-mate. My sister got back at me for stealing her shoes. She stole my favourite hat. I finally got back into my novel and finished it. We're going to freeze out here if you don't let us get on the bus. I just got over the flu and now my sister has it. The company will have to close if it can't get over the new regulations. I don't know when I am going to get round to writing the thank you cards. Let's get together for a BBQ this weekend. I got up early today to study for my exam. You should get up and give the elderly man your seat. His wife gave him away to the police. My father gave me away at my wedding. My little sister gave the surprise party away by accident. The library was giving away old books on Friday. I have to give these skates back to Franz before his hockey game. My boyfriend didn't want to go to the ballet, but he finally gave in. They were giving out free perfume samples at the department store.

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

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Give something up give up go after some one go after something go against someone go ahead go back go out go out with someone go over something go over go without something grow apart grow back grow up grow out of something grow into something Hand something down Hand something in Hand something out Hand something over hang in hang on hang out hang up Hold someone/something back

quit a habit stop trying follow someone try to achieve something compete, oppose start, proceed return to a place leave home to go on a social event date review visit someone nearby suffer lack or deprivation stop being friends over time Re grow become an adult get too big for grow big enough to fit give something used to someone else submit to distribute to a group of people give (usually unwillingly) stay positive (N.Amer., informal) wait a short time (informal) spend time relaxing (informal) end a phone call prevent from doing/going

I am giving up smoking as of January 1st. My maths homework was too difficult so I gave up. My brother tried to go after the thief in his car. I went after my dream and now I am a published writer. We are going against the best soccer team in the city tonight. Please go ahead and eat before the food gets cold. I have to go back home and get my lunch. We're going out for dinner tonight. Jesse has been going out with Luke since they met last winter. Please go over your answers before you submit your test. I haven't seen Tina for a long time. I think I'll go over for an hour or two. When I was young, we went without winter boots. My best friend and I grew apart after she changed schools. My roses grew back this summer. When Jack grows up he wants to be a fireman. Elizabeth needs a new pair of shoes because she has grown out of her old ones. This bike is too big for him now, but he should grow into it by next year. I handed my old comic books down to my little cousin. I have to hand in my essay by Friday. We will hand out the invitations at the door. The police asked the man to hand over his wallet and his weapons. Hang in there. I'm sure you'll find a job very soon. Hang on while I grab my coat and shoes! Instead of going to the party we are just going to hang out at my place. He didn't say goodbye before he hung up. I had to hold my dog back because there was a cat in the park.

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

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Hold something back hold on hold onto someone/something Hold someone/something up keep on doing something Keep something from someone Keep someone/something out Keep something up Let someone down Let someone in look after someone/something look down on someone look for someone/something look forward to something look into something look out look out for someone/something Look something over Look something up look up to someone Make something up make up Make someone up Mix something up pass away

hide an emotion wait a short time hold firmly using your hands or arms rob continue doing not tell stop from entering continue at the same rate fail to support or help, disappoint allow to enter take care of think less of, consider inferior try to find be excited about the future investigate be careful, vigilant, and take notice be especially vigilant for check, examine search and find information in a reference book or database have a lot of respect for invent, lie about something forgive each other apply cosmetics to confuse two or more things die Confidence, Fluency & Personality

Jamie held back his tears at his grandfather's funeral. Please hold on while I transfer you to the Sales Department. Hold onto your hat because it's very windy outside. A man in a black mask held the bank up this morning. Keep on stirring until the liquid comes to a boil. We kept our relationship from our parents for two years. Try to keep the wet dog out of the living room. If you keep those results up you will get into a great college. I need you to be on time. Don't let me down this time. Can you let the cat in before you go to school? I have to look after my sick grandmother. Ever since we stole that chocolate bar your dad has looked down on me. I'm looking for a red dress for the wedding. I'm looking forward to the Christmas break. We are going to look into the price of snowboards today. Look out! That car's going to hit you! Don't forget to look out for snakes on the hiking trail. Can you look over my essay for spelling mistakes? We can look her phone number up on the Internet. My little sister has always looked up to me. Josie made up a story about about why we were late. We were angry last night, but we made up at breakfast. My sisters made me up for my graduation party. I mixed up the twins' names again! His uncle passed away last night after a

