Faculty of Computer Science Chair of Computer Networks, Wireless Sensor Networks, Dr. W.

Dargie

ZigBee

Jan Dohl

Fabian Diehm

Patrick Grosa

Dresden, 14.11.2006

Structure
     

Introduction Concepts Architecture Implementation Evaluation Reference

TU Dresden, 12.11.06

ZigBee – Short range comunication

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Introduction

TU Dresden, 12.11.06

ZigBee – Short range comunication

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Introduction
What is ZigBee?
• Specification of protocols for small, low-power radios

History
• May 2003: IEEE 802.15.4 completed • December 2004: ZigBee specification ratified • June 2005: public availability

ZigBee-Alliance
• Companies developing and promoting the standard • 150+ members
TU Dresden, 12.11.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 4 of 56

ZigBee Alliance - Members

and many more....

TU Dresden, 12.11.06

ZigBee – Short range comunication

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11. 12.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 6 of 56 .Concepts TU Dresden.

12.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 7 of 56 .Why do we need another WPAN standard? Decreasing • Power consumption – ZigBee: 10mA <==> BT: 100mA • Production costs – In the beginning of 2005 – ZigBee: 1.1 $ <==> BT: 3 $ • Development costs – Codesize ZB/codesize BT = ½ • Bit-error-rate (BER) TU Dresden.11.

06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 8 of 56 .Why do we need another WPAN standard? picture taken from [9] TU Dresden.11. 12.

of supported nodes – ZigBee: 65536 (in a mesh) <==> BT: 7 (in a star) • Security – ZigBee: AES (128bit) <==> BT: SAFER (64/128bit) • Latency requirements – ZigBee: optional guaranteed time slot • Range – ZigBee: up to 75 m in LOS condition <==> BT: 10 m TU Dresden.2pW) • flexibility – No. 12.Why do we need another WPAN standard? Increasing • Sensitivity – ZigBee: -92dbm(0.63pW) <==> BT: -82dbm(6.11.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 9 of 56 .

12.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 10 of 56 .11.Usage Scenarios • Industrial & commercial • Consumer electronics • Toys & games • PC & periphals • Personal health care • home/building automation  Just everything you can imagine for wireless sensor nodes or in general short range communications TU Dresden.

11.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 11 of 56 . 12.ZigBee Frequency Bands TU Dresden.

12.5 < TU Dresden.ZigBee Protocol Stack 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7Layer ISO-OSI-Model Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Simplified 5Layer ISO-OSI-Model User Application Application Profile Network Data Link Physical IEEE 802 Model < ZigBee < Upper Layers Logic Link Control (LLC) Media Access Control (MAC) Physical < 802.14.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 12 of 56 .11.

11. 12.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 13 of 56 .Protocol Stack picture taken from [10] TU Dresden.

ZigBee Profiles Profiles: Definition of ZigBee-Profiles • describes a common language for exchanging data • defines the offered services • device interoperatbility across different manufacturers • Standard profiles available from the ZigBee Alliance • profiles contain device descriptions • unique identifier (licensed by the ZigBee Alliance) TU Dresden.11. 12.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 14 of 56 .

11.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 15 of 56 . 12.Architecture TU Dresden.

ZigBee Node-Types ZigBee Coordinator (ZBC) (IEEE 802.15. 12.11.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 16 of 56 .4 FFD) • only one in a network • initiates network • stores information about the network • all devices communicate with the ZBC • routing functionality • bridge to other networks TU Dresden.

15.ZigBee Node-Types ZigBee Router (ZBR) (IEEE 802.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 17 of 56 .11. 12.4 FFD) • optional component • routes between nodes • extends network coverage • manages local address allocation/de-allocation TU Dresden.

06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 18 of 56 .ZigBee Node-Types ZigBee End Device (ZBE) (IEEE 802.15.4 RFD) • optimized for low power consumption • cheapest device type • communicates only with the coordinator • sensor would be deployed here TU Dresden. 12.11.

12.Addressing/Discovering ZigBee Nodes Addressing ZigBee Nodes: • optimized unique 64 bit address (IEEE 802.4) • 16 bit network address (65536 devices) • 256 sub addresses for subunits Device Discovery • unicast (NWK id known).11.15.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 19 of 56 . broadcast (NWK id unknown) • ZBC-/ZBR-Response: IEEE address + NWK address + all known network addresses Binding • creating logical links between 2 or more end devices TU Dresden.

Addressing/Binding ZigBee Endpoints picture taken from [11] TU Dresden. 12.11.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 20 of 56 .

