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SHEDDING

DOBBIES
Prof. Dr. Emel nder Ass.Prof.Dr.mer Berk Berkalp
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Dobby mechanisms

are more complicated than cam systems, have higher initial and maintenance costs, can produce more sophisticated weaves, are normally built to control 12, 16, 20, 24, 28 up to 30 heald frames. Picks per repeat are virtually unlimited in dobby shedding. Due to their complexity, dobby mechanisms are more liable to produce fabric faults than cam systems.
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Dobby mechanisms

Dobby mechanisms are classified as negative, positive and rotary dobbies, they can be mechanical or electronic. In negative dobby shedding, the heald frames are lifted by the dobby and lowered by a spring reversing motion. In positive dobby shedding, the dobby both raises and lowers the heald shafts. Today, the trend is away from negative dobby to electronically controlled positive dobby mechanisms, which can operate at very high speeds. Rotary dobbies have been largely replaced the Hattersley dobbies in the last decade.
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Dobby mechanisms

Depending on their performance they are divided into single-lift and double-lift dobbies. Single-lift dobbies are the oldest.

All system elements perform their function once every weaving cycle to open a shed, and then they return to their original positions before a new cycle. The shed is closed after every weft insertion and the pick is beaten up at the closed shed (center-closed shed) Advantageous in the wool weaving in the past. The speed of single-lift dobbies is limited to 160 to 180 rpm.
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Dobby mechanisms

Double-lift dobbies:

All new type dobbies are double-lift in their action. Its cycle occupies two picks. System elements operate once every two weaving cycles, but the shed opening is achieved every pick. Most of the motions in dobby occur at half time loom speed. Open shed is produced; unnecessary, wasted movements are eliminated. Suitable for high speed operations.
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Dobby mechanisms

The dobby consists of three principal mechanisms: The drive mechanism: An auxiliary shaft is permanently driven from the weaving machine.

It operates two steel bars (knives), having a regular reciprocating motion or It operates coupling rings on a rotary dobby.

The selection mechanism: It is operated by a dobby card (or by some form of pattern chain or by a magnetic disc.)

It reads or checks the design information punched on a dobby card, and transmits the necessary movement from the drive mechanism to the lifting mechanism.

The lifting mechanism operates the heald shaft motion.


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Keighley Dobby (negative- double lift)


Drive Mechanism:2 knives are permanently driven from a crank mechanism and reciprocate in slots within certain limits.

Lifting Mechanism Selection Mechanism


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Keighley Dobby (negative- double lift)


For each heald shaft: a baulk B two hooks H1 and H2 two feelers, F1 and F2.

Lifting Mechanism

Drive Mechanism

heald shaft connection

The stop bars S1 and S2 extend the full depth of the dobby. The knives K1 and K2 reciprocate in horizontal slots. They complete one reciprocation every two picks, and in this case they are driven from a crank on the bottom shaft. The heald shaft is connected indirectly to the center of the baulk B
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Selection Mechanism

Keighley Dobby (negative- double lift)

In the diagram (Fig.4.24), the heald shaft has been raised by moving the top end of the baulk B away from its stop bar S1. This has happened because the top knife K1 has previously engaged the hook H1, and has drawn the top end of the baulk B away from its stop bar S1, this action causing the baulk to pivot about the point of contact between its lower end and the stop bar S2. The knife K1 was able to engage the hook H1, because a peg in the lag forming part of the pattern chain had raised the right-hand end of the feeler F1, which thus allowed the rod R to lower the hook H1, onto the knife K1. In the diagram, there is no peg to support the right-hand end of the feeler F2, which has therefore fallen, this fall allowing its upturned lefthand end to raise the hook H2 clear of the knife K2.

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Keighley Dobby (negative- double lift)

As the action continuous, the top end of the baulk will be returned to its stop bar, and at the same time the bottom knife will move to the right without disturbing the bottom end of the baulk. The shaft will therefore be lowered and will remain down for the next pick. In the absence of a peg, the shaft is lowered or remains down. A peg will lift the shaft, and a succession of pegs will keep the shaft raised. Some form of spring undermotion, acting through the shaft and its connections to the baulk, keeps one end of the baulk in contact with its stop bar while the other end is being displaced. Alternatively, it keeps both ends of the baulk in contact with the stop bars when the shaft is not being raised.
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The full cycle of operations by the simplified line diagrams.

