EUCLID’S ELEMENTS IN GREEK

The Greek text of J.L. Heiberg (1883–1884)
from Euclidis Elementa, edidit et Latine interpretatus est
I.L. Heiberg, Lipsiae, in aedibus B.G. Teubneri, 1883–1884
with an accompanying English translation by
Richard Fitzpatrick
For Faith
Preface
Euclid’s Elements is by far the most famous mathematical work of classical antiquity, and also
has the distinction of being the world’s oldest continuously used mathematical textbook. Little is
known about the author, beyond the fact that he lived in Alexandria around 300 BCE. The main
subject of this work is Geometry, which was something of an obsession for the Ancient Greeks.
Most of the theorems appearing in Euclid’s Elements were not discovered by Euclid himself,
but were the work of earlier Greek mathematicians such as Pythagoras (and his school), Hip-
pocrates of Chios, Theaetetus, and Eudoxus of Cnidos. However, Euclid is generally credited
with arranging these theorems in a logical manner, so as to demonstrate (admittedly, not always
with the rigour demanded by modern mathematics) that they necessarily follow from five sim-
ple axioms. Euclid is also credited with devising a number of particularly ingenious proofs of
previously discovered theorems: e.g., Theorem 48 in Book 1.
It is natural that anyone with a knowledge of Ancient Greek, combined with a general interest
in Mathematics, would wish to read the Elements in its original form. It is therefore extremely
surprizing that, whilst translations of this work into modern languages are easily available, the
Greek text has been completely unobtainable (as a book) for many years.
This purpose of this publication is to make the definitive Greek text of Euclid’s Elements—i.e.,
that edited by J.L. Heiberg (1883-1888)—again available to the general public in book form. The
Greek text is accompanied by my own English translation.
The aim of my translation is to be as literal as possible, whilst still (approximately) remain-
ing within the bounds of idiomatic English. Text within square parenthesis (in both Greek and
English) indicates material identified by Heiberg as being later interpolations to the original text
(some particularly obvious or unhelpful interpolations are omitted altogether). Text within round
parenthesis (in English) indicates material which is implied, but but not actually present, in the
Greek text.
My thanks goes to Mariusz Wodzicki for advice regarding the typesetting of this work.
Richard Fitzpatrick; Austin, Texas; December, 2005.
References
Euclidus Opera Ominia, J.L. Heiberg & H. Menge (editors), Teubner (1883-1916).
Euclid in Greek, Book 1, T.L. Heath (translator), Cambridge (1920).
Euclid’s Elements, T.L. Heath (translator), Dover (1956).
History of Greek Mathematics, T.L. Heath, Dover (1981).
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Fundamentals of plane geometry involving
straight-lines
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
´Οροι
α΄ Σηpεiόν cστιν, οu pέρος οuθέν.
β΄ Γραpp¿ δc p¿κος vπλατές.
γ΄ Γραpp¿ς δc πέρατα σηpεiα.
δ΄ Εuθεiα γραppή cστιν, ¿τις cξ :σου τοiς cφ cαυτ¿ς σηpείοις κεiται.
ε΄ Επιφάνεια δέ cστιν, o p¿κος κα| πλάτος pόνον cχει.
ç΄ Επιφανείας δc πέρατα γραppαί.
ζ΄ Επίπεδος cπιφάνειά cστιν, ¿τις cξ :σου ταiς cφ cαυτ¿ς εuθείαις κεiται.
η΄ Επίπεδος δc γωνία cστ|ν ¿ cν cπιπέδ; δύο γραppeν \πτοpένων vλλήλων κα| p¿ cπ
εuθείας κειpένων πρoς vλλήλας τeν γραppeν κλίσις.
θ΄ ´Οταν δc α| περιέχουσαι τ¿ν γωνίαν γραppα| εuθεiαι eσιν, εuθύγραppος καλεiται ¿ γωνία.
ι΄ ´Οταν δc εuθεiα cπ εuθεiαν σταθεiσα τvς cφεξ¿ς γωνίας :σας vλλήλαις ποι¸, oρθ¿ cκατέρα
τeν :σων γωνιeν cστι, κα| ¿ cφεστηκυiα εuθεiα κάθετος καλεiται, cφ ¿ν cφέστηκεν.
ια΄ Αpβλεiα γωνία cστ|ν ¿ pείζων oρθ¿ς.
ιβ΄ Οξεiα δc ¿ cλάσσων oρθ¿ς.
ιγ΄ ´Ορος cστίν, o τινός cστι πέρας.
ιδ΄ Σχ¿pά cστι τo uπό τινος ¿ τινων oρων περιεχόpενον.
ιε΄ Κύκλος cστ| σχ¿pα cπίπεδον uπo pιiς γραpp¿ς περιεχόpενον ¸¿ καλεiται περιφέρεια],
πρoς ¿ν vφ cνoς σηpείου τeν cντoς τοu σχήpατος κειpένων πiσαι α| προσπίπτουσαι
εuθεiαι ¸πρoς τ¿ν τοu κύκλου περιφέρειαν] :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν.
ιç΄ Κέντρον δc τοu κύκλου τo σηpεiον καλεiται.
ιζ΄ ∆ιάpετρος δc τοu κύκλου cστ|ν εuθεiά τις διv τοu κέντρου ¿γpένη κα| περατουpένη cφ
cκάτερα τv pέρη uπo τ¿ς τοu κύκλου περιφερείας, ¿τις κα| δίχα τέpνει τoν κύκλον.
ιη΄ Ηpικύκλιον δέ cστι τo περιεχόpενον σχ¿pα uπό τε τ¿ς διαpέτρου κα| τ¿ς vπολαpβα-
νοpένης uπ αuτ¿ς περιφερείας. κέντρον δc τοu ¿pικυκλίου τo αuτό, o κα| τοu κύκλου
cστίν.
ιθ΄ Σχήpατα εuθύγραppά cστι τv uπo εuθειeν περιεχόpενα, τρίπλευρα pcν τv uπo τριeν,
τετράπλευρα δc τv uπo τεσσάρων, πολύπλευρα δc τv uπo πλειόνων ¿ τεσσάρων εuθειeν
περιεχόpενα.
6
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Definitions
1 A point is that of which there is no part.
2 And a line is a length without breadth.
3 And the extremities of a line are points.
4 A straight-line is whatever lies evenly with points upon itself.
5 And a surface is that which has length and breadth alone.
6 And the extremities of a surface are lines.
7 A plane surface is whatever lies evenly with straight-lines upon itself.
8 And a plane angle is the inclination of the lines, when two lines in a plane meet one another,
and are not laid down straight-on with respect to one another.
9 And when the lines containing the angle are straight then the angle is called rectilinear.
10 And when a straight-line stood upon (another) straight-line makes adjacent angles (which
are) equal to one another, each of the equal angles is a right-angle, and the former straight-
line is called perpendicular to that upon which it stands.
11 An obtuse angle is greater than a right-angle.
12 And an acute angle is less than a right-angle.
13 A boundary is that which is the extremity of something.
14 A figure is that which is contained by some boundary or boundaries.
15 A circle is a plane figure contained by a single line [which is called a circumference], (such
that) all of the straight-lines radiating towards [the circumference] from a single point lying
inside the figure are equal to one another.
16 And the point is called the center of the circle.
17 And a diameter of the circle is any straight-line, being drawn through the center, which
is brought to an end in each direction by the circumference of the circle. And any such
(straight-line) cuts the circle in half.
1
18 And a semi-circle is the figure contained by the diameter and the circumference it cuts off.
And the center of the semi-circle is the same (point) as (the center of) the circle.
19 Rectilinear figures are those figures contained by straight-lines: trilateral figures being con-
tained by three straight-lines, quadrilateral by four, and multilateral by more than four.
1
This should really be counted as a postulate, rather than as part of a definition.
¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
κ΄ Τeν δc τριπλεύρων σχηpάτων iσόπλευρον pcν τρίγωνόν cστι τo τvς τρεiς :σας cχον
πλευράς, iσοσκελcς δc τo τvς δύο pόνας :σας cχον πλευράς, σκαληνoν δc τo τvς τρεiς
vνίσους cχον πλευράς.
κα΄ ´Ετι δc τeν τριπλεύρων σχηpάτων oρθογώνιον pcν τρίγωνόν cστι τo cχον oρθ¿ν γωνίαν,
vpβλυγώνιον δc τo cχον vpβλεiαν γωνίαν, oξυγώνιον δc τo τvς τρεiς oξείας cχον γωνίας.
κβ΄ Τeν δc τετραπλεύρων σχηpάτων τετράγωνον pέν cστιν, o iσόπλευρόν τέ cστι κα| oρθο-
γώνιον, cτερόpηκες δέ, o oρθογώνιον pέν, οuκ iσόπλευρον δέ, ¡όpβος δέ, o iσόπλευρον
pέν, οuκ oρθογώνιον δέ, ¡οpβοειδcς δc τo τvς vπεναντίον πλευράς τε κα| γωνίας :σας
vλλήλαις cχον, o οuτε iσόπλευρόν cστιν οuτε oρθογώνιον· τv δc παρv ταuτα τετράπλευρα
τραπέζια καλείσθω.
κγ΄ Παράλληλοί εiσιν εuθεiαι, α:τινες cν τ; αuτ; cπιπέδ; οuσαι κα| cκβαλλόpεναι εiς vπειρον
cφ cκάτερα τv pέρη cπ| pηδέτερα συpπίπτουσιν vλλήλαις.
Αiτήpατα
α΄ Ηιτήσθω vπo παντoς σηpείου cπ| πiν σηpεiον εuθεiαν γραpp¿ν vγαγεiν.
β΄ Κα| πεπερασpένην εuθεiαν κατv τo συνεχcς cπ εuθείας cκβαλεiν.
γ΄ Κα| παντ| κέντρ; κα| διαστήpατι κύκλον γράφεσθαι.
δ΄ Κα| πάσας τvς oρθvς γωνίας :σας vλλήλαις ε|ναι.
ε΄ Κα| cvν εiς δύο εuθείας εuθεiα cpπίπτουσα τvς cντoς κα| cπ| τv αuτv pέρη γωνίας δύο
oρθeν cλάσσονας ποι¸, cκβαλλοpένας τvς δύο εuθείας cπ vπειρον συpπίπτειν, cφ i pέρη
εiσ|ν α| τeν δύο oρθeν cλάσσονες.
Κοινα| cννοιαι
α΄ Τv τ; αuτ; :σα κα| vλλήλοις cστ|ν :σα.
β΄ Κα| cvν :σοις :σα προστεθ¸, τv oλα cστ|ν :σα.
γ΄ Κα| cvν vπo :σων :σα vφαιρεθ¸, τv καταλειπόpενά cστιν :σα.
δ΄ Κα| τv cφαρpόζοντα cπ vλλήλα :σα vλλήλοις cστίν.
ε΄ Κα| τo oλον τοu pέρους pεiζόν ¸cστιν].
8
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
20 And of the trilateral figures: an equilateral triangle is that having three equal sides, an
isosceles (triangle) that having only two equal sides, and a scalene (triangle) that having
three unequal sides.
21 And further of the trilateral figures: a right-angled triangle is that having a right-angle, an
obtuse-angled (triangle) that having an obtuse angle, and an acute-angled (triangle) that
having three acute angles.
22 And of the quadrilateral figures: a square is that which is right-angled and equilateral, a
rectangle that which is right-angled but not equilateral, a rhombus that which is equilateral
but not right-angled, and a rhomboid that having opposite sides and angles equal to one
another which is neither right-angled nor equilateral. And let quadrilateral figures besides
these be called trapezia.
23 Parallel lines are straight-lines which, being in the same plane, and being produced to infin-
ity in each direction, meet with one another in neither (of these directions).
Postulates
1 Let it have been postulated to draw a straight-line from any point to any point.
2 And to produce a finite straight-line continuously in a straight-line.
3 And to draw a circle with any center and radius.
4 And that all right-angles are equal to one another.
5 And that if a straight-line falling across two (other) straight-lines makes internal angles
on the same side (of itself) less than two right-angles, being produced to infinity, the two
(other) straight-lines meet on that side (of the original straight-line) that the (internal an-
gles) are less than two right-angles (and do not meet on the other side).
2
Common Notions
1 Things equal to the same thing are also equal to one another.
2 And if equal things are added to equal things then the wholes are equal.
3 And if equal things are subtracted from equal things then the remainders are equal.
3
4 And things coinciding with one another are equal to one another.
5 And the whole [is] greater than the part.
2
This postulate effectively specifies that we are dealing with the geometry of flat, rather than curved, space.
3
As an obvious extension of C.N.s 2 & 3—if equal things are added or subtracted from the two sides of an
inequality then the inequality remains an inequality of the same type.
9
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
α΄
∆ Α
Γ
Β Ε
Επ| τ¿ς δοθείσης εuθείας πεπερασpένης τρίγωνον iσόπλευρον συστήσασθαι.
´Εστω ¿ δοθεiσα εuθεiα πεπερασpένη ¿ ΑΒ.
∆εi δ¿ cπ| τ¿ς ΑΒ εuθείας τρίγωνον iσόπλευρον συστήσασθαι.
Κέντρ; pcν τ; Α διαστήpατι δc τ; ΑΒ κύκλος γεγράφθω o ΒΓ∆, κα| πάλιν κέντρ; pcν τ;
Β διαστήpατι δc τ; ΒΑ κύκλος γεγράφθω o ΑΓΕ, κα| vπo τοu Γ σηpείου, καθ o τέpνουσιν
vλλήλους ο| κύκλοι, cπί τv Α, Β σηpεiα cπεζεύχθωσαν εuθεiαι α| ΓΑ, ΓΒ.
Κα| cπε| τo Α σηpεiον κέντρον cστ| τοu Γ∆Β κύκλου, :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΑΓ τ¸ ΑΒ· πάλιν, cπε| τo Β
σηpεiον κέντρον cστ| τοu ΓΑΕ κύκλου, :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΒΓ τ¸ ΒΑ. cδείχθη δc κα| ¿ ΓΑ τ¸ ΑΒ
:ση· cκατέρα vρα τeν ΓΑ, ΓΒ τ¸ ΑΒ cστιν :ση. τv δc τ; αuτ; :σα κα| vλλήλοις cστ|ν :σα· κα|
¿ ΓΑ vρα τ¸ ΓΒ cστιν :ση· α| τρεiς vρα α| ΓΑ, ΑΒ, ΒΓ :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν.
Ισόπλευρον vρα cστ| τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον. κα| συνέσταται cπ| τ¿ς δοθείσης εuθείας πεπερασpένης
τ¿ς ΑΒ· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
l0
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 1
B A E D
C
To construct an equilateral triangle on a given finite straight-line.
Let AB be the given finite straight-line.
So it is required to construct an equilateral triangle on the straight-line AB.
Let the circle BCD with center A and radius AB have been drawn [Post. 3], and again let the
circle ACE with center B and radius BA have been drawn [Post. 3]. And let the straight-lines
CA and CB have been joined from the point C, where the circles cut one another,
4
to the points
A and B (respectively) [Post. 1].
And since the point A is the center of the circle CDB, AC is equal to AB [Def. 1.15]. Again,
since the point B is the center of the circle CAE, BC is equal to BA [Def. 1.15]. But CA was
also shown (to be) equal to AB. Thus, CA and CB are each equal to AB. But things equal to the
same thing are also equal to one another [C.N. 1]. Thus, CA is also equal to CB. Thus, the three
(straight-lines) CA, AB, and BC are equal to one another.
Thus, the triangle ABC is equilateral, and has been constructed on the given finite straight-line
AB. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.
4
The assumption that the circles do indeed cut one another should be counted as an additional postulate. There
is also an implicit assumption that two straight-lines cannot share a common segment.
ll
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
β΄
Θ
Κ
Α
Β
Γ

Η
Ζ
Λ
Ε
Πρoς τ; δοθέντι σηpεί; τ¸ δοθείσ¸ εuθεί; :σην εuθεiαν θέσθαι.
´Εστω τo pcν δοθcν σηpεiον τo Α, ¿ δc δοθεiσα εuθεiα ¿ ΒΓ· δεi δ¿ πρoς τ; Α σηpεί; τ¸
δοθείσ¸ εuθεί; τ¸ ΒΓ :σην εuθεiαν θέσθαι.
Επεζεύχθω γvρ vπo τοu Α σηpείου cπί τo Β σηpεiον εuθεiα ¿ ΑΒ, κα| συνεστάτω cπ αuτ¿ς
τρίγωνον iσόπλευρον τo ∆ΑΒ, κα| cκβεβλήσθωσαν cπ εuθείας ταiς ∆Α, ∆Β εuθεiαι α| ΑΕ, ΒΖ,
κα| κέντρ; pcν τ; Β διαστήpατι δc τ; ΒΓ κύκλος γεγράφθω o ΓΗΘ, κα| πάλιν κέντρ; τ; ∆
κα| διαστήpατι τ; ∆Η κύκλος γεγράφθω o ΗΚΛ.
Επε| οuν τo Β σηpεiον κέντρον cστ| τοu ΓΗΘ, :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΒΓ τ¸ ΒΗ. πάλιν, cπε| τo ∆ σηpεiον
κέντρον cστ| τοu ΗΚΛ κύκλου, :ση cστ|ν ¿ ∆Λ τ¸ ∆Η, eν ¿ ∆Α τ¸ ∆Β :ση cστίν. λοιπ¿ vρα
¿ ΑΛ λοιπ¸ τ¸ ΒΗ cστιν :ση. cδείχθη δc κα| ¿ ΒΓ τ¸ ΒΗ :ση. cκατέρα vρα τeν ΑΛ, ΒΓ τ¸
ΒΗ cστιν :ση. τv δc τ; αuτ; :σα κα| vλλήλοις cστ|ν :σα· κα| ¿ ΑΛ vρα τ¸ ΒΓ cστιν :ση.
Πρoς vρα τ; δοθέντι σηpεί; τ; Α τ¸ δοθείσ¸ εuθεί; τ¸ ΒΓ :ση εuθεiα κεiται ¿ ΑΛ· oπερ
cδει ποι¿σαι.
l2
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 2
5
L
K
H
C
D
B
A
G
F
E
To place a straight-line equal to a given straight-line at a given point.
Let A be the given point, and BC the given straight-line. So it is required to place a straight-line
at point A equal to the given straight-line BC.
For let the line AB have been joined from point A to point B [Post. 1], and let the equilateral
triangle DAB have been been constructed upon it [Prop. 1.1]. And let the straight-lines AE and
BF have been produced in a straight-line with DA and DB (respectively) [Post. 2]. And let the
circle CGH with center B and radius BC have been drawn [Post. 3], and again let the circle
GKL with center D and radius DG have been drawn [Post. 3].
Therefore, since the point B is the center of (the circle) CGH, BC is equal to BG [Def. 1.15].
Again, since the point D is the center of the circle GKL, DL is equal to DG [Def. 1.15]. And
within these, DA is equal to DB. Thus, the remainder AL is equal to the remainder BG [C.N. 3].
But BC was also shown (to be) equal to BG. Thus, AL and BC are each equal to BG. But things
equal to the same thing are also equal to one another [C.N. 1]. Thus, AL is also equal to BC.
Thus, the straight-line AL, equal to the given straight-line BC, has been placed at the given point
A. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.
5
This proposition admits of a number of different cases, depending on the relative positions of the point A and
the line BC. In such situations, Euclid invariably only considers one particular case—usually, the most difficult—and
leaves the remaining cases as exercises for the reader.
l`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
γ΄

Γ
Α
Ε
Β
Ζ
∆ύο δοθεισeν εuθειeν vνίσων vπo τ¿ς pείζονος τ¸ cλάσσονι :σην εuθεiαν vφελεiν.
´Εστωσαν α| δοθεiσαι δύο εuθεiαι vνισοι α| ΑΒ, Γ, eν pείζων cστω ¿ ΑΒ· δεi δ¿ vπo τ¿ς
pείζονος τ¿ς ΑΒ τ¸ cλάσσονι τ¸ Γ :σην εuθεiαν vφελεiν.
Κείσθω πρoς τ; Α σηpεί; τ¸ Γ εuθεί; :ση ¿ Α∆· κα| κέντρ; pcν τ; Α διαστήpατι δc τ; Α∆
κύκλος γεγράφθω o ∆ΕΖ.
Κα| cπε| τo Α σηpεiον κέντρον cστ| τοu ∆ΕΖ κύκλου, :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΑΕ τ¸ Α∆· vλλv κα| ¿ Γ τ¸
Α∆ cστιν :ση. cκατέρα vρα τeν ΑΕ, Γ τ¸ Α∆ cστιν :ση· eστε κα| ¿ ΑΕ τ¸ Γ cστιν :ση.
∆ύο vρα δοθεισeν εuθειeν vνίσων τeν ΑΒ, Γ vπo τ¿ς pείζονος τ¿ς ΑΒ τ¸ cλάσσονι τ¸ Γ :ση
vφ¸ρηται ¿ ΑΕ· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
l4
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 3
E
D
C
A
F
B
For two given unequal straight-lines, to cut off from the greater a straight-line equal to the lesser.
Let AB and C be the two given unequal straight-lines, of which let the greater be AB. So it is
required to cut off a straight-line equal to the lesser C from the greater AB.
Let the line AD, equal to the straight-line C, have been placed at point A [Prop. 1.2]. And let the
circle DEF have been drawn with center A and radius AD [Post. 3].
And since point A is the center of circle DEF, AE is equal to AD [Def. 1.15]. But, C is also equal
to AD. Thus, AE and C are each equal to AD. So AE is also equal to C [C.N. 1].
Thus, for two given unequal straight-lines, AB and C, the (straight-line) AE, equal to the lesser
C, has been cut off from the greater AB. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.

ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
δ΄

Β
Α
Γ Ε Ζ
Εvν δύο τρίγωνα τvς δύο πλευρvς ¸ταiς] δυσ| πλευραiς :σας cχ¸ cκατέραν cκατέρ; κα| τ¿ν
γωνίαν τ¸ γωνί; :σην cχ¸ τ¿ν uπo τeν :σων εuθειeν περιεχοpένην, κα| τ¿ν βάσιν τ¸ βάσει :σην
cξει, κα| τo τρίγωνον τ; τριγών; :σον cσται, κα| α| λοιπα| γωνίαι ταiς λοιπαiς γωνίαις :σαι
cσονται cκατέρα cκατέρ;, uφ iς α| :σαι πλευρα| uποτείνουσιν.
´Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τv ΑΒΓ, ∆ΕΖ τvς δύο πλευρvς τvς ΑΒ, ΑΓ ταiς δυσ| πλευραiς ταiς ∆Ε,
∆Ζ :σας cχοντα cκατέραν cκατέρ; τ¿ν pcν ΑΒ τ¸ ∆Ε τ¿ν δc ΑΓ τ¸ ∆Ζ κα| γωνίαν τ¿ν uπo
ΒΑΓ γωνί; τ¸ uπo Ε∆Ζ :σην. λέγω, oτι κα| βάσις ¿ ΒΓ βάσει τ¸ ΕΖ :ση cστίν, κα| τo ΑΒΓ
τρίγωνον τ; ∆ΕΖ τριγών; :σον cσται, κα| α| λοιπα| γωνίαι ταiς λοιπαiς γωνίαις :σαι cσονται
cκατέρα cκατέρ;, uφ iς α| :σαι πλευρα| uποτείνουσιν, ¿ pcν uπo ΑΒΓ τ¸ uπo ∆ΕΖ, ¿ δc uπo
ΑΓΒ τ¸ uπo ∆ΖΕ.
Εφαρpοζοpένου γvρ τοu ΑΒΓ τριγώνου cπ| τo ∆ΕΖ τρίγωνον κα| τιθεpένου τοu pcν Α
σηpείου cπ| τo ∆ σηpεiον τ¿ς δc ΑΒ εuθείας cπ| τ¿ν ∆Ε, cφαρpόσει κα| τo Β σηpεiον cπ| τo
Ε διv τo :σην ε|ναι τ¿ν ΑΒ τ¸ ∆Ε· cφαρpοσάσης δ¿ τ¿ς ΑΒ cπ| τ¿ν ∆Ε cφαρpόσει κα| ¿ ΑΓ
εuθεiα cπ| τ¿ν ∆Ζ διv τo :σην ε|ναι τ¿ν uπo ΒΑΓ γωνίαν τ¸ uπo Ε∆Ζ· eστε κα| τo Γ σηpεiον
cπ| τo Ζ σηpεiον cφαρpόσει διv τo :σην πάλιν ε|ναι τ¿ν ΑΓ τ¸ ∆Ζ. vλλv p¿ν κα| τo Β cπ|
τo Ε cφηρpόκει· eστε βάσις ¿ ΒΓ cπ| βάσιν τ¿ν ΕΖ cφαρpόσει. εi γvρ τοu pcν Β cπ| τo Ε
cφαρpόσαντος τοu δc Γ cπ| τo Ζ ¿ ΒΓ βάσις cπ| τ¿ν ΕΖ οuκ cφαρpόσει, δύο εuθεiαι χωρίον
περιέξουσιν· oπερ cστ|ν vδύνατον. cφαρpόσει vρα ¿ ΒΓ βάσις cπ| τ¿ν ΕΖ κα| :ση αuτ¸ cσται·
eστε κα| oλον τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον cπ| oλον τo ∆ΕΖ τρίγωνον cφαρpόσει κα| :σον αuτ; cσται,
κα| α| λοιπα| γωνίαι cπ| τvς λοιπvς γωνίας cφαρpόσουσι κα| :σαι αuταiς cσονται, ¿ pcν uπo ΑΒΓ
τ¸ uπo ∆ΕΖ ¿ δc uπo ΑΓΒ τ¸ uπo ∆ΖΕ.
Εvν vρα δύο τρίγωνα τvς δύο πλευρvς ¸ταiς] δύο πλευραiς :σας cχ¸ cκατέραν cκατέρ; κα|
τ¿ν γωνίαν τ¸ γωνί; :σην cχ¸ τ¿ν uπo τeν :σων εuθειeν περιεχοpένην, κα| τ¿ν βάσιν τ¸ βάσει
:σην cξει, κα| τo τρίγωνον τ; τριγών; :σον cσται, κα| α| λοιπα| γωνίαι ταiς λοιπαiς γωνίαις :σαι
cσονται cκατέρα cκατέρ;, uφ iς α| :σαι πλευρα| uποτείνουσιν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
l6
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 4
F B
A
C E
D
If two triangles have two corresponding sides equal, and have the angles enclosed by the equal
sides equal, then they will also have equal bases, and the two triangles will be equal, and the
remaining angles subtended by the equal sides will be equal to the corresponding remaining
angles.
Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having the two sides AB and AC equal to the two sides DE
and DF, respectively. (That is) AB to DE, and AC to DF. And (let) the angle BAC (be) equal
to the angle EDF. I say that the base BC is also equal to the base EF, and triangle ABC will be
equal to triangle DEF, and the remaining angles subtended by the equal sides will be equal to
the corresponding remaining angles. (That is) ABC to DEF, and ACB to DFE.
Let the triangle ABC be applied to the triangle DEF,
6
the point A being placed on the point D,
and the straight-line AB on DE. The point B will also coincide with E, on account of AB being
equal to DE. So (because of) AB coinciding with DE, the straight-line AC will also coincide with
DF, on account of the angle BAC being equal to EDF. So the point C will also coincide with
the point F, again on account of AC being equal to DF. But, point B certainly also coincided
with point E, so that the base BC will coincide with the base EF. For if B coincides with E, and
C with F, and the base BC does not coincide with EF, then two straight-lines will encompass
a space. The very thing is impossible [Post. 1].
7
Thus, the base BC will coincide with EF, and
will be equal to it [C.N. 4]. So the whole triangle ABC will coincide with the whole triangle
DEF, and will be equal to it [C.N. 4]. And the remaining angles will coincide with the remaining
angles, and will be equal to them [C.N. 4]. (That is) ABC to DEF, and ACB to DFE [C.N. 4].
Thus, if two triangles have two corresponding sides equal, and have the angles enclosed by the
equal sides equal, then they will also have equal bases, and the two triangles will be equal, and
the remaining angles subtended by the equal sides will be equal to the corresponding remaining
angles. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
6
The application of one figure to another should be counted as an additional postulate.
7
Since Post. 1 implicitly assumes that the straight-line joining two given points is unique.

ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
ε΄
Ε
Α
Β
Ζ

Γ
Η
Τeν iσοσκελeν τριγώνων α| τρoς τ¸ βάσει γωνίαι :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν, κα| προσεκβληθεισeν τeν
:σων εuθειeν α| uπo τ¿ν βάσιν γωνίαι :σαι vλλήλαις cσονται.
´Εστω τρίγωνον iσοσκελcς τo ΑΒΓ :σην cχον τ¿ν ΑΒ πλευρvν τ¸ ΑΓ πλευρ;, κα| προσεκ-
βεβλήσθωσαν cπ εuθείας ταiς ΑΒ, ΑΓ εuθεiαι α| Β∆, ΓΕ· λέγω, oτι ¿ pcν uπo ΑΒΓ γωνία τ¸
uπo ΑΓΒ :ση cστίν, ¿ δc uπo ΓΒ∆ τ¸ uπo ΒΓΕ.
Εiλήφθω γvρ cπ| τ¿ς Β∆ τυχoν σηpεiον τo Ζ, κα| vφ¸ρήσθω vπo τ¿ς pείζονος τ¿ς ΑΕ τ¸
cλάσσονι τ¸ ΑΖ :ση ¿ ΑΗ, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΖΓ, ΗΒ εuθεiαι.
Επε| οuν :ση cστ|ν ¿ pcν ΑΖ τ¸ ΑΗ ¿ δc ΑΒ τ¸ ΑΓ, δύο δ¿ α| ΖΑ, ΑΓ δυσ| ταiς ΗΑ, ΑΒ
:σαι εiσ|ν cκατέρα cκατέρ;· κα| γωνίαν κοιν¿ν περιέχουσι τ¿ν uπo ΖΑΗ· βάσις vρα ¿ ΖΓ βάσει
τ¸ ΗΒ :ση cστίν, κα| τo ΑΖΓ τρίγωνον τ; ΑΗΒ τριγών; :σον cσται, κα| α| λοιπα| γωνίαι ταiς
λοιπαiς γωνίαις :σαι cσονται cκατέρα cκατέρ;, uφ iς α| :σαι πλευρα| uποτείνουσιν, ¿ pcν uπo
ΑΓΖ τ¸ uπo ΑΒΗ, ¿ δc uπo ΑΖΓ τ¸ uπo ΑΗΒ. κα| cπε| oλη ¿ ΑΖ oλ¸ τ¸ ΑΗ cστιν :ση,
eν ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ ΑΓ cστιν :ση, λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ ΒΖ λοιπ¸ τ¸ ΓΗ cστιν :ση. cδείχθη δc κα| ¿ ΖΓ τ¸
ΗΒ :ση· δύο δ¿ α| ΒΖ, ΖΓ δυσ| ταiς ΓΗ, ΗΒ iσαι εiσ|ν cκατέρα cκατέρ;· κα| γωνία ¿ uπo
ΒΖΓ γωνί; τ¸ uπo ΓΗΒ :ση, κα| βάσις αuτeν κοιν¿ ¿ ΒΓ· κα| τo ΒΖΓ vρα τρίγωνον τ; ΓΗΒ
τριγών; :σον cσται, κα| α| λοιπα| γωνίαι ταiς λοιπαiς γωνίαις :σαι cσονται cκατέρα cκατέρ;, uφ
iς α| :σαι πλευρα| uποτείνουσιν· :ση vρα cστ|ν ¿ pcν uπo ΖΒΓ τ¸ uπo ΗΓΒ ¿ δc uπo ΒΓΖ τ¸
uπo ΓΒΗ. cπε| οuν oλη ¿ uπo ΑΒΗ γωνία oλ¸ τ¸ uπo ΑΓΖ γωνί; cδείχθη :ση, eν ¿ uπo ΓΒΗ
τ¸ uπo ΒΓΖ :ση, λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ uπo ΑΒΓ λοιπ¸ τ¸ uπo ΑΓΒ cστιν :ση· καί εiσι πρoς τ¸ βάσει
τοu ΑΒΓ τριγώνου. cδείχθη δc κα| ¿ uπo ΖΒΓ τ¸ uπo ΗΓΒ :ση· καί εiσιν uπo τ¿ν βάσιν.
Τeν vρα iσοσκελeν τριγώνων α| τρoς τ¸ βάσει γωνίαι :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν, κα| προσεκβληθεισeν
τeν :σων εuθειeν α| uπo τ¿ν βάσιν γωνίαι :σαι vλλήλαις cσονται· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
l8
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 5
B
D
F
C
G
A
E
For isosceles triangles, the angles at the base are equal to one another, and if the equal sides are
produced then the angles under the base will be equal to one another.
Let ABC be an isosceles triangle having the side AB equal to the side AC, and let the straight-
lines BD and CE have been produced in a straight-line with AB and AC (respectively) [Post. 2].
I say that the angle ABC is equal to ACB, and (angle) CBD to BCE.
For let the point F have been taken somewhere on BD, and let AG have been cut off from the
greater AE, equal to the lesser AF [Prop. 1.3]. Also, let the straight-lines FC and GB have been
joined [Post. 1].
In fact, since AF is equal to AG and AB to AC, the two (straight-lines) FA, AC are equal to the
two (straight-lines) GA, AB, respectively. They also encompass a common angle FAG. Thus, the
base FC is equal to the base GB, and the triangle AFC will be equal to the triangle AGB, and
the remaining angles subtendend by the equal sides will be equal to the corresponding remaining
angles [Prop. 1.4]. (That is) ACF to ABG, and AFC to AGB. And since the whole of AF is
equal to the whole of AG, within which AB is equal to AC, the remainder BF is thus equal to
the remainder CG [C.N. 3]. But FC was also shown (to be) equal to GB. So the two (straight-
lines) BF, FC are equal to the two (straight-lines) CG, GB, respectively, and the angle BFC (is)
equal to the angle CGB, and the base BC is common to them. Thus, the triangle BFC will be
equal to the triangle CGB, and the remaining angles subtended by the equal sides will be equal
to the corresponding remaining angles [Prop. 1.4]. Thus, FBC is equal to GCB, and BCF to
CBG. Therefore, since the whole angle ABG was shown (to be) equal to the whole angle ACF,
within which CBG is equal to BCF, the remainder ABC is thus equal to the remainder ACB
[C.N. 3]. And they are at the base of triangle ABC. And FBC was also shown (to be) equal to
GCB. And they are under the base.
Thus, for isosceles triangles, the angles at the base are equal to one another, and if the equal sides
are produced then the angles under the base will be equal to one another. (Which is) the very
thing it was required to show.
l9
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
ç΄
Α
Β Γ

Εvν τριγώνου α| δuο γωνίαι :σαι vλλήλαις eσιν, κα| α| uπo τvς :σας γωνίας uποτείνουσαι
πλευρα| :σαι vλλήλαις cσονται.
´Εστω τρίγωνον τo ΑΒΓ :σην cχον τ¿ν uπo ΑΒΓ γωνίαν τ¸ uπo ΑΓΒ γωνί;· λέγω, oτι κα|
πλευρv ¿ ΑΒ πλευρ; τ¸ ΑΓ cστιν :ση.
Εi γvρ vνισός cστιν ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ ΑΓ, ¿ cτέρα αuτeν pείζων cστίν. cστω pείζων ¿ ΑΒ, κα| vφ¸ρήσθω
vπo τ¿ς pείζονος τ¿ς ΑΒ τ¸ cλάττονι τ¸ ΑΓ :ση ¿ ∆Β, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ∆Γ.
Επε| οuν :ση cστ|ν ¿ ∆Β τ¸ ΑΓ κοιν¿ δc ¿ ΒΓ, δύο δ¿ α| ∆Β, ΒΓ δύο ταiς ΑΓ, ΓΒ :σαι εiσ|ν
cκατέρα cκατέρ;, κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ∆ΒΓ γωνι; τ¸ uπo ΑΓΒ cστιν :ση· βάσις vρα ¿ ∆Γ βάσει τ¸
ΑΒ :ση cστίν, κα| τo ∆ΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ΑΓΒ τριγών; :σον cσται, τo cλασσον τ; pείζονι· oπερ
vτοπον· οuκ vρα vνισός cστιν ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ ΑΓ· :ση vρα.
Εvν vρα τριγώνου α| δuο γωνίαι :σαι vλλήλαις eσιν, κα| α| uπo τvς :σας γωνίας uποτείνουσαι
πλευρα| :σαι vλλήλαις cσονται· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
20
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 6
D
A
C B
If a triangle has two angles equal to one another then the sides subtending the equal angles will
also be equal to one another.
Let ABC be a triangle having the angle ABC equal to the angle ACB. I say that side AB is also
equal to side AC.
For if AB is unequal to AC then one of them is greater. Let AB be greater. And let DB, equal to
the lesser AC, have been cut off from the greater AB [Prop. 1.3]. And let DC have been joined
[Post. 1].
Therefore, since DB is equal to AC, and BC (is) common, the two sides DB, BC are equal to the
two sides AC, CB, respectively, and the angle DBC is equal to the angle ACB. Thus, the base
DC is equal to the base AB, and the triangle DBC will be equal to the triangle ACB [Prop. 1.4],
the lesser to the greater. The very notion (is) absurd [C.N. 5]. Thus, AB is not unequal to AC.
Thus, (it is) equal.
8
Thus, if a triangle has two angles equal to one another then the sides subtending the equal angles
will also be equal to one another. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
8
Here, use is made of the previously unmentioned common notion that if two quantities are not unequal then
they must be equal. Later on, use is made of the closely related common notion that if two quantities are not greater
than or less than one another, respectively, then they must be equal to one another.
2l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
ζ΄
Β Α
Γ

Επ| τ¿ς αuτ¿ς εuθείας δύο ταiς αuταiς εuθείαις vλλαι δύο εuθεiαι :σαι cκατέρα cκατέρ; οu
συσταθήσονται πρoς vλλ; κα| vλλ; σηpεί; cπ| τv αuτv pέρη τv αuτv πέρατα cχουσαι ταiς cξ
vρχ¿ς εuθείαις.
Εi γvρ δυνατόν, cπ| τ¿ς αuτ¿ς εuθείας τ¿ς ΑΒ δύο ταiς αuταiς εuθείαις ταiς ΑΓ, ΓΒ vλλαι δύο
εuθεiαι α| Α∆, ∆Β :σαι cκατέρα cκατερ; συνεστάτωσαν πρoς vλλ; κα| vλλ; σηpεί; τ; τε Γ
κα| ∆ cπ| τv αuτv pέρη τv αuτv πέρατα cχουσαι, eστε :σην ε|ναι τ¿ν pcν ΓΑ τ¸ ∆Α τo αuτo
πέρας cχουσαν αuτ¸ τo Α, τ¿ν δc ΓΒ τ¸ ∆Β τo αuτo πέρας cχουσαν αuτ¸ τo Β, κα| cπεζεύχθω
¿ Γ∆.
Επε| οuν :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΑΓ τ¸ Α∆, :ση cστ| κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΑΓ∆ τ¸ uπo Α∆Γ· pείζων vρα ¿
uπo Α∆Γ τ¿ς uπo ∆ΓΒ· πολλ; vρα ¿ uπo Γ∆Β pείζων cστί τ¿ς uπo ∆ΓΒ. πάλιν cπε| :ση cστ|ν
¿ ΓΒ τ¸ ∆Β, :ση cστ| κα| γωνία ¿ uπo Γ∆Β γωνί; τ¸ uπo ∆ΓΒ. cδείχθη δc αuτ¿ς κα| πολλ;
pείζων· oπερ cστ|ν vδύατον.
Οuκ vρα cπ| τ¿ς αuτ¿ς εuθείας δύο ταiς αuταiς εuθείαις vλλαι δύο εuθεiαι :σαι cκατέρα cκατέρ;
συσταθήσονται πρoς vλλ; κα| vλλ; σηpεί; cπ| τv αuτv pέρη τv αuτv πέρατα cχουσαι ταiς cξ
vρχ¿ς εuθείαις· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
22
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 7
B A
C
D
On the same straight-line, two other straight-lines equal, respectively, to two (given) straight-
lines (which meet) cannot be constructed (meeting) at different points on the same side (of the
straight-line), but having the same ends as the given straight-lines.
For, if possible, let the two straight-lines AD, DB, equal to two (given) straight-lines AC, CB,
respectively, have been constructed on the same straight-line AB, meeting at different points, C
and D, on the same side (of AB), and having the same ends (on AB). So CA and DA are equal,
having the same ends at A, and CB and DB are equal, having the same ends at B. And let CD
have been joined [Post. 1].
Therefore, since AC is equal to AD, the angle ACD is also equal to angle ADC [Prop. 1.5]. Thus,
ADC (is) greater than DCB [C.N. 5]. Thus, CDB is much greater than DCB [C.N. 5]. Again,
since CB is equal to DB, the angle CDB is also equal to angle DCB [Prop. 1.5]. But it was
shown that the former (angle) is also much greater (than the latter). The very thing is impossi-
ble.
Thus, on the same straight-line, two other straight-lines equal, respectively, to two (given) straight-
lines (which meet) cannot be constructed (meeting) at different points on the same side (of the
straight-line), but having the same ends as the given straight-lines. (Which is) the very thing it
was required to show.
2`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
η΄
Ε
Α
Β
Γ

Η
Ζ
Εvν δύο τρίγωνα τvς δύο πλευρvς ¸ταiς] δύο πλευραiς :σας cχ¸ cκατέραν cκατέρ;, cχ¸ δc
κα| τ¿ν βάσιν τ¸ βάσει :σην, κα| τ¿ν γωνίαν τ¸ γωνί; :σην cξει τ¿ν uπo τeν :σων εuθειeν
περιεχοpένην.
´Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τv ΑΒΓ, ∆ΕΖ τvς δύο πλευρvς τvς ΑΒ, ΑΓ ταiς δύο πλευραiς ταiς ∆Ε,
∆Ζ :σας cχοντα cκατέραν cκατέρ;, τ¿ν pcν ΑΒ τ¸ ∆Ε τ¿ν δc ΑΓ τ¸ ∆Ζ· cχέτω δc κα| βάσιν
τ¿ν ΒΓ βάσει τ¸ ΕΖ :σην· λέγω, oτι κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ γωνί; τ¸ uπo Ε∆Ζ cστιν :ση.
Εφαρpοζοpένου γvρ τοu ΑΒΓ τριγώνου cπ| τo ∆ΕΖ τρίγωνον κα| τιθεpένου τοu pcν Β σηpείου
cπ| τo Ε σηpεiον τ¿ς δc ΒΓ εuθείας cπ| τ¿ν ΕΖ cφαρpόσει κα| τo Γ σηpεiον cπ| τo Ζ διv τo
:σην ε|ναι τ¿ν ΒΓ τ¸ ΕΖ· cφαρpοσάσης δ¿ τ¿ς ΒΓ cπ| τ¿ν ΕΖ cφαρpόσουσι κα| α| ΒΑ, ΓΑ cπ|
τvς Ε∆, ∆Ζ. εi γvρ βάσις pcν ¿ ΒΓ cπ| βάσιν τ¿ν ΕΖ cφαρpόσει, α| δc ΒΑ, ΑΓ πλευρα| cπ| τvς
Ε∆, ∆Ζ οuκ cφαρpόσουσιν vλλv παραλλάξουσιν eς α| ΕΗ, ΗΖ, συσταθήσονται cπ| τ¿ς αuτ¿ς
εuθείας δύο ταiς αuταiς εuθείαις vλλαι δύο εuθεiαι :σαι cκατέρα cκατέρ; πρoς vλλ; κα| vλλ;
σηpεί; cπ| τv αuτv pέρη τv αuτv πέρατα cχουσαι. οu συνίστανται δέ· οuκ vρα cφαρpοζοpένης
τ¿ς ΒΓ βάσεως cπ| τ¿ν ΕΖ βάσιν οuκ cφαρpόσουσι κα| α| ΒΑ, ΑΓ πλευρα| cπ| τvς Ε∆, ∆Ζ.
cφαρpόσουσιν vρα· eστε κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ cπ| γωνίαν τ¿ν uπo Ε∆Ζ cφαρpόσει κα| :ση
αuτ¸ cσται.
Εvν vρα δύο τρίγωνα τvς δύο πλευρvς ¸ταiς] δύο πλευραiς :σας cχ¸ cκατέραν cκατέρ; κα|
τ¿ν βάσιν τ¸ βάσει :σην cχ¸, κα| τ¿ν γωνίαν τ¸ γωνί; :σην cξει τ¿ν uπo τeν :σων εuθειeν
περιεχοpένην· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
24
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 8
D
G
B
E
F
C
A
If two triangles have two corresponding sides equal, and also have equal bases, then the angles
encompassed by the equal straight-lines will also be equal.
Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having the two sides AB and AC equal to the two sides DE
and DF, respectively. (That is) AB to DE, and AC to DF. Let them also have the base BC equal
to the base EF. I say that the angle BAC is also equal to the angle EDF.
For if triangle ABC is applied to triangle DEF, the point B being placed on point E, and the
straight-line BC on EF, point C will also coincide with F on account of BC being equal to EF.
So (because of) BC coinciding with EF, (the sides) BA and CA will also coincide with ED and
DF (respectively). For if base BC coincides with base EF, but the sides AB and AC do not
coincide with ED and DF (respectively), but miss like EG and GF (in the above figure), then
we will have constructed upon the same straight-line, two other straight-lines equal, respectively,
to two (given) straight-lines, and (meeting) at different points on the same side (of the straight-
line), but having the same ends. But (such straight-lines) cannot be constructed [Prop. 1.7].
Thus, the base BC being applied to the base EF, the sides BA and AC cannot not coincide with
ED and DF (respectively). Thus, they will coincide. So the angle BAC will also coincide with
angle EDF, and they will be equal [C.N. 4].
Thus, if two triangles have two corresponding sides equal, and have equal bases, then the angles
encompassed by the equal straight-lines will also be equal. (Which is) the very thing it was
required to show.

ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
θ΄
Ε
Α
Β Γ

Ζ
Τ¿ν δοθεiσαν γωνίαν εuθύγραppον δίχα τεpεiν.
´Εστω ¿ δοθεiσα γωνία εuθύγραppος ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ. δεi δ¿ αuτ¿ν δίχα τεpεiν.
Εiλήφθω cπ| τ¿ς ΑΒ τυχoν σηpεiον τo ∆, κα| vφ¸ρήσθω vπo τ¿ς ΑΓ τ¸ Α∆ :ση ¿ ΑΕ, κα|
cπεζεύχθω ¿ ∆Ε, κα| συνεστάτω cπ| τ¿ς ∆Ε τρίγωνον iσόπλευρον τo ∆ΕΖ, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿
ΑΖ· λέγω, oτι ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ γωνία δίχα τέτpηται uπo τ¿ς ΑΖ εuθείας.
Επε| γvρ :ση cστ|ν ¿ Α∆ τ¸ ΑΕ, κοιν¿ δc ¿ ΑΖ, δύο δ¿ α| ∆Α, ΑΖ δυσ| ταiς ΕΑ, ΑΖ :σαι
εiσ|ν cκατέρα cκατέρ;. κα| βάσις ¿ ∆Ζ βάσει τ¸ ΕΖ :ση cστίν· γωνία vρα ¿ uπo ∆ΑΖ γωνί;
τ¸ uπo ΕΑΖ :ση cστίν.
Η vρα δοθεiσα γωνία εuθύγραppος ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ δίχα τέτpηται uπo τ¿ς ΑΖ εuθείας· oπερ cδει
ποι¿σαι.
26
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 9
F
D
B C
E
A
To cut a given rectilinear angle in half.
Let BAC be the given rectilinear angle. So it is required to cut it in half.
Let the point D have been taken somewhere on AB, and let AE, equal to AD, have been cut off
from AC [Prop. 1.3], and let DE have been joined. And let the equilateral triangle DEF have
been constructed upon DE [Prop. 1.1], and let AF have been joined. I say that the angle BAC
has been cut in half by the straight-line AF.
For since AD is equal to AE, and AF is common, the two (straight-lines) DA, AF are equal to
the two (straight-lines) EA, AF, respectively. And the base DF is equal to the base EF. Thus,
angle DAF is equal to angle EAF [Prop. 1.8].
Thus, the given rectilinear angle BAC has been cut in half by the straight-line AF. (Which is)
the very thing it was required to do.

ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
ι΄
Α

Β
Γ
Τ¿ν δοθεiσαν εuθεiαν πεπερασpένην δίχα τεpεiν.
´Εστω ¿ δοθεiσα εuθεiα πεπερασpένη ¿ ΑΒ· δεi δ¿ τ¿ν ΑΒ εuθεiαν πεπερασpένην δίχα τεpεiν.
Συνεστάτω cπ αuτ¿ς τρίγωνον iσόπλευρον τo ΑΒΓ, κα| τετpήσθω ¿ uπo ΑΓΒ γωνία δίχα τ¸
Γ∆ εuθεί;· λέγω, oτι ¿ ΑΒ εuθεiα δίχα τέτpηται κατv τo ∆ σηpεiον.
Επε| γvρ :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΑΓ τ¸ ΓΒ, κοιν¿ δc ¿ Γ∆, δύο δ¿ α| ΑΓ, Γ∆ δύο ταiς ΒΓ, Γ∆ :σαι εiσ|ν
cκατέρα cκατέρ;· κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΑΓ∆ γωνί; τ¸ uπo ΒΓ∆ :ση cστίν· βάσις vρα ¿ Α∆ βάσει
τ¸ Β∆ :ση cστίν.
Η vρα δοθεiσα εuθεiα πεπερασpένη ¿ ΑΒ δίχα τέτpηται κατv τo ∆· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
28
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 10
B A
D
C
To cut a given finite straight-line in half.
Let AB be the given finite straight-line. So it is required to cut the finite straight-line AB in half.
Let the equilateral triangle ABC have been constructed upon (AB) [Prop. 1.1], and let the angle
ACB have been cut in half by the straight-line CD [Prop. 1.9]. I say that the straight-line AB has
been cut in half at point D.
For since AC is equal to CB, and CD (is) common, the two (straight-lines) AC, CD are equal
to the two (straight-lines) BC, CD, respectively. And the angle ACD is equal to the angle BCD.
Thus, the base AD is equal to the base BD [Prop. 1.4].
Thus, the given finite straight-line AB has been cut in half at (point) D. (Which is) the very thing
it was required to do.
29
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
ια΄
Α Β
∆ Γ Ε
Ζ
Τ¸ δοθείσ¸ εuθεί; vπo τοu πρoς αuτ¸ δοθέντος σηpείου πρoς oρθvς γωνίας εuθεiαν γραpp¿ν
vγαγεiν.
´Εστω ¿ pcν δοθεiσα εuθεiα ¿ ΑΒ τo δc δοθcν σηpεiον cπ αuτ¿ς τo Γ· δεi δ¿ vπo τοu Γ
σηpείου τ¸ ΑΒ εuθεί; πρoς oρθvς γωνίας εuθεiαν γραpp¿ν vγαγεiν.
Εiλήφθω cπ| τ¿ς ΑΓ τυχoν σηpεiον τo ∆, κα| κείσθω τ¸ Γ∆ :ση ¿ ΓΕ, κα| συνεστάτω cπ| τ¿ς
∆Ε τρίγωνον iσόπλευρον τo Ζ∆Ε, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΖΓ· λέγω, oτι τ¸ δοθείσ¸ εuθεί; τ¸ ΑΒ
vπo τοu πρoς αuτ¸ δοθέντος σηpείου τοu Γ πρoς oρθvς γωνίας εuθεiα γραpp¿ ¿κται ¿ ΖΓ.
Επε| γvρ :ση cστ|ν ¿ ∆Γ τ¸ ΓΕ, κοιν¿ δc ¿ ΓΖ, δύο δ¿ α| ∆Γ, ΓΖ δυσ| ταiς ΕΓ, ΓΖ :σαι εiσ|ν
cκατέρα cκατέρ;· κα| βάσις ¿ ∆Ζ βάσει τ¸ ΖΕ :ση cστίν· γωνία vρα ¿ uπo ∆ΓΖ γωνί; τ¸ uπo
ΕΓΖ :ση cστίν· καί εiσιν cφεξ¿ς. oταν δc εuθεiα cπ εuθεiαν σταθεiσα τvς cφεξ¿ς γωνίας :σας
vλλήλαις ποι¸, oρθ¿ cκατέρα τeν :σων γωνιeν cστιν· oρθ¿ vρα cστ|ν cκατέρα τeν uπo ∆ΓΖ,
ΖΓΕ.
Τ¸ vρα δοθείσ¸ εuθεί; τ¸ ΑΒ vπo τοu πρoς αuτ¸ δοθέντος σηpείου τοu Γ πρoς oρθvς γωνίας
εuθεiα γραpp¿ ¿κται ¿ ΓΖ· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
`0
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 11
D
A
F
C E
B
To draw a straight-line at right-angles to a given straight-line from a given point on it.
Let AB be the given straight-line, and C the given point on it. So it is required to draw a straight-
line from the point C at right-angles to the straight-line AB.
Let the point D be have been taken somewhere on AC, and let CE be made equal to CD
[Prop. 1.3], and let the equilateral triangle FDE have been constructed on DE [Prop. 1.1], and
let FC have been joined. I say that the straight-line FC has been drawn at right-angles to the
given straight-line AB from the given point C on it.
For since DC is equal to CE, and CF is common, the two (straight-lines) DC, CF are equal
to the two (straight-lines), EC, CF, respectively. And the base DF is equal to the base FE.
Thus, the angle DCF is equal to the angle ECF [Prop. 1.8], and they are adjacent. But when
a straight-line stood on a(nother) straight-line makes the adjacent angles equal to one another,
each of the equal angles is a right-angle [Def. 1.10]. Thus, each of the (angles) DCF and FCE
is a right-angle.
Thus, the straight-line CF has been drawn at right-angles to the given straight-line AB from the
given point C on it. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.
`l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
ιβ΄

Α Β
Γ
Η Ε
Ζ
Θ
Επ| τ¿ν δοθεiσαν εuθεiαν vπειρον vπo τοu δοθέντος σηpείου, o pή cστιν cπ αuτ¿ς, κάθετον
εuθεiαν γραpp¿ν vγαγεiν.
´Εστω ¿ pcν δοθεiσα εuθεiα vπειρος ¿ ΑΒ τo δc δοθcν σηpεiον, o pή cστιν cπ αuτ¿ς, τo Γ·
δεi δ¿ cπ| τ¿ν δοθεiσαν εuθεiαν vπειρον τ¿ν ΑΒ vπo τοu δοθέντος σηpείου τοu Γ, o pή cστιν
cπ αuτ¿ς, κάθετον εuθεiαν γραpp¿ν vγαγεiν.
Εiλήφθω γvρ cπ| τv cτερα pέρη τ¿ς ΑΒ εuθείας τυχoν σηpεiον τo ∆, κα| κέντρ; pcν τ; Γ
διαστήpατι δc τ; Γ∆ κύκλος γεγράφθω o ΕΖΗ, κα| τετpήσθω ¿ ΕΗ εuθεiα δίχα κατv τo Θ,
κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΓΗ, ΓΘ, ΓΕ εuθεiαι· λέγω, oτι cπ| τ¿ν δοθεiσαν εuθεiαν vπειρον τ¿ν ΑΒ
vπo τοu δοθέντος σηpείου τοu Γ, o pή cστιν cπ αuτ¿ς, κάθετος ¿κται ¿ ΓΘ.
Επε| γvρ :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΗΘ τ¸ ΘΕ, κοιν¿ δc ¿ ΘΓ, δύο δ¿ α| ΗΘ, ΘΓ δύο ταiς ΕΘ, ΘΓ :σαι
ε|σ|ν cκατέρα cκατέρ;· κα| βάσις ¿ ΓΗ βάσει τ¸ ΓΕ cστιν :ση· γωνία vρα ¿ uπo ΓΘΗ γωνί; τ¸
uπo ΕΘΓ cστιν :ση. καί εiσιν cφεξ¿ς. oταν δc εuθεiα cπ εuθεiαν σταθεiσα τvς cφεξ¿ς γωνίας
:σας vλλήλαις ποι¸, oρθ¿ cκατέρα τeν :σων γωνιeν cστιν, κα| ¿ cφεστηκυiα εuθεiα κάθετος
καλεiται cφ ¿ν cφέστηκεν.
Επ| τ¿ν δοθεiσαν vρα εuθεiαν vπειρον τ¿ν ΑΒ vπo τοu δοθέντος σηpείου τοu Γ, o pή cστιν
cπ αuτ¿ς, κάθετος ¿κται ¿ ΓΘ· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
`2
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 12
D
A
G
H
F
E
B
C
To draw a straight-line perpendicular to a given infinite straight-line from a given point which is
not on it.
Let AB be the given infinite straight-line and C the given point, which is not on (AB). So it
is required to draw a straight-line perpendicular to the given infinite straight-line AB from the
given point C, which is not on (AB).
For let point D have been taken somewhere on the other side (to C) of the straight-line AB, and
let the circle EFG have been drawn with center C and radius CD [Post. 3], and let the straight-
line EG have been cut in half at (point) H [Prop. 1.10], and let the straight-lines CG, CH, and
CE have been joined. I say that a (straight-line) CH has been drawn perpendicular to the given
infinite straight-line AB from the given point C, which is not on (AB).
For since GH is equal to HE, and HC (is) common, the two (straight-lines) GH, HC are equal to
the two straight-lines EH, HC, respectively, and the base CG is equal to the base CE. Thus, the
angle CHG is equal to the angle EHC [Prop. 1.8], and they are adjacent. But when a straight-
line stood on a(nother) straight-line makes the adjacent angles equal to one another, each of the
equal angles is a right-angle, and the former straight-line is called perpendicular to that upon
which it stands [Def. 1.10].
Thus, the (straight-line) CH has been drawn perpendicular to the given infinite straight-line AB
from the given point C, which is not on (AB). (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.
``
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
ιγ΄
Γ
Ε
Α
∆ Β
Εvν εuθεiα cπ εuθεiαν σταθεiσα γωνίας ποι¸, ¿τοι δύο oρθvς ¿ δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σας ποιήσει.
Εuθεiα γάρ τις ¿ ΑΒ cπ εuθεiαν τ¿ν Γ∆ σταθεiσα γωνίας ποιείτω τvς uπo ΓΒΑ, ΑΒ∆· λcγω,
oτι α| uπo ΓΒΑ, ΑΒ∆ γωνίαι ¿τοι δύο oρθαί εiσιν ¿ δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι.
Εi pcν οuν :ση cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΓΒΑ τ¸ uπo ΑΒ∆, δύο oρθαί εiσιν. εi δc οu, ¿χθω vπo τοu Β
σηpείου τ¸ Γ∆ ¸εuθεί;] πρoς oρθvς ¿ ΒΕ· α| vρα uπo ΓΒΕ, ΕΒ∆ δύο oρθαί εiσιν· κα| cπε| ¿
uπo ΓΒΕ δυσ| ταiς uπo ΓΒΑ, ΑΒΕ :ση cστίν, κοιν¿ προσκείσθω ¿ uπo ΕΒ∆· α| vρα uπo ΓΒΕ,
ΕΒ∆ τρισ| ταiς uπo ΓΒΑ, ΑΒΕ, ΕΒ∆ :σαι εiσίν. πάλιν, cπε| ¿ uπo ∆ΒΑ δυσ| ταiς uπo ∆ΒΕ,
ΕΒΑ :ση cστίν, κοιν¿ προσκείσθω ¿ uπo ΑΒΓ· α| vρα uπό ∆ΒΑ, ΑΒΓ τρισ| ταiς uπo ∆ΒΕ,
ΕΒΑ, ΑΒΓ :σαι εiσίν. cδείχθησαν δc κα| α| uπo ΓΒΕ, ΕΒ∆ τρισ| ταiς αuταiς :σαι· τv δc τ;
αuτ; :σα κα| vλλήλοις cστ|ν :σα· κα| α| uπo ΓΒΕ, ΕΒ∆ vρα ταiς uπo ∆ΒΑ, ΑΒΓ :σαι εiσίν·
vλλv α| uπo ΓΒΕ, ΕΒ∆ δύο oρθαί εiσιν· κα| α| uπo ∆ΒΑ, ΑΒΓ vρα δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν.
Εvν vρα εuθεiα cπ εuθεiαν σταθεiσα γωνίας ποι¸, ¿τοι δύο oρθvς ¿ δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σας ποιήσει·
oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`4
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 13
C
A
E
D B
If a straight-line stood on a(nother) straight-line makes angles, it will certainly either make two
right-angles, or (angles whose sum is) equal to two right-angles.
For let some straight-line AB stood on the straight-line CD make the angles CBA and ABD. I
say that the angles CBA and ABD are certainly either two right-angles, or (have a sum) equal
to two right-angles.
In fact, if CBA is equal to ABD then they are two right-angles [Def. 1.10]. But, if not, let BE
have been drawn from the point B at right-angles to [the straight-line] CD [Prop. 1.11]. Thus,
CBE and EBD are two right-angles. And since CBE is equal to the two (angles) CBA and
ABE, let EBD have been added to both. Thus, the (angles) CBE and EBD are equal to the
three (angles) CBA, ABE, and EBD [C.N. 2]. Again, since DBA is equal to the two (angles)
DBE and EBA, let ABC have been added to both. Thus, the (angles) DBA and ABC are equal
to the three (angles) DBE, EBA, and ABC [C.N. 2]. But CBE and EBD were also shown (to
be) equal to the same three (angles). And things equal to the same thing are also equal to one
another [C.N. 1]. Therefore, CBE and EBD are also equal to DBA and ABC. But, CBE and
EBD are two right-angles. Thus, ABD and ABC are also equal to two right-angles.
Thus, if a straight-line stood on a(nother) straight-line makes angles, it will certainly either make
two right-angles, or (angles whose sum is) equal to two right-angles. (Which is) the very thing it
was required to show.

ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
ιδ΄
Β
Α
Γ ∆
Ε
Εvν πρός τινι εuθεί; κα| τ; πρoς αuτ¸ σηpεί; δύο εuθεiαι p¿ cπ| τv αuτv pέρη κείpεναι τvς
cφεξ¿ς γωνίας δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σας ποιeσιν, cπ εuθείας cσονται vλλήλαις α| εuθεiαι.
Πρoς γάρ τινι εuθεί; τ¸ ΑΒ κα| τ; πρoς αuτ¸ σηpεί; τ; Β δύο εuθεiαι α| ΒΓ, Β∆ p¿ cπ| τv
αuτv pέρη κείpεναι τvς cφεξ¿ς γωνίας τvς uπo ΑΒΓ, ΑΒ∆ δύο oρθαiς :σας ποιείτωσαν· λέγω,
oτι cπ εuθείας cστ| τ¸ ΓΒ ¿ Β∆.
Εi γvρ pή cστι τ¸ ΒΓ cπ εuθείας ¿ Β∆, cστω τ¸ ΓΒ cπ εuθείας ¿ ΒΕ.
Επε| οuν εuθεiα ¿ ΑΒ cπ εuθεiαν τ¿ν ΓΒΕ cφέστηκεν, α| vρα uπo ΑΒΓ, ΑΒΕ γωνίαι δύο
oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν· εiσ| δc κα| α| uπo ΑΒΓ, ΑΒ∆ δύο oρθαiς :σαι· α| vρα uπo ΓΒΑ, ΑΒΕ ταiς
uπo ΓΒΑ, ΑΒ∆ :σαι εiσίν. κοιν¿ vφ¸ρήσθω ¿ uπo ΓΒΑ· λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ uπo ΑΒΕ λοιπ¸ τ¸ uπo
ΑΒ∆ cστιν :ση, ¿ cλάσσων τ¸ pείζονι· oπερ cστ|ν vδύνατον. οuκ vρα cπ εuθείας cστ|ν ¿ ΒΕ τ¸
ΓΒ. opοίως δ¿ δείξοpεν, oτι οuδc vλλη τις πλ¿ν τ¿ς Β∆· cπ εuθείας vρα cστ|ν ¿ ΓΒ τ¸ Β∆.
Εvν vρα πρός τινι εuθεί; κα| τ; πρoς αuτ¸ σηpεί; δύο εuθεiαι p¿ cπ| αuτv pέρη κείpεναι
τvς cφεξ¿ς γωνίας δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σας ποιeσιν, cπ εuθείας cσονται vλλήλαις α| εuθεiαι· oπερ cδει
δεiξαι.
`6
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 14
B C D
E A
If two straight-lines, not lying on the same side, make adjacent angles equal to two right-angles at
the same point on some straight-line, then the two straight-lines will be straight-on (with respect)
to one another.
For let two straight-lines BC and BD, not lying on the same side, make adjacent angles ABC
and ABD equal to two right-angles at the same point B on some straight-line AB. I say that BD
is straight-on with respect to CB.
For if BD is not straight-on to BC then let BE be straight-on to CB.
Therefore, since the straight-line AB stands on the straight-line CBE, the angles ABC and ABE
are thus equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.13]. But ABC and ABD are also equal to two right-
angles. Thus, (angles) CBA and ABE are equal to (angles) CBA and ABD [C.N. 1]. Let (angle)
CBA have been subtracted from both. Thus, the remainder ABE is equal to the remainder ABD
[C.N. 3], the lesser to the greater. The very thing is impossible. Thus, BE is not straight-on with
respect to CB. Similarly, we can show that neither (is) any other (straight-line) than BD. Thus,
CB is straight-on with respect to BD.
Thus, if two straight-lines, not lying on the same side, make adjacent angles equal to two right-
angles at the same point on some straight-line, then the two straight-lines will be straight-on
(with respect) to one another. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
ιε΄
Ε

Α
Β
Γ
Εvν δύο εuθεiαι τέpνωσιν vλλήλας, τvς κατv κορυφ¿ν γωνίας :σας vλλήλαις ποιοuσιν.
∆ύο γvρ εuθεiαι α| ΑΒ, Γ∆ τεpνέτωσαν vλλήλας κατv τo Ε σηpεiον· λέγω, oτι :ση cστ|ν ¿ pcν
uπo ΑΕΓ γωνία τ¸ uπo ∆ΕΒ, ¿ δc uπo ΓΕΒ τ¸ uπo ΑΕ∆.
Επε| γvρ εuθεiα ¿ ΑΕ cπ εuθεiαν τ¿ν Γ∆ cφέστηκε γωνίας ποιοuσα τvς uπo ΓΕΑ, ΑΕ∆, α|
vρα uπo ΓΕΑ, ΑΕ∆ γωνίαι δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν. πάλιν, cπε| εuθεiα ¿ ∆Ε cπ εuθεiαν τ¿ν
ΑΒ cφέστηκε γωνίας ποιοuσα τvς uπo ΑΕ∆, ∆ΕΒ, α| vρα uπo ΑΕ∆, ∆ΕΒ γωνίαι δυσ|ν oρθαiς
:σαι εiσίν. cδείχθησαν δc κα| α| uπo ΓΕΑ, ΑΕ∆ δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι· \ι vρα uπo ΓΕΑ, ΑΕ∆ ταiς
uπo ΑΕ∆, ∆ΕΒ :σαι εiσίν. κοιν¿ vφ¸ρήσθω ¿ uπo ΑΕ∆· λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ uπo ΓΕΑ λοιπ¸ τ¸ uπo
ΒΕ∆ :ση cστίν· opοίως δ¿ δειχθήσεται, oτι κα| α| uπo ΓΕΒ, ∆ΕΑ :σαι εiσίν.
Εvν vρα δύο εuθεiαι τέpνωσιν vλλήλας, τvς κατv κορυφ¿ν γωνίας :σας vλλήλαις ποιοuσιν· oπερ
cδει δεiξαι.
`8
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 15
D
A
E
B
C
If two straight-lines cut one another then they make the vertically opposite angles equal to one
another.
For let the two straight-lines AB and CD cut one another at the point E. I say that angle AEC is
equal to (angle) DEB, and (angle) CEB to (angle) AED.
For since the straight-line AE stands on the straight-line CD, making the angles CEA and AED,
the angles CEA and AED are thus equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.13]. Again, since the
straight-line DE stands on the straight-line AB, making the angles AED and DEB, the angles
AED and DEB are thus equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.13]. But CEA and AED were also
shown (to be) equal to two right-angles. Thus, CEA and AED are equal to AED and DEB
[C.N. 1]. Let AED have been subtracted from both. Thus, the remainder CEA is equal to the
remainder BED [C.N. 3]. Similarly, it can be shown that CEB and DEA are also equal.
Thus, if two straight-lines cut one another then they make the vertically opposite angles equal to
one another. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
`9
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
ιç΄
Ε
Η
Β ∆
Γ
Α Ζ
Παντoς τριγώνου pιiς τeν πλευρeν προσεκβληθείσης ¿ cκτoς γωνία cκατέρας τeν cντoς κα|
vπεναντίον γωνιeν pείζων cστίν.
´Εστω τρίγωνον τo ΑΒΓ, κα| προσεκβεβλήσθω αuτοu pία πλευρv ¿ ΒΓ cπ| τo ∆· λcγω, oτι ¿
cκτoς γωνία ¿ uπo ΑΓ∆ pείζων cστ|ν cκατέρας τeν cντoς κα| vπεναντίον τeν uπo ΓΒΑ, ΒΑΓ
γωνιeν.
Τετpήσθω ¿ ΑΓ δίχα κατv τo Ε, κα| cπιζευχθεiσα ¿ ΒΕ cκβεβλήσθω cπ εuθείας cπ| τo Ζ, κα|
κείσθω τ¸ ΒΕ :ση ¿ ΕΖ, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΖΓ, κα| διήχθω ¿ ΑΓ cπ| τo Η.
Επε| οuν :ση cστ|ν ¿ pcν ΑΕ τ¸ ΕΓ, ¿ δc ΒΕ τ¸ ΕΖ, δύο δ¿ α| ΑΕ, ΕΒ δυσ| ταiς ΓΕ, ΕΖ
:σαι εiσ|ν cκατέρα cκατέρ;· κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΑΕΒ γωνί; τ¸ uπo ΖΕΓ :ση cστίν· κατv κορυφ¿ν
γάρ· βάσις vρα ¿ ΑΒ βάσει τ¸ ΖΓ :ση cστίν, κα| τo ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον τ; ΖΕΓ τριγών; cστ|ν
:σον, κα| α| λοιπα| γωνίαι ταiς λοιπαiς γωνίαις :σαι εiσ|ν cκατέρα cκατέρ;, uφ iς α| :σας πλευρα|
uποτείνουσιν· :ση vρα cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΒΑΕ τ¸ uπo ΕΓΖ. pείζων δέ cστιν ¿ uπo ΕΓ∆ τ¿ς uπo ΕΓΖ·
pείζων vρα ¿ uπo ΑΓ∆ τ¿ς uπo ΒΑΕ. Οpοίως δ¿ τ¿ς ΒΓ τετpηpένης δίχα δειχθήσεται κα| ¿
uπo ΒΓΗ, τουτέστιν ¿ uπo ΑΓ∆, pείζων κα| τ¿ς uπo ΑΒΓ.
Παντoς vρα τριγώνου pιiς τeν πλευρeν προσεκβληθείσης ¿ cκτoς γωνία cκατέρας τeν cντoς
κα| vπεναντίον γωνιeν pείζων cστίν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
40
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 16
E
B
A
C
G
F
D
For any triangle, when one of the sides is produced, the external angle is greater than each of the
internal and opposite angles.
Let ABC be a triangle, and let one of its sides BC have been produced to D. I say that the
external angle ACD is greater than each of the internal and opposite angles, CBA and BAC.
Let the (straight-line) AC have been cut in half at (point) E [Prop. 1.10]. And BE being joined,
let it have been produced in a straight-line to (point) F.
9
And let EF be made equal to BE
[Prop. 1.3], and let FC have been joined, and let AC have been drawn through to (point) G.
Therefore, since AE is equal to EC, and BE to EF, the two (straight-lines) AE, EB are equal to
the two (straight-lines) CE, EF, respectively. Also, angle AEB is equal to angle FEC, for (they
are) vertically opposite [Prop. 1.15]. Thus, the base AB is equal to the base FC, and the triangle
ABE is equal to the triangle FEC, and the remaining angles subtended by the equal sides are
equal to the corresponding remaining angles [Prop. 1.4]. Thus, BAE is equal to ECF. But ECD
is greater than ECF. Thus, ACD is greater than BAE. Similarly, by having cut BC in half, it can
be shown (that) BCG—that is to say, ACD—(is) also greater than ABC.
Thus, for any triangle, when one of the sides is produced, the external angle is greater than each
of the internal and opposite angles. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
9
The implicit assumption that the point F lies in the interior of the angle ABC should be counted as an additional
postulate.
4l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
ιζ΄
Γ ∆
Α
Β
Παντoς τριγώνου α| δύο γωνίαι δύο oρθeν cλάσσονές εiσι πάντ¸ pεταλαpβανόpεναι.
´Εστω τρίγωνον τo ΑΒΓ· λέγω, oτι τοu ΑΒΓ τριγώνου α| δύο γωνίαι δύο oρθeν cλάττονές εiσι
πάντ¸ pεταλαpβανόpεναι.
Εκβεβλήσθω γvρ ¿ ΒΓ cπ| τo ∆.
Κα| cπε| τριγώνου τοu ΑΒΓ cκτός cστι γωνία ¿ uπo ΑΓ∆, pείζων cστ| τ¿ς cντoς κα| vπεναντίον
τ¿ς uπo ΑΒΓ. κοιν¿ προσκείσθω ¿ uπo ΑΓΒ· α| vρα uπo ΑΓ∆, ΑΓΒ τeν uπo ΑΒΓ, ΒΓΑ
pείζονές εiσιν. vλλ α| uπo ΑΓ∆, ΑΓΒ δύο oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν· α| vρα uπo ΑΒΓ, ΒΓΑ δύο oρθeν
cλάσσονές εiσιν. opοίως δ¿ δείξοpεν, oτι κα| α| uπo ΒΑΓ, ΑΓΒ δύο oρθeν cλάσσονές εiσι κα|
cτι α| uπo ΓΑΒ, ΑΒΓ.
Παντoς vρα τριγώνου α| δύο γωνίαι δύο oρθeν cλάσσονές εiσι πάντ¸ pεταλαpβανόpεναι· oπερ
cδει δεiξαι.
42
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 17
B
A
C D
For any triangle, (any) two angles are less than two right-angles, (the angles) being taken up in
any (possible way).
Let ABC be a triangle. I say that (any) two angles of triangle ABC are less than two right-angles,
(the angles) being taken up in any (possible way).
For let BC have been produced to D.
And since the angle ACD is external to triangle ABC, it is greater than the internal and opposite
angle ABC [Prop. 1.16]. Let ACB have been added to both. Thus, the (angles) ACD and ACB
are greater than the (angles) ABC and BCA. But, ACD and ACB are equal to two right-angles
[Prop. 1.13]. Thus, ABC and BCA are less than two right-angles. Similarly, we can show that
BAC and ACB are also less than two right-angles, and again CAB and ABC (are less than two
right-angles).
Thus, for any triangle, (any) two angles are less than two right-angles, (the angles) being taken
up in any (possible way). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
4`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
ιη΄
Β
Γ
Α

Παντoς τριγώνου ¿ pείζων πλευρv τ¿ν pείζονα γωνίαν uποτείνει.
´Εστω γvρ τρίγωνον τo ΑΒΓ pείζονα cχον τ¿ν ΑΓ πλευρvν τ¿ς ΑΒ· λέγω, oτι κα| γωνία ¿ uπo
ΑΒΓ pείζων cστ| τ¿ς uπo ΒΓΑ·
Επε| γvρ pείζων cστ|ν ¿ ΑΓ τ¿ς ΑΒ, κείσθω τ¸ ΑΒ :ση ¿ Α∆, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ Β∆.
Κα| cπε| τριγώνου τοu ΒΓ∆ cκτός cστι γωνία ¿ uπo Α∆Β, pείζων cστ| τ¿ς cντoς κα| vπεναντίον
τ¿ς uπo ∆ΓΒ· :ση δc ¿ uπo Α∆Β τ¸ uπo ΑΒ∆, cπε| κα| πλευρv ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ Α∆ cστιν :ση· pείζων
vρα κα| ¿ uπo ΑΒ∆ τ¿ς uπo ΑΓΒ· πολλ; vρα ¿ uπo ΑΒΓ pείζων cστ| τ¿ς uπo ΑΓΒ.
Παντoς vρα τριγώνου ¿ pείζων πλευρv τ¿ν pείζονα γωνίαν uποτείνει· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
44
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 18
A
D
B
C
For any triangle, the greater side subtends the greater angle.
For let ABC be a triangle having side AC greater than AB. I say that angle ABC is also greater
than BCA.
For since AC is greater than AB, let AD be made equal to AB [Prop. 1.3], and let BD have been
joined.
And since angle ADB is external to triangle BCD, it is greater than the internal and opposite
(angle) DCB. But ADB (is) equal to ABD, since side AB is also equal to side AD [Prop. 1.5].
Thus, ABD is also greater than ACB. Thus, ABC is much greater than ACB.
Thus, for any triangle, the greater side subtends the greater angle. (Which is) the very thing it
was required to show.

ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
ιθ΄
Β
Α
Γ
Παντoς τριγώνου uπo τ¿ν pείζονα γωνίαν ¿ pείζων πλευρv uποτείνει.
´Εστω τρίγωνον τo ΑΒΓ pείζονα cχον τ¿ν uπo ΑΒΓ γωνίαν τ¿ς uπo ΒΓΑ· λέγω, oτι κα| πλευρv
¿ ΑΓ πλευρiς τ¿ς ΑΒ pείζων cστίν.
Εi γvρ pή, ¿τοι :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΑΓ τ¸ ΑΒ ¿ cλάσσων· :ση pcν οuν οuκ cστιν ¿ ΑΓ τ¸ ΑΒ· :ση γvρ
iν ¿ν κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΑΒΓ τ¸ uπo ΑΓΒ· οuκ cστι δέ· οuκ vρα :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΑΓ τ¸ ΑΒ. οuδc
p¿ν cλάσσων cστ|ν ¿ ΑΓ τ¿ς ΑΒ· cλάσσων γvρ iν ¿ν κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΑΒΓ τ¿ς uπo ΑΓΒ· οuκ
cστι δέ· οuκ vρα cλάσσων cστ|ν ¿ ΑΓ τ¿ς ΑΒ. cδείχθη δέ, oτι οuδc :ση cστίν. pείζων vρα cστ|ν
¿ ΑΓ τ¿ς ΑΒ.
Παντoς vρα τριγώνου uπo τ¿ν pείζονα γωνίαν ¿ pείζων πλευρv uποτείνει· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
46
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 19
C
B
A
For any triangle, the greater angle is subtended by the greater side.
Let ABC be a triangle having the angle ABC greater than BCA. I say that side AC is also greater
than side AB.
For if not, AC is certainly either equal to or less than AB. In fact, AC is not equal to AB. For
then angle ABC would also have been equal to ACB [Prop. 1.5]. But it is not. Thus, AC is not
equal to AB. Neither, indeed, is AC less than AB. For then angle ABC would also have been less
than ACB [Prop. 1.18]. But it is not. Thus, AC is not less than AB. But it was shown that (AC)
is also not equal (to AB). Thus, AC is greater than AB.
Thus, for any triangle, the greater angle is subtended by the greater side. (Which is) the very
thing it was required to show.

ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
κ΄
Β Γ

Α
Παντoς τριγώνου α| δύο πλευρα| τ¿ς λοιπ¿ς pείζονές εiσι πάντ¸ pεταλαpβανόpεναι.
´Εστω γvρ τρίγωνον τo ΑΒΓ· λέγω, oτι τοu ΑΒΓ τριγώνου α| δύο πλευρα| τ¿ς λοιπ¿ς pείζονές
εiσι παντ¸ pεταλαpβανόpεναι, α| pcν ΒΑ, ΑΓ τ¿ς ΒΓ, α| δc ΑΒ, ΒΓ τ¿ς ΑΓ, α| δc ΒΓ, ΓΑ τ¿ς
ΑΒ.
∆ιήχθω γvρ ¿ ΒΑ cπ| τo ∆ σηpεiον, κα| κείσθω τ¸ ΓΑ :ση ¿ Α∆, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ∆Γ.
Επε| οuν :ση cστ|ν ¿ ∆Α τ¸ ΑΓ, :ση cστ| κα| γωνία ¿ uπo Α∆Γ τ¸ uπo ΑΓ∆· pείζων vρα ¿
uπo ΒΓ∆ τ¿ς uπo Α∆Γ· κα| cπε| τρίγωνόν cστι τo ∆ΓΒ pείζονα cχον τ¿ν uπo ΒΓ∆ γωνίαν τ¿ς
uπo Β∆Γ, uπo δc τ¿ν pείζονα γωνίαν ¿ pείζων πλευρv uποτείνει, ¿ ∆Β vρα τ¿ς ΒΓ cστι pείζων.
:ση δc ¿ ∆Α τ¸ ΑΓ· pείζονες vρα α| ΒΑ, ΑΓ τ¿ς ΒΓ· opοίως δ¿ δείξοpεν, oτι κα| α| pcν ΑΒ,
ΒΓ τ¿ς ΓΑ pείζονές εiσιν, α| δc ΒΓ, ΓΑ τ¿ς ΑΒ.
Παντoς vρα τριγώνου α| δύο πλευρα| τ¿ς λοιπ¿ς pείζονές εiσι πάντ¸ pεταλαpβανόpεναι· oπερ
cδει δεiξαι.
48
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 20
B
A
D
C
For any triangle, (any) two sides are greater than the remaining (side), (the sides) being taken
up in any (possible way).
For let ABC be a triangle. I say that for triangle ABC (any) two sides are greater than the
remaining (side), (the sides) being taken up in any (possible way). (So), BA and AC (are
greater) than BC, AB and BC than AC, and BC and CA than AB.
For let BA have been drawn through to point D, and let AD be made equal to CA [Prop. 1.3],
and let DC have been joined.
Therefore, since DA is equal to AC, the angle ADC is also equal to ACD [Prop. 1.5]. Thus,
BCD is greater than ADC. And since triangle DCB has the angle BCD greater than BDC, and
the greater angle subtends the greater side [Prop. 1.19], DB is thus greater than BC. But DA is
equal to AC. Thus, BA and AC are greater than BC. Similarly, we can show that AB and BC
are also greater than CA, and BC and CA than AB.
Thus, for any triangle, (any) two sides are greater than the remaining (side), (the sides) being
taken up in any (possible way). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
49
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
κα΄
Γ Β
Α

Ε
Εvν τριγώνου cπ| pιiς τeν πλευρeν vπo τeν περάτων δύο εuθεiαι cντoς συσταθeσιν, α| συ-
σταθεiσαι τeν λοιπeν τοu τριγώνου δύο πλευρeν cλάττονες pcν cσονται, pείζονα δc γωνίαν
περιέξουσιν.
Τριγώνου γvρ τοu ΑΒΓ cπ| pιiς τeν πλευρeν τ¿ς ΒΓ vπo τeν περάτων τeν Β, Γ δύο εuθεiαι
cντoς συνεστάτωσαν α| Β∆, ∆Γ· λέγω, oτι α| Β∆, ∆Γ τeν λοιπeν τοu τριγώνου δύο πλευρeν
τeν ΒΑ, ΑΓ cλάσσονες pέν εiσιν, pείζονα δc γωνίαν περιέχουσι τ¿ν uπo Β∆Γ τ¿ς uπo ΒΑΓ.
∆ιήχθω γvρ ¿ Β∆ cπ| τo Ε. κα| cπε| παντoς τριγώνου α| δύο πλευρα| τ¿ς λοιπ¿ς pείζονές εiσιν,
τοu ΑΒΕ vρα τριγώνου α| δύο πλευρα| α| ΑΒ, ΑΕ τ¿ς ΒΕ pείζονές εiσιν· κοιν¿ προσκείσθω ¿
ΕΓ· α| vρα ΒΑ, ΑΓ τeν ΒΕ, ΕΓ pείζονές εiσιν. πάλιν, cπε| τοu ΓΕ∆ τριγώνου α| δύο πλευρα|
α| ΓΕ, Ε∆ τ¿ς Γ∆ pείζονές εiσιν, κοιν¿ προσκείσθω ¿ ∆Β· α| ΓΕ, ΕΒ vρα τeν Γ∆, ∆Β pείζονές
εiσιν. vλλv τeν ΒΕ, ΕΓ pείζονες cδείχθησαν α| ΒΑ, ΑΓ· πολλ; vρα α| ΒΑ, ΑΓ τeν Β∆, ∆Γ
pείζονές εiσιν.
Πάλιν, cπε| παντoς τριγώνου ¿ cκτoς γωνία τ¿ς cντoς κα| vπεναντίον pείζων cστίν, τοu Γ∆Ε
vρα τριγώνου ¿ cκτoς γωνία ¿ uπo Β∆Γ pείζων cστ| τ¿ς uπo ΓΕ∆. διv ταuτv τοίνυν κα| τοu
ΑΒΕ τριγώνου ¿ cκτoς γωνία ¿ uπo ΓΕΒ pείζων cστ| τ¿ς uπo ΒΑΓ. vλλv τ¿ς uπo ΓΕΒ pείζων
cδείχθη ¿ uπo Β∆Γ· πολλ; vρα ¿ uπo Β∆Γ pείζων cστ| τ¿ς uπo ΒΑΓ.
Εvν vρα τριγώνου cπ| pιiς τeν πλευρeν vπo τeν περάτων δύο εuθεiαι cντoς συσταθeσιν,
α| συσταθεiσαι τeν λοιπeν τοu τριγώνου δύο πλευρeν cλάττονες pέν εiσιν, pείζονα δc γωνίαν
περιέχουσιν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
¯0
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 21
B
A
E
C
D
If two internal straight-lines are constructed on one of the sides of a triangle, from its ends, the
constructed (straight-lines) will be less than the two remaining sides of the triangle, but will
encompass a greater angle.
For let the two internal straight-lines BD and DC have been constructed on one of the sides BC
of the triangle ABC, from its ends B and C (respectively). I say that BD and DC are less than
the two remaining sides of the triangle BA and AC, but encompass an angle BDC greater than
BAC.
For let BD have been drawn through to E. And since for every triangle (any) two sides are
greater than the remaining (side) [Prop. 1.20], for triangle ABE the two sides AB and AE are
thus greater than BE. Let EC have been added to both. Thus, BA and AC are greater than BE
and EC. Again, since in triangle CED the two sides CE and ED are greater than CD, let DB
have been added to both. Thus, CE and EB are greater than CD and DB. But, BA and AC
were shown (to be) greater than BE and EC. Thus, BA and AC are much greater than BD and
DC.
Again, since for every triangle the external angle is greater than the internal and opposite (angles)
[Prop. 1.16], for triangle CDE the external angle BDC is thus greater than CED. Accordingly,
for the same (reason), the external angle CEB of the triangle ABE is also greater than BAC.
But, BDC was shown (to be) greater than CEB. Thus, BDC is much greater than BAC.
Thus, if two internal straight-lines are constructed on one of the sides of a triangle, from its
ends, the constructed (straight-lines) are less than the two remaining sides of the triangle, but
encompass a greater angle. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
¯l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
κβ΄
Θ
Β
Α
Γ
Η
Λ
Κ
Ζ
∆ Ε
Εκ τριeν εuθειeν, α: εiσιν :σαι τρισ| ταiς δοθείσαις ¸εuθείαις], τρίγωνον συστήσασθαι· δεi δc
τvς δύο τ¿ς λοιπ¿ς pείζονας ε|ναι πάντ¸ pεταλαpβανοpένας ¸διv τo κα| παντoς τριγώνου τvς
δύο πλευρvς τ¿ς λοιπ¿ς pείζονας ε|ναι πάντ¸ pεταλαpβανοpένας].
´Εστωσαν α| δοθεiσαι τρεiς εuθεiαι α| Α, Β, Γ, eν α| δύο τ¿ς λοιπ¿ς pείζονες cστωσαν πάντ¸
pεταλαpβανόpεναι, α| pcν Α, Β τ¿ς Γ, α| δc Α, Γ τ¿ς Β, κα| cτι α| Β, Γ τ¿ς Α· δεi δ¿ cκ τeν
:σων ταiς Α, Β, Γ τρίγωνον συστήσασθαι.
Εκκείσθω τις εuθεiα ¿ ∆Ε πεπερασpένη pcν κατv τo ∆ vπειρος δc κατv τo Ε, κα| κείσθω τ¸
pcν Α :ση ¿ ∆Ζ, τ¸ δc Β :ση ¿ ΖΗ, τ¸ δc Γ :ση ¿ ΗΘ· κα| κέντρ; pcν τ; Ζ, διαστήpατι
δc τ; Ζ∆ κύκλος γεγράφθω o ∆ΚΛ· πάλιν κέντρ; pcν τ; Η, διαστήpατι δc τ; ΗΘ κύκλος
γεγράφθω o ΚΛΘ, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΚΖ, ΚΗ· λέγω, oτι cκ τριeν εuθειeν τeν :σων ταiς Α,
Β, Γ τρίγωνον συνέσταται τo ΚΖΗ.
Επε| γvρ τo Ζ σηpεiον κέντρον cστ| τοu ∆ΚΛ κύκλου, :ση cστ|ν ¿ Ζ∆ τ¸ ΖΚ· vλλv ¿ Ζ∆ τ¸
Α cστιν :ση. κα| ¿ ΚΖ vρα τ¸ Α cστιν :ση. πάλιν, cπε| τo Η σηpεiον κέντρον cστ| τοu ΛΚΘ
κύκλου, :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΗΘ τ¸ ΗΚ· vλλv ¿ ΗΘ τ¸ Γ cστιν :ση· κα| ¿ ΚΗ vρα τ¸ Γ cστιν :ση.
cστ| δc κα| ¿ ΖΗ τ¸ Β :ση· α| τρεiς vρα εuθεiαι α| ΚΖ, ΖΗ, ΗΚ τρισ| ταiς Α, Β, Γ :σαι εiσίν.
Εκ τριeν vρα εuθειeν τeν ΚΖ, ΖΗ, ΗΚ, α: εiσιν :σαι τρισ| ταiς δοθείσαις εuθείαις ταiς Α, Β,
Γ, τρίγωνον συνέσταται τo ΚΖΗ· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
¯2
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 22
H
A
B
C
D
F
E
K
L
G
To construct a triangle from three straight-lines which are equal to three given [straight-lines]. It
is necessary for two (of the straight-lines) to be greater than the remaining (one), (the straight-
lines) being taken up in any (possible way) [on account of the (fact that) for every triangle (any)
two sides are greater than the remaining (one), (the sides) being taken up in any (possible way)
[Prop. 1.20] ].
Let A, B, and C be the three given straight-lines, of which let (any) two be greater than the
remaining (one), (the straight-lines) being taken up in (any possible way). (Thus), A and B (are
greater) than C, A and C than B, and also B and C than A. So it is required to construct a
triangle from (straight-lines) equal to A, B, and C.
Let some straight-line DE be set out, terminated at D, and infinite in the direction of E. And let
DF made equal to A [Prop. 1.3], and FG equal to B [Prop. 1.3], and GH equal to C [Prop. 1.3].
And let the circle DKL have been drawn with center F and radius FD. Again, let the circle KLH
have been drawn with center G and radius GH. And let KF and KG have been joined. I say that
the triangle KFG has been constructed from three straight-lines equal to A, B, and C.
For since point F is the center of the circle DKL, FD is equal to FK. But, FD is equal to A.
Thus, KF is also equal to A. Again, since point G is the center of the circle LKH, GH is equal to
GK. But, GH is equal to C. Thus, KG is also equal to C. And FG is equal to B. Thus, the three
straight-lines KF, FG, and GK are equal to A, B, and C (respectively).
Thus, the triangle KFG has been constructed from the three straight-lines KF, FG, and GK,
which are equal to the three given straight-lines A, B, and C (respectively). (Which is) the very
thing it was required to do.
¯`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
κγ΄
Γ

Ε
Ζ
Α
Η Β
Πρoς τ¸ δοθείσ¸ εuθεί; κα| τ; πρoς αuτ¸ σηpεί; τ¸ δοθείσ¸ γωνί; εuθυγράpp; :σην γωνίαν
εuθύγραppον συστήσασθαι.
´Εστω ¿ pcν δοθεiσα εuθεiα ¿ ΑΒ, τo δc πρoς αuτ¸ σηpεiον τo Α, ¿ δc δοθεiσα γωνία
εuθύγραppος ¿ uπo ∆ΓΕ· δεi δ¿ πρoς τ¸ δοθεiσ¸ εuθεί; τ¸ ΑΒ κα| τ; πρoς αuτ¸ σηpεί; τ;
Α τ¸ δοθείσ¸ γωνί; εuθυγράpp; τ¸ uπo ∆ΓΕ :σην γωνίαν εuθύγραppον συστήσασθαι.
Εiλήφθω cφ cκατέρας τeν Γ∆, ΓΕ τυχόντα σηpεiα τv ∆, Ε, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ∆Ε· κα| cκ τριeν
εuθειeν, α: εiσιν :σαι τρισ| ταiς Γ∆, ∆Ε, ΓΕ, τρίγωνον συνεστάτω τo ΑΖΗ, eστε :σην ε|ναι τ¿ν
pcν Γ∆ τ¸ ΑΖ, τ¿ν δc ΓΕ τ¸ ΑΗ, κα| cτι τ¿ν ∆Ε τ¸ ΖΗ.
Επε| οuν δύο α| ∆Γ, ΓΕ δύο ταiς ΖΑ, ΑΗ :σαι εiσ|ν cκατέρα cκατέρ;, κα| βάσις ¿ ∆Ε βάσει
τ¸ ΖΗ :ση, γωνία vρα ¿ uπo ∆ΓΕ γωνί; τ¸ uπo ΖΑΗ cστιν :ση.
Πρoς vρα τ¸ δοθείσ¸ εuθεί; τ¸ ΑΒ κα| τ; πρoς αuτ¸ σηpεί; τ; Α τ¸ δοθείσ¸ γωνί;
εuθυγράpp; τ¸ uπo ∆ΓΕ :ση γωνία εuθύγραppος συνέσταται ¿ uπo ΖΑΗ· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
¯4
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 23
C
G
A
F
B
E
D
To construct a rectilinear angle equal to a given rectilinear angle at a (given) point on a given
straight-line.
Let AB be the given straight-line, A the (given) point on it, and DCE the given rectilinear angle.
So it is required to construct a rectilinear angle equal to the given rectilinear angle DCE at the
(given) point A on the given straight-line AB.
Let the points D and E have been taken somewhere on each of the (straight-lines) CD and CE
(respectively), and let DE have been joined. And let the triangle AFG have been constructed
from three straight-lines which are equal to CD, DE, and CE, such that CD is equal to AF, CE
to AG, and also DE to FG [Prop. 1.22].
Therefore, since the two (straight-lines) DC, CE are equal to the two straight-lines FA, AG,
respectively, and the base DE is equal to the base FG, the angle DCE is thus equal to the angle
FAG [Prop. 1.8].
Thus, the rectilinear angle FAG, equal to the given rectilinear angle DCE, has been constructed
at the (given) point A on the given straight-line AB. (Which is) the very thing it was required to
do.
¯¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
κδ΄
Ε
Γ
Β
Α

