Overview of Oracle Database

Lee, JeongKyu (jelee@bridgeport.edu)

Part 1. Introduction to Database System

 Introduction to Database
 History of RDBMS  Entity-Relationship Modeling  Database Language

Introduction to Database

File-Based Approach
 Each program defines and manages its own data  Limitation
    

Separation and isolation of data Duplication of data Data dependence Incompatibility of files Fixed queries/proliferation of application program

Database Approach
 A shared collection of logically related data, designed

to meet the information needs of an organization

Database Management System(DBMS)
 A software system that enables users to define, create and maintain the database and provides controlled access to database

 DML : procedural, non-procedural
 Control : security, integrity, concurrency control,
recovery control, user-accessible catalog

Components of the DBMS Environment
 Hardware - Software - Data - Procedures - People

Increased productivity .Improved security .Control of data redundancy .Data consistency .More information from the same amount of data . Advantages of DBMS .Economy of scale .Improved data integrity .Improved backup and recovery services  Disadvantages of DBMS .Balance of conflicting requirements . Performance. Higher impact of a failure .Improved maintenance through data independence .Cost of conversion. Size.Improved data accessibility and responsiveness .Complexity. Cost of DBMSs.Sharing of data . Additional H/W costs .Increased concurrency .Enforcement of standards .

 Three-Level Database Architecture  External Level The users’ view of the database  Conceptual Level The community view of the database  Internal Level The physical representation of the database on the computer .

and update 2. Integrity services 9. retrieval. Authorization services 7. Concurrency control services 5. Utility services . Transaction support 4. A user-accessible catalog 3. Support for data communication 8. Functions of a DBMS 1. Services to promote data independence 10. Recovery services 6. Data storage.

 Components of a DBMS Programmers Application Programs Users Queries DBA Database Schema DML Query DDL DBMS preprocessor Program object code processor Database manager compiler Dictionary manager Access methods System buffers File manager Database and system catalog .

 Components of Database Manager Authorization control Integrity checker Command processor Transaction manager Buffer manager Query optimizer Scheduler Data Manager Recovery manager .

ORDBMS .OODBMS.F. Informix.CODASYL(Conference on Data SYStems Language)  1967 -DBTG(Data Base Task Group)  1970 . GUAM  mid 1960s . Oracle.  Late 1970s .)  Now .IDS by GE (network DBMS)  1965 .E.History of RDBMS  History of DBMS  1960s .commercial relational DBMS(DB2.Codd of the IBM Research Lab.IMS by IBM (hierarchical DBMS)  mid 1960s .Apollo moon-landing project..System R project at IBM  1980s .

 Terminology  Relation : a relation is a table with columns and rows  Attribute : an attribute is a named column of a relation  Domain : a domain is the set of allowable values for one or more attributes  Tuple : a tuple is a row of a relation  Degree : the degree of a relation is the number of attributes it contrains  Cardinality : the cardinality of a relation is the number of tuples it contains  Relational database : a collection of normalized relation .

theoretically . there are no duplicate tuples  The order of tuples has no significance. Properties of Relations  The relation has a name that is distinct from all other relation names  Each cell of the relation contains exactly on atomic value  Each attribute has a distinct name  The values of an attribute are all from the same domain  The order of attributes has no significance  Each tuple is distinct.

delete Rule5 : Comprehensive data sublanguage  Data independence rules Rule8 : Physical data independence Rule11 : Distribution independence Rule 9 : Logical data independence . When is a DBMS Relational?  Foundational rules Rule 0 : Foundational rule Rule 12 : Nonsubversion rule  Structural rules Rule 1 : Information representation Rule 6 : View updateing  Integrity rules Rule 3 : Systematic treatment of null values Rule 10 : Integrity independance  Data manipulation rules Rule2 : Guaranteed access Rule 4 : Dynamic online catalog based on the relational model Rule7 : High-level insert. update.

Entity-Relationship Modeling  Concepts of the E-R Modeling  Entity Types An object or concept that is identified by the enterprise as having an independent existence  Attributes A property of an entity or a relationship type  Relationship Types A meaningful association among entity types .