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long illness. pass out Pass something out Pass something up Pay someone back pay for something Pick something out Point someone/something out Put something down Put someone down Put something off Put something out Put something together put up with someone/something Put something on run into someone/something run over someone/something run over/through something run away run out Send something back Set something up Set someone up shop around faint give the same thing to many people decline (usually something good) return owed money be punished for doing something bad choose indicate with your finger put what you are holding on a surface or floor insult, make someone feel stupid postpone extinguish assemble tolerate put clothing/accessories on your body meet unexpectedly drive a vehicle over a person or thing rehearse, review leave unexpectedly, escape have none left return (usually by mail) arrange, organize trick, trap compare prices Confidence, Fluency & Personality It was so hot in the church that an elderly lady passed out. The professor passed the textbooks out before class. I passed up the job because I am afraid of change. Thanks for buying my ticket. I'll pay you back on Friday. That bully will pay for being mean to my little brother. I picked out three sweaters for you to try on. I'll point my boyfriend out when he runs by. You can put the groceries down on the kitchen counter. The students put the substitute teacher down because his pants were too short. We are putting off our trip until January because of the hurricane. The neighbors put the fire out before the firemen arrived. I have to put the crib together before the baby arrives. I don't think I can put up with three small children in the car. Don't forget to put on your new earrings for the party. I ran into an old school-friend at the mall. I accidentally ran over your bicycle in the driveway. Let's run over/through these lines one more time before the show. The child ran away from home and has been missing for three days. We ran out of shampoo so I had to wash my hair with soap. My letter got sent back to me because I used the wrong stamp. Our boss set a meeting up with the president of the company. The police set up the car thief by using a hidden camera. I want to shop around a little before I

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decide on these boots. show off sleep over Sort something out stick to something Switch something off Switch something on take after someone Take something apart Take something back take off Take something off Take something out Take someone out Tear something up think back Think something over Throw something away Turn something own Turn something down Turn something off Turn something on Turn something up turn up act extra special for people watching (usually boastfully) stay somewhere for the night (informal) organize, resolve a problem continue doing something, limit yourself to one particular thing stop the energy flow, turn off start the energy flow, turn on resemble a family member purposely break into pieces return an item start to fly remove something (usually clothing) remove from a place or thing pay for someone to go somewhere with you rip into pieces remember (often + to, sometimes + on) consider dispose of decrease the volume or strength (heat, light etc) refuse stop the energy flow, switch off start the energy, switch on increase the volume or strength (heat, light etc) appear suddenly He always shows off on his skateboard You should sleep over tonight if the weather is too bad to drive home. We need to sort the bills out before the first of the month. You will lose weight if you stick to the diet. The light's too bright. Could you switch it off. We heard the news as soon as we switched on the car radio. I take after my mother. We are both impatient. He took the car brakes apart and found the problem. I have to take our new TV back because it doesn't work. My plane takes off in five minutes. Take off your socks and shoes and come in the lake! Can you take the garbage out to the street for me? My grandparents took us out for dinner and a movie. I tore up my ex-boyfriend's letters and gave them back to him. When I think back on my youth, I wish I had studied harder. I'll have to think this job offer over before I make my final decision. We threw our old furniture away when we won the lottery. Please turn the TV down while the guests are here. I turned the job down because I don't want to move. Your mother wants you to turn the TV off and come for dinner. It's too dark in here. Let's turn some lights on. Can you turn the music up? This is my favourite song. Our cat turned up after we put posters up all over the neighbourhood.

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

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139

Try something on Try something out Use something up wake up Warm someone/something up warm up wear off work out work out Work something out

sample clothing test finish the supply stop sleeping increase the temperature prepare body for exercise fade away exercise be successful make a calculation

I'm going to try these jeans on, but I don't think they will fit. I am going to try this new brand of detergent out. The kids used all of the toothpaste up so we need to buy some more. We have to wake up early for work on Monday. You can warm your feet up in front of the fireplace. I always warm up by doing sit-ups before I go for a run. Most of my make-up wore off before I got to the party. I work out at the gym three times a week. Our plan worked out fine. We have to work out the total cost before we buy the house.

CHECK YOUR VOCABULARY If someone is no longer living, they are - Dead If something is not clean, it is - Dirty This is a precious stone often found in expensive rings. Diamond If you say that something is not true. You -----something. - Deny When someone drinks too much vodka they are will probably become - Drunk Somebody who can't hear is said to be - Deaf If you have a toothache you might want to visit a - Dentist This kind of book is used to find the spelling of words - Dictionary A person who strongly admires a particular person or is extremely interested in a subject is known as a - Devotee Someone who wants to lose weight goes on a - Diet They decided to ------their children on an intensive English course at 'Countdown' - Enroll The opposite of full is - Empty The army is reported to be------- considerable resistance in some remote rural areas. - Encountering If someone leaves home secretly in order to get married without parental agreement they - Elope Is the tendency to think only about you and consider yourself better and more important than other people? - Egoism We’ve decided to get married, and we're going to announce our at the party on Saturday. - Engagement What "E word" means all places? Ever where The imaginary line that runs around the middle of the earth is called the - Equator An--------- is a sudden movement of the Earth's surface, sometimes causing great damage. - Earthquake Another word for simple, easy or basic is - Elementary Confidence, Fluency & Personality