Η
Ζ
Εvν δύο τρίγωνα τvς δύο πλευρvς ¸ταiς] δύο πλευραiς :σας cχ¸ cκατέραν cκατέρ;, τ¿ν δc
γωνίαν τ¿ς γωνίας pείζονα cχ¸ τ¿ν uπo τeν :σων εuθειeν περιεχοpένην, κα| τ¿ν βάσιν τ¿ς
βάσεως pείζονα cξει.
´Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τv ΑΒΓ, ∆ΕΖ τvς δύο πλευρvς τvς ΑΒ, ΑΓ ταiς δύο πλευραiς ταiς ∆Ε,
∆Ζ :σας cχοντα cκατέραν cκατέρ;, τ¿ν pcν ΑΒ τ¸ ∆Ε τ¿ν δc ΑΓ τ¸ ∆Ζ, ¿ δc πρoς τ; Α
γωνία τ¿ς πρoς τ; ∆ γωνίας pείζων cστω· λέγω, oτι κα| βάσις ¿ ΒΓ βάσεως τ¿ς ΕΖ pείζων
cστίν.
Επε| γvρ pείζων ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ γωνία τ¿ς uπo Ε∆Ζ γωνίας, συνεστάτω πρoς τ¸ ∆Ε εuθεί; κα|
τ; πρoς αuτ¸ σηpεί; τ; ∆ τ¸ uπo ΒΑΓ γωνί; :ση ¿ uπo Ε∆Η, κα| κείσθω oποτέρ; τeν ΑΓ,
∆Ζ :ση ¿ ∆Η, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΕΗ, ΖΗ.
Επε| οuν :ση cστ|ν ¿ pcν ΑΒ τ¸ ∆Ε, ¿ δc ΑΓ τ¸ ∆Η, δύο δ¿ α| ΒΑ, ΑΓ δυσ| ταiς Ε∆, ∆Η
:σαι εiσ|ν cκατέρα cκατέρ;· κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ γωνί; τ¸ uπo Ε∆Η :ση· βάσις vρα ¿ ΒΓ
βάσει τ¸ ΕΗ cστιν :ση. πάλιν, cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ∆Ζ τ¸ ∆Η, :ση cστ| κα| ¿ uπo ∆ΗΖ γωνία τ¸
uπo ∆ΖΗ· pείζων vρα ¿ uπo ∆ΖΗ τ¿ς uπo ΕΗΖ· πολλ; vρα pείζων cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΕΖΗ τ¿ς
uπo ΕΗΖ. κα| cπε| τρίγωνόν cστι τo ΕΖΗ pείζονα cχον τ¿ν uπo ΕΖΗ γωνίαν τ¿ς uπo ΕΗΖ,
uπo δc τ¿ν pείζονα γωνίαν ¿ pείζων πλευρv uποτείνει, pείζων vρα κα| πλευρv ¿ ΕΗ τ¿ς ΕΖ.
:ση δc ¿ ΕΗ τ¸ ΒΓ· pείζων vρα κα| ¿ ΒΓ τ¿ς ΕΖ.
Εvν vρα δύο τρίγωνα τvς δύο πλευρvς δυσ| πλευραiς :σας cχ¸ cκατέραν cκατέρ;, τ¿ν δc
γωνίαν τ¿ς γωνίας pείζονα cχ¸ τ¿ν uπo τeν :σων εuθειeν περιεχοpένην, κα| τ¿ν βάσιν τ¿ς
βάσεως pείζονα cξει· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
¯6
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 24
F
A
C
B
D
E
G
If two triangles have two sides equal to two sides, respectively, but (one) has the angle encom-
passed by the equal straight-lines greater than the (corresponding) angle (in the other), then (the
former triangle) will also have a base greater than the base (of the latter).
Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having the two sides AB and AC equal to the two sides DE
and DF, respectively. (That is), AB to DE, and AC to DF. Let them also have the angle at A
greater than the angle at D. I say that the base BC is greater than the base EF.
For since angle BAC is greater than angle EDF, let (angle) EDG, equal to angle BAC, have
been constructed at point D on the straight-line DE [Prop. 1.23]. And let DG be made equal to
either of AC or DF [Prop. 1.3], and let EG and FG have been joined.
Therefore, since AB is equal to DE and AC to DG, the two (straight-lines) BA, AC are equal to
the two (straight-lines) ED, DG, respectively. Also the angle BAC is equal to the angle EDG.
Thus, the base BC is equal to the base EG [Prop. 1.4]. Again, since DF is equal to DG, angle
DGF is also equal to angle DFG [Prop. 1.5]. Thus, DFG (is) greater than EGF. Thus, EFG
is much greater than EGF. And since triangle EFG has angle EFG greater than EGF, and the
greater angle subtends the greater side [Prop. 1.19], side EG (is) thus also greater than EF. But
EG (is) equal to BC. Thus, BC (is) also greater than EF.
Thus, if two triangles have two sides equal to two sides, respectively, but (one) has the angle
encompassed by the equal straight-lines greater than the (corresponding) angle (in the other),
then (the former triangle) will also have a base greater than the base (of the latter). (Which is)
the very thing it was required to show.
¯¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
κε΄

Β
Ε Ζ
Α
Γ
Εvν δύο τρίγωνα τvς δύο πλευρvς δυσ| πλευραiς :σας cχ¸ cκατέραν cκατέρ;, τ¿ν δc βασίν
τ¿ς βάσεως pείζονα cχ¸, κα| τ¿ν γωνίαν τ¿ς γωνίας pείζονα cξει τ¿ν uπo τeν :σων εuθειeν
περιεχοpένην.
´Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τv ΑΒΓ, ∆ΕΖ τvς δύο πλευρvς τvς ΑΒ, ΑΓ ταiς δύο πλευραiς ταiς ∆Ε, ∆Ζ
:σας cχοντα cκατέραν cκατέρ;, τ¿ν pcν ΑΒ τ¸ ∆Ε, τ¿ν δc ΑΓ τ¸ ∆Ζ· βάσις δc ¿ ΒΓ βάσεως
τ¿ς ΕΖ pείζων cστω· λέγω, oτι κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ γωνίας τ¿ς uπo Ε∆Ζ pείζων cστίν.
Εi γvρ pή, ¿τοι :ση cστ|ν αuτ¸ ¿ cλάσσων· :ση pcν οuν οuκ cστιν ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ τ¸ uπo Ε∆Ζ· :ση
γvρ iν ¿ν κα| βάσις ¿ ΒΓ βάσει τ¸ ΕΖ· οuκ cστι δέ. οuκ vρα :ση cστ| γωνία ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ τ¸
uπo Ε∆Ζ· οuδc p¿ν cλάσσων cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ τ¿ς uπo Ε∆Ζ· cλάσσων γvρ iν ¿ν κα| βάσις
¿ ΒΓ βάσεως τ¿ς ΕΖ· οuκ cστι δέ· οuκ vρα cλάσσων cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ γωνία τ¿ς uπo Ε∆Ζ.
cδείχθη δέ, oτι οuδc :ση· pείζων vρα cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ τ¿ς uπo Ε∆Ζ.
Εvν vρα δύο τρίγωνα τvς δύο πλευρvς δυσ| πλευραiς :σας cχ¸ cκατέραν cκάτερ;, τ¿ν δc βασίν
τ¿ς βάσεως pείζονα cχ¸, κα| τ¿ν γωνίαν τ¿ς γωνίας pείζονα cξει τ¿ν uπo τeν :σων εuθειeν
περιεχοpένην· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
¯8
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 25
F
B
A
C
D
E
If two triangles have two sides equal to two sides, respectively, but (one) has a base greater than
the base (of the other), then (the former triangle) will also have the angle encompassed by the
equal straight-lines greater than the (corresponding) angle (in the latter).
Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having the two sides AB and AC equal to the two sides DE
and DF, respectively (That is), AB to DE, and AC to DF. And let the base BC be greater than
the base EF. I say that angle BAC is also greater than EDF.
For if not, (BAC) is certainly either equal to or less than (EDF). In fact, BAC is not equal to
EDF. For then the base BC would also have been equal to EF [Prop. 1.4]. But it is not. Thus,
angle BAC is not equal to EDF. Neither, indeed, is BAC less than EDF. For then the base BC
would also have been less than EF [Prop. 1.24]. But it is not. Thus, angle BAC is not less than
EDF. But it was shown that (BAC is) also not equal (to EDF). Thus, BAC is greater than
EDF.
Thus, if two triangles have two sides equal to two sides, respectively, but (one) has a base greater
than the base (of the other), then (the former triangle) will also have the angle encompassed by
the equal straight-lines greater than the (corresponding) angle (in the latter). (Which is) the very
thing it was required to show.
¯9
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
κç΄

Α
Β
Η
Θ
Γ
Ε Ζ
Εvν δύο τρίγωνα τvς δύο γωνίας δυσ| γωνίαις :σας cχ¸ cκαρέραν cκαρέρ; κα| pίαν πλευρvν pι;
πλευρ; :σην ¿τοι τ¿ν πρoς ταiς :σαις γωνίαις ¿ τ¿ν uποτείνουσαν uπo pίαν τeν :σων γωνιeν, κα|
τvς λοιπvς πλευρvς ταiς λοιπαiς πλευραiς :σας cξει ¸cκατέραν cκατέρ;] κα| τ¿ν λοιπ¿ν γωνίαν
τ¸ λοιπ¸ γωνί;.
´Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τv ΑΒΓ, ∆ΕΖ τvς δύο γωνίας τvς uπo ΑΒΓ, ΒΓΑ δυσ| ταiς uπo ∆ΕΖ,
ΕΖ∆ :σας cχοντα cκατέραν cκατέρ;, τ¿ν pcν uπo ΑΒΓ τ¸ uπo ∆ΕΖ, τ¿ν δc uπo ΒΓΑ τ¸ uπo
ΕΖ∆· cχέτω δc κα| pίαν πλευρvν pι; πλευρ; :σην, πρότερον τ¿ν πρoς ταiς :σαις γωνίαις τ¿ν
ΒΓ τ¸ ΕΖ· λέγω, oτι κα| τvς λοιπvς πλευρvς ταiς λοιπαiς πλευραiς :σας cξει cκατέραν cκατέρ;,
τ¿ν pcν ΑΒ τ¸ ∆Ε τ¿ν δc ΑΓ τ¸ ∆Ζ, κα| τ¿ν λοιπ¿ν γωνίαν τ¸ λοιπ¸ γωνί;, τ¿ν uπo ΒΑΓ τ¸
uπo Ε∆Ζ.
Εi γvρ vνισός cστιν ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ ∆Ε, pία αuτeν pείζων cστίν. cστω pείζων ¿ ΑΒ, κα| κείσθω τ¸
∆Ε :ση ¿ ΒΗ, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΗΓ.
Επε| οuν :ση cστ|ν ¿ pcν ΒΗ τ¸ ∆Ε, ¿ δc ΒΓ τ¸ ΕΖ, δύο δ¿ α| ΒΗ, ΒΓ δυσ| ταiς ∆Ε, ΕΖ
:σαι εiσ|ν cκατέρα cκατέρ;· κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΗΒΓ γωνί; τ¸ uπo ∆ΕΖ :ση cστίν· βάσις vρα ¿
ΗΓ βάσει τ¸ ∆Ζ :ση cστίν, κα| τo ΗΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ∆ΕΖ τριγών; :σον cστίν, κα| α| λοιπα|
γωνίαι ταiς λοιπαiς γωνίαις :σαι cσονται, uφ iς α| :σας πλευρα| uποτείνουσιν· :ση vρα ¿ uπo
ΗΓΒ γωνία τ¸ uπo ∆ΖΕ. vλλv ¿ uπo ∆ΖΕ τ¸ uπo ΒΓΑ uπόκειται :ση· κα| ¿ uπo ΒΓΗ vρα τ¸
uπo ΒΓΑ :ση cστίν, ¿ cλάσσων τ¸ pείζονι· oπερ vδύνατον. οuκ vρα vνισός cστιν ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ ∆Ε.
:ση vρα. cστι δc κα| ¿ ΒΓ τ¸ ΕΖ :ση· δύο δ¿ α| ΑΒ, ΒΓ δυσ| ταiς ∆Ε, ΕΖ :σαι εiσ|ν cκατέρα
cκατέρ;· κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΑΒΓ γωνί; τ¸ uπo ∆ΕΖ cστιν :ση· βάσις vρα ¿ ΑΓ βάσει τ¸ ∆Ζ :ση
cστίν, κα| λοιπ¿ γωνία ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ τ¸ λοιπ¸ γωνί; τ¸ uπo Ε∆Ζ :ση cστίν.
Αλλv δ¿ πάλιν cστωσαν α| uπo τvς :σας γωνίας πλευρα| uποτείνουσαι :σαι, eς ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ ∆Ε·
λέγω πάλιν, oτι κα| α| λοιπα| πλευρα| ταiς λοιπαiς πλευραiς :σας cσονται, ¿ pcν ΑΓ τ¸ ∆Ζ, ¿
δc ΒΓ τ¸ ΕΖ κα| cτι ¿ λοιπ¿ γωνία ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ τ¸ λοιπ¸ γωνί; τ¸ uπo Ε∆Ζ :ση cστίν. Εi γvρ
60
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 26
A
G
B
H
C
D
F E
If two triangles have two angles equal to two angles, respectively, and one side equal to one
side—in fact, either that by the equal angles, or that subtending one of the equal angles—then
(the triangles) will also have the remaining sides equal to the [corresponding] remaining sides,
and the remaining angle (equal) to the remaining angle.
Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having the two angles ABC and BCA equal to the two
(angles) DEF and EFD, respectively. (That is) ABC to DEF, and BCA to EFD. And let them
also have one side equal to one side. First of all, the (side) by the equal angles. (That is) BC
(equal) to EF. I say that the remaining sides will be equal to the corresponding remaining sides.
(That is) AB to DE, and AC to DF. And the remaining angle (will be equal) to the remaining
angle. (That is) BAC to EDF.
For if AB is unequal to DE then one of them is greater. Let AB be greater, and let BG be made
equal to DE [Prop. 1.3], and let GC have been joined.
Therefore, since BG is equal to DE, and BC to EF, the two (straight-lines) GB, BC
10
are
equal to the two (straight-lines) DE, EF, respectively. And angle GBC is equal to angle DEF.
Thus, the base GC is equal to the base DF, and triangle GBC is equal to triangle DEF, and the
remaining angles subtended by the equal sides will be equal to the (corresponding) remaining
angles [Prop. 1.4]. Thus, GCB (is equal) to DFE. But, DFE was assumed (to be) equal to
BCA. Thus, BCG is also equal to BCA, the lesser to the greater. The very thing (is) impossible.
Thus, AB is not unequal to DE. Thus, (it is) equal. And BC is also equal to EF. So the two
(straight-lines) AB, BC are equal to the two (straight-lines) DE, EF, respectively. And angle
ABC is equal to angle DEF. Thus, the base AC is equal to the base DF, and the remaining
angle BAC is equal to the remaining angle EDF [Prop. 1.4].
But again, let the sides subtending the equal angles be equal: for instance, (let) AB (be equal) to
DE. Again, I say that the remaining sides will be equal to the remaining sides. (That is) AC to
10
The Greek text has “BG, BC”, which is obviously a mistake.
6l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
κç΄
vνισός cστιν ¿ ΒΓ τ¸ ΕΖ, pία αuτeν pείζων cστίν. cστω pείζων, εi δυνατόν, ¿ ΒΓ, κα| κείσθω
τ¸ ΕΖ :ση ¿ ΒΘ, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΑΘ. κα| cπcι :ση cστ|ν ¿ pcν ΒΘ τ¸ ΕΖ ¿ δc ΑΒ τ¸ ∆Ε,
δύο δ¿ α| ΑΒ, ΒΘ δυσ| ταiς ∆Ε, ΕΖ :σαι εiσ|ν cκατέρα cκαρέρ;· κα| γωνίας :σας περιέχουσιν·
βάσις vρα ¿ ΑΘ βάσει τ¸ ∆Ζ :ση cστίν, κα| τo ΑΒΘ τρίγωνον τ; ∆ΕΖ τριγών; :σον cστίν,
κα| α| λοιπα| γωνίαι ταiς λοιπαiς γωνίαις :σαι cσονται, uφ iς α| :σας πλευρα| uποτείνουσιν· :ση
vρα cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΒΘΑ γωνία τ¸ uπo ΕΖ∆. vλλv ¿ uπo ΕΖ∆ τ¸ uπo ΒΓΑ cστιν :ση· τριγώνου
δ¿ τοu ΑΘΓ ¿ cκτoς γωνία ¿ uπo ΒΘΑ :ση cστ| τ¸ cντoς κα| vπεναντίον τ¸ uπo ΒΓΑ· oπερ
vδύνατον. οuκ vρα vνισός cστιν ¿ ΒΓ τ¸ ΕΖ· :ση vρα. cστ| δc κα| ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ ∆Ε :ση. δύο δ¿ α|
ΑΒ, ΒΓ δύο ταiς ∆Ε, ΕΖ :σαι εiσ|ν cκατέρα cκατέρ;· κα| γωνίας :σας περιέχουσι· βάσις vρα ¿
ΑΓ βάσει τ¸ ∆Ζ :ση cστίν, κα| τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ∆ΕΖ τριγών; :σον κα| λοιπ¿ γωνία ¿ uπo
ΒΑΓ τ¸ λοιπ¸ γωνί; τ¸ uπo Ε∆Ζ :ση.
Εvν vρα δύο τρίγωνα τvς δύο γωνίας δυσ| γωνίαις :σας cχ¸ cκαρέραν cκαρέρ; κα| pίαν πλευρvν
pι; πλευρ; :σην ¿τοι τ¿ν πρoς ταiς :σαις γωνίαις, ¿ τ¿ν uποτείνουσαν uπo pίαν τeν :σων γωνιeν,
κα| τvς λοιπvς πλευρvς ταiς λοιπαiς πλευραiς :σας cξει κα| τ¿ν λοιπ¿ν γωνίαν τ¸ λοιπ¸ γωνί;·
oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
62
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 26
DF, and BC to EF. Furthermore, the remaining angle BAC is equal to the remaining angle
EDF. For if BC is unequal to EF then one of them is greater. If possible, let BC be greater. And
let BH be made equal to EF [Prop. 1.3], and let AH have been joined. And since BH is equal
to EF, and AB to DE, the two (straight-lines) AB, BH are equal to the two (straight-lines) DE,
EF, respectively. And the angles they encompass (are also equal). Thus, the base AH is equal
to the base DF, and the triangle ABH is equal to the triangle DEF, and the remaining angles
subtended by the equal sides will be equal to the (corresponding) remaining angles [Prop. 1.4].
Thus, angle BHA is equal to EFD. But, EFD is equal to BCA. So, for triangle AHC, the exter-
nal angle BHA is equal to the internal and opposite angle BCA. The very thing (is) impossible
[Prop. 1.16]. Thus, BC is not unequal to EF. Thus, (it is) equal. And AB is also equal to DE. So
the two (straight-lines) AB, BC are equal to the two (straight-lines) DE, EF, respectively. And
they encompass equal angles. Thus, the base AC is equal to the base DF, and triangle ABC (is)
equal to triangle DEF, and the remaining angle BAC (is) equal to the remaining angle EDF
[Prop. 1.4].
Thus, if two triangles have two angles equal to two angles, respectively, and one side equal to one
side—in fact, either that by the equal angles, or that subtending one of the equal angles—then
(the triangles) will also have the remaining sides equal to the (corresponding) remaining sides,
and the remaining angle (equal) to the remaining angle. (Which is) the very thing it was required
to show.
6`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
κζ΄
Ζ Γ
Α Ε Β

Η
Εvν εiς δύο εuθείας εuθεiα cpπίπτουσα τvς cναλλvξ γωνίας :σας vλλήλαις ποι¸, παράλληλοι
cσονται vλλήλαις α| εuθεiαι.
Εiς γvρ δύο εuθείας τvς ΑΒ, Γ∆ εuθεiα cpπίπτουσα ¿ ΕΖ τvς cναλλvξ γωνίας τvς uπo ΑΕΖ,
ΕΖ∆ :σας vλλήλαις ποιείτω· λέγω, oτι παράλληλός cστιν ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ Γ∆.
Εi γvρ pή, cκβαλλόpεναι α| ΑΒ, Γ∆ συpπεσοuνται ¿τοι cπ| τv Β, ∆ pέρη ¿ cπ| τv Α, Γ.
cκβεβλήσθωσαν κα| συpπιπτέτωσαν cπ| τv Β, ∆ pέρη κατv τo Η. τριγώνου δ¿ τοu ΗΕΖ ¿
cκτoς γωνία ¿ uπo ΑΕΖ :ση cστ| τ¸ cντoς κα| vπεναντίον τ¸ uπo ΕΖΗ· oπερ cστ|ν vδύνατον·
οuκ vρα α| ΑΒ, ∆Γ cκβαλλόpεναι συpπεσοuνται cπ| τv Β, ∆ pέρη. opοίως δ¿ δειχθήσεται, oτι
οuδc cπ| τv Α, Γ· α| δc cπ| pηδέτερα τv pέρη συpπίπτουσαι παράλληλοί εiσιν· παράλληλος vρα
cστ|ν ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ Γ∆.
Εvν vρα εiς δύο εuθείας εuθεiα cpπίπτουσα τvς cναλλvξ γωνίας :σας vλλήλαις ποι¸, παράλληλοι
cσονται α| εuθεiαι· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
64
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 27
F
A
C
E B
G
D
If a straight-line falling across two straight-lines makes the alternate angles equal to one another
then the (two) straight-lines will be parallel to one another.
For let the straight-line EF, falling across the two straight-lines AB and CD, make the alternate
angles AEF and EFD equal to one another. I say that AB and CD are parallel.
For if not, being produced, AB and CD will certainly meet together: either in the direction of B
and D, or (in the direction) of A and C [Def. 1.23]. Let them have been produced, and let them
meet together in the direction of B and D at (point) G. So, for the triangle GEF, the external
angle AEF is equal to the interior and opposite (angle) EFG. The very thing is impossible
[Prop. 1.16]. Thus, being produced, AB and DC will not meet together in the direction of B and
D. Similarly, it can be shown that neither (will they meet together) in (the direction of) A and C.
But (straight-lines) meeting in neither direction are parallel [Def. 1.23]. Thus, AB and CD are
parallel.
Thus, if a straight-line falling across two straight-lines makes the alternate angles equal to one
another then the (two) straight-lines will be parallel (to one another). (Which is) the very thing
it was required to show.

ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
κη΄
Ζ
Α Β
Γ ∆ Θ
Η
Ε
Εvν εiς δύο εuθείας εuθεiα cpπίπτουσα τ¿ν cκτoς γωνίαν τ¸ cντoς κα| vπεναντίον κα| cπ| τv
αuτv pέρη :σην ποι¸ ¿ τvς cντoς κα| cπ| τv αuτv pέρη δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σας, παράλληλοι cσονται
vλλήλαις α| εuθεiαι.
Εiς γvρ δύο εuθείας τvς ΑΒ, Γ∆ εuθεiα cpπίπτουσα ¿ ΕΖ τ¿ν cκτoς γωνίαν τ¿ν uπo ΕΗΒ τ¸
cντoς κα| vπεναντίον γωνί; τ¸ uπo ΗΘ∆ :σην ποιείτω ¿ τvς cντoς κα| cπ| τv αuτv pέρη τvς
uπo ΒΗΘ, ΗΘ∆ δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σας· λέγω, oτι παράλληλός cστιν ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ Γ∆.
Επε| γvρ :ση cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΕΗΒ τ¸ uπo ΗΘ∆, vλλv ¿ uπo ΕΗΒ τ¸ uπo ΑΗΘ cστιν :ση, κα| ¿
uπo ΑΗΘ vρα τ¸ uπo ΗΘ∆ cστιν :ση· καί εiσιν cναλλάξ· παράλληλος vρα cστ|ν ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ Γ∆.
Πάλιν, cπε| α| uπo ΒΗΘ, ΗΘ∆ δύο oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν, εiσ| δc κα| α| uπo ΑΗΘ, ΒΗΘ δυσ|ν
oρθαiς :σαι, α| vρα uπo ΑΗΘ, ΒΗΘ ταiς uπo ΒΗΘ, ΗΘ∆ :σαι εiσίν· κοιν¿ vφ¸ρήσθω ¿ uπo
ΒΗΘ· λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ uπo ΑΗΘ λοιπ¸ τ¸ uπo ΗΘ∆ cστιν :ση· καί εiσιν cναλλάξ· παράλληλος
vρα cστ|ν ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ Γ∆.
Εvν vρα εiς δύο εuθείας εuθεiα cpπίπτουσα τ¿ν cκτoς γωνίαν τ¸ cντoς κα| vπεναντίον κα| cπ| τv
αuτv pέρη :σην ποι¸ ¿ τvς cντoς κα| cπ| τv αuτv pέρη δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σας, παράλληλοι cσονται
α| εuθεiαι· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
66
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 28
F
A
C
E
G B
D H
If a straight-line falling across two straight-lines makes the external angle equal to the internal
and opposite angle on the same side, or (makes) the internal (angles) on the same side equal to
two right-angles, then the (two) straight-lines will be parallel to one another.
For let EF, falling across the two straight-lines AB and CD, make the external angle EGB equal
to the internal and opposite angle GHD, or the internal (angles) on the same side, BGH and
GHD, equal to two right-angles. I say that AB is parallel to CD.
For since (in the first case) EGB is equal to GHD, but EGB is equal to AGH [Prop. 1.15],
AGH is thus also equal to GHD. And they are alternate (angles). Thus, AB is parallel to CD
[Prop. 1.27].
Again, since (in the second case) BGH and GHD are equal to two right-angles, and AGH and
BGH are also equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.13], AGH and BGH are thus equal to BGH
and GHD. Let BGH have been subtracted from both. Thus, the remainder AGH is equal to the
remainder GHD. And they are alternate (angles). Thus, AB is parallel to CD [Prop. 1.27].
Thus, if a straight-line falling across two straight-lines makes the external angle equal to the
internal and opposite angle on the same side, or (makes) the internal (angles) on the same side
equal to two right-angles, then the (two) straight-lines will be parallel (to one another). (Which
is) the very thing it was required to show.

ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
κθ΄
Ζ
Α Β
Γ ∆ Θ
Η
Ε
Η εiς τvς παραλλήλους εuθείας εuθεiα cpπίπτουσα τάς τε cναλλvξ γωνίας :σας vλλήλαις ποιεi
κα| τ¿ν cκτoς τ¸ cντoς κα| vπεναντίον :σην κα| τvς cντoς κα| cπ| τv αuτv pέρη δυσ|ν oρθαiς
:σας.
Εiς γvρ παραλλήλους εuθείας τvς ΑΒ, Γ∆ εuθεiα cpπιπτέτω ¿ ΕΖ· λέγω, oτι τvς cναλλvξ γωνίας
τvς uπo ΑΗΘ, ΗΘ∆ :σας ποιεi κα| τ¿ν cκτoς γωνίαν τ¿ν uπo ΕΗΒ τ¸ cντoς κα| vπεναντίον τ¸
uπo ΗΘ∆ :σην κα| τvς cντoς κα| cπ| τv αuτv pέρη τvς uπo ΒΗΘ, ΗΘ∆ δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σας.
Εi γvρ vνισός cστιν ¿ uπo ΑΗΘ τ¸ uπo ΗΘ∆, pία αuτeν pείζων cστίν. cστω pείζων ¿
uπo ΑΗΘ· κοιν¿ προσκείσθω ¿ uπo ΒΗΘ· α| vρα uπo ΑΗΘ, ΒΗΘ τeν uπo ΒΗΘ, ΗΘ∆
pείζονές εiσιν. vλλv α| uπo ΑΗΘ, ΒΗΘ δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν. ¸κα|] α| vρα uπo ΒΗΘ,
ΗΘ∆ δύο oρθeν cλάσσονές εiσιν. α| δc vπ cλασσόνων ¿ δύο oρθeν cκβαλλόpεναι εiς vπειρον
συpπίπουσιν· α| vρα ΑΒ, Γ∆ cκβαλλόpεναι εiς vπειρον συpπεσοuνται· οu συpπίπτουσι δc διv
τo παραλλήλους αuτvς uποκεiσθαι· οuκ vρα vνισός cστιν ¿ uπo ΑΗΘ τ¸ uπo ΗΘ∆· :ση vρα.
vλλv ¿ uπo ΑΗΘ τ¸ uπo ΕΗΒ cστιν :ση· κα| ¿ uπo ΕΗΒ vρα τ¸ uπo ΗΘ∆ cστιν :ση· κοιν¿
προσκείσθω ¿ uπo ΒΗΘ· α| vρα uπo ΕΗΒ, ΒΗΘ ταiς uπo ΒΗΘ, ΗΘ∆ :σαι εiσίν. vλλv α|
uπo ΕΗΒ, ΒΗΘ δύο oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν· κα| α| uπo ΒΗΘ, ΗΘ∆ vρα δύο oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν.
Η vρα εiς τvς παραλλήλους εuθείας εuθεiα cpπίπτουσα τάς τε cναλλvξ γωνίας :σας vλλήλαις
ποιεi κα| τ¿ν cκτoς τ¸ cντoς κα| vπεναντίον :σην κα| τvς cντoς κα| cπ| τv αuτv pέρη δυσ|ν
oρθαiς :σας· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
68
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 29
F
A
C
E
G B
D H
A straight-line falling across parallel straight-lines makes the alternate angles equal to one an-
other, the external (angle) equal to the internal and opposite (angle), and the internal (angles)
on the same side equal to two right-angles.
For let the straight-line EF fall across the parallel straight-lines AB and CD. I say that it makes
the alternate angles, AGH and GHD, equal, the external angle EGB equal to the internal and
opposite (angle) GHD, and the internal (angles) on the same side, BGH and GHD, equal to two
right-angles.
For if AGH is unequal to GHD then one of them is greater. Let AGH be greater. Let BGH have
been added to both. Thus, AGH and BGH are greater than BGH and GHD. But, AGH and
BGH are equal to two right-angles [Prop 1.13]. Thus, BGH and GHD are [also] less than two
right-angles. But (straight-lines) being produced to infinity from (internal angles) less than two
right-angles meet together [Post. 5]. Thus, AB and CD, being produced to infinity, will meet
together. But they do not meet, on account of them (initially) being assumed parallel (to one
another) [Def. 1.23]. Thus, AGH is not unequal to GHD. Thus, (it is) equal. But, AGH is equal
to EGB [Prop. 1.15]. And EGB is thus also equal to GHD. Let BGH be added to both. Thus,
EGB and BGH are equal to BGH and GHD. But, EGB and BGH are equal to two right-angles
[Prop. 1.13]. Thus, BGH and GHD are also equal to two right-angles.
Thus, a straight-line falling across parallel straight-lines makes the alternate angles equal to one
another, the external (angle) equal to the internal and opposite (angle), and the internal (angles)
on the same side equal to two right-angles. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
69
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
λ΄
Β
Γ
Ε
Α
Ζ

Κ
Η
Θ
Α| τ¸ αuτ¸ εuθεί; παράλληλοι κα| vλλήλαις εiσ| παράλληλοι.
´Εστω cκατέρα τeν ΑΒ, Γ∆ τ¸ ΕΖ παράλληλος· λέγω, oτι κα| ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ Γ∆ cστι παράλληλος.
Εpπιπτέτω γvρ εiς αuτvς εuθεiα ¿ ΗΚ.
Κα| cπε| εiς παραλλήλους εuθείας τvς ΑΒ, ΕΖ εuθεiα cpπέπτωκεν ¿ ΗΚ, :ση vρα ¿ uπo ΑΗΚ
τ¸ uπo ΗΘΖ. πάλιν, cπε| εiς παραλλήλους εuθείας τvς ΕΖ, Γ∆ εuθεiα cpπέπτωκεν ¿ ΗΚ, :ση
cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΗΘΖ τ¸ uπo ΗΚ∆. cδείχθη δc κα| ¿ uπo ΑΗΚ τ¸ uπo ΗΘΖ :ση. κα| ¿ uπo
ΑΗΚ vρα τ¸ uπo ΗΚ∆ cστιν :ση· καί ε|σιν cναλλάξ. παράλληλος vρα cστ|ν ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ Γ∆.
[Α| vρα τ¸ αuτ¸ εuθεί; παράλληλοι κα| vλλήλαις εiσ| παράλληλοι·] oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
¯0
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 30
C
A
E
K
G
F
D
H
B
(Straight-lines) parallel to the same straight-line are also parallel to one another.
Let each of the (straight-lines) AB and CD be parallel to EF. I say that AB is also parallel to
CD.
For let the straight-line GK fall across (AB, CD, and EF).
And since GK has fallen across the parallel straight-lines AB and EF, (angle) AGK (is) thus
equal to GHF [Prop. 1.29]. Again, since GK has fallen across the parallel straight-lines EF and
CD, (angle) GHF is equal to GKD [Prop. 1.29]. But AGK was also shown (to be) equal to
GHF. Thus, AGK is also equal to GKD. And they are alternate (angles). Thus, AB is parallel
to CD [Prop. 1.27].
[Thus, (straight-lines) parallel to the same straight-line are also parallel to one another.] (Which
is) the very thing it was required to show.
¯l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
λα΄
Γ
Ε
Β

Α
Ζ
∆ιv τοu δοθέντος σηpείου τ¸ δοθείσ¸ εuθεί; παράλληλον εuθεiαν γραpp¿ν vγαγεiν.
´Εστω τo pcν δοθcν σηpεiον τo Α, ¿ δc δοθεiσα εuθεiα ¿ ΒΓ· δεi δ¿ διv τοu Α σηpείου τ¸
ΒΓ εuθεί; παράλληλον εuθεiαν γραpp¿ν vγαγεiν.
Εiλήφθω cπ| τ¿ς ΒΓ τυχoν σηpεiον τo ∆, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ Α∆· κα| συνεστάτω πρoς τ¸ ∆Α
εuθεί; κα| τ; πρoς αuτ¸ σηpεί; τ; Α τ¸ uπo Α∆Γ γωνί; :ση ¿ uπo ∆ΑΕ· κα| cκβεβλήσθω cπ
εuθείας τ¸ ΕΑ εuθεiα ¿ ΑΖ.
Κα| cπε| εiς δύο εuθείας τvς ΒΓ, ΕΖ εuθεiα cpπίπτουσα ¿ Α∆ τvς cναλλvξ γωνίας τvς uπo
ΕΑ∆, Α∆Γ :σας vλλήλαις πεποίηκεν, παράλληλος vρα cστ|ν ¿ ΕΑΖ τ¸ ΒΓ.
∆ιv τοu δοθέντος vρα σηpείου τοu Α τ¸ δοθείσ¸ εuθεί; τ¸ ΒΓ παράλληλος εuθεiα γραpp¿
¿κται ¿ ΕΑΖ· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
¯2
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 31
C
E
B
D
A
F
To draw a straight-line parallel to a given straight-line through a given point.
Let A be the given point, and BC the given straight-line. So it is required to draw a straight-line
parallel to the straight-line BC through the point A.
Let the point D have been taken somewhere on BC, and let AD have been joined. And let
(angle) DAE, equal to angle ADC, have been constructed at the point A on the straight-line DA
[Prop. 1.23]. And let the straight-line AF have been produced in a straight-line with EA.
And since the straight-line AD, (in) falling across the two straight-lines BC and EF, has made the
alternate angles EAD and ADC equal to one another, EAF is thus parallel to BC [Prop. 1.27].
Thus, the straight-line EAF has been drawn parallel to the given straight-line BC through the
given point A. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.
¯`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
λβ΄
∆ Γ
Α Ε
Β
Παντoς τριγώνου pιiς τeν πλευρeν προσεκβληθείσης ¿ cκτoς γωνία δυσ| ταiς cντoς κα| vπε-
ναντίον :ση cστίν, κα| α| cντoς τοu τριγώνου τρεiς γωνίαι δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν.
´Εστω τρίγωνον τo ΑΒΓ, κα| προσεκβεβλήσθω αuτοu pία πλευρv ¿ ΒΓ cπ| τo ∆· λέγω, oτι ¿
cκτoς γωνία ¿ uπo ΑΓ∆ :ση cστ| δυσ| ταiς cντoς κα| vπεναντίον ταiς uπo ΓΑΒ, ΑΒΓ, κα| α|
cντoς τοu τριγώνου τρεiς γωνίαι α| uπo ΑΒΓ, ΒΓΑ, ΓΑΒ δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν.
´Ηχθω γvρ διv τοu Γ σηpείου τ¸ ΑΒ εuθεί; παράλληλος ¿ ΓΕ.
Κα| cπε| παράλληλός cστιν ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ ΓΕ, κα| εiς αuτvς cpπέπτωκεν ¿ ΑΓ, α| cναλλvξ γωνίαι α|
uπo ΒΑΓ, ΑΓΕ :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν. πάλιν, cπε| παράλληλός cστιν ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ ΓΕ, κα| εiς αuτvς
cpπέπτωκεν εuθεiα ¿ Β∆, ¿ cκτoς γωνία ¿ uπo ΕΓ∆ :ση cστ| τ¸ cντoς κα| vπεναντίον τ¸ uπo
ΑΒΓ. cδείχθη δc κα| ¿ uπo ΑΓΕ τ¸ uπo ΒΑΓ :ση· oλη vρα ¿ uπo ΑΓ∆ γωνία :ση cστ| δυσ|
ταiς cντoς κα| vπεναντίον ταiς uπo ΒΑΓ, ΑΒΓ.
Κοιν¿ προσκείσθω ¿ uπo ΑΓΒ· α| vρα uπo ΑΓ∆, ΑΓΒ τρισ| ταiς uπo ΑΒΓ, ΒΓΑ, ΓΑΒ :σαι
εiσίν. vλλ α| uπo ΑΓ∆, ΑΓΒ δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν· κα| α| uπo ΑΓΒ, ΓΒΑ, ΓΑΒ vρα δυσ|ν
oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν.
Παντoς vρα τριγώνου pιiς τeν πλευρeν προσεκβληθείσης ¿ cκτoς γωνία δυσ| ταiς cντoς κα|
vπεναντίον :ση cστίν, κα| α| cντoς τοu τριγώνου τρεiς γωνίαι δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν· oπερ cδει
δεiξαι.
¯4
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 32
C
A E
D B
For any triangle, (if) one of the sides (is) produced (then) the external angle is equal to the two
internal and opposite (angles), and the three internal angles of the triangle are equal to two
right-angles.
Let ABC be a triangle, and let one of its sides BC have been produced to D. I say that the
external angle ACD is equal to the two internal and opposite angles CAB and ABC, and the
three internal angles of the triangle—ABC, BCA, and CAB—are equal to two right-angles.
For let CE have been drawn through point C parallel to the straight-line AB [Prop. 1.31].
And since AB is parallel to CE, and AC has fallen across them, the alternate angles BAC and
ACE are equal to one another [Prop. 1.29]. Again, since AB is parallel to CE, and the straight-
line BD has fallen across them, the external angle ECD is equal to the internal and opposite
(angle) ABC [Prop. 1.29]. But ACE was also shown (to be) equal to BAC. Thus, the whole
angle ACD is equal to the two internal and opposite (angles) BAC and ABC.
Let ACB have been added to both. Thus, ACD and ACB are equal to the three (angles) ABC,
BCA, and CAB. But, ACD and ACB are equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.13]. Thus, ACB,
CBA, and CAB are also equal to two right-angles.
Thus, for any triangle, (if) one of the sides (is) produced (then) the external angle is equal to the
two internal and opposite (angles), and the three internal angles of the triangle are equal to two
right-angles. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
¯¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
λγ΄
Α Β
Γ ∆
Α| τvς :σας τε κα| παραλλήλους cπ| τv αuτv pέρη cπιζευγνύουσαι εuθεiαι κα| αuτα| :σας τε κα|
παράλληλοί εiσιν.
´Εστωσαν :σαι τε κα| παράλληλοι α| ΑΒ, Γ∆, κα| cπιζευγνύτωσαν αuτvς cπ| τv αuτv pέρη
εuθεiαι α| ΑΓ, Β∆· λέγω, oτι κα| α| ΑΓ, Β∆ :σαι τε κα| παράλληλοί εiσιν.
Επεζεύχθω ¿ ΒΓ. κα| cπε| παράλληλός cστιν ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ Γ∆, κα| εiς αuτvς cpπέπτωκεν ¿ ΒΓ, α|
cναλλvξ γωνίαι α| uπo ΑΒΓ, ΒΓ∆ :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν. κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ Γ∆ κοιν¿ δc
¿ ΒΓ, δύο δ¿ α| ΑΒ, ΒΓ δύο ταiς ΒΓ, Γ∆ :σαι εiσίν· κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΑΒΓ γωνί; τ¸ uπo ΒΓ∆
:ση· βάσις vρα ¿ ΑΓ βάσει τ¸ Β∆ cστιν :ση, κα| τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ΒΓ∆ τριγών; :σον cστίν,
κα| α| λοιπα| γωνίαι ταiς λοιπαiς γωνίαις :σαι cσονται cκατέρα cκατέρ;, uφ iς α| :σαι πλευρα|
uποτείνουσιν· :ση vρα ¿ uπo ΑΓΒ γωνία τ¸ uπo ΓΒ∆. κα| cπε| εiς δύο εuθείας τvς ΑΓ, Β∆
εuθεiα cpπίπτουσα ¿ ΒΓ τvς cναλλvξ γωνίας :σας vλλήλαις πεποίηκεν, παράλληλος vρα cστ|ν ¿
ΑΓ τ¸ Β∆. cδείχθη δc αuτ¸ κα| :ση.
Α| vρα τvς :σας τε κα| παραλλήλους cπ| τv αuτv pέρη cπιζευγνύουσαι εuθεiαι κα| αuτα| :σαι τε
κα| παράλληλοί εiσιν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
¯6
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 33
D C
B A
Straight-lines joining equal and parallel (straight-lines) on the same sides are themselves also
equal and parallel.
Let AB and CD be equal and parallel (straight-lines), and let the straight-lines AC and BD join
them on the same sides. I say that AC and BD are also equal and parallel.
Let BC have been joined. And since AB is parallel to CD, and BC has fallen across them, the
alternate angles ABC and BCD are equal to one another [Prop. 1.29]. And since AB and CD are
equal, and BC is common, the two (straight-lines) AB, BC are equal to the two (straight-lines)
DC, CB.
11
And the angle ABC is equal to the angle BCD. Thus, the base AC is equal to the base
BD, and triangle ABC is equal to triangle ACD, and the remaining angles will be equal to the
corresponding remaining angles subtended by the equal sides [Prop. 1.4]. Thus, angle ACB is
equal to CBD. Also, since the straight-line BC, (in) falling across the two straight-lines AC and
BD, has made the alternate angles (ACB and CBD) equal to one another, AC is thus parallel to
BD [Prop. 1.27]. And (AC) was also shown (to be) equal to (BD).
Thus, straight-lines joining equal and parallel (straight-lines) on the same sides are themselves
also equal and parallel. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
11
The Greek text has “BC, CD”, which is obviously a mistake.
¯¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
λδ΄
Α
Γ
Β

Τeν παραλληλογράppων χωρίων α| vπεναντίον πλευραί τε κα| γωνίαι :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν, κα| ¿
διάpετρος αuτv δίχα τέpνει.
´Εστω παραλληλόγραppον χωρίον τo ΑΓ∆Β, διάpετρος δc αuτοu ¿ ΒΓ· λέγω, oτι τοu ΑΓ∆Β
παραλληλογράppου α| vπεναντίον πλευραί τε κα| γωνίαι :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν, κα| ¿ ΒΓ διάpετρος
αuτo δίχα τέpνει.
Επε| γvρ παράλληλός cστιν ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ Γ∆, κα| εiς αuτvς cpπέπτωκεν εuθεiα ¿ ΒΓ, α| cναλλvξ
γωνιάι α| uπo ΑΒΓ, ΒΓ∆ :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν. πάλιν cπε| παράλληλός cστιν ¿ ΑΓ τ¸ Β∆, κα|
εiς αuτvς cpπέπτωκεν ¿ ΒΓ, α| cναλλvξ γωνίαι α| uπo ΑΓΒ, ΓΒ∆ :σας vλλήλαις εiσίν. δύο δ¿
τρίγωνά cστι τv ΑΒΓ, ΒΓ∆ τvς δύο γωνίας τvς uπo ΑΒΓ, ΒΓΑ δυσ| ταiς uπo ΒΓ∆, ΓΒ∆ :σας
cχοντα cκατέραν cκατέρ; κα| pίαν πλευρvν pι; πλευρ; :σην τ¿ν πρoς ταiς :σαις γωνίαις κοιν¿ν
αuτeν τ¿ν ΒΓ· κα| τvς λοιπvς vρα πλευρvς ταiς λοιπαiς :σας cξει cκατέραν cκατέρ; κα| τ¿ν
λοιπ¿ν γωνίαν τ¸ λοιπ¸ γωνί;· :ση vρα ¿ pcν ΑΒ πλευρv τ¸ Γ∆, ¿ δc ΑΓ τ¸ Β∆, κα| cτι :ση
cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ γωνία τ¸ uπo Γ∆Β. κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ pcν uπo ΑΒΓ γωνία τ¸ uπo ΒΓ∆, ¿
δc uπo ΓΒ∆ τ¸ uπo ΑΓΒ, oλη vρα ¿ uπo ΑΒ∆ oλ¸ τ¸ uπo ΑΓ∆ cστιν :ση. cδείχθη δc κα| ¿
uπo ΒΑΓ τ¸ uπo Γ∆Β :ση.
Τeν vρα παραλληλογράppων χωρίων α| vπεναντίον πλευραί τε κα| γωνίαι :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν.
Λέγω δή, oτι κα| ¿ διάpετρος αuτv δίχα τέpνει. cπε| γvρ :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ Γ∆, κοιν¿ δc ¿
ΒΓ, δύο δ¿ α| ΑΒ, ΒΓ δυσ| ταiς Γ∆, ΒΓ :σαι εiσ|ν cκατέρα cκατέρ;· κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΑΒΓ
γωνί; τ¸ uπo ΒΓ∆ :ση. κα| βάσις vρα ¿ ΑΓ τ¸ ∆Β :ση. κα| τo ΑΒΓ ¸vρα] τρίγωνον τ; ΒΓ∆
τριγών; :σον cστίν.
Η vρα ΒΓ διάpετρος δίχα τέpνει τo ΑΒΓ∆ παραλληλόγραppον· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
¯8
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 34
C
A B
D
For parallelogrammic figures, the opposite sides and angles are equal to one another, and a diag-
onal cuts them in half.
Let ACDB be a parallelogrammic figure, and BC its diagonal. I say that for parallelogram
ACDB, the opposite sides and angles are equal to one another, and the diagonal BC cuts it in
half.
For since AB is parallel to CD, and the straight-line BC has fallen across them, the alternate
angles ABC and BCD are equal to one another [Prop. 1.29]. Again, since AC is parallel to BD,
and BC has fallen across them, the alternate angles ACB and CBD are equal to one another
[Prop. 1.29]. So ABC and BCD are two triangles having the two angles ABC and BCA equal
to the two (angles) BCD and CBD, respectively, and one side equal to one side—the (one)
common to the equal angles, (namely) BC. Thus, they will also have the remaining sides equal
to the corresponding remaining (sides), and the remaining angle (equal) to the remaining angle
[Prop. 1.26]. Thus, side AB is equal to CD, and AC to BD. Furthermore, angle BAC is equal
to CDB. And since angle ABC is equal to BCD, and CBD to ACB, the whole (angle) ABD is
thus equal to the whole (angle) ACD. And BAC was also shown (to be) equal to CDB.
Thus, for parallelogrammic figures, the opposite sides and angles are equal to one another.
And, I also say that a diagonal cuts them in half. For since AB is equal to CD, and BC (is)
common, the two (straight-lines) AB, BC are equal to the two (straight-lines) DC, CB,
12
re-
spectively. And angle ABC is equal to angle BCD. Thus, the base AC (is) also equal to DB
[Prop. 1.4]. Also, triangle ABC is equal to triangle BCD [Prop. 1.4].
Thus, the diagonal BC cuts the parallelogram ACDB
13
in half. (Which is) the very thing it was
required to show.
12
The Greek text has “CD, BC”, which is obviously a mistake.
13
The Greek text has “ABCD”, which is obviously a mistake.
¯9
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
λε΄

Β Γ
Η
Ε Α Ζ
Τv παραλληλόγραppα τv cπ| τ¿ς αuτ¿ς βάσεως oντα κα| cν ταiς αuταiς παραλλήλοις :σα
vλλήλοις cστίν.
´Εστω παραλληλόγραppα τv ΑΒΓ∆, ΕΒΓΖ cπ| τ¿ς αuτ¿ς βάσεως τ¿ς ΒΓ κα| cν ταiς αuταiς
παραλλήλοις ταiς ΑΖ, ΒΓ· λέγω, oτι :σον cστ| τo ΑΒΓ∆ τ; ΕΒΓΖ παραλληλογράpp;.
Επε| γvρ παραλληλόγραppόν cστι τo ΑΒΓ∆, :ση cστ|ν ¿ Α∆ τ¸ ΒΓ. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| ¿
ΕΖ τ¸ ΒΓ cστιν :ση· eστε κα| ¿ Α∆ τ¸ ΕΖ cστιν :ση· κα| κοιν¿ ¿ ∆Ε· oλη vρα ¿ ΑΕ oλ¸
τ¸ ∆Ζ cστιν :ση. cστι δc κα| ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ ∆Γ :ση· δύο δ¿ α| ΕΑ, ΑΒ δύο ταiς Ζ∆, ∆Γ :σαι εiσ|ν
cκατέρα cκατέρ;· κα| γωνία ¿ uπo Ζ∆Γ γωνί; τ¸ uπo ΕΑΒ cστιν :ση ¿ cκτoς τ¸ cντός· βάσις
vρα ¿ ΕΒ βάσει τ¸ ΖΓ :ση cστίν, κα| τo ΕΑΒ τρίγωνον τ; ∆ΖΓ τριγών; :σον cσται· κοινoν
vφ¸ρήσθω τo ∆ΗΕ· λοιπoν vρα τo ΑΒΗ∆ τραπέζιον λοιπ; τ; ΕΗΓΖ τραπεζί; cστ|ν :σον·
κοινoν προσκείσθω τo ΗΒΓ τρίγωνον· oλον vρα τo ΑΒΓ∆ παραλληλόγραppον oλ; τ; ΕΒΓΖ
παραλληλογράpp; :σον cστίν.
Τv vρα παραλληλόγραppα τv cπ| τ¿ς αuτ¿ς βάσεως oντα κα| cν ταiς αuταiς παραλλήλοις :σα
vλλήλοις cστίν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
80
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 35
B C
D E
G
A F
Parallelograms which are on the same base and between the same parallels are equal
14
to one
another.
Let ABCD and EBCF be parallelograms on the same base BC, and between the same parallels
AF and BC. I say that ABCD is equal to parallelogram EBCF.
For since ABCD is a parallelogram, AD is equal to BC [Prop. 1.34]. So, for the same (reasons),
EF is also equal to BC. So AD is also equal to EF. And DE is common. Thus, the whole
(straight-line) AE is equal to the whole (straight-line) DF. And AB is also equal to DC. So
the two (straight-lines) EA, AB are equal to the two (straight-lines) FD, DC, respectively. And
angle FDC is equal to angle EAB, the external to the internal [Prop. 1.29]. Thus, the base EB
is equal to the base FC, and triangle EAB will be equal to triangle DFC [Prop. 1.4]. Let DGE
have been taken away fromboth. Thus, the remaining trapeziumABGD is equal to the remaining
trapezium EGCF. Let triangle GBC have been added to both. Thus, the whole parallelogram
ABCD is equal to the whole parallelogram EBCF.
Thus, parallelograms which are on the same base and between the same parallels are equal to
one another. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
14
Here, for the first time, “equal” means “equal in area”, rather than “congreunt”.
8l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
λç΄
Η Γ Ζ
Θ Ε Α ∆
Β
Τv παραλληλόγραppα τv cπ| :σων βάσεων oντα κα| cν ταiς αuταiς παραλλήλοις :σα vλλήλοις
cστίν.
´Εστω παραλληλόγραppα τv ΑΒΓ∆, ΕΖΗΘ cπ| :σων βάσεων oντα τeν ΒΓ, ΖΗ κα| cν ταiς
αuταiς παραλλήλοις ταiς ΑΘ, ΒΗ· λέγω, oτι :σον cστ| τo ΑΒΓ∆ παραλληλόγραppον τ; ΕΖΗΘ.
Επεζεύχθωσαν γvρ α| ΒΕ, ΓΘ. κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΒΓ τ¸ ΖΗ, vλλv ¿ ΖΗ τ¸ ΕΘ cστιν :ση,
κα| ¿ ΒΓ vρα τ¸ ΕΘ cστιν :ση. εiσ| δc κα| παράλληλοι. κα| cπιζευγνύουσιν αuτvς α| ΕΒ, ΘΓ·
α| δc τvς :σας τε κα| παραλλήλους cπ| τv αuτv pέρη cπιζευγνύουσαι :σαι τε κα| παράλληλοί εiσι
¸κα| α| ΕΒ, ΘΓ vρα :σας τέ εiσι κα| παράλληλοι]. παραλληλόγραppον vρα cστ| τo ΕΒΓΘ. καί
cστιν :σον τ; ΑΒΓ∆· βάσιν τε γvρ αuτ; τ¿ν αuτ¿ν cχει τ¿ν ΒΓ, κα| cν ταiς αuταiς παραλλήλοις
cστ|ν αuτ; ταiς ΒΓ, ΑΘ. δ|α τv αuτv δ¿ κα| τo ΕΖΗΘ τ; αuτ; τ; ΕΒΓΘ cστιν :σον· eστε
κα| τo ΑΒΓ∆ παραλληλόγραppον τ; ΕΖΗΘ cστιν :σον.
Τv vρα παραλληλόγραppα τv cπ| :σων βάσεων oντα κα| cν ταiς αuταiς παραλλήλοις :σα vλλήλοις
cστίν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
82
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 36
G
A D E H
F C B
Parallelograms which are on equal bases and between the same parallels are equal to one another.
Let ABCD and EFGH be parallelograms which are on the equal bases BC and FG, and (are)
between the same parallels AH and BG. I say that the parallelogram ABCD is equal to EFGH.
For let BE and CH have been joined. And since BC and FG are equal, but FG and EH are
equal [Prop. 1.34], BC and EH are thus also equal. And they are also parallel, and EB and
HC join them. But (straight-lines) joining equal and parallel (straight-lines) on the same sides
are (themselves) equal and parallel [Prop. 1.33] [thus, EB and HC are also equal and parallel].
Thus, EBCH is a parallelogram [Prop. 1.34], and is equal to ABCD. For it has the same base,
BC, as (ABCD), and is between the same parallels, BC and AH, as (ABCD) [Prop. 1.35]. So,
for the same (reasons), EFGH is also equal to the same (parallelogram) EBCH [Prop. 1.34].
So that the parallelogram ABCD is also equal to EFGH.
Thus, parallelograms which are on equal bases and between the same parallels are equal to one
another. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
8`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
λζ΄
Α ∆
Γ
Ε Ζ
Β
Τv τρίγωνα τv cπ| τ¿ς αuτ¿ς βάσεως oντα κα| cν ταiς αuταiς παραλλήλοις :σα vλλήλοις cστίν.
´Εστω τρίγωνα τv ΑΒΓ, ∆ΒΓ cπ| τ¿ς αuτ¿ς βάσεως τ¿ς ΒΓ κα| cν ταiς αuταiς παραλλήλοις ταiς
Α∆, ΒΓ· λέγω, oτι :σον cστ| τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ∆ΒΓ τριγών;.
Εκβεβλήσθω ¿ Α∆ cφ cκάτερα τv pέρη cπ| τv Ε, Ζ, κα| διv pcν τοu Β τ¸ ΓΑ παράλληλος
¿χθω ¿ ΒΕ, δ|α δc τοu Γ τ¸ Β∆ παράλληλος ¿χθω ¿ ΓΖ. παραλληλόγραppον vρα cστ|ν
cκάτερον τeν ΕΒΓΑ, ∆ΒΓΖ· καί εiσιν :σα· cπί τε γvρ τ¿ς αuτ¿ς βάσεώς εiσι τ¿ς ΒΓ κα| cν ταiς
αuταiς παραλλήλοις ταiς ΒΓ, ΕΖ· καί cστι τοu pcν ΕΒΓΑ παραλληλογράppου ¿pισυ τo ΑΒΓ
τρίγωνον· ¿ γvρ ΑΒ διάpετρος αuτo δίχα τέpνει· τοu δc ∆ΒΓΖ παραλληλογράppου ¿pισυ τo
∆ΒΓ τρίγωνον· ¿ γvρ ∆Γ διάpετρος αuτo δίχα τέpνει. ¸τv δc τeν :σων ¿pίση :σα vλλήλοις
cστίν]. :σον vρα cστ| τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ∆ΒΓ τριγών;.
Τv vρα τρίγωνα τv cπ| τ¿ς αuτ¿ς βάσεως oντα κα| cν ταiς αuταiς παραλλήλοις :σα vλλήλοις
cστίν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
84
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 37
A
E
D
C
F
B
Triangles which are on the same base and between the same parallels are equal to one another.
Let ABC and DBC be triangles on the same base BC, and between the same parallels AD and
BC. I say that triangle ABC is equal to triangle DBC.
Let AD have been produced in each direction to E and F, and let the (straight-line) BE have been
drawn through B parallel to CA [Prop. 1.31], and let the (straight-line) CF have been drawn
through C parallel to BD [Prop. 1.31]. Thus, EBCA and DBCF are both parallelograms, and
are equal. For they are on the same base BC, and between the same parallels BC and EF
[Prop. 1.35]. And the triangle ABC is half of the parallelogram EBCA. For the diagonal AB
cuts the latter in half [Prop. 1.34]. And the triangle DBC (is) half of the parallelogram DBCF.
For the diagonal DC cuts the latter in half [Prop. 1.34]. [And the halves of equal things are equal
to one another.]
15
Thus, triangle ABC is equal to triangle DBC.
Thus, triangles which are on the same base and between the same parallels are equal to one
another. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
15
This is an additional common notion.

ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
λη΄
Ζ Ε
Α Η ∆ Θ
Β Γ
Τv τρίγωνα τv cπ| :σων βάσεων oντα κα| cν ταiς αuταiς παραλλήλοις :σα vλλήλοις cστίν.
´Εστω τρίγωνα τv ΑΒΓ, ∆ΕΖ cπ| :σων βάσεων τeν ΒΓ, ΕΖ κα| cν ταiς αuταiς παραλλήλοις
ταiς ΒΖ, Α∆· λέγω, oτι :σον cστ| τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ∆ΕΖ τριγών;.
Εκβεβλήσθω γvρ ¿ Α∆ cφ cκάτερα τv pέρη cπ| τv Η, Θ, κα| διv pcν τοu Β τ¸ ΓΑ παράλληλος
¿χθω ¿ ΒΗ, δ|α δc τοu Ζ τ¸ ∆Ε παράλληλος ¿χθω ¿ ΖΘ. παραλληλόγραppον vρα cστ|ν
cκάτερον τeν ΗΒΓΑ, ∆ΕΖΘ· κα| :σον τo ΗΒΓΑ τ; ∆ΕΖΘ· cπί τε γvρ :σων βάσεών εiσι τeν
ΒΓ, ΕΖ κα| cν ταiς αuταiς παραλλήλοις ταiς ΒΖ, ΗΘ· και΄ cστι τοu pcν ΗΒΓΑ παραλλη-
λογράppου ¿pισυ τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον. ¿ γvρ ΑΒ διάpετρος αuτo δίχα τέpνει· τοu δc ∆ΕΖΘ
παραλληλογράppου ¿pισυ τo ΖΕ∆ τρίγωνον· ¿ γvρ ∆Ζ δίαpετρος αuτo δίχα τέpνει ¸τv δc τeν
:σων ¿pίση :σα vλλήλοις cστίν]. :σον vρα cστ| τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ∆ΕΖ τριγών;.
Τv vρα τρίγωνα τv cπ| :σων βάσεων oντα κα| cν ταiς αuταiς παραλλήλοις :σα vλλήλοις cστίν·
oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
86
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 38
F E
A D G H
B C
Triangles which are on equal bases and between the same parallels are equal to one another.
Let ABC and DEF be triangles on the equal bases BC and EF, and between the same parallels
BF and AD. I say that triangle ABC is equal to triangle DEF.
For let AD have been produced in each direction to G and H, and let the (straight-line) BG have
been drawn through B parallel to CA [Prop. 1.31], and let the (straight-line) FH have been
drawn through F parallel to DE [Prop. 1.31]. Thus, GBCA and DEFH are each parallelograms.
And GBCA is equal to DEFH. For they are on the equal bases BC and EF, and between
the same parallels BF and GH [Prop. 1.36]. And triangle ABC is half of the parallelogram
GBCA. For the diagonal AB cuts the latter in half [Prop. 1.34]. And triangle FED (is) half
of parallelogram DEFH. For the diagonal DF cuts the latter in half. [And the halves of equal
things are equal to one another]. Thus, triangle ABC is equal to triangle DEF.
Thus, triangles which are on equal bases and between the same parallels are equal to one another.
(Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
λθ΄
Α
Β Γ
Ε

Τv :σα τρίγωνα τv cπ| τ¿ς αuτ¿ς βάσεως oντα κα| cπ| τv αuτv pέρη κα| cν ταiς αuταiς πα-
ραλλήλοις cστίν.
´Εστω :σα τρίγωνα τv ΑΒΓ, ∆ΒΓ cπ| τ¿ς αuτ¿ς βάσεως oντα κα| cπ| τv αuτv pέρη τ¿ς ΒΓ·
λέγω, oτι κα| cν ταiς αuταiς παραλλήλοις cστίν.
Επεζεύχθω γvρ ¿ Α∆· λέγω, oτι παράλληλός cστιν ¿ Α∆ τ¸ ΒΓ.
Εi γvρ pή, ¿χθω διv τοu Α σηpείου τ¸ ΒΓ εuθεί; παράλληλος ¿ ΑΕ, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΕΓ.
:σον vρα cστ| τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ΕΒΓ τριγών;· cπί τε γvρ τ¿ς αuτ¿ς βάσεώς cστιν αuτ; τ¿ς
ΒΓ κα| cν ταiς αuταiς παραλλήλοις. vλλv τo ΑΒΓ τ; ∆ΒΓ cστιν :σον· κα| τo ∆ΒΓ vρα τ; ΕΒΓ
:σον cστ| τo pεiζον τ; cλάσσονι· oπερ cστ|ν vδύνατον· οuκ vρα παράλληλός cστιν ¿ ΑΕ τ¸ ΒΓ.
opοίως δ¿ δείξοpεν, oτι οuδ vλλη τις πλ¿ν τ¿ς Α∆· ¿ Α∆ vρα τ¸ ΒΓ cστι παράλληλος.
Τv vρα :σα τρίγωνα τv cπ| τ¿ς αuτ¿ς βάσεως oντα κα| cπ| τv αuτv pέρη κα| cν ταiς αuταiς
παραλλήλοις cστίν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
88
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 39
E
A
B
D
C
Equal triangles which are on the same base, and on the same side, are also between the same
parallels.
Let ABC and DBC be equal triangles which are on the same base BC, and on the same side. I
say that they are also between the same parallels.
For let AD have been joined. I say that AD and AC are parallel.
For, if not, let AE have been drawn through point A parallel to the straight-line BC [Prop. 1.31],
and let EC have been joined. Thus, triangle ABC is equal to triangle EBC. For it is on the same
base to it, BC, and between the same parallels [Prop. 1.37]. But ABC is equal to DBC. Thus,
DBC is also equal to EBC, the greater to the lesser. The very thing is impossible. Thus, AE is
not parallel to BC. Similarly, we can show that neither (is) any other (straight-line) than AD.
Thus, AD is parallel to BC.
Thus, equal triangles which are on the same base, and on the same side, are also between the
same parallels. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
89
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄

Ζ
Α ∆
Β Ε
Γ
Τv :σα τρίγωνα τv cπ| :σων βάσεων oντα κα| cπ| τv αuτv pέρη κα| cν ταiς αuταiς παραλλήλοις
cστίν.
´Εστω :σα τρίγωνα τv ΑΒΓ, Γ∆Ε cπ| :σων βάσεων τeν ΒΓ, ΓΕ κα| cπ| τv αuτv pέρη. λέγω,
oτι κα| cν ταiς αuταiς παραλλήλοις cστίν.
Επεζεύχθω γvρ ¿ Α∆· λέγω, oτι παράλληλός cστιν ¿ Α∆ τ¸ ΒΕ.
Εi γvρ pή, ¿χθω διv τοu Α τ¸ ΒΕ παράλληλος ¿ ΑΖ, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΖΕ. :σον vρα cστ| τo
ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ΖΓΕ τριγών;· cπί τε γvρ :σων βάσεών εiσι τeν ΒΓ, ΓΕ κα| cν ταiς αuταiς
παραλλήλοις ταiς ΒΕ, ΑΖ. vλλv τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον :σον cστ| τ; ∆ΓΕ ¸τρίγων;]· κα| τo ∆ΓΕ
vρα ¸τρίγωνον] :σον cστ| τ; ΖΓΕ τριγών; τo pεiζον τ; cλάσσονι· oπερ cστ|ν vδύνατον· οuκ
vρα παράλληλος ¿ ΑΖ τ¸ ΒΕ. opοίως δ¿ δείξοpεν, oτι οuδ vλλη τις πλ¿ν τ¿ς Α∆· ¿ Α∆ vρα
τ¸ ΒΕ cστι παράλληλος.
Τv vρα :σα τρίγωνα τv cπ| :σων βάσεων oντα κα| cπ| τv αuτv pέρη κα| cν ταiς αuταiς πα-
ραλλήλοις cστίν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
90
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 40
16
F
A
C
D
E B
Equal triangles which are on equal bases, and on the same side, are also between the same
parallels.
Let ABC and CDE be equal triangles on the equal bases BC and CE (respectively), and on the
same side. I say that they are also between the same parallels.
For let AD have been joined. I say that AD is parallel to BE.
For if not, let AF have been drawn through A parallel to BE [Prop. 1.31], and let FE have
been joined. Thus, triangle ABC is equal to triangle FCE. For they are on equal bases, BC and
CE, and between the same parallels, BE and AF [Prop. 1.38]. But, triangle ABC is equal to
[triangle] DCE. Thus, [triangle] DCE is also equal to triangle FCE, the greater to the lesser.
The very thing is impossible. Thus, AF is not parallel to BE. Similarly, we can show that neither
(is) any other (straight-line) than AD. Thus, AD is parallel to BE.
Thus, equal triangles which are on equal bases, and on the same side, are also between the same
parallels. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
16
This whole proposition is regarded by Heiberg as a relatively early interpolation to the original text.
9l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
pα΄
∆ Α
Β
Ε
Γ
Εvν παραλληλόγραppον τριγών; βάσιν τε cχ¸ τ¿ν αuτ¿ν κα| cν ταiς αuταiς παραλλήλοις ¸,
διπλάσιόν cστί τo παραλληλόγραppον τοu τριγώνου.
Παραλληλόγραppον γvρ τo ΑΒΓ∆ τριγών; τ; ΕΒΓ βάσιν τε cχέτω τ¿ν αuτ¿ν τ¿ν ΒΓ κα|
cν ταiς αuταiς παραλλήλοις cστω ταiς ΒΓ, ΑΕ· λέγω, oτι διπλάσιόν cστι τo ΑΒΓ∆ παραλ-
ληλόγραppον τοu ΒΕΓ τριγώνου.
Επεζεύχθω γvρ ¿ ΑΓ. :σον δή cστι τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ΕΒΓ τριγών;· cπί τε γvρ τ¿ς αuτ¿ς
βάσεώς cστιν αuτ; τ¿ς ΒΓ κα| cν ταiς αuταiς παραλλήλοις ταiς ΒΓ, ΑΕ. vλλv τo ΑΒΓ∆ πα-
ραλληλόγραppον διπλάσιόν cστι τοu ΑΒΓ τριγώνου· ¿ γvρ ΑΓ διάpετρος αuτo δίχα τέpνει·
eστε τo ΑΒΓ∆ παραλληλόγραppον κα| τοu ΕΒΓ τριγώνου cστ| διπλάσιον.
Εvν vρα παραλληλόγραppον τριγών; βάσιν τε cχ¸ τ¿ν αuτ¿ν κα| cν ταiς αuταiς παραλλήλοις
¸, διπλάσιόν cστί τo παραλληλόγραppον τοu τριγώνου· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
92
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 41
B
A D E
C
If a parallelogram has the same base as a triangle, and is between the same parallels, then the
parallelogram is double (the area) of the triangle.
For let parallelogram ABCD have the same base BC as triangle EBC, and let it be between
the same parallels, BC and AE. I say that parallelogram ABCD is double (the area) of triangle
BEC.
For let AC have been joined. So triangle ABC is equal to triangle EBC. For it is on the same
base, BC, as (EBC), and between the same parallels, BC and AE [Prop. 1.37]. But, parallelo-
gram ABCD is double (the area) of triangle ABC. For the diagonal AC cuts the former in half
[Prop. 1.34]. So parallelogram ABCD is also double (the area) of triangle EBC.
Thus, if a parallelogram has the same base as a triangle, and is between the same parallels, then
the parallelogram is double (the area) of the triangle. (Which is) the very thing it was required
to show.
9`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
pβ΄
Β
Η
Γ

Ε
Ζ Α
Τ; δοθέντι τριγών; :σον παραλληλόγραppον συστήσασθαι cν τ¸ δοθείσ¸ γωνί; εuθυγράpp;.
´Εστω τo pcν δοθcν τρίγωνον τo ΑΒΓ, ¿ δc δοθεiσα γωνία εuθύγραppος ¿ ∆· δεi δ¿ τ; ΑΒΓ
τριγών; :σον παραλληλόγραppον συστήσασθαι cν τ¸ ∆ γωνί; εuθυγράpp;.
Τετpήσθω ¿ ΒΓ δίχα κατv τo Ε, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΑΕ, κα| συνεστάτω πρoς τ¸ ΕΓ εuθεί; κα|
τ; πρoς αuτ¸ σηpεί; τ; Ε τ¸ ∆ γωνί; :ση ¿ uπo ΓΕΖ, κα| διv pcν τοu Α τ¸ ΕΓ παράλληλος
¿χθω ¿ ΑΗ, διv δc τοu Γ τ¸ ΕΖ παράλληλος ¿χθω ¿ ΓΗ· παραλληλόγραppον vρα cστ| τo
ΖΕΓΗ. κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΒΕ τ¸ ΕΓ, :σον cστ| κα| τo ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον τ; ΑΕΓ τριγών;· cπί
τε γvρ :σων βάσεών εiσι τeν ΒΕ, ΕΓ κα| cν ταiς αuταiς παραλλήλοις ταiς ΒΓ, ΑΗ· διπλάσιον
vρα cστ| τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τοu ΑΕΓ τριγώνου. cστι δc κα| τo ΖΕΓΗ παραλληλόγραppον
διπλάσιον τοu ΑΕΓ τριγώνου· βάσιν τε γvρ αuτ; τ¿ν αuτ¿ν cχει κα| cν ταiς αuταiς cστιν αuτ;
παραλλήλοις· :σον vρα cστ| τo ΖΕΓΗ παραλληλόγραppον τ; ΑΒΓ τριγών;. κα| cχει τ¿ν uπo
ΓΕΖ γωνίαν :σην τ¸ δοθείσ¸ τ¸ ∆.
Τ; vρα δοθέντι τριγών; τ; ΑΒΓ :σον παραλληλόγραppον συνέσταται τo ΖΕΓΗ cν γωνί; τ¸
uπo ΓΕΖ, ¿τις cστ|ν :ση τ¸ ∆· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
94
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 42
F
D
E
G
C B
A
To construct a parallelogram equal to a given triangle in a given rectilinear angle.
Let ABC be the given triangle, and D the given rectilinear angle. So it is required to construct a
parallelogram equal to triangle ABC in the rectilinear angle D.
Let BC have been cut in half at E [Prop. 1.10], and let AE have been joined. And let (an-
gle) CEF have been constructed, equal to angle D, at the point E on the straight-line EC
[Prop. 1.23]. And let AG have been drawn through A parallel to EC [Prop. 1.31], and let CG
have been drawn through C parallel to EF [Prop. 1.31]. Thus, FECG is a parallelogram. And
since BE is equal to EC, triangle ABE is also equal to triangle AEC. For they are on the equal
bases, BE and EC, and between the same parallels, BC and AG [Prop. 1.38]. Thus, triangle
ABC is double (the area) of triangle AEC. And parallelogram FECG is also double (the area)
of triangle AEC. For it has the same base as (AEC), and is between the same parallels as (AEC)
[Prop. 1.41]. Thus, parallelogram FECG is equal to triangle ABC. (FECG) also has the angle
CEF equal to the given (angle) D.
Thus, parallelogram FECG, equal to the given triangle ABC, has been constructed in the angle
CEF, which is equal to D. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.

ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
pγ΄
Ζ
Γ
Ε
Α Θ ∆
Β Η
Κ
Παντoς παραλληλογράppου τeν περ| τ¿ν διάpετρον παραλληλογράppων τv παραπληρώpατα
:σα vλλήλοις cστίν.
´Εστω παραλληλόγραppον τo ΑΒΓ∆, διάpετρος δc αuτοu ¿ ΑΓ, περ| δc τ¿ν ΑΓ παραλ-
ληλόγραppα pcν cστω τv ΕΘ, ΖΗ, τv δc λεγόpενα παραπληρώpατα τv ΒΚ, Κ∆· λέγω, oτι
:σον cστ| τo ΒΚ παραπλήρωpα τ; Κ∆ παραπληρώpατι.
Επε| γvρ παραλληλόγραppόν cστι τo ΑΒΓ∆, διάpετρος δc αuτοu ¿ ΑΓ, :σον cστ| τo ΑΒΓ
τρίγωνον τ; ΑΓ∆ τριγών;. πάλιν, cπε| παραλληλόγραppόν cστι τo ΕΘ, διάpετρος δc αuτοu
cστιν ¿ ΑΚ, :σον cστ| τo ΑΕΚ τρίγωνον τ; ΑΘΚ τριγών;. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| τo ΚΖΓ
τρίγωνον τ; ΚΗΓ cστιν :σον. cπε| οuν τo pcν ΑΕΚ τρίγωνον τ; ΑΘΚ τριγών; cστ|ν :σον,
τo δc ΚΖΓ τ; ΚΗΓ, τo ΑΕΚ τρίγωνον pετv τοu ΚΗΓ :σον cστ| τ; ΑΘΚ τριγών; pετv τοu
ΚΖΓ· cστι δc κα| oλον τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον oλ; τ; Α∆Γ :σον· λοιπoν vρα τo ΒΚ παραπλήρωpα
λοιπ; τ; Κ∆ παραπληρώpατί cστιν :σον.
Παντoς vρα παραλληλογράppου χωρίου τeν περ| τ¿ν διάpετρον παραλληλογράppων τv πα-
ραπληρώpατα :σα vλλήλοις cστίν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
96
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 43
K
C
D
E
H A
B G
F
For any parallelogram, the complements of the parallelograms about the diagonal are equal to
one another.
Let ABCD be a parallelogram, and AC its diagonal. And let EH and FG be the parallelograms
about AC, and BK and KD the so-called complements (about AC). I say that the complement
BK is equal to the complement KD.
For since ABCD is a parallelogram, and AC its diagonal, triangle ABC is equal to triangle ACD
[Prop. 1.34]. Again, since EH is a parallelogram, and AK is its diagonal, triangle AEK is equal to
triangle AHK [Prop. 1.34]. So, for the same (reasons), triangle KFC is also equal to (triangle)
KGC. Therefore, since triangle AEK is equal to triangle AHK, and KFC to KGC, triangle
AEK plus KGC is equal to triangle AHK plus KFC. And the whole triangle ABC is also equal
to the whole (triangle) ADC. Thus, the remaining complement BK is equal to the remaining
complement KD.
Thus, for any parallelogramic figure, the complements of the parallelograms about the diagonal
are equal to one another. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
pδ΄
Κ
Γ

Ζ Ε
Η
Β
Λ Α Θ
Μ
Παρv τ¿ν δοθεiσαν εuθεiαν τ; δοθέντι τριγών; :σον παραλληλόγραppον παραβαλεiν cν τ¸
δοθείσ¸ γωνί; εuθυγράpp;.
´Εστω ¿ pcν δοθεiσα εuθεiα ¿ ΑΒ, τo δc δοθcν τρίγωνον τo Γ, ¿ δc δοθεiσα γωνία εuθύγραppος
¿ ∆· δεi δ¿ παρv τ¿ν δοθεiσαν εuθεiαν τ¿ν ΑΒ τ; δοθέντι τριγών; τ; Γ :σον παραλ-
ληλόγραppον παραβαλείν cν :σ¸ τ¸ ∆ γωνί;.
Συνεστάτω τ; Γ τριγών; :σον παραλληλόγραppον τo ΒΕΖΗ cν γωνί; τ¸ uπo ΕΒΗ, ¿ cστιν
:ση τ¸ ∆· κα| κείσθω eστε cπ εuθείας ε|ναι τ¿ν ΒΕ τ¸ ΑΒ, κα| διήχθω ¿ ΖΗ cπ| τo Θ, κα|
διv τοu Α oποτέρ; τeν ΒΗ, ΕΖ παράλληλος ¿χθω ¿ ΑΘ, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΘΒ. κα| cπε|
εiς παραλλήλους τvς ΑΘ, ΕΖ εuθεiα cνέπεσεν ¿ ΘΖ, α| vρα uπo ΑΘΖ, ΘΖΕ γωνίαι δυσ|ν
oρθαiς εiσιν :σαι. α| vρα uπo ΒΘΗ, ΗΖΕ δύο oρθeν cλάσσονές εiσιν· α| δc vπo cλασσόνων
¿ δύο oρθeν εiς vπειρον cκβαλλόpεναι συpπίπτουσιν· α| ΘΒ, ΖΕ vρα cκβαλλόpεναι συp-
πεσοuνται. cκβεβλήσθωσαν κα| συpπιπτέτωσαν κατv τo Κ, κα| διv τοu Κ σηpείου oποτέρ;
τeν ΕΑ, ΖΘ παράλληλος ¿χθω ¿ ΚΛ, κα| cκβεβλήσθωσαν α| ΘΑ, ΗΒ cπ| τv Λ, Μ σηpεiα.
παραλληλόγραppον vρα cστ| τo ΘΛΚΖ, διάpετρος δc αuτοu ¿ ΘΚ, περ| δc τ¿ν ΘΚ παραλ-
ληλόγραppα pcν τv ΑΗ, ΜΕ, τv δc λεγόpενα παραπληρώpατα τv ΛΒ, ΒΖ· :σον vρα cστ| τo
ΛΒ τ; ΒΖ. vλλv τo ΒΖ τ; Γ τριγών; cστ|ν :σον· κα| τo ΛΒ vρα τ; Γ cστιν :σον. κα| cπε| :ση
cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΗΒΕ γωνία τ¸ uπo ΑΒΜ, vλλv ¿ uπo ΗΒΕ τ¸ ∆ cστιν :ση, κα| ¿ uπo ΑΒΜ vρα
τ¸ ∆ γωνί; cστ|ν :ση.
Παρv τ¿ν δοθεiσαν vρα εuθεiαν τ¿ν ΑΒ τ; δοθέντι τριγών; τ; Γ :σον παραλληλόγραppον
παραβέβληται τo ΛΒ cν γωνί; τ¸ uπo ΑΒΜ, ¿ cστιν :ση τ¸ ∆· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
98
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 44
B
C
D
F E K
M
L A H
G
To apply a parallelogram equal to a given triangle to a given straight-line in a given rectilinear
angle.
Let AB be the given straight-line, C the given triangle, and D the given rectilinear angle. So it is
required to apply a parallelogram equal to the given triangle C to the given straight-line AB in
an angle equal to D.
Let the parallelogram BEFG, equal to the triangle C, have been constructed in the angle EBG,
which is equal to D [Prop. 1.42]. And let it have been placed so that BE is straight-on to AB.
17
And let FG have been drawn through to H, and let AH have been drawn through A parallel to
either of BG or EF [Prop. 1.31], and let HB have been joined. And since the straight-line HF
falls across the parallel-lines AH and EF, the angles AHF and HFE are thus equal to two right-
angles [Prop. 1.29]. Thus, BHG and GFE are less than two right-angles. And (straight-lines)
produced to infinity from (internal angles) less than two right-angles meet together [Post. 5].
Thus, being produced, HB and FE will meet together. Let them have been produced, and let
them meet together at K. And let KL have been drawn through point K parallel to either of EA
or FH [Prop. 1.31]. And let HA and GB have been produced to points L and M (respectively).
Thus, HLKF is a parallelogram, and HK its diagonal. And AG and ME (are) parallelograms,
and LB and BF the so-called complements, about HK. Thus, LB is equal to BF [Prop. 1.43].
But, BF is equal to triangle C. Thus, LB is also equal to C. Also, since angle GBE is equal to
ABM [Prop. 1.15], but GBE is equal to D, ABM is thus also equal to angle D.
Thus, the parallelogram LB, equal to the given triangle C, has been applied to the given straight-
line AB in the angle ABM, which is equal to D. (Which is) the very thing it was required to
do.
17
This can be achieved using Props. 1.3, 1.23, and 1.31.
99
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
pε΄
Λ
Ε
Γ

Α
Β
Η
Κ Θ Μ
Ζ
Τ; δοθέντι εuθυγράpp; :σον παραλληλόγραppον συστήσασθαι cν τ¸ δοθείσ¸ γωνί; εuθυγράpp;.
´Εστω τo pcν δοθcν εuθύγραppον τo ΑΒΓ∆, ¿ δc δοθεiσα γωνία εuθύγραppος ¿ Ε· δεi δ¿ τ;
ΑΒΓ∆ εuθυγράpp; :σον παραλληλόγραppον συστήσασθαι cν τ¸ δοθείσ¸ γωνί; τ¸ Ε.
Επεζεύχθω ¿ ∆Β, κα| συνεστάτω τ; ΑΒ∆ τριγών; :σον παραλληλόγραppον τo ΖΘ cν τ¸ uπo
ΘΚΖ γωνί;, ¿ cστιν :ση τ¸ Ε· κα| παραβεβλήσθω παρv τ¿ν ΗΘ εuθεiαν τ; ∆ΒΓ τριγών;
:σον παραλληλόγραppον τo ΗΜ cν τ¸ uπo ΗΘΜ γωνί;, ¿ cστιν :ση τ¸ Ε. κα| cπε| ¿ Ε γωνία
cκατέρ; τeν uπo ΘΚΖ, ΗΘΜ cστιν :ση, κα| ¿ uπo ΘΚΖ vρα τ¸ uπo ΗΘΜ cστιν :ση. κοιν¿
προσκείσθω ¿ uπo ΚΘΗ· α| vρα uπo ΖΚΘ, ΚΘΗ ταiς uπo ΚΘΗ, ΗΘΜ :σαι εiσίν. vλλ α|
uπo ΖΚΘ, ΚΘΗ δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν· κα| α| uπo ΚΘΗ, ΗΘΜ vρα δύο oρθαiς :σας εiσίν.
πρoς δή τινι εuθεi; τ¸ ΗΘ κα| τ; πρoς αuτ¸ σηpεί; τ; Θ δύο εuθεiαι α| ΚΘ, ΘΜ p¿ cπ|
τv αuτv pέρη κείpεναι τvς cφεξ¿ς γωνίας δύο oρθαiς :σας ποιοuσιν· cπ εuθείας vρα cστ|ν ¿
ΚΘ τ¸ ΘΜ· κα| cπε| εiς παραλλήλους τvς ΚΜ, ΖΗ εuθεiα cνέπεσεν ¿ ΘΗ, α| cναλλvξ γωνίαι
α| uπo ΜΘΗ, ΘΗΖ :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν. κοιν¿ προσκείσθω ¿ uπo ΘΗΛ· α| vρα uπo ΜΘΗ,
ΘΗΛ ταiς uπo ΘΗΖ, ΘΗΛ :σαι εiσιν. vλλ α| uπo ΜΘΗ, ΘΗΛ δύο oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν· κα| α|
uπo ΘΗΖ, ΘΗΛ vρα δύο oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν· cπ εuθείας vρα cστ|ν ¿ ΖΗ τ¸ ΗΛ. κα| cπε| ¿ ΖΚ
τ¸ ΘΗ :ση τε κα| παράλληλός cστιν, vλλv κα| ¿ ΘΗ τ¸ ΜΛ, κα| ¿ ΚΖ vρα τ¸ ΜΛ :ση τε κα|
παράλληλός cστιν· κα| cπιζευγνύουσιν αuτvς εuθεiαι α| ΚΜ, ΖΛ· κα| α| ΚΜ, ΖΛ vρα :σαι τε
κα| παράλληλοί εiσιν· παραλληλόγραppον vρα cστ| τo ΚΖΛΜ. κα| cπε| :σον cστ| τo pcν ΑΒ∆
τρίγωνον τ; ΖΘ παραλληλογράpp;, τo δc ∆ΒΓ τ; ΗΜ, oλον vρα τo ΑΒΓ∆ εuθύγραppον
oλ; τ; ΚΖΛΜ παραλληλογράpp; cστ|ν :σον.
Τ; vρα δοθέντι εuθυγράpp; τ; ΑΒΓ∆ :σον παραλληλόγραppον συνέσταται τo ΚΖΛΜ cν
γωνί; τ¸ uπo ΖΚΜ, ¿ cστιν :ση τ¸ δοθείσ¸ τ¸ Ε· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
l00
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 45
F
A
D
B
C
E
K H
G
M
L
To construct a parallelogram equal to a given rectilinear figure in a given rectilinear angle.
Let ABCD be the given rectilinear figure,
18
and E the given rectilinear angle. So it is required to
construct a parallelogram equal to the rectilinear figure ABCD in the given angle E.
Let DB have been joined, and let the parallelogram FH, equal to the triangle ABD, have been
constructed in the angle HKF, which is equal to E [Prop. 1.42]. And let the parallelogram GM,
equal to the triangle DBC, have been applied to the straight-line GH in the angle GHM, which is
equal to E [Prop. 1.44]. And since angle E is equal to each of (angles) HKF and GHM, (angle)
HKF is thus also equal to GHM. Let KHG have been added to both. Thus, FKH and KHG
are equal to KHG and GHM. But, FKH and KHG are equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.29].
Thus, KHG and GHM are also equal to two right-angles. So two straight-lines, KH and HM,
not lying on the same side, make the adjacent angles equal to two right-angles at the point H on
some straight-line GH. Thus, KH is straight-on to HM [Prop. 1.14]. And since the straight-line
HG falls across the parallel-lines KM and FG, the alternate angles MHG and HGF are equal to
one another [Prop. 1.29]. Let HGL have been added to both. Thus, MHG and HGL are equal
to HGF and HGL. But, MHG and HGL are equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.29]. Thus, HGF
and HGL are also equal to two right-angles. Thus, FG is straight-on to GL [Prop. 1.14]. And
since FK is equal and parallel to HG [Prop. 1.34], but also HG to ML [Prop. 1.34], KF is thus
also equal and parallel to ML [Prop. 1.30]. And the straight-lines KM and FL join them. Thus,
KM and FL are equal and parallel as well [Prop. 1.33]. Thus, KFLM is a parallelogram. And
since triangle ABD is equal to parallelogram FH, and DBC to GM, the whole rectilinear figure
ABCD is thus equal to the whole parallelogram KFLM.
Thus, the parallelogram KFLM, equal to the given rectilinear figure ABCD, has been con-
structed in the angle FKM, which is equal to the given (angle) E. (Which is) the very thing it
was required to do.
18
The proof is only given for a four-sided figure. However, the extension to many-sided figures is trivial.
l0l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
pç΄
Β Α