In each diagram, the knives are shown at one extreme of their movement. Selection for the next pick necessarily takes place while the hook is in contact with its stop bar because only then can the hook engage or disengage its knife.
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Card Cylinder

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The method of pegging the lags for a Keighley dobby

Pattern barrel

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The method of pegging the lags for a Keighley dobby


Each lag serves for two picks. The holes in the lags are staggered to correspond with the positions of the feelers. The pattern barrel is turned intermittently by a Geneva wheel or similar motion so as to present a new lag every second pick. In the diagram of the lags, a filled circle represents a peg. In practice, it would be necessary to peg two or more repeats of the weave in order to have a pattern chain sufficiently long to encircle the rotating barrel that presents the lags to the feelers.

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Heald shaft connections for negative dobbies


There are many different methods of connecting the centers of the baulks to their heald shafts. Negative dobbies are always designed to raise the shafts, and the connections are therefore made between the baulks and the tops of the shafts. In diagram A, the main jack, J1, has a fixed fulcrum at F1 . It is connected by a link L to a secondary jack, J2, which is fulcrummed at F2. The heald shaft is suspended from cords attached to the outer ends of the two jacks. Alternative points of connection allow the lift of individual shafts to be adjusted. In diagram B, an elbow lever, L1 ,which is fulcrummed at F1, carries a toothed quadrant , Q1, which engages a similar toothed quadrant, Q2. This is carried on an extension of lever L2, which is fulcrummed at F2. The upper end of the lever L1, is connected by a strap S to the top of the jack J. This point of attachment provides adjustment for the lift of the shaft. A disadvantage of the systems of connection shown in C and D is that the two ends of the heald shaft do not necessarily receive the same lift.
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Heald shaft connections for negative dobbies: four possible arrangements

In each diagram, the arrow represents the link from the center of the baulk to the heald frame .
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Heald shaft connections for negative dobbies

Type of connections which necessitate the positioning of bearings, and of numerous metal parts in rubbing contact with each other, above the warp may cause some problems. It is essential to fix a tray underneath the moving parts to catch oil drips, which are always heavily contaminated with dark-colored metallic impurities. Stains on the warp produced by dirty oil are very difficult to remove, and, if not completely removed, may cause tendering of the yarn during bleaching.
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Placement of negative dobby

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Spring undermotions for negative dobbies

Similar to the cam shedding, spring reversing motion is an inefficient arrangement because the tension in the springs is the least when the shafts are down, which is when the springs should be performing both their functions. Nevertheless, this simple system has been widely used for weaving lightweight fabrics, which can be woven with a relatively low warp tension. As the warp tension increases, stronger springs have to be used to overcome the vertical component of the warp tension. This tends to bend the heald-shaft frames when the shafts are lifted and the springs are fully extended. A widely used device, which is designed to avoid an increase in spring tension when the shafts are raised, is the Kenyon undermotion.
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Spring undermotions for negative dobbies


Kenyon undermotion

In negative dobby, spring undermotion keeps the ends of the baulks in contact with their stop bars when they are not being displaced by the action of the dobby. Two coil springs for each shaft are stretched between the shaft and a horizontal bar fixed to the loom frame near the floor (A). One variation of a more modern application as used by Rti (B), a similar unit at each side of the heald shaft
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Spring undermotions for negative dobbies

T is the tension in each of the connections to the heald shafts and S is the tension in the spring, then, by taking moments: TD= Sd, Sd T D As the shaft rises, the spring will stretch and S will increase, but only slightly. At the same time, d will decrease substantially, and D will increase slightly. The slight increase in D and the large decrease in d as the shaft rises both tend to reduce T The tension T will therefore tend to decrease as the shaft rises, which is what we require.
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Ruti Dobby