2NF in which no non-primary-key attribute is transitively dependent on the primary key  BCNF is a relation in which every determinant is a candidate key  4NF is a relation that is in BCNF and contains no trivial multi-valued dependency  5NF is a relation that contains no join dependency .  3NF is a relation that is in 1NF. given the data requirements of an enterprise  UNF is a table that contains one or more repeating groups  1NF is a relation in which the intersection of each row and column contains one and only one value  2NF is a relation that is in 1NF and every non-primary-key attribute is fully functionally dependent on the primary key. Normalization  A technique for producing a set of relations with desirable properties.

but independent of a particular DBMS and other physical considerations. Conceptual Database Design  The process of constructing a model of the information used in an enterprise. independent of all physical considerations  Logical Database Design  The process of constructing a model of the information used in an enterprise based on a specific data model.  Physical Database Design  The process of producing a description of the implementation of the database on secondary storage. it describes the storage structures and access methods used to archieve efficient access to the data .

SQUARE by Boyce (System R project)  1976 . QUEL(Ingres)  1982 .Relational Database Language(RDL) : ANSI  1987 .SEQUEL/2 (SQL) by Chamberlin and Boyce)  late 1970 .SEQUEL by D.Database Language  SQL  1974 .ISO standard  1989 .SQL(Oracle).Chamberlin (IBM)  1975 .SQL2(SQL92) : ISO .Integrity Enhancement Feature (ISO)  1992 .


 Advanced SQL  View  Integrity Enhancement Feature  Primary key  Unique  Foreign key  Access Control  Embedded SQL  Host Language Variables  Application Programming Interface  Dynamic SQL .

Understanding Oracle Database  Overview of oracle Database Architecture  Memory Structure  Process Structure  Storage Structure  New Features .Part 2.

200.000 KByte 2.Overview of Oracle Architecture PMON SMON RECO D000 S000 P000 * Total SGA Size : 1700 Mbyte SGA Shared SQL Area Database Buffer Cashe Redo Log Buffer * Fixed Size : 70 Kbyte * Variavle Size : 490 MByte TL-812 4.000 KByte 1.000.100 KByte Server USER DBW0 CKPT LGWR Data File Raw Device ARCH Archive Log Mode(50M) .

Memory Structure : Shared Pool Shared Pool Library Cache Shared SQL Area Control Structures for example: PL/SQL Procedures and Package Character Set Conversion Memory Network Security Attributes and so on .names of all tables and views in the database .shared SQL area .Execution plan for the SQL or PL/SQL statements . ..Text of the SQL or PL/SQL statement Dictionary Cache .names and datatypes of columns in database tables .private SQL area .PL/SQL procedures and package .control structures : lock and library cache handles  Dictionary Cache Reusable Runtime Memory .Data dictionary cache containing rows of data dictionary information  Library Cache Control Structures for examples.Parsed form of the SQL or PL/SQL statement . Locks Library Cache handles and so on ...privileges of all Oracle users  SHARED_POOL_SIZE .  Shared Pool Contents .

Memory Structure :Database Buffer Cache  Database Buffer Cache holds copies of data blocks read from disk  All users concurrently connected to the system share access to the buffer cache  Dirty List  LRU List  Size = DB_BLOCK_SIZE * DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS SGA Shared Pool Shared SQL Area Database Buffer Cache .

Memory Structure :Redo Log Buffer      Circular buffer containing information about changes made to the database save it redo entry Redo Entries is used when Database Recovery DBWR write contents of Redo Log Buffer to Online Redo Log LOG_BUFFER change vector #1 redo record change vector #1 change vector #1 .