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An imaginary creature with magical powers is called a - Fairy Something you like the most is your - Favorite To apply for a passport you have to fill out an application - Form Someone who is careful with money or food is - Frugal A slang term for someone who acts in a silly, stupid, foolish or strange way is. E.g. my teacher’s a bit of a - Fruitcake Two weeks is also called a - Fortnight Something which is easily broken or damaged is - Fragile Light brown marks on the skin are called - Freckles Something given away for no money is - Free Something which is exactly what it appears to be; real; not false is - Genuine The sticky substance which is used for joining things like paper together is called - Glue The spirit of a dead person believed by some to visit the living is known as a - Ghost Was first played in Scotland and involves hitting a little white ball into a hole - Golf A person who has a degree from a university or college is known as a - Graduate Your mother's parents and your father's parents are your – Grand Parents The color you get when you mix white and black paint together is - Grey Dark green or red fruit which grows on vines and are used to make wine are called - Grapes The musical instrument played by Eric Clapton, Jimi Hendrix and Jimmy Page is a - Guitar The place where a dead person is buried is known as a - Grave We left in such a ------- that we forgot our tickets. - Hurry Kate has a real ---------- for adventure. Hunger Emily ------- her teddy bear tightly to her chest. Hugged The terrorists seized 20 --------- and are threatening to kill one a day unless their demands are met. Hostages We were--------------- by the size of the bill. Horrified He was ----------- busy the bedroom carpet when I arrived home from work. - Hovering The dog found a ------------- in the ground and hid the bone there. - Hole They spent so much on the wedding that they couldn't afford to have a ---------------.Honeymoon People who ----------- show they want a lift by holding up their thumb to passing traffic. Hitch Hike It’s-------------- watching him try to flirt with women half his age. Hilarious I don't understand the details but I have got a rough -------- of what you want. - Idea It is -------------- to drive a car that it is not taxed and insured. Illegal Can you ----------------- how it feels to be blind? Imagine She is rather ------------------------ for her age, don't you think? Immature It is considered --------------------- to ask people how much they earn. Impolite The ---------------- in the number of unemployed was larger than expected. Increase It’s difficult to fly straight from the USA to Africa - you usually have to take an -------------- flight via Europe. Indirect Confidence, Fluency & Personality

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When she dies her children will -------------- £ 200,000 .Inherit We --------------- to go to Australia next year if everything goes well. Intend All the men were ---------------- in the robbery. Involved The word for the place where criminals are kept as punishment for their crime is - Jail The word to describe speaking so quickly that it is difficult to understand is - Jabber A -------------is a piece of equipment which you might use to lift a car to change the tyre. Jack Is the precious green stone from which jewelry and small models are made? Jade A sweet soft substance made by cooking fruit with sugar to preserve it is - Jam A -------------- is a picture stuck onto wood or cardboard and cut into irregular pieces which must be joined together correctly to form the picture again. Jigsaw A thin wooden stick covered with a substance which burns slowly and produces a pleasant smell is a -----------. They are very popular in India and Nepal. Joss Stick The word describing, to give or to be a good reason for something is - Justify -----------Is another word for something which is extremely large? Jumbo A -------------- is a journey or visit made for pleasure by an official, which is paid for by someone else. Junket My sister is very -------- on playing tennis. Keen He knows all about computers but being able to explain them to others is a different ------------- of fish. Kettle The------------ to the magazine's success was that it employed new exciting writers. Key Thank you for giving me your seat that was very------------- of you. Kind We took plastic -------------- and forks on our picnic. Knives The manager---------------- £5 off because the dress had a few buttons missing. Knocked His ------------------------- of English grammar is very extensive. Knowledge She --------------- down and tried to see under the door. Knelt I've been reading a book about the adventures of King Arthur and his…………….. - Knights The ……………..on the bottle says not to take more than 6 tablets a day. Label A room or building with scientific equipment for doing scientific tests or a room where chemicals or medicines are produced is called a - Laboratory I …………. the energy that is required to look after children - Lack You are too small. You will need a …………….to paint the ceiling. Ladder The boat ride on the Moscow River past the Kremlin and other historic …………… takes two hours. Landmark He has calculated costs down to the ……………..Penny. Last There are plastic and wooden garden chairs but the …………. are more expensive. Latter The doctor advised him to…………………… off smoking. Leave I am already late for my bus. Could you give me a …………… to the school. Lift She fell deeply in …………….with a friend of her brother's. Love If something is very small, it is - Midget or Minute Confidence, Fluency & Personality