Γ
Ε
Απo τ¿ς δοθείσης εuθείας τετράγωνον vναγράψαι.
´Εστω ¿ δοθεiσα εuθεiα ¿ ΑΒ· δεi δ¿ vπo τ¿ς ΑΒ εuθείας τετράγωνον vναγράψαι.
´Ηχθω τ¸ ΑΒ εuθεί; vπo τοu πρoς αuτ¸ σηpείου τοu Α πρoς oρθvς ¿ ΑΓ, κα| κείσθω τ¸ ΑΒ
:ση ¿ Α∆· κα| διv pcν τοu ∆ σηpείου τ¸ ΑΒ παράλληλος ¿χθω ¿ ∆Ε, διv δc τοu Β σηpείου
τ¸ Α∆ παράλληλος ¿χθω ¿ ΒΕ. Παραλληλόγραppον vρα cστ| τo Α∆ΕΒ· :ση vρα cστ|ν ¿ pcν
ΑΒ τ¸ ∆Ε, ¿ δc Α∆ τ¸ ΒΕ. vλλv ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ Α∆ cστιν :ση· α| τέσσαρες vρα α| ΒΑ, Α∆, ∆Ε,
ΕΒ :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν· iσόπλευρον vρα cστ| τo Α∆ΕΒ παραλληλόγραppον. λέγω δή, oτι κα|
oρθογώνιον. cπε| γvρ εiς παραλλήλους τvς ΑΒ, ∆Ε εuθεiα cνέπεσεν ¿ Α∆, α| vρα uπo ΒΑ∆,
Α∆Ε γωνίαι δύο oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν. oρθ¿ δc ¿ uπo ΒΑ∆· oρθ¿ vρα κα| ¿ uπo Α∆Ε. τeν
δc παραλληλογράppων χωρίων α| vπεναντίον πλευραί τε κα| γωνίαι :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν· oρθ¿
vρα κα| cκατέρα τeν vπεναντίον τeν uπo ΑΒΕ, ΒΕ∆ γωνιeν· oρθογώνιον vρα cστ| τo Α∆ΕΒ.
cδείχθη δc κα| iσόπλευρον.
Τετράγωνον vρα cστίν· καί cστιν vπo τ¿ς ΑΒ εuθείας vναγεγραppένον· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
l02
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 46
D
C
E
A B
To describe a square on a given straight-line.
Let AB be the given straight-line. So it is required to describe a square on the straight-line AB.
Let AC have been drawn at right-angles to the straight-line AB fromthe point Aon it [Prop. 1.11],
and let AD have been made equal to AB [Prop. 1.3]. And let DE have been drawn through
point D parallel to AB [Prop. 1.31], and let BE have been drawn through point B parallel to
AD [Prop. 1.31]. Thus, ADEB is a parallelogram. Thus, AB is equal to DE, and AD to BE
[Prop. 1.34]. But, AB is equal to AD. Thus, the four (sides) BA, AD, DE, and EB are equal to
one another. Thus, the parallelogram ADEB is equilateral. So I say that (it is) also right-angled.
For since the straight-line AD falls across the parallel-lines AB and DE, the angles BAD and
ADE are equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.29]. But BAD (is a) right-angle. Thus, ADE (is)
also a right-angle. And for parallelogrammic figures, the opposite sides and angles are equal to
one another [Prop. 1.34]. Thus, each of the opposite angles ABE and BED (are) also right-
angles. Thus, ADEB is right-angled. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral.
Thus, (ADEB) is a square [Def. 1.22]. And it is described on the straight-line AB. (Which is)
the very thing it was required to do.
l0`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
pζ΄
Η
Κ
Γ
Ζ
∆ Λ Ε
Β
Θ
Α
Εν τοiς oρθογωνίοις τριγώνοις τo vπo τ¿ς τ¿ν oρθ¿ν γωνίαν uποτεινούσης πλευρiς τετράγωνον
:σον cστ| τοiς vπo τeν τ¿ν oρθ¿ν γωνίαν περιεχουσeν πλευρeν τετραγώνοις.
´Εστω τρίγωνον oρθογώνιον τo ΑΒΓ oρθ¿ν cχον τ¿ν uπo ΒΑΓ γωνίαν· λέγω, oτι τo vπo τ¿ς
ΒΓ τετράγωνον :σον cστ| τοiς vπo τeν ΒΑ, ΑΓ τετραγώνοις.
Αναγεγράφθω γvρ vπo pcν τ¿ς ΒΓ τετράγωνον τo Β∆ΕΓ, vπo δc τeν ΒΑ, ΑΓ τv ΗΒ, ΘΓ,
κα| διv τοu Α oποτέρ; τeν Β∆, ΓΕ παράλληλος ¿χθω ¿ ΑΛ· κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| Α∆, ΖΓ.
κα| cπε| oρθή cστιν cκατέρα τeν uπo ΒΑΓ, ΒΑΗ γωνιeν, πρoς δή τινι εuθεί; τ¸ ΒΑ κα| τ;
πρoς αuτ¸ σηpεί; τ; Α δύο εuθεiαι α| ΑΓ, ΑΗ p¿ cπ| τv αuτv pέρη κείpεναι τvς cφεξ¿ς
γωνίας δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σας ποιοuσιν· cπ εuθείας vρα cστ|ν ¿ ΓΑ τ¸ ΑΗ. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| ¿
ΒΑ τ¸ ΑΘ cστιν cπ εuθείας. κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ uπo ∆ΒΓ γωνία τ¸ uπo ΖΒΑ· oρθ¿ γvρ
cκατέρα· κοιν¿ προσκείσθω ¿ uπo ΑΒΓ· oλη vρα ¿ uπo ∆ΒΑ oλ¸ τ¸ uπo ΖΒΓ cστιν :ση. κα|
cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ pcν ∆Β τ¸ ΒΓ, ¿ δc ΖΒ τ¸ ΒΑ, δύο δ¿ α| ∆Β, ΒΑ δύο ταiς ΖΒ, ΒΓ :σαι εiσ|ν
cκατέρα cκατέρ;· κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ∆ΒΑ γωνί; τ¸ uπo ΖΒΓ :ση· βάσις vρα ¿ Α∆ βάσει τ¸ ΖΓ
¸cστιν] :ση, κα| τo ΑΒ∆ τρίγωνον τ; ΖΒΓ τριγών; cστ|ν :σον· καί ¸cστι] τοu pcν ΑΒ∆ τριγώνου
διπλάσιον τo ΒΛ παραλληλόγραppον· βάσιν τε γvρ τ¿ν αuτ¿ν cχουσι τ¿ν Β∆ κα| cν ταiς αuταiς
εiσι παραλλήλοις ταiς Β∆, ΑΛ· τοu δc ΖΒΓ τριγώνου διπλάσιον τo ΗΒ τετράγωνον· βάσιν τε
l04
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 47
F
H
K
A
C
B
G
D L E
In a right-angled triangle, the square on the side subtending the right-angle is equal to the (sum
of the) squares on the sides surrounding the right-angle.
Let ABC be a right-angled triangle having the right-angle BAC. I say that the square on BC is
equal to the (sum of the) squares on BA and AC.
For let the square BDEC have been described on BC, and (the squares) GB and HC on AB
and AC (respectively) [Prop. 1.46]. And let AL have been drawn through point A parallel to
either of BD or CE [Prop. 1.31]. And since angles BAC and BAG are each right-angles, so
two straight-lines AC and AG, not lying on the same side, make the adjacent angles equal to
two right-angles at the same point A on some straight-line BA . Thus, CA is straight-on to AG
[Prop. 1.14]. So, for the same (reasons), BA is also straight-on to AH. And since angle DBC
is equal to FBA, for (they are) both right-angles, let ABC have been added to both. Thus, the
whole (angle) DBA is equal to the whole (angle) FBC. And since DB is equal to BC, and FB to
BA, the two (straight-lines) DB, BA are equal to the two (straight-lines) CB, BF,
19
respectively.
And angle DBA (is) equal to angle FBC. Thus, the base AD [is] equal to the base FC, and the
triangle ABD is equal to the triangle FBC [Prop. 1.4]. And parallelogram BL [is] double (the
19
The Greek text has “FB, BC”, which is obviously a mistake.
l0¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
pζ΄
γvρ πάλιν τ¿ν αuτ¿ν cχουσι τ¿ν ΖΒ κα| cν ταiς αuταiς εiσι παραλλήλοις ταiς ΖΒ, ΗΓ. ¸τv δc
τeν :σων διπλάσια :σα vλλήλοις cστίν·] :σον vρα cστ| κα| τo ΒΛ παραλληλόγραppον τ; ΗΒ
τετραγών;. opοίως δ¿ cπιζευγνυpένων τeν ΑΕ, ΒΚ δειχθήσεται κα| τo ΓΛ παραλληλόγραppον
:σον τ; ΘΓ τετραγών;· oλον vρα τo Β∆ΕΓ τετράγωνον δυσ| τοiς ΗΒ, ΘΓ τετραγώνοις :σον
cστίν. καί cστι τo pcν Β∆ΕΓ τετράγωνον vπo τ¿ς ΒΓ vναγραφέν, τv δc ΗΒ, ΘΓ vπo τeν
ΒΑ, ΑΓ. τo vρα vπo τ¿ς ΒΓ πλευρiς τετράγωνον :σον cστ| τοiς vπo τeν ΒΑ, ΑΓ πλευρeν
τετραγώνοις.
Εν vρα τοiς oρθογωνίοις τριγώνοις τo vπo τ¿ς τ¿ν oρθ¿ν γωνίαν uποτεινούσης πλευρiς
τετράγωνον :σον cστ| τοiς vπo τeν τ¿ν oρθ¿ν ¸γωνίαν] περιεχουσeν πλευρeν τετραγώνοις· oπερ
cδει δεiξαι.
l06
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 47
area) of triangle ABD. For they have the same base, BD, and are between the same parallels,
BD and AL [Prop. 1.41]. And parallelogram GB is double (the area) of triangle FBC. For again
they have the same base, FB, and are between the same parallels, FB and GC [Prop. 1.41].
[And the doubles of equal things are equal to one another.]
20
Thus, the parallelogram BL is also
equal to the square GB. So, similarly, AE and BK being joined, the parallelogram CL can be
shown (to be) equal to the square HC. Thus, the whole square BDEC is equal to the two squares
GB and HC. And the square BDEC is described on BC, and the (squares) GB and HC on BA
and AC (respectively). Thus, the square on the side BC is equal to the (sum of the) squares on
the sides BA and AC.
Thus, in a right-angled triangle, the square on the side subtending the right-angle is equal to the
(sum of the) squares on the sides surrounding the right-[angle]. (Which is) the very thing it was
required to show.
20
This is an additional common notion.
l0¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ α΄
pη΄
Α Β
Γ

Εvν τριγώνου τo vπo pιiς τeν πλευρeν τετράγωνον :σον ¸ τοiς vπo τeν λοιπeν τοu τριγώνου
δύο πλευρeν τετραγώνοις, ¿ περιεχοpένη γωνία uπo τeν λοιπeν τοu τριγώνου δύο πλευρeν
oρθή cστιν.
Τριγώνου γvρ τοu ΑΒΓ τo vπo pιiς τ¿ς ΒΓ πλευρiς τετράγωνον :σον cστω τοiς vπo τeν ΒΑ,
ΑΓ πλευρeν τετραγώνοις· λέγω, oτι oρθή cστιν ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ γωνία.
´Ηχθω γvρ vπo τοu Α σηpείου τ¸ ΑΓ εuθεί; πρoς oρθvς ¿ Α∆ κα| κείσθω τ¸ ΒΑ :ση ¿ Α∆,
κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ∆Γ. cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ∆Α τ¸ ΑΒ, :σον cστ| κα| τo vπo τ¿ς ∆Α τετράγωνον τ;
vπo τ¿ς ΑΒ τετραγών;. κοινoν προσκείσθω τo vπo τ¿ς ΑΓ τετράγωνον· τv vρα vπo τeν ∆Α,
ΑΓ τετράγωνα :σα cστ| τοiς vπo τeν ΒΑ, ΑΓ τετραγώνοις. vλλv τοiς pcν vπo τeν ∆Α, ΑΓ
:σον cστ| τo vπo τ¿ς ∆Γ· oρθ¿ γάρ cστιν ¿ uπo ∆ΑΓ γωνία· τοiς δc vπo τeν ΒΑ, ΑΓ :σον
cστ| τo vπo τ¿ς ΒΓ· uπόκειται γάρ· τo vρα vπo τ¿ς ∆Γ τετράγωνον :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς ΒΓ
τετραγών;· eστε κα| πλευρv ¿ ∆Γ τ¸ ΒΓ cστιν :ση· κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ∆Α τ¸ ΑΒ, κοιν¿ δc ¿
ΑΓ, δύο δ¿ α| ∆Α, ΑΓ δύο ταiς ΒΑ, ΑΓ :σαι εiσίν· κα| βάσις ¿ ∆Γ βάσει τ¸ ΒΓ :ση· γωνία vρα
¿ uπo ∆ΑΓ γωνί; τ¸ uπo ΒΑΓ ¸cστιν] :ση. oρθ¿ δc ¿ uπo ∆ΑΓ· oρθ¿ vρα κα| ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ.
Εvν vρv τριγώνου τo vπo pιiς τeν πλευρeν τετράγωνον :σον ¸ τοiς vπo τeν λοιπeν τοu
τριγώνου δύο πλευρeν τετραγώνοις, ¿ περιεχοpένη γωνία uπo τeν λοιπeν τοu τριγώνου δύο
πλευρeν oρθή cστιν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
l08
ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Proposition 48
A B D
C
If the square on one of the sides of a triangle is equal to the (sum of the) squares on the remaining
sides of the triangle then the angle contained by the remaining sides of the triangle is a right-
angle.
For let the square on one of the sides, BC, of triangle ABC be equal to the (sum of the) squares
on the sides BA and AC. I say that angle BAC is a right-angle.
For let AD have been drawn from point A at right-angles to the straight-line AC [Prop. 1.11],
and let AD have been made equal to BA [Prop. 1.3], and let DC have been joined. Since DA is
equal to AB, the square on DA is thus also equal to the square on AB.
21
Let the square on AC
have been added to both. Thus, the squares on DA and AC are equal to the squares on BA and
AC. But, the (squares) on DA and AC are equal to the (square) on DC. For angle DAC is a
right-angle [Prop. 1.47]. But, the (squares) on BA and AC are equal to the (square) on BC. For
(that) was assumed. Thus, the square on DC is equal to the square on BC. So DC is also equal
to BC. And since DA is equal to AB, and AC (is) common, the two (straight-lines) DA, AC
are equal to the two (straight-lines) BA, AC. And the base DC is equal to the base BC. Thus,
angle DAC [is] equal to angle BAC [Prop. 1.8]. But DAC is a right-angle. Thus, BAC is also a
right-angle.
Thus, if the square on one of the sides of a triangle is equal to the (sum of the) squares on the
remaining sides of the triangle then the angle contained by the remaining sides of the triangle is
a right-angle. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
21
Here, use is made of the additional common notion that the squares of equal things are themselves equal. Later
on, the inverse notion is used.
l09
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ β΄
ELEMENTS BOOK 2
Fundamentals of geometric algebra
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ β΄
´Οροι
α΄ Πiν παραλληλόγραppον oρθογώνιον περιέχεσθαι λέγεται uπo δύο τeν τ¿ν oρθ¿ν γωνίαν
περιεχουσeν εuθειeν.
β΄ Παντoς δc παραλληλογράppου χωρίου τeν περ| τ¿ν διάpετρον αuτοu παραλληλογράppων
cν oποιονοuν σùν τοiς δυσ| παραπληρώpασι γνώpων καλείσθω.
ll2
ELEMENTS BOOK 2
Definitions
1 Any right-angled parallelogram is said to be contained by the two straight-lines containing
a(ny) right-angle.
2 And for any parallelogrammic figure, let any one whatsoever of the parallelograms about
its diagonal, (taken) with its two complements, be called a gnomon.
ll`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ β΄
α΄
Θ
Ε
Λ
Α
Η
Ζ
Β ∆
Κ
Γ
Εvν eσι δύο εuθεiαι, τpηθ¸ δc ¿ cτέρα αuτeν εiς oσαδηποτοuν τpήpατα, τo περιεχόpενον
oρθογώνιον uπo τeν δύο εuθειeν :σον cστ| τοiς uπό τε τ¿ς vτpήτου κα| cκάστου τeν τpηpάτων
περιεχοpένοις oρθογωνίοις.
´Εστωσαν δύο εuθεiαι α| Α, ΒΓ, κα| τετpήσθω ¿ ΒΓ, eς cτυχεν, κατv τv ∆, Ε σηpεiα· λέγω,
oτι τo uπo τeν Α, ΒΓ περιεχοpένον oρθογώνιον :σον cστ| τ; τε uπo τeν Α, Β∆ περιεχοpέν;
oρθογωνί; κα| τ; uπo τeν Α, ∆Ε κα| cτι τ; uπo τeν Α, ΕΓ.
´Ηχθω γvρ vπo τοu Β τ¸ ΒΓ πρoς oρθvς ¿ ΒΖ, κα| κείσθω τ¸ Α :ση ¿ ΒΗ, κα| διv pcν τοu
Η τ¸ ΒΓ παράλληλος ¿χθω ¿ ΗΘ, διv δc τeν ∆, Ε, Γ τ¸ ΒΗ παράλληλοι ¿χθωσαν α| ∆Κ,
ΕΛ, ΓΘ.
´Ισον δή cστι τo ΒΘ τοiς ΒΚ, ∆Λ, ΕΘ. καί cστι τo pcν ΒΘ τo uπo τeν Α, ΒΓ· περιέχεται pcν
γvρ uπo τeν ΗΒ, ΒΓ, :ση δc ¿ ΒΗ τ¸ Α· τo δc ΒΚ τo uπo τeν Α, Β∆· περιέχεται pcν γvρ
uπo τeν ΗΒ, Β∆, :ση δc ¿ ΒΗ τ¸ Α. τo δc ∆Λ τo uπo τeν Α, ∆Ε· :ση γvρ ¿ ∆Κ, τουτέστιν
¿ ΒΗ, τ¸ Α. κα| cτι opοίως τo ΕΘ τo uπo τeν Α, ΕΓ· τo vρα uπo τeν Α, ΒΓ :σον cστ| τ; τε
uπo Α, Β∆ κα| τ; uπo Α, ∆Ε κα| cτι τ; uπo Α, ΕΓ.
Εvν vρα eσι δύο εuθεiαι, τpηθ¸ δc ¿ cτέρα αuτeν εiς oσαδηποτοuν τpήpατα, τo περιεχόpενον
oρθογώνιον uπo τeν δύο εuθειeν :σον cστ| τοiς uπό τε τ¿ς vτpήτου κα| cκάστου τeν τpηpάτων
περιεχοpένοις oρθογωνίοις· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
ll4
ELEMENTS BOOK 2
Proposition 1
22
H
A
B D E C
G
F
K L
If there are two straight-lines, and one of them is cut into any number of pieces whatsoever, then
the rectangle contained by the two straight-lines is equal to the (sum of the) rectangles contained
by the uncut (straight-line), and every one of the pieces (of the cut straight-line).
Let A and BC be the two straight-lines, and let BC be cut, at random, at points D and E. I say
that the rectangle contained by A and BC is equal to the rectangle(s) contained by A and BD,
by A and DE, and, finally, by A and EC.
For let BF have been drawn from point B, at right-angles to BC [Prop. 1.11], and let BG be
made equal to A [Prop. 1.3], and let GH have been drawn through (point) G, parallel to BC
[Prop. 1.31], and let DK, EL, and CH have been drawn through (points) D, E, and C (respec-
tively), parallel to BG [Prop. 1.31].
So the (rectangle) BH is equal to the (rectangles) BK, DL, and EH. And BH is the (rectangle
contained) by A and BC. For it is contained by GB and BC, and BG (is) equal to A. And BK (is)
the (rectangle contained) by A and BD. For it is contained by GB and BD, and BG (is) equal to
A. And DL (is) the (rectangle contained) by A and DE. For DK, that is to say BG [Prop. 1.34],
(is) equal to A. Similarly, EH (is) the (rectangle contained) by A and EC. Thus, the (rectangle
contained) by A and BC is equal to the (rectangles contained) by A and BD, by A and DE, and,
finally, by A and EC.
Thus, if there are two straight-lines, and one of them is cut into any number of pieces whatsoever,
then the rectangle contained by the two straight-lines is equal to the (sum of the) rectangles con-
tained by the uncut (straight-line), and every one of the pieces (of the cut straight-line). (Which
is) the very thing it was required to show.
22
This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: a (b +c +d +· · ·) = a b +a c +a d +· · ·.
ll¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ β΄
β΄
Γ Α

Β
Ε Ζ
Εvν εuθεiα γραpp¿ τpηθ¸, eς cτυχεν, τo uπo τ¿ς oλης κα| cκατέρου τeν τpηpάτων πε-
ριεχόpενον oρθογώνιον :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς oλης τετραγών;.
Εuθεiα γvρ ¿ ΑΒ τετpήσθω, eς cτυχεν, κατv τo Γ σηpεiον· λέγω, oτι τo uπo τeν ΑΒ, ΒΓ
περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον pετv τοu uπo ΒΑ, ΑΓ περιεχοpένου oρθογωνίου :σον cστ| τ; vπo
τ¿ς ΑΒ τετραγών;.
Αναγεγράφθω γvρ vπo τ¿ς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τo Α∆ΕΒ, κα| ¿χθω δ|α τοu Γ oποτέρ; τeν Α∆,
ΒΕ παράλληλος ¿ ΓΖ.
´Ισον δή cστ| τo ΑΕ τοiς ΑΖ, ΓΕ. καί cστι τo pcν ΑΕ τo vπo τ¿ς ΑΒ τετράγωνον, τo δc ΑΖ
τo uπo τeν ΒΑ, ΑΓ περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον· περιέχεται pcν γvρ uπo τeν ∆Α, ΑΓ, :ση δc ¿
Α∆ τ¸ ΑΒ· τo δc ΓΕ τo uπo τeν ΑΒ, ΒΓ· :ση γvρ ¿ ΒΕ τ¸ ΑΒ. τo vρα uπo τeν ΒΑ, ΑΓ pετv
τοu uπo τeν ΑΒ, ΒΓ :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς ΑΒ τετραγών;.
Εvν vρα εuθεiα γραpp¿ τpηθ¸, eς cτυχεν, τo uπo τ¿ς oλης κα| cκατέρου τeν τpηpάτων
περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς oλης τετραγών;· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
ll6
ELEMENTS BOOK 2
Proposition 2
23
B A C
D F E
If a straight-line is cut at random, then the (sum of the) rectangle(s) contained by the whole
(straight-line), and each of the pieces (of the straight-line), is equal to the square on the whole.
For let the straight-line AB have been cut, at random, at point C. I say that the rectangle con-
tained by AB and BC, plus the rectangle contained by BA and AC, is equal to the square on AB.
For let the square ADEB have been described on AB [Prop. 1.46], and let CF have been drawn
through C, parallel to either of AD or BE [Prop. 1.31].
So the (square) AE is equal to the (rectangles) AF and CE. And AE is the square on AB. And
AF (is) the rectangle contained by the (straight-lines) BA and AC. For it is contained by DA and
AC, and AD (is) equal to AB. And CE (is) the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC. For BE
(is) equal to AB. Thus, the (rectangle contained) by BA and AC, plus the (rectangle contained)
by AB and BC, is equal to the square on AB.
Thus, if a straight-line is cut at random, then the (sum of the) rectangle(s) contained by the whole
(straight-line), and each of the pieces (of the straight-line), is equal to the square on the whole.
(Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
23
This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: a b +a c = a
2
if a = b +c.
ll¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ β΄
γ΄
Ε Ζ
Α Γ

Β
Εvν εuθεiα γραpp¿ τpηθ¸, eς cτυχεν, τo uπo τ¿ς oλης κα| cνoς τeν τpηpάτων περιεχόpενον
oρθογώνιον :σον cστ| τ; τε uπo τeν τpηpάτων περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί; κα| τ; vπo τοu προει-
ρηpένου τpήpατος τετραγών;.
Εuθεiα γvρ ¿ ΑΒ τετpήσθω, eς cτυχεν, κατv τo Γ· λέγω, oτι τo uπo τeν ΑΒ, ΒΓ περιεχόpενον
oρθογώνιον :σον cστ| τ; τε uπo τeν ΑΓ, ΓΒ περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί; pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς ΒΓ
τετραγώνου.
Αναγεγράφθω γvρ vπo τ¿ς ΓΒ τετράγωνον τo Γ∆ΕΒ, κα| διήχθω ¿ Ε∆ cπ| τo Ζ, κα| διv τοu
Α oποτέρ; τeν Γ∆, ΒΕ παράλληλος ¿χθω ¿ ΑΖ. :σον δή cστι τo ΑΕ τοiς Α∆, ΓΕ· καί cστι τo
pcν ΑΕ τo uπo τeν ΑΒ, ΒΓ περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον· περιέχεται pcν γvρ uπo τeν ΑΒ, ΒΕ,
:ση δc ¿ ΒΕ τ¸ ΒΓ· τo δc Α∆ τo uπo τeν ΑΓ, ΓΒ· :ση γvρ ¿ ∆Γ τ¸ ΓΒ· τo δc ∆Β τo vπo τ¿ς
ΓΒ τετράγωνον· τo vρα uπo τeν ΑΒ, ΒΓ περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον :σον cστ| τ; uπo τeν ΑΓ,
ΓΒ περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί; pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς ΒΓ τετραγώνου.
Εvν vρα εuθεiα γραpp¿ τpηθ¸, eς cτυχεν, τo uπo τ¿ς oλης κα| cνoς τeν τpηpάτων πε-
ριεχόpενον oρθογώνιον :σον cστ| τ; τε uπo τeν τpηpάτων περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί; κα| τ; vπo
τοu προειρηpένου τpήpατος τετραγών;· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
ll8
ELEMENTS BOOK 2
Proposition 3
24
B A C
F D E
If a straight-line is cut at random, then the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-line), and
one of the pieces (of the straight-line), is equal to the rectangle contained by (both of) the pieces,
and the square on the aforementioned piece.
For let the straight-line AB have been cut, at random, at (point) C. I say that the rectangle con-
tained by AB and BC is equal to the rectangle contained by AC and CB, plus the square on BC.
For let the square CDEB have been described on CB [Prop. 1.46], and let ED have been
drawn through to F, and let AF have been drawn through A, parallel to either of CD or BE
[Prop. 1.31]. So the (rectangle) AE is equal to the (rectangle) AD and the (square) CE. And
AE is the rectangle contained by AB and BC. For it is contained by AB and BE, and BE (is)
equal to BC. And AD (is) the (rectangle contained) by AC and CB. For DC (is) equal to CB.
And DB (is) the square on CB. Thus, the rectangle contained by AB and BC is equal to the
rectangle contained by AC and CB, plus the square on BC.
Thus, if a straight-line is cut at random, then the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-line),
and one of the pieces (of the straight-line), is equal to the rectangle contained by (both of) the
pieces, and the square on the aforementioned piece. (Which is) the very thing it was required to
show.
24
This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: (a +b) a = a b +a
2
.
ll9
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ β΄
δ΄
Θ
Α

Κ
Η
Γ
Ζ
Β
Ε
Εvν εuθεiα γραpp¿ τpηθ¸, eς cτυχεν, τo vπo τ¿ς oλης τετράγωνον :σον cστ| τοiς τε vπo τeν
τpηpάτων τετραγώνοις κα| τ; δ|ς uπo τeν τpηpάτων περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί;.
Εuθεiα γvρ γραpp¿ ¿ ΑΒ τετpήσθω, eς cτυχεν, κατv τo Γ. λέγω, oτι τo vπo τ¿ς ΑΒ
τετράγωνον :σον cστ| τοiς τε vπo τeν ΑΓ, ΓΒ τετραγώνοις κα| τ; δ|ς uπo τeν ΑΓ, ΓΒ
περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί;.
Αναγεγράφθω γvρ vπo τ¿ς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τo Α∆ΕΒ, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ Β∆, κα| διv pcν τοu Γ
oπορέρ; τeν Α∆, ΕΒ παράλληλος ¿χθω ¿ ΓΖ, διv δc τοu Η oποτέρ; τeν ΑΒ, ∆Ε παράλληλος
¿χθω ¿ ΘΚ. κα| cπε| παράλληλός cστιν ¿ ΓΖ τ¸ Α∆, κα| εiς αuτvς cpπέπτωκεν ¿ Β∆, ¿ cκτoς
γωνία ¿ uπo ΓΗΒ :ση cστ| τ¸ cντoς κα| vπεναντίον τ¸ uπo Α∆Β. vλλ ¿ uπo Α∆Β τ¸ uπo ΑΒ∆
cστιν :ση, cπε| κα| πλευρv ¿ ΒΑ τ¸ Α∆ cστιν :ση· κα| ¿ uπo ΓΗΒ vρα γωνιά τ¸ uπo ΗΒΓ
cστιν :ση· eστε κα| πλευρv ¿ ΒΓ πλευρ; τ¸ ΓΗ cστιν :ση· vλλ ¿ pcν ΓΒ τ¸ ΗΚ cστιν :ση. ¿
δc ΓΗ τ¸ ΚΒ· κα| ¿ ΗΚ vρα τ¸ ΚΒ cστιν :ση· iσόπλευρον vρα cστ| τo ΓΗΚΒ. λέγω δή, oτι
κα| oρθογώνιον. cπε| γvρ παράλληλός cστιν ¿ ΓΗ τ¸ ΒΚ ¸κα| εiς αuτvς cpπέπτωκεν εuθεiα ¿
ΓΒ], α| vρα uπo ΚΒΓ, ΗΓΒ γωνίαι δύο oρθαiς εiσιν :σαι. oρθ¿ δc ¿ uπo ΚΒΓ· oρθ¿ vρα κα|
¿ uπo ΒΓΗ· eστε κα| α| vπεναντίον α| uπo ΓΗΚ, ΗΚΒ oρθαί εiσιν. oρθογώνιον vρα cστ| τo
ΓΗΚΒ· cδείχθη δc κα| iσόπλευρον· τετράγωνον vρα cστίν· καί cστιν vπo τ¿ς ΓΒ. διv τv αuτv
δ¿ κα| τo ΘΖ τετράγωνόν cστιν· καί cστιν vπo τ¿ς ΘΗ, τουτέστιν ¸vπo] τ¿ς ΑΓ· τv vρα ΘΖ,
ΚΓ τετράγωνα vπo τeν ΑΓ, ΓΒ εiσιν. κα| cπε| :σον cστ| τo ΑΗ τ; ΗΕ, καί cστι τo ΑΗ τo
uπo τeν ΑΓ, ΓΒ· :ση γvρ ¿ ΗΓ τ¸ ΓΒ· κα| τo ΗΕ vρα :σον cστ| τ; uπo ΑΓ, ΓΒ· τv vρα ΑΗ,
ΗΕ :σα cστ| τ; δ|ς uπo τeν ΑΓ, ΓΒ. cστι δc κα| τv ΘΖ, ΓΚ τετράγωνα vπo τeν ΑΓ, ΓΒ· τv
vρα τέσσαρα τv ΘΖ, ΓΚ, ΑΗ, ΗΕ :σα cστ| τοiς τε vπo τeν ΑΓ, ΓΒ τετραγώνοις κα| τ; δ|ς
uπo τeν ΑΓ, ΓΒ περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί;. vλλv τv ΘΖ, ΓΚ, ΑΗ, ΗΕ oλον cστ| τo Α∆ΕΒ, o
cστιν vπo τ¿ς ΑΒ τετράγωνον· τo vρα vπo τ¿ς ΑΒ τετράγωνον :σον cστ| τοiς τε vπo τeν ΑΓ,
ΓΒ τετραγώνοις κα| τ; δ|ς uπo τeν ΑΓ, ΓΒ περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί;.
l20
ELEMENTS BOOK 2
Proposition 4
25
H
A C B
G
K
D F E
If a straight-line is cut at random, then the square on the whole (straight-line) is equal to the
(sum of the) squares on the pieces (of the straight-line), and twice the rectangle contained by the
pieces.
For let the straight-line AB have been cut, at random, at (point) C. I say that the square on AB is
equal to the (sum of the) squares on AC and CB, and twice the rectangle contained by AC and
CB.
For let the square ADEB have been described on AB [Prop. 1.46], and let BD have been joined,
and let CF have been drawn through C, parallel to either of AD or EB [Prop. 1.31], and let
HK have been drawn through G, parallel to either of AB or DE [Prop. 1.31]. And since CF is
parallel to AD, and BD has fallen across them, the external angle CGB is equal to the internal
and opposite (angle) ADB [Prop. 1.29]. But, ADB is equal to ABD, since the side BA is also
equal to AD [Prop. 1.5]. Thus, angle CGB is also equal to GBC. So the side BC is equal to the
side CG [Prop. 1.6]. But, CB is equal to GK, and CG to KB [Prop. 1.34]. Thus, GK is also
equal to KB. Thus, CGKB is equilateral. So I say that (it is) also right-angled. For since CG is
parallel to BK [and the straight-line CB has fallen across them], the angles KBC and GCB are
thus equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.29]. But KBC (is) a right-angle. Thus, BCG (is) also a
right-angle. So the opposite (angles) CGK and GKB are also right-angles [Prop. 1.34]. Thus,
CGKB is right-angled. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. Thus, it is a square. And it
is on CB. So, for the same (reasons), HF is also a square. And it is on HG, that is to say [on]
AC [Prop. 1.34]. Thus, the squares HF and KC are on AC and CB (respectively). And the
(rectangle) AG is equal to the (rectangle) GE [Prop. 1.43]. And AG is the (rectangle contained)
by AC and CB. For CG (is) equal to CB. Thus, GE is also equal to the (rectangle contained)
by AC and CB. Thus, the (rectangles) AG and GE are equal to twice the (rectangle contained)
by AC and CB. And HF and CK are the squares on AC and CB (respectively). Thus, the four
(figures) HF, CK, AG, and GE are equal to the squares on AC and BC, and twice the rectangle
25
This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: (a +b)
2
= a
2
+b
2
+ 2 a b.
l2l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ β΄
δ΄
Εvν vρα εuθεiα γραpp¿ τpηθ¸, eς cτυχεν, τo vπo τ¿ς oλης τετράγωνον :σον cστ| τοiς τε vπo
τeν τpηpάτων τετραγώνοις κα| τ; δ|ς uπo τeν τpηpάτων περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί;· oπερ cδει
δεiξαι.
l22
ELEMENTS BOOK 2
Proposition 4
contained by AC and CB. But, the (figures) HF, CK, AG, and GE are (equivalent to) the whole
of ADEB, which is the square on AB. Thus, the square on AB is equal to the squares on AC and
CB, and twice the rectangle contained by AC and CB.
Thus, if a straight-line is cut at random, then the square on the whole (straight-line) is equal to
the (sum of the) squares on the pieces (of the straight-line), and twice the rectangle contained by
the pieces. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
l2`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ β΄
ε΄
Ν
Κ
Α Γ
Μ
Ε
Λ

Η Ζ
Β
Ξ
Μ
Θ
Εvν εuθεiα γραpp¿ τpηθ¸ εiς :σα κα| vνισα, τo uπo τeν vνίσων τ¿ς oλης τpηpάτων πε-
ριεχόpενον oρθογώνιον pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς pεταξù τeν τοpeν τετραγώνου :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς
¿pισείας τετραγών;.
Εuθεiα γάρ τις ¿ ΑΒ τετpήσθω εiς pcν :σα κατv τo Γ, εiς δc vνισα κατv τo ∆· λέγω, oτι τo
uπo τeν Α∆, ∆Β περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς Γ∆ τετραγώνου :σον cστ| τ; vπo
τ¿ς ΓΒ τετραγών;.
Αναγεγράφθω γvρ vπo τ¿ς ΓΒ τετράγωνον τo ΓΕΖΒ, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΒΕ, κα| διv pcν τοu ∆
oποτέρ; τeν ΓΕ, ΒΖ παράλληλος ¿χθω ¿ ∆Η, διv δc τοu Θ oποτέρ; τeν ΑΒ, ΕΖ παράλληλος
πάλιν ¿χθω ¿ ΚΜ, κα| πάλιν διv τοu Α oποτέρ; τeν ΓΛ, ΒΜ παράλληλος ¿χθω ¿ ΑΚ. κα|
cπε| :σον cστ| τo ΓΘ παραπλήρωpα τ; ΘΖ παραπληρώpατι, κοινoν προσκείσθω τo ∆Μ· oλον
vρα τo ΓΜ oλ; τ; ∆Ζ :σον cστίν. vλλv τo ΓΜ τ; ΑΛ :σον cστίν, cπε| κα| ¿ ΑΓ τ¸ ΓΒ cστιν
:ση· κα| τo ΑΛ vρα τ; ∆Ζ :σον cστίν. κοινoν προσκείσθω τo ΓΘ· oλον vρα τo ΑΘ τ; ΜΝΞ
26
γνώpονι :σον cστίν. vλλv τo ΑΘ τo uπo τeν Α∆, ∆Β cστιν· :ση γvρ ¿ ∆Θ τ¸ ∆Β· κα| o ΜΝΞ
vρα γνώpων :σος cστ| τ; uπo Α∆, ∆Β. κοινoν προσκείσθω τo ΛΗ, o cστιν :σον τ; vπo τ¿ς
Γ∆· o vρα ΜΝΞ γνώpων κα| τo ΛΗ :σα cστ| τ; uπo τeν Α∆, ∆Β περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί; κα|
τ; vπo τ¿ς Γ∆ τετραγών;. vλλv o ΜΝΞ γνώpων κα| τo ΛΗ oλον cστ| τo ΓΕΖΒ τετράγωνον,
o cστιν vπo τ¿ς ΓΒ· τo vρα uπo τeν Α∆, ∆Β περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς Γ∆
τετραγώνου :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς ΓΒ τετραγών;.
Εvν vρα εuθεiα γραpp¿ τpηθ¸ εiς :σα κα| vνισα, τo uπo τeν vνίσων τ¿ς oλης τpηpάτων
περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς pεταξù τeν τοpeν τετραγώνου :σον cστ| τ; vπo
τ¿ς ¿pισείας τετραγών;· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
26
Note the (presumably mistaken) double use of the label M in the Greek text.
l24
ELEMENTS BOOK 2
Proposition 5
27
F
M
A B C D
E G
K
N
P
L
H
O
If a straight-line is cut into equal and unequal (pieces), then the rectangle contained by the
unequal pieces of the whole (straight-line), plus the square on the difference between the (equal
and unequal) pieces, is equal to the square on half (of the straight-line).
For let any straight-line AB have been cut—equally at C, and unequally at D. I say that the
rectangle contained by AD and DB, plus the square on CD, is equal to the square on CB.
For let the square CEFB have been described on CB [Prop. 1.46], and let BE have been joined,
and let DG have been drawn through D, parallel to either of CE or BF [Prop. 1.31], and again
let KM have been drawn through H, parallel to either of AB or EF [Prop. 1.31], and again
let AK have been drawn through A, parallel to either of CL or BM [Prop. 1.31]. And since
the complement CH is equal to the complement HF [Prop. 1.43], let the (square) DM have
been added to both. Thus, the whole (rectangle) CM is equal to the whole (rectangle) DF.
But, (rectangle) CM is equal to (rectangle) AL, since AC is also equal to CB [Prop. 1.36].
Thus, (rectangle) AL is also equal to (rectangle) DF. Let (rectangle) CH have been added to
both. Thus, the whole (rectangle) AH is equal to the gnomon NOP. But, AH is the (rectangle
contained) by AD and DB. For DH (is) equal to DB. Thus, the gnomon NOP is also equal to
the (rectangle contained) by AD and DB. Let LG, which is equal to the (square) on CD, have
been added to both. Thus, the gnomon NOP and the (square) LG are equal to the rectangle
contained by AD and DB, and the square on CD. But, the gnomon NOP and the (square) LG is
(equivalent to) the whole square CEFB, which is on CB. Thus, the rectangle contained by AD
and DB, plus the square on CD, is equal to the square on CB.
Thus, if a straight-line is cut into equal and unequal (pieces), then the rectangle contained by the
unequal pieces of the whole (straight-line), plus the square on the difference between the (equal
and unequal) pieces, is equal to the square on half (of the straight-line). (Which is) the very thing
it was required to show.
27
This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: a b + [(a +b)/2 −b]
2
= [(a +b)/2]
2
.
l2¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ β΄
ç΄
Θ
Γ Β
Η
Μ
Α
Κ
Ε

Ζ
Λ
Ο
Ν
Ξ
Εvν εuθεiα γραpp¿ τpηθ¸ δίχα, προστεθ¸ δέ τις αuτ¸ εuθεiα cπ εuθείας, τo uπo τ¿ς oλης σùν
τ¸ προσκειpέν¸ κα| τ¿ς προσκειpένης περιεχόpενον oρθόγώνιον pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς ¿pισείας
τετραγώνου :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς συγκειpένης cκ τε τ¿ς ¿pισείας κα| τ¿ς προσκειpένης τε-
τραγών;.
Εuθεiα γάρ τις ¿ ΑΒ τετpήσθω δίχα κατv τo Γ σηpεiον, προσκείσθω δέ τις αuτ¸ εuθεiα cπ
εuθείας ¿ Β∆· λέγω, oτι τo uπo τeν Α∆, ∆Β περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς ΓΒ
τετραγώνου :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς Γ∆ τετραγών;.
Αναγεγράφθω γvρ vπo τ¿ς Γ∆ τετράγωνον τo ΓΕΖ∆, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ∆Ε, κα| διv pcν τοu
Β σηpείου oποτέρ; τeν ΕΓ, ∆Ζ παράλληλος ¿χθω ¿ ΒΗ, διv δc τοu Θ σηpείου oποτέρ; τeν
ΑΒ, ΕΖ παράλληλος ¿χθω ¿ ΚΜ, κα| cτι διv τοu Α oποτέρ; τeν ΓΛ, ∆Μ παράλληλος ¿χθω
¿ ΑΚ.
Επε| οuν :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΑΓ τ¸ ΓΒ, :σον cστ| κα| τo ΑΛ τ; ΓΘ. vλλv τo ΓΘ τ; ΘΖ :σον cστίν.
κα| τo ΑΛ vρα τ; ΘΖ cστιν :σον. κοινoν προσκείσθω τo ΓΜ· oλον vρα τo ΑΜ τ; ΝΞΟ
γνώpονί cστιν :σον. vλλv τo ΑΜ cστι τo uπo τeν Α∆, ∆Β· :ση γάρ cστιν ¿ ∆Μ τ¸ ∆Β· κα|
o ΝΞΟ vρα γνώpων :σος cστ| τ; uπo τeν Α∆, ∆Β ¸περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί;]. κοινoν προ-
σκείσθω τo ΛΗ, o cστιν :σον τ; vπo τ¿ς ΒΓ τετραγών;· τo vρα uπo τeν Α∆, ∆Β περιεχόpενον
oρθογώνιον pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς ΓΒ τετραγώνου :σον cστ| τ; ΝΞΟ γνώpονι κα| τ; ΛΗ. vλλv o
ΝΞΟ γνώpων κα| τo ΛΗ oλον cστ| τo ΓΕΖ∆ τετράγωνον, o cστιν vπo τ¿ς Γ∆· τo vρα uπo
τeν Α∆, ∆Β περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς ΓΒ τετραγώνου :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς
Γ∆ τετργών;.
Εvν vρα εuθεiα γραpp¿ τpηθ¸ δίχα, προστεθ¸ δέ τις αuτ¸ εuθεiα cπ εuθείας, τo uπo τ¿ς
oλης σùν τ¸ προσκειpέν¸ κα| τ¿ς προσκειpένης περιεχόpενον oρθόγώνιον pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς
¿pισείας τετραγώνου :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς συγκειpένης cκ τε τ¿ς ¿pισείας κα| τ¿ς προσκειpένης
τετραγών;· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
l26
ELEMENTS BOOK 2
Proposition 6
28
O
C B D
E G F
M
N
P
H
A
K L
If a straight-line is cut in half, and any straight-line added to it straight-on, then the rectan-
gle contained by the whole (straight-line) with the (straight-line) having being added, and the
(straight-line) having being added, plus the square on half (of the original straight-line), is equal
to the square on the sum of half (of the original straight-line) and the (straight-line) having been
added.
For let any straight-line AB have been cut in half at point C, and let any straight-line BD have
been added to it straight-on. I say that the rectangle contained by AD and DB, plus the square
on CB, is equal to the square on CD.
For let the square CEFD have been described on CD [Prop. 1.46], and let DE have been joined,
and let BG have been drawn through point B, parallel to either of EC or DF [Prop. 1.31], and
let KM have been drawn through point H, parallel to either of AB or EF [Prop. 1.31], and
finally let AK have been drawn through A, parallel to either of CL or DM [Prop. 1.31].
Therefore, since AC is equal to CB, (rectangle) AL is also equal to (rectangle) CH [Prop. 1.36].
But, (rectangle) CH is equal to (rectangle) HF [Prop. 1.43]. Thus, (rectangle) AL is also equal
to (rectangle) HF. Let (rectangle) CM have been added to both. Thus, the whole (rectangle)
AM is equal to the gnomon NOP. But, AM is the (rectangle contained) by AD and DB. For
DM is equal to DB. Thus, gnomon NOP is also equal to the [rectangle contained] by AD and
DB. Let LG, which is equal to the square on BC, have been added to both. Thus, the rectan-
gle contained by AD and DB, plus the square on CB, is equal to the gnomon NOP, and the
(square) LG. But the gnomon NOP and the (square) LG is (equivalent to) the whole square
CEFD, which is on CD. Thus, the rectangle contained by AD and DB, plus the square on CB,
is equal to the square on CD.
Thus, if a straight-line is cut in half, and any straight-line added to it straight-on, then the rect-
angle contained by the whole (straight-line) with the (straight-line) having being added, and the
(straight-line) having being added, plus the square on half (of the original straight-line), is equal
to the square on the sum of half (of the original straight-line) and the (straight-line) having been
added. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
28
This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: (2 a +b) b +a
2
= (a +b)
2
.
l2¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ β΄
ζ΄
Θ
Ν
Γ Α
Ζ
Η
Λ

Μ
Κ
Β
Ε
Εvν εuθεiα γραpp¿ τpηθ¸, eς cτυχεν, τo vπo τ¿ς oλης κα| τo vφ cνoς τeν τpηpάτων τv
συναpφότερα τετράγωνα :σα cστ| τ; τε δ|ς uπo τ¿ς oλης κα| τοu εiρηpένου τpήpατος περιε-
χοpέν; oρθογωνί; κα| τ; vπo τοu λοιποu τpήpατος τετραγών;.
Εuθεiα γάρ τις ¿ ΑΒ τετpήσθω, eς cτυχεν, κατv τo Γ σηpεiον· λέγω, oτι τv vπo τeν ΑΒ, ΒΓ
τετράγωνα :σα cστ| τ; τε δ|ς uπo τeν ΑΒ, ΒΓ περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί; κα| τ; vπo τ¿ς ΓΑ
τετραγών;.
Αναγεγράφθω γvρ vπo τ¿ς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τo Α∆ΕΒ· κα| καταγεγράφθω τo σχ¿pα.
Επε| οuν :σον cστ| τo ΑΗ τ; ΗΕ, κοινoν προσκείσθω τo ΓΖ· oλον vρα τo ΑΖ oλ; τ; ΓΕ
:σον cστίν· τv vρα ΑΖ, ΓΕ διπλάσιά cστι τοu ΑΖ. vλλv τv ΑΖ, ΓΕ o ΚΛΜ cστι γνώpων κα|
τo ΓΖ τετράγωνον· o ΚΛΜ vρα γνώpων κα| τo ΓΖ διπλάσιά cστι τοu ΑΖ. cστι δc τοu ΑΖ
διπλάσιον κα| τo δ|ς uπo τeν ΑΒ, ΒΓ· :ση γvρ ¿ ΒΖ τ¸ ΒΓ· o vρα ΚΛΜ γνώpων κα| τo ΓΖ
τετράγωνον :σον cστ| τ; δ|ς uπo τeν ΑΒ, ΒΓ. κοινoν προσκείσθω τo ∆Η, o cστιν vπo τ¿ς ΑΓ
τετράγωνον· o vρα ΚΛΜ γνώpων κα| τv ΒΗ, Η∆ τετράγωνα :σα cστ| τ; τε δ|ς uπo τeν ΑΒ,
ΒΓ περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί; κα| τ; vπo τ¿ς ΑΓ τετραγών;. vλλv o ΚΛΜ γνώpων κα| τv ΒΗ,
Η∆ τετράγωνα oλον cστ| τo Α∆ΕΒ κα| τo ΓΖ, v cστιν vπo τeν ΑΒ, ΒΓ τετράγωνα· τv vρα
vπo τeν ΑΒ, ΒΓ τετράγωνα :σα cστ| τ; ¸τε] δ|ς uπo τeν ΑΒ, ΒΓ περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί; pετv
τοu vπo τ¿ς ΑΓ τετραγώνου.
Εvν vρα εuθεiα γραpp¿ τpηθ¸, eς cτυχεν, τo vπo τ¿ς oλης κα| τo vφ cνoς τeν τpηpάτων
τv συναpφότερα τετράγωνα :σα cστ| τ; τε δ|ς uπo τ¿ς oλης κα| τοu εiρηpένου τpήpατος
περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί; κα| τ; vπo τοu λοιποu τpήpατος τετραγών;· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
l28
ELEMENTS BOOK 2
Proposition 7
29
M
A C B
H
D N E
F
G
K
L
If a straight-line is cut at random, then the sum of the squares on the whole (straight-line), and
one of the pieces (of the straight-line), is equal to twice the rectangle contained by the whole,
and the said piece, and the square on the remaining piece.
For let any straight-line AB have been cut, at random, at point C. I say that the (sum of the)
squares on AB and BC is equal to twice the rectangle contained by AB and BC, and the square
on CA.
For let the square ADEB have been described on AB [Prop. 1.46], and let the (rest of) the figure
have been drawn.
Therefore, since (rectangle) AG is equal to (rectangle) GE [Prop. 1.43], let the (square) CF
have been added to both. Thus, the whole (rectangle) AF is equal to the whole (rectangle)
CE. Thus, (rectangle) AF plus (rectangle) CE is double (rectangle) AF. But, (rectangle) AF
plus (rectangle) CE is the gnomon KLM, and the square CF. Thus, the gnomon KLM, and
the square CF, is double the (rectangle) AF. But double the (rectangle) AF is also twice the
(rectangle contained) by AB and BC. For BF (is) equal to BC. Thus, the gnomon KLM, and
the square CF, are equal to twice the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC. Let DG, which is
the square on AC, have been added to both. Thus, the gnomon KLM, and the squares BG and
GD, are equal to twice the rectangle contained by AB and BC, and the square on AC. But,
the gnomon KLM and the squares BG and GD is (equivalent to) the whole of ADEB and CF,
which are the squares on AB and BC (respectively). Thus, the (sum of the) squares on AB and
BC is equal to twice the rectangle contained by AB and BC, and the square on AC.
Thus, if a straight-line is cut at random, then the sum of the squares on the whole (straight-
line), and one of the pieces (of the straight-line), is equal to twice the rectangle contained by the
whole, and the said piece, and the square on the remaining piece. (Which is) the very thing it
was required to show.
29
This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: (a +b)
2
+a
2
= 2 (a +b) a +b
2
.
l29
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ β΄
η΄
Υ
Α Γ Β
Ο
Ν
Η
Κ
Π Ρ
Τ
Ε Θ Λ
Μ
Ξ
Σ

Ζ
Εvν εuθεiα γραpp¿ τpηθ¸, eς cτυχεν, τo τετράκις uπo τ¿ς oλης κα| cνoς τeν τpηpάτων πε-
ριεχόpενον oρθογώνιον pετv τοu vπo τοu λοιποu τpήpατος τετραγώνου :σον cστ| τ; vπό τε
τ¿ς oλης κα| τοu εiρηpένου τpήpατος eς vπo pιiς vναγραφέντι τετραγών;.
Εuθεiα γάρ τις ¿ ΑΒ τετpήσθω, eς cτυχεν, κατv τo Γ σηpεiον· λέγω, oτι τo τετράκις uπo τeν
ΑΒ, ΒΓ περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς ΑΓ τετραγώνου :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς ΑΒ,
ΒΓ eς vπo pιiς vναγραφέντι τετραγών;.
Εκβεβλήσθω γvρ cπ εuθείας ¸τ¸ ΑΒ εuθεiα] ¿ Β∆, κα| κείσθω τ¸ ΓΒ :ση ¿ Β∆, κα| vνα-
γεγράφθω vπo τ¿ς Α∆ τετράγωνον τo ΑΕΖ∆, κα| καταγεγράφθω διπλοuν τo σχ¿pα.
Επε| οuν :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΓΒ τ¸ Β∆, vλλv ¿ pcν ΓΒ τ¸ ΗΚ cστιν :ση, ¿ δc Β∆ τ¸ ΚΝ, κα| ¿ ΗΚ
vρα τ¸ ΚΝ cστιν :ση. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| ¿ ΠΡ τ¸ ΡΟ cστιν :ση. κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΒΓ τ¸
Β∆, ¿ δc ΗΚ τ¸ ΚΝ, :σον vρα cστ| κα| τo pcν ΓΚ τ; Κ∆, τo δc ΗΡ τ; ΡΝ. vλλv τo ΓΚ τ;
ΡΝ cστιν :σον· παραπληρώpατα γvρ τοu ΓΟ παραλληλογράppου· κα| τo Κ∆ vρα τ; ΗΡ :σον
cστίν· τv τέσσαρα vρα τv ∆Κ, ΓΚ, ΗΡ, ΡΝ :σα vλλήλοις cστίν. τv τέσσαρα vρα τετραπλάσιά
cστι τοu ΓΚ. πάλιν cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΓΒ τ¸ Β∆, vλλv ¿ pcν Β∆ τ¸ ΒΚ, τουτέστι τ¸ ΓΗ :ση, ¿
δc ΓΒ τ¸ ΗΚ, τουτέστι τ¸ ΗΠ, cστιν :ση, κα| ¿ ΓΗ vρα τ¸ ΗΠ :ση cστίν. κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿
pcν ΓΗ τ¸ ΗΠ, ¿ δc ΠΡ τ¸ ΡΟ, :σον cστ| κα| τo pcν ΑΗ τ; ΜΠ, τo δc ΠΛ τ; ΡΖ. vλλv τo
ΜΠ τ; ΠΛ cστιν :σον· παραπληρώpατα γvρ τοu ΜΛ παραλληλογράppου· κα| τo ΑΗ vρα τ;
ΡΖ :σον cστίν· τv τέσσαρα vρα τv ΑΗ, ΜΠ, ΠΛ, ΡΖ :σα vλλήλοις cστίν· τv τέσσαρα vρα τοu
ΑΗ cστι τετραπλάσια. cδείχθη δc κα| τv τέσσαρα τv ΓΚ, Κ∆, ΗΡ, ΡΝ τοu ΓΚ τετραπλάσια·
τv vρα oκτώ, i περιέχει τoν ΣΤΥ γνώpονα, τετραπλάσιά cστι τοu ΑΚ. κα| cπε| τo ΑΚ τo uπo
τeν ΑΒ, Β∆ cστιν· :ση γvρ ¿ ΒΚ τ¸ Β∆· τo vρα τετράκις uπo τeν ΑΒ, Β∆ τετραπλάσιόν cστι
τοu ΑΚ. cδείχθη δc τοu ΑΚ τετραπλάσιος κα| o ΣΤΥ γνώpων· τo vρα Β∆ τετράκις uπo τeν
l`0
ELEMENTS BOOK 2
Proposition 8
30
U
A C B D
N
P
Q
G
K
R
T
E H L F
S
M
O
If a straight-line is cut at random, then four times the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-
line), and one of the pieces (of the straight-line), plus the square on the remaining piece, is equal
to the square described on the whole and the former piece, as on one (complete straight-line).
For let any straight-line AB have been cut, at random, at point C. I say that four times the rect-
angle contained by AB and BC, plus the square on AC, is equal to the square described on AB
and BC, as on one (complete straight-line).
For let BD have been produced in a straight-line [with the straight-line AB], and let BD be made
equal to BC [Prop. 1.3], and let the square AEFD have been described on AD [Prop. 1.46], and
let the (rest of the) figure have been drawn double.
Therefore, since CB is equal to BD, but CB is equal to GK [Prop. 1.34], and BD to KN
[Prop. 1.34], GK is thus also equal to KN. So, for the same (reasons), QR is equal to RP.
And since BC is equal to BD, and GK to KN, (square) CK is thus also equal to (square) KD,
and (square) GR to (square) RN [Prop. 1.36]. But, (square) CK is equal to (square) RN. For
(they are) complements in the parallelogram CP [Prop. 1.43]. Thus, (square) KD is also equal
to (square) GR. Thus, the four (squares) DK, CK, GR, and RN are equal to one another. Thus,
the four (taken together) are quadruple (square) CK. Again, since CB is equal to BD, but BD
(is) equal to BK—that is to say, CG—and CB is equal to GK—that is to say, GQ—CG is thus
also equal to GQ. And since CG is equal to GQ, and QR to RP, (rectangle) AG is also equal
to (rectangle) MQ, and (rectangle) QL to (rectangle) RF [Prop. 1.36]. But, (rectangle) MQ is
equal to (rectangle) QL. For (they are) complements in the parallelogramML [Prop. 1.43].Thus,
30
This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: 4 (a +b) a +b
2
= [(a +b) +a]
2
.
l`l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ β΄
η΄
ΑΒ, Β∆ :σον cστ| τ; ΣΤΥ γνώpονι. κοινoν προσκείσθω τo ΞΘ, o cστιν :σον τ; vπo τ¿ς
ΑΓ τετραγών;· τo vρα τετράκις uπo τeν ΑΒ, περιεχόpενων oρθογώνιον pετv τοu vπo ΑΓ
τετραγώνου :σον cστ| τ; ΣΤΥ γνώpονι κα| τ; ΞΘ. vλλv o ΣΤΥ γνώpων κα| τo ΞΘ oλον cστ|
τo ΑΕΖ∆ τετραγώνον, o cστιν vπo τ¿ς Α∆· τo vρα τετράκις uπo τeν ΑΒ, Β∆ pετv τοu vπo
ΑΓ :σον cστ| τ; vπo Α∆ τετραγών;· :ση δc ¿ Β∆ τ¸ ΒΓ. τo vρα τετράκις uπo τeν ΑΒ, ΒΓ
περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον pετv τοu vπo ΑΓ τετραγώνου :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς Α∆, τουτέστι τ;
vπo τ¿ς ΑΒ κα| ΒΓ eς vπo pιiς vναγραφέντι τετραγών;.
Εvν vρα εuθεiα γραpp¿ τpηθ¸, eς cτυχεν, τo τετράκις uπo τ¿ς oλης κα| cνoς τeν τpηpάτων
περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον pετv τοu vπo τοu λοιποu τpήpατος τετραγώνου :σου cστ| τ; vπό τε
τ¿ς oλης κα| τοu εiρηpένου τpήpατος eς vπo pιiς vναγραφέντι τετραγών;· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
l`2
ELEMENTS BOOK 2
Proposition 8
(rectangle) AG is also equal to (rectangle) RF. Thus, the four (rectangles) AG, MQ, QL, and
RF are equal to one another. Thus, the four (taken together) are quadruple (rectangle) AG. And
it was also shown that the four (squares) DK, CK, GR, and RN (taken together are) quadruple
(square) CK. Thus, the eight (figures taken together), which comprise the gnomon STU, are
quadruple (rectangle) AK. And since AK is the (rectangle contained) by AB and BD, for BK
(is) equal to BD, four times the (rectangle contained) by AB and BD is quadruple (rectangle)
AK. But quadruple (rectangle) AK was also shown (to be equal to) the gnomon STU. Thus,
four times the (rectangle contained) by AB and BD is equal to the gnomon STU. Let OH, which
is equal to the square on AC, have been added to both. Thus, four times the rectangle contained
by AB and BD, plus the square on AC, is equal to the gnomon STU, and the (square) OH.
But, the gnomon STU and the (square) OH is (equivalent to) the whole square AEFD, which is
on AD. Thus, four times the (rectangle contained) by AB and BD, plus the (square) on AC, is
equal to the square on AD. And BD (is) equal to BC. Thus, four times the rectangle contained
by AB and BD, plus the square on AC, is equal to the (square) on AD, that is to say the square
described on AB and BC, as on one (complete straight-line).
Thus, if a straight-line is cut at random, then four times the rectangle contained by the whole
(straight-line), and one of the pieces (of the straight-line), plus the square on the remaining
piece, is equal to the square described on the whole and the former piece, as on one (complete
straight-line). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
l``
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ β΄
θ΄
Ζ
Α Γ ∆
Ε
Β
Η
Εvν εuθεiα γραpp¿ τpηθ¸ εiς :σα κα| vνισα, τv vπo τeν vνίσων τ¿ς oλης τpηpάτων τετράγωνα
διπλάσιά cστι τοu τε vπo τ¿ς ¿pισείας κα| τοu vπo τ¿ς pεταξù τeν τοpeν τετραγώνου.
Εuθεiα γάρ τις ¿ ΑΒ τετpήσθω εiς pcν :σα κατv τo Γ, ε|ς δc vνισα κατv τo ∆· λέγω, oτι τv
vπo τeν Α∆, ∆Β τετράγωνα διπλάσιά cστι τeν vπo τeν ΑΓ, Γ∆ τετραγώνων.
´Ηχθω γvρ vπo τοu Γ τ¸ ΑΒ πρoς oρθvς ¿ ΓΕ, κα| κείσθω :ση cκατέρ; τeν ΑΓ, ΓΒ, κα|
cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΕΑ, ΕΒ, κα| διv pcν τοu ∆ τ¸ ΕΓ παράλληλος ¿χθω ¿ ∆Ζ, διv δc τοu Ζ τ¸
ΑΒ ¿ ΖΗ, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΑΖ. κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΑΓ τ¸ ΓΕ, :ση cστ| κα| ¿ uπo ΕΑΓ γωνία
τ¸ uπo ΑΕΓ. κα| cπε| oρθή cστιν ¿ πρoς τ; Γ, λοιπα| vρα α| uπo ΕΑΓ, ΑΕΓ pι; oρθ¸ :σαι
εiσίν· καί εiσιν :σαι· ¿pίσεια vρα oρθ¿ς cστιν cκατέρα τeν uπo ΓΕΑ, ΓΑΕ. δ|α τv αuτv δ¿ κα|
cκατέρα τeν uπo ΓΕΒ, ΕΒΓ ¿pίσειά cστιν oρθ¿ς· oλη vρα ¿ uπo ΑΕΒ oρθή cστιν. κα| cπε|
¿ uπo ΗΕΖ ¿pίσειά cστιν oρθ¿ς, oρθ¿ δc ¿ uπo ΕΗΖ· :ση γάρ cστι τ¸ cντoς κα| vπεναντίον
τ¸ uπo ΕΓΒ· λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ uπo ΕΖΗ ¿pίσειά cστιν oρθ¿ς· :ση vρα ¸cστ|ν] ¿ uπo ΗΕΖ γωνία
τ¸ uπo ΕΖΗ· eστε κα| πλευρv ¿ ΕΗ τ¸ ΗΖ cστιν :ση. πάλιν cπε| ¿ πρoς τ; Β γωνία ¿pίσειά
cστιν oρθ¿ς, oρθ¿ δc ¿ uπo Ζ∆Β· :ση γvρ πάλιν cστ| τ¸ cντoς κα| vπεναντίον τ¸ uπo ΕΓΒ·
λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ uπo ΒΖ∆ ¿pίσειά cστιν oρθ¿ς· :ση vρα ¿ πρoς τ; Β γωνία τ¸ uπo ∆ΖΒ· eστε κα|
πλευρv ¿ Ζ∆ πλευρ; τ¸ ∆Β cστιν :ση. κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΑΓ τ¸ ΓΕ, :σον cστ| κα| τo vπo
ΑΓ τ; vπo ΓΕ· τv vρα vπo τeν ΑΓ, ΓΕ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά cστι τοu vπo ΑΓ. τοiς δc vπo
τeν ΑΓ, ΓΕ :σον cστ| τo vπo τ¿ς ΕΑ τετράγωνον· oρθ¿ γvρ ¿ uπo ΑΓΕ γωνία· τo vρα vπo
τ¿ς ΕΑ διπλάσιόν cστι τοu vπo τ¿ς ΑΓ. πάλιν, cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΕΗ τ¸ ΗΖ, :σον κα| τo vπo
τ¿ς ΕΗ τ; vπo τ¿ς ΗΖ· τv vρα vπo τeν ΕΗ, ΗΖ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά cστι τοu vπo τ¿ς ΗΖ
τετραγώνου. τοiς δc vπo τeν ΕΗ, ΗΖ τετραγώνοις :σον cστ| τo vπo τ¿ς ΕΖ τετράγωνον· τo
vρα vπo τ¿ς ΕΖ τετράγωνον διπλάσιόν cστι τοu vπo τ¿ς ΗΖ. :ση δc ¿ ΗΖ τ¸ Γ∆· τo vρα vπo
τ¿ς ΕΖ διπλάσιόν cστι τοu vπo τ¿ς Γ∆. cστι δc κα| τo vπo τ¿ς ΕΑ διπλάσιον τοu vπo τ¿ς ΑΓ·
τv vρα vπo τeν ΑΕ, ΕΖ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά cστι τeν vπo τeν ΑΓ, Γ∆ τετραγώνων. τοiς δc
vπo τeν ΑΕ, ΕΖ :σον cστ| τo vπo τ¿ς ΑΖ τετράγωνον· oρθ¿ γάρ cστιν ¿ uπo ΑΕΖ γωνία· τo
vρα vπo τ¿ς ΑΖ τετράγωνον διπλάσιόν cστι τeν vπo τeν ΑΓ, Γ∆. τ; δc vπo τ¿ς ΑΖ :σα τv
l`4
ELEMENTS BOOK 2
Proposition 9
31
F
A C B D
E
G
If a straight-line is cut into equal and unequal (pieces), then the (sum of the) squares on the
unequal pieces of the whole (straight-line) is double the (sum of the) square on half (the straight-
line), and (the square) on the difference between the (equal and unequal) pieces.
For let any straight-line AB have been cut—equally at C, and unequally at D. I say that the (sum
of the) squares on AD and DB is double the (sum of the squares) on AC and CD.
For let CE have been drawn from (point) C, at right-angles to AB [Prop. 1.11], and let it be
made equal to each of AC and CB [Prop. 1.3], and let EA and EB have been joined. And let
DF have been drawn through (point) D, parallel to EC [Prop. 1.31], and (let) FG (have been
drawn) through (point) F, (parallel) to AB [Prop. 1.31]. And let AF have been joined. And
since AC is equal to CE, the angle EAC is also equal to the (angle) AEC [Prop. 1.5]. And since
the (angle) at C is a right-angle, the (sum of the) remaining angles (of triangle AEC), EAC and
AEC, is thus equal to one right-angle [Prop. 1.32]. And they are equal. Thus, (angles) CEA and
CAE are each half a right-angle. So, for the same (reasons), (angles) CEB and EBC are also
each half a right-angle. Thus, the whole (angle) AEB is a right-angle. And since GEF is half a
right-angle, and EGF (is) a right-angle—for it is equal to the internal and opposite (angle) ECB
[Prop. 1.29]—the remaining (angle) EFG is thus half a right-angle [Prop. 1.32]. Thus, angle
GEF [is] equal to EFG. So the side EG is also equal to the (side) GF [Prop. 1.6]. Again, since
the angle at B is half a right-angle, and (angle) FDB (is) a right-angle—for again it is equal
to the internal and opposite (angle) ECB [Prop. 1.29]—the remaining (angle) BFD is half a
right-angle [Prop. 1.32]. Thus, the angle at B (is) equal to DFB. So the side FD is also equal to
the side DB [Prop. 1.6]. And since AC is equal to CE, the (square) on AC (is) also equal to the
(square) on CE. Thus, the (sum of the) squares on AC and CE is double the (square) on AC.
And the square on EA is equal to the (sum of the) squares on AC and CE. For angle ACE (is)
31
This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: a
2
+b
2
= 2[([a +b]/2)
2
+ ([a +b]/2 −b)
2
].
l`¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ β΄
θ΄
vπo τeν Α∆, ∆Ζ· oρθ¿ γvρ ¿ πρoς τ; ∆ γωνία· τv vρα vπo τeν Α∆, ∆Ζ διπλάσιά cστι τeν vπo
τeν ΑΓ, Γ∆ τετραγώνων. :ση δc ¿ ∆Ζ τ¸ ∆Β· τv vρα vπo τeν Α∆, ∆Β τετράγωνα διπλάσιά
cστι τeν vπo τeν ΑΓ, Γ∆ τετράγώνων.
Εvν vρα εuθεiα γραpp¿ τpηθ¸ εiς :σα κα| vνισα, τv vπo τeν vνίσων τ¿ς oλης τpηpάτων
τετράγωνα διπλάσιά cστι τοu τε vπo τ¿ς ¿pισείας κα| τοu vπo τ¿ς pεταξù τeν τοpeν τετραγώνου·
oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
l`6
ELEMENTS BOOK 2
Proposition 9
a right-angle [Prop. 1.47]. Thus, the (square) on EA is double the (square) on AC. Again, since
EG is equal to GF, the (square) on EG (is) also equal to the (square) on GF. Thus, the (sum
of the squares) on EG and GF is double the square on GF. And the square on EF is equal to
the (sum of the) squares on EG and GF [Prop. 1.47]. Thus, the square on EF is double the
(square) on GF. And GF (is) equal to CD [Prop. 1.34]. Thus, the (square) on EF is double the
(square) on CD. And the (square) on EA is also double the (square) on AC. Thus, the (sum of
the) squares on AE and EF is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD. And the square
on AF is equal to the (sum of the squares) on AE and EF. For the angle AEF is a right-angle
[Prop. 1.47]. Thus, the square on AF is double the (sum of the squares) on AC and CD. And
the (sum of the squares) on AD and DF (is) equal to the (square) on AF. For the angle at D is
a right-angle [Prop. 1.47]. Thus, the (sum of the squares) on AD and DF is double the (sum of
the) squares on AC and CD. And DF (is) equal to DB. Thus, the (sum of the) squares on AD
and DB is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD.
Thus, if a straight-line is cut into equal and unequal (pieces), then the (sum of the) squares on the
unequal pieces of the whole (straight-line) is double the (sum of the) square on half (the straight-
line), and (the square) on the difference between the (equal and unequal) pieces. (Which is) the
very thing it was required to show.
l`¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ β΄
ι΄
Η

Ε
Α Γ Β
Ζ
Εvν εuθεiα γραpp¿ τpηθ¸ δίχα, προστεθ¸ δέ τις αuτ¸ εuθεiα cπ εuθείας, τo vπo τ¿ς oλης σùν
τ¸ προσκειpέν¸ κα| τo vπo τ¿ς προσκειpένης τv συναpφότερα τετράγωνα διπλάσιά cστι τοu τε
vπo τ¿ς ¿pισείας κα| τοu vπo τ¿ς συγκειpένης cκ τε τ¿ς ¿pισείας κα| τ¿ς προσκειpένης eς vπo
pιiς vναγραφέντος τετραγώνου.
Εuθεiα γάρ τις ¿ ΑΒ τετpήσθω δίχα κατv τo Γ, προσκείσθω δέ τις αuτ¸ εuθεiα cπ εuθείας ¿
Β∆· λέγω, oτι τv vπo τeν Α∆, ∆Β τετράγωνα διπλάσιά cστι τeν vπo τeν ΑΓ, Γ∆ τετραγώνων.
´Ηχθω γvρ vπo τοu Γ σηpείου τ¸ ΑΒ πρoς oρθvς ¿ ΓΕ, κα| κείσθω :ση cκατέρ; τeν ΑΓ,
ΓΒ, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΕΑ, ΕΒ· κα| διv pcν τοu Ε τ¸ Α∆ παράλληλος ¿χθω ¿ ΕΖ, διv δc
τοu ∆ τ¸ ΓΕ παράλληλος ¿χθω ¿ Ζ∆. κα| cπε| εiς παραλλήλους εuθείας τvς ΕΓ, Ζ∆ εuθεiά
τις cνέπεσεν ¿ ΕΖ, α| uπo ΓΕΖ, ΕΖ∆ vρα δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν· α| vρα uπo ΖΕΒ, ΕΖ∆
δύο oρθeν cλάσσονές εiσιν· α| δc vπ cλασσόνων ¿ δύο oρθeν cκβαλλόpεναι συpπίπτουσιν· α|
vρα ΕΒ, Ζ∆ cκβαλλόpεναι cπ| τv Β, ∆ pέρη συpπεσοuνται. cκβεβλήσθωσαν κα| συpπιπτέτωσαν
κατv τo Η, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΑΗ. κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΑΓ τ¸ ΓΕ, :ση cστ| κα| γωνία ¿ uπo
ΕΑΓ τ¸ uπo ΑΕΓ· κα| oρθ¿ ¿ πρoς τ; Γ· ¿pίσεια vρα oρθ¿ς ¸cστιν] cκατέρα τeν uπo ΕΑΓ,
ΑΕΓ. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| cκατέρα τeν uπo ΓΕΒ, ΕΒΓ ¿pίσειά cστιν oρθ¿ς· oρθ¿ vρα cστ|ν
¿ uπo ΑΕΒ. κα| cπε| ¿pίσεια oρθ¿ς cστιν ¿ uπo ΕΒΓ, ¿pίσεια vρα oρθ¿ς κα| ¿ uπo ∆ΒΗ.
cστι δc κα| ¿ uπo Β∆Η oρθή· :ση γάρ cστι τ¸ uπo ∆ΓΕ· cναλλvξ γάρ· λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ uπo ∆ΗΒ
¿pίσειά cστιν oρθ¿ς· ¿ vρα uπo ∆ΗΒ τ¸ uπo ∆ΒΗ cστιν :ση· eστε κα| πλευρv ¿ Β∆ πλευρ;
τ¸ Η∆ cστιν :ση. πάλιν, cπε| ¿ uπo ΕΗΖ ¿pίσειά cστιν oρθ¿ς, oρθ¿ δc ¿ πρoς τ; Ζ· :ση γάρ
cστι τ¸ vπεναντίον τ¸ πρoς τ; Γ· λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ uπo ΖΕΗ ¿pίσειά cστιν oρθ¿ς· :ση vρα ¿ uπo
ΕΗΖ γωνία τ¸ uπo ΖΕΗ· eστε κα| πλευρv ¿ ΗΖ πλευρ; τ¸ ΕΖ cστιν :ση. κα| cπε| ¸:ση cστ|ν
¿ ΕΓ τ¸ ΓΑ], :σον cστ| ¸κα|] τo vπo τ¿ς ΕΓ τετράγωνον τ; vπo τ¿ς ΓΑ τετραγών;· τv vρα
vπo τeν ΕΓ, ΓΑ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά cστι τοu vπo τ¿ς ΓΑ τετραγώνου. τοiς δc vπo τeν ΕΓ,
ΓΑ :σον cστ| τo vπo τ¿ς ΕΑ· τo vρα vπo τ¿ς ΕΑ τετράγωνον διπλάσιόν cστι τοu vπo τ¿ς ΑΓ
τετραγώνου. πάλιν, cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΖΗ τ¸ ΕΖ, :σον cστ| κα| τo vπo τ¿ς ΖΗ τ; vπo τ¿ς ΖΕ·
τv vρα vπo τeν ΗΖ, ΖΕ διπλάσιά cστι τοu vπo τ¿ς ΕΖ.τοiς δc vπo τeν ΗΖ, ΖΕ :σον cστ| τo
l`8
ELEMENTS BOOK 2
Proposition 10
32
G
E
A
C B
F
D
If a straight-line is cut in half, and any straight-line added to it straight-on, then the sum of the
square on the whole (straight-line) with the (straight-line) having been added, and the (square)
on the (straight-line) having been added, is double the (sum of the square) on half (the straight-
line), and the square described on the sum of half (the straight-line) and (straight-line) having
been added, as on one (complete straight-line).
For let any straight-line AB have been cut in half at (point) C, and let any straight-line BD have
been added to it straight-on. I say that the (sum of the) squares on AD and DB is double the
(sum of the) squares on AC and CD.
For let CE have been drawn from point C, at right-angles to AB [Prop. 1.11], and let it be made
equal to each of AC and CB [Prop. 1.3], and let EA and EB have been joined. And let EF have
been drawn through E, parallel to AD [Prop. 1.31], and let FD have been drawn through D,
parallel to CE [Prop. 1.31]. And since the straight-lines EC and FD (are) parallel, and some
straight-line EF falls across (them), the (internal angles) CEF and EFD are thus equal to two
right-angles [Prop. 1.29]. Thus, FEB and EFD are less than two right-angles. And (straight-
lines) produced from (internal angles) less than two right-angles meet together [Post. 5]. Thus,
being produced in the direction of B and D, the (straight-lines) EB and FD will meet. Let them
have been produced, and let them meet together at G, and let AG have been joined. And since
AC is equal to CE, angle EAC is also equal to (angle) AEC [Prop. 1.5]. And the (angle) at C (is)
a right-angle. Thus, EAC and AEC [are] each half a right-angle [Prop. 1.32]. So, for the same
(reasons), CEB and EBC are also each half a right-angle. Thus, (angle) AEB is a right-angle.
And since EBC is half a right-angle, DBG (is) thus also half a right-angle [Prop. 1.15]. And
BDG is also a right-angle. For it is equal to DCE. For (they are) alternate (angles) [Prop. 1.29].
Thus, the remaining (angle) DGB is half a right-angle. Thus, DGB is equal to DBG. So side BD
32
This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: (2 a +b)
2
+b
2
= 2 [a
2
+ (a +b)
2
].
l`9
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ β΄
ι΄
vπo τ¿ς ΕΗ· τo vρα vπo τ¿ς ΕΗ διπλάσιόν cστι τοu vπo τ¿ς ΕΖ. :ση δc ¿ ΕΖ τ¸ Γ∆· τo
vρα vπo τ¿ς ΕΗ τετράγωνον διπλάσιόν cστι τοu vπo τ¿ς Γ∆. cδείχθη δc κα| τo vπo τ¿ς ΕΑ
διπλάσιον τοu vπo τ¿ς ΑΓ· τv vρα vπo τeν ΑΕ, ΕΗ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά cστι τeν vπo τeν ΑΓ,
Γ∆ τετραγώνων. τοiς δc vπo τeν ΑΕ, ΕΗ τετραγώνοις :σον cστ| τo vπo τ¿ς ΑΗ τετράγωνον·
τo vρα vπo τ¿ς ΑΗ διπλάσιόν cστι τeν vπo τeν ΑΓ, Γ∆. τ; δc vπo τ¿ς ΑΗ :σα cστ| τv
vπo τeν Α∆, ∆Η· τv vρα vπo τeν Α∆, ∆Η ¸τετράγωνα] διπλάσιά cστι τeν vπo τeν ΑΓ, Γ∆
¸τετραγώνων]. :ση δc ¿ ∆Η τ¸ ∆Β· τv vρα vπo τeν Α∆, ∆Β ¸τετράγωνα] διπλάσιά cστι τeν vπo
τeν ΑΓ, Γ∆ τετραγώνων.
Εvν vρα εuθεiα γραpp¿ τpηθ¸ δίχα, προστεθ¸ δέ τις αuτ¸ εuθεiα cπ εuθείας, τo vπo τ¿ς oλης
σùν τ¸ προσκειpέν¸ κα| τo vπo τ¿ς προσκειpένης τv συναpφότερα τετράγωνα διπλάσιά cστι
τοu τε vπo τ¿ς ¿pισείας κα| τοu vπo τ¿ς συγκειpένης cκ τε τ¿ς ¿pισείας κα| τ¿ς προσκειpένης
eς vπo pιiς vναγραφέντος τετραγώνου· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
l40
ELEMENTS BOOK 2
Proposition 10
is also equal to side GD [Prop. 1.6]. Again, since EGF is half a right-angle, and the (angle) at F
(is) a right-angle, for it is equal to the opposite (angle) at C [Prop. 1.34], the remaining (angle)
FEG is thus half a right-angle. Thus, angle EGF (is) equal to FEG. So the side GF is also equal
to the side EF [Prop. 1.6]. And since [EC is equal to CA] the square on EC is [also] equal to
the square on CA. Thus, the (sum of the) squares on EC and CA is double the square on CA.
And the (square) on EA is equal to the (sum of the squares) on EC and CA [Prop. 1.47]. Thus,
the square on EA is double the square on AC. Again, since FG is equal to EF, the (square) on
FG is also equal to the (square) on FE. Thus, the (sum of the squares) on GF and FE is double
the (square) on EF. And the (square) on EG is equal to the (sum of the squares) on GF and
FE [Prop. 1.47]. Thus, the (square) on EG is double the (square) on EF. And EF (is) equal to
CD [Prop. 1.34]. Thus, the square on EG is double the (square) on CD. But it was also shown
that the (square) on EA (is) double the (square) on AC. Thus, the (sum of the) squares on AE
and EG is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD. And the square on AG is equal to the
(sum of the) squares on AE and EG [Prop. 1.47]. Thus, the (square) on AG is double the (sum
of the squares) on AC and CD. And the (square) on AG is equal to the (sum of the squares) on
AD and DG [Prop. 1.47]. Thus, the (sum of the) [squares] on AD and DG is double the (sum
of the) [squares] on AC and CD. And DG (is) equal to DB. Thus, the (sum of the) [squares] on
AD and DB is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD.
Thus, if a straight-line is cut in half, and any straight-line added to it straight-on, then the sum
of the square on the whole (straight-line) with the (straight-line) having been added, and the
(square) on the (straight-line) having been added, is double the (sum of the square) on half (the
straight-line), and the square described on the sum of half (the straight-line) and (straight-line)
having been added, as on one (complete straight-line). (Which is) the very thing it was required
to show.
l4l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ β΄
ια΄
Ε
Γ
Ζ
Β

Α
Η
Θ
Κ
Τ¿ν δοθεiσαν εuθεiαν τεpεiν eστε τo uπo τ¿ς oλης κα| τοu cτέρου τeν τpηpάτων περιεχόpενον
oρθογώνιον :σον ε|ναι τ; vπo τοu λοιποu τpήpατος τετραγών;.
´Εστω ¿ δοθεiσα εuθεiα ¿ ΑΒ· δεi δ¿ τ¿ν ΑΒ τεpεiν eστε τo uπo τ¿ς oλης κα| τοu cτέρου τeν
τpηpάτων περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον :σον ε|ναι τ; vπo τοu λοιποu τpήpατος τετραγών;.
Αναγεγράφθω γvρ vπo τ¿ς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τo ΑΒ∆Γ, κα| τετpήσθω ¿ ΑΓ δίχα κατv τo Ε
σηpεiον, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΒΕ, κα| διήχθω ¿ ΓΑ cπ| τo Ζ, κα| κείσθω τ¸ ΒΕ :ση ¿ ΕΖ, κα|
vναγεγράφθω vπo τ¿ς ΑΖ τετράγωνον τo ΖΘ, κα| διήχθω ¿ ΗΘ cπ| τo Κ· λέγω, oτι ¿ ΑΒ
τέτpηται κατv τo Θ, eστε τo uπo τeν ΑΒ, ΒΘ περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον :σον ποιεiν τ; vπo
τ¿ς ΑΘ τετραγών;.
Επε| γvρ εuθεiα ¿ ΑΓ τέτpηται δίχα κατv τo Ε, πρόσκειται δc αuτ¸ ¿ ΖΑ, τo vρα uπo τeν
ΓΖ, ΖΑ περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς ΑΕ τετραγώνου :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς ΕΖ
τετραγών;. :ση δc ¿ ΕΖ τ¸ ΕΒ· τo vρα uπo τeν ΓΖ, ΖΑ pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς ΑΕ :σον cστ| τ;
vπo ΕΒ. vλλv τ; vπo ΕΒ :σα cστ| τv vπo τeν ΒΑ, ΑΕ· oρθ¿ γvρ ¿ πρoς τ; Α γωνία· τo vρα
uπo τeν ΓΖ, ΖΑ pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς ΑΕ :σον cστ| τοiς vπo τeν ΒΑ, ΑΕ. κοινoν vφ¸ρήσθω τo
vπo τ¿ς ΑΕ· λοιπoν vρα τo uπo τeν ΓΖ, ΖΑ περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς
ΑΒ τετραγών;. καί cστι τo pcν uπo τeν ΓΖ, ΖΑ τo ΖΚ· :ση γvρ ¿ ΑΖ τ¸ ΖΗ· τo δc vπo τ¿ς
ΑΒ τo Α∆· τo vρα ΖΚ :σον cστ| τ; Α∆. κοινoν vρ¸ρήσθω τo ΑΚ· λοιπoν vρα τo ΖΘ τ; Θ∆
:σον cστίν. καί cστι τo pcν Θ∆ τo uπo τeν ΑΒ, ΒΘ· :ση γvρ ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ Β∆· τo δc ΖΘ τo vπo
τ¿ς ΑΘ· τo vρα uπo τeν ΑΒ, ΒΘ περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον :σον cστ| τ; vπo ΘΑ τετραγών;.
l42
ELEMENTS BOOK 2
Proposition 11
33
E
F G
A
C K
H
B
D
To cut a given straight-line, so that the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-line), and one
of the pieces (of the straight-line), is equal to the square on the remaining piece.
Let AB be the given straight-line. So it is required to cut AB, such that the rectangle contained
by the whole (straight-line), and one of the pieces (of the straight-line), is equal to the square on
the remaining piece.
For let the square ABDC have been described on AB [Prop. 1.46], and let AC have been cut in
half at point E [Prop. 1.10], and let BE have been joined. And let CA have been drawn through
to (point) F, and let EF be made equal to BE [Prop. 1.3]. And let the square FH have been
described on AF [Prop. 1.46], and let GH have been drawn through to (point) K. I say that AB
has been cut at H, so as to make the rectangle contained by AB and BH equal to the square on
AH.
For since the straight-line AC has been cut in half at E, and FA has been added to it, the rectangle
contained by CF and FA, plus the square on AE, is thus equal to the square on EF [Prop. 2.6].
And EF (is) equal to EB. Thus, the (rectangle contained) by CF and FA, plus the (square)
on AE, is equal to the (square) on EB. But, the (sum of the squares) on BA and AE is equal
to the (square) on EB. For the angle at A (is) a right-angle [Prop. 1.47]. Thus, the (rectangle
contained) by CF and FA, plus the (square) on AE, is equal to the (sum of the squares) on BA
and AE. Let the square on AE have been subtracted from both. Thus, the remaining rectangle
contained by CF and FA is equal to the square on AB. And FK is the (rectangle contained) by
CF and FA. For AF (is) equal to FG. And AD (is) the (square) on AB. Thus, the (rectangle)
FK is equal to the (square) AD. Let (rectangle) AK have been subtracted from both. Thus, the
remaining (square) FH is equal to the (rectangle) HD. And HD is the (rectangle contained) by
33
This manner of cutting a straight-line—so that the ratio of the whole to the larger piece is equal to the ratio of
the larger to the smaller piece—is sometimes called the “Golden Section”.
l4`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ β΄
ια΄
Η vρα δοθεiσα εuθεiα ¿ ΑΒ τέτpηται κατv τo Θ eστε τo uπo τeν ΑΒ, ΒΘ περιεχόpενον
oρθογώνιον :σον ποιεiν τ; vπo τ¿ς ΘΑ τετραγών;· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
l44
ELEMENTS BOOK 2
Proposition 11
AB and BH. For AB (is) equal to BD. And FH (is) the (square) on AH. Thus, the rectangle
contained by AB and BH is equal to the square on HA.
Thus, the given straight-line AB has been cut at (point) H, so as to make the rectangle contained
by AB and BH equal to the square on HA. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.
l4¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ β΄
ιβ΄
Β
∆ Α Γ
Εν τοiς vpβλυγωνίοις τριγώνοις τo vπo τ¿ς τ¿ν vpβλεiαν γωνίαν uποτεινούσης πλευρiς τετράγωνον
pεiζόν cστι τeν vπo τeν τ¿ν vpβλεiαν γωνίαν περιεχουσeν πλευρeν τετραγώνων τ; περιεχοpέν;
δ|ς uπo τε pιiς τeν περ| τ¿ν vpβλεiαν γωνίαν, cφ ¿ν ¿ κάθετος πίπτει, κα| τ¿ς vπολαpβα-
νοpένης cκτoς uπo τ¿ς καθέτου πρoς τ¸ vpβλεί; γωνί;.
´Εστω vpβλυγώνιον τρίγωνον τo ΑΒΓ vpβλεiαν cχον τ¿ν uπo ΒΑΓ, κα| ¿χθω vπo τοu Β
σηpείου cπ| τ¿ν ΓΑ cκβληθεiσαν κάθετος ¿ Β∆. λέγω, oτι τo vπo τ¿ς ΒΓ τετράγωνον pεiζόν
cστι τeν vπo τeν ΒΑ, ΑΓ τετραγώνων τ; δ|ς uπo τeν ΓΑ, Α∆ περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί;.
Επε| γvρ εuθεiα ¿ Γ∆ τέτpηται, eς cτυχεν, κατv τo Α σηpεiον, τo vρα vπo τ¿ς ∆Γ :σον cστ|
τοiς vπo τeν ΓΑ, Α∆ τετραγώνοις κα| τ; δ|ς uπo τeν ΓΑ, Α∆ περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί;. κοινoν
προσκείσθω τo vπo τ¿ς ∆Β· τv vρα vπo τeν Γ∆, ∆Β :ση cστ| τοiς τε vπo τeν ΓΑ, Α∆, ∆Β
τετραγώνοις κα| τ; δ|ς uπo τeν ΓΑ, Α∆ ¸περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί;]. vλλv τοiς pcν vπo τeν Γ∆,
∆Β :σον cστ| τo vπo τ¿ς ΓΒ· oρθ¿ γvρ ¿ προς τ; ∆ γωνία· τοiς δc vπo τeν Α∆, ∆Β :σον τo
vπo τ¿ς ΑΒ· τo vρα vπo τ¿ς ΓΒ τετράγωνον :σον cστ| τοiς τε vπo τeν ΓΑ, ΑΒ τετραγώνοις
κα| τ; δ|ς uπo τeν ΓΑ, Α∆ περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί;· eστε τo vπo τ¿ς ΓΒ τετράγωνον τeν vπo
τeν ΓΑ, ΑΒ τετραγώνων pεiζόν cστι τ; δ|ς uπo τeν ΓΑ, Α∆ περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί;.
Εν vρα τοiς vpβλυγωνίοις τριγώνοις τo vπo τ¿ς τ¿ν vpβλεiαν γωνίαν uποτεινούσης πλευρiς
τετράγωνον pεiζόν cστι τeν vπo τeν τ¿ν vpβλεiαν γωνίαν περιεχουσeν πλευρeν τετραγώνων
τ; περιχοpέν; δ|ς uπό τε pιiς τeν περ| τ¿ν vpβλεiαν γωνίαν, cφ ¿ν ¿ κάθετος πίπτει, κα| τ¿ς
vπολαpβανοpένης cκτoς uπo τ¿ς καθέτου πρoς τ¸ vpβλεί; γωνί;· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
l46
ELEMENTS BOOK 2
Proposition 12
34
B
D A C
In obtuse-angled triangles, the square on the side subtending the obtuse angle is greater than the
(sum of the) squares on the sides containing the obtuse angle by twice the (rectangle) contained
by one of the sides around the obtuse angle, to which a perpendicular (straight-line) falls, and
the (straight-line) cut off outside (the triangle) by the perpendicular (straight-line) towards the
obtuse angle.
Let ABC be an obtuse-angled triangle, having the obtuse angle BAC. And let BD be drawn from
point B, perpendicular to CA produced [Prop. 1.12]. I say that the square on BC is greater than
the (sum of the) squares on BA and AC, by twice the rectangle contained by CA and AD.
For since the straight-line CD has been cut, at random, at point A, the (square) on DC is thus
equal to the (sum of the) squares on CA and AD, and twice the rectangle contained by CA and
AD [Prop. 2.4]. Let the (square) on DB have been added to both. Thus, the (sum of the squares)
on CD and DB is equal to the (sum of the) squares on CA, AD, and DB, and twice the [rectangle
contained] by CA and AD. But, the (sum of the squares) on CD and DB is equal to the (square)
on CB. For the angle at D (is) a right-angle [Prop. 1.47]. And the (sum of the squares) on AD
and DB (is) equal to the (square) on AB [Prop. 1.47]. Thus, the square on CB is equal to the
(sum of the) squares on CA and AB, and twice the rectangle contained by CA and AD. So the
square on CB is greater than the (sum of the) squares on CA and AB by twice the rectangle
contained by CA and AD.
Thus, in obtuse-angled triangles, the square on the side subtending the obtuse angle is greater
than the (sum of the) squares on the sides containing the obtuse angle by twice the (rectangle)
contained by one of the sides around the obtuse angle, to which a perpendicular (straight-line)
falls, and the (straight-line) cut off outside (the triangle) by the perpendicular (straight-line)
towards the obtuse angle. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
34
This proposition is equivalent to the well-known cosine formula: BC
2
= AB
2
+AC
2
−2 ABAC cos BAC, since
cos BAC = −AD/AB.
l4¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ β΄
ιγ΄
Β
Α
∆ Γ
Εν τοiς oξυγωνίοις τριγώνοις τo vπo τ¿ς τ¿ν oξεiαν γωνίαν uποτεινούσης πλευρiς τετράγωνον
cλαττόν cστι τeν vπo τeν τ¿ν oξεiαν γωνίαν περιεχουσeν πλευρeν τετραγώνων τ; περιεχοpέν;
δ|ς uπo τε pιiς τeν περ| τ¿ν oξεiαν γωνίαν, cφ ¿ν ¿ κάθετος πίπτει, κα| τ¿ς vπολαpβανοpένης
cντoς uπo τ¿ς καθέτου πρoς τ¸ oξεί; γωνί;.
´Εστω oξυγώνιον τρίγωνον τo ΑΒΓ oξεiαν cχον τ¿ν πρoς τ; Β γωνίαν, κα| ¿χθω vπo τοu Α
σηpείου cπ| τ¿ν ΒΓ κάθετος ¿ Α∆· λέγω, oτι τo vπo τ¿ς ΑΓ τετράγωνον cλαττόν cστι τeν vπo
τeν ΓΒ, ΒΑ τετραγώνων τ; δ|ς uπo τeν ΓΒ, Β∆ περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί;.
Επε| γvρ εuθεiα ¿ ΓΒ τέτpηται, eς cτυχεν, κατv τo ∆, τv vρα vπo τeν ΓΒ, Β∆ τετράγωνα :σα
cστ| τ; τε δ|ς uπo τeν ΓΒ, Β∆ περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί; κα| τ; vπo τ¿ς ∆Γ τετραγών;. κοινoν
προσκείσθω τo vπo τ¿ς ∆Α τετράγωνον· τv vρα vπo τeν ΓΒ, Β∆, ∆Α τετράγωνα :σα cστ| τ;
τε δ|ς uπo τeν ΓΒ, Β∆ περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί; κα| τοiς vπo τeν Α∆, ∆Γ τετραγώνιος. vλλv
τοiς pcν vπo τeν Β∆, ∆Α :σον τo vπo τ¿ς ΑΒ· oρθ¿ γvρ ¿ πρoς τ; ∆ γωνί;· τοiς δc vπo τeν
Α∆, ∆Γ :σον τo vπo τ¿ς ΑΓ· τv vρα vπo τeν ΓΒ, ΒΑ :σα cστ| τ; τε vπo τ¿ς ΑΓ κα| τ; δ|ς
uπo τeν ΓΒ, Β∆· eστε pόνον τo vπo τ¿ς ΑΓ cλαττόν cστι τeν vπo τeν ΓΒ, ΒΑ τετραγώνων
τ; δ|ς uπo τeν ΓΒ, Β∆ περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί;.
Εν vρα τοiς oξυγωνίοις τριγώνοις τo vπo τ¿ς τ¿ν oξεiαν γωνίαν uποτεινούσης πλευρiς τετράγωνον
cλαττόν cστι τeν vπo τeν τ¿ν oξεiαν γωνίαν περιεχουσeν πλευρeν τετραγώνων τ; περιεχοpέν;
δ|ς uπo τε pιiς τeν περ| τ¿ν oξεiαν γωνίαν, cφ ¿ν ¿ κάθετος πίπτει, κα| τ¿ς vπολαpβανοpένης
cντoς uπo τ¿ς καθέτου πρoς τ¸ oξεί; γωνί;· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
l48
ELEMENTS BOOK 2
Proposition 13
35
B D C
A
In acute-angled triangles, the square on the side subtending the acute angle is less than the (sum
of the) squares on the sides containing the acute angle by twice the (rectangle) contained by
one of the sides around the acute angle, to which a perpendicular (straight-line) falls, and the
(straight-line) cut off inside (the triangle) by the perpendicular (straight-line) towards the acute
angle.
Let ABC be an acute-angled triangle, having an acute angle at (point) B. And let AD have been
drawn from point A, perpendicular to BC [Prop. 1.12]. I say that the square on AC is less than
the (sum of the) squares on CB and AB, by twice the rectangle contained by CB and BD.
For since the straight-line CB has been cut, at random, at (point) D, the (sum of the) squares on
CB and BD is thus equal to twice the rectangle contained by CB and BD, and the square on DC
[Prop. 2.7]. Let the square on DA have been added to both. Thus, the (sum of the) squares on
CB, BD, and DA is equal to twice the rectangle contained by CB and BD, and the (sum of the)
squares on AD and DC. But, the (square) on AB (is) equal to the (sum of the squares) on BD
and DA. For the angle at (point) D is a right-angle [Prop. 1.47]. And the (square) on AC (is)
equal to the (sum of the squares) on AD and DC [Prop. 1.47]. Thus, the (sum of the squares)
on CB and BA is equal to the (square) on AC, and twice the (rectangle contained) by CB and
BD. So the (square) on AC alone is less than the (sum of the) squares on CB and BA by twice
the rectangle contained by CB and BD.
Thus, in acute-angled triangles, the square on the side subtending the acute angle is less than the
(sum of the) squares on the sides containing the acute angle by twice the (rectangle) contained
by one of the sides around the acute angle, to which a perpendicular (straight-line) falls, and the
(straight-line) cut off inside (the triangle) by the perpendicular (straight-line) towards the acute
angle. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
35
This proposition is equivalent to the well-known cosine formula: AC
2
= AB
2
+BC
2
−2 ABBC cos ABC, since
cos ABC = BD/AB.
l49
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ β΄
ιδ΄
Θ
Α
Ε
Β
Γ ∆
Ζ
Η
Τ; δοθέντι εuθυγράpp; :σον τετράγωνον συστήσασθαι.
´Εστω τo δοθcν εuθύγραppον τo Α· δεi δ¿ τ; Α εuθυγράpp; :σον τετράγωνον συστήσασθαι.
Συνεστάτω γvρ τ; Α cυθυγράpp; :σον παραλληλόγραppον oρθογώνιον τo Β∆· εi pcν οuν
:ση cστ|ν ¿ ΒΕ τ¸ Ε∆, γεγονoς iν ε:η τo cπιταχθέν. συνέσταται γvρ τ; Α εuθυγράpp; :σον
τετράγωνον τo Β∆· εi δc οu, pία τeν ΒΕ, Ε∆ pείζων cστιν. cστω pείζων ¿ ΒΕ, κα| cκβεβλήσθω
cπ| τo Ζ, κα| κείσθω τ¸ Ε∆ :ση ¿ ΕΖ, κα| τετpήσθω ¿ ΒΖ δίχα κατv τo Η, κα| κέντρ; τ; Η,
διαστήpατι δc cν| τeν ΗΒ, ΗΖ ¿pικύκλιον γεγράφθω τo ΒΘΖ, κα| cκβεβλήσθω ¿ ∆Ε cπ| τo
Θ, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΗΘ.
Επε| οuν εuθεiα ¿ ΒΖ τέτpηται εiς pcν :σα κατv τo Η, εiς δc vνισα κατv τo Ε, τo vρα uπo
τeν ΒΕ, ΕΖ περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς ΕΗ τετραγώνου :σον cστ| τ; vπo
τ¿ς ΗΖ τετραγών;. :ση δc ¿ ΗΖ τ¸ ΗΘ· τo vρα uπo τeν ΒΕ, ΕΖ pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς ΗΕ :σον
cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς ΗΘ. τ; δc vπo τ¿ς ΗΘ :σα cστ| τv vπo τeν ΘΕ, ΕΗ τετράγωνα· τo vρα uπo
τeν ΒΕ, ΕΖ pετv τοu vπo ΗΕ :σα cστ| τοiς vπo τeν ΘΕ, ΕΗ. κοινoν vφ¸ρήσθω τo vπo τ¿ς
ΗΕ τετράγωνον· λοιπoν vρα τo uπo τeν ΒΕ, ΕΖ περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον :σον cστ| τ; vπo
τ¿ς ΕΘ τετραγών;. vλλv τo uπo τeν ΒΕ, ΕΖ τo Β∆ cστιν· :ση γvρ ¿ ΕΖ τ¸ Ε∆· τo vρα Β∆
παραλληλόγραppον :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς ΘΕ τετραγών;. :σον δc τo Β∆ τ; Α εuθυγράpp;.
κα| τo Α vρα εuθύγραppον :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς ΕΘ vναγραφησοpέν; τετραγών;.
Τ; vρα δοθέντι εuθυγράpp; τ; Α :σον τετράγωνον συνέσταται τo vπo τ¿ς ΕΘ vναγρα-
φησόpενον· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
l¯0
ELEMENTS BOOK 2
Proposition 14
H
A
B
C
G
E
F
D
To construct a square equal to a given rectilinear figure.
Let A be the given rectilinear figure. So it is required to construct a square equal to the rectilinear
figure A.
For let the right-angled parallelogramBD have been constructed, equal to the rectilinear figure A
[Prop. 1.45]. Therefore, if BE is equal to ED, then that (which) was prescribed has taken place.
For the square BD has been constructed, equal to the rectilinear figure A. And if not, then one
of BE or ED is greater (than the other). Let BE be greater, and let it have been produced to
F, and let EF be made equal to ED [Prop. 1.3]. And let BF have been cut in half at (point) G
[Prop. 1.10]. And, with center G, and radius one of GB or GF, let the semi-circle BHF have
been drawn. And let DE have been produced to H, and let GH have been joined.
Therefore, since the straight-line BF has been cut—equally at G, and unequally at E—the rect-
angle contained by BE and EF, plus the square on EG, is thus equal to the square on GF
[Prop. 2.5]. And GF (is) equal to GH. Thus, the (rectangle contained) by BE and EF, plus the
(square) on GE, is equal to the (square) on GH. And the (square) on GH is equal to the (sum
of the) squares on HE and EG [Prop. 1.47]. Thus, the (rectangle contained) by BE and EF,
plus the (square) on GE, is equal to the (sum of the squares) on HE and EG. Let the square
on GE have been taken from both. Thus, the remaining rectangle contained by BE and EF is
equal to the square on EH. But, BD is the (rectangle contained) by BE and EF. For EF (is)
equal to ED. Thus, the parallelogram BD is equal to the square on HE. And BD (is) equal to
the rectilinear figure A. Thus, the rectilinear figure A is also equal to the square (which) can be
described on EH.
Thus, a square—(namely), that (which) can be described on EH—has been constructed, equal
to the given rectilinear figure A. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.
l¯l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Fundamentals of plane geometry involving
circles
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
´Οροι
α΄ ´Ισοι κύκλοι εiσίν, eν α| διάpετροι :σαι εiσίν, ¿ eν α| cκ τeν κέντρων :σαι εiσίν.
β΄ Εuθεiα κύκλου cφάπτεσθαι λέγεται, ¿τις \πτοpένη τοu κύκλου κα| cκβαλλοpένη οu τέpνει
τoν κύκλον.
γ΄ Κύκλοι cφάπτεσθαι vλλήλων λέγονται ο:τινες \πτόpενοι vλλήλων οu τέpνουσιν vλλήλους.
δ΄ Εν κύκλ; :σον vπέχειν vπo τοu κέντρου εuθεiαι λέγονται, oταν α| vπo τοu κέντρου cπ
αuτvς κάθετοι vγόpεναι :σαι eσιν.
ε΄ Μεiζον δc vπέχειν λέγεται, cφ ¿ν ¿ pείζων κάθετος πίπτει.
ç΄ Τp¿pα κύκλου cστ| τo περιεχόpενον σχ¿pα uπό τε εuθείας κα| κύκλου περιφερείας.
ζ΄ Τpήpατος δc γωνία cστ|ν ¿ περιεχοpένη uπό τε εuθείας κα| κύκλου περιφερείας.
η΄ Εν τpήpατι δc γωνία cστίν, oταν cπ| τ¿ς περιφερείας τοu τpήpατος ληφθ¸ τι σηpεiον κα|
vπ αuτοu cπ| τv πέρατα τ¿ς εuθείας, ¿ cστι βάσις τοu τpήpατος, cπιζευχθeσιν εuθεiαι, ¿
περιεχοpένη γωνία uπo τeν cπιζευχθεισeν εuθειeν.
θ΄ ´Οταν δc α| περιέχουσαι τ¿ν γωνίαν εuθεiαι vπολαpβάνωσί τινα περιφέρειαν, cπ cκείνης
λέγεται βεβηκέναι ¿ γωνία.
ι΄ Τοpεùς δc κύκλου cστίν, oταν πρoς τ; κέντρ; τοu κύκλου συσταθ¸ γωνία, τo περιεχόpενον
σχ¿pα uπό τε τeν τ¿ν γωνίαν περιεχουσeν εuθειeν κα| τ¿ς vπολαpβανοpένης uπ αuτeν
περιφερείας.
ια΄ ´Οpοία τpήpατα κύκλων cστ| τv δεχόpενα γωνίας :σας, ¿ cν ο|ς α| γωνίαι :σαι vλλήλαις
εiσίν.
l¯4
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Definitions
1 Equal circles are (circles) whose diameters are equal, or whose (distances) from the centers
(to the circumferences) are equal (i.e., whose radii are equal).
2 A straight-line said to touch a circle is any (straight-line) which, meeting the circle and
being produced, does not cut the circle.
3 Circles said to touch one another are any (circles) which, meeting one another, do not cut
one another.
4 In a circle, straight-lines are said to be equally far from the center when the perpendiculars
drawn to them from the center are equal.
5 And (that straight-line) is said to be further (from the center) on which the greater perpen-
dicular falls (from the center).
6 A segment of a circle is the figure contained by a straight-line and a circumference of a
circle.
7 And the angle of a segment is that contained by a straight-line and a circumference of a
circle.
8 And the angle in a segment is the angle contained by the joined straight-lines, when any
point is taken on the circumference of a segment, and straight-lines are joined from it to the
ends of the straight-line which is the base of the segment.
9 And when the straight-lines containing an angle cut off some circumference, the angle is
said to stand upon that (circumference).
10 And a sector of a circle is the figure contained by the straight-lines surrounding an angle,
and the circumference cut off by them, when the angle is constructed at the center of a
circle.
11 Similar segments of circles are those accepting equal angles, or in which the angles are
equal to one another.
l¯¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
α΄