Traffic-Types 1. Data is periodic • application dictates rate 2. Data is intermittent • application or stimulus dictates rate (optimun power savings) 3. 12.11. Data is repetitive (fixed rate a priori) • device gets guaranteed time slot TU Dresden.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 21 of 56 .

12.Traffic-Modes 1. Beacon mode: • beacon send periodically • Coordinator and end device can go to sleep • Lowest energy consumption • Pricise timing needed • Beacon period (ms-m) TU Dresden.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication picture taken from [1] slide 22 of 56 .11.

06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 23 of 56 . 12.Beacon-Mode picture taken from [8] TU Dresden.11.

06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 24 of 56 . 12.11.Traffic-Modes 1. Non-Beacon mode: • coordinator/routers have to stay awake (robust power supply needed) • heterogeneous network • asymmetric power picture taken from [1] TU Dresden.

12.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 25 of 56 .Topologies Mesh-Topology picture taken from [7] TU Dresden.11.

06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 26 of 56 .11. 12.Topologies Tree-Topology picture taken from [7] TU Dresden.

11.Implementation TU Dresden. 12.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 27 of 56 .

12.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 28 of 56 .PHY layer 2400MHz Band specs • 4 Bits per symbol • DSSS with 32 Bit chips • O-QPSK modulation • Sine halfwave impulses Binary Data Medium Symbol to Chip QPSK Mod.11. Bit to Symbol picture taken from [4] TU Dresden.

PHY layer 868/915 MHz Band specs • 1 Bit per symbol • Differential encoding • DSSS with 15 Bit Chips • BPSK modulation • RC impulses (roll-off = 1) Medium Binary Data Diff. Encoder Bit to Chip BPSK Mod. TU Dresden.11.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 29 of 56 . 12.

PHY layer General specs and services • Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) < 35% • -3dBm minimum transmit power (500µW) • Receiver Energy Detection (ED) • Link Quality Indication (LQI) • Use ED & LQI to reduce TX-power • Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) with 3 modes 1.11. Energy above threshold 2. Carrier sense only 3. 12. Carrier sense with energy above threshold TU Dresden.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 30 of 56 .

06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 31 of 56 . 12.PHY layer PHY Protocol Data Unit (PPDU) frame structure • Frame to be sent via radio • Preamble for chip and symbol synchronization • Contains either data or data acknowlegement • Packet size 8-127 Octets • Contains MAC Protocol Data Unit (MPDU) table taken from [1] TU Dresden.11.

12.MAC layer Channel access specification • Beacon/Nonbeacon • Define Superframe structure • Slotted/unslotted CSMA-CA TU Dresden.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 32 of 56 .11.

orphan) • PAN ID conflict detection and resolution • Starting a PAN • Sending beacons • Device discovery • Device association/disassociation • Synchronization (beacon/nonbeacon) • Orphaned device realignment TU Dresden.11. passive.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 33 of 56 .MAC layer Managing PANs • Channel scanning (ED. active. 12.

MAC layer Transfer handling • Transaction based (indirect transmission) – Beacon indication – Polling • Transmission.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 34 of 56 . 12. Reception. Rejection. Retransmission – Acknowleded – Not acknowledged • GTS management – Allocation/deallocation – Usage – Reallocation • Promiscous mode TU Dresden.11.

MAC layer Frame security • Provided security features – Access control – Data encryption – Frame integrity – Sequential freshness • Avaiable security modes – Unsecured mode – ACL mode – Secured mode • Avaiable security suites – AES-CTR – AES-CCM – AES-CBC-MAC TU Dresden.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 35 of 56 . 12.11.

11. 12.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 36 of 56 .MAC layer How far have we come? 1 0 4 6 5 2 3 7 Problem: How do 6 and 7 talk to coordinator 0? Solution: Routing (NWK Layer) TU Dresden.

12.NWK layer Distributed address assignment • Tree structure or self managed by higher layer • 16Bit network space divided among child routers • Child routers divide there space again for their children • Depends on: – Maximum child count per parent – Maximum child-routers per parent – Maximum network depth TU Dresden.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 37 of 56 .11.

Rm=2 .11. Lm=2 Depth in network d 0 1 2 Offset Value 3 1 0 1 2 ? 6 5 TU Dresden.NWK layer Distributed address assignment .06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 38 of 56 0 4 .Example • Cm=2 . 12.