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The bakery was shut so I didn’t …………….to buy any bread. Manage Ground near a lake, river or the sea that tends to flood and is always wet is called a - Marsh Her remarkable success as a rock star is partly due to her ability to ………………… the media. Manipulate To………………. means to walk with regular steps keeping the body stiff, esp. in a formal group of people who are walking in the same way. March I usually play football with some of my ………… from school on Saturdays. Mates Girls are said to …………………… faster than boys. Mature A person who thinks and acts in an independent way, often behaving differently from the expected or usual way is called a - Maverick Michael is a ………………. of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Member I’ve left my watch at the jeweler’s to be - Mended To …………means to criticize or complain repeatedly and annoyingly, often as a way of trying to persuade someone to do something - Nag I like to take a little………….. after Sunday lunch. Nap We got out in time but it was a ……………. escape. Narrow You are a very………………girl, pulling the head off yours sister doll! Naughty A thin metal pin, used in sewing, which is pointed at one end and has a hole called an eye at the other end is called a Needle I’m afraid I've rather…………… the house this week so it's a bit of a mess. Neglected A shop whose main business is selling newspapers and magazines is called a……………..Newsagent Although he was a ………………….he worked in a factory and never used his title. Noble ………………Sunbathing is only allowed on certain beaches. Nude Raw spinach is very ……………..which means that it contains many of the substances needed for life and growth. Nutritious An…………… is a long pole with a wide flat part at one end which is used for rowing a boat. - Oar A child whose parents are dead is an. -Orphan I strongly ……………… to being called a thief! – Object They talk in an…………………. jargon that is almost impossible to understand. Obscure Something that blocks you so that movement, going forward or action are prevented or made more difficult is called an. - Obstacle Time spent working beyond the usual time needed or expected in a job is called - Overtime Something you are told to do by someone else and which you must do is an……………..Order An…………………. is someone who watches something that is happening in a public place but is not involved in it. Onlooker A very large, flightless bird from Africa which is sometimes bred on farms is called an - Ostrich ………………………….People are those who weigh too much. Overweight Confidence, Fluency & Personality

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A young pig is called a – Piglet An urgent or emotional request is a - Plea A student who has already obtained one degree and is studying at a university for a more advanced qualification is called a ………………. Student - Postgraduate Another word for exact and accurate is……………….. Precise A ……………. is a small type of horse. Pony A small solid piece of medicine which a person swallows is called a - Pill A language which has developed from a mixture of two languages is a. Pidgin Another word for small and delicate is - Petite A ………………..is the name for a computer small enough to fit in your hand. Palmtop …………………..is one word for something which is unusual and strange. Peculiar To……………..Means to achieve or have the standard of skill, knowledge or ability that is necessary for doing or being something - Qualify ……………………..is the amount of something that can be measured, weighed, counted, etc. or a fixed amount or number. Quantity One of four equal or equal parts of something is a ………………… Quarter To ……………… something means to stop or crush something. E.g. the company moved quickly to ………………….rumors that it is going to close its factory. Quash A……………… is a woman who rules a country, because she has been born into a royal family or a woman who is married to a king. Queen A ……………. is a question, often expressing doubt about something or looking for an answer from an authority.Query A ……………. is a line of people, usually standing or in cars, waiting for something. Queue An amusing and clever remark is a………... Quip A game or competition in which you answer questions is a……………. Quiz A……………..Is a phrase or short piece of writing taken from a longer work of literature, poetry etc., or what someone else has said? Quotation An instrument for sucking up and squirting out liquids, sometimes with a needle for injections is called a …………………….Syringe Another word for a pig is ………… Swine To overthrow or ruin completely is to …………..Subvert A piece of wood used to keep a broken arm or leg in a fixed position while it heals is called a ……………Splint One of the ribs or bars from the center to the rim of the wheel of a bicycle, cart etc. is called a …………………..Spoke The word for waiting about or keeping oneself hidden is………………..Skulk If you were excessively obedient or respectful you might be described as ……..Servile The adjective to describe something which affects the senses pleasantly is…………….. Sensuous Confidence, Fluency & Personality