Β
Η
Ζ
Γ
Ε
Α
Τοu δοθέντος κύκλου τo κέντρον εuρεiν.
´Εστω o δοθε|ς κύκλος o ΑΒΓ· δεi δ¿ τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου τo κέντρον εuρεiν.
∆ιήχθω τις εiς αuτόν, eς cτυχεν, εuθεiα ¿ ΑΒ, κα| τετpήσθω δίχα κατv τo ∆ σηpεiον, κα| vπo
τοu ∆ τ¸ ΑΒ πρoς oρθvς ¿χθω ¿ ∆Γ κα| διήχθω cπ| τo Ε, κα| τετpήσθω ¿ ΓΕ δίχα κατv τo
Ζ· λέγω, oτι τo Ζ κέντρον cστ| τοu ΑΒΓ ¸κύκλου].
Μ¿ γάρ, vλλ εi δυνατόν, cστω τo Η, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΗΑ, Η∆, ΗΒ. κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿
Α∆ τ¸ ∆Β, κοιν¿ δc ¿ ∆Η, δύο δ¿ α| Α∆, ∆Η δύο ταiς Η∆, ∆Β :σαι εiσ|ν cκατέρα cκατέρ;·
κα| βάσις ¿ ΗΑ βάσει τ¸ ΗΒ cστιν :ση· cκ κέντρου γάρ· γωνία vρα ¿ uπo Α∆Η γωνί; τ¸ uπo
Η∆Β :ση cστίν. oταν δc εuθεiα cπ εuθεiαν σταθεiσα τvς cφεξ¿ς γωνίας :σας vλλήλαις ποι¸,
oρθ¿ cκατέρα τeν :σων γωνιeν cστιν· oρθ¿ vρα cστ|ν ¿ uπo Η∆Β. cστ| δc κα| ¿ uπo Ζ∆Β
oρθή· :ση vρα ¿ uπo Ζ∆Β τ¸ uπo Η∆Β, ¿ pείζων τ¸ cλάττονι· oπερ cστ|ν vδύνατον. οuκ vρα
τo Η κέντρον cστ| τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου. opοίως δ¿ δείξοpεν, oτι οuδ vλλο τι πλ¿ν τοu Ζ.
Τo Ζ vρα σηpεiον κέντρον cστ| τοu ΑΒΓ ¸κύκλου].
Πόρισpα
Εκ δ¿ τούτου φανερόν, oτι cvν cν κύκλ; εuθεiά τις εuθεiάν τινα δίχα κα| πρoς oρθvς τέpν¸,
cπ| τ¿ς τεpνούσης cστ| τo κέντρον τοu κύκλου. — oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
l¯6
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 1
D
A
G
B
F
C
E
To find the center of a given circle.
Let ABC be the given circle. So it is required to find the center of circle ABC.
Let some straight-line AB have been drawn through (ABC), at random, and let (AB) have been
cut in half at point D [Prop. 1.9]. And let DC have been drawn from D, at right-angles to AB
[Prop. 1.11]. And let (CD) have been drawn through to E. And let CE have been cut in half at
F [Prop. 1.9]. I say that (point) F is the center of the [circle] ABC.
For (if) not then, if possible, let G (be the center of the circle), and let GA, GD, and GB have
been joined. And since AD is equal to DB, and DG (is) common, the two (straight-lines) AD,
DG are equal to the two (straight-lines) BD, DG
36
respectively. And the base GA is equal to
the base GB. For (they are both) radii. Thus, the angle ADG is equal to GDB [Prop. 1.8]. And
when a straight-line stood upon (another) straight-line make adjacent angles (which are) equal
to one another, each of the equal angles is a right-angle [Def. 1.10]. Thus, GDB is a right-angle.
And FDB is also a right-angle. Thus, FDB (is) equal to GDB, the greater to the lesser. The very
thing is impossible. Thus, (point) G is not the center of the circle ABC. So, similarly, we can
show that neither is any other (point) than F.
Thus, point F is the center of the [circle] ABC.
Corollary
So, from this, (it is) manifest that if any straight-line in a circle cuts any (other) straight-line in
half, and at right-angles, then the center of the circle is on the former (straight-line). — (Which
is) the very thing it was required to do.
36
The Greek text has “GD, DB”, which is obviously a mistake.
l¯¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
β΄
Ζ

Γ
Α
Β
Ε
Εvν κύκλου cπ| τ¿ς περιφερείας ληφθ¸ δύο τυχόντα σηpεiα, ¿ cπ| τv σηpεiα cπιζευγνυpένη
εuθεiα cντoς πεσεiται τοu κύκλου.
´Εστω κύκλος o ΑΒΓ, κα| cπ| τ¿ς περιφερείας αuτοu εiλήφθω δύο τυχόντα σηpεiα τv Α, Β·
λέγω, oτι ¿ vπo τοu Α cπ| τo Β cπιζευγνυpένη εuθεiα cντoς πεσεiται τοu κύκλου.
Μ¿ γάρ, vλλ εi δυνατόν, πιπτέτω cκτoς eς ¿ ΑΕΒ, κα| εiλήφθω τo κέντρον τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου,
κα| cστω τo ∆, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ∆Α, ∆Β, κα| διήχθω ¿ ∆ΖΕ.
Επε| οuν :ση cστ|ν ¿ ∆Α τ¸ ∆Β, :ση vρα κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ∆ΑΕ τ¸ uπo ∆ΒΕ· κα| cπε| τριγώνου
τοu ∆ΑΕ pία πλευρv προσεκβέβληται ¿ ΑΕΒ, pείζων vρα ¿ uπo ∆ΕΒ γωνία τ¿ς uπo ∆ΑΕ.
:ση δc ¿ uπo ∆ΑΕ τ¸ uπo ∆ΒΕ· pείζων vρα ¿ uπo ∆ΕΒ τ¿ς uπo ∆ΒΕ. uπo δc τ¿ν pείζονα
γωνίαν ¿ pείζων πλευρv uποτείνει· pείζων vρα ¿ ∆Β τ¿ς ∆Ε. :ση δc ¿ ∆Β τ¸ ∆Ζ. pείζων vρα
¿ ∆Ζ τ¿ς ∆Ε ¿ cλάττων τ¿ς pείζονος· oπερ cστ|ν vδύνατον. οuκ vρα ¿ vπo τοu Α cπ| τo Β
cπιζευγνυpένη εuθεiα cκτoς πεσεiται τοu κύκλου. opοίως δ¿ δείξοpεν, oτι οuδc cπ αuτ¿ς τ¿ς
περιφερείας· cντoς vρα.
Εvν vρα κύκλου cπ| τ¿ς περιφερείας ληφθ¸ δύο τυχόντα σηpεiα, ¿ cπ| τv σηpεiα cπιζευγνυpένη
εuθεiα cντoς πεσεiται τοu κύκλου· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
l¯8
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 2
B
D
C
E
F
A
If two points are taken somewhere on the circumference of a circle then the straight-line joining
the points will fall inside the circle.
Let ABC be a circle, and let two points A and B have been taken somewhere on its circumference.
I say that the straight-line joining A to B will fall inside the circle.
For (if) not then otherwise, if possible, let it fall outside (the circle), like AEB (in the figure).
And let the center of the circle ABC have been found [Prop. 3.1], and let it be (at point) D. And
let DA and DB have been joined, and let DFE have been drawn through.
Therefore, since DA is equal to DB, the angle DAE (is) thus also equal to DBE [Prop. 1.5].
And since in triangle DAE the one side, AEB, has been produced, angle DEB (is) thus greater
than DAE [Prop. 1.16]. And DAE (is) equal to DBE [Prop. 1.5]. Thus, DEB (is) greater than
DBE. And the greater angle is subtended by the greater side [Prop. 1.19]. Thus, DB (is) greater
than DE. And DB (is) equal to DF. Thus, DF (is) greater than DE, the lesser than the greater.
The very thing is impossible. Thus, the straight-line joining A to B will not fall outside the circle.
So, similarly, we can show that neither (will it fall) on the circumference itself. Thus, (it will fall)
inside (the circle).
Thus, if two points are taken somewhere on the circumference of a circle then the straight-line
joining the points will fall inside the circle. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
l¯9
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
γ΄
Α Β
Ε
Ζ
Γ

Εvν cν κύκλ; εuθεiά τις διv τοu κέντρου εuθεiάν τινα p¿ διv τοu κέντρου δίχα τέpν¸, κα| πρoς
oρθvς αuτ¿ν τέpνει· κα| cvν πρoς oρθvς αuτ¿ν τέpν¸, κα| δίχα αuτ¿ν τέpνει.
´Εστω κύκλος o ΑΒΓ, κα| cν αuτ; εuθεiά τις διv τοu κέντρου ¿ Γ∆ εuθεiάν τινα p¿ διv τοu
κέντρου τ¿ν ΑΒ δίχα τεpνέτω κατv τo Ζ σηpεiον· λέγω, oτι κα| πρoς oρθvς αuτ¿ν τέpνει.
Εiλήφθω γvρ τo κέντρον τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου, κα| cστω τo Ε, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΕΑ, ΕΒ.
Κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΑΖ τ¸ ΖΒ, κοιν¿ δc ¿ ΖΕ, δύο δυσ|ν :σαι ¸εiσίν]· κα| βάσις ¿ ΕΑ βάσει
τ¸ ΕΒ :ση· γωνία vρα ¿ uπo ΑΖΕ γωνί; τ¸ uπo ΒΖΕ :ση cστίν. oταν δc εuθεiα cπ εuθεiαν
σταθεiσα τvς cφεξ¿ς γωνίας :σας vλλήλαις ποι¸, oρθ¿ cκατέρα τeν :σων γωνιeν cστιν· cκατέρα
vρα τeν uπo ΑΖΕ, ΒΖΕ oρθή cστιν. ¿ Γ∆ vρα διv τοu κέντρου οuσα τ¿ν ΑΒ p¿ διv τοu
κέντρου οuσαν δίχα τέpνουσα κα| πρoς oρθvς τέpνει.
Αλλv δ¿ ¿ Γ∆ τ¿ν ΑΒ πρoς oρθvς τεpνέτω· λέγω, oτι κα| δίχα αuτ¿ν τέpνει, τουτέστιν, oτι
:ση cστ|ν ¿ ΑΖ τ¸ ΖΒ.
Τeν γvρ αuτeν κατασκευασθέντων, cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΕΑ τ¸ ΕΒ, :ση cστ| κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΕΑΖ
τ¸ uπo ΕΒΖ. cστ| δc κα| oρθ¿ ¿ uπo ΑΖΕ oρθ¸ τ¸ uπo ΒΖΕ :ση· δύο vρα τρίγωνά cστι
ΕΑΖ, ΕΖΒ τvς δύο γωνίας δυσ| γωνίαις :σας cχοντα κα| pίαν πλευρvν pι; πλευρ; :σην κοιν¿ν
αuτeν τ¿ν ΕΖ uποτείνουσαν uπo pίαν τeν :σων γωνιeν· κα| τvς λοιπvς vρα πλευρvς ταiς λοιπαiς
πλευραiς :σας cξει· :ση vρα ¿ ΑΖ τ¸ ΖΒ.
Εvν vρα cν κύκλ; εuθεiά τις διv τοu κέντρου εuθεiάν τινα p¿ διv τοu κέντρου δίχα τέpν¸, κα|
πρoς oρθvς αuτ¿ν τέpνει· κα| cvν πρoς oρθvς αuτ¿ν τέpν¸, κα| δίχα αuτ¿ν τέpνει· oπερ cδει
δεiξαι.
l60
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 3
D
A
E
F
B
C
In a circle, if any straight-line through the center cuts in half any straight-line not through the
center, then it also cuts it at right-angles. And (conversely) if it cuts it at right-angles, then it also
cuts it in half.
Let ABC be a circle, and within it, let some straight-line through the center, CD, cut in half
some straight-line not through the center, AB, at the point F. I say that (CD) also cuts (AB) at
right-angles.
For let the center of the circle ABC have been found [Prop. 3.1], and let it be (at point) E, and
let EA and EB have been joined.
And since AF is equal to FB, and FE (is) common, two (sides of triangle AFE) [are] equal
to two (sides of triangle BFE). And the base EA (is) equal to the base EB. Thus, angle AFE
is equal to angle BFE [Prop. 1.8]. And when a straight-line stood upon (another) straight-line
makes adjacent angles (which are) equal to one another, each of the equal angles is a right-angle
[Def. 1.10]. Thus, AFE and BFE are each right-angles. Thus, the (straight-line) CD, which is
through the center and cuts in half the (straight-line) AB, which is not through the center, also
cuts (AB) at right-angles.
And so let CD cut AB at right-angles. I say that it also cuts (AB) in half. That is to say, that AF
is equal to FB.
For, with the same construction, since EA is equal to EB, angle EAF is also equal to EBF
[Prop. 1.5]. And the right-angle AFE is also equal to the right-angle BFE. Thus, EAF and
EFB are two triangles having two angles equal to two angles, and one side equal to one side—
(namely), their common (side) EF, subtending one of the equal angles. Thus, they will also have
the remaining sides equal to the (corresponding) remaining sides [Prop. 1.26]. Thus, AF (is)
equal to FB.
Thus, in a circle, if any straight-line through the center cuts in half any straight-line not through
the center, then it also cuts it at right-angles. And (conversely) if it cuts it at right-angles, then it
also cuts it in half. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
l6l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
δ΄
Ε

Β
Ζ
Α
Γ
Εvν cν κύκλ; δύο εuθεiαι τέpνωσιν vλλήλας p¿ δ|α τοu κέντρου οuσαι, οu τέpνουσιν vλλήλας
δίχα.
´Εστω κύκλος o ΑΒΓ∆, κα| cν αuτ; δύο εuθεiαι α| ΑΓ, Β∆ τεpνέτωσαν vλλήλας κατv τo Ε p¿
διv τοu κέντρου οuσαι· λέγω, oτι οu τέpνουσιν vλλήλας δίχα.
Εi γvρ δυνατόν, τεpνέτωσαν vλλήλας δίχα eστε :σην ε|ναι τ¿ν pcν ΑΕ τ¸ ΕΓ, τ¿ν δc ΒΕ τ¸
Ε∆· κα| εiλήφθω τo κέντρον τοu ΑΒΓ∆ κύκλου, κα| cστω τo Ζ, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΖΕ.
Επε| οuν εuθεiά τις διv τοu κέντρου ¿ ΖΕ εuθεiάν τινα p¿ διv τοu κέντρου τ¿ν ΑΓ δίχα τέpνει,
κα| πρoς oρθvς αuτ¿ν τέpνει· oρθ¿ vρα cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΖΕΑ· πάλιν, cπε| εuθεiά τις ¿ ΖΕ εuθεiάν
τινα τ¿ν Β∆ δίχα τέpνει, κα| πρoς oρθvς αuτ¿ν τέpνει· oρθ¿ vρα ¿ uπo ΖΕΒ. cδείχθη δc κα| ¿
uπo ΖΕΑ oρθή· :ση vρα ¿ uπo ΖΕΑ τ¸ uπo ΖΕΒ ¿ cλάττων τ¸ pείζονι· oπερ cστ|ν vδύνατον.
οuκ vρα α| ΑΓ, Β∆ τέpνουσιν vλλήλας δίχα.
Εvν vρα cν κύκλ; δύο εuθεiαι τέpνωσιν vλλήλας p¿ δ|α τοu κέντρου οuσαι, οu τέpνουσιν
vλλήλας δίχα· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
l62
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 4
E
F
C
B
D
A
In a circle, if two straight-lines, which are not through the center, cut one another, then they do
not cut one another in half.
Let ABCD be a circle, and within it, let two straight-lines, AC and BD, which are not through
the center, cut one another at (point) E. I say that they do not cut one another in half.
For, if possible, let them cut one another in half, such that AE is equal to EC, and BE to ED.
And let the center of the circle ABCD have been found [Prop. 3.1], and let it be (at point) F,
and let FE have been joined.
Therefore, since some straight-line through the center, FE, cuts in half some straight-line not
through the center, AC, it also cuts it at right-angles [Prop. 3.3]. Thus, FEA is a right-angle.
Again, since some straight-line FE cuts in half some straight-line BD, it also cuts it at right-
angles [Prop. 3.3]. Thus, FEB (is) a right-angle. But FEA was also shown (to be) a right-angle.
Thus, FEA (is) equal to FEB, the lesser to the greater. The very thing is impossible. Thus, AC
and BD do not cut one another in half.
Thus, in a circle, if two straight-lines, which are not through the center, cut one another, then
they do not cut one another in half. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
l6`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
ε΄
Α
Η
Γ

Ζ
Β
Ε
Εvν δύο κύκλοι τέpνωσιν vλλήλους, οuκ cσται αuτeν τo αuτo κέντρον.
∆ύο γvρ κύκλοι ο| ΑΒΓ, Γ∆Η τεpνέτωσαν vλλήλους κατv τv Β, Γ σηpεiα. λέγω, oτι οuκ cσται
αuτeν τo αuτo κέντρον.
Εi γvρ δυνατόν, cστω τo Ε, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΕΓ, κα| διήχθω ¿ ΕΖΗ, eς cτυχεν. κα| cπε| τo
Ε σηpεiον κέντρον cστ| τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου, :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΕΓ τ¸ ΕΖ. πάλιν, cπε| τo Ε σηpεiον
κέντρον cστ| τοu Γ∆Η κύκλου, :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΕΓ τ¸ ΕΗ· cδείχθη δc ¿ ΕΓ κα| τ¸ ΕΖ :ση· κα| ¿
ΕΖ vρα τ¸ ΕΗ cστιν :ση ¿ cλάσσων τ¸ pείζονι· oπερ cστ|ν vδύνατον. οuκ vρα τo Ε σηpεiον
κέντρον cστ| τeν ΑΒΓ, Γ∆Η κύκλων.
Εvν vρα δύο κύκλοι τέpνωσιν vλλήλους, οuκ cστιν αuτeν τo αuτo κέντρον· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
l64
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 5
D
A
C
E
F
G
B
If two circles cut one another then they will not have the same center.
For let the two circles ABC and CDG cut one another at points B and C. I say that they will not
have the same center.
For, if possible, let E be (the common center), and let EC have been joined, and let EFG have
been drawn through (the two circles), at random. And since point E is the center of the circle
ABC, EC is equal to EF. Again, since point E is the center of the circle CDG, EC is equal to
EG. But EC was also shown (to be) equal to EF. Thus, EF is also equal to EG, the lesser to
the greater. The very thing is impossible. Thus, point E is not the (common) center of the circles
ABC and CDG.
Thus, if two circles cut one another then they will not have the same center. (Which is) the very
thing it was required to show.
l6¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
ç΄
Ε
Α

Ζ
Β
Γ
Εvν δύο κύκλοι cφάπτωνται vλλήλων, οuκ cσται αuτeν τo αuτo κέντρον.
∆ύο γvρ κύκλοι ο| ΑΒΓ, Γ∆Ε cφαπτέσθωσαν vλλήλων κατv τo Γ σηpεiον· λέγω, oτι οuκ cσται
αuτeν τo αuτo κέντρον.
Εi γvρ δυνατόν, cστω τo Ζ, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΖΓ, κα| διήχθω, eς cτυχεν, ¿ ΖΕΒ.
Επε| οuν τo Ζ σηpεiον κέντρον cστ| τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου, :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΖΓ τ¸ ΖΒ. πάλιν, cπε| τo Ζ
σηpεiον κέντρον cστ| τοu Γ∆Ε κύκλου, :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΖΓ τ¸ ΖΕ. cδείχθη δc ¿ ΖΓ τ¸ ΖΒ :ση· κα|
¿ ΖΕ vρα τ¸ ΖΒ cστιν :ση, ¿ cλάττων τ¸ pείζονι· oπερ cστ|ν vδύνατον. οuκ vρα τo Ζ σηpεiον
κέντρον cστ| τeν ΑΒΓ, Γ∆Ε κύκλων.
Εvν vρα δύο κύκλοι cφάπτωνται vλλήλων, οuκ cσται αuτeν τo αuτo κέντρον· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
l66
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 6
C
A
D
B
F
E
If two circles touch one another then they will not have the same center.
For let the two circles ABC and CDE touch one another at point C. I say that they will not have
the same center.
For, if possible, let F be (the common center), and let FC have been joined, and let FEB have
been drawn through (the two circles), at random.
Therefore, since point F is the center of the circle ABC, FC is equal to FB. Again, since point
F is the center of the circle CDE, FC is equal to FE. But FC was shown (to be) equal to FB.
Thus, FE is also equal to FB, the lesser to the greater. The very thing is impossible. Thus, point
F is not the (common) center of the circles ABC and CDE.
Thus, if two circles touch one another then they will not have the same center. (Which is) the
very thing it was required to show.
l6¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
ζ΄
Ε
Γ
Η

Ζ
Κ
Θ
Α
Β
Εvν κύκλου cπ| τ¿ς διαpέτρου ληφθ¸ τι σηpεiον, o pή cστι κέντρον τοu κύκλου, vπo δc τοu
σηpείου πρoς τoν κύκλον προσπίπτωσιν εuθεiαί τινες, pεγίστη pcν cσται, cφ ¿ς τo κέντρον,
cλαχίστη δc ¿ λοιπή, τeν δc vλλων vε| ¿ cγγιον τ¿ς δ|α τοu κέντρου τ¿ς vπώτερον pείζων
cστίν, δύο δc pόνον :σαι vπo τοu σηpείου προσπεσοuνται πρoς τoν κύκλον cφ cκάτερα τ¿ς
cλαχίστης.
´Εστω κύκλος o ΑΒΓ∆, διάpετρος δc αuτοu cστω ¿ Α∆, κα| cπ| τ¿ς Α∆ εiλήφθω τι σηpεiον
τo Ζ, o pή cστι κέντρον τοu κύκλου, κέντρον δc τοu κύκλου cστω τo Ε, κα| vπo τοu Ζ πρoς
τoν ΑΒΓ∆ κύκλον προσπιπτέτωσαν εuθεiαί τινες α| ΖΒ, ΖΓ, ΖΗ· λέγω, oτι pεγίστη pέν cστιν
¿ ΖΑ, cλαχίστη δc ¿ Ζ∆, τeν δc vλλων ¿ pcν ΖΒ τ¿ς ΖΓ pείζων, ¿ δc ΖΓ τ¿ς ΖΗ.
Επεζεύχθωσαν γvρ α| ΒΕ, ΓΕ, ΗΕ. κα| cπε| παντoς τριγώνου α| δύο πλευρα| τ¿ς λοιπ¿ς
pείζονές εiσιν, α| vρα ΕΒ, ΕΖ τ¿ς ΒΖ pείζονές εiσιν. :ση δc ¿ ΑΕ τ¸ ΒΕ ¸α| vρα ΒΕ, ΕΖ :σαι
εiσ| τ¸ ΑΖ]· pείζων vρα ¿ ΑΖ τ¿ς ΒΖ. πάλιν, cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΒΕ τ¸ ΓΕ, κοιν¿ δc ¿ ΖΕ, δύο
δ¿ α| ΒΕ, ΕΖ δυσ| ταiς ΓΕ, ΕΖ :σαι εiσίν. vλλv κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΒΕΖ γωνίας τ¿ς uπo ΓΕΖ
pείζων· βάσις vρα ¿ ΒΖ βάσεως τ¿ς ΓΖ pείζων cστίν. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| ¿ ΓΖ τ¿ς ΖΗ pείζων
cστίν.
Πάλιν, cπε| α| ΗΖ, ΖΕ τ¿ς ΕΗ pείζονές εiσιν, :ση δc ¿ ΕΗ τ¸ Ε∆, α| vρα ΗΖ, ΖΕ τ¿ς Ε∆
pείζονές εiσιν. κοιν¿ vφ¸ρήσθω ¿ ΕΖ· λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ ΗΖ λοιπ¿ς τ¿ς Ζ∆ pείζων cστίν. pεγίστη
pcν vρα ¿ ΖΑ, cλαχίστη δc ¿ Ζ∆, pείζων δc ¿ pcν ΖΒ τ¿ς ΖΓ, ¿ δc ΖΓ τ¿ς ΖΗ.
Λέγω, oτι κα| vπo τοu Ζ σηpείου δύο pόνον :σαι προσπεσοuνται πρoς τoν ΑΒΓ∆ κύκλον cφ
cκάτερα τ¿ς Ζ∆ cλαχίστης. συνεστάτω γvρ πρoς τ¸ ΕΖ εuθεί; κα| τ; πρoς αuτ¸ σηpεί; τ; Ε
τ¸ uπo ΗΕΖ γωνί; :ση ¿ uπo ΖΕΘ, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΖΘ. cπε| οuν :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΗΕ τ¸ ΕΘ,
κοιν¿ δc ¿ ΕΖ, δύο δ¿ α| ΗΕ, ΕΖ δυσ| ταiς ΘΕ, ΕΖ :σαι εiσίν· κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΗΕΖ γωνί;
l68
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 7
H
A
B
G
F
D
E
C
K
If some point, which is not the center of the circle, is taken on the diameter of a circle, and some
straight-lines radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle, then the greatest
(straight-line) will be that on which the center (lies), and the least the remainder (of the same
diameter). And for the others, a (straight-line) nearer
37
to the (straight-line) through the center
is always greater than a (straight-line) further away. And only two equal (straight-lines) will
radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle, (one) on each (side) of the least
(straight-line).
Let ABCD be a circle, and let AD be its diameter, and let some point F, which is not the center of
the circle, have been taken on AD. Let E be the center of the circle. And let some straight-lines,
FB, FC, and FG, radiate from F towards (the circumference of) circle ABCD. I say that FA
is the greatest (straight-line), FD the least, and of the others, FB (is) greater than FC, and FC
than FG.
For let BE, CE, and GE have been joined. And since for every triangle (any) two sides are
greater than the remaining (side) [Prop. 1.20], EB and EF is thus greater than BF. And AE
(is) equal to BE [thus, BE and EF is equal to AF]. Thus, AF (is) greater than BF. Again,
since BE is equal to CE, and FE (is) common, the two (straight-lines) BE, EF are equal to the
two (straight-lines) CE, EF (respectively). But, angle BEF (is) also greater than angle CEF.
38
Thus, the base BF is greater than the base CF [Prop. 1.24]. So, for the same (reasons), CF is
greater than FG.
Again, since GF and FE are greater than EG [Prop. 1.20], and EG (is) equal to ED, GF and
FE are thus greater than ED. Let EF have been taken from both. Thus, the remainder GF is
greater than the remainder FD. Thus, FA (is) the greatest (straight-line), FD the least, and FB
(is) greater than FC, and FC than FG.
37
Presumably, in an angular sense.
38
This is not proved, except by reference to the figure.
l69
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
ζ΄
τ¸ uπo ΘΕΖ :ση· βάσις vρα ¿ ΖΗ βάσει τ¸ ΖΘ :ση cστίν. λέγω δή, oτι τ¸ ΖΗ vλλη :ση οu
προσπεσεiται πρoς τoν κύκλον vπo τοu Ζ σηpείου. εi γvρ δυνατόν, προσπιπτέτω ¿ ΖΚ. κα|
cπε| ¿ ΖΚ τ¸ ΖΗ :ση cστίν, vλλv ¿ ΖΘ τ¸ ΖΗ ¸:ση cστίν], κα| ¿ ΖΚ vρα τ¸ ΖΘ cστιν :ση,
¿ cγγιον τ¿ς διv τοu κέντρου τ¸ vπώτερον :ση· oπερ vδύνατον. οuκ vρα vπo τοu Ζ σηpείου
cτέρα τις προσπεσεiται πρoς τoν κύκλον :ση τ¸ ΗΖ· pία vρα pόνη.
Εvν vρα κύκλου cπ| τ¿ς διαpέτρου ληφθ¸ τι σηpεiον, o pή cστι κέντρον τοu κύκλου, vπo δc
τοu σηpείου πρoς τoν κύκλον προσπίπτωσιν εuθεiαί τινες, pεγίστη pcν cσται, cφ ¿ς τo κέντρον,
cλαχίστη δc ¿ λοιπή, τeν δc vλλων vε| ¿ cγγιον τ¿ς δ|α τοu κέντρου τ¿ς vπώτερον pείζων
cστίν, δύο δc pόνον :σαι vπo τοu αuτοu σηpείου προσπεσοuνται πρoς τoν κύκλον cφ cκάτερα
τ¿ς cλαχίστης· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
l¯0
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 7
I also say that frompoint F only two equal (straight-lines) will radiate towards (the circumference
of) circle ABCD, (one) on each (side) of the least (straight-line) FD. For let the (angle) FEH,
equal to angle GEF, have been constructed at the point E on the straight-line EF [Prop. 1.23],
and let FH have been joined. Therefore, since GE is equal to EH, and EF (is) common, the two
(straight-lines) GE, EF are equal to the two (straight-lines) HE, EF (respectively). And angle
GEF (is) equal to angle HEF. Thus, the base FG is equal to the base FH [Prop. 1.4]. So I say
that another (straight-line) equal to FG will not radiate towards (the circumference of) the circle
from point F. For, if possible, let FK (so) radiate. And since FK is equal to FG, but FH [is
equal] to FG, FK is thus also equal to FH, the nearer to the (straight-line) through the center
equal to the further away. The very thing (is) impossible. Thus, another (straight-line) equal to
GF will not radiate towards (the circumference of) the circle. Thus, (there is) only one (such
straight-line).
Thus, if some point, which is not the center of the circle, is taken on the diameter of a circle,
and some straight-lines radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle, then the
greatest (straight-line) will be that on which the center (lies), and the least the remainder (of
the same diameter). And for the others, a (straight-line) nearer to the (straight-line) through the
center is always greater than a (straight-line) further away. And only two equal (straight-lines)
will radiate from the same point towards the (circumference of the) circle, (one) on each (side)
of the least (straight-line). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
l¯l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
η΄
Ζ
Λ
Κ
Η
Μ

Θ
Ν
Β
Α
Ε
Γ
Εvν κύκλου ληφθ¸ τι σηpεiον cκτός, vπo δc τοu σηpείου πρoς τoν κύκλον διαχθeσιν εuθεiαί
τινες, eν pία pcν διv τοu κέντρου, α| δc λοιπαί, eς cτυχεν, τeν pcν πρoς τ¿ν κοίλην περιφέρειαν
προσπιπτουσeν εuθειeν pεγίστη pέν cστιν ¿ διv τοu κέντρου, τeν δc vλλων vε| ¿ cγγιον τ¿ς διv
τοu κέντρου τ¿ς vπώτερον pείζων cστίν, τeν δc πρoς τ¿ν κυρτ¿ν περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσeν
εuθειeν cλαχίστη pέν cστιν ¿ pεταξù τοu τε σηpείου κα| τ¿ς διαpέτρου, τeν δc vλλων vε|
¿ cγγιον τ¿ς cλαχίστης τ¿ς vπώτερόν cστιν cλάττων, δύο δc pόνον :σαι vπo τοu σηpείου
προσπεσοuνται πρoς τoν κύκλον cφ cκάτερα τ¿ς cλαχίστης.
´Εστω κύκλος o ΑΒΓ, κα| τοu ΑΒΓ εiλήφθω τι σηpεiον cκτoς τo ∆, κα| vπ αuτοu διήχθωσαν
εuθεiαί τινες α| ∆Α, ∆Ε, ∆Ζ, ∆Γ, cστω δc ¿ ∆Α διv τοu κέντρου. λέγω, oτι τeν pcν πρoς τ¿ν
ΑΕΖΓ κοίλην περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσeν εuθειeν pεγίστη pέν cστιν ¿ διv τοu κέντρου ¿ ∆Α,
pείζων δc ¿ pcν ∆Ε τ¿ς ∆Ζ ¿ δc ∆Ζ τ¿ς ∆Γ, τeν δc πρoς τ¿ν ΘΛΚΗ κυρτ¿ν περιφέρειαν
προσπιπτουσeν εuθειeν cλαχίστη pέν cστιν ¿ ∆Η ¿ pεταξù τοu σηpείου κα| τ¿ς διαpέτρου τ¿ς
ΑΗ, vε| δc ¿ cγγιον τ¿ς ∆Η cλαχίστης cλάττων cστ| τ¿ς vπώτερον, ¿ pcν ∆Κ τ¿ς ∆Λ, ¿ δc
∆Λ τ¿ς ∆Θ.
Εiλήφθω γvρ τo κέντρον τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου κα| cστω τo Μ· κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΜΕ, ΜΖ, ΜΓ,
ΜΚ, ΜΛ, ΜΘ.
Κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΑΜ τ¸ ΕΜ, κοιν¿ προσκείσθω ¿ Μ∆· ¿ vρα Α∆ :ση cστ| ταiς ΕΜ, Μ∆.
vλλ α| ΕΜ, Μ∆ τ¿ς Ε∆ pείζονές εiσιν· κα| ¿ Α∆ vρα τ¿ς Ε∆ pείζων cστίν. πάλιν, cπε| :ση
cστ|ν ¿ ΜΕ τ¸ ΜΖ, κοιν¿ δc ¿ Μ∆, α| ΕΜ, Μ∆ vρα ταiς ΖΜ, Μ∆ :σαι εiσίν· κα| γωνία ¿
uπo ΕΜ∆ γωνίας τ¿ς uπo ΖΜ∆ pείζων cστίν. βάσις vρα ¿ Ε∆ βάσεως τ¿ς Ζ∆ pείζων cστίν·
opοίως δ¿ δείξοpεν, oτι κα| ¿ Ζ∆ τ¿ς Γ∆ pείζων cστίν· pεγίστη pcν vρα ¿ ∆Α, pείζων δc ¿
pcν ∆Ε τ¿ς ∆Ζ, ¿ δc ∆Ζ τ¿ς ∆Γ.
l¯2
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 8
C
H
L
K
G
M
A
E
F
B
D
N
If some point is taken outside a circle, and some straight-lines are drawn from the point to the
(circumference of the) circle, one of which (passes) through the center, the remainder (being)
random, then for the straight-lines radiating towards the concave (part of the) circumference,
the greatest is that (passing) through the center. For the others, a (straight-line) nearer
39
to the
(straight-line) through the center is always greater than one further away. For the straight-lines
radiating towards the convex (part of the) circumference, the least is that between the point and
the diameter. For the others, a (straight-line) nearer to the least (straight-line) is always less than
one further away. And only two equal (straight-lines) will radiate towards the (circumference of
the) circle, (one) on each (side) of the least (straight-line).
Let ABC be a circle, and let some point D have been taken outside ABC, and from it let some
straight-lines, DA, DE, DF, and DC, have been drawn through (the circle), and let DA be
through the center. I say that for the straight-lines radiating towards the concave (part of the)
circumference, AEFC, the greatest is the one (passing) through the center, (namely) AD, and
(that) DE (is) greater than DF, and DF than DC. For the straight-lines radiating towards
the convex (part of the) circumference, HLKG, the least is the one between the point and the
diameter AG, (namely) DG, and a (straight-line) nearer to the least (straight-line) DG is always
less than one farther away, (so that) DK (is less) than DL, and DL than DH.
For let the center of the circle have been found [Prop. 3.1], and let it be (at point) M [Prop. 3.1].
And let ME, MF, MC, MK, ML, and MH have been joined.
And since AM is equal to EM, let MD have been added to both. Thus, AD is equal to EM and
39
Presumably, in an angular sense.
l¯`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
η΄
Κα| cπε| α| ΜΚ, Κ∆ τ¿ς Μ∆ pείζονές εiσιν, :ση δc ¿ ΜΗ τ¸ ΜΚ, λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ Κ∆ λοιπ¿ς τ¿ς
Η∆ pείζων cστίν· eστε ¿ Η∆ τ¿ς Κ∆ cλάττων cστίν· κα| cπε| τριγώνου τοu ΜΛ∆ cπ| pιiς τeν
πλευρeν τ¿ς Μ∆ δύο εuθεiαι cντoς συνεστάθησαν α| ΜΚ, Κ∆, α| vρα ΜΚ, Κ∆ τeν ΜΛ, Λ∆
cλάττονές εiσιν· :ση δc ¿ ΜΚ τ¸ ΜΛ· λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ ∆Κ λοιπ¿ς τ¿ς ∆Λ cλάττων cστίν. opοίως
δ¿ δείξοpεν, oτι κα| ¿ ∆Λ τ¿ς ∆Θ cλάττων cστίν· cλαχίστη pcν vρα ¿ ∆Η, cλάττων δc ¿ pcν
∆Κ τ¿ς ∆Λ ¿ δc ∆Λ τ¿ς ∆Θ.
Λέγω, oτι κα| δύο pόνον :σαι vπo τοu ∆ σηpείου προσπεσοuνται πρoς τoν κύκλον cφ cκάτερα
τ¿ς ∆Η cλαχίστης· συνεστάτω πρoς τ¸ Μ∆ εuθεί; κα| τ; πρoς αuτ¸ σηpεί; τ; Μ τ¸ uπo ΚΜ∆
γωνί; :ση γωνία ¿ uπo ∆ΜΒ, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ∆Β. κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΜΚ τ¸ ΜΒ, κοιν¿ δc ¿
Μ∆, δύο δ¿ α| ΚΜ, Μ∆ δύο ταiς ΒΜ, Μ∆ :σαι εiσ|ν cκατέρα cκατέρ;· κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΚΜ∆
γωνί; τ¸ uπo ΒΜ∆ :ση· βάσις vρα ¿ ∆Κ βάσει τ¸ ∆Β :ση cστίν. λέγω ¸δή], oτι τ¸ ∆Κ εuθεί;
vλλη :ση οu προσπεσεiται πρoς τoν κύκλον vπo τοu ∆ σηpείου. εi γvρ δυνατόν, προσπιπτέτω
κα| cστω ¿ ∆Ν. cπε| οuν ¿ ∆Κ τ¸ ∆Ν cστιν :ση, vλλ ¿ ∆Κ τ¸ ∆Β cστιν :ση, κα| ¿ ∆Β vρα
τ¸ ∆Ν cστιν :ση, ¿ cγγιον τ¿ς ∆Η cλαχίστης τ¸ vπώτερον ¸cστιν] :ση· oπερ vδύνατον cδείχθη.
οuκ vρα πλείους ¿ δύο :σαι πρoς τoν ΑΒΓ κύκλον vπo τοu ∆ σηpείου cφ cκάτερα τ¿ς ∆Η
cλαχίστης προσπεσοuνται.
Εvν vρα κύκλου ληφθ¸ τι σηpεiον cκτός, vπo δc τοu σηpείου πρoς τoν κύκλον διαχθeσιν
εuθεiαί τινες, eν pία pcν διv τοu κέντρου α| δc λοιπαί, eς cτυχεν, τeν pcν πρoς τ¿ν κοίλην
περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσeν εuθειeν pεγίστη pέν cστιν ¿ διv τοu κέντου, τeν δc vλλων vε| ¿
cγγιον τ¿ς διv τοu κέντρου τ¿ς vπώτερον pείζων cστίν, τeν δc πρoς τ¿ν κυρτ¿ν περιφέρειαν
προσπιπτουσeν εuθειeν cλαχίστη pέν cστιν ¿ pεταξù τοu τε σηpείου κα| τ¿ς διαpέτρου, τeν
δc vλλων vε| ¿ cγγιον τ¿ς cλαχίστης τ¿ς vπώτερόν cστιν cλάττων, δύο δc pόνον :σαι vπo τοu
σηpείου προσπεσοuνται πρoς τoν κύκλον cφ cκάτερα τ¿ς cλαχίστης· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
l¯4
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 8
MD. But, EM and MD is greater than ED [Prop. 1.20]. Thus, AD is also greater than ED.
Again, since ME is equal to MF, and MD (is) common, the (straight-lines) EM, MD are thus
equal to FM, MD. And angle EMD is greater than angle FMD.
40
Thus, the base ED is greater
than the base FD [Prop. 1.24]. So, similarly, we can show that FD is also greater than CD.
Thus, AD (is) the greatest (straight-line), and DE (is) greater than DF, and DF than DC.
And since MK and KD is greater than MD [Prop. 1.20], and MG (is) equal to MK, the remain-
der KD is thus greater than the remainder GD. So GD is less than KD. And since in triangle
MLD, the two internal straight-lines MK and KD were constructed on one of the sides, MD,
then MK and KD are thus less than ML and LD [Prop. 1.21]. And MK (is) equal to ML. Thus,
the remainder DK is less than the remainder DL. So, similarly, we can show that DL is also less
than DH. Thus, DG (is) the least (straight-line), and DK (is) less than DL, and DL than DH.
I also say that only two equal (straight-lines) will radiate from point D towards (the circumfer-
ence of) the circle, (one) on each (side) on the least (straight-line), DG. Let the angle DMB,
equal to angle KMD, have been constructed at the point M on the straight-line MD [Prop. 1.23],
and let DB have been joined. And since MK is equal to MB, and MD (is) common, the two
(straight-lines) KM, MD are equal to the two (straight-lines) BM, MD, respectively. And an-
gle KMD (is) equal to angle BMD. Thus, the base DK is equal to the base DB [Prop. 1.4].
[So] I say that another (straight-line) equal to DK will not radiate towards the (circumference
of the) circle from point D. For, if possible, let (such a straight-line) radiate, and let it be DN.
Therefore, since DK is equal to DN, but DK is equal to DB, then DB is thus also equal to DN,
(so that) a (straight-line) nearer to the least (straight-line) DG [is] equal to one further off. The
very thing was shown (to be) impossible. Thus, not more than two equal (straight-lines) will
radiate towards (the circumference of) circle ABC from point D, (one) on each side of the least
(straight-line) DG.
Thus, if some point is taken outside a circle, and some straight-lines are drawn from the point
to the (circumference of the) circle, one of which (passes) through the center, the remainder
(being) random, then for the straight-lines radiating towards the concave (part of the) circum-
ference, the greatest is that (passing) through the center. For the others, a (straight-line) nearer
to the (straight-line) through the center is always greater than one further away. For the straight-
lines radiating towards the convex (part of the) circumference, the least is that between the point
and the diameter. For the others, a (straight-line) nearer to the least (straight-line) is always less
than one further away. And only two equal (straight-lines) will radiate towards the (circumfer-
ence of the) circle, (one) on each (side) of the least (straight-line). (Which is) the very thing it
was required to show.
40
This is not proved, except by reference to the figure.
l¯¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
θ΄
Κ
Ε
Η
Γ
Ζ
Λ

Β
Θ
Α
Εvν κύκλου ληφθ¸ τι σηpεiον cντός, vπο δc τοu σηpείου πρoς τoν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι πλείους
¿ δύο :σαι εuθεiαι, τo ληφθcν σηpεiον κέντρον cστ| τοu κύκλου.
´Εστω κύκλος o ΑΒΓ, cντoς δc αuτοu σηpεiον τo ∆, κα| vπo τοu ∆ πρoς τoν ΑΒΓ κύκλον
προσπιπτέτωσαν πλείους ¿ δύο :σαι εuθεiαι α| ∆Α, ∆Β, ∆Γ· λέγω, oτι τo ∆ σηpεiον κέντρον
cστ| τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου.
Επεζεύχθωσαν γvρ α| ΑΒ, ΒΓ κα| τετpήσθωσαν δίχα κατv τv Ε, Ζ σηpεiα, κα| cπιζευχθεiσαι
α| Ε∆, Ζ∆ διήχθωσαν cπ| τv Η, Κ, Θ, Λ σηpεiα.
Επε| οuν :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΑΕ τ¸ ΕΒ, κοιν¿ δc ¿ Ε∆, δύο δ¿ α| ΑΕ, Ε∆ δύο ταiς ΒΕ, Ε∆ :σαι εiσίν·
κα| βάσις ¿ ∆Α βάσει τ¸ ∆Β :ση· γωνία vρα ¿ uπo ΑΕ∆ γωνί; τ¸ uπo ΒΕ∆ :ση cστίν· oρθ¿
vρα cκατέρα τeν uπo ΑΕ∆, ΒΕ∆ γωνιeν· ¿ ΗΚ vρα τ¿ν ΑΒ τέpνει δίχα κα| πρoς oρθάς. κα|
cπεί, cvν cν κύκλ; εuθεiά τις εuθεiάν τινα δίχα τε κα| πρoς oρθvς τέpν¸, cπ| τ¿ς τεpνούσης
cστ| τo κέντρον τοu κύκλου, cπ| τ¿ς ΗΚ vρα cστ| τo κέντρον τοu κύκλου. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα|
cπ| τ¿ς ΘΛ cστι τo κέντρον τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου. κα| οuδcν cτερον κοινoν cχουσιν α| ΗΚ, ΘΛ
εuθεiαι ¿ τo ∆ σηpεiον· τo ∆ vρα σηpεiον κέντρον cστ| τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου.
Εvν vρα κύκλου ληφθ¸ τι σηpεiον cντός, vπo δc τοu σηpείου πρoς τoν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι
πλείους ¿ δύο :σαι εuθεiαι, τo ληφθcν σηpεiον κέντρον cστ| τοu κύκλου· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
l¯6
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 9
D
E
B
C
G
A
K
L
F
H
If some point is taken inside a circle, and more than two equal straight-lines radiate from the
point towards the (circumference of the) circle, then the point taken is the center of the circle.
Let ABC be a circle, and D a point inside it, and let more than two equal straight-lines, DA, DB,
and DC, radiate from D towards (the circumference of) circle ABC. I say that point D is the
center of circle ABC.
For let AB and BC have been joined, and (then) have been cut in half at points E and F (respec-
tively) [Prop. 1.10]. And ED and FD being joined, let them have been drawn through to points
G, K, H, and L.
Therefore, since AE is equal to EB, and ED (is) common, the two (straight-lines) AE, ED are
equal to the two (straight-lines) BE, ED (respectively). And the base DA (is) equal to the base
DB. Thus, angle AED is equal to angle BED [Prop. 1.8]. Thus, angles AED and BED (are)
each right-angles [Def. 1.10]. Thus, GK cuts AB in half, and at right-angles. And since, if some
straight-line in a circle cuts some (other) straight-line in half, and at right-angles, then the center
of the circle is on the former (straight-line) [Prop. 3.1 corr.], the center of the circle is thus on
GK. So, for the same (reasons), the center of circle ABC is also on HL. And the straight-lines
GK and HL have no common (point) other than point D. Thus, point D is the center of circle
ABC.
Thus, if some point is taken inside a circle, and more than two equal straight-lines radiate from
the point towards the (circumference of the) circle, then the point taken is the center of the circle.
(Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
l¯¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
ι΄
Β ∆
Γ
Η
Ξ
Ε
Ο
Μ
Θ
Ζ
Α
Λ
Κ
Ν
Κύκλος κύκλον οu τέpνει κατv πλείονα σηpεiα ¿ δύο.
Εi γvρ δυνατόν, κύκλος o ΑΒΓ κύκλον τoν ∆ΕΖ τεpνέτω κατv πλείονα σηpεiα ¿ δύο τv Β, Η,
Ζ, Θ, κα| cπιζευχθεiσαι α| ΒΘ, ΒΗ δίχα τεpνέσθωσαν κατv τv Κ, Λ σηpεiα· κα| vπo τeν Κ,
Λ ταiς ΒΘ, ΒΗ πρoς oρθvς vχθεiσαι α| ΚΓ, ΛΜ διήχθωσαν cπ| τv Α, Ε σηpεiα.
Επε| οuν cν κύκλ; τ; ΑΒΓ εuθεiά τις ¿ ΑΓ εuθεiάν τινα τ¿ν ΒΘ δίχα κα| πρoς oρθvς τέpνει,
cπ| τ¿ς ΑΓ vρα cστ| τo κέντρον τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου. πάλιν, cπε| cν κύκλ; τ; αuτ; τ; ΑΒΓ εuθεiά
τις ¿ ΝΞ εuθεiάν τινα τ¿ν ΒΗ δίχα κα| πρoς oρθvς τέpνει, cπ| τ¿ς ΝΞ vρα cστ| τo κέντρον
τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου. cδείχθη δc κα| cπ| τ¿ς ΑΓ, κα| κατ οuδcν συpβάλλουσιν α| ΑΓ, ΝΞ εuθεiαι
¿ κατv τo Ο· τo Ο vρα σηpεiον κέντρον cστ| τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου. opοίως δ¿ δείξοpεν, oτι κα|
τοu ∆ΕΖ κύκλου κέντρον cστ| τo Ο· δύο vρα κύκλων τεpνόντων vλλήλους τeν ΑΒΓ, ∆ΕΖ τo
αuτό cστι κέντρον τo Ο· oπερ cστ|ν vδύνατον.
Οuκ vρα κύκλος κύκλον τέpνει κατv πλείονα σηpεiα ¿ δύο· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
l¯8
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 10
B
A
C
D
E
L
O
G
M
P
F
K
N
H
A circle does not cut a(nother) circle at more than two points.
For, if possible, let the circle ABC cut the circle DEF at more than two points, B, G, F, and H.
And BH and BG being joined, let them (then) have been cut in half at points K and L (respec-
tively). And KC and LM being drawn at right-angles to BH and BG fromK and L (respectively)
[Prop. 1.11], let them (then) have been drawn through to points A and E (respectively).
Therefore, since in circle ABC some straight-line AC cuts some (other) straight-line BH in half,
and at right-angles, the center of circle ABC is thus on AC [Prop. 3.1 corr.]. Again, since in
the same circle ABC some straight-line NO cuts some (other straight-line) BG in half, and at
right-angles, the center of circle ABC is thus on NO [Prop. 3.1 corr.]. And it was also shown (to
be) on AC. And the straight-lines AC and NO meet at no other (point) than P. Thus, point P
is the center of circle ABC. So, similarly, we can show that P is also the center of circle DEF.
Thus, two circles cutting one another, ABC and DEF, have the same center P. The very thing is
impossible [Prop. 3.5].
Thus, a circle does not cut a(nother) circle at more than two points. (Which is) the very thing it
was required to show.
l¯9
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
ια΄

Β
Η
Ζ
Α
Θ
Ε
Γ
Εvν δύο κύκλοι cφάπτωνται vλλήλων cντός, κα| ληφθ¸ αuτeν τv κέντρα, ¿ cπ| τv κέντρα αuτeν
cπιζευγνυpένη εuθεiα κα| cκβαλλοpένη cπ| τ¿ν συναφ¿ν πεσεiται τeν κύκλων.
∆ύο γvρ κύκλοι ο| ΑΒΓ, Α∆Ε cφαπτέσθωσαν vλλήλων cντoς κατv τo Α σηpεiον, κα| εiλήφθω
τοu pcν ΑΒΓ κύκλου κέντρον τo Ζ, τοu δc Α∆Ε τo Η· λέγω, oτι ¿ vπo τοu Η cπ| τo Ζ
cπιζευγνυpένη εuθεiα cκβαλλοpένη cπ| τo Α πεσεiται.
Μ¿ γάρ, vλλ εi δυνατόν, πιπτέτω eς ¿ ΖΗΘ, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΑΖ, ΑΗ.
Επε| οuν α| ΑΗ, ΗΖ τ¿ς ΖΑ, τουτέστι τ¿ς ΖΘ, pείζονές εiσιν, κοιν¿ vφ¸ρήσθω ¿ ΖΗ· λοιπ¿
vρα ¿ ΑΗ λοιπ¿ς τ¿ς ΗΘ pείζων cστίν. :ση δc ¿ ΑΗ τ¸ Η∆· κα| ¿ Η∆ vρα τ¿ς ΗΘ
pείζων cστ|ν ¿ cλάττων τ¿ς pείζονος· oπερ cστ|ν vδύνατον· οuκ vρα ¿ vπo τοu Ζ cπ| τo Η
cπιζευγνυpένη εuθε|α cκτoς πεσεiται· κατv τo Α vρα cπ| τ¿ς συναφ¿ς πεσεiται.
Εvν vρα δύο κύκλοι cφάπτωνται vλλήλων cντός, ¸κα| ληφθ¸ αuτeν τv κέντρα], ¿ cπ| τv κέντρα
αuτeν cπιζευγνυpένη εuθεiα ¸κα| cκβαλλοpένη] cπ| τ¿ν συναφ¿ν πεσεiται τeν κύκλων· oπερ cδει
δεiξαι.
l80
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 11
F
A
B
C
G
H
E
D
If two circles touch one another internally, and their centers are found, then the straight-line
joining their centers, being produced, will fall upon the point of union of the circles.
For let two circles, ABC and ADE, touch one another internally at point A, and let the center F
of circle ABC have been found [Prop. 3.1], and (the center) G of (circle) ADE [Prop. 3.1]. I say
that the line joining G to F, being produced, will fall on A.
For (if) not then, if possible, let it fall like FGH (in the figure), and let AF and AG have been
joined.
Therefore, since AG and GF is greater than FA, that is to say FH [Prop. 1.20], let FG have
been taken from both. Thus, the remainder AG is greater than the remainder GH. And AG (is)
equal to GD. Thus, GD is also greater than GH, the lesser than the greater. The very thing is
impossible. Thus, the straight-line joining F to G will not fall outside (one circle but inside the
other). Thus, it will fall upon the point of union (of the circles) at point A.
Thus, if two circles touch one another internally, [and their centers are found], then the straight-
line joining their centers, [being produced], will fall upon the point of union of the circles. (Which
is) the very thing it was required to show.
l8l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
ιβ΄
Α
Β
Ε
Η
Ζ

Γ
Εvν δύο κύκλοι cφάπτωνται vλλήλων cκτός, ¿ cπ| τv κέντρα αuτeν cπιζευγνυpένη διv τ¿ς
cπαφ¿ς cλεύσεται.
∆ύο γvρ κύκλοι ο| ΑΒΓ, Α∆Ε cφαπτέσθωσαν vλλήλων cκτoς κατv τo Α σηpεiον, κα| εiλήφθω
τοu pcν ΑΒΓ κέντρον τo Ζ, τοu δc Α∆Ε τo Η· λέγω, oτι ¿ vπo τοu Ζ cπ| τo Η cπιζευγνυpένη
εuθεiα διv τ¿ς κατv τo Α cπαφ¿ς cλεύσεται.
Μ¿ γάρ, vλλ εi δυνατόν, cρχέσθω eς ¿ ΖΓ∆Η, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΑΖ, ΑΗ.
Επε| οuν τo Ζ σηpεiον κέντρον cστ| τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου, :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΖΑ τ¸ ΖΓ. πάλιν, cπε| τo Η
σηpεiον κέντρον cστ| τοu Α∆Ε κύκλου, :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΗΑ τ¸ Η∆. cδείχθη δc κα| ¿ ΖΑ τ¸ ΖΓ
:ση· α| vρα ΖΑ, ΑΗ ταiς ΖΓ, Η∆ :σαι εiσίν· eστε oλη ¿ ΖΗ τeν ΖΑ, ΑΗ pείζων cστίν· vλλv
κα| cλάττων· oπερ cστ|ν vδύνατον. οuκ vρα ¿ vπo τοu Ζ cπ| τo Η cπιζευγνυpένη εuθεiα διv
τ¿ς κατv τo Α cπαφ¿ς οuκ cλεύσεται· δι αuτ¿ς vρα.
Εvν vρα δύο κύκλοι cφάπτωνται vλλήλων cκτός, ¿ cπ| τv κέντρα αuτeν cπιζευγνυpένη ¸εuθεiα]
διv τ¿ς cπαφ¿ς cλεύσεται· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
l82
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 12
E
F
B
D
C
A
G
If two circles touch one another externally then the (straight-line) joining their centers will go
through the point of union.
For let two circles, ABC and ADE, touch one another externally at point A, and let the center
F of ABC have been found [Prop. 3.1], and (the center) G of ADE [Prop. 3.1]. I say that the
straight-line joining F to G will go through the point of union at A.
For (if) not then, if possible, let it go like FCDG (in the figure), and let AF and AG have been
joined.
Therefore, since point F is the center of circle ABC, FA is equal to FC. Again, since point G is
the center of circle ADE, GA is equal to GD. And FA was also shown (to be) equal to FC. Thus,
the (straight-lines) FA and AG are equal to the (straight-lines) FC and GD. So the whole of FG
is greater than FA and AG. But, (it is) also less [Prop. 1.20]. The very thing is impossible. Thus,
the straight-line joining F to G will not fail to go through the point of union at A. Thus, (it will
go) through it.
Thus, if two circles touch one another externally then the [straight-line] joining their centers will
go through the point of union. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
l8`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
ιγ΄
Α
Θ Η
Ζ
Γ
Κ
Ε
Β ∆
Κύκλος κύκλου οuκ cφάπτεται κατv πλείονα σηpεiα ¿ καθ cν, cάν τε cντoς cάν τε cκτoς
cφάπτηται.
Εi γvρ δυνατόν, κύκλος o ΑΒΓ∆ κύκλου τοu ΕΒΖ∆ cφαπτέσθω πρότερον cντoς κατv πλείονα
σηpεiα ¿ cν τv ∆, Β.
Κα| εiλήφθω τοu pcν ΑΒΓ∆ κύκλου κέντρον τo Η, τοu δc ΕΒΖ∆ τo Θ.
Η vρα vπo τοu Η cπ| τo Θ cπιζευγνυpένη cπ| τv Β, ∆ πεσεiται. πιπτέτω eς ¿ ΒΗΘ∆. κα|
cπε| τo Η σηpεiον κέντρον cστ| τοu ΑΒΓ∆ κύκλου, :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΒΗ τ¸ Η∆· pείζων vρα ¿ ΒΗ
τ¿ς Θ∆· πολλ; vρα pείζων ¿ ΒΘ τ¿ς Θ∆. πάλιν, cπε| τo Θ σηpεiον κέντρον cστ| τοu ΕΒΖ∆
κύκλου, :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΒΘ τ¸ Θ∆· cδείχθη δc αuτ¿ς κα| πολλ; pείζων· oπερ vδύνατον· οuκ vρα
κύκλος κύκλου cφάπτεται cντoς κατv πλείονα σηpεiα ¿ cν.
Λέγω δή, oτι οuδc cκτός.
Εi γvρ δυνατόν, κύκλος o ΑΓΚ κύκλου τοu ΑΒΓ∆ cφαπτέσθω cκτoς κατv πλείονα σηpεiα ¿ cν
τv Α, Γ, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΑΓ.
´Επε| οuν κύκλων τeν ΑΒΓ∆, ΑΓΚ ε:ληπται cπ| τ¿ς περιφερείας cκατέρου δύο τυχόντα σηpεiα
τv Α, Γ, ¿ cπ| τv σηpεiα cπιζευγνυpένη εuθεiα cντoς cκατέρου πεσεiται· vλλv τοu pcν ΑΒΓ∆
cντoς cπεσεν, τοu δc ΑΓΚ cκτός· oπερ vτοπον· οuκ vρα κύκλος κύκλου cφάπτεται cκτoς κατv
πλείονα σηpεiα ¿ cν. cδείχθη δέ, oτι οuδc cντός.
Κύκλος vρα κύκλου οuκ cφάπτεται κατv πλείονα σηpεiα ¿ ¸καθ] cν, cάν τε cντoς cάν τε cκτoς
cφάπτηται· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
l84
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 13
D
G H
F
E
A
C
B
K
A circle does not touch a(nother) circle at more than one point, whether they touch internally or
externally.
For, if possible, let circle ABDC
41
touch circle EBFD—first of all, internally—at more than one
point, D and B.
And let the center G of circle ABDC have been found [Prop. 3.1], and (the center) H of EBFD
[Prop. 3.1].
Thus, the (straight-line) joining G and H will fall on B and D [Prop. 3.11]. Let it fall like BGHD
(in the figure). And since point G is the center of circle ABDC, BG is equal to GD. Thus, BG
(is) greater than HD. Thus, BH (is) much greater than HD. Again, since point H is the center
of circle EBFD, BH is equal to HD. But it was also shown (to be) much greater than the same.
The very thing (is) impossible. Thus, a circle does not touch a(nother) circle internally at more
than one point.
So, I say that neither (does it touch) externally (at more than one point).
For, if possible, let circle ACK touch circle ABDC externally at more than one point, A and C.
And let AC have been joined.
Therefore, since two points, A and C, have been taken somewhere on the circumference of each
of the circles ABDC and ACK, the straight-line joining the points will fall inside each (circle)
[Prop. 3.2]. But, it fell inside ABDC, and outside ACK [Def. 3.3]. The very thing (is) absurd.
Thus, a circle does not touch a(nother) circle externally at more than one point. And it was shown
that neither (does it) internally.
Thus, a circle does not touch a(nother) circle at more than one point, whether they touch inter-
nally or externally. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
41
The Greek text has “ABCD”, which is obviously a mistake.
l8¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
ιδ΄
Ζ
Η
Ε
Α
Γ

Β
Εν κύκλ; α| :σαι εuθεiαι :σον vπέχουσιν vπo τοu κέντρου, κα| α| :σον vπέχουσαι vπo τοu
κέντρου :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν.
´Εστω κύκλος o ΑΒΓ∆, κα| cν αuτ; :σαι εuθεiαι cστωσαν α| ΑΒ, Γ∆· λέγω, oτι α| ΑΒ, Γ∆ :σον
vπέχουσιν vπo τοu κέντρου.
Εiλήφθω γvρ τo κέντον τοu ΑΒΓ∆ κύκλου κα| cστω τo Ε, κα| vπo τοu Ε cπ| τvς ΑΒ, Γ∆
κάθετοι ¿χθωσαν α| ΕΖ, ΕΗ, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΑΕ, ΕΓ.
Επε| οuν εuθεiά τις δ|α τοu κέντρου ¿ ΕΖ εuθεiάν τινα p¿ διv τοu κέντρου τ¿ν ΑΒ πρoς oρθvς
τέpνει, κα| δίχα αuτ¿ν τέpνει. :ση vρα ¿ ΑΖ τ¸ ΖΒ· διπλ¿ vρα ¿ ΑΒ τ¿ς ΑΖ. διv τv αuτv δ¿
κα| ¿ Γ∆ τ¿ς ΓΗ cστι διπλ¿· καί cστιν :ση ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ Γ∆· :ση vρα κα| ¿ ΑΖ τ¸ ΓΗ. κα| cπε| :ση
cστ|ν ¿ ΑΕ τ¸ ΕΓ, :σον κα| τo vπo τ¿ς ΑΕ τ; vπo τ¿ς ΕΓ. vλλv τ; pcν vπo τ¿ς ΑΕ :σα τv
vπo τeν ΑΖ, ΕΖ· oρθ¿ γvρ ¿ πρoς τ; Ζ γωνία· τ; δc vπo τ¿ς ΕΓ :σα τv vπo τeν ΕΗ, ΗΓ·
oρθ¿ γvρ ¿ πρoς τ; Η γωνία· τv vρα vπo τeν ΑΖ, ΖΕ :σα cστ| τοiς vπo τeν ΓΗ, ΗΕ, eν τo
vπo τ¿ς ΑΖ :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς ΓΗ· :ση γάρ cστιν ¿ ΑΖ τ¸ ΓΗ· λοιπoν vρα τo vπo τ¿ς ΖΕ
τ; vπo τ¿ς ΕΗ :σον cστίν· :ση vρα ¿ ΕΖ τ¸ ΕΗ. cν δc κύκλ; :σον vπέχειν vπo τοu κέντρου
εuθεiαι λέγονται, oταν α| vπo τοu κέντρου cπ αuτvς κάθετοι vγόpεναι :σαι eσιν· α| vρα ΑΒ,
Γ∆ :σον vπέχουσιν vπo τοu κέντρου.
Αλλv δ¿ α| ΑΒ, Γ∆ εuθεiαι :σον vπεχέτωσαν vπo τοu κέντρου, τουτέστιν :ση cστω ¿ ΕΖ τ¸
ΕΗ. λέγω, oτι :ση cστ| κα| ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ Γ∆.
Τeν γvρ αuτeν κατασκευασθέντων opοίως δείξοpεν, oτι διπλ¿ cστιν ¿ pcν ΑΒ τ¿ς ΑΖ, ¿ δc
Γ∆ τ¿ς ΓΗ· κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΑΕ τ¸ ΓΕ, :σον cστ| τo vπo τ¿ς ΑΕ τ; vπo τ¿ς ΓΕ· vλλv τ;
pcν vπo τ¿ς ΑΕ :σα cστ| τv vπo τeν ΕΖ, ΖΑ, τ; δc vπo τ¿ς ΓΕ :σα τv vπo τeν ΕΗ, ΗΓ. τv
l86
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 14
F
B
D
G
E
A
C
In a circle, equal straight-lines are equally far from the center, and (straight-lines) which are
equally far from the center are equal to one another.
Let ABDC
42
be a circle, and let AB and CD be equal straight-lines within it. I say that AB and
CD are equally far from the center.
For let the center of circle ABDC have been found [Prop. 3.1], and let it be (at) E. And let
EF and EG have been drawn from (point) E, perpendicular to AB and CD (respectively)
[Prop. 1.12]. And let AE and EC have been joined.
Therefore, since some straight-line, EF, through the center (of the circle), cuts some (other)
straight-line, AB, not through the center, at right-angles, it also cuts it in half [Prop. 3.3]. Thus,
AF (is) equal to FB. Thus, AB (is) double AF. So, for the same (reasons), CD is also double
CG. And AB is equal to CD. Thus, AF (is) also equal to CG. And since AE is equal to EC, the
(square) on AE (is) also equal to the (square) on EC. But, the (sum of the squares) on AF and
EF (is) equal to the (square) on AE. For the angle at F (is) a right-angle [Prop. 1.47]. And the
(sum of the squares) on EG and GC (is) equal to the (square) on EC. For the angle at G (is) a
right-angle [Prop. 1.47]. Thus, the (sum of the squares) on AF and FE is equal to the (sum of
the squares) on CG and GE, of which the (square) on AF is equal to the (square) on CG. For
AF is equal to CG. Thus, the remaining (square) on FE is equal to the (remaining square) on
EG. Thus, EF (is) equal to EG. And straight-lines in a circle are said to be equally far from the
center when perpendicular (straight-lines) which are drawn to them from the center are equal
[Def. 3.4]. Thus, AB and CD are equally far from the center.
42
The Greek text has “ABCD”, which is obviously a mistake.
l8¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
ιδ΄
vρα vπo τeν ΕΖ, ΖΑ :σα cστ| τοiς vπo τeν ΕΗ, ΗΓ· eν τo vπo τ¿ς ΕΖ τ; vπo τ¿ς ΕΗ cστιν
:σον· :ση γvρ ¿ ΕΖ τ¸ ΕΗ· λοιπoν vρα τo vπo τ¿ς ΑΖ :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς ΓΗ· :ση vρα ¿
ΑΖ τ¸ ΓΗ· καί cστι τ¿ς pcν ΑΖ διπλ¿ ¿ ΑΒ, τ¿ς δc ΓΗ διπλ¿ ¿ Γ∆· :ση vρα ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ Γ∆.
Εν κύκλ; vρα α| :σαι εuθεiαι :σον vπέχουσιν vπo τοu κέντρου, κα| α| :σον vπέχουσαι vπo τοu
κέντρου :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
l88
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 14
So, let the straight-lines AB and CD be equally far from the center. That is to say, let EF be
equal to EG. I say that AB is also equal to CD.
For, with the same construction, we can, similarly, show that AB is double AF, and CD (double)
CG. And since AE is equal to CE, the (square) on AE is equal to the (square) on CE. But, the
(sum of the squares) on EF and FA is equal to the (square) on AE [Prop. 1.47]. And the (sum
of the squares) on EG and GC (is) equal to the (square) on CE [Prop. 1.47]. Thus, the (sum of
the squares) on EF and FA is equal to the (sum of the squares) on EG and GC, of which the
(square) on EF is equal to the (square) on EG. For EF (is) equal to EG. Thus, the remaining
(square) on AF is equal to the (remaining square) on CG. Thus, AF (is) equal to CG. And AB
is double AF, and CD double CG. Thus, AB (is) equal to CD.
Thus, in a circle, equal straight-lines are equally far from the center, and (straight-lines) which
are equally far from the center are equal to one another. (Which is) the very thing it was required
to show.
l89
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
ιε΄
Β
Ν

Γ
Θ
Α
Η
Κ
Λ Ε
Μ
Ζ
Εν κύκλ; pεγίστη pcν ¿ διάpετρος, τeν δc vλλων vε| ¿ cγγιον τοu κέντρου τ¿ς vπώτερον
pείζων cστίν.
´Εστω κύκλος o ΑΒΓ∆, διάpετρος δc αuτοu cστω ¿ Α∆, κέντρον δc τo Ε, κα| cγγιον pcν τ¿ς
Α∆ διαpέτρου cστω ¿ ΒΓ, vπώτερον δc ¿ ΖΗ· λέγω, oτι pεγίστη pέν cστιν ¿ Α∆, pείζων δc ¿
ΒΓ τ¿ς ΖΗ.
´Ηχθωσαν γvρ vπo τοu Ε κέντρου cπ| τvς ΒΓ, ΖΗ κάθετοι α| ΕΘ, ΕΚ. κα| cπε| cγγιον pcν
τοu κέντρου cστ|ν ¿ ΒΓ, vπώτερον δc ¿ ΖΗ, pείζων vρα ¿ ΕΚ τ¿ς ΕΘ. κείσθω τ¸ ΕΘ :ση ¿
ΕΛ, κα| διv τοu Λ τ¸ ΕΚ πρoς oρθvς vχθεiσα ¿ ΛΜ διήχθω cπ| τo Ν, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α|
ΜΕ, ΕΝ, ΖΕ, ΕΗ.
Κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΕΘ τ¸ ΕΛ, :ση cστ| κα| ¿ ΒΓ τ¸ ΜΝ. πάλιν, cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ pcν ΑΕ
τ¸ ΕΜ, ¿ δc Ε∆ τ¸ ΕΝ, ¿ vρα Α∆ ταiς ΜΕ, ΕΝ :ση cστίν. vλλ α| pcν ΜΕ, ΕΝ τ¿ς ΜΝ
pείζονές εiσιν ¸κα| ¿ Α∆ τ¿ς ΜΝ pείζων cστίν], :ση δc ¿ ΜΝ τ¸ ΒΓ· ¿ Α∆ vρα τ¿ς ΒΓ pείζων
cστίν. κα| cπε| δύο α| ΜΕ, ΕΝ δύο ταiς ΖΕ, ΕΗ :σαι εiσίν, κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΜΕΝ γωνίας τ¿ς
uπo ΖΕΗ pείζων ¸cστίν], βάσις vρα ¿ ΜΝ βάσεως τ¿ς ΖΗ pείζων cστίν. vλλv ¿ ΜΝ τ¸ ΒΓ
cδείχθη :ση ¸κα| ¿ ΒΓ τ¿ς ΖΗ pείζων cστίν]. pεγίστη pcν vρα ¿ Α∆ διάpετρος, pείζων δc ¿
ΒΓ τ¿ς ΖΗ.
Εν κύκλ; vρα pεγίστη pcν έστιν ¿ διάpετρος, τeν δc vλλων vε| ¿ cγγιον τοu κέντρου τ¿ς
vπώτερον pείζων cστίν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
l90
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 15
M
G
N
D
C
H
A
F
L E
B
K
In a circle, a diameter (is) the greatest (straight-line), and for the others, a (straight-line) nearer
to the center is always greater than one further away.
Let ABCD be a circle, and let AD be its diameter, and E (its) center. And let BC be nearer to
the diameter AD
43
, and FG further away. I say that AD is the greatest (straight-line), and BC
(is) greater than FG.
For let EH and EK have been drawn from the center E, at right-angles to BC and FG (respec-
tively) [Prop. 1.12]. And since BC is nearer to the center, and FG further away, EK (is) thus
greater than EH [Def. 3.5]. Let EL be made equal to EH [Prop. 1.3]. And LM being drawn
through L, at right-angles to EK [Prop. 1.11], let it have been drawn through to N. And let ME,
EN, FE, and EG have been joined.
And since EH is equal to EL, BC is also equal to MN [Prop. 3.14]. Again, since AE is equal to
EM, and ED to EN, AD is thus equal to ME and EN. But, ME and EN is greater than MN
[Prop. 1.20] [also AD is greater than MN], and MN (is) equal to BC. Thus, AD is greater than
BC. And since the two (straight-lines) ME, EN are equal to the two (straight-lines) FE, EG
(respectively), and angle MEN [is] greater than angle FEG,
44
the base MN is thus greater than
the base FG [Prop. 1.24]. But, MN was shown (to be) equal to BC [(so) BC is also greater than
FG]. Thus, the diameter AD (is) the greatest (straight-line), and BC (is) greater than FG.
Thus, in a circle, a diameter (is) the greatest (straight-line), and for the others, a (straight-line)
nearer to the center is always greater than one further away. (Which is) the very thing it was
required to show.
43
Euclid should have said “to the center”, rather than ”to the diameter AD”, since BC, AD and FG are not
necessarily parallel.
44
This is not proved, except by reference to the figure.
l9l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
ιç΄
Η
Α
Β

Γ
Ζ
Ε
Θ
Η τ¸ διαpέτρ; τοu κύκλου πρoς oρθvς vπ vκρας vγοpένη cκτoς πεσεiται τοu κύκλου, κα| εiς
τoν pεταξù τόπον τ¿ς τε εuθείας κα| τ¿ς περιφερείας cτέρα εuθεiα οu παρεpπεσεiται, κα| ¿ pcν
τοu ¿pικυκλίου γωνία \πάσης γωνίας oξείας εuθυγράppου pείζων cστίν, ¿ δc λοιπ¿ cλάττων.
´Εστω κύκλος o ΑΒΓ περ| κέντρον τo ∆ κα| διάpετρον τ¿ν ΑΒ· λέγω, oτι ¿ vπo τοu Α τ¸ ΑΒ
πρoς oρθvς vπ vκρας vγοpένη cκτoς πεσεiται τοu κύκλου.
Μ¿ γάρ, vλλ εi δυνατόν, πιπτέτω cντoς eς ¿ ΓΑ, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ∆Γ.
Επε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ∆Α τ¸ ∆Γ, :ση cστ| κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ∆ΑΓ γωνί; τ¸ uπo ΑΓ∆. oρθ¿ δc ¿
uπo ∆ΑΓ· oρθ¿ vρα κα| ¿ uπo ΑΓ∆· τριγώνου δ¿ τοu ΑΓ∆ α| δύο γωνίαι α| uπo ∆ΑΓ, ΑΓ∆
δύο oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν· oπερ cστ|ν vδύνατον. οuκ vρα ¿ vπo τοu Α σηpείου τ¸ ΒΑ πρoς oρθvς
vγοpένη cντoς πεσεiται τοu κύκλου. opοίως δ¿ δεiξοpεν, oτι οuδ cπ| τ¿ς περιφερείας· cκτoς
vρα.
Πιπτέτω eς ¿ ΑΕ· λέγω δή, oτι εiς τoν pεταξù τόπον τ¿ς τε ΑΕ εuθείας κα| τ¿ς ΓΘΑ
περιφερείας cτέρα εuθεiα οu παρεpπεσεiται.
Εi γvρ δυνατόν, παρεpπιπτέτω eς ¿ ΖΑ, κα| ¿χθω vπo τοu ∆ σηpείου cπ| τ¿ν ΖΑ κάθετος ¿
∆Η. κα| cπε| oρθή cστιν ¿ uπo ΑΗ∆, cλάττων δc oρθ¿ς ¿ uπo ∆ΑΗ, pείζων vρα ¿ Α∆ τ¿ς ∆Η.
:ση δc ¿ ∆Α τ¸ ∆Θ· pείζων vρα ¿ ∆Θ τ¿ς ∆Η, ¿ cλάττων τ¿ς pείζονος· oπερ cστ|ν vδύνατον.
οuκ vρα εiς τoν pεταξù τόπον τ¿ς τε εuθείας κα| τ¿ς περιφερείας cτέρα εuθεiα παρεpπεσεiται.
Λέγω, oτι κα| ¿ pcν τοu ¿pικυκλίου γωνία ¿ περιεχοpένη uπό τε τ¿ς ΒΑ εuθείας κα| τ¿ς ΓΘΑ
περιφερείας \πάσης γωνίας oξείας εuθυγράppου pείζων cστίν, ¿ δc λοιπ¿ ¿ περιεχοpένη uπό τε
τ¿ς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας κα| τ¿ς ΑΕ εuθείας \πάσης γωνίας oξείας εuθυγράppου cλάττων cστίν.
l92
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 16
H
F
E
G
D
B
A
C
A (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to the diameter of a circle, from its end, will fall outside the
circle. And another straight-line cannot be inserted into the space between the (aforementioned)
straight-line and the circumference. And the angle of the semi-circle is greater than any acute
rectilinear angle whatsoever, and the remaining (angle is) less (than any acute rectilinear angle).
Let ABC be a circle around the center D and the diameter AB. I say that the (straight-line)
drawn from A, at right-angles to AB [Prop 1.11], from its end, will fall outside the circle.
For (if) not then, if possible, let it fall inside, like CA (in the figure), and let DC have been joined.
Since DA is equal to DC, angle DAC is also equal to angle ACD [Prop. 1.5]. And DAC (is) a
right-angle. Thus, ACD (is) also a right-angle. So, in triangle ACD, the two angles DAC and
ACD are equal to two right-angles. The very thing is impossible [Prop. 1.17]. Thus, the (straight-
line) drawn from point A, at right-angles to BA, will not fall inside the circle. So, similarly, we
can show that neither (will it fall) on the circumference. Thus, (it will fall) outside (the circle).
Let it fall like AE (in the figure). So, I say that another straight-line cannot be inserted into the
space between the straight-line AE and the circumference CHA.
For, if possible, let it be inserted like FA (in the figure), and let DG have been drawn from point
D, perpendicular to FA [Prop. 1.12]. And since AGD is a right-angle, and DAG (is) less than a
right-angle, AD (is) thus greater than DG [Prop. 1.19]. And DA (is) equal to DH. Thus, DH (is)
greater than DG, the lesser than the greater. The very thing is impossible. Thus, another straight-
line cannot be inserted into the space between the straight-line (AE) and the circumference.
l9`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
ιç΄
Εi γvρ cστί τις γωνία εuθύγραppος pείζων pcν τ¿ς περιεχοpένης uπό τε τ¿ς ΒΑ εuθείας κα|
τ¿ς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας, cλάττων δc τ¿ς περιεχοpένης uπό τε τ¿ς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας κα| τ¿ς ΑΕ
εuθείας, εiς τoν pεταξù τόπον τ¿ς τε ΓΘΑ περιφερείας κα| τ¿ς ΑΕ εuθείας εuθεiα παρεpπεσεiται,
¿τις ποιήσει pείζονα pcν τ¿ς περιεχοpένης uπo τε τ¿ς ΒΑ εuθείας κα| τ¿ς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας
uπo εuθειeν περιεχοpένην, cλάττονα δc τ¿ς περιεχοpένης uπό τε τ¿ς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας κα|
τ¿ς ΑΕ εuθείας. οu παρεpπίπτει δέ· οuκ vρα τ¿ς περιεχοpένης γωνίας uπό τε τ¿ς ΒΑ εuθείας
κα| τ¿ς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας cσται pείζων oξεiα uπo εuθειeν περιεχοpένη, οuδc p¿ν cλάττων τ¿ς
περιεχοpένης uπό τε τ¿ς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας κα| τ¿ς ΑΕ εuθείας.
Πόρισpα
Εκ δ¿ τούτου φανερόν, oτι ¿ τ¸ διαpέτρ; τοu κύκλου πρoς oρθvς vπ vκρας vγοpένη cφάπτεται
τοu κύκλου ¸κα| oτι εuθεiα κύκλου καθ cν pόνον cφάπτεται σηpεiον, cπειδήπερ κα| ¿ κατv δύο
αuτ; συpβάλλουσα cντoς αuτοu πίπτουσα cδείχθη]· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
l94
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 16
And I also say that the semi-circular angle contained by the straight-line BA and the circum-
ference CHA is greater than any acute rectilinear angle whatsoever, and the remaining (angle)
contained by the circumference CHA and the straight-line AE is less than any acute rectilinear
angle whatsoever.
For if any rectilinear angle is greater than the (angle) contained by the straight-line BA and
the circumference CHA, or less than the (angle) contained by the circumference CHA and the
straight-line AE, then a straight-line can be inserted into the space between the circumference
CHA and the straight-line AE—anything which will make (an angle) contained by straight-lines
greater than the angle contained by the straight-line BA and the circumference CHA, or less
than the (angle) contained by the circumference CHA and the straight-line AE. But (such a
straight-line) cannot be inserted. Thus, an acute (angle) contained by straight-lines cannot be
greater than the angle contained by the straight-line BA and the circumference CHA, neither
(can it be) less than the (angle) contained by the circumference CHA and the straight-line AE.
Corollary
So, from this, (it is) manifest that a (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to the diameter of a
circle, from its end, touches the circle [and that the straight-line touches the circle at a single
point, inasmuch as it was also shown that a (straight-line) meeting (the circle) at two (points)
falls inside it [Prop. 3.2] ]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
l9¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
ιζ΄

Ε
Α
Η Γ
Β
Ζ
Απo τοu δοθέντος σηpείου τοu δοθέντος κύκλου cφαπτοpένην εuθεiαν γραpp¿ν vγαγεiν.
´Εστω τo pcν δοθcν σηpεiον τo Α, o δc δοθε|ς κύκλος o ΒΓ∆· δεi δ¿ vπo τοu Α σηpείου τοu
ΒΓ∆ κύκλου cφαπτοpένην εuθεiαν γραpp¿ν vγαγεiν.
Εiλήφθω γvρ τo κέντρον τοu κύκλου τo Ε, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΑΕ, κα| κέντρ; pcν τ; Ε
διαστήpατι δc τ; ΕΑ κύκλος γεγράφθω o ΑΖΗ, κα| vπo τοu ∆ τ¸ ΕΑ πρoς oρθvς ¿χθω ¿
∆Ζ, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΕΖ, ΑΒ· λέγω, oτι vπo τοu Α σηpείου τοu ΒΓ∆ κύκλου cφαπτοpένη
¿κται ¿ ΑΒ.
Επε| γvρ τo Ε κέντρον cστ| τeν ΒΓ∆, ΑΖΗ κύκλων, :ση vρα cστ|ν ¿ pcν ΕΑ τ¸ ΕΖ, ¿ δc Ε∆
τ¸ ΕΒ· δύο δ¿ α| ΑΕ, ΕΒ δύο ταiς ΖΕ, Ε∆ :σαι εiσίν· κα| γωνίαν κοιν¿ν περιέχουσι τ¿ν πρoς
τ; Ε· βάσις vρα ¿ ∆Ζ βάσει τ¸ ΑΒ :ση cστίν, κα| τo ∆ΕΖ τρίγωνον τ; ΕΒΑ τριγών; :σον
cστίν, κα| α| λοιπα| γωνίαι ταiς λοιπαiς γωνίαις· :ση vρα ¿ uπo Ε∆Ζ τ¸ uπo ΕΒΑ. oρθ¿ δc ¿
uπo Ε∆Ζ· oρθ¿ vρα κα| ¿ uπo ΕΒΑ. καί cστιν ¿ ΕΒ cκ τοu κέντρου· ¿ δc τ¸ διαpέτρ; τοu
κύκλου πρoς oρθvς vπ vκρας vγοpένη cφάπτεται τοu κύκλου· ¿ ΑΒ vρα cφάπτεται τοu ΒΓ∆
κύκλου.
Απo τοu vρα δοθέντος σηpείου τοu Α τοu δοθέντος κύκλου τοu ΒΓ∆ cφαπτοpένη εuθεiα
γραpp¿ ¿κται ¿ ΑΒ· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
l96
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 17
D
A
C G
E
B
F
To draw a straight-line touching a given circle from a given point.
Let A be the given point, and BCD the given circle. So it is required to draw a straight-line
touching circle BCD from point A.
For let the center E of the circle have been found [Prop. 3.1], and let AE have been joined. And
let (the circle) AFG have been drawn with center E and radius EA. And let DF have been drawn
from from (point) D, at right-angles to EA [Prop. 1.11]. And let EF and AB have been joined.
I say that the (straight-line) AB has been drawn from point A touching circle BCD.
For since E is the center of circles BCD and AFG, EA is thus equal to EF, and ED to EB. So
the two (straight-lines) AE, EB are equal to the two (straight-lines) FE, ED (respectively). And
they contain a common angle at E. Thus, the base DF is equal to the base AB, and triangle DEF
is equal to triangle EBA, and the remaining angles (are equal) to the (corresponding) remaining
angles [Prop. 1.4]. Thus, (angle) EDF (is) equal to EBA. And EDF (is) a right-angle. Thus,
EBA (is) also a right-angle. And EB is a radius. And a (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to
the diameter of a circle, from its end, touches the circle [Prop. 3.16 corr.]. Thus, AB touches
circle BCD.
Thus, the straight-line AB has been drawn touching the given circle BCD from the given point
A. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.
l9¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
ιη΄
Α
Ε
Η