Oracle Processes SNPn Pnnn SMON PMON RECO LCK0 SGA Database Buffer Cache Redo Log Buffer Offline Storage Device Snnn Dedicated Server Process DBWR Dnnn User Process LGWR ARCH CKPT Control Files Users Data Files Redo Log Files .

writes redo log entries to disk  Commit occurs  The redo log buffers pool becomes one-third full  DBWR completes cleaning the buffer blocks at a checkpoint  LGWR time-out .Defers write for I/O optimization  dirty list reaches a threshold length  A process scnas a specifed number of buffer in the LRU without finding free buffer  A time-out occurs  DBWR checkpoint occurs  LGWR (Log Writer) .Use a LRU algorithm to keep most recently used blocks in memory .write all dirty buffers to datafiles .A commit confirmation is not issued until the tx has been recorded in the rego log file .Background Process  DBWR (Database Writer) .

Performs automatic instance recovery .Cont’d  PMON (Process Monitor) .Reclaims space used by temporary segments no longer in use .Frees SGA resources allocated to the failed processes .Cleans up abnormally terminated connection .Rolls back uncommited transactions .Releases locks held by a terminated process .Database maintenance  SMON (System Monitor) .Merges contiguous area of free space in the datafile .

RECO (Recover).Is optional and is only needed when in ARCHIVELOG mode . Snnn (Server). SNPn(Job Queue).Updates header of datafiles and control files at the end of checkpoint .is enabled by setting the parameter CHECKPOINT_PROCESS=TRUE .Cont’d  CKPT (Check Point) .Operates only when a log switch occurs .CKPT improve the performance of database with many database files  ARCH (Archiver) .If enabled. QMNn(Queue Monitor).May write to a tape drive or to a disk  LCKn (Lock).Copies redo log files to tape or disk for media failure . Dnnn (Dispatcher). take over LGWR’s task of updating files at a checkpoint . .More frequent checkpoint reduce recovery time from instance failure . Pnnn(Parallel).

Server/User Process  User Processes .Passes SQL to the server process and receives the results  Server Processes . perform a physical read and change  Fetch : Passes data to the user (only SELECT) . object resolution.A server process must place the data in the database buffer cache .Runs the tool/application and is considered the client .Parce and execute SQL statements . optimization  Execute : applies the parse tree to the data.A user process is used when a user runs an application program . security access.Read data blocks from disk into the shred database buffers of the SGA .Return the results of SQL statements to the user process  Parse : check syntax.

log.Oracle Files        Datafile Redo Log Files Control Files Parameter File Archive File Log File (alert*.log.. listener.log. sqlnet..) Trace File .

Storage Architecture  Physical storage structures  Data files  Segments  Extents  Blocks  Logical storage structures  Tablespaces  Tables / Clusters / Indexes  Rows  Columns .

Physical Storage Architecture  Relationship among Segments. Extents. and Blocks Segment 96K Extent 24K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K Extent 72K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K Database Blocks .

Logical Storage Architecture  Relationship between tablespaces and datafiles Database System Tablespace USER Tablespace DATA1.ORA DATA3.ORA .ORA DATA2.

Cont’d  Objects stored in tablespaces Tablespace (one or more datafiles) Table INDEX INDEX INDEX INDEX INDEX Table INDEX INDEX INDEX INDEX INDEX Table Database Files (Physical structures associated with only one tablespace) Objects (stored in tablespace may span serveral datafiles) .

Block Header Table Dictionary Row Dictionary Free Space General Block Information (Block add. Segment type) 85 ~ 100 bytes Table info in Cluster Row info in Block (2 byte per row) Row Data using when New Row Insert or Update (pctfree. pctused) Table or Index Data .

PCTFREE / PCTUSED PCTFREE PCTUSED 20% Free space 61% Free space PCTFREE = 20  Insert new row until 80%  20% use when Update PCTUSED = 40  Can insert new row when below 60%  When Usage is below 40% (61% Free space). block is listed in FREELIST .

.The segments grows (NEXT EXTENT) . .  Extent are de-allocated when the .The segment is created (INITIAL EXTENT) .The segment is dropped and truncated.The table is altered to allocate extents.  Extent are allocated when.Extent A set of contiguous database blocks within a datafile.The segment is larger than optimal and contains free extents (for rollback segments only)  Each segment is created with at least on extend( initial extent ) TABLE table_name DEALLOCATE UNUSED ( Rollback segment : 2)  ALTER .