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A synonym for dirty or untidy is …………Scruffy The ornamental rod carried by a monarch on ceremonial occasions as a sign of power is a………………..Sceptre A female tiger is called a ……………Tigress If someone is slightly drunk (on alcohol!) they are …………….Tipsy A ………………. is a kind of tortoise, which lives in water. Turtle A cruel and unjust ruler is a……………..Tyrant A sudden sharp pain is called a………….Twinge An underground passage, cut through a hill or under a river is a………..Tunnel A synonym for very hot or passionate is …………….Torrid A small portable light powered by an electric battery is a………..Torch A slight quarrel with someone is a ………….Tiff The word for a young frog or toad in its first stage of development is………..Tadpole An imaginary country that has a perfect social and political system is…………Utopia If something needs immediate attention it is…………….Urgent A person who has risen quickly to wealth or power but seems to lack dignity or ability is an …………….Upstart A great change or disturbance is an ……………Upheaval The person who supervises a game of tennis or cricket is called an ……….Umpire Something which is rare or unusual might be described as…………….Uncommon A style of clothes that can be worn by both men and women is ……….. Unisex Something which is shameful or disgraceful is……………Unworthy Something which is always accurate is………….Unerring A strong impulse or desire is an……….Urge A person who moves from one place to another, in an idle or disreputable manner might be described as a …………….Vagabond A vehicle (smaller than a lorry) for carrying goods on roads is a ……………Van A professional entertainer who can speak so that his voice seems to come from another person or place is known as a Ventriloquist A number of lines of poetry, grouped together and forming a separate unit within a poem or song is a……………Verse Something which is of very great size is ……………Vast A person who is of bad character or wicked might be described as a ………Villain The word for throwing out the contents of the stomach through the mouth is…….Vomit If something is not valid or binding it is….. Void The verb used to describe the action: to annoy or distress somebody is……Vex To go, move, and walk etc. about from place to place with no definite destination in mind is to …………..Wander An armed struggle, usually between nations, is known as a ………..War Confidence, Fluency & Personality

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The arm-like limbs of a bird or bat, which it usually uses in flying, are called ……..Wings A type of alcoholic drink made from the fermented juice of grapes or other fruit is called …………….Wine A woman who is supposed to have powers of magic is called a…………….Witch The part of the body of a female mammal in which the young are developed and kept until birth is known as the……………..Womb A small line or crease on the skin is a ……….Wrinkle Another word for a photocopier (the machine used to copy documents) is …….Xerox A synonym for a story or tale is ……….Yarn The highest point is the……………Zenith What word is used for the meat of a cow or bull…………Beef This meat is sliced and served fried with eggs, mushrooms, tomatoes, sausages and bread for breakfast in Britain …………………. Bacon What word is used for the meat of a pig…………………Pork Young sheep's meat is called …………………Lamb The flesh of a fully grown sheep is called …………..Mutton The flesh of a deer used for eating is known as ……………..Venison

BONUS LESSON’S ENGLISH SPEAKING BASICS - SECTION I
I'm
'I'm' is an abbreviation for the word 'I AM.' It is used in combination with other words to tell someone about yourself or to describe something you are doing. Here are some examples: "I'm so tired." "I'm confused." "I'm happy." "I'm twenty three years old." "I'm hungry." "I'm nervous." "I'm excited." "I'm leaving work." "I'm thirsty."

"I'm from Seattle." You can also add descriptive words with 'I'm' such as: "I'm extremely tired." "I'm very happy." "I'm terribly hungry." "I am super excited." "I'm very nervous."

I'm in/at/on
Describes an action you are doing. Most commonly, you would use the word 'in' when entering a physical location such as a room or a building. Here are some examples: "I'm in the shower." "I'm in the lobby." "I'm in a car." "I'm in a house." "I'm in a school."

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"I'm good at sports." Using the word 'at' helps tell someone where you currently are. The difference between 'at' and 'in' is that the physical location is general. Here are some examples: "I'm good at writing." "I'm good at math." "I'm good at dancing." "I'm good at chess."

I'm + (verb)
"I'm at the grocery." "I'm at the mall." "I'm at the doctor's office." "I'm at the park." "I'm at the airport." Here are some examples: However, in some cases you can use 'at' and 'in' interchangeably. Here are some examples: "I'm at the mall." "I'm in the mall." "I'm at the park." "I'm in the park." "I'm at the grocery." "I'm in a grocery." Using the word 'on' is referring to a non-physical location such as your time being utilized by something else. Here are some examples: "I'm eating lunch." "I'm brushing my teeth." "I'm scared." "I'm driving to work." "I'm crying." "I'm typing an email." "I'm cooking dinner." "I'm combing my hair." "I'm hanging a picture." "I am texting." "I am dancing." "I am interested in the job." "I am exercising." "I am sad." "I am learning." 'I'm' is a contraction of the words 'I am.' By adding a verb to 'I'm' this lets you express an action or occurrence about yourself.

I'm getting
"I'm on the phone." "I'm on my computer." "I'm on a bus." When combining the words 'I am' and 'getting' you are telling someone 'you' are gaining possession, being affected by or have plans to seek out and obtain a particular thing. Here are some examples: "I'm getting better." Here are some examples: "I'm good at drawing." "I'm good at video games." "I'm good at swimming." "I'm good at driving." "I'm good at reading." "I'm getting ready for bed." "I'm getting a tooth ache." "I'm getting a cold." "I'm getting married." "I'm getting tired." "I'm getting good at reading." "I'm getting a new car." Confidence, Fluency & Personality

I'm good at
Again, 'I'm' is used here as 'I am.' 'Good at' informs someone what you excel at and are comfortable doing.