Γ
Ζ
Β
Εvν κύκλου cφάπτηταί τις εuθεiα, vπo δc τοu κέντρου cπ| τ¿ν \φ¿ν cπιζευχθ¸ τις εuθεiα, ¿
cπιζευχθεiσα κάθετος cσται cπ| τ¿ν cφαπτοpένην.
Κύκλου γvρ τοu ΑΒΓ cφαπτέσθω τις εuθεiα ¿ ∆Ε κατv τo Γ σηpεiον, κα| εiλήφθω τo κέντρον
τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου τo Ζ, κα| vπo τοu Ζ cπ| τo Γ cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΖΓ· λέγω, oτι ¿ ΖΓ κάθετός cστιν
cπ| τ¿ν ∆Ε.
Εi γvρ pή, ¿χθω vπo τοu Ζ cπ| τ¿ν ∆Ε κάθετος ¿ ΖΗ.
Επε| οuν ¿ uπo ΖΗΓ γωνία oρθή cστιν, oξεiα vρα cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΖΓΗ· uπo δc τ¿ν pείζονα
γωνίαν ¿ pείζων πλευρv uποτείνει· pείζων vρα ¿ ΖΓ τ¿ς ΖΗ· :ση δc ¿ ΖΓ τ¸ ΖΒ· pείζων vρα
κα| ¿ ΖΒ τ¿ς ΖΗ ¿ cλάττων τ¿ς pείζονος· oπερ cστ|ν vδύνατον. οuκ vρα ¿ ΖΗ κάθετός cστιν
cπ| τ¿ν ∆Ε. opοίως δ¿ δεiξοpεν, oτι οuδ vλλη τις πλ¿ν τ¿ς ΖΓ· ¿ ΖΓ vρα κάθετός cστιν cπ|
τ¿ν ∆Ε.
Εvν vρα κύκλου cφάπτηταί τις εuθεiα, vπo δc τοu κέντρου cπ| τ¿ν \φ¿ν cπιζευχθ¸ τις εuθεiα,
¿ cπιζευχθεiσα κάθετος cσται cπ| τ¿ν cφαπτοpένην· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
l98
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 18
D
A
G
C
E
F
B
If some straight-line touches a circle, and some (other) straight-line is joined from the center (of
the circle) to the point of contact, then the (straight-line) so joined will be perpendicular to the
tangent.
For let some straight-line DE touch the circle ABC at point C, and let the center F of circle
ABC have been found [Prop. 3.1], and let FC have been joined from F to C. I say that FC is
perpendicular to DE.
For if not, let FG have been drawn from F, perpendicular to DE [Prop. 1.12].
Therefore, since angle FGC is a right-angle, (angle) FCG is thus acute [Prop. 1.17]. And the
greater angle subtends the greater side [Prop. 1.19]. Thus, FC (is) greater than FG. And FC
(is) equal to FB. Thus, FB (is) also greater than FG, the lesser than the greater. The very thing
is impossible. Thus, FG is not perpendicular to DE. So, similarly, we can show that neither (is)
any other (straight-line) than FC. Thus, FC is perpendicular to DE.
Thus, if some straight-line touches a circle, and some (other) straight-line is joined fromthe center
(of the circle) to the point of contact, then the (straight-line) so joined will be perpendicular to
the tangent. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
l99
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
ιθ΄
Β
Ε
Ζ

Α
Γ
Εvν κύκλου cφάπτηταί τις εuθεiα, vπo δc τ¿ς \φ¿ς τ¸ cφαπτοpέν¸ πρoς oρθvς ¸γωνίας] εuθεiα
γραpp¿ vχθ¸, cπ| τ¿ς vχθείσης cσται τo κέντρον τοu κύκλου.
Κύκλου γvρ τοu ΑΒΓ cφαπτέσθω τις εuθεiα ¿ ∆Ε κατv τo Γ σηpεiον, κα| vπo τοu Γ τ¸ ∆Ε
πρoς oρθvς ¿χθω ¿ ΓΑ· λέγω, oτι cπ| τ¿ς ΑΓ cστι τo κέντρον τοu κύκλου.
Μ¿ γάρ, vλλ εi δυνατόν, cστω τo Ζ, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΓΖ.
Επε| ¸οuν] κύκλου τοu ΑΒΓ cφάπτεταί τις εuθεiα ¿ ∆Ε, vπo δc τοu κέντρου cπ| τ¿ν \φ¿ν
cπέζευκται ¿ ΖΓ, ¿ ΖΓ vρα κάθετός cστιν cπ| τ¿ν ∆Ε· oρθ¿ vρα cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΖΓΕ. cστ| δc
κα| ¿ uπo ΑΓΕ oρθή· :ση vρα cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΖΓΕ τ¸ uπo ΑΓΕ ¿ cλάττων τ¸ pείζονι· oπερ cστ|ν
vδύνατον. οuκ vρα τo Ζ κέντρον cστ| τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου. opοίως δ¿ δείξοpεν, oτι οuδ vλλο τι
πλ¿ν cπ| τ¿ς ΑΓ.
Εvν vρα κύκλου cφάπτηταί τις εuθεiα, vπo δc τ¿ς \φ¿ς τ¸ cφαπτοpέν¸ πρoς oρθvς εuθεiα
γραpp¿ vχθ¸, cπ| τ¿ς vχθείσης cσται τo κέντρον τοu κύκλου· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
200
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 19
B
D E
C
F
A
If some straight-line touches a circle, and a straight-line is drawn from the point of contact, at
right-[angles] to the tangent, then the center (of the circle) will be on the (straight-line) so drawn.
For let some straight-line DE touch the circle ABC at point C. And let CA have been drawn from
C, at right-angles to DE [Prop. 1.11]. I say that the center of the circle is on AC.
For (if) not, if possible, let F be (the center of the circle), and let CF have been joined.
[Therefore], since some straight-line DE touches the circle ABC, and FC has been joined from
the center to the point of contact, FC is thus perpendicular to DE [Prop. 3.18]. Thus, FCE is a
right-angle. And ACE is also a right-angle. Thus, FCE is equal to ACE, the lesser to the greater.
The very thing is impossible. Thus, F is not the center of circle ABC. So, similarly, we can show
that neither is any (point) other (than one) on AC.
Thus, if some straight-line touches a circle, and a straight-line is drawn from the point of contact,
at right-angles to the tangent, then the center (of the circle) will be on the (straight-line) so
drawn. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
20l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
κ΄
Ε
Β
Ζ
Γ

Η
Α
Εν κύκλ; ¿ πρoς τ; κέντρ; γωνία διπλασίων cστ| τ¿ς πρoς τ¸ περιφερεί;, oταν τ¿ν αuτ¿ν
περιφέρειαν βάσιν cχωσιν α| γωνίαι.
´Εστω κύκλος o ΑΒΓ, κα| πρoς pcν τ; κέντρ; αuτοu γωνία cστω ¿ uπo ΒΕΓ, πρoς δc τ¸
περιφερεί; ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ, cχέτωσαν δc τ¿ν αuτ¿ν περιφέρειαν βάσιν τ¿ν ΒΓ· λέγω, oτι διπλασίων
cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΒΕΓ γωνία τ¿ς uπo ΒΑΓ.
Επιζευχθεiσα γvρ ¿ ΑΕ διήχθω cπ| τo Ζ.
Επε| οuν :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΕΑ τ¸ ΕΒ, :ση κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΕΑΒ τ¸ uπo ΕΒΑ· α| vρα uπo ΕΑΒ,
ΕΒΑ γωνίαι τ¿ς uπo ΕΑΒ διπλασίους εiσίν. :ση δc ¿ uπo ΒΕΖ ταiς uπo ΕΑΒ, ΕΒΑ· κα| ¿ uπo
ΒΕΖ vρα τ¿ς uπo ΕΑΒ cστι διπλ¿. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| ¿ uπo ΖΕΓ τ¿ς uπo ΕΑΓ cστι διπλ¿.
oλη vρα ¿ uπo ΒΕΓ oλης τ¿ς uπo ΒΑΓ cστι διπλ¿.
Κεκλάσθω δ¿ πάλιν, κα| cστω cτέρα γωνία ¿ uπo Β∆Γ, κα| cπιζευχθεiσα ¿ ∆Ε cκβεβλήσθω cπ|
τo Η. opοίως δ¿ δείξοpεν, oτι διπλ¿ cστιν ¿ uπo ΗΕΓ γωνία τ¿ς uπo Ε∆Γ, eν ¿ uπo ΗΕΒ
διπλ¿ cστι τ¿ς uπo Ε∆Β· λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ uπo ΒΕΓ διπλ¿ cστι τ¿ς uπo Β∆Γ.
Εν κύκλ; vρα ¿ πρoς τ; κέντρ; γωνία διπλασίων cστ| τ¿ς πρoς τ¸ περιφερεί;, oταν τ¿ν αuτ¿ν
περιφέρειαν βάσιν cχωσιν ¸α| γωνίαι]· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
202
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 20
E
A
C
B
F
G
D
In a circle, the angle at the center is double that at the circumference, when the angles have the
same circumference base.
Let ABC be a circle, and let BEC be an angle at its center, and BAC (one) at (its) circumference.
And let themhave the same circumference base BC. I say that angle BEC is double (angle) BAC.
For being joined, let AE have been drawn through to F.
Therefore, since EA is equal to EB, angle EAB (is) also equal to EBA [Prop. 1.5]. Thus, angle
EAB and EBA is double (angle) EAB. And BEF (is) equal to EAB and EBA [Prop. 1.32].
Thus, BEF is also double EAB. So, for the same (reasons), FEC is also double EAC. Thus, the
whole (angle) BEC is double the whole (angle) BAC.
So let a (straight-line) have been inflected again, and let there be another angle, BDC. And
DE being joined, let it have been produced to G. So, similarly, we can show that angle GEC is
double EDC, of which GEB is double EDB. Thus, the remaining (angle) BEC is double the
(remaining angle) BDC.
Thus, in a circle, the angle at the center is double that at the circumference, when [the angles]
have the same circumference base. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
20`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
κα΄
Α
Ε
Γ
Ζ
Β ∆
Εν κύκλ; α| cν τ; αuτ; τpήpατι γωνίαι :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν.
´Εστω κύκλος o ΑΒΓ∆, κα| cν τ; αuτ; τpήpατι τ; ΒΑΕ∆ γωνίαι cστωσαν α| uπo ΒΑ∆, ΒΕ∆·
λέγω, oτι α| uπo ΒΑ∆, ΒΕ∆ γωνίαι :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν.
Εiλήφθω γvρ τοu ΑΒΓ∆ κύκλου τo κέντρον, κα| cστω τo Ζ, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΒΖ, Ζ∆.
Κα| cπε| ¿ pcν uπo ΒΖ∆ γωνία πρoς τ; κέντρ; cστίν, ¿ δc uπo ΒΑ∆ πρoς τ¸ περιφερεί;, κα|
cχουσι τ¿ν αuτ¿ν περιφέρειαν βάσιν τ¿ν ΒΓ∆, ¿ vρα uπo ΒΖ∆ γωνία διπλασίων cστ| τ¿ς uπo
ΒΑ∆. διv τv αuτv δ¿ ¿ uπo ΒΖ∆ κα| τ¿ς uπo ΒΕ∆ cστι διπλσίων· :ση vρα ¿ uπo ΒΑ∆ τ¸ uπo
ΒΕ∆.
Εν κύκλ; vρα α| cν τ; αuτ; τpήpατι γωνίαι :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
204
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 21
D
A
B
F
E
C
In a circle, angles in the same segment are equal to one another.
Let ABCD be a circle, and let BAD and BED be angles in the same segment BAED. I say that
angles BAD and BED are equal to one another.
For let the center of circle ABCD have been found [Prop. 3.1], and let it be (at point) F. And let
BF and FD have been joined.
And since angle BFD is at the center, and BAD at the circumference, and they have the same
circumference base BCD, angle BFD is thus double BAD [Prop. 3.20]. So, for the same (rea-
sons), BFD is also double BED. Thus, BAD (is) equal to BED.
Thus, in a circle, angles in the same segment are equal to one another. (Which is) the very thing
it was required to show.
20¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
κβ΄

Β
Γ
Α
Τeν cν τοiς κύκλοις τετραπλεύρων α| vπεναντίον γωνίαι δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν.
´Εστω κύκλος o ΑΒΓ∆, κα| cν αuτ; τετράπλευρον cστω τo ΑΒΓ∆· λέγω, oτι α| vπεναντίον
γωνίαι δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν.
Επεζεύχθωσαν α| ΑΓ, Β∆.
Επε| οuν παντoς τριγώνου α| τρεiς γωνίαι δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν, τοu ΑΒΓ vρα τριγώνου α|
τρεiς γωνίαι α| uπo ΓΑΒ, ΑΒΓ, ΒΓΑ δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν. :ση δc ¿ pcν uπo ΓΑΒ τ¸ uπo
Β∆Γ· cν γvρ τ; αuτ; τpήpατί εiσι τ; ΒΑ∆Γ· ¿ δc uπo ΑΓΒ τ¸ uπo Α∆Β· cν γvρ τ; αuτ;
τpήpατί εiσι τ; Α∆ΓΒ· oλη vρα ¿ uπo Α∆Γ ταiς uπo ΒΑΓ, ΑΓΒ :ση cστίν. κοιν¿ προσκείσθω
¿ uπo ΑΒΓ· α| vρα uπo ΑΒΓ, ΒΑΓ, ΑΓΒ ταiς uπo ΑΒΓ, Α∆Γ :σαι εiσίν. vλλ α| uπo ΑΒΓ,
ΒΑΓ, ΑΓΒ δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν. κα| α| uπo ΑΒΓ, Α∆Γ vρα δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν. opοίως
δ¿ δείξοpεν, oτι κα| α| uπo ΒΑ∆, ∆ΓΒ γωνίαι δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν.
Τeν vρα cν τοiς κύκλοις τετραπλεύρων α| vπεναντίον γωνίαι δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν· oπερ cδει
δεiξαι.
206
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 22
D
A
B
C
For quadrilaterals within circles, the (sum of the) opposite angles is equal to two right-angles.
Let ABCD be a circle, and let ABCD be a quadrilateral within it. I say that the (sum of the)
opposite angles is equal to two right-angles.
Let AC and BD have been joined.
Therefore, since the three angles of every triangle are equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.32], the
three angles CAB, ABC, and BCA of triangle ABC are thus equal to two right-angles. And
CAB (is) equal to BDC. For they are in the same segment BADC [Prop. 3.21]. And ACB (is
equal) to ADB. For they are in the same segment ADCB [Prop. 3.21]. Thus, the whole of ADC
is equal to BAC and ACB. Let ABC have been added to both. Thus, ABC, BAC, and ACB are
equal to ABC and ADC. But, ABC, BAC, and ACB are equal to two right-angles. Thus, ABC
and ADC are also equal to two right-angles. Similarly, we can show that angles BAD and DCB
are also equal to two right-angles.
Thus, for quadrilaterals within circles, the (sum of the) opposite angles is equal to two right-
angles. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
20¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
κγ΄
Γ

Α Β
Επ| τ¿ς αuτ¿ς εuθείας δύο τpήpατα κύκλων opοια κα| vνισα οu συσταθήσεται cπ| τv αuτv
pέρη.
Εi γvρ δυνατόν, cπ| τ¿ς αuτ¿ς εuθείας τ¿ς ΑΒ δύο τpήpατα κύκλων opοια κα| vνισα συνεστάτω
cπ| τv αuτv pέρη τv ΑΓΒ, Α∆Β, κα| διήχθω ¿ ΑΓ∆, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΓΒ, ∆Β.
Επε| οuν opοιόν cστι τo ΑΓΒ τp¿pα τ; Α∆Β τpήpατι, opοια δc τpήpατα κύκλων cστ| τv
δεχόpενα γωνίας :σας, :ση vρα cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΑΓΒ γωνία τ¸ uπo Α∆Β ¿ cκτoς τ¸ cντός· oπερ
cστ|ν vδύνατον.
Οuκ vρα cπ| τ¿ς αuτ¿ς εuθείας δύο τpήpατα κύκλων opοια κα| vνισα συσταθήσεται cπ| τv αuτv
pέρη· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
208
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 23
C
A B
D
Two similar and unequal segments of circles cannot be constructed on the same side of the same
straight-line.
For, if possible, let the two similar and unequal segments of circles, ACB and ADB, have been
constructed on the same side of the same straight-line AB. And let ACD have been drawn
through (the segments), and let CB and DB have been joined.
Therefore, since segment ACB is similar to segment ADB, and similar segments of circles are
those accepting equal angles [Def. 3.11], angle ACB is thus equal to ADB, the external to the
internal. The very thing is impossible [Prop. 1.16].
Thus, two similar and unequal segments of circles cannot be constructed on the same side of the
same straight-line.
209
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
κδ΄
Ζ
Α Β
Ε
Γ
Η

Τv cπ| :σων εuθειeν opοια τpήpατα κύλων :σα vλλήλοις cστίν.
´Εστωσαν γvρ cπ| :σων εuθειeν τeν ΑΒ, Γ∆ opοια τpήpατα κύκλων τv ΑΕΒ, ΓΖ∆· λέγω, oτι
:σον cστ| τo ΑΕΒ τp¿pα τ; ΓΖ∆ τpήpατι.
Εφαρpοζοpένου γvρ τοu ΑΕΒ τpήpατος cπ| τo ΓΖ∆ κα| τιθεpένου τοu pcν Α σηpείου cπ| τo
Γ τ¿ς δc ΑΒ εuθείας cπ| τ¿ν Γ∆, cφαρpόσει κα| τo Β σηpεiον cπ| τo ∆ σηpεiον διv τo :σην
ε|ναι τ¿ν ΑΒ τ¸ Γ∆· τ¿ς δc ΑΒ cπ| τ¿ν Γ∆ cφαρpοσάσης cφαρpόσει κα| τo ΑΕΒ τp¿pα cπ| τo
ΓΖ∆. εi γvρ ¿ ΑΒ εuθεiα cπ| τ¿ν Γ∆ cφαρpόσει, τo δc ΑΕΒ τp¿pα cπ| τo ΓΖ∆ p¿ cφαρpόσει,
¿τοι cντoς αuτοu πεσεiται ¿ cκτoς ¿ παραλλάξει, eς τo ΓΗ∆, κα| κύκλος κύκλον τέpνει κατv
πλείονα σηpεiα ¿ δύο· oπερ cστίν vδύνατον. οuκ vρα cφαρpοζοpένης τ¿ς ΑΒ εuθείας cπ| τ¿ν
Γ∆ οuκ cφαρpόσει κα| τo ΑΕΒ τp¿pα cπ| τo ΓΖ∆· cφαρpόσει vρα, κα| :σον αuτ; cσται.
Τv vρα cπ| :σων εuθειeν opοια τpήpατα κύκλων :σα vλλήλοις cστίν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
2l0
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 24
F
A B
E
C D
G
Similar segments of circles on equal straight-lines are equal to one another.
For let AEB and CFD be similar segments of circles on the equal straight-lines AB and CD
(respectively). I say that segment AEB is equal to segment CFD.
For let the segment AEB be applied to the segment CFD, the point A being placed on (point)
C, and the straight-line AB on CD. The point B will also coincide with point D, on account of
AB being equal to CD. And if AB coincides with CD, the segment AEB will also coincide with
CFD. For if the straight-line AB coincides with CD, and the segment AEB does not coincide
with CFD, then it will surely either fall inside it, outside (it),
45
or it will miss like CGD (in
the figure), and a circle (will) cut (another) circle at more than two points. The very thing is
impossible [Prop. 3.10]. Thus, if the straight-line AB is applied to CD, the segment AEB cannot
fail to also coincide with CFD. Thus, it will coincide, and will be equal to it [C.N. 4].
Thus, similar segments of circles on equal straight-lines are equal to one another. (Which is) the
very thing it was required to show.
45
Both this possibilility, and the previous one, are precluded by Prop. 3.23.
2ll
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
κε΄
Ε
Α
∆ ∆
Α
Β
Γ
Β
Γ
Α

Γ
Β Ε
Κύκλου τpήpατος δοθέντος προσαναγράψαι τoν κύκλον, οuπέρ cστι τp¿pα.
´Εστω τo δοθcν τp¿pα κύκλου τo ΑΒΓ· δεi δ¿ τοu ΑΒΓ τpήpατος προσαναγράψαι τoν κύκλον,
οuπέρ cστι τp¿pα.
Τετpήσθω γvρ ¿ ΑΓ δίχα κατv τo ∆, κα| ¿χθω vπo τοu ∆ σηpείου τ¸ ΑΓ πρoς oρθvς ¿ ∆Β,
κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΑΒ· ¿ uπo ΑΒ∆ γωνία vρα τ¿ς uπo ΒΑ∆ ¿τοι pείζων cστ|ν ¿ :ση ¿ cλάττων.
´Εστω πρότερον pείζων, κα| συνεστάτω πρoς τ¸ ΒΑ εuθεί; κα| τ; πρoς αuτ¸ σηpεί; τ; Α τ¸
uπo ΑΒ∆ γωνί; :ση ¿ uπo ΒΑΕ, κα| διήχθω ¿ ∆Β cπ| τo Ε, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΕΓ. cπε| οuν :ση
cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΑΒΕ γωνία τ¸ uπo ΒΑΕ, :ση vρα cστ| κα| ¿ ΕΒ εuθεiα τ¸ ΕΑ. κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν
¿ Α∆ τ¸ ∆Γ, κοιν¿ δc ¿ ∆Ε, δύο δ¿ α| Α∆, ∆Ε δύο ταiς Γ∆, ∆Ε :σαι εiσ|ν cκατέρα cκατέρ;·
κα| γωνία ¿ uπo Α∆Ε γωνί; τ¸ uπo Γ∆Ε cστιν :ση· oρθ¿ γvρ cκατέρα· βάσις vρα ¿ ΑΕ βάσει
τ¸ ΓΕ cστιν :ση. vλλv ¿ ΑΕ τ¸ ΒΕ cδείχθη :ση· κα| ¿ ΒΕ vρα τ¸ ΓΕ cστιν :ση· α| τρεiς vρα
α| ΑΕ, ΕΒ, ΕΓ :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν· o vρα κέντρ; τ; Ε διαστήpατι δc cν| τeν ΑΕ, ΕΒ, ΕΓ
κύκλος γραφόpενος ¿ξει κα| διv τeν λοιπeν σηpείων κα| cσται προσαναγεγραppένος. κύκλου
vρα τpήpατος δοθέντος προσαναγέγραπται o κύκλος. κα| δ¿λον, eς τo ΑΒΓ τp¿pα cλαττόν
cστιν ¿pικυκλίου διv τo τo Ε κέντρον cκτoς αuτοu τυγχάνειν.
Οpοίως ¸δc] κiν ¸ ¿ uπo ΑΒ∆ γωνία :ση τ¸ uπo ΒΑ∆, τ¿ς Α∆ :σης γενοpένης cκατέρ;
τeν Β∆, ∆Γ α| τρεiς α| ∆Α, ∆Β, ∆Γ :σαι vλλήλαις cσονται, κα| cσται τo ∆ κέντρον τοu
προσαναπεπληρωpένου κύκλου, κα| δηλαδ¿ cσται τo ΑΒΓ ¿pικύκλιον.
Εvν δc ¿ uπo ΑΒ∆ cλάττων ¸ τ¿ς uπo ΒΑ∆, κα| συστησώpεθα πρoς τ¸ ΒΑ εuθεί; κα| τ;
πρoς αuτ¸ σηpεί; τ; Α τ¸ uπo ΑΒ∆ γωνί; :σην, cντoς τοu ΑΒΓ τpήpατος πεσεiται τo κέντρον
cπ| τ¿ς ∆Β, κα| cσται δηλαδ¿ τo ΑΒΓ τp¿pα pεiζον ¿pικυκλίου.
Κύκλου vρα τpήpατος δοθέντος προσαναγέγραπται o κύκλος· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
2l2
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 25
C
C
D
A A
D
C
E
B B B
A
D
E
To complete the circle for a given segment of a circle, the very one of which it is a segment.
Let ABC be the given segment of a circle. So it is required to complete the circle for segment
ABC, the very one of which it is a segment.
For let AC have been cut in half at (point) D [Prop. 1.10], and let DB have been drawn from
point D, at right-angles to AC [Prop. 1.11]. And let AB have been joined. Thus, angle ABD is
surely either greater than, equal to, or less than (angle) BAD.
First of all, let it be greater. And let (angle) BAE have been constructed, equal to angle ABD, at
the point A on the straight-line BA [Prop. 1.23]. And let DB have been drawn through to E, and
let EC have been joined. Therefore, since angle ABE is equal to BAE, the straight-line EB is
thus also equal to EA [Prop. 1.6]. And since AD is equal to DC, and DE (is) common, the two
(straight-lines) AD, DE are equal to the two (straight-lines) CD, DE, respectively. And angle
ADE is equal to angle CDE. For each (is) a right-angle. Thus, the base AE is equal to the base
CE [Prop. 1.4]. But, AE was shown (to be) equal to BE. Thus, BE is also equal to CE. Thus,
the three (straight-lines) AE, EB, and EC are equal to one another. Thus, if a circle is drawn
with center E, and radius one of AE, EB, or EC, it will also go through the remaining points (of
the segment), and the (associated circle) will be completed [Prop. 3.9]. Thus, a circle has been
completed from the given segment of a circle. And (it is) clear that the segment ABC is less than
a semi-circle, on account of the center E lying outside it.
[And], similarly, even if angle ABD is equal to BAD, (since) AD becomes equal to each of BD
[Prop. 1.6] and DC, the three (straight-lines) DA, DB, and DC will be equal to one another.
And point D will be the center of the completed circle. And ABC will manifestly be a semi-circle.
And if ABD is less than BAD, and we construct (angle BAE), equal to angle ABD, at the point
A on the straight-line BA [Prop. 1.23], then the center will fall on DB, inside the segment ABC.
And segment ABC will manifestly be greater than a semi-circle.
Thus, a circle has been completed from the given segment of a circle. (Which is) the very thing it
was required to do.
2l`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
κç΄
Γ
Η

Κ
Λ
Β
Α
Ε
Θ
Ζ
Εν τοiς :σοις κύκλοις α| :σαι γωνίαι cπ| :σων περιφερειeν βεβήκασιν, cάν τε πρoς τοiς κέντροις
cάν τε πρoς ταiς περιφερείαις eσι βεβηκυiαι.
´Εστωσαν :σοι κύκλοι ο| ΑΒΓ, ∆ΕΖ κα| cν αuτοiς :σαι γωνίαι cστωσαν πρoς pcν τοiς κέντροις
α| uπo ΒΗΓ, ΕΘΖ, πρoς δc ταiς περιφερείαις α| uπo ΒΑΓ, Ε∆Ζ· λέγω, oτι :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΒΚΓ
περιφέρεια τ¸ ΕΛΖ περιφερεί;.
Επεζεύχθωσαν γvρ α| ΒΓ, ΕΖ.
Κα| cπε| :σοι εiσ|ν ο| ΑΒΓ, ∆ΕΖ κύκλοι, :σαι εiσ|ν α| cκ τeν κέντρων· δύο δ¿ α| ΒΗ, ΗΓ δύο
ταiς ΕΘ, ΘΖ :σαι· κα| γωνία ¿ πρoς τ; Η γωνί; τ¸ πρoς τ; Θ :ση· βάσις vρα ¿ ΒΓ βάσει τ¸
ΕΖ cστιν :ση. κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ πρoς τ; Α γωνία τ¸ πρoς τ; ∆, opοιον vρα cστ| τo ΒΑΓ
τp¿pα τ; Ε∆Ζ τpήpατι· καί εiσιν cπ| :σων εuθειeν ¸τeν ΒΓ, ΕΖ]· τv δc cπ| :σων εuθειeν opοια
τpήpατα κύκλων :σα vλλήλοις cστίν· :σον vρα τo ΒΑΓ τp¿pα τ; Ε∆Ζ. cστι δc κα| oλος o ΑΒΓ
κύκλος oλ; τ; ∆ΕΖ κύκλ; :σος· λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ ΒΚΓ περιφέρεια τ¸ ΕΛΖ περιφερεί; cστ|ν :ση.
Εν vρα τοiς :σοις κύκλοις α| :σαι γωνίαι cπ| :σων περιφερειeν βεβήκασιν, cάν τε πρoς τοiς
κέντροις cάν τε πρoς ταiς περιφερείας eσι βεβηκυiαι· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
2l4
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 26
A
G
C
K
H
D
F
L
B E
Equal angles stand upon equal circumferences in equal circles, whether they are standing at the
center or at the circumference.
Let ABC and DEF be equal circles, and within them let BGC and EHF be equal angles at the
center, and BAC and EDF (equal angles) at the circumference. I say that circumference BKC
is equal to circumference ELF.
For let BC and EF have been joined.
And since circles ABC and DEF are equal, their radii are equal. So the two (straight-lines) BG,
GC (are) equal to the two (straight-lines) EH, HF (respectively). And the angle at G (is) equal
to the angle at H. Thus, the base BC is equal to the base EF [Prop. 1.4]. And since the angle at
A is equal to the (angle) at D, the segment BAC is thus similar to the segment EDF [Def. 3.11].
And they are on equal straight-lines [BC and EF]. And similar segments of circles on equal
straight-lines are equal to one another [Prop. 3.24]. Thus, segment BAC is equal to (segment)
EDF. And the whole circle ABC is also equal to the whole circle DEF. Thus, the remaining
circumference BKC is equal to the (remaining) circumference ELF.
Thus, equal angles stand upon equal circumferences in equal circles, whether they are standing
at the center or at the circumference. (Which is) the very thing which it was required to show.
2l¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
κζ΄

Η
Κ
Γ
Ζ
Θ
Β Ε
Α
Εν τοiς :σοις κύκλοις α| cπ| :σων περιφερειeν βεβηκυiαι γωνίαι :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν, cάν τε πρoς
τοiς κέντροις cάν τε πρoς ταiς περιφερείαις eσι βεβηκυiαι.
Εν γvρ :σοις κύκλοις τοiς ΑΒΓ, ∆ΕΖ cπ| :σων περιφερειeν τeν ΒΓ, ΕΖ πρoς pcν τοiς Η, Θ
κέντροις γωνίαι βεβηκέτωσαν α| uπo ΒΗΓ, ΕΘΖ, πρoς δc ταiς περιφερείαις α| uπo ΒΑΓ, Ε∆Ζ·
λέγω, oτι ¿ pcν uπo ΒΗΓ γωνία τ¸ uπo ΕΘΖ cστιν :ση, ¿ δc uπo ΒΑΓ τ¸ uπo Ε∆Ζ cστιν :ση.
Εi γvρ vνισός cστιν ¿ uπo ΒΗΓ τ¸ uπo ΕΘΖ, pία αuτeν pείζων cστίν. cστω pείζων ¿ uπo
ΒΗΓ, κα| συνεστάτω πρoς τ¸ ΒΗ εuθεί; κα| τ; πρoς αuτ¸ σηpεί; τ; Η τ¸ uπo ΕΘΖ γωνί;
:ση ¿ uπo ΒΗΚ· α| δc :σαι γωνίαι cπ| :σων περιφερειeν βεβήκασιν, oταν πρoς τοiς κέντροις
eσιν· :ση vρα ¿ ΒΚ περιφέρεια τ¸ ΕΖ περιφερεί;. vλλv ¿ ΕΖ τ¸ ΒΓ cστιν :ση· κα| ¿ ΒΚ vρα
τ¸ ΒΓ cστιν :ση ¿ cλάττων τ¸ pείζονι· oπερ cστ|ν vδύνατον. οuκ vρα vνισός cστιν ¿ uπo ΒΗΓ
γωνία τ¸ uπo ΕΘΖ· :ση vρα. καί cστι τ¿ς pcν uπo ΒΗΓ ¿pίσεια ¿ πρoς τ; Α, τ¿ς δc uπo
ΕΘΖ ¿pίσεια ¿ πρoς τ; ∆· :ση vρα κα| ¿ πρoς τ; Α γωνία τ¸ πρoς τ; ∆.
Εν vρα τοiς :σοις κύκλοις α| cπ| :σων περιφερειeν βεβηκυiαι γωνίαι :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν, cάν τε
πρoς τοiς κέντροις cάν τε πρoς ταiς περιφερείαις eσι βεβηκυiαι· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
2l6
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 27
A
G
C
K
D
H
F B
E
Angles standing upon equal circumferences in equal circles are equal to one another, whether
they are standing at the center or at the circumference.
For let the angles BGC and EHF at the centers G and H, and the (angles) BAC and EDF at the
circumferences, stand upon the equal circumferences BC and EF, in the equal circles ABC and
DEF (respectively). I say that angle BGC is equal to (angle) EHF, and BAC is equal to EDF.
For if BGC is unequal to EHF, one of them is greater. Let BGC be greater, and let the (angle)
BGK, equal to the angle EHF, have been constructed at the point G on the straight-line BG
[Prop. 1.23]. But equal angles (in equal circles) stand upon equal circumferences, when they are
at the centers [Prop. 3.26]. Thus, circumference BK (is) equal to circumference EF. But, EF is
equal to BC. Thus, BK is also equal to BC, the lesser to the greater. The very thing is impossible.
Thus, angle BGC is not unequal to EHF. Thus, (it is) equal. And the (angle) at A is half BGC,
and the (angle) at D half EHF [Prop. 3.20]. Thus, the angle at A (is) also equal to the (angle)
at D.
Thus, angles standing upon equal circumferences in equal circles are equal to one another,
whether they are standing at the center or at the circumference. (Which is) the very thing it
was required to show.
2l¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
κη΄
Α
Κ
Γ
Λ
Ζ
Η Θ
Β ∆ Ε
Εν τοiς :σοις κύκλοις α| :σαι εuθεiαι :σας περιφερείας vφαιροuσι τ¿ν pcν pείζονα τ¸ pείζονι τ¿ν
δc cλάττονα τ¸ cλάττονι.
´Εστωσαν :σοι κύκλοι ο| ΑΒΓ, ∆ΕΖ, κα| cν τοiς κύκλοις :σαι εuθεiαι cστωσαν α| ΑΒ, ∆Ε τvς
pcν ΑΓΒ, ΑΖΕ περιφερείας pείζονας vφαιροuσαι τvς δc ΑΗΒ, ∆ΘΕ cλάττονας· λέγω, oτι ¿
pcν ΑΓΒ pείζων περιφέρεια :ση cστ| τ¸ ∆ΖΕ pείζονι περιφερεί; ¿ δc ΑΗΒ cλάττων περιφέρεια
τ¸ ∆ΘΕ.
Εiλήφθω γvρ τv κέντρα τeν κύκλων τv Κ, Λ, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΑΚ, ΚΒ, ∆Λ, ΛΕ.
Κα| cπε| :σοι κύκλοι εiσίν, :σαι εiσ| κα| α| cκ τeν κέντρων· δύο δ¿ α| ΑΚ, ΚΒ δυσ| ταiς ∆Λ,
ΛΕ :σαι εiσίν· κα| βάσις ¿ ΑΒ βάσει τ¸ ∆Ε :ση· γωνία vρα ¿ uπo ΑΚΒ γωνί; τ¸ uπo ∆ΛΕ
:ση cστίν. α| δc :σαι γωνίαι cπ| :σων περιφερειeν βεβήκασιν, oταν πρoς τοiς κέντροις eσιν· :ση
vρα ¿ ΑΗΒ περιφέρεια τ¸ ∆ΘΕ. cστ| δc κα| oλος o ΑΒΓ κύκλος oλ; τ; ∆ΕΖ κύκλ; :σος· κα|
λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ ΑΓΒ περιφέρεια λοιπ¸ τ¸ ∆ΖΕ περιφερεί; :ση cστίν.
Εν vρα τοiς :σοις κύκλοις α| :σαι εuθεiαι :σας περιφερείας vφαιροuσι τ¿ν pcν pείζονα τ¸ pείζονι
τ¿ν δc cλάττονα τ¸ cλάττονι· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
2l8
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 28
F
A
K
C
B
G
D
L
H
E
Equal straight-lines cut off equal circumferences in equal circles, the greater (circumference being
equal) to the greater, and the lesser to the lesser.
Let ABC and DEF be equal circles, and let AB and DE be equal straight-lines in these circles,
cutting off the greater circumferences ACB and DFE, and the lesser (circumferences) AGB and
DHE (respectively). I say that the greater circumference ACB is equal to the greater circumfer-
ence DFE, and the lesser circumference AGB to (the lesser) DHE.
For let the centers of the circles, K and L, have been found [Prop. 3.1], and let AK, KB, DL,
and LE have been joined.
And since (ABC and DEF) are equal circles, their radii are also equal [Def. 3.1]. So the two
(straight-lines) AK, KB are equal to the two (straight-lines) DL, LE (respectively). And the
base AB (is) equal to the base DE. Thus, angle AKB is equal to angle DLE [Prop. 1.8]. And
equal angles stand upon equal circumferences, when they are at the centers [Prop. 3.26]. Thus,
circumference AGB (is) equal to DHE. And the whole circle ABC is also equal to the whole cir-
cle DEF. Thus, the remaining circumference ACB is also equal to the remaining circumference
DFE.
Thus, equal straight-lines cut off equal circumferences in equal circles, the greater (circumference
being equal) to the greater, and the lesser to the lesser. (Which is) the very thing it was required
to show.
2l9
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
κθ΄
Γ
Κ Λ
Α ∆
Η Θ
Β Ε Ζ
Εν τοiς :σοις κύκλοις τvς :σας περιφερείας :σαι εuθεiαι uποτείνουσιν.
´Εστωσαν :σοι κύκλοι ο| ΑΒΓ, ∆ΕΖ, κα| cν αuτοiς :σαι περιφέρειαι vπειλήφθωσαν α| ΒΗΓ,
ΕΘΖ, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΒΓ, ΕΖ εuθεiαι· λέγω, oτι :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΒΓ τ¸ ΕΖ.
Εiλήφθω γvρ τv κέντρα τeν κύκλων, κα| cστω τv Κ, Λ, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΒΚ, ΚΓ, ΕΛ,
ΛΖ.
Κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΒΗΓ περιφέρεια τ¸ ΕΘΖ περιφερεί;, :ση cστ| κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΒΚΓ τ¸
uπo ΕΛΖ. κα| cπε| :σοι εiσ|ν ο| ΑΒΓ, ∆ΕΖ κύκλοι, :σαι εiσ| κα| α| cκ τeν κέντρων· δύο δ¿ α|
ΒΚ, ΚΓ δυσ| ταiς ΕΛ, ΛΖ :σαι εiσίν· κα| γωνίας :σας περιέχουσιν· βάσις vρα ¿ ΒΓ βάσει τ¸
ΕΖ :ση cστίν·
Εν vρα τοiς :σοις κύκλοις τvς :σας περιφερείας :σαι εuθεiαι uποτείνουσιν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
220
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 29
E
A
K
B
G
D
L
H
C F
Equal straight-lines subtend equal circumferences in equal circles.
Let ABC and DEF be equal circles, and within them let the equal circumferences BGC and
EHF have been cut off. And let the straight-lines BC and EF have been joined. I say that BC is
equal to EF.
For let the centers of the circles have been found [Prop. 3.1], and let them be (at) K and L. And
let BK, KC, EL, and LF have been joined.
And since the circumference BGC is equal to the circumference EHF, the angle BKC is also
equal to (angle) ELF [Prop. 3.27]. And since the circles ABC and DEF are equal, their radii
are also equal [Def. 3.1]. So the two (straight-lines) BK, KC are equal to the two (straight-lines)
EL, LF (respectively). And they contain equal angles. Thus, the base BC is equal to the base
EF [Prop. 1.4].
Thus, equal straight-lines subtend equal circumferences in equal circles. (Which is) the very thing
it was required to show.
22l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
λ΄
Α Β

Γ
Τ¿ν δοθεiσαν περιφέρειαν δίχα τεpεiν.
´Εστω ¿ δοθεiσα περιφέρεια ¿ Α∆Β· δεi δ¿ τ¿ν Α∆Β περιφέρειαν δίχα τεpεiν.
Επεζεύχθω ¿ ΑΒ, κα| τετpήσθω δίχα κατv τo Γ, κα| vπo τοu Γ σηpείου τ¸ ΑΒ εuθεί; πρoς
oρθvς ¿χθω ¿ Γ∆, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| Α∆, ∆Β.
Κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΑΓ τ¸ ΓΒ, κοιν¿ δc ¿ Γ∆, δύο δ¿ α| ΑΓ, Γ∆ δυσ| ταiς ΒΓ, Γ∆ :σαι εiσίν·
κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΑΓ∆ γωνί; τ¸ uπo ΒΓ∆ :ση· oρθ¿ γvρ cκατέρα· βάσις vρα ¿ Α∆ βάσει τ¸
∆Β :ση cστίν. α| δc :σαι εuθεiαι :σας περιφερείας vφαιροuσι τ¿ν pcν pείζονα τ¸ pείζονι τ¿ν δc
cλάττονα τ¸ cλάττονι· κάι cστιν cκατέρα τeν Α∆, ∆Β περιφερειeν cλάττων ¿pικυκλίου· :ση vρα
¿ Α∆ περιφέρεια τ¸ ∆Β περιφερεί;.
Η vρα δοθεiσα περιφέρεια δίχα τέτpηται κατv τo ∆ σηpεiον· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
222
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 30
D
A B C
To cut a given circumference in half.
Let ADB be the given circumference. So it is required to cut circumference ADB in half.
Let AB have been joined, and let it have been cut in half at (point) C [Prop. 1.10]. And let CD
have been drawn from point C, at right-angles to AB [Prop. 1.11]. And let AD, and DB have
been joined.
And since AC is equal to CB, and CD (is) common, the two (straight-lines) AC, CD are equal
to the two (straight-lines) BC, CD (respectively). And angle ACD (is) equal to angle BCD. For
(they are) each right-angles. Thus, the base AD is equal to the base DB [Prop. 1.4]. And equal
straight-lines cut off equal circumferences, the greater (circumference being equal) to the greater,
and the lesser to the lesser [Prop. 1.28]. And the circumferences AD and DB are each less than
a semi-circle. Thus, circumference AD (is) equal to circumference DB.
Thus, the given circumference has been cut in half at point D. (Which is) the very thing it was
required to do.
22`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
λα΄
Β
Γ
Ε
Α
Ζ

Εν κύκλ; ¿ pcν cν τ; ¿pικυκλί; γωνία oρθή cστιν, ¿ δc cν τ; pείζονι τpήpατι cλάττων oρθ¿ς,
¿ δc cν τ; cλάττονι τpήpατι pείζων oρθ¿ς· κα| cπι ¿ pcν τοu pείζονος τpήpατος γωνία pείζων
cστ|ν oρθ¿ς, ¿ δc τοu cλάττονος τpήpατος γωνία cλάττων oρθ¿ς.
´Εστω κύκλος o ΑΒΓ∆, διάpετρος δc αuτοu cστω ¿ ΒΓ, κέντρον δc τo Ε, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν
α| ΒΑ, ΑΓ, Α∆, ∆Γ· λέγω, oτι ¿ pcν cν τ; ΒΑΓ ¿pικυκλί; γωνία ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ oρθή cστιν, ¿ δc
cν τ; ΑΒΓ pείζονι τοu ¿pικυκλίου τpήpατι γωνία ¿ uπo ΑΒΓ cλάττων cστ|ν oρθ¿ς, ¿ δc cν τ;
Α∆Γ cλάττονι τοu ¿pικυκλίου τpήpατι γωνία ¿ uπo Α∆Γ pείζων cστ|ν oρθ¿ς.
Επεζεύχθω ¿ ΑΕ, κα| διήχθω ¿ ΒΑ cπ| τo Ζ.
Κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΒΕ τ¸ ΕΑ, :ση cστ| κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΑΒΕ τ¸ uπo ΒΑΕ. πάλιν, cπε| :ση
cστ|ν ¿ ΓΕ τ¸ ΕΑ, :ση cστ| κα| ¿ uπo ΑΓΕ τ¸ uπo ΓΑΕ· oλη vρα ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ δυσ| ταiς uπo
ΑΒΓ, ΑΓΒ :ση cστίν. cστ| δc κα| ¿ uπo ΖΑΓ cκτoς τοu ΑΒΓ τριγώνου δυσ| ταiς uπo ΑΒΓ,
ΑΓΒ γωνίαις :ση· :ση vρα κα| ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ γωνία τ¸ uπo ΖΑΓ· oρθ¿ vρα cκατέρα· ¿ vρα cν τ;
ΒΑΓ ¿pικυκλί; γωνία ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ oρθή cστιν.
Κα| cπε| τοu ΑΒΓ τρίγωνου δύο γωνίαι α| uπo ΑΒΓ, ΒΑΓ δύο oρθeν cλάττονές εiσιν, oρθ¿
δc ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ, cλάττων vρα oρθ¿ς cστιν ¿ uπo ΑΒΓ γωνία· καί cστιν cν τ; ΑΒΓ pείζονι τοu
¿pικυκλίου τpήpατι.
Κα| cπε| cν κύκλ; τετράπλευρόν cστι τo ΑΒΓ∆, τeν δc cν τοiς κύκλοις τετραπλεύρων α|
vπεναντίον γωνίαι δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν ¸α| vρα uπo ΑΒΓ, Α∆Γ γωνίαι δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σας
εiσίν], καί cστιν ¿ uπo ΑΒΓ cλάττων oρθ¿ς· λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ uπo Α∆Γ γωνία pείζων oρθ¿ς cστιν·
καί cστιν cν τ; Α∆Γ cλάττονι τοu ¿pικυκλίου τpήpατι.
224
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 31
A
D
B
E
C
F
In a circle, the angle in a semi-circle is a right-angle, and that in a greater segment (is) less than
a right-angle, and that in a lesser segment (is) greater than a right-angle. And, further, the angle
of a segment greater (than a semi-circle) is greater than a right-angle, and the angle of a segment
less (than a semi-circle) is less than a right-angle.
Let ABCD be a circle, and let BC be its diameter, and E its center. And let BA, AC, AD, and
DC have been joined. I say that the angle BAC in the semi-circle BAC is a right-angle, and the
angle ABC in the segment ABC, (which is) greater than a semi-circle, is less than a right-angle,
and the angle ADC in the segment ADC, (which is) less than a semi-circle, is greater than a
right-angle.
Let AE have been joined, and let BA have been drawn through to F.
And since BE is equal to EA, angle ABE is also equal to BAE [Prop. 1.5]. Again, since CE is
equal to EA, ACE is also equal to CAE [Prop. 1.5]. Thus, the whole (angle) BAC is equal to the
two (angles) ABC and ACB. And FAC, (which is) external to triangle ABC, is also equal to the
two angles ABC and ACB [Prop. 1.32]. Thus, angle BAC (is) also equal to FAC. Thus, (they
are) each right-angles. [Def. 1.10]. Thus, the angle BAC in the semi-circle BAC is a right-angle.
And since the two angles ABC and BAC of triangle ABC are less than two right-angles [Prop. 1.17],
and BAC is a right-angle, angle ABC is thus less than a right-angle. And it is in segment ABC,
(which is) greater than a semi-circle.
And since ABCD is a quadrilateral within a circle, and for quadrilaterals within circles the (sum
of the) opposite angles is equal to two right-angles [Prop. 3.22] [angles ABC and ADC are thus
equal to two right-angles], and (angle) ABC is less than a right-angle. The remaining angle ADC
is thus greater than a right-angle. And it is in segment ADC, (which is) less than a semi-circle.
22¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
λα΄
Λέγω, oτι κα| ¿ pcν τοu pείζονος τpήpατος γωνία ¿ περιεχοpένη uπό ¸τε] τ¿ς ΑΒΓ περιφερείας
κα| τ¿ς ΑΓ εuθείας pείζων cστ|ν oρθ¿ς, ¿ δc τοu cλάττονος τpήpατος γωνία ¿ περιεχοpένη
uπό ¸τε] τ¿ς Α∆¸Γ] περιφερείας κα| τ¿ς ΑΓ εuθείας cλάττων cστ|ν oρθ¿ς. καί cστιν αuτόθεν
φανερόν. cπε| γvρ ¿ uπo τeν ΒΑ, ΑΓ εuθειeν oρθή cστιν, ¿ vρα uπo τ¿ς ΑΒΓ περιφερείας κα|
τ¿ς ΑΓ εuθείας περιεχοpένη pείζων cστ|ν oρθ¿ς. πάλιν, cπε| ¿ uπo τeν ΑΓ, ΑΖ εuθειeν oρθή
cστιν, ¿ vρα uπo τ¿ς ΓΑ εuθείας κα| τ¿ς Α∆¸Γ] περιφερείας περιεχοpένη cλάττων cστ|ν oρθ¿ς.
Εν κύκλ; vρα ¿ pcν cν τ; ¿pικυκλί; γωνία oρθή cστιν, ¿ δc cν τ; pείζονι τpήpατι cλάττων
oρθ¿ς, ¿ δc cν τ; cλάττονι ¸τpήpατι] pείζων oρθ¿ς· κα| cπι ¿ pcν τοu pείζονος τpήpατος
¸γωνία] pείζων ¸cστ|ν] oρθ¿ς, ¿ δc τοu cλάττονος τpήpατος ¸γωνία] cλάττων oρθ¿ς· oπερ cδει
δεiξαι.
226
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 31
I also say that the angle of the greater segment, (namely) that contained by the circumference
ABC and the straight-line AC, is greater than a right-angle. And the angle of the lesser segment,
(namely) that contained by the circumference AD[C] and the straight-line AC, is less than a right-
angle. And this is immediately apparent. For since the (angle contained by) the two straight-lines
BA and AC is a right-angle, the (angle) contained by the circumference ABC and the straight-
line AC is thus greater than a right-angle. Again, since the (angle contained by) the straight-lines
AC and AF is a right-angle, the (angle) contained by the circumference AD[C] and the straight-
line CA is less than a right-angle.
Thus, in a circle, the angle in a semi-circle is a right-angle, and that in a greater segment (is) less
than a right-angle, and that in a lesser [segment] (is) greater than a right-angle. And, further, the
[angle] of a segment greater (than a semi-circle) [is] greater than a right-angle, and the [angle]
of a segment less (than a semi-circle) is less than a right-angle. (Which is) the very thing it was
required to show.
22¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
λβ΄
Ε Ζ
Β
Α

Γ
Εvν κύκλου cφάπτηταί τις εuθεiα, vπo δc τ¿ς \φ¿ς εiς τoν κύκλον διαχθ¸ τις εuθεiα τέpνουσα
τoν κύκλον, iς ποιεi γωνίας πρoς τ¸ cφαπτοpέν¸, :σαι cσονται ταiς cν τοiς cναλλvξ τοu κύκλου
τpήpασι γωνίαις.
Κύκλου γvρ τοu ΑΒΓ∆ cφαπτέσθω τις εuθεiα ¿ ΕΖ κατv τo Β σηpεiον, κα| vπo τοu Β σηpείου
διήχθω τις εuθεiα εiς τoν ΑΒΓ∆ κύκλον τέpνουσα αuτoν ¿ Β∆. λέγω, oτι iς ποιεi γωνίας ¿
Β∆ pετv τ¿ς ΕΖ cφαπτοpένης, :σας cσονται ταiς cν τοiς cναλλvξ τpήpασι τοu κύκλου γωνίαις,
τουτέστιν, oτι ¿ pcν uπo ΖΒ∆ γωνία :ση cστ| τ¸ cν τ; ΒΑ∆ τpήpατι συνισταpέν¸ γωνί;, ¿ δc
uπo ΕΒ∆ γωνία :ση cστ| τ¸ cν τ; ∆ΓΒ τpήpατι συνισταpέν¸ γωνί;.
´Ηχθω γvρ vπo τοu Β τ¸ ΕΖ πρoς oρθvς ¿ ΒΑ, κα| εiλήφθω cπ| τ¿ς Β∆ περιφερείας τυχoν
σηpεiον τo Γ, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| Α∆, ∆Γ, ΓΒ.
Κα| cπε| κύκλου τοu ΑΒΓ∆ cφάπτεταί τις εuθεiα ¿ ΕΖ κατv τo Β, κα| vπo τ¿ς \φ¿ς ¿κται τ¸
cφαπτοpέν¸ πρoς oρθvς ¿ ΒΑ, cπ| τ¿ς ΒΑ vρα τo κέντρον cστ| τοu ΑΒΓ∆ κύκλου. ¿ ΒΑ vρα
διάpετός cστι τοu ΑΒΓ∆ κύκλου· ¿ vρα uπo Α∆Β γωνία cν ¿pικυκλί; οuσα oρθή cστιν. λοιπα|
vρα α| uπo ΒΑ∆, ΑΒ∆ pι; oρθ¸ :σαι εiσίν. cστ| δc κα| ¿ uπo ΑΒΖ oρθή· ¿ vρα uπo ΑΒΖ :ση
cστ| ταiς uπo ΒΑ∆, ΑΒ∆. κοιν¿ vφ¸ρήσθω ¿ uπo ΑΒ∆· λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ uπo ∆ΒΖ γωνία :ση cστ|
τ¸ cν τ; cναλλvξ τpήpατι τοu κύκλου γωνί; τ¸ uπo ΒΑ∆. κα| cπε| cν κύκλ; τετράπλευρόν cστι
τo ΑΒΓ∆, α| vπεναντίον αuτοu γωνίαι δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν. εiσ| δc κα| α| uπo ∆ΒΖ, ∆ΒΕ
δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι· α| vρα uπo ∆ΒΖ, ∆ΒΕ ταiς uπo ΒΑ∆, ΒΓ∆ :σαι εiσίν, eν ¿ uπo ΒΑ∆ τ¸
uπo ∆ΒΖ cδείχθη :ση· λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ uπo ∆ΒΕ τ¸ cν τ; cναλλvξ τοu κύκλου τpήpατι τ; ∆ΓΒ
τ¸ uπo ∆ΓΒ γωνί; cστ|ν :ση.
Εvν vρα κύκλου cφάπτηταί τις εuθεiα, vπo δc τ¿ς \φ¿ς εiς τoν κύκλον διαχθ¸ τις εuθεiα
τέpνουσα τoν κύκλον, iς ποιεi γωνίας πρoς τ¸ cφαπτοpέν¸, :σαι cσονται ταiς cν τοiς cναλλvξ
τοu κύκλου τpήpασι γωνίαις· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
228
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 32
A
E
B
F
D
C
If some straight-line touches a circle, and some (other) straight-line is drawn across, from the
point of contact into the circle, cutting the circle (in two), then those angles the (straight-line)
makes with the tangent will be equal to the angles in the alternate segments of the circle.
For let some straight-line EF touch the circle ABCD at the point B, and let some (other) straight-
line BD have been drawn from point B into the circle ABCD, cutting it (in two). I say that the
angles BD makes with the tangent EF will be equal to the angles in the alternate segments of
the circle. That is to say, that angle FBD is equal to one (of the) angle(s) constructed in segment
BAD, and angle EBD is equal to one (of the) angle(s) constructed in segment DCB.
For let BA have been drawn fromB, at right-angles to EF [Prop. 1.11]. And let the point C have
been taken somewhere on the circumference BD. And let AD, DC, and CB have been joined.
And since some straight-line EF touches the circle ABCD at point B, and BA has been drawn
from the point of contact, at right-angles to the tangent, the center of circle ABCD is thus on BA
[Prop. 3.19]. Thus, BA is a diameter of circle ABCD. Thus, angle ADB, being in a semi-circle,
is a right-angle [Prop, 3.31]. Thus, the remaining angles (of triangle ADB) BAD and ABD are
equal to one right-angle [Prop, 1.32] And ABF is also a right-angle. Thus, ABF is equal to BAD
and ABD. Let ABD have been subtracted from both. Thus, the remaining angle DBF is equal
to the angle BAD in the alternate segment of the circle. And since ABCD is a quadrilateral in a
circle, (the sum of) its opposite angles is equal to two right-angles [Prop. 3.22]. And DBF and
DBE is also equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.13]. Thus, DBF and DBE is equal to BAD and
BCD, of which BAD was shown (to be) equal to DBF. Thus, the remaining angle DBE is equal
to the angle DCB in the alternate segment DCB of the circle.
Thus, if some straight-line touches a circle, and some (other) straight-line is drawn across, from
the point of contact into the circle, cutting the circle (in two), then those angles the (straight-line)
makes with the tangent will be equal to the angles in the alternate segments of the circle. (Which
is) the very thing it was required to show.
229
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
λγ΄
Ζ
Ε
Η
Α Α
Β
Ζ
Β
Ε
Η

Α
Β
Γ Γ
Ε
∆ ∆
Ζ
Γ
Θ
Επ| τ¿ς δοθείσης εuθείας γράψαι τp¿pα κύκλου δεχόpενον γωνίαν :σην τ¸ δοθείσ¸ γωνί;
εuθυγράpp;.
´Εστω ¿ δοθεiσα εuθεiα ¿ ΑΒ, ¿ δc δοθεiσα γωνία εuθύγραppος ¿ πρoς τ; Γ· δεi δ¿ cπ| τ¿ς
δοθείσης εuθείας τ¿ς ΑΒ γράψαι τp¿pα κύκλου δεχόpενον γωνίαν :σην τ¸ πρoς τ; Γ.
Η δ¿ πρoς τ; Γ ¸γωνία] ¿τοι oξεiά cστιν ¿ oρθ¿ ¿ vpβλεiα· cστω πρότερον oξεiα, κα| eς cπ|
τ¿ς πρώτης καταγραφ¿ς συνεστάτω πρoς τ¸ ΑΒ εuθεί; κα| τ; Α σηpεί; τ¸ πρoς τ; Γ γωνί;
:ση ¿ uπo ΒΑ∆· oξεiα vρα cστ| κα| ¿ uπo ΒΑ∆. ¿χθω τ¸ ∆Α πρoς oρθvς ¿ ΑΕ, κα| τετpήσθω
¿ ΑΒ δίχα κατv τo Ζ, κα| ¿χθω vπo τοu Ζ σηpείου τ¸ ΑΒ πρoς oρθvς ¿ ΖΗ, κα| cπεζεύχθω
¿ ΗΒ.
Κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΑΖ τ¸ ΖΒ, κοιν¿ δc ¿ ΖΗ, δύο δ¿ α| ΑΖ, ΖΗ δύο ταiς ΒΖ, ΖΗ :σαι
εiσίν· κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΑΖΗ ¸γωνί;] τ¸ uπo ΒΖΗ :ση· βάσις vρα ¿ ΑΗ βάσει τ¸ ΒΗ :ση
cστίν. o vρα κέντρ; pcν τ; Η διαστήpατι δc τ; ΗΑ κύκλος γραφόpενος ¿ξει κα| διv τοu Β.
γεγράφθω κα| cστω o ΑΒΕ, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΕΒ. cπε| οuν vπ vκρας τ¿ς ΑΕ διαpέτρου vπo
τοu Α τ¸ ΑΕ πρoς oρθάς cστιν ¿ Α∆, ¿ Α∆ vρα cφάπτεται τοu ΑΒΕ κύκλου· cπε| οuν κύκλου
τοu ΑΒΕ cφάπτεταί τις εuθεiα ¿ Α∆, κα| vπo τ¿ς κατv τo Α \φ¿ς εiς τoν ΑΒΕ κύκλον δι¿κταί
τις εuθεiα ¿ ΑΒ, ¿ vρα uπo ∆ΑΒ γωνία :ση cστ| τ¸ cν τ; cναλλvξ τοu κύκλου τpήpατι γωνί;
τ¸ uπo ΑΕΒ. vλλ ¿ uπo ∆ΑΒ τ¸ πρoς τ; Γ cστιν :ση· κα| ¿ πρoς τ; Γ vρα γωνία :ση cστ| τ¸
uπo ΑΕΒ.
Επ| τ¿ς δοθείσης vρα εuθείας τ¿ς ΑΒ τp¿pα κύκλου γέγραπται τo ΑΕΒ δεχόpενον γωνίαν
τ¿ν uπo ΑΕΒ :σην τ¸ δοθείσ¸ τ¸ πρoς τ; Γ.
Αλλv δ¿ oρθ¿ cστω ¿ πρoς τ; Γ· κα| δέον πάλιν cστω cπ| τ¿ς ΑΒ γράψαι τp¿pα κύκλου
δεχόpενον γωνίαν :σην τ¸ πρoς τ; Γ oρθ¸ ¸γωνί;].συνεστάτω ¸πάλιν] τ¸ πρoς τ; Γ oρθ¸ γωνί;
2`0
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 33
H
A
C
A
G
F
B
E
F
A
D
G
D
C
C
F
E E
B
B
D
To draw a segment of a circle, accepting an angle equal to a given rectilinear angle, on a given
straight-line.
Let AB be the given straight-line, and C the given rectilinear angle. So it is required to draw a
segment of a circle, accepting an angle equal to C, on the given straight-line AB.
So the [angle] C is surely either acute, a right-angle, or obtuse. First of all, let it be acute. And,
as in the first diagram (from the left), let (angle) BAD, equal to angle C, have been constructed
at the point A on the straight-line AB [Prop. 1.23]. Thus, BAD is also acute. Let AE have been
drawn, at right-angles to DA [Prop. 1.11]. And let AB have been cut in half at F [Prop. 1.10].
And let FG have been drawn from point F, at right-angles to AB [Prop. 1.11]. And let GB have
been joined.
And since AF is equal to FB, and FG (is) common, the two (straight-lines) AF, FG are equal
to the two (straight-lines) BF, FG (respectively). And angle AFG (is) equal to [angle] BFG.
Thus, the base AG is equal to the base BG [Prop. 1.4]. Thus, the circle drawn with center G, and
radius GA, will also go through B (as well as A). Let it have been drawn, and let it be (denoted)
ABE. And let EB have been joined. Therefore, since AD is at the end of diameter AE, at (point)
A, at right-angles to AE, the (straight-line) AD thus touches the circle ABE [Prop. 3.16 corr.].
Therefore, since some straight-line AD touches the circle ABE, and some (other) straight-line
AB has been drawn across from the point of contact A into circle ABE, angle DAB is thus equal
to the angle AEB in the alternate segment of the circle [Prop. 3.32]. But, DAB is equal to C.
Thus, angle C is also equal to AEB.
Thus, a segment AEB of a circle, accepting the angle AEB (which is) equal to the given (angle)
C, has been drawn on the given straight-line AB.
2`l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
λγ΄
:ση ¿ uπo ΒΑ∆, eς cχει cπ| τ¿ς δευτέρας καταγραφ¿ς, κα| τετpήσθω ¿ ΑΒ δίχα κατv τo Ζ,
κα| κέντρ; τ; Ζ, διαστήpατι δc oποτέρ; τeν ΖΑ, ΖΒ, κύκλος γεγράφθω o ΑΕΒ.
Εφάπτεται vρα ¿ Α∆ εuθεiα τοu ΑΒΕ κύκλου διv τo oρθ¿ν ε|ναι τ¿ν πρoς τ; Α γωνίαν. κα|
:ση cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΒΑ∆ γωνία τ¸ cν τ; ΑΕΒ τpήpατι· oρθ¿ γvρ κα| αuτ¿ cν ¿pικυκλί; οuσα.
vλλv κα| ¿ uπo ΒΑ∆ τ¸ πρoς τ; Γ :ση cστίν. κα| ¿ cν τ; ΑΕΒ vρα :ση cστ| τ¸ πρoς τ; Γ.
Γέγραπται vρα πάλιν cπ| τ¿ς ΑΒ τp¿pα κύκλου τo ΑΕΒ δεχόpενον γωνίαν :σην τ¸ πρoς τ; Γ.
Αλλv δ¿ ¿ πρoς τ; Γ vpβλεiα cστω· κα| συνεστάτω αuτ¸ :ση πρoς τ¸ ΑΒ εuθεί; κα| τ; Α
σηpεί; ¿ uπo ΒΑ∆, eς cχει cπ| τ¿ς τρίτης καταγραφ¿ς, κα| τ¸ Α∆ πρoς oρθvς ¿χθω ¿ ΑΕ,
κα| τετpήσθω πάλιν ¿ ΑΒ δίχα κατv τo Ζ, κα| τ¸ ΑΒ πρoς oρθvς ¿χθω ¿ ΖΗ, κα| cπεζεύχθω
¿ ΗΒ.
Κα| cπε| πάλιν :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΑΖ τ¸ ΖΒ, κα| κοιν¿ ¿ ΖΗ, δύο δ¿ α| ΑΖ, ΖΗ δύο ταiς ΒΖ, ΖΗ
:σαι εiσίν· κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΑΖΗ γωνί; τ¸ uπo ΒΖΗ :ση· βάσις vρα ¿ ΑΗ βάσει τ¸ ΒΗ :ση
cστίν· o vρα κέντρ; pcν τ; Η διαστήpατι δc τ; ΗΑ κύκλος γραφόpενος ¿ξει κα| διv τοu Β.
cρχέσθω eς o ΑΕΒ. κα| cπε| τ¸ ΑΕ διαpέτρ; vπ vκρας πρoς oρθάς cστιν ¿ Α∆, ¿ Α∆ vρα
cφάπτεται τοu ΑΕΒ κύκλου. κα| vπo τ¿ς κατv τo Α cπαφ¿ς δι¿κται ¿ ΑΒ· ¿ vρα uπo ΒΑ∆
γωνία :ση cστ| τ¸ cν τ; cναλλvξ τοu κύκλου τpήpατι τ; ΑΘΒ συνισταpέν¸ γωνί;. vλλ ¿ uπo
ΒΑ∆ γωνία τ¸ πρoς τ; Γ :ση cστίν. κα| ¿ cν τ; ΑΘΒ vρα τpήpατι γωνία :ση cστ| τ¸ πρoς τ;
Γ.
Επ| τ¿ς vρα δοθείσης εuθείας τ¿ς ΑΒ γέγραπται τp¿pα κύκλου τo ΑΘΒ δεχόpενον γωνίαν
:σην τ¸ πρoς τ; Γ· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
2`2
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 33
And so let C be a right-angle. And let it again be necessary to draw a segment of a circle on
AB, accepting an angle equal to the right-[angle] C. Let the (angle) BAD [again] have been
constructed, equal to the right-angle C [Prop. 1.23], as in the second diagram (from the left).
And let AB have been cut in half at F [Prop. 1.10]. And let the circle AEB have been drawn
with center F, and radius either FA or FB.
Thus, the straight-line AD touches the circle ABE, on account of the angle at A being a right-
angle [Prop. 3.16 corr.]. And angle BAD is equal to the angle in segment AEB. For (the latter
angle), being in a semi-circle, is also a right-angle [Prop. 3.31]. But, BAD is also equal to C.
Thus, the (angle) in (segment) AEB is also equal to C.
Thus, a segment AEB of a circle, accepting an angle equal to C, has again been drawn on AB.
And so let (angle) C be obtuse. And let (angle) BAD, equal to (C), have been constructed at the
point A on the straight-line AB [Prop. 1.23], as in the third diagram (from the left). And let AE
have been drawn, at right-angles to AD [Prop. 1.11]. And let AB have again been cut in half at
F [Prop. 1.10]. And let FG have been drawn, at right-angles to AB [Prop. 1.10]. And let GB
have been joined.
And again, since AF is equal to FB, and FG (is) common, the two (straight-lines) AF, FG are
equal to the two (straight-lines) BF, FG(respectively). And angle AFG(is) equal to angle BFG.
Thus, the base AG is equal to the base BG [Prop. 1.4]. Thus, a circle of center G, and radius GA,
being drawn, will also go through B (as well as A). Let it go like AEB (in the third diagram from
the left). And since AD is at right-angles to the diameter AE, at the end, AD thus touches circle
AEB [Prop. 3.16 corr.]. And AB has been drawn across (the circle) from the point of contact A.
Thus, angle BAD is equal to the angle constructed in the alternate segment AHB of the circle
[Prop. 3.32]. But, angle BAD is equal to C. Thus, the angle in segment AHB is also equal to C.
Thus, a segment AHB of a circle, accepting an angle equal to C, has been drawn on the given
straight-line AB. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.
2``
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
λδ΄
Γ
Α
Ε
Β

Ζ
Απo τοu δοθέντος κύκλου τp¿pα vφελεiν δεχόpενον γωνίαν :σην τ¸ δοθείσ¸ γωνί; εuθυγράpp;.
´Εστω o δοθε|ς κύκλος o ΑΒΓ, ¿ δc δοθεiσα γωνία εuθύγραppος ¿ πρoς τ; ∆· δεi δ¿ vπo τοu
ΑΒΓ κύκλου τp¿pα vφελεiν δεχόpενον γωνίαν :σην τ¸ δοθείσ¸ γωνί; εuθυγράpp; τ¸ πρoς τ;
∆.
´Ηχθω τοu ΑΒΓ cφαπτοpένη ¿ ΕΖ κατv τo Β σηpεiον, κα| συνεστάτω πρoς τ¸ ΖΒ εuθεί; κα|
τ; πρoς αuτ¸ σηpεί; τ; Β τ¸ πρoς τ; ∆ γωνί; :ση ¿ uπo ΖΒΓ.
Επε| οuν κύκλου τοu ΑΒΓ cφάπτεταί τις εuθεiα ¿ ΕΖ, κα| vπo τ¿ς κατv τo Β cπαφ¿ς δι¿κται ¿
ΒΓ, ¿ uπo ΖΒΓ vρα γωνία :ση cστ| τ¸ cν τ; ΒΑΓ cναλλvξ τpήpατι συνισταpέν¸ γωνί;. vλλ ¿
uπo ΖΒΓ τ¸ πρoς τ; ∆ cστιν :ση· κα| ¿ cν τ; ΒΑΓ vρα τpήpατι :ση cστ| τ¸ πρoς τ; ∆ ¸γωνί;].
Απo τοu δοθέντος vρα κύκλου τοu ΑΒΓ τp¿pα vφ¸ρηται τo ΒΑΓ δεχόpενον γωνίαν :σην τ¸
δοθείσ¸ γωνί; εuθυγράpp; τ¸ πρoς τ; ∆· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
2`4
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 34
D
A
E
B
F
C
To cut off a segment, accepting an angle equal to a given rectilinear angle, from a given circle.
Let ABC be the given circle, and D the given rectilinear angle. So it is required to cut off a
segment, accepting an angle equal to the given rectilinear angle D, from the given circle ABC.
Let EF have been drawn touching ABC at point B.
46
And let (angle) FBC, equal to angle D,
have been constructed at the point B on the straight-line FB [Prop. 1.23].
Therefore, since some straight-line EF touches the circle ABC, and BC has been drawn across
(the circle) from the point of contact B, angle FBC is thus equal to the angle constructed in the
alternate segment BAC [Prop. 1.32]. But, FBC is equal to D. Thus, the (angle) in the segment
BAC is also equal to [angle] D.
Thus, the segment BAC, accepting an angle equal to the given rectilinear angle D, has been cut
off from the given circle ABC. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.
46
Presumably, by finding the center of ABC [Prop. 3.1], drawing a straight-line between the center and point B,
and then drawing EF through point B, at right-angles to the aforementioned straight-line [Prop. 1.11].
2`¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
λε΄
Α
Ε
Γ
Θ


Β
Β
Γ
Α
Ε
Ζ
Η
Εvν cν κύκλ; δύο εuθεiαι τέpνωσιν vλλήλας, τo uπo τeν τ¿ς pιiς τpηpάτων περιεχόpενον
oρθογώνιον :σον cστ| τ; uπo τeν τ¿ς cτέρας τpηpάτων περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί;.
Εν γvρ κύκλ; τ; ΑΒΓ∆ δύο εuθεiαι α| ΑΓ, Β∆ τεpνέτωσαν vλλήλας κατv τo Ε σηpεiον· λέγω,
oτι τo uπo τeν ΑΕ, ΕΓ περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον :σον cστ| τ; uπo τeν ∆Ε, ΕΒ περιεχοpέν;
oρθογωνί;.
Εi pcν οuν α| ΑΓ, Β∆ διv τοu κέντρου εiσ|ν eστε τo Ε κέντρον ε|ναι τοu ΑΒΓ∆ κύκλου, φα-
νερόν, oτι :σων οuσeν τeν ΑΕ, ΕΓ, ∆Ε, ΕΒ κα| τo uπo τeν ΑΕ, ΕΓ περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον
:σον cστ| τ; uπo τeν ∆Ε, ΕΒ περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί;.
Μ¿ cστωσαν δ¿ α| ΑΓ, ∆Β διv τοu κέντρου, κα| εiλήφθω τo κέντρον τοu ΑΒΓ∆, κα| cστω τo
Ζ, κα| vπo τοu Ζ cπ| τvς ΑΓ, ∆Β εuθείας κάθετοι ¿χθωσαν α| ΖΗ, ΖΘ, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α|
ΖΒ, ΖΓ, ΖΕ.
Κα| cπε| εuθεiά τις διv τοu κέντρου ¿ ΗΖ εuθεiάν τινα p¿ διv τοu κέντρου τ¿ν ΑΓ πρoς oρθvς
τέpνει, κα| δίχα αuτ¿ν τέpνει· :ση vρα ¿ ΑΗ τ¸ ΗΓ. cπε| οuν εuθεiα ¿ ΑΓ τέτpηται εiς pcν :σα
κατv τo Η, εiς δc vνισα κατv τo Ε, τo vρα uπo τeν ΑΕ, ΕΓ περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον pετv
τοu vπo τ¿ς ΕΗ τετραγώνου :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς ΗΓ· ¸κοινoν] προσκείσθω τo vπo τ¿ς ΗΖ·
τo vρα uπo τeν ΑΕ, ΕΓ pετv τeν vπo τeν ΗΕ, ΗΖ :σον cστ| τοiς vπo τeν ΓΗ, ΗΖ. vλλv
τοiς pcν vπo τeν ΕΗ, ΗΖ :σον cστ| τo vπo τ¿ς ΖΕ, το|ς δc vπo τeν ΓΗ, ΗΖ :σον cστ| τo
vπo τ¿ς ΖΓ· τo vρα uπo τeν ΑΕ, ΕΓ pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς ΖΕ :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς ΖΓ. :ση δc
¿ ΖΓ τ¸ ΖΒ· τo vρα uπo τeν ΑΕ, ΕΓ pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς ΕΖ :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς ΖΒ. διv τv
αuτv δ¿ κα| τo uπo τeν ∆Ε, ΕΒ pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς ΖΕ iσον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς ΖΒ. cδείχθη δc
κα| τo uπo τeν ΑΕ, ΕΓ pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς ΖΕ :σον τ; vπo τ¿ς ΖΒ· τo vρα uπo τeν ΑΕ, ΕΓ
pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς ΖΕ :σον cστ| τ; uπo τeν ∆Ε, ΕΒ pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς ΖΕ. κοινoν vφ¸ρήσθω
2`6
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 35
A
E
G
B
C
E
B D
D
C
F
H
A
If two straight-lines in a circle cut one another then the rectangle contained by the pieces of one
is equal to the rectangle contained by the pieces of the other.
For let the two straight-lines AC and BD, in the circle ABCD, cut one another at point E. I say
that the rectangle contained by AE and EC is equal to the rectangle contained by DE and EB.
In fact, if AC and BD are through the center (as in the first diagram from the left), so that E
is the center of circle ABCD, then (it is) clear that, AE, EC, DE, and EB being equal, the
rectangle contained by AE and EC is also equal to the rectangle contained by DE and EB.
So let AC and DB not be though the center (as in the second diagram from the left), and let the
center of ABCD have been found [Prop. 3.1], and let it be (at) F. And let FG and FH have
been drawn from F, perpendicular to the straight-lines AC and DB (respectively) [Prop. 1.12].
And let FB, FC, and FE have been joined.
And since some straight-line, GF, through the center cuts at right-angles some (other) straight-
line, AC, not through the center, then it also cuts it in half [Prop. 3.3]. Thus, AG (is) equal to
GC. Therefore, since the straight-line AC is cut equally at G, and unequally at E, the rectangle
contained by AE and EC plus the square on EG is thus equal to the (square) on GC [Prop. 2.5].
Let the (square) on GF have been added [to both]. Thus, the (rectangle contained) by AE and
EC plus the (sum of the squares) on GE and GF is equal to the (sum of the squares) on CG and
GF. But, the (sum of the squares) on EG and GF is equal to the (square) on FE [Prop. 1.47],
and the (sum of the squares) on CG and GF is equal to the (square) on FC [Prop. 1.47]. Thus,
the (rectangle contained) by AE and EC plus the (square) on FE is equal to the (square) on
FC. And FC (is) equal to FB. Thus, the (rectangle contained) by AE and EC plus the (square)
on FE is equal to the (square) on FB. So, for the same (reasons), the (rectangle contained) by
2`¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
λε΄
τo vπo τ¿ς ΖΕ· λοιπoν vρα τo uπo τeν ΑΕ, ΕΓ περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον :σον cστ| τ; uπo
τeν ∆Ε, ΕΒ περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί;.
Εvν vρα cν κύκλ; εuθεiαι δύο τέpνωσιν vλλήλας, τo uπo τeν τ¿ς pιiς τpηpάτων περιεχόpενον
oρθογώνιον :σον cστ| τ; uπo τeν τ¿ς cτέρας τpηpάτων περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί;· oπερ cδει
δεiξαι.
2`8
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 35
DE and EB plus the (square) on FE is equal to the (square) on FB. And the (rectangle con-
tained) by AE and EC plus the (square) on FE was also shown (to be) equal to the (square)
on FB. Thus, the (rectangle contained) by AE and EC plus the (square) on FE is equal to the
(rectangle contained) by DE and EB plus the (square) on FE. Let the (square) on FE have
been taken from both. Thus, the remaining rectangle contained by AE and EC is equal to the
rectangle contained by DE and EB.
Thus, if two straight-lines in a circle cut one another then the rectangle contained by the pieces
of one is equal to the rectangle contained by the pieces of the other. (Which is) the very thing it
was required to show.
2`9
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
λç΄
Ε
Γ
Ζ
Α
Β
Α
Β


Ζ
Γ
Εvν κύκλου ληφθ¸ τι σηpεiον cκτός, κα| vπ αuτοu πρoς τoν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι δύο εuθεiαι,
κα| ¿ pcν αuτeν τέpν¸ τoν κύκλον, ¿ δc cφάπτηται, cσται τo uπo oλης τ¿ς τεpνούσης κα| τ¿ς
cκτoς vπολαpβανοpένης pεταξù τοu τε σηpείου κα| τ¿ς κυρτ¿ς περιφερείας :σον τ; vπo τ¿ς
cφαπτοpένης τετραγών;.
Κύκλου γvρ τοu ΑΒΓ εiλήφθω τι σηpεiον cκτoς τo ∆, κα| vπo τοu ∆ πρoς τoν ΑΒΓ κύκλον
προσπιπτέτωσαν δύο εuθεiαι α| ∆Γ¸Α], ∆Β· κα| ¿ pcν ∆ΓΑ τεpνέτω τoν ΑΒΓ κύκλον, ¿ δc Β∆
cφαπτέσθω· λέγω, oτι τo uπo τeν Α∆, ∆Γ περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς ∆Β
τετραγών;.
Η vρα ¸∆]ΓΑ ¿τοι διv τοu κέντρου cστ|ν ¿ οu. cστω πρότερον διv τοu κέντρου, κα| cστω τo
Ζ κέντρον τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΖΒ· oρθ¿ vρα cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΖΒ∆. κα| cπε| εuθεiα
¿ ΑΓ δίχα τέτpηται κατv τo Ζ, πρόσκειται δc αuτ¸ ¿ Γ∆, τo vρα uπo τeν Α∆, ∆Γ pετv τοu
vπo τ¿ς ΖΓ :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς Ζ∆. :ση δc ¿ ΖΓ τ¸ ΖΒ· τo vρα uπo τeν Α∆, ∆Γ pετv τοu
vπo τ¿ς ΖΒ :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς Ζ∆. τ; δc vπo τ¿ς Ζ∆ :σα cστ| τv vπo τeν ΖΒ, Β∆· τo vρα
uπo τeν Α∆, ∆Γ pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς ΖΒ :σον cστ| τοiς vπo τeν ΖΒ, Β∆. κοινoν vφ¸ρήσθω τo
vπo τ¿ς ΖΒ· λοιπoν vρα τo uπo τeν Α∆, ∆Γ :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς ∆Β cφαπτοpένης.
vλλv δ¿ ¿ ∆ΓΑ p¿ cστω διv τοu κέντρου τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου, κα| εiλήφθω τo κέντρον τo Ε, κα|
vπo τοu Ε cπ| τ¿ν ΑΓ κάθετος ¿χθω ¿ ΕΖ, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΕΒ, ΕΓ, Ε∆· oρθ¿ vρα cστ|ν
¿ uπo ΕΒ∆. κα| cπε| εuθεiά τις διv τοu κέντρου ¿ ΕΖ εuθεiάν τινα p¿ διv τοu κέντρου τ¿ν ΑΓ
πρoς oρθvς τέpνει, κα| δίχα αuτ¿ν τέpνει· ¿ ΑΖ vρα τ¸ ΖΓ cστιν :ση. κα| cπε| εuθεiα ¿ ΑΓ
τέτpηται δίχα κατv τo Ζ σηpεiον, πρόσκειται δc αuτ¸ ¿ Γ∆, τo vρα uπo τeν Α∆, ∆Γ pετv τοu
vπo τ¿ς ΖΓ :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς Ζ∆. κοινoν προσκείσθω τo vπo τ¿ς ΖΕ· τo vρα uπo τeν Α∆,
∆Γ pετv τeν vπo τeν ΓΖ, ΖΕ :σον cστ| τοiς vπo τeν Ζ∆, ΖΕ. τοiς δc vπo τeν ΓΖ, ΖΕ :σον
cστ| τo vπo τ¿ς ΕΓ· oρθ¿ γvρ ¸cστιν] ¿ uπo ΕΖΓ ¸γωνία]· τοiς δc vπo τeν ∆Ζ, ΖΕ :σον cστ|
τo vπo τ¿ς Ε∆· τo vρα uπo τeν Α∆, ∆Γ pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς ΕΓ :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς Ε∆. :ση
240
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 36
E
D
B
F
A
F
A
B
C
D
C
If some point is taken outside a circle, and two straight-lines radiate from it towards the circle,
and (one) of them cuts the circle, and the (other) touches (it), then the (rectangle contained)
by the whole (straight-line) cutting (the circle), and the (part of it) cut off outside (the circle),
between the point and the convex circumference, will be equal to the square on the tangent (line).
For let some point D have been taken outside circle ABC, and let two straight-lines, DC[A] and
DB, radiate from D towards circle ABC. And let DCA cut circle ABC, and let BD touch (it). I
say that the rectangle contained by AD and DC is equal to the square on DB.
[D]CA is surely either through the center, or not. Let it first of all be through the center, and let
F be the center of circle ABC, and let FB have been joined. Thus, (angle) FBD is a right-angle
[Prop. 3.18]. And since straight-line AC is cut in half at F, let CD have been added to it. Thus,
the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC plus the (square) on FC is equal to the (square) on FD
[Prop. 2.6]. And FC (is) equal to FB. Thus, the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC plus the
(square) on FB is equal to the (square) on FD. And the (square) on FD is equal to the (sum of
the squares) on FB and BD [Prop. 1.47]. Thus, the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC plus
the (square) on FB is equal to the (sum of the squares) on FB and BD. Let the (square) on FB
have been subtracted from both. Thus, the remaining (rectangle contained) by AD and DC is
equal to the (square) on the tangent DB.
And so let DCA not be through the center of circle ABC, and let the center E have been found,
and let EF have been drawn from E, perpendicular to AC [Prop. 1.12]. And let EB, EC, and
ED have been joined. (Angle) EBD (is) thus a right-angle [Prop. 3.18]. And since some straight-
line, EF, through the center cuts some (other) straight-line, AC, not through the center, at right-
angles, it also cuts it in half [Prop. 3.3]. Thus, AF is equal to FC. And since the straight-line AC
is cut in half at point F, let CD have been added to it. Thus, the (rectangle contained) by AD and
24l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
λç΄
δc ¿ ΕΓ τ¸ ΕΒ· τo vρα uπo τeν Α∆, ∆Γ pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς ΕΒ :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς Ε∆. τ;
δc vπo τ¿ς Ε∆ :σα cστ| τv vπo τeν ΕΒ, Β∆· oρθ¿ γvρ ¿ uπo ΕΒ∆ γωνία· τo vρα uπo τeν
Α∆, ∆Γ pετv τοu vπo τ¿ς ΕΒ :σον cστ| τοiς vπo τeν ΕΒ, Β∆. κοινoν vφ¸ρήσθω τo vπo τ¿ς
ΕΒ· λοιπoν vρα τo uπo τeν Α∆, ∆Γ :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς ∆Β.
Εvν vρα κύκλου ληφθ¸ τι σηpεiον cκτός, κα| vπ αuτοu πρoς τoν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι δύο
εuθεiαι, κα| ¿ pcν αuτeν τέpν¸ τoν κύκλον, ¿ δc cφάπτηται, cσται τo uπo oλης τ¿ς τεpνούσης
κα| τ¿ς cκτoς vπολαpβανοpένης pεταξù τοu τε σηpείου κα| τ¿ς κυρτ¿ς περιφερείας :σον τ; vπo
τ¿ς cφαπτοpένης τετραγών;· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
242
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 36
DC plus the (square) on FC is equal to the (square) on FD [Prop. 2.6]. Let the (square) on
FE have been added to both. Thus, the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC plus the (sum
of the squares) on CF and FE is equal to the (sum of the squares) on FD and FE. But the
(sum of the squares) on CF and FE is equal to the (square) on EC. For [angle] EFC [is] a
right-angle [Prop. 1.47]. And the (sum of the squares) on DF and FE is equal to the (square)
on ED [Prop. 1.47]. Thus, the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC plus the (square) on EC
is equal to the (square) on ED. And EC (is) equal to EB. Thus, the (rectangle contained) by
AD and DC plus the (square) on EB is equal to the (square) on ED. And the (square) on ED
is equal to the (sum of the squares) on EB and BD. For EBD (is) a right-angle [Prop. 1.47].
Thus, the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC plus the (square) on EB is equal to the (sum of
the squares) on EB and BD. Let the (square) on EB have been subtracted from both. Thus, the
remaining (rectangle contained) by AD and DC is equal to the (square) on BD.
Thus, if some point is taken outside a circle, and two straight-lines radiate from it towards the cir-
cle, and (one) of them cuts the circle, and (the other) touches (it), then the (rectangle contained)
by the whole (straight-line) cutting (the circle), and the (part of it) cut off outside (the circle), be-
tween the point and the convex circumference, will be equal to the square on the tangent (line).
(Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
24`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ γ΄
λζ΄
Ε
Ζ
Α

Β
Γ
Εvν κύκλου ληφθ¸ τι σηpεiον cκτός, vπo δc τοu σηpείου πρoς τoν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι δύο
εuθεiαι, κα| ¿ pcν αuτeν τέpν¸ τoν κύκλον, ¿ δc προσπίπτ¸, ¸ δc τo uπo ¸τ¿ς] oλης τ¿ς
τεpνούσης κα| τ¿ς cκτoς vπολαpβανοpένης pεταξù τοu τε σηpείου κα| τ¿ς κυρτ¿ς περιφερείας
:σον τ; vπo τ¿ς προσπιπτούσης, ¿ προσπίπτουσα cφάψεται τοu κύκλου.
κύκλου γvρ τοu ΑΒΓ εiλήφθω τι σηpεiον cκτoς τo ∆, κα| vπo τοu ∆ πρoς τoν ΑΒΓ κύκλον
προσπιπτέτωσαν δύο εuθεiαι α| ∆ΓΑ, ∆Β, κα| ¿ pcν ∆ΓΑ τεpνέτω τoν κύκλον, ¿ δc ∆Β
προσπιπτέτω, cστω δc τo uπo τeν Α∆, ∆Γ :σον τ; vπo τ¿ς ∆Β. λέγω, oτι ¿ ∆Β cφάπτεται τοu
ΑΒΓ κύκλου.
´Ηχθω γvρ τοu ΑΒΓ cφαπτοpένη ¿ ∆Ε, κα| εiλήφθω τo κέντρον τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου, κα| cστω
τo Ζ, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΖΕ, ΖΒ, Ζ∆. ¿ vρα uπo ΖΕ∆ oρθή cστιν. κα| cπε| ¿ ∆Ε cφάπτεται
τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου, τέpνει δc ¿ ∆ΓΑ, τo vρα uπo τeν Α∆, ∆Γ :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς ∆Ε. ¿ν
δc κα| τo uπo τeν Α∆, ∆Γ :σον τ; vπo τ¿ς ∆Β· τo vρα vπo τ¿ς ∆Ε :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς
∆Β· :ση vρα ¿ ∆Ε τ¸ ∆Β. cστ| δc κα| ¿ ΖΕ τ¸ ΖΒ :ση· δύο δ¿ α| ∆Ε, ΕΖ δύο ταiς ∆Β, ΒΖ
:σαι εiσίν· κα| βάσις αuτeν κοιν¿ ¿ Ζ∆· γωνία vρα ¿ uπo ∆ΕΖ γωνί; τ¸ uπo ∆ΒΖ cστιν :ση.
oρθ¿ δc ¿ uπo ∆ΕΖ· oρθ¿ vρα κα| ¿ uπo ∆ΒΖ. καί cστιν ¿ ΖΒ cκβαλλοpένη διάpετρος· ¿
δc τ¸ διαpέτρ; τοu κύκλου πρoς oρθvς vπ vκρας vγοpένη cφάπτεται τοu κύκλου· ¿ ∆Β vρα
cφάπτεται τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου. opοίως δ¿ δειχθήσεται, κiν τo κέντρον cπ| τ¿ς ΑΓ τυγχάν¸.
Εvν vρα κύκλου ληφθ¸ τι σηpεiον cκτός, vπo δc τοu σηpείου πρoς τoν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι
δύο εuθεiαι, κα| ¿ pcν αuτeν τέpν¸ τoν κύκλον, ¿ δc προσπίπτ¸, ¸ δc τo uπo oλης τ¿ς τεpνούσης
κα| τ¿ς cκτoς vπολαpβανοpένης pεταξù τοu τε σηpείου κα| τ¿ς κυρτ¿ς περιφερείας :σον τ; vπo
τ¿ς προσπιπτούσης, ¿ προσπίπτουσα cφάψεται τοu κύκλου· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
244
ELEMENTS BOOK 3
Proposition 37
E
F
A
B
D
C
If some point is taken outside a circle, and two straight-lines radiate from the point towards the
circle, and one of them cuts the circle, and the (other) meets (it), and the (rectangle contained)
by the whole (straight-line) cutting (the circle), and the (part of it) cut off outside (the circle),
between the point and the convex circumference, is equal to the (square) on the (straight-line)
meeting (the circle), then the (straight-line) meeting (the circle) will touch the circle.
For let some point D have been taken outside circle ABC, and let two straight-lines, DCA and
DB, radiate from D towards circle ABC, and let DCA cut the circle, and let DB meet (the cir-
cle). And let the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC be equal to the (square) on DB. I say that
DB touches circle ABC.
For let DE have been drawn touching ABC [Prop. 3.17], and let the center of the circle ABC
have been found, and let it be (at) F. And let FE, FB, and FD have been joined. (Angle) FED
is thus a right-angle [Prop. 3.18]. And since DE touches circle ABC, and DCA cuts (it), the
(rectangle contained) by AD and DC is thus equal to the (square) on DE [Prop. 3.36]. And the
(rectangle contained) by AD and DC was also equal to the (square) on DB. Thus, the (square)
on DE is equal to the (square) on DB. Thus, DE (is) equal to DB. And FE is also equal to
FB. So the two (straight-lines) DE, EF are equal to the two (straight-lines) DB, BF (respec-
tively). And their base, FD, is common. Thus, angle DEF is equal to angle DBF [Prop. 1.8].
And DEF (is) a right-angle. Thus, DBF (is) also a right-angle. And FB produced is a diameter,
And a (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to a diameter of a circle, at its end, touches the circle
[Prop. 3.16 corr.]. Thus, DB touches circle ABC. Similarly, (the same thing) can be shown, even
if the center is somewhere on AC.
Thus, if some point is taken outside a circle, and two straight-lines radiate from the point to-
wards the circle, and one of them cuts the circle, and the (other) meets (it), and the (rectangle
contained) by the whole (straight-line) cutting (the circle), and the (part of it) cut off outside
(the circle), between the point and the convex circumference, is equal to the (square) on the
(straight-line) meeting (the circle), then the (straight-line) meeting (the circle) will touch the
circle. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
24¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ δ΄
ELEMENTS BOOK 4
Construction of rectilinear figures in and
around circles
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ δ΄
´Οροι
α΄ Σχ¿pα εuθύγραppον εiς σχ¿pα εuθύγραppον cγγράφεσθαι λέγεται, oταν cκάστη τeν τοu
cγγραφοpένου σχήpατος γωνιeν cκάστης πλευρiς τοu, εiς o cγγράφεται, vπτηται.
β΄ Σχ¿pα δc opοίως περ| σχ¿pα περιγράφεσθαι λέγεται, oταν cκάστη πλευρv τοu περιγρα-
φοpένου cκάστης γωνίας τοu, περ| o περιγράφεται, vπτηται.
γ΄ Σχ¿pα εuθύγραppον εiς κύκλον cγγράφεσθαι λέγεται, oταν cκάστη γωνία τοu cγγραφο-
pένου vπτηται τ¿ς τοu κύκλου περιφερείας.
δ΄ Σχ¿pα δc εuθύγραppον περ| κύκλον περιγράφεσθαι λέγεται, oταν cκάστη πλευρv τοu
περιγραφοpένου cφάπτηται τ¿ς τοu κύκλου περιφερείας.
ε΄ Κύκλος δc εiς σχ¿pα opοίως cγγράφεσθαι λέγεται, oταν ¿ τοu κύκλου περιφέρεια cκάστης
πλευρiς τοu, εiς o cγγράφεται, vπτηται.
ç΄ Κύκλος δc περ| σχ¿pα περιγράφεσθαι λέγεται, oταν ¿ τοu κύκλου περιφέρεια cκάστης
γωνίας τοu, περ| o περιγράφεται, vπτηται.
ζ΄ Εuθεiα εiς κύκλον cναρpόζεσθαι λέγεται, oταν τv πέρατα αuτ¿ς cπ| τ¿ς περιφερείας ¸ τοu
κύκλου.
248
ELEMENTS BOOK 4
Definitions
1 A rectilinear figure is said to be inscribed in a(nother) rectilinear figure when each of the
angles of the inscribed figure touches each (respective) side of the (figure) in which it is
inscribed.
2 And, similarly, a (rectilinear) figure is said to be circumscribed about a(nother rectilinear)
figure when each side of the circumscribed (figure) touches each (respective) angle of the
(figure) about which it is circumscribed.
3 A rectilinear figure is said to be inscribed in a circle when each angle of the inscribed (figure)
touches the circumference of the circle.
4 And a rectilinear figure is said to be circumscribed about a circle when each side of the
circumscribed (figure) touches the circumference of the circle.
5 And, similarly, a circle is said to be inscribed in a (rectilinear) figure when the circumference
of the circle touches each side of the (figure) in which it is inscribed.
6 And a circle is said to be circumscribed about a rectilinear (figure) when the circumference
of the circle touches each angle of the (figure) about which it is circumscribed.
7 A straight-line is said to be inserted into a circle when its ends are on the circumference of
the circle.
249
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ δ΄
α΄
Ε