Knives K1 and K2 are actuated by cams C1 and C2 mounted on the camshaft C.S. The cams are negative in action, and the cam followers are kept in contact with the cams by means of springs not shown in the diagram. The desired dwell can be obtained. The inclined knife track facilitates the hook engagement. Together with the inclined knife tracks this drive produces a more compact and efficient motion. This feature is commonly found on modern dobbies.
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Selection Mechanism for a Paper Controlled Dobby

In another development of the Keighley dobby, the chain of lags is replaced by a loop of very tough paper or plastic sheet. Pegs tend to wear, break, and fall out, which produces wrong lifts and faults in the fabric. Paper control eliminates these faults. Holes punched in the paper correspond to pegs in the lags, a hole causes the corresponding shaft to be lifted. Light feelers are used to detect the presence or absence of a hole, but the force required to move the hooks is not supplied by feelers.
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Selection Mechanism for a Paper Controlled Dobby

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Selection Mechanism for a Paper Controlled Dobby


Selection needles n1 and n2 are lowered onto the paper pattern by a cam control. If there is a hole, the corresponding supplementary hook, h1 or h2, is lowered into the path of one of the supplementary knives k1 or k2, which then moves the corresponding vertical rod, r1 or r2, out of the path of the vertically reciprocating lifting block, b1 or b2. In this case, the main hook H1 is lowered onto its knife, and the heald shaft is lifted. If there is no hole in the pattern, the corresponding lifting block, b1 or b2, lifts the main hook out of the path of its main knife, and the shaft is not lifted. As a result of this indirect action, very little force is exerted by the selection needles on the pattern paper, which consequently has a long life.
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Card cutting and copying machines

The paper pattern takes less time to prepare than the corresponding set of lags unless the repeat is small, in which case several repeats need cutting for the paperpattern method.
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Card cutting and copying machines

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Disadvantages of Negative Dobbies

Negative dobbies consume much energy to overcome the warp tension, the heald shaft weight and the reversing motion pull during heald shaft lifting. This results in increased irregularity in the operation of the weaving machine. Another disadvantage is the somewhat uncertain bottom position of the heald shaft and an irregular shed is formed. To avoid this, positive dobbies have been developed which operate with a constrained heald shaft motion in both directions, i.e. with positive heald shaft lifting and lowering.
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Knowles Positive Dobby: single- lift

Single lift dobby


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Knowles Positive Dobby: single- lift

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Positive Dobby (Hattersley dobby)

For weaving heavy fabrics, such as fancy woolens and worsteds, it is better to use a positive dobby, which eliminates the need for a spring undermotion. It is necessary to provide means for returning the ends of the baulks to their stop bars and for holding them there. This can be achieved without radical alteration to the Keighley dobby. The dobby just described happens to be paper-controlled, the control mechanism.

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Positive dobby (Hattersley dobby)


Lifting

Drive Selection
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Positive Dobby (Hattersley dobby)

Push bars B1 and B2 are rigidly connected to the knives K1 and K2. and reciprocate with them. As a knife returns after displacing a hook, its push bar pushes the corresponding end of the baulk against its stop bar. The locking bar L1, then engages a notch in the hook because the hook has been pushed up by the selection mechanism. This prevents that end of the baulk from moving until the time arrives for the next selection. In the diagram, the locking bar L1 will hold the bottom of the baulk against its stop while the knife K1 and the push bar B1 make one complete cycle. Note that the locking bars can engage and disengage only at the time of selection, when the corresponding end of the baulk is against its stop bar.
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Staubli - 2212

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Staubli - 2232

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Staubli dobby-Type 300


hook 5 is pulled to the right by the knife 9 or pushed to the left by the arm 8

two hooks 5 and 5a are mounted on common baulk 6.


The

Type 300 dobbies were mounted on the majority of the gripper projectile and rapier weaving machines.