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"I'm getting a job." "I'm getting a puppy."

"I'm trying new food." "I'm trying to eat healthy." "I'm trying to understand."

I'm trying + (verb)
You may also hear the word 'trying' used to express a 'I am trying' informs someone that you are attempting to accomplish something using bodily, mental, or spiritual strength. By adding a verb to 'I'm trying' you are pointing out exactly what it is you are attempting to do. "Learning new things can be trying on you." Here are some examples: "I'm trying to get a job." "I'm trying to call my family." "I'm trying to enjoy my dinner." "I'm trying to educate myself." "I'm trying explain myself." "I'm trying new food." "I'm trying to eat healthy." "I'm trying to understand." You may also hear the word 'trying' used to express a way someone is feeling. In this manner, it expresses strain or distress. Here are some examples: "Learning new things can be trying on you." "These are some trying times we live in." "That marathon was very trying on me." "I'm gonna have some coffee." "I'm gonna go to work." "I'm gonna eat some cake." "I'm gonna send out my resume." "I'm gonna run a marathon." "I'm gonna ask her out for dinner." "I'm gonna stop smoking." "I'm gonna help my friends." "I'm gonna take swim lessons." "I'm gonna read a book." 'I am trying' informs someone that you are attempting to accomplish something using bodily, mental, or spiritual strength. By adding a verb to 'I'm trying' you are pointing out exactly what it is you are attempting to do. Here are some examples: Here are some examples: "I'm trying to get a job." "I'm trying to call my family." "I'm trying to enjoy my dinner." "I'm trying to educate myself." "I'm trying explain myself." "I have a cat." "I have a nice car." "I have a house." "I have a computer." Confidence, Fluency & Personality By using the words 'I have' you are informing someone of something you have possession of or have acquired. The word 'gonna' is incorrect grammatically. The equivalent in proper grammar would be 'going to.' When using the word 'gonna' you are telling someone what you are planning to do at that moment or in the near future. Here are some examples: "These are some trying times we live in." "That marathon was very trying on me." Here are some examples: way someone is feeling. In this manner, it expresses strain or distress.

I'm gonna + (verb)

I'm trying + (verb)

I have + (noun)

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"I have a headache." You may hear the words 'cannot' and 'won't' used with 'I have.' By adding these you can express what you will not put up with or allow.

"I don't have to use the telephone." "I don't have to go to the bathroom." "I don't have to leave." "I don't have to unpack my bags."

I wanna + (verb)
Here are some examples: The word 'wanna' is incorrect grammatically. It is "I cannot have that behavior in my house." "I cannot have you over tonight." "I won't have anything to do with that." "I won't have it any other way." Here are some examples: "I wanna talk." "I wanna search for a job." "I wanna order some food." "I wanna marry her." "I wanna listen to that song." By adding the word 'don't' you can change the meaning of what you are saying to something you 'want' to do to something you 'do not' want to do. Here are some examples: "I don't wanna talk." "I don't wanna search for a job." "I don't wanna marry her." "I don't wanna listen to that song." equivalent to 'want to.' When combined with the word 'I' it helps communicate something you want to do.

I used to + (verb)
'Used to' expresses something that was done in the past, and is not usually done now. Here are some examples: "I used to develop websites." "I used to jog every day." "I used to paint." "I used to smoke." "I used to work from home." "I used to live in California." "I used to go to the beach every day." "I used to sing in a choir." "I used to like vegetables." "I used to start work at 6 o'clock."

I have to + (verb)
The words 'have to' describe something that needs to take place soon. It expresses certainty, necessity, or obligation. Here are some examples: "I have to switch schools." "I have to use the telephone." "I have to go to the bathroom." "I have to leave." "I have to unpack my bags." You can also add the word 'don't' to suggest that someone is not required to do something. "I don't have to switch schools."

"I don't wanna order some food."

I gotta + (verb)
'I gotta' is grammatically incorrect. It is more of a spoken form. If you want to say this with proper grammar, the equivalent would be, 'I have got to' or 'I've got to'. In the spoken form, 'got to' is shortened to 'gotta' and the word 'have' is dropped. Here are some examples: "I gotta manage my money." "I gotta obey the laws." "I gotta move to a bigger house." "I gotta impress my boss." "I gotta brush my teeth."

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By adding the word 'have' you can change what you are saying to express something that needs to be done in the near future.

"I plan to read a book." "I plan to learn new things."

I've decided to + (verb)
Here are some examples: 'I've' is short for 'I have' and including the word "I have got to be on time to work." "I've gotta try harder at school." "I've gotta tell my wife I'll be late." "I've gotta learn more about the laws." "I've gotta clean my house today." "I've decided to accept the job." Here are some examples: 'decided' you are stating that you have made a decision or come to a conclusion.