Γ
Β
Ζ
Α
Εiς τoν δοθέντα κύκλον τ¸ δοθείσ¸ εuθεί; p¿ pείζονι οuσ¸ τ¿ς τοu κύκλου διαpέτρου :σην
εuθεiαν cναρpόσαι.
´Εστω o δοθε|ς κύκλος o ΑΒΓ, ¿ δc δοθεiσα εuθεiα p¿ pείζων τ¿ς τοu κύκλου διαpέτρου ¿ ∆.
δεi δ¿ εiς τoν ΑΒΓ κύκλον τ¸ ∆ εuθεί; :σην εuθεiαν cναρpόσαι.
´Ηχθω τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου διάpετρος ¿ ΒΓ. εi pcν οuν :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΒΓ τ¸ ∆, γεγονoς iν ε:η τo
cπιταχθέν· cνήρpοσται γvρ εiς τoν ΑΒΓ κύκλον τ¸ ∆ εuθεί; :ση ¿ ΒΓ. εi δc pείζων cστ|ν ¿
ΒΓ τ¿ς ∆, κείσθω τ¸ ∆ :ση ¿ ΓΕ, κα| κέντρ; τ; Γ διαστήpατι δc τ; ΓΕ κύκλος γεγράφθω o
ΕΑΖ, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΓΑ.
Επε| οuν το Γ σηpεiον κέντρον cστ| τοu ΕΑΖ κύκλου, :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΓΑ τ¸ ΓΕ. vλλv τ¸ ∆ ¿ ΓΕ
cστιν :ση· κα| ¿ ∆ vρα τ¸ ΓΑ cστιν :ση.
Εiς vρα τoν δοθέντα κύκλον τoν ΑΒΓ τ¸ δοθείσ¸ εuθεί; τ¸ ∆ :ση cνήρpοσται ¿ ΓΑ· oπερ cδει
ποι¿σαι.
2¯0
ELEMENTS BOOK 4
Proposition 1
F
D
B C
E
A
To insert a straight-line equal to a given straight-line into a circle, (the latter straight-line) not
being greater than the diameter of the circle.
Let ABC be the given circle, and D the given straight-line (which is) not greater than the diameter
of the circle. So it is required to insert a straight-line, equal to the straight-line D, into the circle
ABC.
Let a diameter BC of circle ABC have been drawn.
47
Therefore, if BC is equal to D, then that
(which) was prescribed has taken place. For the (straight-line) BC, equal to the straight-line D,
has been inserted into the circle ABC. And if BC is greater than D, then let CE be made equal
to D [Prop. 1.3], and let the circle EAF have been drawn with center C and radius CE. And let
CA have been joined.
Therefore, since the point C is the center of circle EAF, CA is equal to CE. But, CE is equal to
D. Thus, D is also equal to CA.
Thus, CA, equal to the given straight-line D, has been inserted into the given circle ABC. (Which
is) the very thing it was required to do.
47
Presumably, by finding the center of the circle [Prop. 3.1], and then drawing a line through it.
2¯l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ δ΄
β΄
Η
Θ
Γ
Ζ
Α
Β
Ε

Εiς τoν δοθέντα κύκλον τ; δοθέντι τριγών; iσογώνιον τρίγωνον cγγράψαι.
´Εστω o δοθε|ς κύκλος o ΑΒΓ, τo δc δοθcν τριγωνον τo ∆ΕΖ· δεi δ¿ εiς τoν ΑΒΓ κύκλον τ;
∆ΕΖ τριγών; iσογώνιον τρίγωνον cγγράψαι.
´Ηχθω τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου cφαπτοpένη ¿ ΗΘ κατv τo Α, κα| συνεστάτω πρoς τ¸ ΑΘ εuθεί; κα|
τ; πρoς αuτ¸ σηpεί; τ; Α τ¸ uπo ∆ΕΖ γωνί; :ση ¿ uπo ΘΑΓ, πρoς δc τ¸ ΑΗ εuθεί; κα| τ;
πρoς αuτ¸ σηpεί; τ; Α τ¸ uπo ∆ΖΕ ¸γωνί;] :ση ¿ uπo ΗΑΒ, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΒΓ.
Επε| οuν κύκλου τοu ΑΒΓ cφάπτεταί τις εuθεiα ¿ ΑΘ, κα| vπo τ¿ς κατv τo Α cπαφ¿ς εiς τoν
κύκλον δι¿κται εuθεiα ¿ ΑΓ, ¿ vρα uπo ΘΑΓ :ση cστ| τ¸ cν τ; cναλλvξ τοu κύκλου τpήpατι
γωνί; τ¸ uπo ΑΒΓ. vλλ ¿ uπo ΘΑΓ τ¸ uπo ∆ΕΖ cστιν :ση· κα| ¿ uπo ΑΒΓ vρα γωνία τ¸ uπo
∆ΕΖ cστιν :ση. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| ¿ uπo ΑΓΒ τ¸ uπo ∆ΖΕ cστιν :ση· κα| λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ uπo
ΒΑΓ λοιπ¸ τ¸ uπo Ε∆Ζ cστιν :ση ¸iσογώνιον vρα cστ| τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ∆ΕΖ τριγών;, κα|
cγγέγραπται εiς τoν ΑΒΓ κύκλον].
Εiς τoν δοθέντα vρα κύκλον τ; δοθέντι τριγών; iσογώνιον τρίγωνον cγγέγραπται· oπερ cδει
ποι¿σαι.
2¯2
ELEMENTS BOOK 4
Proposition 2
D
H
C
B
E
F
A
G
To inscribe a triangle, equiangular to a given triangle, in a given circle.
Let ABC be the given circle, and DEF the given triangle. So it is required to inscribe a triangle,
equiangular to triangle DEF, in circle ABC.
Let GH have been drawn touching circle ABC at A.
48
And let (angle) HAC, equal to angle DEF,
have been constructed at the point A on the straight-line AH, and (angle) GAB, equal to [angle]
DFE, at the point A on the straight-line AG [Prop. 1.23]. And let BC have been joined.
Therefore, since some straight-line AH touches the circle ABC, and the straight-line AC has
been drawn across (the circle) from the point of contact A, (angle) HAC is thus equal to the
angle ABC in the alternate segment of the circle [Prop. 3.32]. But, HAC is equal to DEF. Thus,
angle ABC is also equal to DEF. So, for the same (reasons), ACB is also equal to DFE. Thus,
the remaining (angle) BAC is equal to the remaining (angle) EDF [Prop. 1.32]. [Thus, triangle
ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF, and has been inscribed in circle ABC].
Thus, a triangle, equiangular to the given triangle, has been inscribed in the given circle. (Which
is) the very thing it was required to do.
48
See the footnote to Prop. 3.34.
2¯`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ δ΄
γ΄
Α
Μ
Η
Β

Κ
Λ Γ
Θ
Ε
Ζ
Ν
Περ| τoν δοθέντα κύκλον τ; δοθέντι τριγών; iσογώνιον τρίγωνον περιγράψαι.
´Εστω o δοθε|ς κύκλος o ΑΒΓ, τo δc δοθcν τρίγωνον τo ∆ΕΖ· δεi δ¿ περ| τoν ΑΒΓ κύκλον
τ; ∆ΕΖ τριγών; iσογώνιον τρίγωνον περιγράψαι.
Εκβεβλήσθω ¿ ΕΖ cφ cκάτερα τv pέρη κατv τv Η, Θ σηpεiα, κα| εiλήφθω τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου
κέντρον τo Κ, κα| διήχθω, eς cτυχεν, εuθεiα ¿ ΚΒ, κα| συνεστάτω πρoς τ¸ ΚΒ εuθεί; κα| τ;
πρoς αuτ¸ σηpεί; τ; Κ τ¸ pcν uπo ∆ΕΗ γωνί; :ση ¿ uπo ΒΚΑ, τ¸ δc uπo ∆ΖΘ :ση ¿ uπo
ΒΚΓ, κα| διv τeν Α, Β, Γ σηpείων ¿χθωσαν cφαπτόpεναι τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου α| ΛΑΜ, ΜΒΝ,
ΝΓΛ.
Κα| cπε| cφάπτονται τοu ΑΒΓ κύκλου α| ΛΜ, ΜΝ, ΝΛ κατv τv Α, Β, Γ σηpεiα, vπo δc τοu
Κ κέντρου cπ| τv Α, Β, Γ σηpεiα cπεζευγpέναι εiσ|ν α| ΚΑ, ΚΒ, ΚΓ, oρθα| vρα εiσ|ν α| πρoς
τοiς Α, Β, Γ σηpείοις γωνίαι. κα| cπε| τοu ΑΜΒΚ τετραπλεύρου α| τέσσαρες γωνίαι τέτρασιν
oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν, cπειδήπερ κα| εiς δύο τρίγωνα διαιρεiται τo ΑΜΒΚ, καί εiσιν oρθα| α| uπo
ΚΑΜ, ΚΒΜ γωνίαι, λοιπα| vρα α| uπo ΑΚΒ, ΑΜΒ δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν. εiσ| δc κα| α|
uπo ∆ΕΗ, ∆ΕΖ δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι· α| vρα uπo ΑΚΒ, ΑΜΒ ταiς uπo ∆ΕΗ, ∆ΕΖ :σαι εiσίν,
eν ¿ uπo ΑΚΒ τ¸ uπo ∆ΕΗ cστιν :ση· λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ uπo ΑΜΒ λοιπ¸ τ¸ uπo ∆ΕΖ cστιν :ση.
opοίως δ¿ δειχθήσεται, oτι κα| ¿ uπo ΛΝΒ τ¸ uπo ∆ΖΕ cστιν :ση· κα| λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ uπo ΜΛΝ
¸λοιπ¸] τ¸ uπo Ε∆Ζ cστιν :ση. iσογώνιον vρα cστ| τo ΛΜΝ τρίγωνον τ; ∆ΕΖ τριγών;· κα|
περιγέγραπται περ| τoν ΑΒΓ κύκλον.
Περ| τoν δοθέντα vρα κύκλον τ; δοθέντι τριγών; iσογώνιον τρίγωνον περιγέγραπται· oπερ
cδει ποι¿σαι.
2¯4
ELEMENTS BOOK 4
Proposition 3
A
L C N
G
H
D
M
E
K
B
F
To circumscribe a triangle, equiangular to a given triangle, about a given circle.
Let ABC be the given circle, and DEF the given triangle. So it is required to circumscribe a
triangle, equiangular to triangle DEF, about circle ABC.
Let EF have been produced in each direction to points G and H. And let the center K of circle
ABC have been found [Prop. 3.1]. And let the straight-line KB have been drawn across (ABC),
at random. And let (angle) BKA, equal to angle DEG, have been constructed at the point K
on the straight-line KB, and (angle) BKC, equal to DFH [Prop. 1.23]. And let the (straight-
lines) LAM, MBN, and NCL have been drawn through the points A, B, and C (respectively),
touching the circle ABC.
49
And since LM, MN, and NL touch circle ABC at points A, B, and C (respectively), and KA,
KB, and KC are joined from the center K to points A, B, and C (respectively), the angles at
points A, B, and C are thus right-angles [Prop. 3.18]. And since the (sum of the) four angles of
quadrilateral AMBK is equal to four right-angles, in as much as AMBK (can) also (be) divided
into two triangles [Prop. 1.32], and angles KAM and KBM are (both) right-angles, the (sum of
the) remaining (angles), AKB and AMB, is thus equal to two right-angles. And DEG and DEF
is also equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.13]. Thus, AKB and AMB is equal to DEG and DEF,
of which AKB is equal to DEG. Thus, the remainder AMB is equal to the remainder DEF. So,
similarly, it can be shown that LNB is also equal to DFE. Thus, the remaining (angle) MLN is
also equal to the [remaining] (angle) EDF [Prop. 1.32]. Thus, triangle LMN is equiangular to
triangle DEF. And it has been drawn around circle ABC.
Thus, a triangle, equiangular to the given triangle, has been circumscribed about the given circle.
(Which is) the very thing it was required to do.
49
See the footnote to Prop. 3.34.
2¯¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ δ΄
δ΄

Γ
Η
Ζ
Α
Β
Ε
Εiς τo δοθcν τρίγωνον κύκλον cγγράψαι.
´Εστω τo δοθcν τρίγωνον τo ΑΒΓ· δεi δ¿ εiς τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον κύκλον cγγράψαι.
Τετpήσθωσαν α| uπo ΑΒΓ, ΑΓΒ γωνίαι δίχα ταiς Β∆, Γ∆ εuθείαις, κα| συpβαλλέτωσαν vλλήλαις
κατv τo ∆ σηpεiον, κα| ¿χθωσαν vπo τοu ∆ cπ| τvς ΑΒ, ΒΓ, ΓΑ εuθείας κάθετοι α| ∆Ε, ∆Ζ,
∆Η.
Κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΑΒ∆ γωνία τ¸ uπo ΓΒΑ, cστ| δc κα| oρθ¿ ¿ uπo ΒΕ∆ oρθ¸ τ¸ uπo
ΒΖ∆ :ση, δύο δ¿ τρίγωνά cστι τv ΕΒ∆, ΖΒ∆ τvς δύο γωνίας ταiς δυσ| γωνίαις :σας cχοντα
κα| pίαν πλευρvν pι; πλευρ; :σην τ¿ν uποτείνουσαν uπo pίαν τeν :σων γωνιeν κοιν¿ν αuτeν
τ¿ν Β∆· κα| τvς λοιπvς vρα πλευρvς ταiς λοιπαiς πλευραiς :σας cξουσιν· :ση vρα ¿ ∆Ε τ¸ ∆Ζ.
διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| ¿ ∆Η τ¸ ∆Ζ cστιν :ση. α| τρεiς vρα εuθεiαι α| ∆Ε, ∆Ζ, ∆Η :σαι vλλήλαις
εiσίν· o vρα κέντρ; τ; ∆ κα| διαστήpατι cν| τeν Ε, Ζ, Η κύκλος γραφόpενος ¿ξει κα| διv τeν
λοιπeν σηpείων κα| cφάψεται τeν ΑΒ, ΒΓ, ΓΑ εuθειeν διv τo oρθvς ε|ναι τvς πρoς τοiς Ε, Ζ,
Η σηpείοις γωνίας. εi γvρ τεpεi αuτάς, cσται ¿ τ¸ διαpέτρ; τοu κύκλου πρoς oρθvς vπ vκρας
vγοpένη cντoς πίπτουσα τοu κύκλου· oπερ vτοπον cδείχθη· οuκ vρα o κέντρ; τ; ∆ διαστήpατι
δc cν| τeν Ε, Ζ, Η γραφόpενος κύκλος τεpεi τvς ΑΒ, ΒΓ, ΓΑ εuθείας· cφάψεται vρα αuτeν,
κα| cσται o κύκλος cγγεγραppένος εiς τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον. cγγεγράφθω eς o ΖΗΕ.
Εiς vρα τo δοθcν τρίγωνον τo ΑΒΓ κύκλος cγγέγραπται o ΕΖΗ· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
2¯6
ELEMENTS BOOK 4
Proposition 4
G
A
E
B
F
D
C
To inscribe a circle in a given triangle.
Let ABC be the given triangle. So it is required to inscribe a circle in triangle ABC.
Let the angles ABC and ACB have been cut in half by the straight-lines BD and CD (respec-
tively) [Prop. 1.9], and let them meet one another at point D, and let DE, DF, and DG have
been drawn from point D, perpendicular to the straight-lines AB, BC, and CA (respectively)
[Prop. 1.12].
And since angle ABD is equal to CBD, and the right-angle BED is also equal to the right-angle
BFD, EBD and FBD are thus two triangles having two angles equal to two angles, and one
side equal to one side—the (one) subtending one of the equal angles (which is) common to the
(triangles)—(namely), BD. Thus, they will also have the remaining sides equal to the (corre-
sponding) remaining sides [Prop. 1.26]. Thus, DE (is) equal to DF. So, for the same (reasons),
DG is also equal to DF. Thus, the three straight-lines DE, DF, and DG are equal to one another.
Thus, the circle drawn with center D, and radius one of E, F, or G,
50
will also go through the
remaining points, and will touch the straight-lines AB, BC, and CA, on account of the angles at
E, F, and G being right-angles. For if it cuts (one of) them then it will be a (straight-line) drawn
at right-angles to a diameter of the circle, from its end, falling inside the circle. They very thing
was shown (to be) absurd [Prop. 3.16]. Thus, the circle drawn with center D, and radius one of
E, F, or G, does not cut the straight-lines AB, BC, and CA. Thus, it will touch them. And the
circle will have been inscribed in triangle ABC. Let it have been (so) inscribed, like FGE (in the
figure).
Thus, the circle EFG has been inscribed in the given triangle ABC. (Which is) the very thing it
was required to do.
50
Here, and in the following propositions, it is understood that the radius is actually one of DE, DF, or DG.
2¯¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ δ΄
ε΄

Ε
Α
Α
Ε
Γ
Γ
Β

Γ
Β
Ζ
Ε
Β

Ζ
Ζ
Α
Περ| τo δοθcν τρίγωνον κύκλον περιγράψαι.
´Εστω τo δοθcν τρίγωνον τo ΑΒΓ· δεi δc περ| τo δοθcν τρίγωνον τo ΑΒΓ κύκλον περιγράψαι.
Τετpήσθωσαν α| ΑΒ, ΑΓ εuθεiαι δίχα κατv τv ∆, Ε σηpεiα, κα| vπo τeν ∆, Ε σηpείων ταiς
ΑΒ, ΑΓ πρoς oρθvς ¿χθωσαν α| ∆Ζ, ΕΖ· συpπεσοuνται δ¿ ¿τοι cντoς τοu ΑΒΓ τριγώνου ¿
cπ| τ¿ς ΒΓ εuθείας ¿ cκτoς τ¿ς ΒΓ.
Συpπιπτέτωσαν πρότερον cντoς κατv τo Ζ, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΖΒ, ΖΓ, ΖΑ. κα| cπε| :ση
cστ|ν ¿ Α∆ τ¸ ∆Β, κοιν¿ δc κα| πρoς oρθvς ¿ ∆Ζ, βάσις vρα ¿ ΑΖ βάσει τ¸ ΖΒ cστιν :ση.
opοίως δ¿ δείξοpεν, oτι κα| ¿ ΓΖ τ¸ ΑΖ cστιν :ση· eστε κα| ¿ ΖΒ τ¸ ΖΓ cστιν :ση· α| τρεiς
vρα α| ΖΑ, ΖΒ, ΖΓ :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν. o vρα κέντρ; τ; Ζ διαστήpατι δc cν| τeν Α, Β, Γ
κύκλος γραφόpενος ¿ξει κα| διv τeν λοιπeν σηpείων, κα| cσται περιγεγραppένος o κύκλος περ|
τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον. περιγεγράφθω eς o ΑΒΓ.
vλλv δ¿ α| ∆Ζ, ΕΖ συpπιπτέτωσαν cπ| τ¿ς ΒΓ εuθείας κατv τo Ζ, eς cχει cπ| τ¿ς δευτέρας
καταγραφ¿ς, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΑΖ. opοίως δ¿ δείξοpεν, oτι τo Ζ σηpεiον κέντρον cστ| τοu περ|
τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον περιγραφοpένου κύκλου.
Αλλv δ¿ α| ∆Ζ, ΕΖ συpπιπτέτωσαν cκτoς τοu ΑΒΓ τριγώνου κατv τo Ζ πάλιν, eς cχει cπ| τ¿ς
τρίτης καταγραφ¿ς, καί cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΑΖ, ΒΖ, ΓΖ. κα| cπε| πάλιν :ση cστ|ν ¿ Α∆ τ¸ ∆Β,
κοιν¿ δc κα| πρoς oρθvς ¿ ∆Ζ, βάσις vρα ¿ ΑΖ βάσει τ¸ ΒΖ cστιν :ση. opοίως δ¿ δείξοpεν,
oτι κα| ¿ ΓΖ τ¸ ΑΖ cστιν :ση· eστε κα| ¿ ΒΖ τ¸ ΖΓ cστιν :ση· o vρα ¸πάλιν] κέντρ; τ; Ζ
διαστήpατι δc cν| τeν ΖΑ, ΖΒ, ΖΓ κύκλος γραφόpενος ¿ξει κα| διv τeν λοιπeν σηpείων, κα|
cσται περιγεγραppένος περ| τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον.
Περ| τo δοθcν vρα τρίγωνον κύκλος περιγέγραπται· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
2¯8
ELEMENTS BOOK 4
Proposition 5
C
D
A
E
B
F
D
A
E
C
B
A
E
C
F
B
F
D
To circumscribe a circle about a given triangle.
Let ABC be the given circle. So it is required to circumscribe a circle about the given triangle
ABC.
Let the straight-lines AB and AC have been cut in half at points Dand E (respectively) [Prop. 1.10].
And let DF and EF have been drawn from points D and E, at right-angles to AB and AC (re-
spectively) [Prop. 1.11]. So (DF and EF) will surely either meet inside triangle ABC, on the
straight-line BC, or beyond BC.
Let them, first of all, meet inside (triangle ABC) at (point) F, and let FB, FC, and FA have
been joined. And since AD is equal to DB, and DF is common and at right-angles, the base AF
is thus equal to the base FB [Prop. 1.4]. So, similarly, we can show that CF is also equal to AF.
So that FB is also equal to FC. Thus, the three (straight-lines) FA, FB, and FC are equal to
one another. Thus, the circle drawn with center F, and radius one of A, B, or C, will also go
through the remaining points. And the circle will have been circumscribed about triangle ABC.
Let it have been (so) circumscribed, like ABC (in the first diagram from the left).
And so, let DF and EF meet on the straight-line BC at (point) F, like in the second diagram
(from the left). And let AF have been joined. So, similarly, we can show that point F is the center
of the circle circumscribed about triangle ABC.
And so, let DF and EF meet outside triangle ABC, again at (point) F, like in the third diagram
(from the left). And let AF, BF, and CF have been joined. And again since AD is equal to DB,
and DF is common and at right-angles, the base AF is thus equal to the base BF [Prop. 1.4].
So, similarly, we can show that CF is also equal to AF. So that BF is also equal to FC. Thus,
[again] the circle drawn with center F, and radius one of FA, FB, and FC, will also go through
the remaining points. And it will have been circumscribed about triangle ABC.
Thus, a circle has been circumscribed about the given triangle. (Which is) the very thing it was
required to do.
2¯9
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ δ΄
ç΄
Β
Α
Ε
Γ

Εiς τoν δοθέντα κύκλον τετράγωνον cγγράψαι.
´Εστω ¿ δοθε|ς κύκλος o ΑΒΓ∆· δεi δ¿ εiς τoν ΑΒΓ∆ κύκλον τετράγωνον cγγράψαι.
´Ηχθωσαν τοu ΑΒΓ∆ κύκλου δύο διάpετροι πρoς oρθvς vλλήλαις α| ΑΓ, Β∆, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν
α| ΑΒ, ΒΓ, Γ∆, ∆Α.
Κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΒΕ τ¸ Ε∆· κέντρον γvρ τo Ε· κοιν¿ δc κα| πρoς oρθvς ¿ ΕΑ, βάσις
vρα ¿ ΑΒ βάσει τ¸ Α∆ :ση cστίν. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| cκατέρα τeν ΒΓ, Γ∆ cκατέρ; τeν ΑΒ,
Α∆ :ση cστίν· iσόπλευρον vρα cστ| τo ΑΒΓ∆ τετράπλευρον. λέγω δή, oτι κα| oρθογώνιον.
cπε| γvρ ¿ Β∆ εuθεiα διάpετρός cστι τοu ΑΒΓ∆ κύκλου, ¿pικύκλιον vρα cστ| τo ΒΑ∆· oρθ¿
vρα ¿ uπo ΒΑ∆ γωνία. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| cκάστη τeν uπo ΑΒΓ, ΒΓ∆, Γ∆Α oρθή cστιν·
oρθογώνιον vρα cστ| τo ΑΒΓ∆ τετράπλευρον. cδείχθη δc κα| iσόπλευρον· τετράγωνον vρα
cστίν. κα| cγγέγραπται εiς τoν ΑΒΓ∆ κύκλον.
Εiς vρα τoν δοθέντα κύκλον τετράγωνον cγγέγραπται τo ΑΒΓ∆· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
260
ELEMENTS BOOK 4
Proposition 6
C
B
A
E
D
To inscribe a square in a given circle.
Let ABCD be the given circle. So it is required to inscribe a square in circle ABCD.
Let two diameters of circle ABCD, AC and BD, have been drawn at right-angles to one another.
51
And let AB, BC, CD, and DA have been joined.
And since BE is equal to ED, for E (is) the center (of the circle), and EA is common and at
right-angles, the base AB is thus equal to the base AD [Prop. 1.4]. So, for the same (reasons),
each of BC and CD is equal to each of AB and AD. Thus, the quadrilateral ABCD is equilateral.
So I say that (it is) also right-angled. For since the straight-line BD is a diameter of circle ABCD,
BAD is thus a semi-circle. Thus, angle BAD (is) a right-angle [Prop. 3.31]. So, for the same
(reasons), (angles) ABC, BCD, and CDA are each right-angles. Thus, the quadrilateral ABCD
is right-angled. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. Thus, it is a square [Def. 1.22]. And it
has been inscribed in circle ABCD.
Thus, the square ABCD has been inscribed in the given circle. (Which is) the very thing it was
required to do.
51
Presumably, by finding the center of the circle [Prop. 3.1], drawing a line through it, and then drawing a second
line through it, at right-angles to the first [Prop. 1.11].
26l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ δ΄
ζ΄
Ε
Θ Γ Κ
Η Α Ζ
∆ Β
Περ| τoν δοθέντα κύκλον τετράγωνον περιγράψαι.
´Εστω o δοθε|ς κύκλος o ΑΒΓ∆· δεi δ¿ περ| τoν ΑΒΓ∆ κύκλον τετράγωνον περιγράψαι.
´Ηχθωσαν τοu ΑΒΓ∆ κύκλου δύο διάpετροι πρoς oρθvς vλλήλαις α| ΑΓ, Β∆, κα| διv τeν Α,
Β, Γ, ∆ σηpείων ¿χθωσαν cφαπτόpεναι τοu ΑΒΓ∆ κύκλου α| ΖΗ, ΗΘ, ΘΚ, ΚΖ.
Επε| οuν cφάπτεται ¿ ΖΗ τοu ΑΒΓ∆ κύκλου, vπo δc τοu Ε κέντρου cπ| τ¿ν κατv τo Α cπαφ¿ν
cπέζευκται ¿ ΕΑ, α| vρα πρoς τ; Α γωνίαι oρθαί εiσιν. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| α| πρoς τοiς Β, Γ,
∆ σηpείοις γωνίαι oρθαί εiσιν. κα| cπε| oρθή cστιν ¿ uπo ΑΕΒ γωνία, cστ| δc oρθ¿ κα| ¿ uπo
ΕΒΗ, παράλληλος vρα cστ|ν ¿ ΗΘ τ¸ ΑΓ. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| ¿ ΑΓ τ¸ ΖΚ cστι παράλληλος.
eστε κα| ¿ ΗΘ τ¸ ΖΚ cστι παράλληλος. opοίως δ¿ δείξοpεν, oτι κα| cκατέρα τeν ΗΖ, ΘΚ
τ¸ ΒΕ∆ cστι παράλληλος. παραλληλόγραppα vρα cστ| τv ΗΚ, ΗΓ, ΑΚ, ΖΒ, ΒΚ· :ση vρα
cστ|ν ¿ pcν ΗΖ τ¸ ΘΚ, ¿ δc ΗΘ τ¸ ΖΚ. κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΑΓ τ¸ Β∆, vλλv κα| ¿ pcν ΑΓ
cκατέρ; τeν ΗΘ, ΖΚ, ¿ δc Β∆ cκατέρ; τeν ΗΖ, ΘΚ cστιν :ση ¸κα| cκατέρα vρα τeν ΗΘ,
ΖΚ cκατέρ; τeν ΗΖ, ΘΚ cστιν :ση], iσόπλευρον vρα cστ| τo ΖΗΘΚ τετράπλευρον. λέγω δή,
oτι κα| oρθογώνιον. cπε| γvρ παραλληλόγραppόν cστι τo ΗΒΕΑ, καί cστιν oρθ¿ ¿ uπo ΑΕΒ,
oρθ¿ vρα κα| ¿ uπo ΑΗΒ. opοίως δ¿ δείξοpεν, oτι κα| α| πρoς τοiς Θ, Κ, Ζ γωνίαι oρθαί
εiσιν. oρθογώνιον vρα cστ| τo ΖΗΘΚ. cδείχθη δc κα| iσόπλευρον· τετράγωνον vρα cστίν. κα|
περιγέγραπται περ| τoν ΑΒΓ∆ κύκλον.
Περ| τoν δοθέντα vρα κύκλον τετράγωνον περιγέγραπται· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
262
ELEMENTS BOOK 4
Proposition 7
D
H C K
B
G A F
E
To circumscribe a square about a given circle.
Let ABCD be the given circle. So it is required to circumscribe a square about circle ABCD.
Let two diameters of circle ABCD, AC and BD, have been drawn at right-angles to one another.
52
And let FG, GH, HK, and KF have been drawn through points A, B, C, and D (respectively),
touching circle ABCD.
53
Therefore, since FG touches circle ABCD, and EA has been joined from the center E to the
point of contact A, the angle at A is thus a right-angle [Prop. 3.18]. So, for the same (reasons),
the angles at points B, C, and D are also right-angles. And since angle AEB is a right-angle, and
EBG is also a right-angle, GH is thus parallel to AC [Prop. 1.29]. So, for the same (reasons),
AC is also parallel to FK. So that GH is also parallel to FK [Prop. 1.30]. So, similarly, we
can show that GF and HK are each parallel to BED. Thus, GK, GC, AK, FB, and BK are
(all) parallelograms. Thus, GF is equal to HK, and GH to FK [Prop. 1.34]. And since AC
is equal to BD, but AC (is) also (equal) to each of GH and FK, and BD is equal to each of
GF and HK [Prop. 1.34] [and each of GH and FK is thus equal to each of GF and HK], the
quadrilateral FGHK is thus equilateral. So I say that (it is) also right-angled. For since GBEA
is a parallelogram, and AEB is a right-angle, AGB is thus also a right-angle [Prop. 1.34]. So,
similarly, we can show that the angles at H, K, and F are also right-angles. Thus, FGHK is
right-angled. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. Thus, it is a square [Def. 1.22]. And it
has been circumscribed about circle ABCD.
Thus, a square has been circumscribed about the given circle. (Which is) the very thing it was
required to do.
52
See the footnote to the previous proposition.
53
See the footnote to Prop. 3.34.
26`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ δ΄
η΄
Η
Α Ε ∆
Κ
Γ Θ Β
Ζ
Εiς τo δοθcν τετράγωνον κύκλον cγγράψαι.
´Εστω τo δοθcν τετράγωνον τo ΑΒΓ∆. δεi δ¿ εiς τo ΑΒΓ∆ τετράγωνον κύκλον cγγράψαι.
Τετpήσθω cκατέρα τeν Α∆, ΑΒ δίχα κατv τv Ε, Ζ σηpεiα, κα| διv pcν τοu Ε oποτέρ; τeν
ΑΒ, Γ∆ παράλληλος ¿χθω o ΕΘ, διv δc τοu Ζ oποτέρ; τeν Α∆, ΒΓ παράλληλος ¿χθω ¿
ΖΚ· παραλληλόγραppον vρα cστ|ν cκαστον τeν ΑΚ, ΚΒ, ΑΘ, Θ∆, ΑΗ, ΗΓ, ΒΗ, Η∆, κα|
α| vπεναντίον αuτeν πλευρα| δηλονότι :σαι ¸εiσίν]. κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ Α∆ τ¸ ΑΒ, καί cστι
τ¿ς pcν Α∆ ¿pίσεια ¿ ΑΕ, τ¿ς δc ΑΒ ¿pίσεια ¿ ΑΖ, :ση vρα κα| ¿ ΑΕ τ¸ ΑΖ· eστε κα|
α| vπεναντίον· :ση vρα κα| ¿ ΖΗ τ¸ ΗΕ. opοίως δ¿ δείξοpεν, oτι κα| cκατέρα τeν ΗΘ, ΗΚ
cκατέρ; τeν ΖΗ, ΗΕ cστιν :ση· α| τέσσαρες vρα α| ΗΕ, ΗΖ, ΗΘ, ΗΚ :σαι vλλήλαις ¸εiσίν]. o
vρα κέντρ; pcν τ; Η διαστήpατι δc cν| τeν Ε, Ζ, Θ, Κ κύκλος γραφόpενος ¿ξει κα| διv τeν
λοιπeν σηpείων· κα| cφάψεται τeν ΑΒ, ΒΓ, Γ∆, ∆Α εuθειeν διv τo oρθvς ε|ναι τvς πρoς τοiς
Ε, Ζ, Θ, Κ γωνίας· εi γvρ τεpεi o κύκλος τvς ΑΒ, ΒΓ, Γ∆, ∆Α, ¿ τ¸ διαpέτρ; τοu κύκλου
πρoς oρθvς vπ vκρας vγοpένη cντoς πεσεiται τοu κύκλου· oπερ vτοπον cδείχθη. οuκ vρα o
κέντρ; τ; Η διαστήpατι δc cν| τeν Ε, Ζ, Θ, Κ κύκλος γραφόpενος τεpεi τvς ΑΒ, ΒΓ, Γ∆,
∆Α εuθείας. cφάψεται vρα αuτeν κα| cσται cγγεγραppένος εiς τo ΑΒΓ∆ τετράγωνον.
Εiς vρα τo δοθcν τετράγωνον κύκλος cγγέγραπται· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
264
ELEMENTS BOOK 4
Proposition 8
G
A E D
K F
B H C
To inscribe a circle in a given square.
Let the given square be ABCD. So it is required to inscribe a circle in square ABCD.
Let AD and AB each have been cut in half at points E and F (respectively) [Prop. 1.10]. And let
EH have been drawn through E, parallel to either of AB or CD, and let FK have been drawn
through F, parallel to either of AD or BC [Prop. 1.31]. Thus, AK, KB, AH, HD, AG, GC, BG,
and GD are each parallelograms, and their opposite sides [are] manifestly equal [Prop. 1.34].
And since AD is equal to AB, and AE is half of AD, and AF half of AB, AE (is) thus also
equal to AF. So that the opposite (sides are) also (equal). Thus, FG (is) also equal to GE. So,
similarly, we can also show that each of GH and GK is equal to each of FG and GE. Thus, the
four (straight-lines) GE, GF, GH, and GK [are] equal to one another. Thus, the circle drawn
with center G, and radius one of E, F, H, or K, will also go through the remaining points. And
it will touch the straight-lines AB, BC, CD, and DA, on account of the angles at E, F, H, and
K being right-angles. For if the circle cuts AB, BC, CD, or DA, then a (straight-line) drawn at
right-angles to a diameter of the circle, from its end, will fall inside the circle. The very thing was
shown (to be) absurd [Prop. 3.16].Thus, the circle drawn with center G, and radius one of E, F,
H, or K, does not cut the straight-lines AB, BC, CD, or DA. Thus, it will touch them, and will
have been inscribed in the square ABCD.
Thus, a circle has been inscribed in the given square. (Which is) the very thing it was required to
do.
26¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ δ΄
θ΄
Β
Α
Ε
Γ

Περ| τo δοθcν τετράγωνον κύκλον περιγράψαι.
´Εστω τo δοθcν τετράγωνον τo ΑΒΓ∆· δεi δ¿ περ| τo ΑΒΓ∆ τετράγωνον κύκλον περιγράψαι.
Επιζευχθεiσαι γvρ α| ΑΓ, Β∆ τεpνέτωσαν vλλήλας κατv τo Ε.
Κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ∆Α τ¸ ΑΒ, κοιν¿ δc ¿ ΑΓ, δύο δ¿ α| ∆Α, ΑΓ δυσ| ταiς ΒΑ, ΑΓ :σαι
εiσίν· κα| βάσις ¿ ∆Γ βάσει τ¸ ΒΓ :ση· γωνία vρα ¿ uπo ∆ΑΓ γωνί; τ¸ uπo ΒΑΓ :ση cστίν· ¿
vρα uπo ∆ΑΒ γωνία δίχα τέτpηται uπo τ¿ς ΑΓ. opοίως δ¿ δείξοpεν, oτι κα| cκάστη τeν uπo
ΑΒΓ, ΒΓ∆, Γ∆Α δίχα τέτpηται uπo τeν ΑΓ, ∆Β εuθειeν. κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ uπo ∆ΑΒ γωνία
τ¸ uπo ΑΒΓ, καί cστι τ¿ς pcν uπo ∆ΑΒ ¿pίσεια ¿ uπo ΕΑΒ, τ¿ς δc uπo ΑΒΓ ¿pίσεια ¿ uπo
ΕΒΑ, κα| ¿ uπo ΕΑΒ vρα τ¸ uπo ΕΒΑ cστιν :ση· eστε κα| πλευρv ¿ ΕΑ τ¸ ΕΒ cστιν :ση.
opοίως δ¿ δείξοpεν, oτι κα| cκατέρα τeν ΕΑ, ΕΒ ¸εuθειeν] cκατέρ; τeν ΕΓ, Ε∆ :ση cστίν. α|
τέσσαρες vρα α| ΕΑ, ΕΒ, ΕΓ, Ε∆ :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν. o vρα κέντρ; τ; Ε κα| διαστήpατι cν|
τeν Α, Β, Γ, ∆ κύκλος γραφόpενος ¿ξει κα| διv τeν λοιπeν σηpείων κα| cσται περιγεγραppένος
περ| τo ΑΒΓ∆ τετράγωνον. περιγεγράφθω eς o ΑΒΓ∆.
Περ| τo δοθcν vρα τετράγωνον κύκλος περιγέγραπται· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
266
ELEMENTS BOOK 4
Proposition 9
C
B
A
E
D
To circumscribe a circle about a given square.
Let ABCD be the given square. So it is required to circumscribe a circle about square ABCD.
AC and BD being joined, let them cut one another at E.
And since DA is equal to AB, and AC (is) common, the two (straight-lines) DA, AC are thus
equal to the two (straight-lines) BA, AC. And the base DC (is) equal to the base BC. Thus,
angle DAC is equal to angle BAC [Prop. 1.8]. Thus, the angle DAB has been cut in half by AC.
So, similarly, we can show that ABC, BCD, and CDA have each been cut in half by the straight-
lines AC and DB. And since angle DAB is equal to ABC, and EAB is half of DAB, and EBA
half of ABC, EAB is thus also equal to EBA. So that side EA is also equal to EB [Prop. 1.6].
So, similarly, we can show that each of the [straight-lines] EA and EB are also equal to each
of EC and ED. Thus, the four (straight-lines) EA, EB, EC, and ED are equal to one another.
Thus, the circle drawn with center E, and radius one of A, B, C, or D, will also go through the
remaining points, and will have been circumscribed about the square ABCD. Let it have been
(so) circumscribed, like ABCD (in the figure).
Thus, a circle has been circumscribed about the given square. (Which is) the very thing it was
required to do.
26¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ δ΄
ι΄
Α
Β
Ε

Γ
Ισοσκελcς τρίγωνον συστήσασθαι cχον cκατέραν τeν πρoς τ¸ βάσει γωνιeν διπλασίονα τ¿ς
λοιπ¿ς.
Εκκείσθω τις εuθεiα ¿ ΑΒ, κα| τετpήσθω κατv τo Γ σηpεiον, eστε τo uπo τeν ΑΒ, ΒΓ
περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον :σον ε|ναι τ; vπo τ¿ς ΓΑ τετραγών;· κα| κέντρ; τ; Α κα| διαστήpατι
τ; ΑΒ κύκλος γεγράγθω o Β∆Ε, κα| cνηρpόσθω εiς τoν Β∆Ε κύκλον τ¸ ΑΓ εuθεί; p¿ pείζονι
οuσ¸ τ¿ς τοu Β∆Ε κύκλου διαpέτρου :ση εuθεiα ¿ Β∆· κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| Α∆, ∆Γ, κα|
περιγεγράφθω περ| τo ΑΓ∆ τρίγωνον κύκλος o ΑΓ∆.
Κα| cπε| τo uπo τeν ΑΒ, ΒΓ :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς ΑΓ, :ση δc ¿ ΑΓ τ¸ Β∆, τo vρα uπo τeν
ΑΒ, ΒΓ :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς Β∆. κα| cπε| κύκλου τοu ΑΓ∆ ε:ληπταί τι σηpεiον cκτoς τo Β,
κα| vπo τοu Β πρoς τoν ΑΓ∆ κύκλον προσπεπτώκασι δύο εuθεiαι α| ΒΑ, Β∆, κα| ¿ pcν αuτeν
τέpνει, ¿ δc προσπίπτει, καί cστι τo uπo τeν ΑΒ, ΒΓ :σον τ; vπo τ¿ς Β∆, ¿ Β∆ vρα cφάπτεται
τοu ΑΓ∆ κύκλου. cπε| οuν cφάπτεται pcν ¿ Β∆, vπo δc τ¿ς κατv τo ∆ cπαφ¿ς δι¿κται ¿ ∆Γ,
¿ vρα uπo Β∆Γ γωνιά :ση cστ| τ¸ cν τ; cναλλvξ τοu κύκλου τpήpατι γωνί; τ¸ uπo ∆ΑΓ. cπε|
οuν :ση cστ|ν ¿ uπo Β∆Γ τ¸ uπo ∆ΑΓ, κοιν¿ προσκείσθω ¿ uπo Γ∆Α· oλη vρα ¿ uπo Β∆Α :ση
cστ| δυσ| ταiς uπo Γ∆Α, ∆ΑΓ. vλλv ταiς uπo Γ∆Α, ∆ΑΓ :ση cστ|ν ¿ cκτoς ¿ uπo ΒΓ∆· κα| ¿
uπo Β∆Α vρα :ση cστ| τ¸ uπo ΒΓΑ. vλλv ¿ uπo Β∆Α τ¸ uπo ΓΒ∆ cστιν :ση, cπε| κα| πλευρv
¿ Α∆ τ¸ ΑΒ cστιν :ση· eστε κα| ¿ uπo ∆ΒΑ τ¸ uπo ΒΓ∆ cστιν :ση. α| τρεiς vρα α| uπo Β∆Α,
∆ΒΑ, ΒΓΑ :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν. κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ uπo ∆ΒΓ γωνία τ¸ uπo ΒΓ∆, :ση cστ| κα|
πλευρv ¿ Β∆ πλευρ; τ¸ ∆Γ. vλλv ¿ Β∆ τ¸ ΓΑ uπόκειται :ση· κα| ¿ ΓΑ vρα τ¸ Γ∆ cστιν :ση·
eστε κα| γωνία ¿ uπo Γ∆Α γωνί; τ¸ uπo ∆ΑΓ cστιν :ση· α| vρα uπo Γ∆Α, ∆ΑΓ τ¿ς uπo ∆ΑΓ
εiσι διπλασίους. :ση δc ¿ uπo ΒΓ∆ ταiς uπo Γ∆Α, ∆ΑΓ· κα| ¿ uπo ΒΓ∆ vρα τ¿ς uπo ΓΑ∆ cστι
διπλ¿. :ση δc ¿ uπo ΒΓ∆ cκατέρ; τeν uπo Β∆Α, ∆ΒΑ· κα| cκατέρα vρα τeν uπo Β∆Α, ∆ΒΑ
τ¿ς uπo ∆ΑΒ cστι διπλ¿.
Ισοσκελcς vρα τρίγωνον συνέσταται τo ΑΒ∆ cχον cκατέραν τeν πρoς τ¸ ∆Β βάσει γωνιeν
διπλασίονα τ¿ς λοιπ¿ς· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
268
ELEMENTS BOOK 4
Proposition 10
C
D
A
E
B
To construct an isosceles triangle having each of the angles at the base double the remaining
(angle).
Let some straight-line AB be taken, and let it have been cut at point C so that the rectangle
contained by AB and BC is equal to the square on CA [Prop. 2.11]. And let the circle BDE
have been drawn with center A, and radius AB. And let the straight-line BD, equal to the
straight-line AC, being not greater than the diameter of circle BDE, have been inserted into
circle BDE [Prop. 4.1]. And let AD and DC have been joined. And let the circle ACD have been
circumscribed about triangle ACD [Prop. 4.5].
And since the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC is equal to the (square) on AC, and AC (is)
equal to BD, the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC is thus equal to the (square) on BD.
And since some point B has been taken outside of circle ACD, and two straight-lines BA and
BD have radiated from B towards the circle ABC, and (one) of them cuts (the circle), and (the
other) meets (the circle), and the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC is equal to the (square)
on BD, BD thus touches circle ABC [Prop. 3.37]. Therefore, since BD touches (the circle), and
DC has been drawn across (the circle) from the point of contact D, the angle BDC is thus equal
to the angle DAC in the alternate segment of the circle [Prop. 3.32]. Therefore, since BDC is
equal to DAC, let CDA have been added to both. Thus, the whole of BDA is equal to the two
(angles) CDA and DAC. But, CDA and DAC is equal to the external (angle) BCD [Prop. 1.32].
Thus, BDA is also equal to BCD. But, BDA is equal to CBD, since the side AD is also equal to
AB [Prop. 1.5]. So that DBA is also equal to BCD. Thus, the three (angles) BDA, DBA, and
BCD are equal to one another. And since angle DBC is equal to BCD, side BD is also equal
to side DC [Prop. 1.6]. But, BD was assumed (to be) equal to CA. Thus, CA is also equal to
CD. So that angle CDA is also equal to angle DAC [Prop. 1.5]. Thus, CDA and DAC is double
DAC. But BCD (is) equal to CDA and DAC. Thus, BCD is also double CAD. And BCD (is)
equal to to each of BDA and DBA. Thus, BDA and DBA are each double DAB.
Thus, the isosceles triangle ABD has been constructed having each of the angles at the base BD
double the remaining (angle). (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.
269
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ δ΄
ια΄
Γ
Ζ
Θ ∆
Ε
Α
Η
Β
Εiς τoν δοθέντα κύκλον πεντάγωνον iσόπλευρόν τε κα| iσογώνιον cγγράψαι.
´Εστω o δοθε|ς κύκλος o ΑΒΓ∆Ε· δεi δ¿ εiς τoν ΑΒΓ∆Ε κύκλον πεντάγωνον iσόπλευρόν τε
κα| iσογώνιον cγγράψαι.
Εκκείσθω τρίγωνον iσοσκελcς τo ΖΗΘ διπλασίονα cχον cκατέραν τeν πρoς τοiς Η, Θ γωνιeν
τ¿ς πρoς τ; Ζ, κα| cγγεγράφθω εiς τoν ΑΒΓ∆Ε κύκλον τ; ΖΗΘ τριγών; iσογώνον τρίγωνον
τo ΑΓ∆, eστε τ¸ pcν πρoς τ; Ζ γωνί; :σην ε|ναι τ¿ν uπo ΓΑ∆, cκατέραν δc τeν πρoς τοiς Η,
Θ :σην cκατέρ; τeν uπo ΑΓ∆, Γ∆Α· κα| cκατέρα vρα τeν uπo ΑΓ∆, Γ∆Α τ¿ς uπo ΓΑ∆ cστι
διπλ¿. τετpήσθω δ¿ cκατέρα τeν uπo ΑΓ∆, Γ∆Α δίχα uπo cκατέρας τeν ΓΕ, ∆Β εuθειeν, κα|
cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΑΒ, ΒΓ, ¸Γ∆], ∆Ε, ΕΑ.
Επε| οuν cκατέρα τeν uπo ΑΓ∆, Γ∆Α γωνιeν διπλασίων cστ| τ¿ς uπo ΓΑ∆, κα| τετpηpέναι εiσ|
δίχα uπo τeν ΓΕ, ∆Β εuθειeν, α| πέντε vρα γωνίαι α| uπo ∆ΑΓ, ΑΓΕ, ΕΓ∆, Γ∆Β, Β∆Α :σαι
vλλήλαις εiσίν. α| δc :σαι γωνίαι cπ| :σων περιφερειeν βεβήκασιν· α| πέντε vρα περιφέρειαι α| ΑΒ,
ΒΓ, Γ∆, ∆Ε, ΕΑ :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν. uπo δc τvς :σας περιφερείας :σαι εuθεiαι uποτείνουσιν· α|
πέντε vρα εuθεiαι α| ΑΒ, ΒΓ, Γ∆, ∆Ε, ΕΑ :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν· iσόπλευρον vρα cστ| τo ΑΒΓ∆Ε
πεντάγωνον. λέγω δή, oτι κα| iσογώνιον. cπε| γvρ ¿ ΑΒ περιφέρεια τ¸ ∆Ε περιφερεί; cστ|ν :ση,
κοιν¿ προσκείσθω ¿ ΒΓ∆· oλη vρα ¿ ΑΒΓ∆ περιφέρια oλ¸ τ¸ Ε∆ΓΒ περιφερεί; cστ|ν :ση. κα|
βέβηκεν cπ| pcν τ¿ς ΑΒΓ∆ περιφερείας γωνία ¿ uπo ΑΕ∆, cπ| δc τ¿ς Ε∆ΓΒ περιφερείας γωνία
¿ uπo ΒΑΕ· κα| ¿ uπo ΒΑΕ vρα γωνία τ¸ uπo ΑΕ∆ cστιν :ση. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| cκάστη τeν
uπo ΑΒΓ, ΒΓ∆, Γ∆Ε γωνιeν cκατέρ; τeν uπo ΒΑΕ, ΑΕ∆ cστιν :ση· iσογώνιον vρα cστ| τo
ΑΒΓ∆Ε πεντάγωνον. cδείχθη δc κα| iσόπλευρον.
Εiς vρα τoν δοθέντα κύκλον πεντάγωνον iσόπλευρόν τε κα| iσογώνιον cγγέγραπται· oπερ cδει
ποι¿σαι.
2¯0
ELEMENTS BOOK 4
Proposition 11
D
A
B
C
F
G H
E
To inscribe an equilateral and equiangular pentagon in a given circle.
Let ABCDE be the given circle. So it is required to inscribed an equilateral and equiangular
pentagon in circle ABCDE.
Let the the isosceles triangle FGH be set up having each of the angles at G and H double the
(angle) at F [Prop. 4.10]. And let triangle ACD, equiangular to FGH, have been inscribed in
circle ABCDE, so that CAD is equal to the angle at F, and each of the (angles) at G and H
(are) equal to each of ACD and CDA (respectively) [Prop. 4.2]. Thus, ACD and CDA are each
double CAD. So let ACD and CDA have each been cut in half by each of the straight-lines CE
and DB (respectively) [Prop. 1.9]. And let AB, BC, [CD], DE and EA have been joined.
Therefore, since angles ACD and CDA are each double CAD, and are cut in half by the straight-
lines CE and DB, the five angles DAC, ACE, ECD, CDB, and BDA are thus equal to one
another. And equal angles stand upon equal circumferences [Prop. 3.26]. Thus, the five circum-
ferences AB, BC, CD, DE, and EA are equal to one another [Prop. 3.29]. Thus, the pentagon
ABCDE is equilateral. So I say that (it is) also equiangular. For since the circumference AB
is equal to the circumference DE, let BCD have been added to both. Thus, the whole circum-
ference ABCD is equal to the whole circumference EDCB. And the angle AED stands upon
circumference ABCD, and angle BAE upon circumference EDCB. Thus, angle BAE is also
equal to AED [Prop. 3.27]. So, for the same (reasons), each of the angles ABC, BCD, and
CDE are also equal to each of BAE and AED. Thus, pentagon ABCDE is equiangular. And it
was also shown (to be) equilateral.
Thus, an equilateral and equiangular pentagon has been inscribed in the given circle. (Which is)
the very thing it was required to do.
2¯l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ δ΄
ιβ΄
Θ
Κ Γ Λ
∆ Β
Η
Μ
Ζ
Ε
Α
Περ| τoν δοθέντα κύκλον πεντάγωνον iσόπλευρόν τε κα| iσογώνιον περιγράψαι.
´Εστω o δοθε|ς κύκλος o ΑΒΓ∆Ε· δεi δc περ| τoν ΑΒΓ∆Ε κύκλον πεντάγωνον iσόπλευρόν τε
κα| iσογώνιον περιγράψαι.
Νενοήσθω τοu cγγεγραppένου πενταγώνου τeν γωνιeν σηpεiα τv Α, Β, Γ, ∆, Ε, eστε :σας
ε|ναι τvς ΑΒ, ΒΓ, Γ∆, ∆Ε, ΕΑ περιφερείας· κα| διv τeν Α, Β, Γ, ∆, Ε ¿χθωσαν τοu κύκλου
cφαπτόpεναι α| ΗΘ, ΘΚ, ΚΛ, ΛΜ, ΜΗ, κα| εiλήφθω τοu ΑΒΓ∆Ε κύκλου κέντρον τo Ζ, κα|
cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΖΒ, ΖΚ, ΖΓ, ΖΛ, Ζ∆.
Κα| cπε| ¿ pcν ΚΛ εuθεiα cφάπτεται τοu ΑΒΓ∆Ε κατv τo Γ, vπo δc τοu Ζ κέντρου cπ| τ¿ν
κατv τo Γ cπαφ¿ν cπέζευκται ¿ ΖΓ, ¿ ΖΓ vρα κάθετός cστιν cπ| τ¿ν ΚΛ· oρθ¿ vρα cστ|ν
cκατέρα τeν πρoς τ; Γ γωνιeν. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| α| πρoς τοiς Β, ∆ σηpείοις γωνίαι oρθαί
εiσιν. κα| cπε| oρθή cστιν ¿ uπo ΖΓΚ γωνία, τo vρα vπo τ¿ς ΖΚ :σον cστ| τοiς vπo τeν ΖΓ,
ΓΚ. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| τοiς vπo τeν ΖΒ, ΒΚ :σον cστ| τo vπo τ¿ς ΖΚ· eστε τv vπo τeν ΖΓ,
ΓΚ τοiς vπo τeν ΖΒ, ΒΚ cστιν :σα, eν τo vπo τ¿ς ΖΓ τ; vπo τ¿ς ΖΒ cστιν :σον· λοιπoν vρα
τo vπo τ¿ς ΓΚ τ; vπo τ¿ς ΒΚ cστιν :σον. :ση vρα ¿ ΒΚ τ¸ ΓΚ. κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΖΒ τ¸
ΖΓ, κα| κοιν¿ ¿ ΖΚ, δύο δ¿ α| ΒΖ, ΖΚ δυσ| ταiς ΓΖ, ΖΚ :σαι εiσίν· κα| βάσις ¿ ΒΚ βάσει
τ¸ ΓΚ ¸cστιν] :ση· γωνία vρα ¿ pcν uπo ΒΖΚ ¸γωνί;] τ¸ uπo ΚΖΓ cστιν :ση· ¿ δc uπo ΒΚΖ
τ¸ uπo ΖΚΓ· διπλ¿ vρα ¿ pcν uπo ΒΖΓ τ¿ς uπo ΚΖΓ, ¿ δc uπo ΒΚΓ τ¿ς uπo ΖΚΓ. διv τv
αuτv δ¿ κα| ¿ pcν uπo ΓΖ∆ τ¿ς uπo ΓΖΛ cστι διπλ¿, ¿ δc uπo ∆ΛΓ τ¿ς uπo ΖΛΓ. κα| cπε|
:ση cστ|ν ¿ ΒΓ περιφέρεια τ¸ Γ∆, :ση cστ| κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΒΖΓ τ¸ uπo ΓΖ∆. καί cστιν ¿ pcν
uπo ΒΖΓ τ¿ς uπo ΚΖΓ διπλ¿, ¿ δc uπo ∆ΖΓ τ¿ς uπo ΛΖΓ· :ση vρα κα| ¿ uπo ΚΖΓ τ¸ uπo
ΛΖΓ· cστ| δc κα| ¿ uπo ΖΓΚ γωνία τ¸ uπo ΖΓΛ :ση. δύο δ¿ τρίγωνά cστι τv ΖΚΓ, ΖΛΓ τvς
δύο γωνίας ταiς δυσ| γωνίαις :σας cχοντα κα| pίαν πλευρvν pι; πλευρ; :σην κοιν¿ν αuτeν τ¿ν
ΖΓ· κα| τvς λοιπvς vρα πλευρvς ταiς λοιπαiς πλευραiς :σας cξει κα| τ¿ν λοιπ¿ν γωνίαν τ¸ λοιπ¸
2¯2
ELEMENTS BOOK 4
Proposition 12
H
A
B
K C L
D
F
G
E
M
To circumscribe an equilateral and equiangular pentagon about a given circle.
Let ABCDE be the given circle. So it is required to circumscribe an equilateral and equiangular
pentagon about circle ABCDE.
Let A, B, C, D, and E have been conceived as the angular points of a pentagon having been
inscribed (in circle ABCDE) [Prop. 3.11], such that the circumferences AB, BC, CD, DE, and
EA are equal. And let GH, HK, KL, LM, and MG have been drawn through (points) A, B, C,
D, and E (respectively), touching the circle.
54
And let the center F of the circle ABCDE have
been found [Prop. 3.1]. And let FB, FK, FC, FL, and FD have been joined.
And since the straight-line KL touches (circle) ABCDE at C, and FC has been joined from the
center F to the point of contact C, FC is thus perpendicular to KL [Prop. 3.18]. Thus, each of
the angles at C is a right-angle. So, for the same (reasons), the angles at B and D are also right-
angles. And since angle FCK is a right-angle, the (square) on FK is thus equal to the (sum of
the squares) on FC and CK [Prop. 1.47]. So, for the same (reasons), the (square) on FK is also
equal to the (sum of the squares) on FB and BK. So that the (sum of the squares) on FC and
CK is equal to the (sum of the squares) on FB and BK, of which the (square) on FC is equal
to the (square) on FB. Thus, the remaining (square) on CK is equal to the remaining (square)
on BK. Thus, BK (is) equal to CK. And since FB is equal to FC, and FK (is) common, the
two (straight-lines) BF, FK are equal to the two (straight-lines) CF, FK. And the base BK
[is] equal to the base CK. Thus, angle BFK is equal to [angle] KFC [Prop. 1.8]. And BKF (is
equal) to FKC [Prop. 1.8]. Thus, BFC (is) double KFC, and BKC (is double) FKC. So, for
the same (reasons), CFD is also double CFL, and DLC (is also double) FLC. And since circum-
54
See the footnote to Prop. 3.34.
2¯`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ δ΄
ιβ΄
γωνί;· :ση vρα ¿ pcν ΚΓ εuθεiα τ¸ ΓΛ, ¿ δc uπo ΖΚΓ γωνία τ¸ uπo ΖΛΓ. κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν
¿ ΚΓ τ¸ ΓΛ, διπλ¿ vρα ¿ ΚΛ τ¿ς ΚΓ. διv τv αuτα δ¿ δειχθήσεται κα| ¿ ΘΚ τ¿ς ΒΚ διπλ¿.
καί cστιν ¿ ΒΚ τ¸ ΚΓ :ση· κα| ¿ ΘΚ vρα τ¸ ΚΛ cστιν :ση. opοίως δ¿ δειχθήσεται κα| cκάστη
τeν ΘΗ, ΗΜ, ΜΛ cκατέρ; τeν ΘΚ, ΚΛ :ση· iσόπλευρον vρα cστ| τo ΗΘΚΛΜ πεντάγωνον.
λέγω δή, oτι κα| iσογώνιον. cπε| γvρ :ση cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΖΚΓ γωνία τ¸ uπo ΖΛΓ, κα| cδείχθη τ¿ς
pcν uπo ΖΚΓ διπλ¿ ¿ uπo ΘΚΛ, τ¿ς δc uπo ΖΛΓ διπλ¿ ¿ uπo ΚΛΜ, κα| ¿ uπo ΘΚΛ vρα τ¸
uπo ΚΛΜ cστιν :ση. opοίως δ¿ δειχθήσεται κα| cκάστη τeν uπo ΚΘΗ, ΘΗΜ, ΗΜΛ cκατέρ;
τeν uπo ΘΚΛ, ΚΛΜ :ση· α| πέντε vρα γωνίαι α| uπo ΗΘΚ, ΘΚΛ, ΚΛΜ, ΛΜΗ, ΜΚΘ :σαι
vλλήλαις εiσίν. iσογώνιον vρα cστ| τo ΗΘΚΛΜ πεντάγωνον. cδείχθη δc κα| iσόπλευρον, κα|
περιγέγραπται περ| τoν ΑΒΓ∆Ε κύκλον.
[Περ| τoν δοθέντα vρα κύκλον πεντάγωνον iσόπλευρόν τε κα| iσογώνιον περιγέγραπται]· oπερ
cδει ποι¿σαι.
2¯4
ELEMENTS BOOK 4
Proposition 12
-ference BC is equal to CD, angle BFC is also equal to CFD [Prop. 3.27]. And BFC is double
KFC, and DFC (is double) LFC. Thus, KFC is also equal to LFC. And angle FCK is also
equal to FCL. So, FKC and FLC are two triangles having two angles equal to two angles, and
one side equal to one side, (namely) their common (side) FC. Thus, they will also have the
remaining sides equal to the (corresponding) remaining sides, and the remaining angle to the
remaining angle [Prop. 1.26]. Thus, the straight-line KC (is) equal to CL, and the angle FKC
to FLC. And since KC is equal to LC, KL (is) thus double KC. So, for the same (reasons), it
can be shown that HK (is) also double BK. And BK is equal to KC. Thus, HK is also equal
to KL. So, similarly, each of HG, GM, and ML can also be shown (to be) equal to each of
HK and KL. Thus, pentagon GHKLM is equilateral. So I say that (it is) also equiangular. For
since angle FKC is equal to FLC, and HKL was shown (to be) double FKC, and KLM double
FLC, HKL is thus also equal to KLM. So, similarly, each of KHG, HGM, and GML can also
be shown (to be) equal to each of HKL and KLM. Thus, the five angles GHK, HKL, KLM,
LMG, and MGH are equal to one another. Thus, the pentagon GHKLM is equiangular. And it
was also shown (to be) equilateral, and has been circumscribed about circle ABCDE.
[Thus, an equilateral and equiangular pentagon has been circumscribed about the given circle].
(Which is) the very thing it was required to do.
2¯¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ δ΄
ιγ΄
Η
Α
Γ Κ ∆
Λ
Ε
Μ
Ζ
Β
Θ
Εiς τo δοθcν πεντάγωνον, o cστιν iσόπλευρόν τε κα| iσογώνιον, κύκλον cγγράψαι.
´Εστω τo δοθcν πεντάγωνον iσόπλευρόν τε κα| iσογώνιον τo ΑΒΓ∆Ε· δεi δ¿ εiς τo ΑΒΓ∆Ε
πεντάγωνον κύκλον cγγράψαι.
Τετpήσθω γvρ cκατέρα τeν uπo ΒΓ∆, Γ∆Ε γωνιeν δίχα uπo cκατέρας τeν ΓΖ, ∆Ζ εuθειeν·
κα| vπo τοu Ζ σηpείου, καθ o συpβάλλουσιν vλλήλαις α| ΓΖ, ∆Ζ εuθεiαι, cπεζεύχθωσαν α|
ΖΒ, ΖΑ, ΖΕ εuθεiαι. κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΒΓ τ¸ Γ∆, κοιν¿ δc ¿ ΓΖ, δύο δ¿ α| ΒΓ, ΓΖ δυσ|
ταiς ∆Γ, ΓΖ :σαι εiσίν· κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΒΓΖ γωνί; τ¸ uπo ∆ΓΖ ¸cστιν] :ση· βάσις vρα ¿ ΒΖ
βάσει τ¸ ∆Ζ cστιν :ση, κα| τo ΒΓΖ τρίγωνον τ; ∆ΓΖ τριγών; cστιν :σον, κα| α| λοιπα| γωνίαι
ταiς λοιπαiς γωνίαις :σαι cσονται, uφ iς α| :σαι πλευρα| uποτείνουσιν· :ση vρα ¿ uπo ΓΒΖ γωνία
τ¸ uπo Γ∆Ζ. κα| cπε| διπλ¿ cστιν ¿ uπo Γ∆Ε τ¿ς uπo Γ∆Ζ, :ση δc ¿ pcν uπo Γ∆Ε τ¸ uπo
ΑΒΓ, ¿ δc uπo Γ∆Ζ τ¸ uπo ΓΒΖ, κα| ¿ uπo ΓΒΑ vρα τ¿ς uπo ΓΒΖ cστι διπλ¿· :ση vρα ¿ uπo
ΑΒΖ γωνία τ¸ uπo ΖΒΓ· ¿ vρα uπo ΑΒΓ γωνία δίχα τέτpηται uπo τ¿ς ΒΖ εuθείας. opοίως
δ¿ δειχθήσεται, oτι κα| cκατέρα τeν uπo ΒΑΕ, ΑΕ∆ δίχα τέτpηται uπo cκατέρας τeν ΖΑ, ΖΕ
εuθειeν. ¿χθωσαν δ¿ vπo τοu Ζ σηpείου cπ| τvς ΑΒ, ΒΓ, Γ∆, ∆Ε, ΕΑ εuθείας κάθετοι α|
ΖΗ, ΖΘ, ΖΚ, ΖΛ, ΖΜ. κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΘΓΖ γωνία τ¸ uπo ΚΓΖ, cστ| δc κα| oρθ¿
¿ uπo ΖΘΓ ¸oρθ¸] τ¸ uπo ΖΚΓ :ση, δύο δ¿ τρίγωνά cστι τv ΖΘΓ, ΖΚΓ τvς δύο γωνίας δυσ|
γωνίαις :σας cχοντα κα| pίαν πλευρvν pι; πλευρ; :σην κοιν¿ν αuτeν τ¿ν ΖΓ uποτείνουσαν uπo
pίαν τeν :σων γωνιeν· κα| τvς λοιπvς vρα πλευρvς ταiς λοιπαiς πλευραiς :σας cξει· :ση vρα ¿
ΖΘ κάθετος τ¸ ΖΚ καθέτ;. opοίως δ¿ δειχθήσεται, oτι κα| cκάστη τeν ΖΛ, ΖΜ, ΖΗ cκατέρ;
τeν ΖΘ, ΖΚ :ση cστίν· α| πέντε vρα εuθεiαι α| ΖΗ, ΖΘ, ΖΚ, ΖΛ, ΖΜ :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν. o
vρα κέντρ; τ; Ζ διαστήpατι δc cν| τeν Η, Θ, Κ, Λ, Μ κύκλος γραφόpενος ¿ξει κα| διv τeν
λοιπeν σηpείων κα| cφάψεται τeν ΑΒ, ΒΓ, Γ∆, ∆Ε, ΕΑ εuθειeν διv τo oρθvς ε|ναι τvς πρoς
τοiς Η, Θ, Κ, Λ, Μ σηpείοις γωνίας. εi γvρ οuκ cφάψεται αuτeν, vλλv τεpεi αuτάς, συpβήσεται
τ¿ν τ¸ διαpέτρ; τοu κύκλου πρoς oρθvς vπ vκρας vγοpένην cντoς πίπτειν τοu κύκλου· oπερ
2¯6
ELEMENTS BOOK 4
Proposition 13
H
A
G
B
C K D
L
E
M
F
To inscribe a circle in a given pentagon, which is equilateral and equiangular.
Let ABCDE be the given equilateral and equiangular pentagon. So it is required to inscribe a
circle in pentagon ABCDE.
For let angles BCD and CDE have each been cut in half by each of the straight-lines CF and DF
(respectively) [Prop. 1.9]. And from the point F, at which the straight-lines CF and DF meet
one another, let the straight-lines FB, FA, and FE have been joined. And since BC is equal to
CD, and CF (is) common, the two (straight-lines) BC, CF are equal to the two (straight-lines)
DC, CF. And angle BCF [is] equal to angle DCF. Thus, the base BF is equal to the base
DF, and triangle BCF is equal to triangle DCF, and the remaining angles will be equal to the
(corresponding) remaining angles, which the equal sides subtend [Prop. 1.4]. Thus, angle CBF
(is) equal to CDF. And since CDE is double CDF, and CDE (is) equal to ABC, and CDF to
CBF, CBA is thus also double CBF. Thus, angle ABF is equal to FBC. Thus, angle ABC has
been cut in half by the straight-line BF. So, similarly, it can be shown that BAE and AED have
each been cut in half by each of the straight-lines FA and FE (respectively). So let FG, FH, FK,
FL, and FM have been drawn from point F, perpendicular to the straight-lines AB, BC, CD,
DE, and EA (respectively) [Prop. 1.12]. And since angle HCF is equal to KCF, and the right-
angle FHC is also equal to the [right-angle] FKC, FHC and FKC are two triangles having
two angles equal to two angles, and one side equal to one side, (namely) their common (side)
FC, subtending one of the equal angles. Thus, they will also have the remaining sides equal to
the (corresponding) remaining sides [Prop. 1.26]. Thus, the perpendicular FH (is) equal to the
perpendicular FK. So, similarly, it can be shown that FL, FM, and FG are each equal to each of
FH and FK. Thus, the five straight-lines FG, FH, FK, FL, and FM are equal to one another.
Thus, the circle drawn with center F, and radius one of G, H, K, L, or M, will also go through
the remaining points, and will touch the straight-lines AB, BC, CD, DE, and EA, on account of
2¯¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ δ΄
ιγ΄
vτοπον cδείχθη. οuκ vρα o κέντρ; τ; Ζ διαστήpατι δc cν| τeν Η, Θ, Κ, Λ, Μ σηpείων
γραφόpενος κύκλος τεpεi τvς ΑΒ, ΒΓ, Γ∆, ∆Ε, ΕΑ εuθείας· cφάψεται vρα αuτeν. γεγράφθω
eς o ΗΘΚΛΜ.
Εiς vρα τo δοθcν πεντάγωνον, o cστιν iσόπλευρόν τε κα| iσογώνιον, κύκλος cγγέγραπται· oπερ
cδει ποι¿σαι.
2¯8
ELEMENTS BOOK 4
Proposition 13
the angles at points G, H, K, L, and M being right-angles. For if it does not touch them, but cuts
them, it follows that a (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to the diameter of the circle, from the
end, falls inside the circle. The very thing was shown (to be) absurd [Prop. 3.16]. Thus, the circle
drawn with center F, and radius one of G, H, K, L, or M, does not cut the straight-lines AB,
BC, CD, DE, or EA. Thus, it will touch them. Let it have been drawn, like GHKLM (in the
figure).
Thus, a circle has been inscribed in the given pentagon, which is equilateral and equiangular.
(Which is) the very thing it was required to do.
2¯9
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ δ΄
ιδ΄
Ζ
Α
Ε

Β
Γ
Περ| τo δοθcν πεντάγωνον, o cστιν iσόπλευρόν τε κα| iσογώνιον, κύκλον περιγράψαι.
´Εστω τo δοθcν πεντάγωνον, o cστιν iσόπλευρόν τε κα| iσογώνιον, τo ΑΒΓ∆Ε· δεi δ¿ περ| τo
ΑΒΓ∆Ε πεντάγωνον κύκλον περιγράψαι.
Τετpήσθω δ¿ cκατέρα τeν uπo ΒΓ∆, Γ∆Ε γωνιeν δίχα uπo cκατέρας τeν ΓΖ, ∆Ζ, κα| vπo
τοu Ζ σηpείου, καθ o συpβάλλουσιν α| εuθεiαι, cπ| τv Β, Α, Ε σηpεiα cπεζεύχθωσαν εuθεiαι α|
ΖΒ, ΖΑ, ΖΕ. opοίως δ¿ τ; πρo τούτου δειχθήσεται, oτι κα| cκάστη τeν uπo ΓΒΑ, ΒΑΕ, ΑΕ∆
γωνιeν δίχα τέτpηται uπo cκάστης τeν ΖΒ, ΖΑ, ΖΕ εuθειeν. κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΒΓ∆
γωνία τ¸ uπo Γ∆Ε, καί cστι τ¿ς pcν uπo ΒΓ∆ ¿pίσεια ¿ uπo ΖΓ∆, τ¿ς δc uπo Γ∆Ε ¿pίσεια ¿
uπo Γ∆Ζ, κα| ¿ uπo ΖΓ∆ vρα τ¸ uπo Ζ∆Γ cστιν :ση· eστε κα| πλευρv ¿ ΖΓ πλευρ; τ¸ Ζ∆
cστιν :ση. opοίως δ¿ δειχθήσεται, oτι κα| cκάστη τeν ΖΒ, ΖΑ, ΖΕ cκατέρ; τeν ΖΓ, Ζ∆ cστιν
:ση· α| πέντε vρα εuθεiαι α| ΖΑ, ΖΒ, ΖΓ, Ζ∆, ΖΕ :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν. o vρα κέντρ; τ; Ζ κα|
διαστήpατι cν| τeν ΖΑ, ΖΒ, ΖΓ, Ζ∆, ΖΕ κύκλος γραφόpενος ¿ξει κα| διv τeν λοιπeν σηpείων
κα| cσται περιγεγραppένος. περιγεγράφθω κα| cστω o ΑΒΓ∆Ε.
Περ| vρα τo δοθcν πεντάγωνον, o cστιν iσόπλευρόν τε κα| iσογώνιον, κύκλος περιγέγραπται·
oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
280
ELEMENTS BOOK 4
Proposition 14
F
A
B
C D
E
To circumscribe a circle about a given pentagon, which is equilateral and equiangular.
Let ABCDE be the given pentagon, which is equilateral and equiangular. So it is required to
circumscribe a circle about the pentagon ABCDE.
So let angles BCD and CDE have each been cut in half by each of the (straight-lines) CF and
DF (respectively) [Prop. 1.9]. And let the straight-lines FB, FA, and FE have been joined from
point F, at which the straight-lines meet, to the points B, A, and E (respectively). So, similarly,
to the (proposition) before this (one), it can be shown that angles CBA, BAE, and AED have
also each been cut in half by each of the straight-lines FB, FA, and FE (respectively). And since
angle BCD is equal to CDE, and FCD is half of BCD, and CDF half of CDE, FCD is thus also
equal to FDC. So that side FC is also equal to side FD [Prop. 1.6]. So, similarly, it can be shown
that FB, FA, and FE are also each equal to each of FC and FD. Thus, the five straight-lines
FA, FB, FC, FD, and FE are equal to one another. Thus, the circle drawn with center F, and
radius one of FA, FB, FC, FD, or FE, will also go through the remaining points, and will have
been circumscribed. Let it have been (so) circumscribed, and let it be ABCDE.
Thus, a circle has been circumscribed about the given pentagon, which is equilateral and equian-
gular. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.
28l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ δ΄
ιε΄
Η
Β
Θ
Ε
Α

Ζ
Γ
Εiς τoν δοθέντα κύκλον cξάγωνον iσόπλευρόν τε κα| iσογώνιον cγγράψαι.
´Εστω o δοθε|ς κύκλος o ΑΒΓ∆ΕΖ· δεi δ¿ εiς τoν ΑΒΓ∆ΕΖ κύκλον cξάγωνον iσόπλευρόν τε
κα| iσογώνιον cγγράψαι.
´Ηχθω τοu ΑΒΓ∆ΕΖ κύκλου διάpετρος ¿ Α∆, κα| εiλήφθω τo κέντρον τοu κύκλου τo Η, κα|
κέντρ; pcν τ; ∆ διαστήpατι δc τ; ∆Η κύκλος γεγράφθω o ΕΗΓΘ, κα| cπιζευχθεiσαι α| ΕΗ,
ΓΗ διήχθωσαν cπ| τv Β, Ζ σηpεiα, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΑΒ, ΒΓ, Γ∆, ∆Ε, ΕΖ, ΖΑ· λέγω, oτι
τo ΑΒΓ∆ΕΖ cξάγωνον iσόπλευρόν τέ cστι κα| iσογώνιον.
Επε| γvρ τo Η σηpεiον κέντρον cστ| τοu ΑΒΓ∆ΕΖ κύκλου, :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΗΕ τ¸ Η∆. πάλιν, cπε|
τo ∆ σηpεiον κέντρον cστ| τοu ΗΓΘ κύκλου, :ση cστ|ν ¿ ∆Ε τ¸ ∆Η. vλλ ¿ ΗΕ τ¸ Η∆ cδείχθη
:ση· κα| ¿ ΗΕ vρα τ¸ Ε∆ :ση cστίν· iσόπλευρον vρα cστ| τo ΕΗ∆ τρίγωνον· κα| α| τρεiς vρα
αuτοu γωνίαι α| uπo ΕΗ∆, Η∆Ε, ∆ΕΗ :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν, cπειδήπερ τeν iσοσκελeν τριγώνων
α| πρoς τ¸ βάσει γωνίαι :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν· καί εiσιν α| τρεiς τοu τριγώνου γωνίαι δυσ|ν oρθαiς
:σαι· ¿ vρα uπo ΕΗ∆ γωνία τρίτον cστ| δύο oρθeν. opοίως δ¿ δειχθήσεται κα| ¿ uπo ∆ΗΓ
τρίτον δύο oρθeν. κα| cπε| ¿ ΓΗ εuθεiα cπ| τ¿ν ΕΒ σταθεiσα τvς cφεξ¿ς γωνίας τvς uπo ΕΗΓ,
ΓΗΒ δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σας ποιεi, κα| λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ uπo ΓΗΒ τρίτον cστ| δύο oρθeν· α| vρα uπo
ΕΗ∆, ∆ΗΓ, ΓΗΒ γωνίαι :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν· eστε κα| α| κατv κορυφ¿ν αuταiς α| uπo ΒΗΑ,
ΑΗΖ, ΖΗΕ :σαι εiσ|ν ¸ταiς uπo ΕΗ∆, ∆ΗΓ, ΓΗΒ]. α| cξ vρα γωνίαι α| uπo ΕΗ∆, ∆ΗΓ, ΓΗΒ,
ΒΗΑ, ΑΗΖ, ΖΗΕ :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν. α| δc :σαι γωνίαι cπ| :σων περιφερειeν βεβήκασιν· α| cξ
vρα περιφέρειαι α| ΑΒ, ΒΓ, Γ∆, ∆Ε, ΕΖ, ΖΑ :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν. uπo δc τvς :σας περιφερείας
α| :σαι εuθεiαι uποτείνουσιν· α| cξ vρα εuθεiαι :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν· iσόπλευρον vρα cστ| το
ΑΒΓ∆ΕΖ cξάγωνον. λέγω δή, oτι κα| iσογώνιον. cπε| γvρ :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΖΑ περιφέρεια τ¸ Ε∆
περιφερεί;, κοιν¿ προσκείσθω ¿ ΑΒΓ∆ περιφέρεια· oλη vρα ¿ ΖΑΒΓ∆ oλ¸ τ¸ Ε∆ΓΒΑ cστιν
282
ELEMENTS BOOK 4
Proposition 15
C
H
D
B
A
G
F
E
To inscribe an equilateral and equiangular hexagon in a given circle.
Let ABCDEF be the given circle. So it is required to inscribe an equilateral and equiangular
hexagon in circle ABCDEF.
Let the diameter AD of circle ABCDEF have been drawn,
55
and let the center G of the circle
have been found [Prop. 3.1]. And let the circle EGCH have been drawn, with center D, and
radius DG. And EG and CG being joined, let them have been drawn across (the circle) to points
B and F (respectively). And let AB, BC, CD, DE, EF, and FA have been joined. I say that the
hexagon ABCDEF is equilateral and equiangular.
For since point G is the center of circle ABCDEF, GE is equal to GD. Again, since point D is
the center of circle GCH, DE is equal to DG. But, GE was shown (to be) equal to GD. Thus,
GE is also equal to ED. Thus, triangle EGD is equilateral. Thus, its three angles EGD, GDE,
and DEG are also equal to one another, inasmuch as the angles at the base of isosceles triangles
are equal to one another [Prop. 1.5]. And the three angles of the triangle are equal to two right-
angles [Prop. 1.32]. Thus, angle EGD is one third of two right-angles. So, similarly, DGC can
also be shown (to be) one third of two right-angles. And since the straight-line CG, standing on
EB, makes adjacent angles EGC and CGB equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.13], the remaining
angle CGB is thus also equal to one third of two right-angles. Thus, angles EGD, DGC, and
CGB are equal to one another. And hence the (angles) opposite to them BGA, AGF, and FGE
are also equal [to EGD, DGC, and CGB (respectively)] [Prop. 1.15]. Thus, the six angles EGD,
DGC, CGB, BGA, AGF, and FGE are equal to one another. And equal angles stand on equal
55
See the footnote to Prop. 4.6.
28`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ δ΄
ιε΄
:ση· κα| βέβηκεν cπ| pcν τ¿ς ΖΑΒΓ∆ περιφερείας ¿ uπo ΖΕ∆ γωνία, cπ| δc τ¿ς Ε∆ΓΒΑ
περιφερείας ¿ uπo ΑΖΕ γωνία· :ση vρα ¿ uπo ΑΖΕ γωνία τ¸ uπo ∆ΕΖ. opοίως δ¿ δειχθήσεται,
oτι κα| α| λοιπα| γωνίαι τοu ΑΒΓ∆ΕΖ cξαγώνου κατv pίαν :σαι εiσ|ν cκατέρ; τeν uπo ΑΖΕ,
ΖΕ∆ γωνιeν· iσογώνιον vρα cστ| τo ΑΒΓ∆ΕΖ cξάγωνον. cδείχθη δc κα| iσόπλευρον· κα|
cγγέγραπται εiς τoν ΑΒΓ∆ΕΖ κύκλον.
Εiς vρα τoν δοθέντα κύκλον cξάγωνον iσόπλευρόν τε κα| iσογώνιον cγγέγραπται· oπερ cδει
ποι¿σαι.
Πόρισpα
Εκ δ¿ τούτου φανερόν, oτι ¿ τοu cξαγώνου πλευρv :ση cστ| τ¸ cκ τοu κέντρου τοu κύκλου.
Οpοίως δc τοiς cπ| τοu πενταγώνου cvν διv τeν κατv τoν κύκλον διαιρέσεων cφαπτοpένας
τοu κύκλου vγάγωpεν, περιγραφήσεται περ| τoν κύκλον cξάγωνον iσόπλευρόν τε κα| iσογώνιον
vκολούθως τοiς cπ| τοu πενταγώνου εiρηpένοις. κα| cτι διv τeν opοίων τοiς cπ| τοu πενταγώνου
εiρηpένοις εiς τo δοθcν cξάγωνον κύκλον cγγράψοpέν τε κα| περιγράψοpεν· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
284
ELEMENTS BOOK 4
Proposition 15
circumferences [Prop. 3.26]. Thus, the six circumferences AB, BC, CD, DE, EF, and FA are
equal to one another. And equal straight-lines subtend equal circumferences [Prop. 3.29]. Thus,
the six straight-lines (AB, BC, CD, DE, EF, and FA) are equal to one another. Thus, hexagon
ABCDEF is equilateral. So, I say that (it is) also equiangular. For since circumference FA is
equal to circumference ED, let circumference ABCD have been added to both. Thus, the whole
of FABCD is equal to the whole of EDCBA. And angle FED stands on circumference FABCD,
and angle AFE on circumference EDCBA. Thus, angle AFE is equal to DEF [Prop. 3.27].
Similarly, it can also be shown that the remaining angles of hexagon ABCDEF are individually
equal to each of angles AFE and FED. Thus, hexagon ABCDEF is equiangular. And it was
also shown (to be) equilateral. And it has been inscribed in circle ABCDE.
Thus, an equilateral and equiangular hexagon has been inscribed in the given circle. (Which is)
the very thing it was required to do.
Corollary
So, from this, (it is) manifest that a side of the hexagon is equal to the radius of the circle.
And similarly to a pentagon, if we draw tangents to the circle through the (sixfold) divisions of
the (circumference of the) circle, an equilateral and equiangular hexagon can be circumscribed
about the circle, analogously to the aforementioned pentagon. And, further, by (means) similar
to the aforementioned pentagon, we can inscribe and circumscribe a circle in (and about) a given
hexagon. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.
28¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ δ΄
ιç΄
Α
Β
Γ ∆
Ε
Εiς τoν δοθέντα κύκλον πεντεκαιδεκάγωνον iσόπλευρόν τε κα| iσογώνιον cγγράψαι.
´Εστω o δοθε|ς κύκλος o ΑΒΓ∆· δεi δ¿ εiς τoν ΑΒΓ∆ κύκλον πεντεκαιδεκάγωνον iσόπλευρόν
τε κα| iσογώνιον cγγράψαι.
Εγγεγράφθω εiς τoν ΑΒΓ∆ κύκλον τριγώνου pcν iσοπλεύρου τοu εiς αuτoν cγγραφοpένου
πλευρv ¿ ΑΓ, πενταγώνου δc iσοπλεύρου ¿ ΑΒ· ο:ων vρα cστ|ν o ΑΒΓ∆ κύκλος :σων τpήpατων
δεκαπέντε, τοιούτων ¿ pcν ΑΒΓ περιφέρεια τρίτον οuσα τοu κύκλου cσται πέντε, ¿ δc ΑΒ πε-
ριφέρεια πέpτον οuσα τοu κύκλου cσται τριeν· λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ ΒΓ τeν :σων δύο. τετpήσθω ¿
ΒΓ δίχα κατv τo Ε· cκατέρα vρα τeν ΒΕ, ΕΓ περιφερειeν πεντεκαιδέκατόν cστι τοu ΑΒΓ∆
κύκλου.
Εvν vρα cπιζεύξαντες τvς ΒΕ, ΕΓ :σας αuταiς κατv τo συνεχcς εuθείας cναρpόσωpεν εiς
τoν ΑΒΓ∆¸Ε] κύκλον, cσται εiς αuτoν cγγεγραppένον πεντεκαιδεκάγωνον iσόπλευρόν τε κα|
iσογώνιον· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
Οpοίως δc τοiς cπ| τοu πενταγώνου cvν διv τeν κατv τoν κύκλον διαιρέσεων cφαπτοpένας
τοu κύκλου vγάγωpεν, περιγραφήσεται περ| τoν κύκλον πεντεκαιδεκάγωνον iσόπλευρόν τε κα|
iσογώνιον. cτι δc διv τeν opοίων τοiς cπ| τοu πενταγώνου δείξεων κα| εiς τo δοθcν πεντεκαι-
δεκάγωνον κύκλον cγγράψοpέν τε κα| περιγράψοpεν· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
286
ELEMENTS BOOK 4
Proposition 16
A
B
E
C
D
To inscribe an equilateral and equiangular fifteen-sided figure in a given circle.
Let ABCD be the given circle. So it is required to inscribe an equilateral and equiangular fifteen-
sided figure in circle ABCD.
Let the side AC of an equilateral triangle inscribed in (the circle) [Prop. 4.2], and (the side) AB
of an (inscribed) equilateral pentagon [Prop. 4.11], have been inscribed in circle ABCD. Thus,
just as the circle ABCD is (made up) of fifteen equal pieces, the circumference ABC, being a
third of the circle, will be (made up) of five such (pieces), and the circumference AB, being a
fifth of the circle, will be (made up) of three. Thus, the remainder BC (will be made up) of two
equal (pieces). Let (circumference) BC have been cut in half at E [Prop. 3.30]. Thus, each of
the circumferences BE and EC is one fifteenth of the circle ABCDE.
Thus, if, joining BE and EC, we continuously insert straight-lines equal to them into circle
ABCD[E] [Prop. 4.1], then an equilateral and equiangular fifteen-sided figure will have been
inserted into (the circle). (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.
And similarly to the pentagon, if we draw tangents to the circle through the (fifteenfold) divisions
of the (circumference of the) circle, we can circumscribe an equilateral and equiangular fifteen-
sided figure about the circle. And, further, through similar proofs to the pentagon, we can also
inscribe and circumscribe a circle in (and about) a given fifteen-sided figure. (Which is) the very
thing it was required to do.
28¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proportion
56
56
The theory of proportion set out in this book is generally attributed to Eudoxus of Cnidus. The novel feature
of this theory is its ability to deal with irrational magnitudes, which had hitherto been a major stumbling block for
Greek mathematicians. Throughout the footnotes in this book, α, β, γ, etc., denote general (possibly irrational)
magnitudes, whereas m, n, l, etc., denote positive integers.
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
´Οροι
α΄ Μέρος cστ| pέγεθος pεγέθους τo cλασσον τοu pείζονος, oταν καταpετρ¸ τo pεiζον.
β΄ Πολλαπλάσιον δc τo pεiζον τοu cλάττονος, oταν καταpετρ¿ται uπo τοu cλάττονος.
γ΄ Λόγος cστ| δύο pεγεθeν opογενeν ¿ κατv πηλικότητά ποια σχέσις.
δ΄ Λόγον cχειν πρoς vλληλα pεγέθη λέγεται, i δύναται πολλαπλασιαζόpενα vλλήλων uπερέ-
χειν.
ε΄ Εν τ; αuτ; λόγ; pεγέθη λέγεται ε|ναι πρeτον πρoς δεύτερον κα| τρίτον πρoς τέταρτον,
oταν τv τοu πρώτου καί τρίτου iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τeν τοu δευτέρου κα| τετάρτου iσάκις
πολλαπλασίων καθ oποιονοuν πολλαπλασιασpoν cκάτερον cκατέρου ¿ vpα uπερέχ¸ ¿ vpα
:σα ¸ ¿ vpα cλλείπ¸ ληφθέντα κατάλληλα.
ç΄ Τv δc τoν αuτoν cχοντα λόγον pεγέθη vνάλογον καλείσθω.
ζ΄ ´Οταν δc τeν iσάκις πολλαπλασίων τo pcν τοu πρώτου πολλαπλάσιον uπερέχ¸ τοu τοu
δευτέρου πολλαπλασίου, τo δc τοu τρίτου πολλαπλάσιον p¿ uπερέχ¸ τοu τοu τετάρτου
πολλαπλασίου, τότε τo πρeτον πρoς τo δεύτερον pείζονα λόγον cχειν λέγεται, ¿περ τo
τρίτον πρoς τo τέταρτον.
η΄ Αναλογία δc cν τρισ|ν oροις cλαχίστη cστίν.
θ΄ ´Οταν δc τρία pεγέθη vνάλογον ¸, τo πρeτον πρoς τo τρίτον διπλασίονα λόγον cχειν
λέγεται ¿περ πρoς τo δεύτερον.
ι΄ ´Οταν δc τέσσαρα pεγέθη vνάλογον ¸, τo πρeτον πρoς τo τέταρτον τριπλασίονα λόγον
cχειν λέγεται ¿περ πρoς τo δεύτερον, κα| vε| cξ¿ς opοίως, eς iν ¿ vναλογία uπάρχ¸.
290
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Definitions
1 A magnitude is a part of a(nother) magnitude, the lesser of the greater, when it measures
the greater.
57
2 And the greater (magnitude is) a multiple of the lesser when it is measured by the lesser.
3 A ratio is a certain type of condition with respect to size of two magnitudes of the same
kind.
58
4 (Those) magnitudes are said to have a ratio with respect to one another which, being mul-
tiplied, are capable of exceeding one another.
59
5 Magnitudes are said to be in the same ratio, the first to the second, and the third to the
fourth, when equal multiples of the first and the third either both exceed, are both equal to,
or are both less than, equal multiples of the second and the fourth, respectively, being taken
in corresponding order, according to any kind of multiplication whatever.
60
6 And let magnitudes having the same ratio be called proportional.
61
7 And when for equal multiples (as in Def. 5), the multiple of the first (magnitude) exceeds
the multiple of the second, and the multiple of the third (magnitude) does not exceed the
multiple of the fourth, then the first (magnitude) is said to have a greater ratio to the second
than the third (magnitude has) to the fourth.
8 And a proportion in three terms is the smallest (possible).
62
9 And when three magnitudes are proportional, the first is said to have a squared
63
ratio to
the third with respect to the second.
64
10 And when four magnitudes are (continuously) proportional, the first is said to have a
cubed
65
ratio to the fourth with respect to the second.
66
And so on, similarly, in successive
order, whatever the (continuous) proportion might be.
57
In other words, α is said to be a part of β if β = mα.
58
In modern notation, the ratio of two magnitudes, α and β, is denoted α : β.
59
In other words, α has a ratio with respect to β if mα > β and nβ > α, for some m and n.
60
In other words, α : β :: γ : δ if and only if mα > nβ whenever mγ > nδ, and mα = nβ whenever mγ = nδ,
and mα < nβ whenever mγ < nδ, for all m and n. This definition is the kernel of Eudoxus’ theory of proportion,
and is valid even if α, β, etc., are irrational.
61
Thus if α and β have the same ratio as γ and δ then they are proportional. In modern notation, α : β :: γ : δ.
62
In modern notation, a proportion in three terms—α, β, and γ—is written: α : β :: β : γ.
63
Literally, “double”.
64
In other words, if α : β :: β : γ then α : γ :: α
2
: β
2
.
65
Literally, “triple”.
66
In other words, if α : β :: β : γ :: γ : δ then α : δ :: α
3
: β
3
.
29l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
ιβ΄ Οpόλογα pεγέθη λέγεται τv pcν ¿γούpενα τοiς ¿γουpένοις τv δc cπόpενα τοiς cποpένοις.
ιγ΄ Εναλλvξ λόγος cστ| λ¿ψις τοu ¿γουpένου πρoς τo ¿γούpενον κα| τοu cποpένου πρoς τo
cπόpενον.
ιδ΄ Ανάπαλιν λόγος cστ| λ¿ψις τοu cποpένου eς ¿γουpένου πρoς τo ¿γούpενον eς cπόpενον.
ιε΄ Σύνθεσις λόγου cστ| λ¿ψις τοu ¿γουpένου pετv τοu cποpένου eς cνoς πρoς αuτo τo
cπόpενον.
ιç΄ ∆ιαίρεσις λόγου cστ| λ¿ψις τ¿ς uπεροχ¿ς, ¸ uπερέχει τo ¿γούpενον τοu cποpένου, πρoς
αuτo τo cπόpενον.
ιζ΄ Αναστροφ¿ λόγου cστ| λ¿ψις τοu ¿γουpένου πρoς τ¿ν uπεροχήν, ¸ uπερέχει τo ¿γούpενον
τοu cποpένου.
ιη΄ ∆ι :σου λόγος cστ| πλειόνων oντων pεγεθeν κα| vλλων αuτοiς :σων τo πλ¿θος σύνδυο
λαpβανοpένων κα| cν τ; αuτ; λόγ;, oταν ¸ eς cν τοiς πρώτοις pεγέθεσι τo πρeτον πρoς
τo cσχατον, οuτως cν τοiς δευτέροις pεγέθεσι τo πρeτον πρoς τo cσχατον· ¿ vλλως· Λ¿ψις
τeν vκρων καθ uπεξαίρεσιν τeν pέσων.
ιθ΄ Τεταραγpένη δc vναλογία cστίν, oταν τριeν oντων pεγεθeν κα| vλλων αuτοiς :σων τo
πλ¿θος γίνηται eς pcν cν τοiς πρώτοις pεγέθεσιν ¿γούpενον πρoς cπόpενον, οuτως cν
τοiς δευτέροις pεγέθεσιν ¿γούpενον πρoς cπόpενον, eς δc cν τοiς πρώτοις pεγέθεσιν
cπόpενον πρoς vλλο τι, οuτως cν τοiς δευτέροις vλλο τι πρoς ¿γούpενον.
292
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
12 These magnitudes are said to be corresponding (magnitudes): the leading to the leading
(of two ratios), and the following to the following.
13 An alternate ratio is a taking of the (ratio of the) leading (magnitude) to the leading (of
two equal ratios), and (setting it equal to) the (ratio of the) following (magnitude) to the
following.
67
14 An inverse ratio is a taking of the (ratio of the) following (magnitude) as the leading and
the leading (magnitude) as the following.
68
15 A composition of a ratio is a taking of the (ratio of the) leading plus the following (magni-
tudes), as one, to the same following (magnitude).
69
16 A separation of a ratio is a taking of the (ratio of the) excess by which the leading (magni-
tude) exceeds the following to the same following (magnitude).
70
17 A conversion of a ratio is a taking of the (ratio of the) leading (magnitude) to the excess by
which the leading (magnitude) exceeds the following.
71
18 There being several magnitudes, and other (magnitudes) of equal number to them, (which
are) also in the same ratio taken two by two, a ratio via equality (or ex aequali) occurs
when as the first is to the last in the first (set of) magnitudes, so the first (is) to the last in
the second (set of) magnitudes. Or alternately, (it is) a taking of the (ratio of the) outer
(magnitudes) by the removal of the inner (magnitudes).
72
19 There being three magnitudes, and other (magnitudes) of equal number to them, a per-
turbed proportion occurs when as the leading is to the following in the first (set of) mag-
nitudes, so the leading (is) to the following in the second (set of) magnitudes, and as the
following (is) to some other (i.e., the remaining magnitude) in the first (set of) magnitudes,
so some other (is) to the leading in the second (set of) magnitudes.
73
67
In other words, if α : β :: γ : δ then the alternate ratio corresponds to α : γ :: β : δ.
68
In other words, if α : β then the inverse ratio corresponds to β : α.
69
In other words, if α : β then the composed ratio corresponds to α +β : β.
70
In other words, if α : β then the separated ratio corresponds to α −β : β.
71
In other words, if α : β then the converted ratio corresponds to α : α −β.
72
In other words, if α, β, γ are the first set of magnitudes, and δ, , ζ the second set, and α : β : γ :: δ : : ζ, then
the ratio via equality (or ex aequali) corresponds to α : γ :: δ : ζ.
73
In other words, if α, β, γ are the first set of magnitudes, and δ, , ζ the second set, and α : β :: δ : as well as
β : γ :: ζ : δ, then the proportion is said to be perturbed.
29`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
α΄
Ζ
Η Β Γ Θ ∆ Α
Ε
Εvν ¸ oποσαοuν pεγέθη oποσωνοuν pεγεθeν :σων τo πλ¿θος cκαστον cκάστου iσάκις πολ-
λαπλάσιον, oσαπλάσιόν cστιν cν τeν pεγεθeν cνός, τοσαυταπλάσια cσται κα| τv πάντα τeν
πάντων.
´Εστω oποσαοuν pεγέθη τv ΑΒ, Γ∆ oποσωνοuν pεγεθeν τeν Ε, Ζ :σων τo πλ¿θος cκαστον
cκάστου iσάκις πολλαπλάσιον· λέγω, oτι oσαπλάσιόν cστι τo ΑΒ τοu Ε, τοσαυταπλάσια cσται
κα| τv ΑΒ, Γ∆ τeν Ε, Ζ.
Επε| γvρ iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo ΑΒ τοu Ε κα| τo Γ∆ τοu Ζ, oσα vρα cστ|ν cν τ; ΑΒ
pεγέθη :σα τ; Ε, τοσαuτα κα| cν τ; Γ∆ :σα τ; Ζ. δι¸ρήσθω τo pcν ΑΒ εiς τv τ; Ε pεγέθη
:σα τv ΑΗ, ΗΒ, τo δc Γ∆ εiς τv τ; Ζ :σα τv ΓΘ, Θ∆· cσται δ¿ :σον τo πλ¿θος τeν ΑΗ, ΗΒ
τ; πλήθει τeν ΓΘ, Θ∆. κα| cπε| :σον cστ| τo pcν ΑΗ τ; Ε, τo δc ΓΘ τ; Ζ, :σον vρα τo ΑΗ
τ; Ε, κα| τv ΑΗ, ΓΘ τοiς Ε, Ζ. διv τv αuτv δ¿ :σον cστ| τo ΗΒ τ; Ε, κα| τv ΗΒ, Θ∆ τοiς Ε,
Ζ· oσα vρα cστ|ν cν τ; ΑΒ :σα τ; Ε, τοσαuτα κα| cν τοiς ΑΒ, Γ∆ :σα τοiς Ε, Ζ· oσαπλάσιον
vρα cστ| τo ΑΒ τοu Ε, τοσαυταπλάσια cσται κα| τv ΑΒ, Γ∆ τeν Ε, Ζ.
Εvν vρα ¸ oποσαοuν pεγέθη oποσωνοuν pεγεθeν :σων τo πλ¿θος cκαστον cκάστου iσάκις
πολλαπλάσιον, oσαπλάσιόν cστιν cν τeν pεγεθeν cνός, τοσαυταπλάσια cσται κα| τv πάντα τeν
πάντων· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
294
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 1
74
F
A G B C H D
E
If there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever (which are) equal multiples, respectively, of
some (other) magnitudes, of equal number (to them), then as many times as one of the (first)
magnitudes is (divisible) by one (of the second), so many times will all (of the first magnitudes)
also (be divisible) by all (of the second).
Let there be any number of magnitudes whatsoever, AB, CD, (which are) equal multiples, re-
spectively, of some (other) magnitudes, E, F, of equal number (to them). I say that as many
times as AB is (divisible) by E, so many times will AB, CD also be (divisible) by E, F.
For since AB, CD are equal multiples of E, F, thus as many magnitudes as (there) are in AB
equal to E, so many (are there) also in CD equal to F. Let AB have been divided into magni-
tudes AG, GB, equal to E, and CD into (magnitudes) CH, HD, equal to F. So, the number of
(divisions) AG, GB will be equal to the number of (divisions) CH, HD. And since AG is equal to
E, and CH to F, AG (is) thus equal to E, and AG, CH to E, F. So, for the same (reasons), GB
is equal to E, and GB, HD to E, F. Thus, as many (magnitudes) as (there) are in AB equal to
E, so many (are there) also in AB, CD equal to E, F. Thus, as many times as AB is (divisible)
by E, so many times will AB, CD also be (divisible) by E, F.
Thus, if there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever (which are) equal multiples, respec-
tively, of some (other) magnitudes, of equal number (to them), then as many times as one of
the (first) magnitudes is (divisible) by one (of the second), so many times will all (of the first
magnitudes) also (be divisible) by all (of the second). (Which is) the very thing it was required
to show.
74
In modern notation, this proposition reads mα +mβ +· · · = m(α +β +· · ·).
29¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
β΄
Ζ
Α Β Η
∆ Ε Θ
Γ
Εvν πρeτον δευτέρου iσάκις ¸ πολλαπλάσιον κα| τρίτον τετάρτου, ¸ δc κα| πέpπτον δευτέρου
iσάκις πολλαπλάσιον κα| cκτον τετάρτου, κα| συντεθcν πρeτον κα| πέpπτον δευτέρου iσάκις
cσται πολλαπλάσιον κα| τρίτον κα| cκτον τετάρτου.
Πρeτον γvρ τo ΑΒ δευτέρου τοu Γ iσάκις cστω πολλαπλάσιον κα| τρίτον τo ∆Ε τετάρτου
τοu Ζ, cστω δc κα| πέpπτον τo ΒΗ δευτέρου τοu Γ iσάκις πολλαπλάσιον κα| cκτον τo ΕΘ
τετάρτου τοu Ζ· λέγω, oτι κα| συντεθcν πρeτον κα| πέpπτον τo ΑΗ δευτέρου τοu Γ iσάκις
cσται πολλαπλάσιον κα| τρίτον κα| cκτον τo ∆Θ τετάρτου τοu Ζ.
Επε| γvρ iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo ΑΒ τοu Γ κα| τo ∆Ε τοu Ζ, oσα vρα cστ|ν cν τ; ΑΒ
:σα τ; Γ, τοσαuτα κα| cν τ; ∆Ε :σα τ; Ζ. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| oσα cστ|ν cν τ; ΒΗ :σα τ; Γ,
τοσαuτα κα| cν τ; ΕΘ :σα τ; Ζ· oσα vρα cστ|ν cν oλ; τ; ΑΗ :σα τ; Γ, τοσαuτα κα| cν oλ;
τ; ∆Θ :σα τ; Ζ· oσαπλάσιον vρα cστ| τo ΑΗ τοu Γ, τοσαυταπλάσιον cσται κα| τo ∆Θ τοu Ζ.
κα| συντεθcν vρα πρeτον κα| πέpπτον τo ΑΗ δευτέρου τοu Γ iσάκις cσται πολλαπλάσιον κα|
τρίτον κα| cκτον τo ∆Θ τετάρτου τοu Ζ.
Εvν vρα πρeτον δευτέρου iσάκις ¸ πολλαπλάσιον κα| τρίτον τετάρτου, ¸ δc κα| πέpπτον
δευτέρου iσάκις πολλαπλάσιον κα| cκτον τετάρτου, κα| συντεθcν πρeτον κα| πέpπτον δευτέρου
iσάκις cσται πολλαπλάσιον κα| τρίτον κα| cκτον τετάρτου· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
296
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 2
75
H
A B G
C
F
D E
If a first (magnitude) and a third are equal multiples of a second and a fourth (respectively), and
a fifth (magnitude) and a sixth (are) also equal multiples of the second and fourth (respectively),
then the first (magnitude) and the fifth, being added together, and the third and the sixth, (being
added together), will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) and the fourth (respec-
tively).
For let a first (magnitude) AB and a third DE be equal multiples of a second C and a fourth F
(respectively). And let a fifth (magnitude) BG and a sixth EH also be (other) equal multiples of
the second C and the fourth F (respectively). I say that the first (magnitude) and the fifth, being
added together, (to give) AG, and the third (magnitude) and the sixth, (being added together, to
give) DH, will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) C and the fourth F (respec-
tively).
For since AB and DE are equal multiples of C and F (respectively), thus as many (magnitudes)
as (there) are in AB equal to C, so many (are there) also in DE equal to F. And so, for the same
(reasons), as many (magnitudes) as (there) are in BG equal to C, so many (are there) also in EH
equal to F. Thus, as many (magnitudes) as (there) are in the whole of AG equal to C, so many
(are there) also in the whole of DH equal to F. Thus, as many times as AG is (divisible) by C, so
many times will DH also be divisible by F. Thus, the first (magnitude) and the fifth, being added
together, (to give) AG, and the third (magnitude) and the sixth, (being added together, to give)
DH, will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) C and the fourth F (respectively).
Thus, if a first (magnitude) and a third are equal multiples of a second and a fourth (respec-
tively), and a fifth (magnitude) and a sixth (are) also equal multiples of the second and fourth
(respectively), then the first (magnitude) and the fifth, being added together, and the third and
sixth, (being added together), will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) and the
fourth (respectively). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
75
In modern notation, this propostion reads mα +nα = (m+n) α.
29¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
γ΄
Α
Γ
Κ Ζ Ε