06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 39 of 56 .11. 12.NWK layer Routing cost • Metric to compare „goodness“ of routes • Base: Link cost between 2 neighbors • Path cost = sum of link costs along the path • Link cost determination: – Link quality indication from PHY – Statistical measures TU Dresden.

12.11.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 40 of 56 .NWK layer Route discovery • Find or update route between specific source and destination • Started if no active route present in routing table • Broadcast routing request (RREQ) packets • Generates routing table entries for hops to source • Endpoint router responds with Routing response (RREP) packet • Routes generated for hops to destination • Routing table entry generated in source device TU Dresden.

11.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 41 of 56 .NWK layer Route discovery RREQ RREP 1 2 3 5 1 2 4 TU Dresden. 12.

12.11.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 42 of 56 .NWK layer Routing • Check if routing table entry exists • Initiate route discovery if possible • Hierarchical routing as fallback Route maintenance • Track failed deliveries to neighbors • Initiate route repair when threshold reached • Careful with network load! • In case of total connectivity loss: – Orphaning procedure – Re-association with network TU Dresden.

Application Level picture taken from [11] TU Dresden.11. 12.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 43 of 56 .

Application Level picture taken from [11] TU Dresden.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 44 of 56 .11. 12.

12.Application Layer Application Support Sub-layer (APS): • interface to NWK-layer (offers general set of functions) • Data transmission.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 45 of 56 .11. binding and security management picture taken from [1] TU Dresden.

Application Level picture taken from [11] TU Dresden. 12.11.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 46 of 56 .

Application Layer Application Framework: • Specifies Datatypes • Devices describe themselves by ZigBee descriptor: – frequency band – power description – application flags – application version – serial number – manufacturer – . TU Dresden.11... 12.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 47 of 56 .

06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 48 of 56 .11.Application Layer Supported Data-types table taken from [1] TU Dresden. 12.

06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 49 of 56 .Application Level picture taken from [11] TU Dresden.11. 12.

binding and security management • assembles information about the network • for ZBC/ZBR -> e.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 50 of 56 . NWK-Layer and Security Service Specification • offers services like device-/service-descovery.11.g.Application Layer ZigBee defined Objects (ZDO): • provides common function for applications • Initializes APS. 12. binding table picture taken from [1] TU Dresden.

11.Evaluation TU Dresden.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 51 of 56 . 12.

12.Pros and Cons Pros Cons • Not many end devices available yet • Single point of failure (centralized architecture) • good extension of existing standards • supported by many companies • low power consumption • low cost • easy implemented (Designer concentrates on end application) • flexible network structure TU Dresden.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 52 of 56 .11.

06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 53 of 56 .Gadget example Pantech & Curitel P1 phone • Only a prototype • control electrical appliances • Check temperature & humidity • Sending messages in case of trespass picture taken from [9] TU Dresden.11. 12.

11.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 54 of 56 .References TU Dresden. 12.

http://www.korwin.11.html [10] “Basic Lecture .i4u. 053340r06ZB_AFG-Overview-ZigBee-Open-House. Oslo. available on ZigBee.com/article2561. 064513r00ZB_MG_Network_Layer_Overview.15. October 12th. Norway June 2005.4 and ZigBee”.asp [11] “Introduction to the ZigBee Application Framework”. 2006. available on ZigBee. TU Dresden. http://www. 064516r00ZG_MG_Network_Design. 2006. ZigBee_Architecture_and_Specifications_Overview. Ian Marsden. Presentation Slides. Presentation Slides.ZigBee” http://www. ZigBee Open House. ESS 2006.4 Specification [5] “Network Layer Overview”.org [6] “Designing a ZigBee Network”.pdf. 12.pdf.pdf.org [8] “Low Power Consumption Features of the IEEE 802. Birmingham.References [1] ZigBee Specifications v1. San Jose.15. Presentation Slides. available on ZigBee. Presentation Slides. Ember Corporation.4/ZigBee LR-WPAN Standard”.edu/sensys03/sensys03-callaway.org [3] “ZigBee Tutorial”.0 [2] “Designing with 802.net/eng/infor/info_zb_01.com/wireless/zigbee [4] IEEE 802.06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 55 of 56 available on ZigBee.org [7] “ZigBee Architecture Overview”.pdf.15. David Egan. available on ZigBee.pdf [9] “ZigBee Home Automation Mobile from Pantech”. Birmingham.cens.org .tutorial-reports. http://www.ucla. Presentation Slides. Embedded Systems Show. June 15th.

06 ZigBee – Short range comunication slide 56 of 56 .11. 12.Thank you for your attention! TU Dresden.

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