I would like to + (verb)
This sentence lets someone know what you would be interested in doing. This can be a physical, mental or verbal action. Here are some examples: "I would like to answer that question." "I would like to compete in a cooking contest." "I would like to explain myself." "I would like to invite you over." "I would like to practice." "I would like to become a doctor." "I would like to see you more often." "I would like to thank you." "I would like to learn about animals." "I would like to meet the President."

"I've decided to complete my degree." "I've decided to change my bad habits." "I've decided to extend my membership at the gym." "I've decided to form a chess club." "I've decided to hand over my responsibilities." "I've decided to help you move." "I've decided to interview for the job." "I've decided to increase my work load." "I've decided to manage a store."

I was about to + (verb)
When stating 'I was about to' you are informing someone that you are going to be do something at that moment or in the very near future. Here are some examples: "I was about to go out."

I plan to + (verb)
'Plan to' describes something that you would like to do in the near future. Here are some examples: "I plan to find a new apartment." "I plan to relax on vacation." "I plan to surprise my parents." "I plan to wash my car." "I plan to adopt a child." "I plan to impress my boss." "I plan to watch a movie." "I plan to save more money."

"I was about to go to dinner." "I was about to go to bed." "I was about to go to work." "I was about to say the same thing." "I was about to call you." "I was about to send you an email." "I was about to mow my grass." "I was about to order us some drinks." "I was about to watch television."

I didn't mean to + (verb)
The word 'didn't' is a contraction of the words 'did not'. When using it in a sentence with the words 'mean to' you are informing someone that you did something you regret or are sorry for. This could have been a Confidence, Fluency & Personality

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physical, mental or verbal action. Here are some examples:

be assuring someone a guarantee that you will follow thru on what you are saying to them. When using 'promise not to' you are stating you will

"I didn't mean to hurt your feelings." "I didn't mean to call you so late." "I didn't mean to lie about what happened." "I didn't mean to embarrass you." "I didn't mean to stay out so late." "I did not mean to say those things." "I did not mean to leave you out." "I did not mean to make you confused." "I did not mean to think you were involved." "I did not mean to cause trouble."

not do a particular thing. Here are some examples: "I promise not to tell." "I promise not to leave without you." "I promise not to be so late." "I promise not to hurt your feelings." "I promise not to wake you up." You can also just use the word 'promise' to assure

I don't have time to + (verb)
The word 'don't' is a contraction of the words 'do not.' When adding 'have time to' you are simply stating that you have other obligations and all other things considered must wait. Here are some examples: "I don't have time to explain." "I don't have time to eat." "I don't have time to exercise." "I don't have time to watch my favorite TV show." "I don't have time to talk."

someone of your intentions. Here are some examples: "I promise I am telling the truth." "I promise to practice my math." "I promise to call you." "I promise I will tell you." "I promise I will come to your party."

I'd rather + (verb)
'I'd' is a contraction of the words 'I had' or 'I would.' When using it with the word 'rather' you are

You can also use the phrase 'I don't' to express things you do not like, things you do not understand, or things you do not do.

suggesting you would like to do or prefer one thing more than another. Here are some examples:

Here are some examples: "I'd rather talk about this later." "I don't eat meat." "I don't like the rain." "I don't understand Spanish." "I do not understand what you are saying." "I do not like scary movies." "I do not like sports." "I'd like to eat at home than go get fast food." "I'd rather ski than snowboard." "I'd rather stay late than come in early tomorrow." "I'd rather handle the problem myself." "I had rather go home than stay out too late." "I had rather listen to my parents or get in trouble." "I would rather exercise than sit on the couch all day." "I would rather complete my task early." "I would rather know the answer." When using the word 'promise' you are giving your word that what you are saying is true. You might also

I promise not to + (verb)

I feel like + (verb-ing)

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Here you are expressing to someone something you would enjoy doing. Here are some examples: "I feel like going for a bike ride." "I feel like going to the beach." "I feel like having a snack." "I feel like talking." "I feel like dancing." "I feel like having friends over to my house." "I feel like watching TV." By adding 'don't' or 'do not' you can change what you are saying to express something you would not enjoy or express a concern about something. Here are some examples: "I don't feel like leaving yet." "I don't feel like explaining." "I don't feel like going to bed." "I do not feel comfortable talking about it." "I do not feel like we are going in the right direction."