Η Λ Θ
Β
Εvν πρeτον δευτέρου iσάκις ¸ πολλαπλάσιον κα| τρίτον τετάρτου, ληφθ¸ δc iσάκις πολ-
λαπλάσια τοu τε πρώτου κα| τρίτου, κα| δι :σου τeν ληφθέντων cκάτερον cκατέρου iσάκις cσται
πολλαπλάσιον τo pcν τοu δευτέρου τo δc τοu τετάρτου.
Πρeτον γvρ τo Α δευτέρου τοu Β iσάκις cστω πολλαπλάσιον κα| τρίτον τo Γ τετάρτου τοu ∆,
κα| εiλήφθω τeν Α, Γ iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τv ΕΖ, ΗΘ· λέγω, oτι iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo
ΕΖ τοu Β κα| τo ΗΘ τοu ∆.
Επε| γvρ iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo ΕΖ τοu Α κα| τo ΗΘ τοu Γ, oσα vρα cστ|ν cν τ; ΕΖ
:σα τ; Α, τοσαuτα κα| cν τ; ΗΘ :σα τ; Γ. δι¸ρήσθω τo pcν ΕΖ εiς τv τ; Α pεγέθη :σα τv
ΕΚ, ΚΖ, τo δc ΗΘ εiς τv τ; Γ :σα τv ΗΛ, ΛΘ· cσται δ¿ :σον τo πλ¿θος τeν ΕΚ, ΚΖ τ;
πλήθει τeν ΗΛ, ΛΘ. κα| cπε| iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo Α τοu Β κα| τo Γ τοu ∆, :σον δc
τo pcν ΕΚ τ; Α, τo δc ΗΛ τ; Γ, iσάκις vρα cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo ΕΚ τοu Β κα| τo ΗΛ τοu
∆. διv τv αuτv δ¿ iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo ΚΖ τοu Β κα| τo ΛΘ τou ∆. cπε| οuν πρeτον
τo ΕΚ δευτέρου τοu Β :σάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσιον κα| τρίτον τo ΗΛ τετάρτου τοu ∆, cστι δc
κα| πέpπτον τo ΚΖ δευτέρου τοu Β iσάκις πολλαπλάσιον κα| cκτον τo ΛΘ τετάρτου τοu ∆, κα|
συντεθcν vρα πρeτον κα| πέpπτον τo ΕΖ δευτέρου τοu Β iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσιον κα| τρίτον
κα| cκτον τo ΗΘ τετάρτου τοu ∆.
Εvν vρα πρeτον δευτέρου iσάκις ¸ πολλαπλάσιον κα| τρίτον τετάρτου, ληφθ¸ δc τοu πρώτου
κα| τρίτου iσάκις πολλαπλάσια, κα| δι :σου τeν ληφθέντων cκάτερον cκατέρου iσάκις cσται
πολλαπλάσιον τo pcν τοu δευτέρου τo δc τοu τετάρτου· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
298
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 3
76
A
E K F
H G
C
D
B
L
If a first (magnitude) and a third are equal multiples of a second and a fourth (respectively), and
equal multiples are taken of the first and the third, then, via equality, the (magnitudes) taken will
also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) and the fourth, respectively.
For let a first (magnitude) A and a third C be equal multiples of a second B and a fourth D
(respectively), and let the equal multiples EF and GH have been taken of A and C (respectively).
I say that EF and GH are equal multiples of B and D (respectively).
For since EF and GH are equal multiples of A and C (respectively), thus as many (magnitudes)
as (there) are in EF equal to A, so many (are there) also in GH equal to C. Let EF have been
divided into magnitudes EK, KF equal to A, and GH into (magnitudes) GL, LH equal to C. So,
the number of (magnitudes) EK, KF will be equal to the number of (magnitudes) GL, LH. And
since A and C are equal multiples of B and D (respectively), and EK (is) equal to A, and GL to
C, EK and GL are thus equal multiples of B and D (respectively). So, for the same (reasons),
KF and LH are equal multiples of B and D (respectively). Therefore, since the first (magnitude)
EK and the third GL are equal multiples of the second B and the fourth D (respectively), and
the fifth (magnitude) KF and the sixth LH are also equal multiples of the second B and the
fourth D (respectively), then the first (magnitude) and fifth, being added together, (to give) EF,
and the third (magnitude) and sixth, (being added together, to give) GH, are thus also equal
multiples of the second (magnitude) B and the fourth D (respectively) [Prop. 5.2].
Thus, if a first (magnitude) and a third are equal multiples of a second and a fourth (respectively),
and equal multiples are taken of the first and the third, then, via equality, the (magnitudes) taken
will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) and the fourth, respectively. (Which is)
the very thing it was required to show.
76
In modern notation, this proposition reads m(nα) = (mn) α.
299
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
δ΄
Ν
Μ
Γ

Α
Κ
Η
Ε
Β
Ζ
Θ
Λ
Εvν πρeτον πρoς δεύτερον τoν αuτoν cχ¸ λόγον κα| τρίτον πρoς τέταρτον, κα| τv iσάκις
πολλαπλάσια τοu τε πρώτου κα| τρίτου πρoς τv iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τοu δευτέρου κα| τετάρτου
καθ oποιονοuν πολλαπλασιασpoν τoν αuτoν cξει λόγον ληφθέντα κατάλληλα.
Πρeτον γvρ τo Α πρoς δεύτερον τo Β τoν αuτoν cχέτω λόγον κα| τρίτον τo Γ πρoς τέταρτον
τo ∆, κα| εiλήφθω τeν pcν Α, Γ iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τv Ε, Ζ, τeν δc Β, ∆ vλλα, i cτυχεν,
iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τv Η, Θ· λέγω, oτι cστ|ν eς τo Ε πρoς τo Η, οuτως τo Ζ πρoς τo Θ.
Εiλήφθω γvρ τeν pcν Ε, Ζ iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τv Κ, Λ, τeν δc Η, Θ vλλα, i cτυχεν, iσάκις
πολλαπλάσια τv Μ, Ν.
[Κα|] cπε| iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo pcν Ε τοu Α, τo δc Ζ τοu Γ, κα| ε:ληπται τeν Ε, Ζ
:σάκις πολλαπλάσια τv Κ, Λ, :σάκις vρα cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo Κ τοu Α κα| τo Λ τοu Γ. διv
τv αuτv δ¿ iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo Μ τοu Β κα| τo Ν τοu ∆. κα| cπεί cστιν eς τo Α πρoς
τo Β, οuτως τo Γ πρoς τo ∆, κα| ε:ληπται τeν pcν Α, Γ iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τv Κ, Λ, τeν δc
Β, ∆ vλλα, i cτυχεν, iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τv Μ, Ν, εi vρα uπερέχει τo Κ τοu Μ, uπερέχει κα|
τo Λ τοu Ν, κα| εi :σον, :σον, κα| εi cλαττον, cλαττον. καί cστι τv pcν Κ, Λ τeν Ε, Ζ iσάκις
πολλαπλάσια, τv δc Μ, Ν τeν Η, Θ vλλα, i cτυχεν, iσάκις πολλαπλάσια· cστιν vρα eς τo Ε
πρoς τo Η, οuτως τo Ζ πρoς τo Θ.
Εvν vρα πρeτον πρoς δεύτερον τoν αuτoν cχ¸ λόγον κα| τρίτον πρoς τέταρτον, κα| τv iσάκις
πολλαπλάσια τοu τε πρώτου κα| τρίτου πρoς τv iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τοu δευτέρου κα| τετάρτου
τoν αuτoν cξει λόγον καθ oποιονοuν πολλαπλασιασpoν ληφθέντα κατάλληλα· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`00
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 4
77
N
A
B
E
G
K
M
C
D
F
H
L
If a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second that a third (has) to a fourth then equal
multiples of the first (magnitude) and the third will also have the same ratio to equal multiples
of the second and the fourth, being taken in corresponding order, according to any kind of multi-
plication whatsoever.
For let a first (magnitude) A have the same ratio to a second B that a third C (has) to a fourth D.
And let equal multiples E and F have been taken of A and C (respectively), and other random
equal multiples G and H of B and D (respectively). I say that as E (is) to G, so F (is) to H.
For let equal multiples K and L have been taken of E and F (respectively), and other random
equal multiples M and N of G and H (respectively).
[And] since E and F are equal multiples of A and C (respectively), and the equal multiples K
and L have been taken of E and F (respectively), K and L are thus equal multiples of A and
C (respectively) [Prop. 5.3]. So, for the same (reasons), M and N are equal multiples of B and
D (respectively). And since as A is to B, so C (is) to D, and the equal multiples K and L have
been taken of A and C (respectively), and the other random equal multiples M and N of B and
D (respectively), then if K exceeds M then L also exceeds N, and if (K is) equal (to M then L is
also) equal (to N), and if (K is) less (than M then L is also) less (than N) [Def. 5.5]. And K and
L are equal multiples of E and F (respectively), and M and N other random equal multiples of
G and H (respectively). Thus, as E (is) to G, so F (is) to H [Def. 5.5].
Thus, if a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second that a third (has) to a fourth then
equal multiples of the first (magnitude) and the third will also have the same ratio to equal mul-
tiples of the second and the fourth, being taken in corresponding order, according to any kind of
multiplication whatsoever. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
77
In modern notation, this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then mα : nβ :: mγ : nδ, for all m and n.
`0l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
ε΄
Β Α Ε
Η Γ Ζ ∆
Εvν pέγεθος pεγέθους iσάκις ¸ πολλαπλάσιον, oπερ vφαιρεθcν vφαιρεθέντος, κα| τo λοιπoν
τοu λοιποu iσάκις cσται πολλαπλάσιον, oσαπλάσιόν cστι τo oλον τοu oλου.
Μέγεθος γvρ τo ΑΒ pεγέθους τοu Γ∆ iσάκις cστω πολλαπλάσιον, oπερ vφαιρεθcν τo ΑΕ
vφαιρεθέντος τοu ΓΖ· λέγω, oτι κα| λοιπoν τo ΕΒ λοιποu τοu Ζ∆ iσάκις cσται πολλαπλάσιον,
oσαπλάσιόν cστιν oλον τo ΑΒ oλου τοu Γ∆.
Οσαπλάσιον γάρ cστι τo ΑΕ τοu ΓΖ, τοσαυταπλάσιον γεγονέτω κα| τo ΕΒ τοu ΓΗ.
Κα| cπε| iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo ΑΕ τοu ΓΖ κα| τo ΕΒ τοu ΗΓ, iσάκις vρα cστ| πολ-
λαπλάσιον τo ΑΕ τοu ΓΖ κα| τo ΑΒ τοu ΗΖ. κεiται δc iσάκις πολλαπλάσιον τo ΑΕ τοu ΓΖ κα|
τo ΑΒ τοu Γ∆. iσάκις vρα cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo ΑΒ cκατέρου τeν ΗΖ, Γ∆· :σον vρα τo ΗΖ
τ; Γ∆. κοινoν vφ¸ρήσθω τo ΓΖ· λοιπoν vρα τo ΗΓ λοιπ; τ; Ζ∆ :σον cστίν. κα| cπε| iσάκις
cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo ΑΕ τοu ΓΖ κα| τo ΕΒ τοu ΗΓ, :σον δc τo ΗΓ τ; ∆Ζ, iσάκις vρα cστ|
πολλαπλάσιον τo ΑΕ τοu ΓΖ κα| τo ΕΒ τοu Ζ∆. iσάκις δc uπόκειται πολλαπλάσιον τo ΑΕ τοu
ΓΖ κα| τo ΑΒ τοu Γ∆· iσάκις vρα cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo ΕΒ τοu Ζ∆ κα| τo ΑΒ τοu Γ∆. κα|
λοιπoν vρα τo ΕΒ λοιποu τοu Ζ∆ iσάκις cσται πολλαπλάσιον, oσαπλάσιόν cστιν oλον τo ΑΒ
oλου τοu Γ∆.
Εvν vρα pέγεθος pεγέθους iσάκις ¸ πολλαπλάσιον, oπερ vφαιρεθcν vφαιρεθέντος, κα| τo
λοιπoν τοu λοιποu iσάκις cσται πολλαπλάσιον, oσαπλάσιόν cστι κα| τo oλον τοu oλου· oπερ cδει
δεiξαι.
`02
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 5
78
D
A
G C
E
F
B
If a magnitude is the same multiple of a magnitude that a (part) taken away (is) of a (part) taken
away (respectively) then the remainder will also be the same multiple of the remainder as that
which the whole (is) of the whole (respectively).
For let the magnitude AB be the same multiple of the magnitude CD that the (part) taken
away AE (is) of the (part) taken away CF (respectively). I say that the remainder EB will also
be the same multiple of the remainder FD as that which the whole AB (is) of the whole CD
(respectively).
For as many times as AE is (divisible) by CF, so many times let EB also have been made
(divisible) by CG.
And since AE and EB are equal multiples of CF and GC (respectively), AE and AB are thus
equal multiples of CF and GF (respectively) [Prop. 5.1]. And AE and AB are assumed (to
be) equal multiples of CF and CD (respectively). Thus, AB is an equal multiple of each of
GF and CD. Thus, GF (is) equal to CD. Let CF have been subtracted from both. Thus, the
remainder GC is equal to the remainder FD. And since AE and EB are equal multiples of CF
and GC (respectively), and GC (is) equal to DF, AE and EB are thus equal multiples of CF
and FD (respectively). And AE and AB are assumed (to be) equal multiples of CF and CD
(respectively). Thus, EB and AB are equal multiples of FD and CD (respectively). Thus, the
remainder EB will also be the same multiple of the remainder FD as that which the whole AB
(is) of the whole CD (respectively).
Thus, if a magnitude is the same multiple of a magnitude that a (part) taken away (is) of a (part)
taken away (respectively) then the remainder will also be the same multiple of the remainder as
that which the whole (is) of the whole (respectively). (Which is) the very thing it was required
to show.
78
In modern notation, this proposition reads mα −mβ = m(α −β).
`0`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
ç΄
Ζ
Η Β
Γ Θ ∆
Α
Κ
Ε
Εvν δύο pεγέθη δύο pεγεθeν iσάκις ¸ πολλαπλάσια, κα| vφαιρεθέντα τινv τeν αuτeν iσάκις ¸
πολλαπλάσια, κα| τv λοιπv τοiς αuτοiς ¿τοι :σα cστ|ν ¿ iσάκις αuτeν πολλαπλάσια.
∆ύο γvρ pεγέθη τv ΑΒ, Γ∆ δύο pεγεθeν τeν Ε, Ζ iσάκις cστω πολλαπλάσια, κα| vφαιρεθέντα
τv ΑΗ, ΓΘ τeν αuτeν τeν Ε, Ζ iσάκις cστω πολλαπλάσια· λέγω, oτι κα| λοιπv τv ΗΒ, Θ∆
τοiς Ε, Ζ ¿τοι :σα cστ|ν ¿ iσάκις αuτeν πολλαπλάσια.
´Εστω γvρ πρότερον τo ΗΒ τ; Ε :σον· λέγω, oτι κα| τo Θ∆ τ; Ζ :σον cστίν.
Κείσθω γvρ τ; Ζ :σον τo ΓΚ. cπε| iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo ΑΗ τοu Ε κα| τo ΓΘ τοu Ζ,
:σον δc τo pcν ΗΒ τ; Ε, τo δc ΚΓ τ; Ζ, iσάκις vρα cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo ΑΒ τοu Ε κα| τo
ΚΘ τοu Ζ. iσάκις δc uπόκειται πολλαπλάσιον τo ΑΒ τοu Ε κα| τo Γ∆ τοu Ζ· :σάκις vρα cστ|
πολλαπλάσιον τo ΚΘ τοu Ζ κα| τo Γ∆ τοu Ζ. cπε| οuν cκάτερον τeν ΚΘ, Γ∆ τοu Ζ iσάκις
cστ| πολλαπλάσιον, :σον vρα cστ| τo ΚΘ τ; Γ∆. κοινoν vφ¸ρήσθω τo ΓΘ· λοιπoν vρα τo ΚΓ
λοιπ; τ; Θ∆ :σον cστίν. vλλv τo Ζ τ; ΚΓ cστιν :σον· κα| τo Θ∆ vρα τ; Ζ :σον cστίν. eστε
εi τo ΗΒ τ; Ε :σον cστίν, κα| τo Θ∆ :σον cσται τ; Ζ.
Οpοίως δ¿ δείξοpεν, oτι, κ)ν πολλαπλάσιον ¸ τo ΗΒ τοu Ε, τοσαυταπλάσιον cσται κα| τo Θ∆
τοu Ζ.
Εvν vρα δύο pεγέθη δύο pεγεθeν iσάκις ¸ πολλαπλάσια, κα| vφαιρεθέντα τινv τeν αuτeν
iσάκις ¸ πολλαπλάσια, κα| τv λοιπv τοiς αuτοiς ¿τοι :σα cστ|ν ¿ iσάκις αuτeν πολλαπλάσια·
oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`04
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 6
79
F
G B
C H D
A
K
E
If two magnitudes are equal multiples of two (other) magnitudes, and some (parts) taken away
(from the former magnitudes) are equal multiples of the latter (magnitudes, respectively), then
the remainders are also either equal to the latter (magnitudes), or (are) equal multiples of them
(respectively).
For let two magnitudes AB and CD be equal multiples of two magnitudes E and F (respectively).
And let the (parts) taken away (from the former) AG and CH be equal multiples of E and F (re-
spectively). I say that the remainders GB and HD are also either equal to E and F (respectively),
or (are) equal multiples of them.
For let GB be, first of all, equal to E. I say that HD is also equal to F.
For let CK be made equal to F. Since AG and CH are equal multiples of E and F (respec-
tively), and GB (is) equal to E, and KC to F, AB and KH are thus equal multiples of E and
F (respectively) [Prop. 5.2]. And AB and CD are assumed (to be) equal multiples of E and F
(respectively). Thus, KH and CD are equal multiples of F and F (respectively). Therefore, KH
and CD are each equal multiples of F. Thus, KH is equal to CD. Let CH have be taken away
from both. Thus, the remainder KC is equal to the remainder HD. But, F is equal to KC. Thus,
HD is also equal to F. Hence, if GB is equal to E then HD will also be equal to F.
So, similarly, we can show that even if GB is a multiple of E then HD will be the same multiple
of F.
Thus, if two magnitudes are equal multiples of two (other) magnitudes, and some (parts) taken
away (from the former magnitudes) are equal multiples of the latter (magnitudes, respectively),
then the remainders are also either equal to the latter (magnitudes), or (are) equal multiples of
them (respectively). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
79
In modern notation, this proposition reads mα −nα = (m−n) α.
`0¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
ζ΄
Ζ
Α ∆
Β Ε
Γ
Τv :σα πρoς τo αuτo τoν αuτoν cχει λόγον κα| τo αuτo πρoς τv :σα.
´Εστω :σα pεγέθη τv Α, Β, vλλο δέ τι, o cτυχεν, pέγεθος τo Γ· λέγω, oτι cκάτερον τeν Α, Β
πρoς τo Γ τoν αuτoν cχει λόγον, κα| τo Γ πρoς cκάτερον τeν Α, Β.
Εiλήφθω γvρ τeν pcν Α, Β iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τv ∆, Ε, τοu δc Γ vλλο, o cτυχεν, πολλαπλάσιον
τo Ζ.
Επε| οuν iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo ∆ τοu Α κα| τo Ε τοu Β, :σον δc τo Α τ; Β, :σον vρα
κα| τo ∆ τ; Ε. vλλο δέ, o cτυχεν, τo Ζ. Εi vρα uπερέχει τo ∆ τοu Ζ, uπερέχει κα| τo Ε τοu Ζ,
κα| εi :σον, :σον, κα| εi cλαττον, cλαττον. καί cστι τv pcν ∆, Ε τeν Α, Β iσάκις πολλαπλάσια,
τo δc Ζ τοu Γ vλλο, o cτυχεν, πολλαπλάσιον· cστιν vρα eς τo Α πρoς τo Γ, οuτως τo Β πρoς
τo Γ.
Λέγω ¸δή], oτι κα| τo Γ πρoς cκάτερον τeν Α, Β τoν αuτoν cχει λόγον.
Τeν γvρ αuτeν κατασκευασθέντων opοίως δείξοpεν, oτι :σον cστ| τo ∆ τ; Ε· vλλο δέ τι τo Ζ·
εi vρα uπερέχει τo Ζ τοu ∆, uπερέχει κα| τοu Ε, κα| εi :σον, :σον, κα| εi cλαττον, cλαττον. καί
cστι τo pcν Ζ τοu Γ πολλαπλάσιον, τv δc ∆, Ε τeν Α, Β vλλα, i cτυχεν, iσάκις πολλαπλάσια·
cστιν vρα eς τo Γ πρoς τo Α, οuτως τo Γ πρoς τo Β.
Τv :σα vρα πρoς τo αuτo τoν αuτoν cχει λόγον κα| τo αuτo πρoς τv :σα.
Πόρισpα
Εκ δ¿ τούτου φανερόν, oτι cvν pεγέθη τινv vνάλογον ¸, κα| vνάπαλιν vνάλογον cσται. oπερ
cδει δεiξαι.
`06
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 7
D
B
A
C F
E
Equal (magnitudes) have the same ratio to the same (magnitude), and the latter (magnitude has
the same ratio) to the equal (magnitudes).
Let A and B be equal magnitudes, and C some other random magnitude. I say that A and B each
have the same ratio to C, and (that) C (has the same ratio) to each of A and B.
For let the equal multiples D and E have been taken of A and B (respectively), and the other
random multiple F of C.
Therefore, since D and E are equal multiples of A and B (respectively), and A (is) equal to B,
D (is) thus also equal to E. And F (is) different, at random. Thus, if D exceeds F then E also
exceeds F, and if (D is) equal (to F then E is also) equal (to F), and if (D is) less (than F then E
is also) less (than F). And D and E are equal multiples of A and B (respectively), and F another
random multiple of C. Thus, as A (is) to C, so B (is) to C [Def. 5.5].
[So] I say that C
80
also has the same ratio to each of A and B.
For, similarly, we can show, by the same construction, that D is equal to E. And F (has) some
other (value). Thus, if F exceeds D then it also exceeds E, and if (F is) equal (to D then it is
also) equal (to E), and if (F is) less (than D then it is also) less (than E). And F is a multiple of
C, and D and E other random equal multiples of A and B. Thus, as C (is) to A, so C (is) to B
[Def. 5.5].
Thus, equal (magnitudes) have the same ratio to the same (magnitude), and the latter (magni-
tude has the same ratio) to the equal (magnitudes).
Corollary
81
So (it is) clear, from this, that if some magnitudes are proportional then they will also be propor-
tional inversely. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
80
The Greek text has “E,” which is obviously a mistake.
81
In modern notation, this corollary reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then β : α :: δ : γ.
`0¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
η΄
Γ
Ε Α Β Α Ε Β
Η Θ Ζ Ζ Η Θ
Γ
Κ

Λ
Μ
Ν Ν
Μ
Λ

Κ
Τeν vνίσων pεγεθeν τo pεiζον πρoς τo αuτo pείζονα λόγον cχει ¿περ τo cλαττον. κα| τo αuτo
πρoς τo cλαττον pείζονα λόγον cχει ¿περ πρoς τo pεiζον.
´Εστω vνισα pεγέθη τv ΑΒ, Γ, κα| cστω pεiζον τo ΑΒ, vλλο δέ, o cτυχεν, τo ∆· λέγω, oτι τo
ΑΒ πρoς τo ∆ pείζονα λόγον cχει ¿περ τo Γ πρoς τo ∆, κα| τo ∆ πρoς τo Γ pείζονα λόγον
cχει ¿περ πρoς τo ΑΒ.
Επε| γvρ pεiζόν cστι τo ΑΒ τοu Γ, κείσθω τ; Γ :σον τo ΒΕ· τo δ¿ cλασσον τeν ΑΕ,
ΕΒ πολλαπλασιαζόpενον cσται ποτc τοu ∆ pεiζον. cστω πρότερον τo ΑΕ cλαττον τοu ΕΒ,
κα| πεπολλαπλασιάσθω τo ΑΕ, κα| cστω αuτοu πολλαπλάσιον τo ΖΗ pεiζον oν τοu ∆, κα|
oσαπλάσιόν cστι τo ΖΗ τοu ΑΕ, τοσαυταπλάσιον γεγονέτω κα| τo pcν ΗΘ τοu ΕΒ τo δc Κ
τοu Γ· κα| εiλήφθω τοu ∆ διπλάσιον pcν τo Λ, τριπλάσιον δc τo Μ, κα| cξ¿ς cν| πλεiον, cως
iν τo λαpβανόpενον πολλαπλάσιον pcν γένηται τοu ∆, πρώτως δc pεiζον τοu Κ. εiλήφθω, κα|
cστω τo Ν τετραπλάσιον pcν τοu ∆, πρώτως δc pεiζον τοu Κ.
Επε| οuν τo Κ τοu Ν πρώτως cστ|ν cλαττον, τo Κ vρα τοu Μ οuκ cστιν cλαττον. κα| cπε|
iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo ΖΗ τοu ΑΕ κα| τo ΗΘ τοu ΕΒ, iσάκις vρα cστ| πολλαπλάσιον
τo ΖΗ τοu ΑΕ κα| τo ΖΘ τοu ΑΒ. iσάκις δέ cστι πολλαπλάσιον τo ΖΗ τοu ΑΕ κα| τo Κ τοu
Γ· iσάκις vρα cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo ΖΘ τοu ΑΒ κα| τo Κ τοu Γ. τv ΖΘ, Κ vρα τeν ΑΒ, Γ
iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσια. πάλιν, cπε| iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo ΗΘ τοu ΕΒ κα| τo Κ τοu Γ,
:σον δc τo ΕΒ τ; Γ, :σον vρα κα| τo ΗΘ τ; Κ. τo δc Κ τοu Μ οuκ cστιν cλαττον· οuδ vρα
τo ΗΘ τοu Μ cλαττόν cστιν. pεiζον δc τo ΖΗ τοu ∆· oλον vρα τo ΖΘ συναpφοτέρων τeν ∆,
Μ pεiζόν cστιν. vλλv συναpφότερα τv ∆, Μ τ; Ν cστιν :σα, cπειδήπερ τo Μ τοu ∆ τριπλάσιόν
cστιν, συναpφότερα δc τv Μ, ∆ τοu ∆ cστι τετραπλάσια, cστι δc κα| τo Ν τοu ∆ τετραπλάσιον·
συναpφότερα vρα τv Μ, ∆ τ; Ν :σα cστίν. vλλv τo ΖΘ τeν Μ, ∆ pεiζόν cστιν· τo ΖΘ vρα
τοu Ν uπερέχει· τo δc Κ τοu Ν οuχ uπερέχει. καί cστι τv pcνΖΘ, Κ τeν ΑΒ, Γ iσάκις πολλα-
`08
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 8
M
F G H
C
F H G
A E B A E B
C
N N
L L
D D
K K
M
For unequal magnitudes, the greater (magnitude) has a greater ratio than the lesser to the same
(magnitude). And the latter (magnitude) has a greater ratio to the lesser (magnitude) than to
the greater.
Let AB and C be unequal magnitudes, and let AB be the greater (of the two), and D another
random magnitude. I say that AB has a greater ratio to D than C (has) to D, and (that) D has a
greater ratio to C than (it has) to AB.
For since AB is greater than C, let BE be made equal to C. So, the lesser of AE and EB, being
multiplied, will sometimes be greater than D [Def. 5.4]. First of all, let AE be less than EB, and
let AE have been multiplied, and let FG be a multiple of it which (is) greater than D. And as
many times as FG is (divisible) by AE, so many times let GH also have become (divisible) by
EB, and K by C. And let the double multiple L of D have been taken, and the triple multiple M,
and several more, (each increasing) in order by one, until the (multiple) taken becomes the first
multiple of D (which is) greater than K. Let it have been taken, and let it also be the quadruple
multiple N of D—the first (multiple) greater than K.
Therefore, since K is less than N first, K is thus not less than M. And since FG and GH are equal
multiples of AE and EB (respectively), FG and FH are thus equal multiples of AE and AB
(respectively) [Prop. 5.1]. And FG and K are equal multiples of AE and C (respectively). Thus,
FH and K are equal multiples of AB and C (respectively). Thus, FH, K are equal multiples of
AB, C. Again, since GH and K are equal multiples of EB and C, and EB (is) equal to C, GH
(is) thus also equal to K. And K is not less than M. Thus, GH not less than M either. And FG
(is) greater than D. Thus, the whole of FH is greater than D and M (added) together. But, D
and M (added) together is equal to N, inasmuch as M is three times D, and M and D (added)
together is four times D, and N is also four times D.Thus, M and D (added) together is equal to
`09
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
η΄
-πλάσια, τo δc Ν τοu ∆ vλλο, o cτυχεν, πολλαπλάσιον· τo ΑΒ vρα πρoς τo ∆ pείζονα λόγον
cχει ¿περ τo Γ πρoς τo ∆.
Λέγω δή, oτι κα| τo ∆ πρoς τo Γ pείζονα λόγον cχει ¿περ τo ∆ πρoς τo ΑΒ.
Τeν γvρ αuτeν κατασκευασθέντων opοίως δείξοpεν, oτι τo pcν Ν τοu Κ uπερέχει, τo δc Ν
τοu ΖΘ οuχ uπερέχει. καί cστι τo pcν Ν τοu ∆ πολλαπλάσιον, τv δc ΖΘ, Κ τeν ΑΒ, Γ vλλα,
i cτυχεν, iσάκις πολλαπλάσια· τo ∆ vρα πρoς τo Γ pείζονα λόγον cχει ¿περ τo ∆ πρoς τo ΑΒ.
Αλλv δ¿ τo ΑΕ τοu ΕΒ pεiζον cστω. τo δ¿ cλαττον τo ΕΒ πολλαπλασιαζόpενον cσται ποτc
τοu ∆ pεiζον. πεπολλαπλασιάσθω, κα| cστω τo ΗΘ πολλαπλάσιον pcν τοu ΕΒ, pεiζον δc τοu
∆· κα| oσαπλασιόν cστι τo ΗΘ τοu ΕΒ, τοσαυταπλάσιον γεγονέτω κα| τo pcν ΖΗ τοu ΑΕ,
τo δc Κ τοu Γ. opοίως δ¿ δείξοpεν, oτι τv ΖΘ, Κ τeν ΑΒ, Γ iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσια· κα|
εiλήφθω opοίως τo Ν πολλαπλάσιον pcν τοu ∆, πρώτως δc pεiζον τοu ΖΗ· eστε πάλιν τo ΖΗ
τοu Μ οuκ cστιν cλασσον. pεiζον δc τo ΗΘ τοu ∆· oλον vρα τo ΖΘ τeν ∆, Μ, τουτέστι τοu Ν,
uπερέχει. τo δc Κ τοu Ν οuχ uπερέχει, cπειδήπερ κα| τo ΖΗ pεiζον oν τοu ΗΘ, τουτέστι τοu
Κ, τοu Ν οuχ uπερέχει. κα| eσαύτως κατακολουθοuντες τοiς cπάνω περαίνοpεν τ¿ν vπόδειξιν.
Τeν vρα vνίσων pεγεθeν τo pεiζον πρoς τo αuτo pείζονα λόγον cχει ¿περ τo cλαττον· κα| τo
αuτo πρoς τo cλαττον pείζονα λόγον cχει ¿περ πρoς τo pεiζον· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`l0
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 8
N. But, FH is greater than M and D. Thus, FH exceeds N. And K does not exceed N. And FH,
K are equal multiples of AB, C, and N another random multiple of D. Thus, AB has a greater
ratio to D than C (has) to D [Def. 5.7].
So, I say that D also has a greater ratio to C than D (has) to AB.
For, similarly, by the same construction, we can show that N exceeds K, and N does not exceed
FH. And N is a multiple of D, and FH, K other random equal multiples of AB, C (respectively).
Thus, D has a greater ratio to C than D (has) to AB [Def. 5.5].
And so let AE be greater than EB. So, the lesser, EB, being multiplied, will sometimes be greater
than D. Let it have been multiplied, and let GH be a multiple of EB (which is) greater than D.
And as many times as GH is (divisible) by EB, so many times let FG also have become (divisible)
by AE, and K by C. So, similarly (to the above), we can show that FH and K are equal multiples
of AB and C (respectively). And, similarly (to the above), let the multiple N of D, (which is)
the first (multiple) greater than FG, have been taken. So, FG is again not less than M. And GH
(is) greater than D. Thus, the whole of FH exceeds D and M, that is to say N. And K does not
exceed N, inasmuch as FG, which (is) greater than GH—that is to say, K—also does not exceed
N. And, following the above (arguments), we (can) complete the proof in the same manner.
Thus, for unequal magnitudes, the greater (magnitude) has a greater ratio than the lesser to the
same (magnitude). And the latter (magnitude) has a greater ratio to the lesser (magnitude) than
to the greater. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
`ll
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
θ΄
Β
Γ
Α
Τv πρoς τo αuτo τoν αuτoν cχοντα λoγον :σα vλλήλοις cστίν· κα| πρoς i τo αuτo τoν αuτoν
cχει λόγον, cκεiνα :σα cστίν.
Εχέτω γvρ cκάτερον τeν Α, Β πρoς τo Γ τoν αuτoν λόγον· λέγω, oτι :σον cστ| τo Α τ; Β.
Εi γvρ pή, οuκ iν cκάτερον τeν Α, Β πρoς τo Γ τoν αuτoν ε|χε λόγον· cχει δέ· :σον vρα cστ|
τo Α τ; Β.
Εχέτω δ¿ πάλιν τo Γ πρoς cκάτερον τeν Α, Β τoν αuτoν λόγον· λέγω, oτι :σον cστ| τo Α τ;
Β.
Εi γvρ pή, οuκ iν τo Γ πρoς cκάτερον τeν Α, Β τoν αuτoν ε|χε λόγον· cχει δέ· :σον vρα cστ|
τo Α τ; Β.
Τv vρα πρoς τo αuτo τoν αuτoν cχοντα λόγον :σα vλλήλοις cστίν· κα| πρoς i τo αuτo τoν
αuτoν cχει λόγον, cκεiνα :σα cστίν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`l2
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 9
B
C
A
(Magnitudes) having the same ratio to the same (magnitude) are equal to one another. And those
(magnitudes) to which the same (magnitude) has the same ratio are equal.
For let A and B each have the same ratio to C. I say that A is equal to B.
For if not, A and B would not each have the same ratio to C [Prop. 5.8]. But they do. Thus, A is
equal to B.
So, again, let C have the same ratio to each of A and B. I say that A is equal to B.
For if not, C would not have the same ratio to each of A and B [Prop. 5.8]. But it does. Thus, A
is equal to B.
Thus, (magnitudes) having the same ratio to the same (magnitude) are equal to one another. And
those (magnitudes) to which the same (magnitude) has the same ratio are equal. (Which is) the
very thing it was required to show.
`l`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
ι΄
Β
Γ
Α
Τeν πρoς τo αuτo λόγον cχόντων τo pείζονα λόγον cχον cκεiνο pεiζόν cστιν· πρoς o δc τo
αuτo pείζονα λόγον cχει, cκεiνο cλαττόν cστιν.
Εχέτω γvρ τo Α πρoς τo Γ pείζονα λόγον ¿περ τo Β πρoς τo Γ· λέγω, oτι pεiζόν cστι τo Α
τοu Β.
Εi γvρ pή, ¿τοι :σον cστ| τo Α τ; Β ¿ cλασσον. :σον pcν οuν οuκ cστ| τo Α τ; Β· cκάτερον
γvρ iν τeν Α, Β πρoς τo Γ τoν αuτoν ε|χε λόγον. οuκ cχει δέ· οuκ vρα :σον cστ| τo Α τ; Β.
οuδc p¿ν cλασσόν cστι τo Α τοu Β· τo Α γvρ iν πρoς τo Γ cλάσσονα λόγον ε|χεν ¿περ τo Β
πρoς τo Γ. οuκ cχει δέ· οuκ vρα cλασσόν cστι τo Α τοu Β. cδείχθη δc οuδc :σον· pεiζον vρα
cστ| τo Α τοu Β.
Εχέτω δ¿ πάλιν τo Γ πρoς τo Β pείζονα λόγον ¿περ τo Γ πρoς τo Α· λέγω, oτι cλασσόν cστι
τo Β τοu Α.
Εi γvρ pή, ¿τοι :σον cστ|ν ¿ pεiζον. :σον pcν οuν οuκ cστι τo Β τ; Α· τo Γ γvρ iν πρoς
cκάτερον τeν Α, Β τoν αuτoν ε|χε λόγον. οuκ cχει δέ· οuκ vρα :σον cστ| τo Α τ; Β. οuδc p¿ν
pεiζόν cστι τo Β τοu Α· τo Γ γvρ iν πρoς τo Β cλάσσονα λόγον ε|χεν ¿περ πρoς τo Α. οuκ
cχει δέ· οuκ vρα pεiζον cστι τo Β τοu Α. cδείχθη δέ, oτι οuδc :σον· cλαττον vρα cστ| τo Β τοu
Α.
Τeν vρα πρoς τo αuτo λόγον cχόντων τo pείζονα λόγον cχον pεiζόν cστιν· κα| πρoς o τo αuτo
pείζονα λόγον cχει, cκεiνο cλαττόν cστιν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`l4
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 10
C
A B
For (magnitudes) having a ratio to the same (magnitude), that (magnitude which) has the greater
ratio is (the) greater. And that (magnitude) to which the latter (magnitude) has a greater ratio is
(the) lesser.
For let A have a greater ratio to C than B (has) to C. I say that A is greater than B.
For if not, A is surely either equal to or less than B. In fact, A is not equal to B. For (then) A
and B would each have the same ratio to C [Prop. 5.7]. But they do not. Thus, A is not equal to
B. Neither, indeed, is A less than B. For (then) A would have a lesser ratio to C than B (has) to
C [Prop. 5.8]. But it does not. Thus, A is not less than B. And it was shown not (to be) equal
either. Thus, A is greater than B.
So, again, let C have a greater ratio to B than C (has) to A. I say that B is less than A.
For if not, (it is) surely either equal or greater. In fact, B is not equal to A. For (then) C would
have the same ratio to each of A and B [Prop. 5.7]. But it does not. Thus, A is not equal to B.
Neither, indeed, is B greater than A. For (then) C would have a lesser ratio to B than (it has) to
A [Prop. 5.8]. But it does not. Thus, B is not greater than A. And it was shown that (it is) not
equal (to A) either. Thus, B is less than A.
Thus, for (magnitudes) having a ratio to the same (magnitude), that (magnitude which) has the
greater ratio is (the) greater. And that (magnitude) to which the latter (magnitude) has a greater
ratio is (the) lesser. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
`l¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
ια΄
Ε Α
Β
Η
Λ
Γ

Θ
Μ Ν
Κ
Ζ
Ο| τ; αuτ; λόγ; ο| αuτο| κα| vλλήλοις εiσ|ν ο| αuτοί.
´Εστωσαν γvρ eς pcν τo Α πρoς τo Β, οuτως τo Γ πρoς τo ∆, eς δc τo Γ πρoς τo ∆, οuτως
τo Ε πρoς τo Ζ· λέγω, oτι cστ|ν eς τo Α πρoς τo Β, οuτως τo Ε πρoς τo Ζ.
Εiλήφθω γvρ τeν Α, Γ, Ε iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τv Η, Θ, Κ, τeν δc Β, ∆, Ζ vλλα, i cτυχεν,
iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τv Λ, Μ, Ν.
Κα| cπεί cστιν eς τo Α πρoς τo Β, οuτως τo Γ πρoς τo ∆, κα| ε:ληπται τeν pcν Α, Γ iσάκις
πολλαπλάσια τv Η, Θ, τeν δc Β, ∆ vλλα, i cτυχεν, iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τv Λ, Μ, εi vρα
uπερέχει τo Η τοu Λ, uπερέχει κα| τo Θ τοu Μ, κα| εi :σον cστίν, :σον, κα| εi cλλείπει, cλλείπει.
πάλιν, cπεί cστιν eς τo Γ πρoς τo ∆, οuτως τo Ε πρoς τo Ζ, κα| ε:ληπται τeν Γ, Ε iσάκις
πολλαπλάσια τv Θ, Κ, τeν δc ∆, Ζ vλλα, i cτυχεν, iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τv Μ, Ν, εi vρα
uπερέχει τo Θ τοu Μ, uπερέχει κα| τo Κ τοu Ν, κα| εi :σον, :σον, κα| εi cλλατον, cλαττον. vλλv
εi uπερεiχε τo Θ τοu Μ, uπερεiχε κα| τo Η τοu Λ, κα| εi :σον, :σον, κα| εi cλαττον, cλαττον·
eστε κα| εi uπερέχει τo Η τοu Λ, uπερέχει κα| τo Κ τοu Ν, κα| εi :σον, :σον, κα| εi cλαττον,
cλαττον. καί cστι τv pcν Η, Κ τeν Α, Ε iσάκις πολλαπλάσια, τv δc Λ, Ν τeν Β, Ζ vλλα, i
cτυχεν, iσάκις πολλαπλάσια· cστιν vρα eς τo Α πρoς τo Β, οuτως τo Ε πρoς τo Ζ.
Ο| vρα τ; αuτ; λόγ; ο| αuτο| κα| vλλήλοις εiσ|ν ο| αuτοί· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`l6
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 11
82
N
G
A
B
L
H
M
D
C E
F
K
(Ratios which are) the same with the same ratio are also the same with one another.
For let it be that as A (is) to B, so C (is) to D, and as C (is) to D, so E (is) to F. I say that as A
is to B, so E (is) to F.
For let the equal multiples G, H, K have been taken of A, C, E (respectively), and the other
random equal multiples L, M, N of B, D, F (respectively).
And since as A is to B, so C (is) to D, and the equal multiples G and H have been taken of A and
C (respectively), and the other random equal multiples L and M of B and D (respectively), thus
if G exceeds L then H also exceeds M, and if (G is) equal (to L then H is also) equal (to M),
and if (G is) less (than L then H is also) less (than M) [Def. 5.5]. Again, since as C is to D, so E
(is) to F, and the equal multiples H and K have been taken of C and E (respectively), and the
other random equal multiples M and N of D and F (respectively), thus if H exceeds M then K
also exceeds N, and if (H is) equal (to M then K is also) equal (to N), and if (H is) less (than
M then K is also) less (than N) [Def. 5.5]. But if H was exceeding M then G was also exceeding
L, and if (H was) equal (to M then G was also) equal (to L), and if (H was) less (than M then
G was also) less (than L). And, hence, if G exceeds L then K also exceeds N, and if (G is) equal
(to L then K is also) equal (to N), and if (G is) less (than L then K is also) less (than N). And G
and K are equal multiples of A and E (respectively), and L and N other random equal multiples
of B and F (respectively). Thus, as A is to B, so E (is) to F [Def. 5.5].
Thus, (ratios which are) the same with the same ratio are also the same with one another. (Which
is) the very thing it was required to show.
82
In modern notation, this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ and γ : δ :: : ζ then α : β :: : ζ.
`l¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
ιβ΄
Ε
Β ∆ Ζ
Λ
Μ
Ν Κ
Θ
Η
Α Γ
Εvν ¸ oποσαοuν pεγέθη vνάλογον, cσται eς cν τeν ¿γουpένων πρoς cν τeν cποpένων, οuτως
vπαντα τv ¿γούpενα πρoς vπαντα τv cπόpενα.
´Εστωσαν oποσαοuν pεγέθη vνάλογον τv Α, Β, Γ, ∆, Ε, Ζ, eς τo Α πρoς τo Β, οuτως τo Γ
πρoς τo ∆, κα| τo Ε πρoς το Ζ· λέγω, oτι cστ|ν eς τo Α πρoς τo Β, οuτως τv Α, Γ, Ε πρoς τv
Β, ∆, Ζ.
Εiλήφθω γvρ τeν pcν Α, Γ, Ε iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τv Η, Θ, Κ, τeν δc Β, ∆, Ζ vλλα, i cτυχεν,
iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τv Λ, Μ, Ν.
Κα| cπεί cστιν eς τo Α πρoς τo Β, οuτως τo Γ πρoς τo ∆, κα| τo Ε πρoς τo Ζ, κα| ε:ληπται τeν
pcν Α, Γ, Ε iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τv Η, Θ, Κ τeν δc Β, ∆, Ζ vλλα, i cτυχεν, iσάκις πολλαπλάσια
τv Λ, Μ, Ν, εi vρα uπερέχει τo Η τοu Λ, uπερέχει κα| τo Θ τοu Μ, κα| τo Κ τοu Ν, κα| εi
:σον, :σον, κα| εi cλαττον, cλαττον. eστε κα| εi uπερέχει τo Η τοu Λ, uπερέχει κα| τv Η, Θ, Κ
τeν Λ, Μ, Ν, κα| εi :σον, :σα, κα| εi cλαττον, cλαττονα. καί cστι τo pcν Η κα| τv Η, Θ, Κ τοu
Α κα| τeν Α, Γ, Ε iσάκις πολλαπλάσια, cπειδήπερ cvν ¸ oποσαοuν pεγέθη oποσωνοuν pεγεθeν
:σων τo πλ¿θος cκαστον cκάστου iσάκις πολλαπλάσιον, oσαπλάσιόν cστιν cν τeν pεγεθeν cνός,
τοσαυταπλάσια cσται κα| τv πάντα τeν πάντων. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| τo Λ κα| τv Λ, Μ, Ν τοu
Β κα| τeν Β, ∆, Ζ iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσια· cστιν vρα eς τo Α πρoς τo Β, οuτως τv Α, Γ, Ε
πρoς τv Β, ∆, Ζ.
Εvν vρα ¸ oποσαοuν pεγέθη vνάλογον, cσται eς cν τeν ¿γουpένων πρoς cν τeν cποpένων,
οuτως vπαντα τv ¿γούpενα πρoς vπαντα τv cπόpενα· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`l8
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 12
83
N
A C E
B D F
G
H
K
L
M
If there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever (which are) proportional then as one of the
leading (magnitudes is) to one of the following, so will all of the leading (magnitudes) be to all
of the following.
Let there be any number of magnitudes whatsoever, A, B, C, D, E, F, (which are) proportional,
(so that) as A (is) to B, so C (is) to D, and E to F. I say that as A is to B, so A, C, E (are) to B,
D, F.
For let the equal multiples G, H, K have been taken of A, C, E (respectively), and the other
random equal multiples L, M, N of B, D, F (respectively).
And since as A is to B, so C (is) to D, and E to F, and the equal multiples G, H, K have been
taken of A, C, E (respectively), and the other random equal multiples L, M, N of B, D, F
(respectively), thus if G exceeds L then H also exceeds M, and K (exceeds) N, and if (G is)
equal (to L then H is also) equal (to M, and K to N), and if (G is) less (than L then H is also)
less (than M, and K than N) [Def. 5.5]. And, hence, if G exceeds L then G, H, K also exceed L,
M, N, and if (G is) equal (to L then G, H, K are also) equal (to L, M, N) and if (G is) less (than
L then G, H, K are also) less (than L, M, N). And G and G, H, K are equal multiples of A and
A, C, E (respectively), inasmuch as if there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever (which
are) equal multiples, respectively, of some (other) magnitudes, of equal number (to them), then
as many times as one of the (first) magnitudes is (divisible) by one (of the second), so many times
will all (of the first magnitudes) also (be divisible) by all (of the second) [Prop. 5.1]. So, for the
same (reasons), L and L, M, N are also equal multiples of B and B, D, F (respectively). Thus,
as A is to B, so A, C, E (are) to B, D, F (respectively).
Thus, if there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever (which are) proportional then as one of
the leading (magnitudes is) to one of the following, so will all of the leading (magnitudes) be to
all of the following. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
83
In modern notation, this proposition reads that if α : α

:: β : β

:: γ : γ

etc. then α : α

:: (α + β + γ + · · ·) :

+· · ·).
`l9
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
ιγ΄
Λ
Α
Β
Μ
Ν
Γ

Η
Κ
Ε
Ζ
Θ
Εvν πρeτον πρoς δεύτερον τoν αuτoν cχ¸ λόγον κα| τρίτον πρoς τέταρτον, τρίτον δc πρoς
τέταρτον pείζονα λόγον cχ¸ ¿ πέpπτον πρoς cκτον, κα| πρeτον πρoς δεύτερον pείζονα λόγον
cξει ¿ πέpπτον πρoς cκτον.
Πρeτον γvρ τo Α πρoς δεύτερον τo Β τoν αuτoν cχέτω λόγον κα| τρίτον τo Γ πρoς τέταρτον
τo ∆, τρίτον δc τo Γ πρoς τέταρτον τo ∆ pείζονα λόγον cχέτω ¿ πέpπτον τo Ε πρoς cκτον τo
Ζ. λέγω, oτι κα| πρeτον τo Α πρoς δεύτερον τo Β pείζονα λόγον cξει ¿περ πέpπτον τo Ε πρoς
cκτον τo Ζ.
Επε| γvρ cστι τινv pcν Γ, Ε iσάκις πολλαπλάσια, τeν δc ∆, Ζ vλλα, i cτυχεν, iσάκις πολ-
λαπλάσια, κα| τo pcν τοu Γ πολλαπλάσιον τοu τοu ∆ πολλαπλασίου uπερέχει, τo δc τοu Ε
πολλαπλάσιον τοu τοu Ζ πολλαπλασίου οuχ uπερέχει, εiλήφθω, κα| cστω τeν pcν Γ, Ε iσάκις
πολλαπλάσια τv Η, Θ, τeν δc ∆, Ζ vλλα, i cτυχεν, iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τv Κ, Λ, eστε τo
pcν Η τοu Κ uπερέχειν, τo δc Θ τοu Λ p¿ uπερέχειν· κα| oσαπλάσιον pέν cστι τo Η τοu Γ,
τοσαυταπλάσιον cστω κα| τo Μ τοu Α, oσαπλάσιον δc τo Κ τοu ∆, τοσαυταπλάσιον cστω κα|
τo Ν τοu Β.
Κα| cπεί cστιν eς τo Α πρoς τo Β, οuτως τo Γ πρoς τo ∆, κα| ε:ληπται τeν pcν Α, Γ iσάκις
πολλαπλάσια τv Μ, Η, τeν δc Β, ∆ vλλα, i cτυχεν, iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τv Ν, Κ, εi vρα
uπερέχει τo Μ τοu Ν, uπερέχει κα| τo Η τοu Κ, κα| εi :σον, :σον, κα| εi cλαττον, cλλατον.
uπερέχει δc τo Η τοu Κ· uπερέχει vρα κα| τo Μ τοu Ν. τo δc Θ τοu Λ οuχ uπερέχει· καί
cστι τv pcν Μ, Θ τeν Α, Ε iσάκις πολλαπλάσια, τv δc Ν, Λ τeν Β, Ζ vλλα, i cτυχεν, iσάκις
πολλαπλάσια· τo vρα Α πρoς τo Β pείζονα λόγον cχει ¿περ τo Ε πρoς τo Ζ.
Εvν vρα πρeτον πρoς δεύτερον τoν αuτoν cχ¸ λόγον κα| τρίτον πρoς τέταρτον, τρίτον δc
πρoς τέταρτον pείζονα λόγον cχ¸ ¿ πέpπτον πρoς cκτον, κα| πρeτον πρoς δεύτερον pείζονα
λόγον cξει ¿ πέpπτον πρoς cκτον· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`20
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 13
84
L
M
N
A
B
C
D
G
K
E
F
H
If a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second that a third (has) to a fourth, and the
third (magnitude) has a greater ratio to the fourth than a fifth (has) to a sixth, then the first
(magnitude) will also have a greater ratio to the second than the fifth (has) to the sixth.
For let a first (magnitude) A have the same ratio to a second B that a third C (has) to a fourth
D, and let the third (magnitude) C have a greater ratio to the fourth D than a fifth E (has) to a
sixth F. I say that the first (magnitude) A will also have a greater ratio to the second B than the
fifth E (has) to the sixth F.
For since there are some equal multiples of C and E, and other random equal multiples of D
and F, (for which) the multiple of C exceeds the (multiple) of D, and the multiple of E does not
exceed the multiple of F [Def. 5.7], let them have been taken. And let Gand H be equal multiples
of C and E (respectively), and K and L other random equal multiples of D and F (respectively),
such that G exceeds K, but H does not exceed L. And as many times as G is (divisible) by C, so
many times let M be (divisible) by A. And as many times as K (is divisible) by D, so many times
let N be (divisible) by B.
And since as A is to B, so C (is) to D, and the equal multiples M and G have been taken of A
and C (respectively), and the other random equal multiples N and K of B and D (respectively),
thus if M exceeds N then G exceeds K, and if (M is) equal (to N then G is also) equal (to K),
and if (M is) less (than N then G is also) less (than K) [Def. 5.5]. And G exceeds K. Thus,
M also exceeds N. And H does not exceeds L. And M and H are equal multiples of A and E
(respectively), and N and L other random equal multiples of B and F (respectively). Thus, A
has a greater ratio to B than E (has) to F [Def. 5.7].
Thus, if a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second that a third (has) to a fourth, and
a third (magnitude) has a greater ratio to a fourth than a fifth (has) to a sixth, then the first
(magnitude) will also have a greater ratio to the second than the fifth (has) to the sixth. (Which
is) the very thing it was required to show.
84
In modern notation, this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ and γ : δ > : ζ then α : β > : ζ.
`2l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
ιδ΄

Α
Β
Γ
Εvν πρeτον πρoς δεύτερον τoν αuτoν cχ¸ λόγον κα| τρίτον πρoς τέταρτον, τo δc πρeτον
τοu τρίτου pεiζον ¸, κα| τo δεύτερον τοu τετάρτου pεiζον cσται, κiν :σον, :σον, κiν cλαττον,
cλαττον.
Πρeτον γvρ τo Α πρoς δεύτερον τo Β αuτoν cχέτω λόγον κα| τρίτον τo Γ προς τέταρτον τo
∆, pεiζον δc cστω τo Α τοu Γ· λέγω, oτι κα| τo Β τοu ∆ pεiζόν cστιν.
Επε| γvρ τo Α τοu Γ pεiζόν cστιν, vλλο δέ, o cτυχεν, ¸pέγεθος] τo Β, τo Α vρα πρoς τo Β
pείζονα λόγον cχει ¿περ τo Γ πρoς τo Β. eς δc τo Α πρoς τo Β, οuτως τo Γ πρoς τo ∆· κα| τo
Γ vρα πρoς τo ∆ pείζονα λόγον cχει ¿περ τo Γ πρoς τo Β. πρoς o δc τo αuτo pείζονα λόγον
cχει, cκεiνο cλασσόν cστιν· cλασσον vρα τo ∆ τοu Β· eστε pεiζόν cστι τo Β τοu ∆.
Οpοίως δ¿ δεiξοpεν, oτι κiν :σον ¸ τo Α τ; Γ, :σον cσται κα| τo Β τ; ∆, κvν cλασσον ¸ τo
Α τοu Γ, cλασσον cσται κα| τo Β τοu ∆.
Εvν vρα πρeτον πρoς δεύτερον τoν αuτoν cχ¸ λόγον κα| τρίτον πρoς τέταρτον, τo δc πρeτον
τοu τρίτου pεiζον ¸, κα| τo δεύτερον τοu τετάρτου pεiζον cσται, κiν :σον, :σον, κiν cλαττον,
cλαττον· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`22
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 14
85
C A
B D
If a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second that a third (has) to a fourth, and the first
(magnitude) is greater than the third, then the second will also be greater than the fourth. And
if (the first magnitude is) equal (to the third then the second will also be) equal (to the fourth).
And if (the first magnitude is) less (than the third then the second will also be) less (than the
fourth).
For let a first (magnitude) A have the same ratio to a second B that a third C (has) to a fourth
D. And let A be greater than C. I say that B is also greater than D.
For since A is greater than C, and B (is) another random [magnitude], A thus has a greater ratio
to B than C (has) to B [Prop. 5.8]. And as A (is) to B, so C (is) to D. Thus, C also has a greater
ratio to D than C (has) to B. And that (magnitude) to which the same (magnitude) has a greater
ratio is the lesser [Prop. 5.10]. Thus, D (is) less than B. Hence, B is greater than D.
So, similarly, we can show that even if A is equal to C then B will also be equal to D, and even if
A is less than C then B will also be less than D.
Thus, if a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second that a third (has) to a fourth, and the
first (magnitude) is greater than the third, then the second will also be greater than the fourth.
And if (the first magnitude is) equal (to the third then the second will also be) equal (to the
fourth). And if (the first magnitude is) less (than the third then the second will also be) less (than
the fourth). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
85
In modern notation, this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then α >=< γ as β >=< δ.
`2`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
ιε΄
Ε
Θ Η Α
Γ
Ζ
∆ Κ Λ
Β
Τv pέρη τοiς eσαύτως πολλαπλασίοις τoν αuτoν cχει λόγον ληφθέντα κατάλληλα.
´Εστω γvρ iσάκις πολλαπλάσιον τo ΑΒ τοu Γ κα| το ∆Ε τοu Ζ· λέγω, oτι cστ|ν eς τo Γ πρoς
τo Ζ, οuτως τo ΑΒ πρoς τo ∆Ε.
Επε| γvρ iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo ΑΒ τοu Γ κα| τo ∆Ε τοu Ζ, oσα vρα cστ|ν cν τ; ΑΒ
pεγέθη :σα τ; Γ, τοσαuτα κα| cν τ; ∆Ε :σα τ; Ζ. δι¸ρήσθω τo pcν ΑΒ εiς τv τ; Γ :σα τv
ΑΗ, ΗΘ, ΘΒ, τo δc ∆Ε εiς τv τ; Ζ :σα τv ∆Κ, ΚΛ, ΛΕ· cσται δ¿ :σον τo πλ¿θος τeν ΑΗ,
ΗΘ, ΘΒ, τ; πλήθει τeν ∆Κ, ΚΛ, ΛΕ. κα| cπε| :σα cστ| τv ΑΗ, ΗΘ, ΘΒ vλλήλοις, cστι δc
κα| τv ∆Κ, ΚΛ, ΛΕ :σα vλλήλοις, cστιν vρα eς τo ΑΗ πρoς τo ∆Κ, οuτως τo ΗΘ πρoς τo
ΚΛ, κα| τo ΘΒ πρoς τo ΛΕ. cσται vρα κα| eς cν τeν ¿γουpένων πρoς cν τeν cποpένων, οuτως
vπαντα τv ¿γουpένα πρoς vπαντα τv cπόpενα· cστιν vρα eς τo ΑΗ πρoς τo ∆Κ, οuτως τo ΑΒ
πρoς τo ∆Ε. :σον δc τo pcν ΑΗ τ; Γ, τo δc ∆Κ τ; Ζ· cστιν vρα eς τo Γ πρoς τo Ζ οuτως τo
ΑΒ πρoς τo ∆Ε.
Τv vρα pέρη τοiς eσαύτως πολλαπλασίοις τoν αuτoν cχει λόγον ληφθέντα κατάλληλα· oπερ
cδει δεiξαι.
`24
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 15
86
E
A G H
D K L
F
C
B
Parts have the same ratio as similar multiples, taken in corresponding order.
For let AB and DE be equal multiples of C and F (respectively). I say that as C is to F, so AB
(is) to DE.
For since AB and DE are equal multiples of C and F (respectively), thus as many magnitudes as
there are in AB equal to C, so many (are there) also in DE equal to F. Let AB have been divided
into (magnitudes) AG, GH, HB, equal to C, and DE into (magnitudes) DK, KL, LE, equal to
F. So, the number of (magnitudes) AG, GH, HB will equal the number of (magnitudes) DK,
KL, LE. And since AG, GH, HB are equal to one another, and DK, KL, LE are also equal to
one another, thus as AG is to DK, so GH (is) to KL, and HB to LE [Prop. 5.7]. And, thus (for
proportional magnitudes), as one of the leading (magnitudes) will be to one of the following, so
all of the leading (magnitudes will be) to all of the following [Prop. 5.12]. Thus, as AG is to DK,
so AB (is) to DE. And AG is equal to C, and DK to F. Thus, as C is to F, so AB (is) to DE.
Thus, parts have the same ratio as similar multiples, taken in corresponding order. (Which is) the
very thing it was required to show.
86
In modern notation, this proposition reads that α : β :: mα : mβ.
`2¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
ιç΄
Θ
Α
Β
Ε
Ζ
Γ

Η
Εvν τέσσαρα pεγέθη vνάλογον ¸, κα| cναλλvξ vνάλογον cσται.
´Εστω τέσσαρα pεγέθη vνάλογον τv Α, Β, Γ, ∆, eς τo Α πρoς τo Β, οuτως τo Γ πρoς τo ∆·
λέγω, oτι κα| cναλλvξ ¸vνάλογον] cσται, eς τo Α πρoς τo Γ, οuτως τo Β πρoς τo ∆.
Εiλήφθω γvρ τeν pcν Α, Β iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τv Ε, Ζ, τeν δc Γ, ∆ vλλα, i cτυχεν, iσάκις
πολλαπλάσια τv Η, Θ.
Κα| cπε| iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo Ε τοu Α κα| τo Ζ τοu Β, τv δc pέρη τοiς eσαύτως
πολλαπλασίοις τoν αuτoν cχει λόγον, cστιν vρα eς τo Α πρoς τo Β, οuτως τo Ε πρoς τo Ζ.
eς δc τo Α πρoς τo Β, οuτως τo Γ πρoς τo ∆· κα| eς vρα τo Γ πρoς τo ∆, οuτως τo Ε πρoς
τo Ζ. πάλιν, cπε| τv Η, Θ τeν Γ, ∆ iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσια, cστιν vρα eς τo Γ πρoς τo ∆,
οuτως τo Η πρoς τo Θ. eς δc τo Γ πρoς τo ∆, ¸οuτως] τo Ε πρoς τo Ζ· κα| eς vρα τo Ε πρoς
τo Ζ, οuτως τo Η πρoς τo Θ. cvν δc τέσσαρα pεγέθη vνάλογον ¸, τo δc πρeτον τοu τρίτου
pεiζον ¸, κα| τo δεύτερον τοu τετάρτου pεiζον cσται, κiν :σον, :σον, κvν cλαττον, cλαττον. εi
vρα uπερέχει τo Ε τοu Η, uπερέχει κα| τo Ζ τοu Θ, κα| εi :σον, :σον, κα| εi cλαττον, cλαττον.
καί cστι τv pcν Ε, Ζ τeν Α, Β iσάκις πολλαπλάσια, τv δc Η, Θ τeν Γ, ∆ vλλα, i cτυχεν, iσάκις
πολλαπλάσια· cστιν vρα eς τo Α πρoς τo Γ, οuτως τo Β πρoς τo ∆.
Εvν vρα τέσσαρα pεγέθη vνάλογον ¸, κα| cναλλvξ vνάλογον cσται· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`26
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 16
87
H
A
B
E
F
C
D
G
If four magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional alternately.
Let A, B, C and D be four proportional magnitudes, (such that) as A (is) to B, so C (is) to D. I
say that they will also be [proportional] alternately, (so that) as A (is) to C, so B (is) to D.
For let the equal multiples E and F have been taken of A and B (respectively), and the other
random equal multiples G and H of C and D (respectively).
And since E and F are equal multiples of A and B (respectively), and parts have the same ratio
as similar multiples [Prop. 5.15], thus as A is to B, so E (is) to F. But as A (is) to B, so C (is)
to D. And, thus, as C (is) to D, so E (is) to F [Prop. 5.11]. Again, since G and H are equal
multiples of C and D (respectively), thus as C is to D, so G (is) to H [Prop. 5.15]. But as C
(is) to D, [so] E (is) to F. And, thus, as E (is) to F, so G (is) to H [Prop. 5.11]. And if four
magnitudes are proportional, and the first is greater than the third then the second will also be
greater than the fourth, and if (the first is) equal (to the third then the second will also be) equal
(to the fourth), and if (the first is) less (than the third then the second will also be) less (than the
fourth) [Prop. 5.14]. Thus, if E exceeds G then F also exceeds H, and if (E is) equal (to G then
F is also) equal (to H), and if (E is) less (than G then F is also) less (than H). And E and F are
equal multiples of A and B (respectively), and G and H other random equal multiples of C and
D (respectively). Thus, as A is to C, so B (is) to D [Def. 5.5].
Thus, if four magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional alternately. (Which
is) the very thing it was required to show.
87
In modern notation, this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then α : γ :: β : δ.
`2¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
ιζ΄
Γ Α Β ∆
Η Θ Κ Ξ
Ζ Ε
Μ Ν Π Λ
Εvν συγκείpενα pεγέθη vνάλογον ¸, κα| διαρεθέντα vνάλογον cσται.
´Εστω συγκείpενα pεγέθη vνάλογον τv ΑΒ, ΒΕ, Γ∆, ∆Ζ, eς τo ΑΒ πρoς τo ΒΕ, οuτως τo Γ∆
πρoς τo ∆Ζ· λέγω, oτι κα| διαρεθέντα vνάλογον cσται, eς τo ΑΕ πρoς τo ΕΒ, οuτως τo ΓΖ
πρoς τo ∆Ζ.
Εiλήφθω γvρ τeν pcν ΑΕ, ΕΒ, ΓΖ, Ζ∆ iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τv ΗΘ, ΘΚ, ΛΜ, ΜΝ, τeν δc
ΕΒ, Ζ∆ vλλα, i cτυχεν, iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τv ΚΞ, ΝΠ.
Κα| cπε| iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo ΗΘ τοu ΑΕ κα| τo ΘΚ τοu ΕΒ, iσάκις vρα cστ|
πολλαπλάσιον τo ΗΘ τοu ΑΕ κα| τo ΗΚ τοu ΑΒ. iσάκις δέ cστι πολλαπλάσιον τo ΗΘ τοu
ΑΕ κα| τo ΛΜ τοu ΓΖ· iσάκις vρα cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo ΗΚ τοu ΑΒ κα| τo ΛΜ τοu ΓΖ.
πάλιν, cπε| iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo ΛΜ τοu ΓΖ κα| τo ΜΝ τοu Ζ∆, iσάκις vρα cστ|
πολλαπλάσιον τo ΛΜ τοu ΓΖ κα| τo ΛΝ τοu Γ∆. iσάκις δc ¿ν πολλαπλάσιον τo ΛΜ τοu ΓΖ
κα| τo ΗΚ τοu ΑΒ· iσάκις vρα cστ| πολλαπλάσιον τo ΗΚ τοu ΑΒ κα| τo ΛΝ τοu Γ∆. τv ΗΚ,
ΛΝ vρα τeν ΑΒ, Γ∆ iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσια. πάλιν, cπε| iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλασίον τo ΘΚ τοu
ΕΒ κα| τo ΜΝ τοu Ζ∆, cστι δc κα| τo ΚΞ τοu ΕΒ iσάκις πολλαπλάσιον κα| τo ΝΠ τοu Ζ∆,
κα| συντεθcν τo ΘΞ τοu ΕΒ iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσιον κα| τo ΜΠ τοu Ζ∆. Κα| cπεί cστιν eς τo
ΑΒ πρoς τo ΒΕ, οuτως τo Γ∆ πρoς τo ∆Ζ, κα| ε:ληπται τeν pcν ΑΒ, Γ∆ iσάκις πολλαπλάσια
τv ΗΚ, ΛΝ, τeν δc ΕΒ, Ζ∆ iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τv ΘΞ, ΜΠ, εi vρα uπερέχει τo ΗΚ τοu
ΘΞ, uπερέχει κα| τo ΛΝ τοu ΜΠ, κα| εi :σον, :σον, κα| εi cλαττον, cλαττον. uπερεχέτω δ¿
τo ΗΚ τοu ΘΞ, κα| κοινοu vφαιρεθέντος τοu ΘΚ uπερέχει vρα κα| τo ΗΘ τοu ΚΞ. vλλα εi
uπερεiχε τo ΗΚ τοu ΘΞ uπερεiχε κα| τo ΛΝ τοu ΜΠ· uπερέχει vρα κα| τo ΛΝ τοu ΜΠ,
κα| κοινοu vφαιρεθέντος τοu ΜΝ uπερέχει κα| τo ΛΜ τοu ΝΠ· eστε εi uπερέχει τo ΗΘ τοu
ΚΞ, uπερέχει κα| τo ΛΜ τοu ΝΠ. opοίως δ¿ δεiξοpεν, oτι κiν :σον ¸ τo ΗΘ τ; ΚΞ, :σον
cσται κα| τo ΛΜ τ; ΝΠ, κiν cλαττον, cλαττον. καί cστι τv pcν ΗΘ, ΛΜ τeν ΑΕ, ΓΖ iσάκις
πολλαπλάσια, τv δc ΚΞ, ΝΠ τeν ΕΒ, Ζ∆ vλλα, i cτυχεν, iσάκις πολλαπλάσια· cστιν vρα eς
τo ΑΕ πρoς τo ΕΒ, οuτως τo ΓΖ πρoς τo Ζ∆.
Εvν vρα συγκείpενα pεγέθη vνάλογον ¸, κα| διαρεθέντα vνάλογον cσται· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`28
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 17
88
K
A E B F D
H
P N M
O G
L
C
If composed magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional (when) separarted.
Let AB, BE, CD, and DF be composed magnitudes (which are) proportional, (so that) as AB
(is) to BE, so CD (is) to DF. I say that they will also be proportional (when) separated, (so
that) as AE (is) to EB, so CF (is) to DF.
For let the equal multiples GH, HK, LM, and MN have been taken of AE, EB, CF, and FD
(respectively), and the other random equal multiples KO and NP of EB and FD (respectively).
And since GH and HK are equal multiples of AE and EB (respectively), GH and GK are thus
equal multiples of AE and AB (respectively) [Prop. 5.1]. But GH and LM are equal multiples of
AE and CF (respectively). Thus, GK and LM are equal multiples of AB and CF (respectively).
Again, since LM and MN are equal multiples of CF and FD (respectively), LM and LN are
thus equal multiples of CF and CD (respectively) [Prop. 5.1]. And LM and GK were equal
multiples of CF and AB (respectively). Thus, GK and LN are equal multiples of AB and CD
(respectively). Thus, GK, LN are equal multiples of AB, CD. Again, since HK and MN are
equal multiples of EB and FD (respectively), and KO and NP are also equal multiples of EB
and FD (respectively), then, added together, HO and MP are also equal multiples of EB and
FD (respectively) [Prop. 5.2]. And since as AB (is) to BE, so CD (is) to DF, and the equal
multiples GK, LN have been taken of AB, CD, and the equal multiples HO, MP of EB, FD,
thus if GK exceeds HO then LN also exceeds MP, and if (GK is) equal (to HO then LN is also)
equal (to MP), and if (GK is) less (than HO then LN is also) less (than MP) [Def. 5.5]. So let
GK exceed HO, and thus, HK being taken away from both, GH exceeds KO. But if GK was
exceeding HO then LN was also exceeding MP. Thus, LN also exceeds MP, and, MN being
taken away from both, LM also exceeds NP. Hence, if GH exceeds KO then LM also exceeds
NP. So, similarly, we can show that even if GH is equal to KO then LM will also be equal to
NP, and even if (GH is) less (than KO then LM will also be) less (than NP). And GH, LM are
equal multiples of AE, CF, and KO, NP other random equal multiples of EB, FD. Thus, as AE
is to EB, so CF (is) to FD [Def. 5.5].
Thus, if composed magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional (when) sepa-
rarted. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
88
In modern notation, this proposition reads that if α +β : β :: γ +δ : δ then α : β :: γ : δ.
`29
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
ιη΄
Γ
Α Β