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Staubli dobby-Type 300


The heald shaft lowering is about to be completed and the heald shaft approaches the bottom position. Hook 5 still engages knife 9 and is pushed by arm 8 (not shown) to the left. When the heald shaft has attained the bottom position, knife 9 is turned anti-clock wise through angle . As a result of this hook 5 is lifted and engages with its upper claw the fixed bar 14. If the heald shaft is to say at the bottom position during the next revolution of the weaving machine, the selection mechanism releases pin 3; support level 12 is adjusted, due to the action of spring 13, under the hook and locks the latter in the disengaged position. During the next machine revolution hook 5 stays locked between stop 7 and bar 14. Knife 9 is rotated back and together with arm 8 is moved to the right out of the hook. If the heald shaft is to be lifted during the next machine revolution, the selection mechanism does not release pin 3 support lever 12 stays at rest. During the reverse rotation of the knife the hook is re-engaged and the heald shaft lifted
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Hattersley dobby

Presently, only double-lift dobbies are manufactured. In the Hattersley system long hooks of grey cast iron were adjusted in horizontal position; they engage the knife by the effect of dead weight. The highest speed attained on the shuttleless weaving machine is 500 rpm, which is equipped with a modified version of Hattersley dobby where the hook mass has been considerably reduced. The biggest obstacle on the way to further speed increase is the hook mass.
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Rotary dobbies

In order to achieve dobby shedding at faster speeds, new generation rotary dobbies are developed and introduced. A rotary dobby can allow weaving machine speeds up to 1000-1500 rpm. The term 'rotary' was chosen because the straightline motion of the heald frames is derived from rotating elements in the dobby.

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Rotary dobbies

A controllable crank mechanism, known as cam unit, is built into dobby. Each heald frame is controlled by a cam unit, a compact element only 12 mm wide, which converts the irregular rotation of the cam shaft directly into the linear motion required for the heald frame drive. The cam unit consists of a heart-shaped crank disc which encloses a cam with ball bearings plus a movable key which is the only controlled part.

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Heart-shaped crank disc A positive dobby machine that operates on the rotary principle with pattern card control. cam ball bearings

key

coupling ring

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Functional

principle

The key connects the cam with the coupling ring fixed on the main shaft and makes the cam at the end of the crank disc, which rotates in cycles of 1800, perform a lifting motion. The indexing arm controls the key according to the pattern. The reading device is a self-contained unit of very simple conception. The pullers move forwards and backwards and transmit the information read by the feeler needles via traction elements and indexing arms to the keys.
The reading device of the rotary dobby operates true to the picking sequence, regardless of the position from which the direction of rotation is reversed. With the combination of feeler needle, traction element, indexing arm, key and cam unit - a fundamental invention patented by Staubli a control system with unsuperpassed safety factor has been created, unique in its simplicity and TEK332E Weaving Technology II efficacy.
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Mounting location of a rotary dobby on a weaving machine.

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Rotary Dobby

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Principal mechanisms on a rotary dobby

Drive mechanism (Modulator):

Modulator (complementary cams), cam shaft and coupling ring

The modulator transforms the regular rotary motion of the weaving machine into an irregular rotary motion. By the use of complementary cams precise laws of motion results, meeting the requirements of any type of weaving machine. Irregular rotary motion means that the cam shaft turns through 1800 and then pauses momentarily for a new selection. Coupling ring fixed on the cam shaft has the same irregular rotary movement.
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Principal mechanisms on a rotary dobby


Selection mechanism: A ratchet placed on the outside of the cam, enclosed by the crank, connects it with the driver. The ratchet is controlled according to the pattern by the control unit which may be mechanical or electronic. A 180 rotation of the cam causes a lifting motion.