An extent that contains dictionary definitions for dictionary tables to be loaded when the database is opened. .Segment       a set of one or more extents that contains all the data for a specific type of logical storage structure within a tablespace Data Segment .A collection of extents that holds rollback data for rollback.A collection of extents that holds all of the index data for search optimization on large tables and clusters Rollback Segment .A collection of extents that holds data belonging to temporary tables created during a sort operation Bootstrap segment . read-consistency.A collection of extents that holds all of the data for a table or a cluster Index Segment . or recovery Temporary segment .

Warehouse Parallel DML Parallel Index Scans Star Query Optimization Partitioning Parallel Backup/Recovery Incremental Backup Point-in-time Recovery OLTP Advanced Queuing XA rewrite Memory reduction Serially reusable memory New OCI Interface Improve Function Performance Objects Object Relational Database Object Type Object View Network Computing Simple User Integration Simple Maintenance Simple Development .Oracle8 New Feature VLDB.

function. VM in Database  Java stored procedure.509v3.  SQLJ: embedded SQL in Java  WebDB   Security Virtual Private Database  LDAP integration  N-tier authentication/authorization  SSL and X. RAIDUS support  Data encrypt. decrypt .Oracle8i New Features Data Warehousing Summary management  Analytic function  Hash and Composite Paritioning  Resource Management  Transportable tablespace  Functional index. virtual column   OLTP Publish and subscribe capabilities  Database event trigger  Single table hash cluster  Object type column in partition table  Partitioned index-organized table  Stable optimizer execution plans Application Development Oracle Jserver..

Oracle9i has been designed with focus on certain key development areas.The eBusiness Platform  Oracle9i continues Oracle8i's focus on the Internet by providing a series of specific capabilities and product bundles targeted at eBusiness environments. Key Infrastructure Area  Availability  Key Application Area   Internet Contents Management B2B and B2C eBusiness Scalability and Performance    Security Development Platform Manageability   Packaged Application Business Intelligence  Windows2000 Integration . Oracle9i continues to add features and capabilities that extends existing investment in mission-critical infrastructure.Oracle 9i . In addition.

concurrency.Minimize Client H/W spec .concurrency.Minimize network resource .Only Server upgrade to increase size .Oracle Client/Server Architecture NETWORK Client Application Client/Server Server b Server/Server Server A  Benefit of Client/Server Component .Database S/W work on Server . consistency. transparency . consistency. transparency .

ORA ( Client.TNS-based application. Server ) .LISTENER.TNSNAME.Transparent Network Substrate . Network software like TCP/IP  Configuration File . Oracle Protocol Adapters.SQL*Net  What is SQL*Net? .Oracle’s Network applications to access the underlying network protocols transparently .ORA ( Server ) .transparent connection from client tool to DB ( from on DB to another ) .ORA ( Client ) .Oracle’s Client/Server middleware product .works across multiple network protocol and operation system  What is TNS? .SQLNET.ORA ( Client ) .TNSNAV.


Scalability : Connection Pooling. Security : Oracle Security Server . Manageability : Configuration-free installation option.  Centralized client administration.Net8 Networking Challenge  Support large mission-critical client/server. and provide migration path towards distributed object architecture Net8 Focus 1. Multiplexing(Connection Manager) 2. Automated client configuration 3.

0 Automation Server. Excel.JDBC Thin for Java applets. than allows one to connect to SQL database  oo4o (Oracle Object for OLE) . Two C++ Class Library  JDBC (Java Database Connectivity ) .is a standardized API. JDBC OCI for Java application . developed according to the specification of the SQL Access Group. Oracle Data Control.a set of classes and interfaces written in Java to allow other Java programs to send SQL statements to a relational database management system . Access) to access database .Provide a way for client program (eg VB.a middleware product manufactured by Oracle that allows native access to Oracle7 databases from client applications via the Microsoft OLE standard .ODBC / oo4o / JDBC  ODBC (Open Database Connectivity ) .OLE 2.

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