When using the word 'was', you are referring to something in a past tense, or something that happened before. Combining it with the word 'busy' you can express something that was occupying you in a past time. Here are some examples: "I was busy thinking." "I was busy working." "I was busy cooking dinner." "I was busy talking on the phone." "I was busy cleaning the house." "I was busy studying for my test." "I was busy thinking of ideas for our website." "I was busy entertaining our neighbors." "I was busy completing my housework." "I was busy learning new things." By changing 'was' to 'am' you change your message from past tense to present tense and refer to something you are doing 'now.' Here are some examples: "I am busy working." "I am busy cooking dinner." "I am busy studying for my test." "I am busy completing housework." "I am busy talking on the phone."

I can't help + (verb-ing)
The word 'can't' is contraction for 'cannot.' Combined with 'help' you are communicating something you are unable to control or having a hard time gaining a grasp for. This can be a physical or mental action.

I'm not use to + (verb-ing)
Here are some examples: Here you are using 'not use to' to inform someone that "I can't help thinking about it." "I can't help shopping so much." "I can't help working all the time." "I can't help smiling when I see her." "I can't help eating so much." "I can't help loving you." "I can not help biting my nails when I am nervous." "I can not help smoking when I have been drinking." "I cannot help feeling so sad." "I cannot help remembering the things you did." "I'm not use to talking English." "I'm not use to studying so much." "I'm not use to being around new people." "I'm not use to talking in front of groups of people." "I'm not use to having so much stress." "I'm not use to traveling so much." "I'm not use to working so early." "I'm not use to having so much responsibility." Confidence, Fluency & Personality Here are some examples: you are unfamiliar or uncomfortable with a topic at hand.

I was busy + (verb-ing)

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I want you to + (verb)
'I want you to' is telling someone that you have a desire or would like for them to do something. Here are some examples:

I have something + (verb)
When using the expression 'I have something' you are communicating that you possess something or need to do something that is unspecified or undetermined. Here are some examples:

"I want you to clean the dishes." "I want you to come home right after school." "I want you to call once you get there." "I want you to explain yourself to me." "I want you to educate me." By using the word 'need' instead of 'want' you are expressing something that is required or wanted. Here are some examples: "I need you to study harder in school." "I need you to stop and listen to me." "I need you to greet our guests." "I need you to introduce me to your family." "I need to request a refund." When telling someone that you are 'looking forward to' you are saying that you are waiting or hoping for something, especially with pleasure. Here are some examples: "I'm looking forward to meeting you." Here are some examples: "I'm here to apply for the job." "I'm here to take a test." "I'm here to receive my gift." "I'm here to support all your decisions." "I'm here to watch a movie." "I'm here to work on your computer." "I'm here to welcome you to the neighborhood." "I'm here to raise awareness for cancer." "I'm here to start the job." "I'm here to receive the award." "I'm looking forward to talking with you." "I'm looking forward to going on vacation." "I'm looking forward to spending time with my family." "I'm looking forward to learning the English language." "I am looking forward to visiting another country." "I am looking forward to having a family." "I am looking forward to graduating from college." "I am looking forward to watching the baseball game." "I am looking forward to running in a race." "I have something to complete." "I have something to share with you." "I have something important to tell you." "I have something to encourage you." "I have something to explain to you." "I have something special planned for your birthday." "I have something else to consider." "I have something to apologize about." "I have something to attend tonight." "I have something to ask you." "I have something fun for us to do."

I'm looking forward to

I'm here to + (verb)
You are informing someone that you are at a particular place to accomplish something.

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ENGLISH VOCABULARY

LEARN NEW WORDS PICTURE VOCABULARY NAMES & MEANINGS DIFFICULT WORDS MEMORY CHARTS LEARNING TABLES

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

BASIC GRAMMAR SENTENCE STRUCTURE TENSE CHART GRAMMAR CHANTS USE & TECHNIQUES

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154

G.D, INTERVIEWS & PERSONALITY

GROUP DISCUSSION 64 – INTERVIEW QUES PERSONALITY DEVELOP LEADERSHIP TIME MANAGEMENT STRESS MANAGEMENT ENG – LEARNING TIP’S PHRASES & IDIOMS

AASAN ENGLISH

2000 COMMON WORDS 1500 COMMON PHRASES 100 CONVESATION LESSONS

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155

AASAN ENGLISH SPEAKING COURSE PACKAGE

COMPLETE ENGLISH SPEAKING COURSE PACKAGE 4 BOOKS 1. 2. 3. 4. Aaasan English Basic Course Book English Grammar English Vocabulary Group Discussion, Interviews & Personality

5 D.V.D’s Level 1 – English Basics Level 2 – Conversation Level 1 Level 3 – Conversation Level 2 Level 4 – Advanced Conversation Level 5 – Vocabulary and Word Building

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156

LEARN BASIC COMPUTER’s

COMPUTER BASICS HARDWARE SOFTWARE OPERATING SYSTEM INTERNET SOCIAL NETWORKING

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