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Principal mechanisms on a rotary dobby


Lifting mechanism (cam unit): The essential element is a crank mechanism enclosing a cam with ball bearings. The cam unit is mounted on the cam shaft but not fixed. Cam is eccentric and can freely rotate thanks to the ball bearings. The ratchet placed on the outside of the cam connects it with the driver, and by a 1800 rotation of the cam causes a lifting motion.
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Selection, electro magnetic control unit ratchet

jack Lifting: controllable crank disc (cam unit) and jack Drive
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FIMTEXTILE - RD 3000

Stubli Rotary Dobby of the Series 2600


Magnet Bar Jack Selector Cam Unit

Connecting Rod Driver


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Control Lever Ratchet


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Stubli Rotary Dobby of the Series 2600


Selection:1-magnet bar; 2-selector; 3control lever Harness frame motion: 4- ratchet ; 5driver; 6- cam unit; 7connecting rod; 8- jack Drive: modulator

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Stubli Rotary Dobby of the Series 2600

The high performance rotary dobbies of Series 2600 with electronic controls operate according to the rotary principle . According to the pattern, the control elements transmit electrical signals to magnet bar 1. This moves corresponding selector 2 which- depending on its state on the magnet bar- presses on one of the two control levers 3. If ratchet 4 is underneath the control lever which is pressed down, the ratchet is released (see Fig 4.35). When the ratchet is engaged with the driver, it then couples cam unit 6. By this process the motion of the cam shaft is also transferred to the cam unit. By way of connecting rod and jack the harness frame is then moved. If the harness frame is to be moved to one of its end positions, the control lever 3 which has not been pressed down, pushes ratchet 4 by spring force out of the driver 5, so that the harness frame remains either in upper or lower shed.
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Rotary Dobby

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FIMTEXTILE - RD 840

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1.Jack in position A 2.Jack in position A = pile harness frame in upper shed H 1.Jack in position B 2.Jack in position B = pile harness frame in lower shed T 1.Jack in position A 2.Jack in position B = pile harness frame in middle shed M 1.Jack in position B 2.Jack in position A = pile harness frame in middle shed M M = middle shed position overdrawn upwards M = middle shed position Emel nder & mer B.Berkalp overdrawn downwards
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ROTARY DOBBY TYPE 2490 56 FUNCTIONAL PRINCIPLE

The attendance to faults in a weaving machine with dobby


I

On a double-lift dobby the heald shafts are never all aligned at a time so that the piecing of a broken warp end would be extremely difficult. Some dobbies are, therefore, equipped with a heald shaft leveler which operates on the same principle as in the multi-shaft cam operated shedding motion.

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The attendance to faults in a weaving machine with dobby


II

With a double-lift dobby it is extremely difficult to find the shed containing the broken weft thread. During the reversing movement of a double-lift dobby the heald shafts remain at rest for the two revolutions of the weaving machine before the correct shedding order is started. When the dobby is switched back to forward motion, the heald shafts stay again at rest for two revolutions of the weaving machine.

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The dobby placing on the weaving machine

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The commercially available dobbies


The heald shaft dwell: Dobbies are equipped with cams to control the dwell position of heald shafts at different setting angles;

900 for the narrow weaving machines up to 1.05 m in width, 1200 for the weaving machine widths up to 1.35 m, 1500 for the weaving machines 2.2 m wide and 1600 to 2000 for the weaving machines of very large widths, especially the shuttleless weaving machines.
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The commercially available dobbies


The dobbies for different heald shaft pitches: The most common pitch of the heald shafts, and consequently that of the dobby mechanism, is 12 mm. Only in special instances dobbies with other pitches, i.e. 10, 14, 16 and 18 mm, are manufactured. Every unconventional pitch must be discussed with the dobby manufacturer in advance and the possibility of card punching for the unconventional pitch must also be considered.
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The commercially available dobbies


The dobby lubrication: The dobby is divided by vertical planes whose spacing corresponds to the heald shaft pitch, i.e. 12mm. These very narrow spaces must accommodate the individual dobby mechanism, which must operate separately and independently of each other. The oil-bath lubrication is impracticable, because a dobby oil box would have to contain 150 to 200 liters of oil. From this viewpoint, the only solution is the oil-spray lubrication because it needs only 3 to 5 liters of oil per dobby. However, the dobby must be provided with a good dust-proof cover. Placed in the oil tank is a small gear pump which pumps the oil continuously into the upper space above the dobby. The upper space contains distribution pipes with openings or a distribution pan provided with openings in the bottom. The dripping oil lubricates perfectly and permanently all parts of the dobby.
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