Ε
Ζ Η
Εvν δι¸ρηpένα pεγέθη vνάλογον ¸, κα| συντεθέντα vνάλογον cσται.
´Εστω δι¸ρηpένα pεγέθη vνάλογον τv ΑΕ, ΕΒ, ΓΖ, Ζ∆, eς τo ΑΕ πρoς τo ΕΒ, οuτως τo ΓΖ
πρoς τo Ζ∆· λέγω, oτι κα| συντεθέντα vνάλογον cσται, eς τo ΑΒ πρoς τo ΒΕ, οuτως τo Γ∆
πρoς τo Ζ∆.
Εi γvρ pή cστ|ν eς τo ΑΒ πρoς τo ΒΕ, οuτως τo Γ∆ πρoς τo ∆Ζ, cσται eς τo ΑΒ πρoς τo
ΒΕ, οuτως τo Γ∆ ¿τοι πρoς cλασσόν τι τοu ∆Ζ ¿ πρoς pεiζον.
´Εστω πρότερον πρoς cλασσον τo ∆Η. κα| cπεί cστιν eς τo ΑΒ πρoς τo ΒΕ, οuτως τo Γ∆ πρoς
τo ∆Η, συγκείpενα pεγέθη vνάλογόν cστιν· eστε κα| διαρεθέντα vνάλογον cσται. cστιν vρα eς
τo ΑΕ πρoς τo ΕΒ, οuτως τo ΓΗ πρoς τo Η∆. uπόκειται δc κα| eς τo ΑΕ πρoς τo ΕΒ, οuτως
τo ΓΖ πρoς τo Ζ∆. κα| eς vρα τo ΓΗ πρoς τo Η∆, οuτως τo ΓΖ πρoς τo Ζ∆· pεiζον δc τo
πρeτον τo ΓΗ τοu τρίτου τοu ΓΖ· pεiζον vρα κα| τo δεύτερον τo Η∆ τοu τετάρτου τοu Ζ∆.
vλλv κα| cλαττον· oπερ cστ|ν vδύνατον· οuκ vρα cστ|ν eς τo ΑΒ πρoς τo ΒΕ, οuτως τo Γ∆
πρoς cλασσον τοu Ζ∆. opοίως δ¿ δείξοpεν, oτι οuδc πρoς pεiζον· πρoς αuτo vρα.
Εvν vρα δι¸ρηpένα pεγέθη vνάλογον ¸, κα| συντεθέντα vνάλογον cσται· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
``0
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 18
89
C
A B
D G F
E
If separated magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional (when) composed.
Let AE, EB, CF, and FD be separated magnitudes (which are) proportional, (so that) as AE
(is) to EB, so CF (is) to FD. I say that they will also be proportional (when) composed, (so
that) as AB (is) to BE, so CD (is) to FD.
For if (it is) not (the case that) as AB is to BE, so CD (is) to FD, then it will surely be (the case
that) as AB (is) to BE, so CD is either to some (magnitude) less than FD, or (some magnitude)
greater (than FD).
Let it, first of all, be to (some magnitude) less (than FD), (namely) DG. And since composed
magnitudes are proportional, (so that) as AB is to BE, so CD (is) to DG, they will thus also be
proportional (when) separated [Prop. 5.17]. Thus, as AE is to EB, so CG (is) to GD. But it was
also assumed that as AE (is) to EB, so CF (is) to FD. Thus, (it is) also (the case that) as CG
(is) to GD, so CF (is) to FD [Prop. 5.11]. And the first (magnitude) CG (is) greater than the
third CF. Thus, the second (magnitude) GD (is) also greater than the fourth FD [Prop. 5.14].
But (it is) also less. The very thing is impossible. Thus, (it is) not (the case that) as AB is to BE,
so CD (is) to less than FD. Similarly, we can show that neither (is it the case) to greater (than
FD). Thus, (it is the case) to the same (as FD).
Thus, if separated magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional (when) com-
posed. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
89
In modern notation, this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then α +β : β :: γ +δ : δ.
``l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
ιθ΄
Β Α
Γ
Ε
Ζ ∆
Εvν ¸ eς oλον πρoς oλον, οuτως vφαιρεθcν πρoς vφαιρεθέν, κα| τo λοιπoν πρoς τo λοιπoν
cσται eς oλον πρoς oλον.
´Εστω γvρ eς oλον τo ΑΒ πρoς oλον τo Γ∆, οuτως vφαιρεθcν τo ΑΕ πρoς vφειρεθcν τo ΓΖ·
λέγω, oτι κα| λοιπoν τo ΕΒ πρoς λοιπoν τo Ζ∆ cσται eς oλον τo ΑΒ πρoς oλον τo Γ∆.
Επε| γάρ cστιν eς τo ΑΒ πρoς τo Γ∆, οuτως τo ΑΕ πρoς τo ΓΖ, κα| cναλλvξ eς τo ΒΑ πρoς
τo ΑΕ, οuτως τo ∆Γ πρoς τo ΓΖ. κα| cπε| συγκείpενα pεγέθη vνάλογόν cστιν, κα| διαρεθέντα
vνάλογον cσται, eς τo ΒΕ πρoς τo ΕΑ, οuτως τo ∆Ζ πρoς τo ΓΖ· κα| cναλλάξ, eς τo ΒΕ
πρoς τo ∆Ζ, οuτως τo ΕΑ πρoς τo ΖΓ. eς δc τo ΑΕ πρoς τo ΓΖ, οuτως uπόκειται oλον τo
ΑΒ πρoς oλον τo Γ∆. κα| λοιπoν vρα τo ΕΒ πρoς λοιπoν τo Ζ∆ cσται eς oλον τo ΑΒ πρoς
oλον τo Γ∆.
Εvν vρα ¸ eς oλον πρoς oλον, οuτως vφαιρεθcν πρoς vφαιρεθέν, κα| τo λοιπoν πρoς τo λοιπoν
cσται eς oλον πρoς oλον ¸oπερ cδει δεiξαι].
[Κα| cπε| cδείχθη eς τo ΑΒ πρoς τo Γ∆, οuτως τo ΕΒ πρoς τo Ζ∆, κα| cναλλvξ eς τo ΑΒ
πρoς τo ΒΕ οuτως τo Γ∆ πρoς τo Ζ∆, συγκείpενα vρα pεγέθη vνάλογόν cστιν· cδείχθη δc eς
τo ΒΑ πρoς τo ΑΕ, οuτως τo ∆Γ πρoς τo ΓΖ· καί cστιν vναστρέψαντι].
Πόρισpα
Εκ δ¿ τούτου φανερόν, oτι cvν συγθείpενα pεγέθη vνάλογον ¸, κα| vναστρέψαντι vνάλογον
cσται· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
``2
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 19
90
D
A
C
E
F
B
If as the whole is to the whole so the (part) taken away is to the (part) taken away then the
remainder to the remainder will also be as the whole (is) to the whole.
For let the whole AB be to the whole CD as the (part) taken away AE (is) to the (part) taken
away CF. I say that the remainder EB to the remainder FD will also be as the whole AB (is) to
the whole CD.
For since as AB is to CD, so AE (is) to CF, (it is) also (the case), alternately, (that) as BA (is)
to AE, so DC (is) to CF [Prop. 5.16]. And since composed magnitudes are proportional then
they will also be proportional (when) separated, (so that) as BE (is) to EA, so DF (is) to CF
[Prop. 5.17]. Also, alternately, as BE (is) to DF, so EA (is) to FC [Prop. 5.16]. And it was as-
sumed that as AE (is) to CF, so the whole AB (is) to the whole CD. And, thus, as the remainder
EB (is) to the remainder FD, so the whole AB will be to the whole CD.
Thus, if as the whole is to the whole so the (part) taken away is to the (part) taken away then
the remainder to the remainder will also be as the whole (is) to the whole. [(Which is) the very
thing it was required to show.]
[And since it was shown (that) as AB (is) to CD, so EB (is) to FD, (it is) also (the case), alter-
nately, (that) as AB (is) to BE, so CD (is) to FD. Thus, composed magnitudes are proportional.
And it was shown (that) as BA (is) to AE, so DC (is) to CF. And (the latter) is converted (from
the former).]
Corollary
91
So (it is) clear, from this, that if composed magnitudes are proportional then they will also be
proportional (when) converted. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
90
In modern notation, this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then α : β :: α −γ : β −δ.
91
In modern notation, this corollary reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then α : α −β :: γ : γ −δ.
```
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
κ΄

Β
Γ
Ε
Ζ
Α
Εvν ¸ τρία pεγέθη κα| vλλα αuτοiς :σα τo πλ¿θος, σύνδυο λαpβανόpενα κα| cν τ; αuτ; λόγω,
δι :σου δc τo πρeτον τοu τρίτου pεiζον ¸, κα| τo τέταρτον τοu cκτου pεiζον cσται, κiν :σον,
:σον, κvν cλαττον, cλαττον.
´Εστω τρία pεγέθη τv Α, Β, Γ, κα| vλλα αuτοiς :σα τo πλ¿θος τv ∆, Ε, Ζ, σύνδυο λαpβανόpενα
cν τ; αuτ; λόγ;, eς pcν τo Α πρoς τo Β, οuτως τo ∆ πρoς τo Ε, eς δc τo Β πρoς τo Γ, οuτως
τo Ε πρoς τo Ζ, δι :σου δc pεiζον cστω τo Α τοu Γ· λέγω, oτι κα| τo ∆ τοu Ζ pεiζον cσται,
κiν :σον, :σον, κvν cλαττον, cλαττον.
Επε| γvρ pεiζόν cστι τo Α τοu Γ, vλλο δέ τι τo Β, τo δc pεiζον πρoς τo αuτo pείζονα λόγον
cχει ¿περ τo cλαττον, τo Α vρα πρoς τo Β pείζονα λόγον cχει ¿περ τo Γ πρoς τo Β. vλλ eς
pcν τo Α πρoς τo Β ¸οuτως] τo ∆ πρoς τo Ε, eς δc τo Γ πρoς τo Β, vνάπαλιν οuτως τo Ζ
πρoς τo Ε· κα| τo ∆ vρα πρoς τo Ε pείζονα λόγον cχει ¿περ τo Ζ πρoς τo Ε. τeν δc πρoς τo
αuτo λόγον cχόντων τo pείζονα λόγον cχον pεiζόν cστιν. pεiζον vρα τo ∆ τοu Ζ. opοίως δ¿
δείξοpεν, oτι κiν :σον ¸ τo Α τ; Γ, :σον cσται κα| τo ∆ τ; Ζ, κiν cλαττον, cλαττον.
Εvν vρα ¸ τρία pεγέθη κα| vλλα αuτοiς :σα τo πλ¿θος, σύνδυο λαpβανόpενα κα| cν τ; αuτ;
λόγω, δι :σου δc τo πρeτον τοu τρίτου pεiζον ¸, κα| τo τέταρτον τοu cκτου pεiζον cσται, κiν
:σον, :σον, κvν cλαττον, cλαττον· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
``4
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 20
92
F
B
C
A D
E
If there are three magnitudes, and others of equal number to them, (being) also in the same ratio
taken two by two, and (if), via equality, the first is greater than the third then the fourth will also
be greater than the sixth. And if (the first is) equal (to the third then the fourth will also be) equal
(to the sixth). And if (the first is) less (than the third then the fourth will also be) less (than the
sixth).
Let A, B, and C be three magnitudes, and D, E, F other (magnitudes) of equal number to them,
(being) in the same ratio taken two by two, (so that) as A (is) to B, so D (is) to E, and as B (is)
to C, so E (is) to F. And let A be greater than C, via equality. I say that D will also be greater
than F. And if (A is) equal (to C then D will also be) equal (to F). And if (A is) less (than C
then D will also be) less (than F).
For since A is greater than C, and B some other (magnitude), and the greater (magnitude) has
a greater ratio than the lesser to the same (magnitude) [Prop. 5.8], A thus has a greater ratio
to B than C (has) to B. But as A (is) to B, [so] D (is) to E. And, inversely, as C (is) to B,
so F (is) to E [Prop. 5.7 corr.]. Thus, D also has a greater ratio to E than F (has) to E. And
for (magnitudes) having a ratio to the same (magnitude), that having the greater ratio is greater
[Prop. 5.10]. Thus, D (is) greater than F. Similarly, we can show, that even if A is equal to C
then D will also be equal to F, and even if (A is) less (than C then D will also be) less (than F).
Thus, if there are three magnitudes, and others of equal number to them, (being) also in the same
ratio taken two by two, and (if), via equality, the first is greater than the third, then the fourth
will also be greater than the sixth. And if (the first is) equal (to the third then the fourth will also
be) equal (to the sixth). And (if the first is) less (than the third then the fourth will also be) less
(than the sixth). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
92
In modern notation, this proposition reads that if α : β :: δ : and β : γ :: : ζ then α >=< γ as δ >=< ζ.
``¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
κα΄
Α
Β
Γ
Ε
Ζ

Εvν ¸ τρία pεγέθη κα| vλλα αuτοiς :σα τo πλ¿θος σύνδυο λαpβανόpενα κα| cν τ; αuτ; λόγ;,
¸ δc τεταραγpένη αuτeν ¿ vναλογία, δι :σου δc τo πρeτον τοu τρίτου pεiζον ¸, κα| τo τέταρτον
τοu cκτου pεiζον cσται, κiν :σον, :σον, κiν cλαττον, cλαττον.
´Εστω τρία pεγέθη τv Α, Β, Γ κα| vλλα αuτοiς :σα τo πλ¿θος τv ∆, Ε, Ζ, σύνδυο λαpβανόpενα
κα| cν τ; αuτ; λόγ;, cστω δc τεταραγpένη αuτeν ¿ vναλογία, eς pcν τo Α πρoς τo Β, οuτως
τo Ε πρoς τo Ζ, eς δc τo Β πρoς τo Γ, οuτως τo ∆ πρoς τo Ε, δι :σου δc τo Α τοu Γ pεiζον
cστω· λέγω, oτι κα| τo ∆ τοu Ζ pεiζον cσται, κiν :σον, :σον, κiν cλαττον, cλαττον.
Επε| γvρ pεiζόν cστι τo Α τοu Γ, vλλο δέ τι τo Β, τo Α vρα πρoς τo Β pείζονα λόγον cχει
¿περ τo Γ πρoς τo Β. vλλ eς pcν τo Α πρoς τo Β, οuτως τo Ε πρoς τo Ζ, eς δc τo Γ πρoς
τo Β, vνάπαλιν οuτως τo Ε πρoς τo ∆. κα| τo Ε vρα πρoς τo Ζ pείζονα λόγον cχει ¿περ τo
Ε πρoς τo ∆. πρoς o δc τo αuτo pείζονα λόγον cχει, cκεiνο cλασσόν cστιν· cλασσον vρα cστ|
τo Ζ τοu ∆· pεiζον vρα cστ| τo ∆ τοu Ζ. opοίως δ¿ δείξοpεν, oτι κiν :σον ¸ τo Α τ; Γ, :σον
cσται κα| τo ∆ τ; Ζ, κiν cλαττον, cλαττον.
Εvν vρα ¸ τρία pεγέθη κα| vλλα αuτοiς :σα τo πλ¿θος, σύνδυο λαpβανόpενα κα| cν τ; αuτ;
λόγ;, ¸ δc τεταραγpένη αuτeν ¿ vναλογία, δι :σου δc τo πρeτον τοu τρίτου pεiζον ¸, κα| τo
τέταρτον τοu cκτου pεiζον cσται, κiν :σον, :σον, κiν cλαττον, cλαττον· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
``6
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 21
93
D
B
A
C
E
F
If there are three magnitudes, and others of equal number to them, (being) also in the same ratio
taken two by two, and (if) their proportion (is) perturbed, and (if), via equality, the first is greater
than the third then the fourth will also be greater than the sixth. And if (the first is) equal (to
the third then the fourth will also be) equal (to the sixth). And if (the first is) less (than the third
then the fourth will also be) less (than the sixth).
Let A, B, and C be three magnitudes, and D, E, F other (magnitudes) of equal number to them,
(being) in the same ratio taken two by two. And let their proportion be perturbed, (so that) as
A (is) to B, so E (is) to F, and as B (is) to C, so D (is) to E. And let A be greater than C, via
equality. I say that D will also be greater than F. And if (A is) equal (to C then D will also be)
equal (to F). And if (A is) less (than C then D will also be) less (than F).
For since A is greater than C, and B some other (magnitude), A thus has a greater ratio to B
than C (has) to B [Prop. 5.8]. But as A (is) to B, so E (is) to F. And, inversely, as C (is) to B,
so E (is) to D [Prop. 5.7 corr.]. Thus, E also has a greater ratio to F than E (has) to D. And
that (magnitude) to which the same (magnitude) has a greater ratio is (the) lesser (magnitude)
[Prop. 5.10]. Thus, F is less than D. Thus, D is greater than F. Similarly, we can show even if A
is equal to C then D will also be equal to F, and even if (A is) less (than C then D will also be)
less (than F).
Thus, if there are three magnitudes, and others of equal number to them, (being) also in the same
ratio taken two by two, and (if) their proportion (is) perturbed, and (if), via equality, the first is
greater than the third then the fourth will also be greater than the sixth. And if (the first is) equal
(to the third then the fourth will also be) equal (to the sixth). And if (the first is) less (than the
third then the fourth will also be) less (than the sixth). (Which is) the very thing it was required
to show.
93
In modern notation, this proposition reads that if α : β :: : ζ and β : γ :: δ : then α >=< γ as δ >=< ζ.
``¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
κβ΄
Ν
Ζ
Γ Α

Η
Θ
Β
Ε
Κ
Λ
Μ
Εvν ¸ oποσαοuν pεγέθη κα| vλλα αuτοiς :σα τo πλ¿θος, σύνδυο λαpβανόpενα κα| cν τ; αuτ;
λόγ;, κα| δι :σου cν τ; αuτ; λόγ; cσται.
´Εστω oποσαοuν pεγέθη τv Α, Β, Γ κα| vλλα αuτοiς :σα τo πλ¿θος τv ∆, Ε, Ζ, σύνδυο
λαpβανόpενα cν τ; αuτ; λόγ;, eς pcν τo Α πρoς τo Β, οuτως τo ∆ πρoς τo Ε, eς δc τo Β
πρoς τo Γ, οuτως τo Ε πρoς τo Ζ· λέγω, oτι κα| δι :σου cν τ; αuτ; λόγ; cσται.
Εiλήφθω γvρ τeν pcν Α, ∆ iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τv Η, Θ, τeν δc Β, Ε vλλα, i cτυχεν, iσάκις
πολλαπλάσια τv Κ, Λ, κα| cτι τeν Γ, Ζ vλλα, i cτυχεν, iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τv Μ, Ν.
Κα| cπεί cστιν eς το Α πρoς τo Β, οuτως τo ∆ πρoς το Ε, κα| ε:ληπται τeν pcν Α, ∆ iσάκις
πολλαπλάσια τv Η, Θ, τeν δc Β, Ε vλλα, i cτυχεν, iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τv Κ, Λ, cστιν vρα eς
τo Η πρoς τo Κ, οuτως τo Θ πρoς τo Λ. δ|α τv αuτv δ¿ κα| eς τo Κ πρoς τo Μ, οuτως τo Λ
πρoς τo Ν. cπε| οuν τρία pεγέθη cστ| τv Η, Κ, Μ, κα| vλλα αuτοiς :σα τo πλ¿θος τv Θ, Λ, Ν,
σύνδυο λαpβανόpενα κα| cν τ; αuτ; λόγ;, δι :σου vρα, εi uπερέχει τo Η τοu Μ, uπερέχει κα|
τo Θ τοu Ν, κα| εi :σον, :σον, κα| εi cλαττον, cλαττον. καί cστι τv pcν Η, Θ τeν Α, ∆ iσάκις
πολλαπλάσια, τv δc Μ, Ν τeν Γ, Ζ vλλα, i cτυχεν, iσάκις πολλαπλάσια. cστιν vρα eς τo Α
πρoς τo Γ, οuτως τo ∆ πρoς τo Ζ.
Εvν vρα ¸ oποσαοuν pεγέθη κα| vλλα αuτοiς :σα τo πλ¿θος, σύνδυο λαpβανόpενα cν τ; αuτ;
λόγ;, κα| δι :σου cν τ; αuτ; λόγ; cσται· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
``8
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 22
94
M
A
D
G
H
B
E
K
L
C
F
N
If there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever, and (some) other (magnitudes) of equal
number to them, (which are) also in the same ratio taken two by two, then they will also be in
the same ratio via equality.
Let there be any number of magnitudes whatsoever, A, B, C, and (some) other (magnitudes), D,
E, F, of equal number to them, (which are) in the same ratio taken two by two, (so that) as A
(is) to B, so D (is) to E, and as B (is) to C, so E (is) to F. I say that they will also be in the same
ratio via equality.
For let the equal multiples G and H have been taken of A and D (respectively), and the other
random equal multiples K and L of B and E (respectively), and the yet other random equal
multiples M and N of C and F (respectively).
And since as A is to B, so D (is) to E, and the equal multiples G and H have been taken of A and
D (respectively), and the other random equal multiples K and L of B and E (respectively), thus
as G is to K, so H (is) to L [Prop. 5.4]. And, so, for the same (reasons), as K (is) to M, so L (is)
to N. Therefore, since G, K, and M are three magnitudes, and H, L, and N other (magnitudes)
of equal number to them, (which are) also in the same ratio taken two by two, thus, via equality,
if G exceeds M then H also exceeds N, and if (G is) equal (to M then H is also) equal (to N),
and if (G is) less (than M then H is also) less (than N) [Prop. 5.20]. And G and H are equal
multiples of A and D (respectively), and M and N other random equal multiples of C and F
(respectively). Thus, as A is to C, so D (is) to F [Def. 5.5].
Thus, if there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever, and (some) other (magnitudes) of equal
number to them, (which are) also in the same ratio taken two by two, then they will also be in
the same ratio via equality. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
94
In modern notation, this proposition reads that if α : β :: : ζ and β : γ :: ζ : η and γ : δ :: η : θ then α : δ :: : θ.
``9
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
κγ΄
Ν
Α

Η
Κ
Β
Ε
Θ
Μ
Γ
Ζ
Λ
Εvν ¸ τρία pεγέθη κα| vλλα αuτοiς :σα τo πλ¿θος σύνδυο λαpβανόpενα cν τ; αuτ; λόγ;, ¸
δc τεταραγpένη αuτeν ¿ vναλογία, κα| δι :σου cν τ; αuτ; λόγ; cσται.
´Εστω τρία pεγέθη τv Α, Β, Γ κα| vλλα αuτοiς :σα τo πλ¿θος σύνδυο λαpβανόpενα cν τ; αuτ;
λόγ; τv ∆, Ε, Ζ, cστω δc τεταραγpένη αuτeν ¿ vναλογία, eς pcν τo Α πρoς τo Β, οuτως τo
Ε πρoς τo Ζ, eς δc τo Β πρoς τo Γ, οuτως τo ∆ πρoς τo Ε· λέγω, oτι cστ|ν eς τo Α πρoς τo
Γ, οuτως τo ∆ πρoς τo Ζ.
Εiλήφθω τeν pcν Α, Β, ∆ iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τv Η, Θ, Κ, τeν δc Γ, Ε, Ζ vλλα, i cτυχεν,
iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τv Λ, Μ, Ν.
Κα| cπε| iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσια τv Η, Θ τeν Α, Β, τv δc pέρη το|ς eσαύτως πολλαπλασίοις
τoν αuτoν cχει λόγον, cστιν vρα eς τo Α πρoς τo Β, οuτως τo Η πρoς τo Θ. διv τv αuτv δ¿
κα| eς τo Ε πρoς τo Ζ, οuτως τo Μ πρoς τo Ν· καί cστιν eς τo Α πρoς τo Β, οuτως τo Ε πρoς
τo Ζ· κα| eς vρα τo Η πρoς τo Θ, οuτως τo Μ πρoς τo Ν. κα| cπεί cστιν eς τo Β πρoς τo Γ,
οuτως τo ∆ πρoς τo Ε, κα| cναλλvξ eς τo Β πρoς τo ∆, οuτως τo Γ πρoς τo Ε. κα| cπε| τv
Θ, Κ τeν Β, ∆ iσάκις cστ| πολλαπλάσια, τv δc pέρη τοiς iσάκις πολλαπλασίοις τoν αuτoν cχει
λόγον, cστιν vρα eς τo Β πρoς τo ∆, οuτως τo Θ πρoς τo Κ. vλλ eς τo Β πρoς τo ∆, οuτως
τo Γ πρoς τo Ε· κα| eς vρα τo Θ πρoς τo Κ, οuτως τo Γ πρoς τo Ε. πάλιν, cπε| τv Λ, Μ τeν
Γ, Ε iσάκις cστι πολλαπλάσια, cστιν vρα eς τo Γ πρoς τo Ε, οuτως τo Λ πρoς τo Μ. vλλ eς
τo Γ πρoς τo Ε, οuτως τo Θ πρoς τo Κ· κα| eς vρα τo Θ πρoς τo Κ, οuτως τo Λ πρoς τo Μ,
κα| cναλλvξ eς τo Θ πρoς τo Λ, τo Κ πρoς τo Μ. cδείχθη δc κα| eς τo Η πρoς τo Θ, οuτως
τo Μ πρoς τo Ν. cπε| οuν τρία pεγέθη cστ| τv Η, Θ, Λ, κα| vλλα αuτοις :σα τo πλ¿θος τv
Κ, Μ, Ν σύνδυο λαpβανόpενα cν τ; αuτ; λόγ;, καί cστιν αuτeν τεταραγpένη ¿ vναλογία, δι
:σου vρα, εi uπερέχει τo Η τοu Λ, uπερέχει κα| τo Κ τοu Ν, κα| εi :σον, :σον, κα| εi cλαττον,
cλαττον. καί cστι τv pcν Η, Κ τeν Α, ∆ iσάκις πολλαπλάσια, τv δc Λ, Ν τeν Γ, Ζ. cστιν vρα
eς τo Α πρoς τo Γ, οuτως τo ∆ πρoς τo Ζ.
Εvν vρα ¸ τρία pεγέθη κα| vλλα αuτοiς :σα τo πλ¿θος σύνδυο λαpβανόpενα cν τ; αuτ; λόγ;,
¸ δc τεταραγpένη αuτeν ¿ vναλογία, κα| δι :σου cν τ; αuτ; λόγ; cσται· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`40
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 23
95
M
A
D
G
K
B
E
H
C
F
L
N
If there are three magnitudes, and others of equal number to them, (being) in the same ratio
taken two by two, and (if) their proportion is perturbed, then they will also be in the same ratio
via equality.
Let A, B, and C be three magnitudes, and D, E and F other (magnitudes) of equal number to
them, (being) in the same ratio taken two by two. And let their proportion be perturbed, (so
that) as A (is) to B, so E (is) to F, and as B (is) to C, so D (is) to E. I say that as A is to C, so
D (is) to F.
Let the equal multiples G, H, and K have been taken of A, B, and D (respectively), and the other
random equal multiples L, M, and N of C, E, and F (respectively).
And since Gand H are equal multiples of A and B (respectively), and parts have the same ratio as
similar multiples [Prop. 5.15], thus as A (is) to B, so G (is) to H. And, so, for the same (reasons),
as E (is) to F, so M (is) to N. And as A is to B, so E (is) to F. And, thus, as G (is) to H, so M
(is) to N [Prop. 5.11]. And since as B is to C, so D (is) to E, also, alternately, as B (is) to D,
so C (is) to E [Prop. 5.16]. And since H and K are equal multiples of B and D (respectively),
and parts have the same ratio as similar multiples [Prop. 5.15], thus as B is to D, so H (is) to
K. But, as B (is) to D, so C (is) to E. And, thus, as H (is) to K, so C (is) to E [Prop. 5.11].
Again, since L and M are equal multiples of C and E (respectively), thus as C is to E, so L (is)
to M [Prop. 5.15]. But, as C (is) to E, so H (is) to K. And, thus, as H (is) to K, so L (is) to M
[Prop. 5.11]. Also, alternately, as H (is) to L, so K (is) to M [Prop. 5.16]. And it was also shown
(that) as G (is) to H, so M (is) to N. Therefore, since G, H, and L are three magnitudes, and K,
M, and N other (magnitudes) of equal number to them, (being) in the same ratio taken two by
two, and their proportion is perturbed, thus, via equality, if G exceeds L then K also exceeds N,
and if (G is) equal (to L then K is also) equal (to N), and if (G is) less (than L then K is also)
less (than N) [Prop. 5.21]. And G and K are equal multiples of A and D (respectively), and L
and N of C and F (respectively). Thus, as A (is) to C, so D (is) to F [Def. 5.5].
Thus, if there are three magnitudes, and others of equal number to them, (being) in the same
ratio taken two by two, and (if) their proportion is perturbed, then they will also be in the same
ratio via equality. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
95
In modern notation, this proposition reads that if α : β :: : ζ and β : γ :: δ : then α : γ :: δ : ζ.
`4l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
κδ΄
Β
Γ
Θ ∆
Ζ
Α Η
Ε
Εvν πρeτον πρoς δεύτερον τoν αuτoν cχ¸ λόγον κα| τρίτον πρoς τέταρτον, cχ¸ δc κα| πέpπτον
πρoς δεύτερον τoν αuτoν λόγον κα| cκτον πρoς τέτραρτον, κα| συντεθcν πρeτον κα| πέpπτον
πρoς δεύτερον τoν αuτoν cξει λόγον κα| τρίτον κα| cκτον πρoς τέταρτον.
Πρeτον γvρ τo ΑΒ πρoς δεύρερον τo Γ τoν αuτoν cχέτω λόγον κα| τρίτον τo ∆Ε πρoς
τέταρτον τo Ζ, cχέτω δc κα| πέpπτον τo ΒΗ πρoς δεύτερον τo Γ τoν αuτoν λόγον κα| cκτον
τo ΕΘ πρoς τέταρτον τo Ζ· λέγω, oτι κα| συντεθcν πρeτον κα| πέpπτον τo ΑΗ πρoς δεύτερον
τo Γ τoν αuτoν cξει λόγον, κα| τρίτον κα| cκτον τo ∆Θ πρoς τέταρτον τo Ζ.
Επε| γάρ cστιν eς τo ΒΗ πρoς τo Γ, οuτως τo ΕΘ πρoς τo Ζ, vνάπαλιν vρα eς τo Γ πρoς
τo ΒΗ, οuτως τo Ζ πρoς τo ΕΘ. cπε| οuν cστιν eς τo ΑΒ πρoς τo Γ, οuτως τo ∆Ε πρoς τo
Ζ, eς δc τo Γ πρoς τo ΒΗ, οuτως τo Ζ πρoς τo ΕΘ, δι :σου vρα cστ|ν eς τo ΑΒ πρoς τo
ΒΗ, οuτως τo ∆Ε πρoς τo ΕΘ. κα| cπε| δι¸ρηpένα pεγέθη vνάλογόν cστιν, κα| συντεθέντα
vνάλογον cσται· cστιν vρα eς τo ΑΗ πρoς τo ΗΒ, οuτως τo ∆Θ πρoς τo ΘΕ. cστι δc κα| eς
τo ΒΗ πρoς τo Γ, οuτως τo ΕΘ πρoς τo Ζ· δι :σου vρα cστ|ν eς τo ΑΗ πρoς τo Γ, οuτως τo
∆Θ πρoς τo Ζ.
Εvν vρα πρeτον πρoς δεύτερον τoν αuτoν cχ¸ λόγον κα| τρίτον πρoς τέταρτον, cχ¸ δc κα|
πέpπτον πρoς δεύτερον τoν αuτoν λόγον κα| cκτον πρoς τέτραρτον, κα| συντεθcν πρeτον κα|
πέpπτον πρoς δεύτερον τoν αuτoν cξει λόγον κα| τρίτον κα| cκτον πρoς τέταρτον· oπερ cδει
δε|ξαι.
`42
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 24
96
E
C
D H
F
A G
B
If a first (magnitude) has to a second the same ratio that third (has) to a fourth, and a fifth
(magnitude) also has to the second the same ratio that a sixth (has) to the fourth, then the first
(magnitude) and the fifth, added together, will also have the same ratio to the second that the
third (magnitude) and sixth (added together, have) to the fourth.
For let a first (magnitude) AB have the same ratio to a second C that a third DE (has) to a fourth
F. And let a fifth (magnitude) BG also have the same ratio to the second C that a sixth EH (has)
to the fourth F. I say that the first (magnitude) and the fifth, added together, AG, will also have
the same ratio to the second C that the third (magnitude) and the sixth, (added together), DH,
(has) to the fourth F.
For since as BG is to C, so EH (is) to F, thus, inversely, as C (is) to BG, so F (is) to EH
[Prop. 5.7 corr.]. Therefore, since as AB is to C, so DE (is) to F, and as C (is) to BG, so F (is)
to EH, thus, via equality, as AB is to BG, so DE (is) to EH [Prop. 5.22]. And since separated
magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional (when) composed [Prop. 5.18].
Thus, as AG is to GB, so DH (is) to HE. And, also, as BG is to C, so EH (is) to F. Thus, via
equality, as AG is to C, so DH (is) to F [Prop. 5.22].
Thus, if a first (magnitude) has to a second the same ratio that a third (has) to a fourth, and a
fifth (magnitude) also has to the second the same ratio that a sixth (has) to the fourth, then the
first (magnitude) and the fifth, added together, will also have the same ratio to the second that
the third (magnitude) and the sixth (added together, have) to the fourth. (Which is) the very
thing it was required to show.
96
In modern notation, this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ and : β :: ζ : δ then α + : β :: γ +ζ : δ.
`4`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ε΄
κε΄
Ζ
Η
Θ
Γ
Ε
Α Β

Εvν τέσσαρα pεγέθη vνάλογον ¸, τo pέγιστον ¸αuτeν] κα| τo cλάχιστον δύο τeν λοιπeν pείζονά
cστιν.
´Εστω τέσσαρα pεγέθη vνάλογον τv ΑΒ, Γ∆, Ε, Ζ, eς τo ΑΒ πρoς τo Γ∆, οuτως τo Ε πρoς
τo Ζ, cστω δc pέγιστον pcν αuτeν τo ΑΒ, cλάχιστον δc τo Ζ· λέγω, oτι τv ΑΒ, Ζ τeν Γ∆, Ε
pείζονά cστιν.
Κείσθω γvρ τ; pcν Ε :σον τo ΑΗ, τ; δc Ζ :σον τo ΓΘ.
Επε| ¸οuν] cστιν eς τo ΑΒ πρoς τo Γ∆, οuτως τo Ε πρoς τo Ζ, :σον δc τo pcν Ε τ; ΑΗ, τo
δc Ζ τ; ΓΘ, cστιν vρα eς τo ΑΒ πρoς τo Γ∆, οuτως τo ΑΗ πρoς τo ΓΘ. κα| cπεί cστιν eς
oλον τo ΑΒ πρoς oλον τo Γ∆, οuτως vφαιρεθcν τo ΑΗ πρoς vφαιρεθcν τo ΓΘ, κα| λοιπoν
vρα τo ΗΒ πρoς λοιπoν τo Θ∆ cσται eς oλον τo ΑΒ πρoς oλον τo Γ∆. pεiζον δc τo ΑΒ τοu
Γ∆· pεiζον vρα κα| τo ΗΒ τοu Θ∆. κα| cπε| :σον cστ| τo pcν ΑΗ τ; Ε, τo δc ΓΘ τ; Ζ, τv
vρα ΑΗ, Ζ :σα cστ| τοiς ΓΘ, Ε. Κα| ¸cπε|] cvν ¸vνίσοις :σα προστεθ¸, τv oλα vνισά cστιν, cvν
vρα] τeν ΗΒ, Θ∆ vνίσων oντων κα| pείζονος τοu ΗΒ τ; pcν ΗΒ προστεθ¸ τv ΑΗ, Ζ, τ; δc
Θ∆ προστεθ¸ τv ΓΘ, Ε, συνάγεται τv ΑΒ, Ζ pείζονα τeν Γ∆, Ε.
Εvν vρα τέσσαρα pεγέθη vνάλογον ¸, τo pέγιστον αuτeν κα| τo cλάχιστον δύο τeν λοιπeν
pείζονά cστιν. oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`44
ELEMENTS BOOK 5
Proposition 25
97
F
G
E
H
D C
A B
If four magnitudes are proportional then the (sum of the) largest and the smallest [of them] is
greater than the (sum of the) remaining two (magnitudes).
Let AB, CD, E, and F be four proportional magnitudes, (such that) as AB (is) to CD, so E (is)
to F. And let AB be the greatest of them, and F the least. I say that AB and F is greater than
CD and E.
For let AG be made equal to E, and CH equal to F.
[In fact,] since as AB is to CD, so E (is) to F, and E (is) equal to AG, and F to CH, thus as
AB is to CD, so AG (is) to CH. And since the whole AB is to the whole CD as the (part) taken
away AG (is) to the (part) taken away CH, thus the remainder GB will also be to the remainder
HD as the whole AB (is) to the whole CD [Prop. 5.19]. And AB (is) greater than CD. Thus,
GB (is) also greater than HD. And since AG is equal to E, and CH to F, thus AG and F is equal
to CH and E. And [since] if [equal (magnitudes) are added to unequal (magnitudes) then the
wholes are unequal, thus if] AG and F are added to GB, and CH and E to HD—GB and HD
being unequal, and GB greater—it is inferred that AB and F (is) greater than CD and E.
Thus, if four magnitudes are proportional then the (sum of the) largest and the smallest of them
is greater than the (sum of the) remaining two (magnitudes). (Which is) the very thing it was
required to show.
97
In modern notation, this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ, and α is the greatest and δ the least, then
α +δ > β +γ.
`4¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Similar figures
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
´Οροι
α΄ ´Οpοια σχήpατα εuθύγραppά cστιν, oσα τάς τε γωνίας :σας cχει κατv pίαν κα| τvς περ|
τvς :σας γωνίας πλευρvς vνάλογον.
β΄ ´Ακρον κα| pέσον λόγον εuθεiα τετp¿σθαι λέγεται, oταν ¸ eς ¿ oλη πρoς τo pεiζον
τp¿pα, οuτως τo pεiζον πρoς τo cλαττoν.
γ΄ ´Υψος cστ| πάντος σχήpατος ¿ vπo τ¿ς κορυφ¿ς cπ| τ¿ν βάσιν κάθετος vγοpένη.
`48
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Definitions
1 Similar rectilinear figures are those (which) have (their) angles separately equal and the
(corresponding) sides about the equal angles proportional.
2 A straight-line is said to have been cut in extreme and mean ratio when as the whole is to
the greater segment so the greater (segment is) to the smaller.
3 The height of any figure is the (straight-line) drawn from the vertex perpendicular to the
base.
`49
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
α΄
Ζ
Θ Λ Κ
Ε
Η Β Γ ∆
Α
Τv τρίγωνα κα| τv παραλληλόγραppα τv uπo τo αuτo uψος oντα πρoς vλληλά cστιν eς α|
βάσεις.
´Εστω τρίγωνα pcν τv ΑΒΓ, ΑΓ∆, παραλληλόγραppα δc τv ΕΓ, ΓΖ uπo τo αuτo uψος τo
ΑΓ· λέγω, oτι cστ|ν eς ¿ ΒΓ βάσις πρoς τ¿ν Γ∆ βάσις, οuτως τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρoς τo ΑΓ∆
τρίγωνον, κα| τo ΕΓ παραλληλόγραppον πρoς τo ΓΖ παραλληλόγραppον.
Εκβεβλήσθω γvρ ¿ Β∆ cφ cκάτερα τv pέρη cπ| τv Θ, Λ σηpεiα, κα| κείσθωσαν τ¸ pcν ΒΓ
βάσει :σαι ¸oσαιδηποτοuν] α| ΒΗ, ΗΘ, τ¸ δc Γ∆ βάσει :σαι oσαιδηποτοuν α| ∆Κ, ΚΛ, κα|
cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΑΗ, ΑΘ, ΑΚ, ΑΛ.
Κα| cπε| :σαι εiσ|ν α| ΓΒ, ΒΗ, ΗΘ vλλήλαις, :σα cστ| κα| τv ΑΘΗ, ΑΗΒ, ΑΒΓ τρίγωνα
vλλήλοις. oσαπλασίων vρα cστ|ν ¿ ΘΓ βάσις τ¿ς ΒΓ βάσεως, τοσαυταπλάσιόν cστι κα| τo ΑΘΓ
τρίγωνον τοu ΑΒΓ τριγώνου. διv τv αuτv δ¿ oσαπλασίων cστ|ν ¿ ΛΓ βάσις τ¿ς Γ∆ βάσεως,
τοσαυταπλάσιόν cστι κα| τo ΑΛΓ τρίγωνον τοu ΑΓ∆ τριγώνου· κα| εi :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΘΓ βάσις
τ¸ ΓΛ βάσει, :σον cστ| κα| τo ΑΘΓ τρίγωνον τ; ΑΓΛ τριγών;, κα| εi uπερέχει ¿ ΘΓ βάσις
τ¿ς ΓΛ βάσεως, uπερέχει κα| τo ΑΘΓ τρίγωνον τοu ΑΓΛ τριγώνου, κα| εi cλάσσων, cλασσον.
τεσσάρων δ¿ oντων pεγεθeν δύο pcν βάσεων τeν ΒΓ, Γ∆, δύο δc τριγώνων τeν ΑΒΓ, ΑΓ∆
ε:ληπται iσάκις πολλαπλάσια τ¿ς pcν ΒΓ βάσεως κα| τοu ΑΒΓ τριγώνον ¿ τε ΘΓ βάσις κα| τo
ΑΘΓ τρίγωνον, τ¿ς δc Γ∆ βάσεως κα| τοu Α∆Γ τριγώνου vλλα, i cτυχεν, iσάκις πολλαπλάσια ¿
τε ΛΓ βάσις κα| τo ΑΛΓ τρίγωνον· κα| δέδεικται, oτι, εi uπερέχει ¿ ΘΓ βάσις τ¿ς ΓΛ βάσεως,
uπερέχει κα| τo ΑΘΓ τρίγωνον τοu ΑΛΓ τριγώνου, καί εi :ση, :σον, κα| εi cλασσων, cλασσον·
cστιν vρα eς ¿ ΒΓ βάσις πρoς τ¿ν Γ∆ βάσιν, οuτως τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρoς τo ΑΓ∆ τρίγωνον.
Κα| cπε| τοu pcν ΑΒΓ τριγώνου διπλάσιόν cστι τo ΕΓ παραλληλόγραppον, τοu δc ΑΓ∆
τριγώνου διπλάσιόν cστι τo ΖΓ παραλληλόγραppον, τv δc pέρη τοiς eσαύτως πολλαπλασίοις
τoν αuτoν cχει λόγον, cστιν vρα eς τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρoς τo ΑΓ∆ τρίγωνον, οuτως τo ΕΓ
παραλληλόγραppον πρoς τo ΖΓ παραλληλόγραppον. cπε| οuν cδείχθη, eς pcν ¿ ΒΓ βάσις
πρoς τ¿ν Γ∆, οuτως τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρoς τo ΑΓ∆ τρίγωνον, eς δc τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρoς
`¯0
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 1
98
F
H K L
E
G B C D
A
Triangles and parallelograms which are of the same height are to one another as their bases.
Let ABC and ACD be triangles, and EC and CF parallelograms, of the same height AC. I say
that as base BC is to base CD, so triangle ABC (is) to triangle ACD, and parallelogram EC to
parallelogram CF.
For let the (straight-line) BD have been produced in each direction to points H and L, and let
[any number] (of straight-lines) BG and GH be made equal to base BC, and any number (of
straight-lines) DK and KL equal to base CD. And let AG, AH, AK, and AL have been joined.
And since CB, BG, and GH are equal to one another, triangles AHG, AGB, and ABC are also
equal to one another [Prop. 1.38]. Thus, as many times as base HC is (divisible by) base BC,
so many times is triangle AHC also (divisible) by triangle ABC. So, for the same (reasons), as
many times as base LC is (divisible) by base CD, so many times is triangle ALC also (divisible)
by triangle ACD. And if base HC is equal to base CL then triangle AHC is also equal to triangle
ACL [Prop. 1.38]. And if base HC exceeds base CL then triangle AHC also exceeds triangle
ACL.
99
And if (HC is) less (than CL then AHC is also) less (than ACL). So, their being four
magnitudes, two bases, BC and CD, and two triangles, ABC and ACD, equal multiples have
been taken of base BC and triangle ABC—(namely), base HC and triangle AHC—and other
random equal multiples of base CD and triangle ADC—(namely), base LC and triangle ALC.
And it has been shown that if base HC exceeds base CL then triangle AHC also exceeds triangle
ALC, and if (HC is) equal (to CL then AHC is also) equal (to ALC), and if (HC is) less (than
CL then AHC is also) less (than ALC). Thus, as base BC is to base CD, so triangle ABC (is) to
triangle ACD [Def. 5.5].
98
As is easily demonstrated, this proposition holds even when the triangles, or parallelograms, do not share a
common side, and/or are not right-angled.
99
This is a straight-forward generalization of Prop. 1.38.
`¯l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
α΄
τo ΑΓ∆ τρίγωνον, οuτως τo ΕΓ παραλληλόγραppον πρoς τo ΓΖ παραλληλόγραppον, κα| eς
vρα ¿ ΒΓ βάσις πρoς τ¿ν Γ∆ βάσιν, οuτως τo ΕΓ παραλληλόγραppον πρoς τo ΖΓ παραλ-
ληλόγραppον.
Τv vρα τρίγωνα κα| τv παραλληλόγραppα τv υπo τo αuτo uψος oντα πρoς vλληλά cστιν eς α|
βάσεις· oπερ cδει δε|ξαι.
`¯2
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 1
And since parallelogram EC is double triangle ABC, and parallelogram FC is double triangle
ACD [Prop. 1.34], and parts have the same ratio as similar multiples [Prop. 5.15], thus as trian-
gle ABC is to triangle ACD, so parallelogram EC (is) to parallelogram FC. In fact, since it was
shown that as base BC (is) to CD, so triangle ABC (is) to triangle ACD, and as triangle ABC
(is) to triangle ACD, so parallelogram EC (is) to parallelogram CF, thus, also, as base BC (is)
to base CD, so parallelogram EC (is) to parallelogram FC [Prop. 5.11].
Thus, triangles and parallelograms which are of the same height are to one another as their bases.
(Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
`¯`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
β΄

Γ
Ε
Β
Α
Εvν τριγώνου παρv pίαν τeν πλευρeν vχθ¸ τις εuθεiα, vνάλογον τεpεi τvς τοu τριγώνου
πλευράς· κα| cvν α| τοu τριγώνου πλευρα| vνάλογον τpηθeσιν, ¿ cπ| τvς τοpvς cπιζευγνυpένη
εuθεiα παρv τ¿ν λοιπ¿ν cσται τοu τριγώνου πλευράν.
Τριγώνου γvρ τοu ΑΒΓ παράλληλος pι; τeν πλευρeν τ¸ ΒΓ ¿χθω ¿ ∆Ε· λέγω, oτι cστ|ν eς ¿
Β∆ πρoς τ¿ν ∆Α, οuτως ¿ ΓΕ πρoς τ¿ν ΕΑ.
Επεζεύχθωσαν γvρ α| ΒΕ, Γ∆.
´Ισον vρα cστ| τo Β∆Ε τρίγωνον τ; Γ∆Ε τριγών;· cπ| γvρ τ¿ς αuτ¿ς βάσεώς cστι τ¿ς ∆Ε κα|
cν ταiς αuταiς παραλλήλοις ταiς ∆Ε, ΒΓ· vλλο δέ τι τo Α∆Ε τρίγωνον. τv δc :σα πρoς τo αuτo
τoν αuτoν cχει λόγον· cστιν vρα eς τo Β∆Ε τρίγωνον πρoς τo Α∆Ε ¸τρίγωνον], οuτως τo Γ∆Ε
τρίγωνον πρoς τo Α∆Ε τρίγωνον. αλλ eς pcν τo Β∆Ε τρίγωνον πρoς τo Α∆Ε, οuτως ¿ Β∆
πρoς τ¿ν ∆Α· uπo γvρ τo αuτo uψος oντα τ¿ν vπo τοu Ε cπ| τ¿ν ΑΒ κάθετον vγοpένην πρoς
vλληλά εiσιν eς α| βάσεις. διv τv αuτv δ¿ eς τo Γ∆Ε τρίγωνον πρoς τo Α∆Ε, οuτως ¿ ΓΕ
πρoς τ¿ν ΕΑ· κα| eς vρα ¿ Β∆ πρoς τ¿ν ∆Α, οuτως ¿ ΓΕ πρoς τ¿ν ΕΑ.
Αλλv δ¿ α| τοu ΑΒΓ τριγώνου πλευρα| α| ΑΒ, ΑΓ vνάλογον τετpήσθωσαν, eς ¿ Β∆ πρoς τ¿ν
∆Α, οuτως ¿ ΓΕ πρoς τ¿ν ΕΑ, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ∆Ε· λέγω, oτι παράλληλός cστιν ¿ ∆Ε τ¸ ΒΓ.
Τeν γvρ αuτeν κατασκευασθέντων, cπεί cστιν eς ¿ Β∆ πρoς τ¿ν ∆Α, οuτως ¿ ΓΕ πρoς τ¿ν
ΕΑ, vλλ eς pcν ¿ Β∆ πρoς τ¿ν ∆Α, οuτως τo Β∆Ε τρίγωνον πρoς τo Α∆Ε τρίγωνον, eς δc
¿ ΓΕ πρoς τ¿ν ΕΑ, οuτως τo Γ∆Ε τρίγωνον πρoς τo Α∆Ε τρίγωνον, κα| eς vρα τo Β∆Ε
τρίγωνον πρoς τo Α∆Ε τρίγωνον, οuτως τo Γ∆Ε τρίγωνον πρoς τo Α∆Ε τρίγωνον. cκάτερον
vρα τeν Β∆Ε, Γ∆Ε τριγώνων πρoς τo Α∆Ε τoν αuτoν cχει λόγον. :σον vρα cστ| τo Β∆Ε
τρίγωνον τ; Γ∆Ε τριγών;· καί εiσιν cπ| τ¿ς αuτ¿ς βάσεως τ¿ς ∆Ε. τv δc :σα τρίγωνα κα| cπ|
τ¿ς αuτ¿ς βάσεως oντα κα| cν ταiς αuταiς παραλλήλοις cστίν. παράλληλος vρα cστ|ν ¿ ∆Ε τ¸
ΒΓ.
`¯4
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 2
A
C B
D E
If some straight-line is drawn parallel to one of the sides of a triangle, then it will cut the (other)
sides of the triangle proportionally. And if (two of) the sides of a triangle are cut proportionally,
then the straight-line joining the cutting (points) will be parallel to the remaining side of the
triangle.
For let DE have been drawn parallel to one of the sides BC of triangle ABC. I say that as BD is
to DA, so CE (is) to EA.
For let BE and CD have been joined.
Thus, triangle BDE is equal to triangle CDE. For they are on the same base DE and between
the same parallels DE and BC [Prop. 1.38]. And ADE is some other triangle. And equal (mag-
nitudes) have the same ratio to the same (magnitude) [Prop. 5.7]. Thus, as triangle BDE is to
[triangle] ADE, so triangle CDE (is) to triangle ADE. But, as triangle BDE (is) to triangle
ADE, so (is) BD to DA. For, having the same height—(namely), the (straight-line) drawn from
E perpendicular to AB—they are to one another as their bases [Prop. 6.1]. So, for the same
(reasons), as triangle CDE (is) to ADE, so CE (is) to EA. And, thus, as BD (is) to DA, so CE
(is) to EA [Prop. 5.11].
And so, let the sides AB and AC of triangle ABC have been cut, (so that) as BD (is) to DA, so
CE (is) to EA. And let DE have been joined. I say that DE is parallel to BC.
For, by the same construction, since as BD is to DA, so CE (is) to EA, but as BD (is) to DA, so
triangle BDE (is) to triangle ADE, and as CE (is) to EA, so triangle CDE (is) to triangle ADE
[Prop. 6.1], thus, also, as triangle BDE (is) to triangle ADE, so triangle CDE (is) to triangle
ADE [Prop. 5.11]. Thus, triangles BDE and CDE each have the same ratio to ADE. Thus, tri-
angle BDE is equal to triangle CDE [Prop. 5.9]. And they are on the same base DE. And equal
triangles, which are also on the same base, are also between the same parallels [Prop. 1.39].
Thus, DE is parallel to BC.
`¯¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
β΄
Εvν vρα τριγώνου παρv pίαν τeν πλευρeν vχθ¸ τις εuθεiα, vνάλογον τεpεi τvς τοu τριγώνου
πλευράς· κα| cvν α| τοu τριγώνου πλευρα| vνάλογον τpηθeσιν, ¿ cπ| τvς τοpvς cπιζευγνυpένη
εuθεiα παρv τ¿ν λοιπ¿ν cσται τοu τριγώνου πλευράν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`¯6
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 2
Thus, if some straight-line is drawn parallel to one of the sides of a triangle, then it will cut
the (other) sides of the triangle proportionally. And if (two of) the sides of a triangle are cut
proportionally, then the straight-line joining the cutting (points) will be parallel to the remaining
side of the triangle. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
`¯¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
γ΄
Β ∆ Γ
Α
Ε
Εvν τριγώνου ¿ γωνία δίχα τpηθ¸, ¿ δc τέpνουσα τ¿ν γωνίαν εuθεiα τέpν¸ κα| τ¿ν βάσιν, τv
τ¿ς βάσεως τpήpατα τoν αuτoν cξει λόγον ταiς λοιπαiς τοu τριγώνου πλευραiς· κα| cvν τv τ¿ς
βάσεως τpήpατα τoν αuτoν cχ¸ λόγον ταiς λοιπαiς τοu τριγώνου πλευραiς, ¿ vπo τ¿ς κορυφ¿ς
cπ| τ¿ν τοp¿ν cπιζευγνυpένη εuθεiα δίχα τεpεi τ¿ν τοu τριγώνου γωνίαν.
´Εστω τρίγωνον τo ΑΒΓ, κα| τετpήσθω ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ γωνία δίχα uπo τ¿ς Α∆ εuθείας· λέγω, oτι
cστ|ν eς ¿ Β∆ πρoς τ¿ν Γ∆, οuτως ¿ ΒΑ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΓ.
´Ηχθω γvρ διv τοu Γ τ¸ ∆Α παράλληλος ¿ ΓΕ, κα| διαχθεiσα ¿ ΒΑ συpπιπτέτω αuτ¸ κατv
τo Ε.
Κα| cπε| εiς παραλλήλους τvς Α∆, ΕΓ εuθεiα cνέπεσεν ¿ ΑΓ, ¿ vρα uπo ΑΓΕ γωνία :ση cστ|
τ¸ uπo ΓΑ∆. vλλ ¿ uπo ΓΑ∆ τ¸ uπo ΒΑ∆ uπόκειται :ση· κα| ¿ uπo ΒΑ∆ vρα τ¸ uπo ΑΓΕ
cστιν :ση. πάλιν, cπε| εiς παραλλήλους τvς Α∆, ΕΓ εuθεiα cνέπεσεν ¿ ΒΑΕ, ¿ cκτoς γωνία ¿
uπo ΒΑ∆ :ση cστ| τ¸ cντoς τ¸ uπo ΑΕΓ. cδείχθη δc κα| ¿ uπo ΑΓΕ τ¸ uπo ΒΑ∆ :ση· κα| ¿
uπo ΑΓΕ vρα γωνία τ¸ uπo ΑΕΓ cστιν :ση· eστε κα| πλευρv ¿ ΑΕ πλευρ; τ¸ ΑΓ cστιν :ση.
κα| cπε| τριγώνου τοu ΒΓΕ παρv pίαν τeν πλευρeν τ¿ν ΕΓ ¿κται ¿ Α∆, vνάλογον vρα cστ|ν
eς ¿ Β∆ πρoς τ¿ν ∆Γ, οuτως ¿ ΒΑ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΕ. :ση δc ¿ ΑΕ τ¸ ΑΓ· eς vρα ¿ Β∆ πρoς τ¿ν
∆Γ, οuτως ¿ ΒΑ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΓ.
Αλλv δ¿ cστω eς ¿ Β∆ πρoς τ¿ν ∆Γ, οuτως ¿ ΒΑ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΓ, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ Α∆· λέγω,
oτι δίχα τέτpηται ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ γωνία uπo τ¿ς Α∆ εuθείας.
Τeν γvρ αuτeν κατασκευασθέντων, cπεί cστιν eς ¿ Β∆ πρoς τ¿ν ∆Γ, οuτως ¿ ΒΑ πρoς τ¿ν
ΑΓ, vλλv κα| eς ¿ Β∆ πρoς τ¿ν ∆Γ, οuτως cστ|ν ¿ ΒΑ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΕ· τριγώνου γvρ τοu ΒΓΕ
παρv pίαν τ¿ν ΕΓ ¿κται ¿ Α∆· κα| eς vρα ¿ ΒΑ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΓ, οuτως ¿ ΒΑ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΕ. :ση
vρα ¿ ΑΓ τ¸ ΑΕ· eστε κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΑΕΓ τ¸ uπo ΑΓΕ cστιν :ση. vλλ ¿ pcν uπo ΑΕΓ
τ¸ cκτoς τ¸ uπo ΒΑ∆ ¸cστιν] :ση, ¿ δc uπo ΑΓΕ τ¸ cναλλvξ τ¸ uπo ΓΑ∆ cστιν :ση· κα| ¿ uπo
ΒΑ∆ vρα τ¸ uπo ΓΑ∆ cστιν :ση. ¿ vρα uπo ΒΑΓ γωνία δίχα τέτpηται uπo τ¿ς Α∆ εuθείας.
`¯8
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 3
B D C
A
E
If an angle of a triangle is cut in half, and the straight-line cutting the angle also cuts the base,
then the segments of the base will have the same ratio as the remaining sides of the triangle. And
if the segments of the base have the same ratio as the remaining sides of the triangle, then the
straight-line joining the vertex to the cutting (point) will cut the angle of the triangle in half.
Let ABC be a triangle. And let the angle BAC have been cut in half by the straight-line AD. I
say that as BD is to CD, so BA (is) to AC.
For let CE have been drawn through (point) C parallel to DA. And, BA being drawn through,
let it meet (CE) at (point) E.
100
And since the straight-line AC falls across the parallel (straight-lines) AD and EC, angle ACE
is thus equal to CAD [Prop. 1.29]. But, (angle) CAD is assumed (to be) equal to BAD. Thus,
(angle) BAD is also equal to ACE. Again, since the straight-line BAE falls across the paral-
lel (straight-lines) AD and EC, the external angle BAD is equal to the internal (angle) AEC
[Prop. 1.29]. And (angle) ACE was also shown (to be) equal to BAD. Thus, angle ACE is also
equal to AEC. And, hence, side AE is equal to side AC [Prop. 1.6]. And since AD has been
drawn parallel to one of the sides EC of triangle BCE, thus, proportionally, as BD is to DC, so
BA (is) to AE [Prop. 6.2]. And AE (is) equal to AC. Thus, as BD (is) to DC, so BA (is) to AC.
And so, let BD be to DC, as BA (is) to AC. And let AD have been joined. I say that angle BAC
has been cut in half by the straight-line AD.
For, by the same construction, since as BD is to DC, so BA (is) to AC, then also as BD (is) to
DC, so BA is to AE. For AD has been drawn parallel to one (of the sides) EC of triangle BCE
[Prop. 6.2]. Thus, also, as BA (is) to AC, so BA (is) to AE [Prop. 5.11]. Thus, AC (is) equal to
AE [Prop. 5.9]. And, hence, angle AEC is equal to ACE [Prop. 1.5]. But, AEC [is] equal to the
external (angle) BAD, and ACE is equal to the alternate (angle) CAD [Prop. 1.29]. Thus, (ang-
100
The fact that the two straight-lines meet follows because the sum of ACE and CAE is less than two right-angles,
as can easily be demonstrated. See Post. 5.
`¯9
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
γ΄
Εvν vρα τριγώνου ¿ γωνία δίχα τpηθ¸, ¿ δc τέpνουσα τ¿ν γωνίαν εuθεiα τέpν¸ κα| τ¿ν βάσιν,
τv τ¿ς βάσεως τpήpατα τoν αuτoν cξει λόγον ταiς λοιπαiς τοu τριγώνου πλευραiς· κα| cvν τv τ¿ς
βάσεως τpήpατα τoν αuτoν cχ¸ λόγον ταiς λοιπαiς τοu τριγώνου πλευραiς, ¿ vπo τ¿ς κορυφ¿ς
cπ| τ¿ν τοp¿ν cπιζευγνυpένη εuθεiα δίχα τέpνει τ¿ν τοu τριγώνου γωνίαν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`60
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 3
-le) BAD is also equal to CAD. Thus, angle BAC has been cut in half by the straight-line AD.
Thus, if an angle of a triangle is cut in half, and the straight-line cutting the angle also cuts the
base, then the segments of the base will have the same ratio as the remaining sides of the triangle.
And if the segments of the base have the same ratio as the remaining sides of the triangle, then
the straight-line joining the vertex to the cutting (point) will cut the angle of the triangle in half.
(Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
`6l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
δ΄
Ζ

Β Γ Ε
Α
Τeν iσογωνίων τριγώνων vνάλογόν εiσιν α| πλευρα| α| περ| τvς :σας γωνίας κα| opόλογοι α|
uπo τvς :σας γωνίας uποτείνουσαι.
´Εστω iσογώνια τρίγωνα τv ΑΒΓ, ∆ΓΕ :σην cχοντα τ¿ν pcν uπo ΑΒΓ γωνίαν τ¸ uπo ∆ΓΕ,
τ¿ν δc uπo ΒΑΓ τ¸ uπo Γ∆Ε κα| cτι τ¿ν uπo ΑΓΒ τ¸ uπo ΓΕ∆· λέγω, oτι τeν ΑΒΓ, ∆ΓΕ
τριγώνων vνάλογόν εiσιν α| πλευρα| α| περ| τvς :σας γωνίας κα| opόλογοι α| uπo τvς :σας
γωνίας uποτείνουσαι.
Κείσθω γvρ cπ εuθείας ¿ ΒΓ τ¸ ΓΕ. κα| cπε| α| uπo ΑΒΓ, ΑΓΒ γωνίαι δύο oρθeν cλάττονές
εiσιν, :ση δc ¿ uπo ΑΓΒ τ¸ uπo ∆ΕΓ, α| vρα uπo ΑΒΓ, ∆ΕΓ δύο oρθeν cλάττονές εiσιν· α|
ΒΑ, Ε∆ vρα cκβαλλόpεναι συpπεσοuνται. cκβεβλήσθωσαν κα| συpπιπτέτωσαν κατv τo Ζ.
Κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ uπo ∆ΓΕ γωνία τ¸ uπo ΑΒΓ, παράλληλός cστιν ¿ ΒΖ τ¸ Γ∆. πάλιν, cπε|
:ση cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΑΓΒ τ¸ uπo ∆ΕΓ, παράλληλός cστιν ¿ ΑΓ τ¸ ΖΕ. παραλληλόγραppον vρα
cστ| τo ΖΑΓ∆· :ση vρα ¿ pcν ΖΑ τ¸ ∆Γ, ¿ δc ΑΓ τ¸ Ζ∆. κα| cπε| τριγώνου τοu ΖΒΕ παρv
pίαν τ¿ν ΖΕ ¿κται ¿ ΑΓ, cστιν vρα eς ¿ ΒΑ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΖ, οuτως ¿ ΒΓ πρoς τ¿ν ΓΕ. :ση δc ¿
ΑΖ τ¸ Γ∆· eς vρα ¿ ΒΑ πρoς τ¿ν Γ∆, οuτως ¿ ΒΓ πρoς τ¿ν ΓΕ, κα| cναλλvξ eς ¿ ΑΒ πρoς
τ¿ν ΒΓ, οuτως ¿ ∆Γ πρoς τ¿ν ΓΕ. πάλιν, cπε| παράλληλός cστιν ¿ Γ∆ τ¸ ΒΖ, cστιν vρα eς ¿
ΒΓ πρoς τ¿ν ΓΕ, οuτως ¿ Ζ∆ πρoς τ¿ν ∆Ε. :ση δc ¿ Ζ∆ τ¸ ΑΓ· eς vρα ¿ ΒΓ πρoς τ¿ν ΓΕ,
οuτως ¿ ΑΓ πρoς τ¿ν ∆Ε, κα| cναλλvξ eς ¿ ΒΓ πρoς τ¿ν ΓΑ, οuτως ¿ ΓΕ πρoς τ¿ν Ε∆. cπε|
οuν cδείχθη eς pcν ¿ ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν ΒΓ, οuτως ¿ ∆Γ πρoς τ¿ν ΓΕ, eς δc ¿ ΒΓ πρoς τ¿ν ΓΑ,
οuτως ¿ ΓΕ πρoς τ¿ν Ε∆, δι :σου vρα eς ¿ ΒΑ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΓ, οuτως ¿ Γ∆ πρoς τ¿ν ∆Ε.
Τeν vρα iσογωνίων τριγώνων vνάλογόν εiσιν α| πλευρα| α| περ| τvς :σας γωνίας κα| opόλογοι
α| uπo τvς :σας γωνίας uποτείνουσαι· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`62
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 4
C B E
F
D
A
For equiangular triangles, the sides about the equal angles are proportional, and those (sides)
subtending equal angles correspond.
Let ABC and DCE be equiangular triangles, having angle ABC equal to DCE, and (angle) BAC
to CDE, and, further, (angle) ACB to CED. I say that, for triangles ABC and DCE, the sides
about the equal angles are proportional, and those (sides) subtending equal angles correspond.
Let BC be placed straight-on to CE. And since angles ABC and ACB are less than two right-
angles [Prop 1.17], and ACB (is) equal to DEC, thus ABC and DEC are less than two right-
angles. Thus, BA and ED, being produced, will meet [C.N. 5]. Let them have been produced,
and let them meet at (point) F.
And since angle DCE is equal to ABC, BF is parallel to CD [Prop. 1.28]. Again, since (angle)
ACB is equal to DEC, AC is parallel to FE [Prop. 1.28]. Thus, FACD is a parallelogram. Thus,
FA is equal to DC, and AC to FD [Prop. 1.34]. And since AC has been drawn parallel to one
(of the sides) FE of triangle FBE, thus as BA is to AF, so BC (is) to CE [Prop. 6.2]. And AF
(is) equal to CD. Thus, as BA (is) to CD, so BC (is) to CE, and, alternately, as AB (is) to BC,
so DC (is) to CE [Prop. 5.16]. Again, since CD is parallel to BF, thus as BC (is) to CE, so FD
(is) to DE [Prop. 6.2]. And FD (is) equal to AC. Thus, as BC is to CE, so AC (is) to DE, and,
alternately, as BC (is) to CA, so CE (is) to ED [Prop. 6.2]. Therefore, since it was shown that
as AB (is) to BC, so DC (is) to CE, and as BC (is) to CA, so CE (is) to ED, thus, via equality,
as BA (is) to AC, so CD (is) to DE [Prop. 5.22].
Thus, for equiangular triangles, the sides about the equal angles are proportional, and those
(sides) subtending equal angles correspond. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
`6`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
ε΄
Α
Β
Γ
Ζ
Η

Ε
Εvν δύο τρίγωνα τvς πλευρvς vνάλογον cχ¸, iσογώνια cσται τv τρίγωνα κα| :σας cξει τvς
γωνίας, uφ iς α| opόλογοι πλευρα| uποτείνουσιν.
´Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τv ΑΒΓ, ∆ΕΖ τvς πλευρvς vνάλογον cχοντα, eς pcν τ¿ν ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν ΒΓ,
οuτως τ¿ν ∆Ε πρoς τ¿ν ΕΖ, eς δc τ¿ν ΒΓ πρoς τ¿ν ΓΑ, οuτως τ¿ν ΕΖ πρoς τ¿ν Ζ∆, κα| cτι eς
τ¿ν ΒΑ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΓ, οuτως τ¿ν Ε∆ πρoς τ¿ν ∆Ζ. λέγω, oτι iσογώνιόν cστι τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον
τ; ∆ΕΖ τριγών; κα| :σας cξουσι τvς γωνίας, uφ iς α| opόλογοι πλευρα| uποτείνουσιν, τ¿ν pcν
uπo ΑΒΓ τ¸ uπo ∆ΕΖ, τ¿ν δc uπo ΒΓΑ τ¸ uπo ΕΖ∆ κα| cτι τ¿ν uπo ΒΑΓ τ¸ uπo Ε∆Ζ.
Συνεστάτω γvρ πρoς τ¸ ΕΖ εuθεί; κα| τοiς πρoς αuτ¸ σηpείοις τοiς Ε, Ζ τ¸ pcν uπο ΑΒΓ
γωνί; :ση ¿ uπo ΖΕΗ, τ¸ δc uπο ΑΓΒ :ση ¿ uπo ΕΖΗ· λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ πρoς τ; Α λοιπ¸ τ¸ πρoς
τ; Η cστιν :ση.
:σογώνιον vρα cστ| τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ΕΗΖ ¸τριγών;]. τeν vρα ΑΒΓ, ΕΗΖ τριγώνων
vνάλογόν εiσιν α| πλευρα| α| περ| τvς :σας γωνίας κα| opόλογοι α| uπo τvς :σας γωνίας
uποτείνουσαι· cστιν vρα eς ¿ ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν ΒΓ, ¸οuτως] ¿ ΗΕ πρoς τ¿ν ΕΖ. vλλ eς ¿ ΑΒ πρoς
τ¿ν ΒΓ, οuτως uπόκειται ¿ ∆Ε πρoς τ¿ν ΕΖ· eς vρα ¿ ∆Ε πρoς τ¿ν ΕΖ, οuτως ¿ ΗΕ πρoς
τ¿ν ΕΖ. cκατέρα vρα τeν ∆Ε, ΗΕ πρoς τ¿ν ΕΖ τoν αuτoν cχει λόγον· :ση vρα cστ|ν ¿ ∆Ε τ¸
ΗΕ. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| ¿ ∆Ζ τ¸ ΗΖ cστιν :ση. cπε| οuν :ση cστ|ν ¿ ∆Ε τ¸ ΕΗ, κοιν¿ δc ¿
ΕΖ, δύο δ¿ α| ∆Ε, ΕΖ δυσ| ταiς ΗΕ, ΕΖ :σαι εiσίν· κα| βάσις ¿ ∆Ζ βάσει τ¸ ΖΗ ¸cστιν] :ση·
γωνία vρα ¿ uπo ∆ΕΖ γωνί; τ¸ υπo ΗΕΖ cστιν :ση, κα| τo ∆ΕΖ τρίγωνον τ; ΗΕΖ τριγών;
:σον, κα| α| λοιπα| γωνίαι ταiς λοιπαiς γωνίαις :σαι, uφ iς α| :σαι πλευρα| uποτείνουσιν. :ση vρα
cστ| κα| ¿ pcν uπo ∆ΖΕ γωνία τ¸ uπo ΗΖΕ, ¿ δc uπo Ε∆Ζ τ¸ uπo ΕΗΖ. κα| cπε| ¿ pcν uπo
ΖΕ∆ τ¸ uπo ΗΕΖ cστιν :ση, vλλ ¿ uπo ΗΕΖ τ¸ uπo ΑΒΓ, κα| ¿ uπo ΑΒΓ vρα γωνία τ¸ uπo
∆ΕΖ cστιν :ση. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| ¿ uπo ΑΓΒ τ¸ uπo ∆ΖΕ cστιν :ση, κα| cτι ¿ πρoς τ; Α τ¸
πρoς τ; ∆· iσογώνιον vρα cστ| τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ∆ΕΖ τριγών;.
Εvν vρα δύο τρίγωνα τvς πλευρvς vνάλογον cχ¸, iσογώνια cσται τv τρίγωνα κα| :σας cξει τvς
γωνίας, uφ iς α| opόλογοι πλευρα| uποτείνουσιν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`64
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 5
E
B
C
A D
F
G
If two triangles have proportional sides then the triangles will be equiangular, and will have the
angles which corresponding sides subtend equal.
Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having proportional sides, (so that) as AB (is) to BC, so DE
(is) to EF, and as BC (is) to CA, so EF (is) to FD, and, further, as BA (is) to AC, so ED (is)
to DF. I say that triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF, and (that the triangles) will have
the angles which corresponding sides subtend equal. (That is), (angle) ABC (equal) to DEF,
BCA to EFD, and, further, BAC to EDF.
For let (angle) FEG, equal to angle ABC, and (angle) EFG, equal to ACB, have been con-
structed at points E and F (respectively) on the straight-line EF [Prop. 1.23]. Thus, the remain-
ing (angle) at A is equal to the remaining (angle) at G [Prop. 1.32].
Thus, triangle ABC is equiangular to [triangle] EGF. Thus, for triangles ABC and EGF, the
sides about the equal angles are proportional, and (those) sides subtending equal angles corre-
spond [Prop. 6.4]. Thus, as AB is to BC, [so] GE (is) to EF. But, as AB (is) to BC, so, it was
assumed, (is) DE to EF. Thus, as DE (is) to EF, so GE (is) to EF [Prop. 5.11]. Thus, DE
and GE each have the same ratio to EF. Thus, DE is equal to GE [Prop. 5.9]. So, for the same
(reasons), DF is also equal to GF. Therefore, since DE is equal to EG, and EF (is) common,
the two (sides) DE, EF are equal to the two (sides) GE, EF (respectively). And base DF [is]
equal to base FG. Thus, angle DEF is equal to angle GEF [Prop. 1.8], and triangle DEF (is)
equal to triangle GEF, and the remaining angles (are) equal to the remaining angles which the
equal sides subtend [Prop. 1.4]. Thus, angle DFE is also equal to GFE, and (angle) EDF to
EGF. And since (angle) FED is equal to GEF, and (angle) GEF to ABC, angle ABC is thus
also equal to DEF. So, for the same (reasons), (angle) ACB is also equal to DFE, and, further,
the (angle) at A to the (angle) at D. Thus, triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF.
Thus, if two triangles have proportional sides then the triangles will be equiangular, and will have
the angles which corresponding sides subtend equal. (Which is) the very thing it was required to
show.
`6¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
ç΄
Ζ
Β Γ
Α
Η

Ε
Εvν δύο τρίγωνα pίαν γωνίαν pι; γωνί; :σην cχ¸, περ| δc τvς :σας γωνίας τvς πλευρvς
vνάλογον, iσογώνια cσται τv τρίγωνα κα| :σας cξει τvς γωνίας, uφ iς α| opόλογοι πλευρα|
uποτείνουσιν.
´Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τv ΑΒΓ, ∆ΕΖ pίαν γωνίαν τ¿ν uπo ΒΑΓ pι; γωνί; τ¸ uπo Ε∆Ζ :σην
cχοντα, περ| δc τvς :σας γωνίας τvς πλευρvς vνάλογον, eς τ¿ν ΒΑ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΓ, οuτως τ¿ν
Ε∆ πρoς τ¿ν ∆Ζ· λέγω, oτι iσογώνιόν cστι τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ∆ΕΖ τριγών; κα| :σην cξει
τ¿ν uπo ΑΒΓ γωνίαν τ¸ uπo ∆ΕΖ, τ¿ν δc uπo ΑΓΒ τ¸ uπo ∆ΖΕ.
Συνεστάτω γvρ πρoς τ¸ ∆Ζ εuθεί; κα| τοiς πρoς αuτ¸ σηpείοις τοiς ∆, Ζ oποτέρ; pcν τeν
uπo ΒΑΓ, Ε∆Ζ :ση ¿ uπo Ζ∆Η, τ¸ δc uπo ΑΓΒ :ση ¿ uπo ∆ΖΗ· λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ πρoς τ; Β
γωνία λοιπ¸ τ¸ πρoς τ; Η :ση cστίν.
Ισογώνιον vρα cστ| τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ∆ΗΖ τριγών;. vνάλογον vρα cστ|ν eς ¿ ΒΑ πρoς
τ¿ν ΑΓ, οuτως ¿ Η∆ πρoς τ¿ν ∆Ζ. uπόκειται δc κα| eς ¿ ΒΑ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΓ, οuτως ¿ Ε∆ πρoς
τ¿ν ∆Ζ· κα| eς vρα ¿ Ε∆ πρoς τ¿ν ∆Ζ, οuτως ¿ Η∆ πρoς τ¿ν ∆Ζ. :ση vρα ¿ Ε∆ τ¸ ∆Η· κα|
κοιν¿ ¿ ∆Ζ· δύο δ¿ α| Ε∆, ∆Ζ δυσ| ταiς Η∆, ∆Ζ :σας εiσίν· κα| γωνία ¿ uπo Ε∆Ζ γωνί; τ¸
uπo Η∆Ζ ¸cστιν] :ση· βάσις vρα ¿ ΕΖ βάσει τ¸ ΗΖ cστιν :ση, κα| τo ∆ΕΖ τρίγωνον τ; Η∆Ζ
τριγών; :σον cστίν, κα| α| λοιπα| γωνίαι ταiς λοιπαiς γωνίαις :σας cσονται, uφ iς :σας πλευρα|
uποτείνουσιν. :ση vρα cστ|ν ¿ pcν uπo ∆ΖΗ τ¸ uπο ∆ΖΕ, ¿ δc uπο ∆ΗΖ τ¸ uπo ∆ΕΖ. vλλ
¿ uπο ∆ΖΗ τ¸ uπο ΑΓΒ cστιν :ση· κα| ¿ uπo ΑΓΒ vρα τ¸ uπo ∆ΖΕ cστιν :ση. uπόκειται δc
κα| ¿ uπο ΒΑΓ τ¸ uπo Ε∆Ζ :ση· κα| λοιπη vρα ¿ πρoς τ; Β λοιπ¸ τ¸ πρoς τ; Ε :ση cστίν·
iσογώνιον vρα cστ| τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ∆ΕΖ τριγών;.
Εvν vρα δύο τρίγωνα pίαν γωνίαν pι; γωνί; :σην cχ¸, περ| δc τvς :σας γωνίας τvς πλευρvς
vνάλογον, iσογώνια cσται τv τρίγωνα κα| :σας cξει τvς γωνίας, uφ iς α| opόλογοι πλευρα|
uποτείνουσιν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`66
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 6
G
A
B C
E F
D
If two triangles have one angle equal to one angle, and the sides about the equal angles propor-
tional, then the triangles will be equiangular, and will have the angles which corresponding sides
subtend equal.
Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having one angle, BAC, equal to one angle, EDF (respec-
tively), and the sides about the equal angles proportional, (so that) as BA (is) to AC, so ED (is)
to DF. I say that triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF, and will have angle ABC equal
to DEF, and (angle) ACB to DFE.
For let (angle) FDG, equal to each of BAC and EDF, and (angle) DFG, equal to ACB, have
been constructed at the points D and F (respectively) on the straight-line AF [Prop. 1.23]. Thus,
the remaining angle at B is equal to the remaining angle at G [Prop. 1.32].
Thus, triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DGF. Thus, proportionally, as BA (is) to AC,
so GD (is) to DF [Prop. 6.4]. And it was also assumed that as BA (is) to AC, so ED (is) to
DF. And, thus, as ED (is) to DF, so GD (is) to DF [Prop. 5.11]. Thus, ED (is) equal to DG
[Prop. 5.9]. And DF (is) common. So, the two (sides) ED, DF are equal to the two (sides)
GD, DF (respectively). And angle EDF [is] equal to angle GDF. Thus, base EF is equal to
base GF, and triangle DEF is equal to triangle GDF, and the remaining angles will be equal
to the remaining angles which the equal sides subtend [Prop. 1.4]. Thus, (angle) DFG is equal
to DFE, and (angle) DGF to DEF. But, (angle) DFG is equal to ACB. Thus, (angle) ACB
is also equal to DFE. And (angle) BAC was also assumed (to be) equal to EDF. Thus, the
remaining (angle) at B is equal to the remaining (angle) at E [Prop. 1.32]. Thus, triangle ABC
is equiangular to triangle DEF.
Thus, if two triangles have one angle equal to one angle, and the sides about the equal angles
proportional, then the triangles will be equiangular, and will have the angles which corresponding
sides subtend equal. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
`6¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
ζ΄

Η
Γ
Ζ
Β
Ε
Α
Εvν δύο τρίγωνα pίαν γωνίαν pι; γωνί; :σην cχ¸, περ| δc vλλας γωνίας τvς πλευρvς vνάλογον,
τeν δc λοιπeν cκατέραν vpα ¿τοι cλάσσονα ¿ p¿ cλάσσονα oρθ¿ς, iσογώνια cσται τv τρίγωνα
κα| :σας cξει τvς γωνίας, περ| iς vνάλογόν εiσιν α| πλευραί.
´Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τv ΑΒΓ, ∆ΕΖ pίαν γωνίαν pι; γωνί; :σην cχοντα τ¿ν uπo ΒΑΓ τ¸ uπo
Ε∆Ζ, περ| δc vλλας γωνίας τvς uπo ΑΒΓ, ∆ΕΖ τvς πλευρvς vνάλογον, eς τ¿ν ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν
ΒΓ, οuτως τ¿ν ∆Ε πρoς τ¿ν ΕΖ, τeν δc λοιπeν τeν πρoς τοiς Γ, Ζ πρότερον cκατέραν vpα
cλάσσονα oρθ¿ς· λέγω, oτι iσογώνιόν cστι τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ∆ΕΖ τριγών;, κα| :ση cσται ¿
uπo ΑΒΓ γωνία τ¸ uπo ∆ΕΖ, κα| λοιπ¿ δηλονότι ¿ πρoς τ; Γ λοιπ¸ τ¸ πρoς τ; Ζ :ση.
Εi γvρ vνισός cστιν ¿ uπo ΑΒΓ γωνία τ¸ uπo ∆ΕΖ, pία αuτeν pείζων cστίν. cστω pείζων ¿ uπo
ΑΒΓ. κα| συνεστάτω πρoς τ¸ ΑΒ εuθεί; κα| τ; πρoς αuτ¸ σηpεί; τ; Β τ¸ uπo ∆ΕΖ γωνί; :ση
¿ uπo ΑΒΗ.
Κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ pcν Α γωνία τ¸ ∆, ¿ δc uπo ΑΒΗ τ¸ uπo ∆ΕΖ, λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ uπo ΑΗΒ
λοιπ¸ τ¸ uπo ∆ΖΕ cστιν :ση. iσογώνιον vρα cστ| τo ΑΒΗ τρίγωνον τ; ∆ΕΖ τριγών;. cστιν
vρα eς ¿ ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν ΒΗ, οuτως ¿ ∆Ε πρoς τ¿ν ΕΖ. eς δc ¿ ∆Ε πρoς τ¿ν ΕΖ, ¸οuτως]
uπόκειται ¿ ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν ΒΓ· ¿ ΑΒ vρα πρoς cκατέραν τeν ΒΓ, ΒΗ τoν αuτoν cχει λόγον·
:ση vρα ¿ ΒΓ τ¸ ΒΗ. eστε κα| γωνία ¿ πρoς τ; Γ γωνί; τ¸ uπo ΒΗΓ cστιν :ση. cλάττων δc
oρθ¿ς uπόκειται ¿ πρoς τ; Γ· cλάττων vρα cστ|ν oρθ¿ς κα| uπo ΒΗΓ· eστε ¿ cφεξ¿ς αuτ¸
γωνία ¿ uπo ΑΗΒ pείζων cστ|ν oρθ¿ς. κα| cδείχθη :ση οuσα τ¸ πρoς τ; Ζ· κα| ¿ πρoς τ;
Ζ vρα pείζων cστ|ν oρθ¿ς. uπόκειται δc cλάσσων oρθ¿ς· oπερ cστ|ν vτοπον. οuκ vρα vνισός
cστιν ¿ uπo ΑΒΓ γωνία τ¸ uπo ∆ΕΖ· :ση vρα. cστι δc κα| ¿ πρoς τ; Α :ση τ¸ πρoς τ; ∆· κα|
λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ πρoς τ; Γ λοιπ¸ τ¸ πρoς τ; Ζ :ση cστίν. iσογώνιον vρα cστ| τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον
τ; ∆ΕΖ τριγών;.
`68
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 7
D
B
G
C
E
F
A
If two triangles have one angle equal to one angle, and the sides about other angles proportional,
and the remaining angles either both less than or both not less than right-angles, then the trian-
gles will be equiangular, and will have the angles about which the sides are proportional equal.
Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having one angle, BAC, equal to one angle, EDF (respec-
tively), and the sides about (some) other angles, ABC and DEF (respectively), proportional, (so
that) as AB (is) to BC, so DE (is) to EF, and the remaining (angles) at C and F, first of all, both
less than right-angles. I say that triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF, and (that) angle
ABC will be equal to DEF, and (that) the remaining (angle) at C (will be) manifestly equal to
the remaining (angle) at F.
For if angle ABC is not equal to (angle) DEF then one of them is greater. Let ABC be greater.
And let (angle) ABG, equal to (angle) DEF, have been constructed at the point B on the straight-
line AB [Prop. 1.23].
And since angle A is equal to (angle) D, and (angle) ABG to DEF, the remaining (angle) AGB
is thus equal to the remaining (angle) DFE [Prop. 1.32]. Thus, triangle ABG is equiangular
to triangle DEF. Thus, as AB is to BG, so DE (is) to EF [Prop. 6.4]. And as DE (is) to
EF, [so] it was assumed (is) AB to BC. Thus, AB has the same ratio to each of BC and BG
[Prop. 5.11]. Thus, BC (is) equal to BG [Prop. 5.9]. And, hence, the angle at C is equal to
angle BGC [Prop. 1.5]. And the angle at C was assumed (to be) less than a right-angle. Thus,
(angle) BGC is also less than a right-angle. Hence, the adjacent angle to it, AGB, is greater than
a right-angle [Prop. 1.13]. And (AGB) was shown to be equal to the (angle) at F. Thus, the
(angle) at F is also greater than a right-angle. But it was assumed (to be) less than a right-angle.
The very thing is absurd. Thus, angle ABC is not unequal to (angle) DEF. Thus, (it is) equal.
And the (angle) at A is also equal to the (angle) at D. And thus the remaining (angle) at C is
equal to the remaining (angle) at F [Prop. 1.32]. Thus, triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle
DEF.
`69
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
ζ΄
Αλλv δ¿ πάλιν uποκείσθω cκατέρα τeν πρoς τοiς Γ, Ζ p¿ cλάσσων oρθ¿ς· λέγω πάλιν, oτι κα|
οuτως cστ|ν iσογώνιον τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ∆ΕΖ τριγών;.
Τeν γvρ αuτeν κατασκευασθέντων opοίως δείξοpεν, oτι :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΒΓ τ¸ ΒΗ· eστε κα| γωνία
¿ πρoς τ; Γ τ¸ uπo ΒΗΓ :ση cστίν. οuκ cλάττων δc oρθ¿ς ¿ πρoς τ; Γ· οuκ cλάττων vρα
oρθ¿ς οuδc ¿ uπo ΒΗΓ. τριγώνου δ¿ τοu ΒΗΓ α| δύο γωνίαι δύο oρθeν οuκ εiσιν cλάττονες·
oπερ cστ|ν vδύνατον. οuκ vρα πάλιν vνισός cστιν ¿ uπo ΑΒΓ γωνία τ¸ uπo ∆ΕΖ· :ση vρα. cστι
δc κα| ¿ πρoς τ; Α τ¸ πρoς τ; ∆ :ση· λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ πρoς τ; Γ λοιπ¸ τ¸ πρoς τ; Ζ :ση cστίν.
iσογώνιον vρα cστ| τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ∆ΕΖ τριγών;.
Εvν vρα δύο τρίγωνα pίαν γωνίαν pι; γωνί; :σην cχ¸, περ| δc vλλας γωνίας τvς πλευρvς
vνάλογον, τeν δc λοιπeν cκατέραν vpα cλάττονα ¿ p¿ cλάττονα oρθ¿ς, iσογώνια cσται τv
τρίγωνα κα| :σας cξει τvς γωνίας, περ| iς vνάλογόν εiσιν α| πλευραί· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`¯0
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 7
But, again, let each of the (angles) at C and F be assumed (to be) not less than a right-angle. I
say, again, that triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF in this case also.
For, similarly, by the same construction, we can show that BC is equal to BG. Hence, also, the
angle at C is equal to (angle) BGC. And the (angle) at C (is) not less than a right-angle. Thus,
BGC (is) not less than a right-angle either. So, for triangle BGC, the (sum of) two angles is not
less than two right-angles. The very thing is impossible [Prop. 1.17]. Thus, again, angle ABC
is not unequal to DEF. Thus, (it is) equal. And the (angle) at A is also equal to the (angle) at
D. Thus, the remaining (angle) at C is equal to the remaining (angle) at F [Prop. 1.32]. Thus,
triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF.
Thus, if two triangles have one angle equal to one angle, and the sides about other angles pro-
portional, and the remaining angles both less than or both not less than right-angles, then the
triangles will be equiangular, and will have the angles about which the sides (are) proportional
equal. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
`¯l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
η΄
Β Γ ∆
Α
Εvν cν oρθογωνί; τριγών; vπό τ¿ς oρθ¿ς γωνίας cπ| τ¿ν βάσιν κάθετος vχθ¸, τv πρoς τ¸
καθέτ; τρίγωνα opοιά cστι τ; τε oλ; κα| vλλήλοις.
´Εστω τρίγωνον oρθογώνιον τo ΑΒΓ oρθ¿ν cχον τ¿ν uπο ΒΑΓ γωνίαν, κα| ¿χθω vπo τοu Α
cπ| τ¿ν ΒΓ κάθετος ¿ Α∆· λέγω, oτι opοιόν cστιν cκάτερον τeν ΑΒ∆, Α∆Γ τριγώνων oλ; τ;
ΑΒΓ κα| cτι vλλήλοις.
Επε| γvρ :ση cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ τ¸ uπο Α∆Β· oρθ¿ γvρ cκατέρα· κα| κοιν¿ τeν δύο τριγώνων
τοu τε ΑΒΓ κα| τοu ΑΒ∆ ¿ πρoς τ; Β, λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ uπo ΑΓΒ λοιπ¸ τ¸ uπο ΒΑ∆ cστιν :ση·
iσογώνιον vρα cστ| τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ΑΒ∆ τριγών;. cστιν vρα eς ¿ ΒΓ uποτείνουσα τ¿ν
oρθ¿ν τοu ΑΒΓ τριγώνου πρoς τ¿ν ΒΑ uποτείνουσαν τ¿ν oρθ¿ν τοu ΑΒ∆ τριγώνου, οuτως
αuτ¿ ¿ ΑΒ uποτείνουσα τ¿ν πρoς τ; Γ γωνίαν τοu ΑΒΓ τριγώνου πρoς τ¿ν Β∆ uποτείνουσαν
τ¿ν :σην τ¿ν uπο ΒΑ∆ τοu ΑΒ∆ τριγώνου, κα| cτι ¿ ΑΓ πρoς τ¿ν Α∆ uποτείνουσαν τ¿ν πρoς
τ; Β γωνίαν κοιν¿ν τeν δύο τριγώνων. τo ΑΒΓ vρα τρίγωνον τ; ΑΒ∆ τριγών; iσογώνιόν τέ
cστι κα| τvς περ| τvς :σας γωνίας πλευρvς vνάλογον cχει. opοιον vpα ¸cστ|] τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον
τ; ΑΒ∆ τριγών;. opοίως δ¿ δείξοpεν, oτι κα| τ; Α∆Γ τριγών; opοιόν cστι τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον·
cκάτερον vρα τeν ΑΒ∆, Α∆Γ ¸τριγώνων] opοιόν cστιν oλ; τ; ΑΒΓ.
Λέγω δή, oτι κα| vλλήλοις cστ|ν opοια τv ΑΒ∆, Α∆Γ τρίγωνα.
Επε| γvρ oρθ¿ ¿ uπo Β∆Α oρθ¸ τ¸ uπo Α∆Γ cστιν :ση, vλλv p¿ν κα| ¿ uπo ΒΑ∆ τ¸ πρoς τ;
Γ cδείχθη :ση, κα| λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ πρoς τ; Β λοιπ¸ τ¸ uπo ∆ΑΓ cστιν :ση· iσογώνιον vρα cστ| τo
ΑΒ∆ τρίγωνον τ; Α∆Γ τριγών;. cστιν vρα eς ¿ Β∆ τοu ΑΒ∆ τριγώνου uποτείνουσα τ¿ν uπo
ΒΑ∆ πρoς τ¿ν ∆Α τοu Α∆Γ τριγώνου uποτείνουσαν τ¿ν πρoς τ; Γ :σην τ¸ uπo ΒΑ∆, οuτως
αuτ¿ ¿ Α∆ τοu ΑΒ∆ τριγώνου uποτείνουσα τ¿ν πρoς τ; Β γωνίαν πρoς τ¿ν ∆Γ uποτείνουσαν
τ¿ν uπo ∆ΑΓ τοu Α∆Γ τριγώνου :σην τ¸ πρoς τ; Β, κα| cτι ¿ ΒΑ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΓ uποτείνουσαι
τvς oρθάς· opοιον vρα cστ| τo ΑΒ∆ τρίγωνον τ; Α∆Γ τριγών;.
`¯2
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 8
B C D
A
If, in a right-angled triangle, a (straight-line) is drawn from the right-angle perpendicular to the
base then the triangles around the perpendicular are similar to the whole (triangle) and to one
another.
Let ABC be a right-angled triangle having the angle BAC a right-angle, and let AD have been
drawn from A, perpendicular to BC [Prop. 1.12]. I say that triangles ABD and ADC are each
similar to the whole (triangle) ABC and, further, to one another.
For since (angle) BAC is equal to ADB—for each (are) right-angles—and the (angle) at B (is)
common to the two triangles ABC and ABD, the remaining (angle) ACB is thus equal to the
remaining (angle) BAD [Prop. 1.32]. Thus, triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle ABD. Thus,
as BC, subtending the right-angle in triangle ABC, is to BA, subtending the right-angle in trian-
gle ABD, so the same AB, subtending the angle at C in triangle ABC, (is) to BD, subtending the
equal (angle) BAD in triangle ABD, and, further, (so is) AC to AD, (both) subtending the angle
at B common to the two triangles [Prop. 6.4]. Thus, triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle
ABD, and has the sides about the equal angles proportional. Thus, triangle ABC [is] similar to
triangle ABD [Def. 6.1]. So, similarly, we can show that triangle ADC is also similar to triangle
ABC. Thus, [triangles] ABD and ADC are each similar to the whole (triangle) ABC.
So I say that triangles ABD and ADC are also similar to one another.
For since the right-angle BDA is equal to the right-angle ADC, and, indeed, (angle) BAD was
also shown (to be) equal to the (angle) at C, thus the remaining (angle) at B is also equal to
the remaining (angle) DAC [Prop. 1.32]. Thus, triangle ABD is equiangular to triangle ADC.
Thus, as BD, subtending (angle) BAD in triangle ABD, is to DA, subtending the (angle) at C
in triangle ADB, (which is) equal to (angle) BAD, so (is) the same AD, subtending the angle
at B in triangle ABD, to DC, subtending (angle) DAC in triangle ADC, (which is) equal to the
(angle) at B, and, further, (so is) BA to AC, (each) subtending right-angles [Prop. 6.4]. Thus,
triangle ABD is similar to triangle ADC [Def. 6.1].
`¯`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
η΄
Εvν vρα cν oρθογωνί; τριγών; vπo τ¿ς oρθ¿ς γωνίας cπ| τ¿ν βάσιν κάθετος vχθ¸, τv πρoς
τ¸ καθέτ; τρίγωνα opοιά cστι τ; τε oλ; κα| vλλήλοις ¸oπερ cδει δεiξαι].
Πόρισpα
Εκ δ¿ τούτου φανερόν, oτι cvν cν oρθογωνί; τριγών; vπo τ¿ς oρθ¿ς γωνάις cπ| τ¿ν βάσις
κάθετος vχθ¸, ¿ vχθεiσα τeν τ¿ς βάσεως τpηpάτων pέση vνάλογόν cστιν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`¯4
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 8
Thus, if, in a right-angled triangle, a (straight-line) is drawn from the right-angle perpendicular
to the base then the triangles around the perpendicular are similar to the whole (triangle) and to
one another. [(Which is) the very thing it was required to show.]
Corollary
So (it is) clear, from this, that if, in a right-angled triangle, a (straight-line) is drawn from the
right-angle perpendicular to the base then the (straight-line so) drawn is in mean proportion to
the pieces of the base.
101
(Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
101
In other words, the perpendicular is the geometric mean of the pieces.
`¯¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
θ΄
Β Α

Ε
Γ
Ζ
Τ¿ς δοθείσης εuθείας τo προσταχθcν pέρος vφελεiν.
´Εστω ¿ δοθεiσα εuθεiα ¿ ΑΒ· δεi δ¿ τ¿ς ΑΒ τo προσταχθcν pέρος vφελεiν.
Επιτετάχθω δ¿ τo τρίτον. ¸κα|] διήθχω τις vπo τοu Α εuθεiα ¿ ΑΓ γωνίαν περιέχουσα pετv
τ¿ς ΑΒ τυχοuσαν· κα| εiλήφθω τυχoν σηpεiον cπ| τ¿ς ΑΓ τo ∆, κα| κείσθωσαν τ¸ Α∆ :σαι α|
∆Ε, ΕΓ. κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΒΓ, κα| διv τοu Α παράλληλος αuτ¸ ¿χθω ¿ ∆Ζ.
Επε| οuν τριγώνου τοu ΑΒΓ παρv pίαν τeν πλευρeν τ¿ν ΒΓ ¿κται ¿ Ζ∆, vνάλογον vρα cστ|ν
eς ¿ Γ∆ πρoς τ¿ν ∆Α, οuτως ¿ ΒΖ πρoς τ¿ν ΖΑ. διπλ¿ δc ¿ Γ∆ τ¿ς ∆Α· διπλ¿ vρα κα| ¿ ΒΖ
τ¿ς ΖΑ· τριπλ¿ vρα ¿ ΒΑ τ¿ς ΑΖ.
Τ¿ς vρα δοθείσης εuθείας τ¿ς ΑΒ τo cπιταχθcν τρίτον pέρος vφ¸ρηται τo ΑΖ· oπερ cδει
ποι¿σαι.
`¯6
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 9
C
A F
E
D
B
To cut off a prescribed part from a given straight-line.
Let AB be the given straight-line. So it is required to cut off a prescribed part from AB.
So let a third (part) have been prescribed. [And] let some straight-line AC have been drawn from
(point) A, encompassing a random angle with AB. And let a random point D have been taken
on AC. And let DE and EC be made equal to AD [Prop. 1.3]. And let BC have been joined.
And let DF have been drawn through D parallel to it [Prop. 1.31].
Therefore, since FD has been drawn parallel to one of the sides, BC, of triangle ABC, then,
proportionally, as CD is to DA, so BF (is) to FA [Prop. 6.2]. And CD (is) double DA. Thus,
BF (is) also double FA. Thus, BA (is) triple AF.
Thus, the prescribed third part, AF, has been cut off from the given straight-line, AB. (Which is)
the very thing it was required to do.
`¯¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
ι΄

Α
Γ
Ε
Κ
Θ
Ζ Η Β
Τ¿ν δοθεiσαν εuθεiαν vτpητον τ¸ δοθείσ¸ τετpηpέν¸ opοίως τεpεiν.
´Εστω ¿ pcν δοθεiσα εuθεiα vτpητος ¿ ΑΒ, ¿ δc τετpηpένη ¿ ΑΓ κατv τv ∆, Ε σηpεiα, κα|
κείσθωσαν eστε γωνίαν τυχοuσαν περιέχειν, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΓΒ, κα| διv τeν ∆, Ε τ¸ ΒΓ
παράλληλοι ¿χθωσαν α| ∆Ζ, ΕΗ, διv δc τοu ∆ τ¸ ΑΒ παράλληλος ¿χθω ¿ ∆ΘΚ.
Παραλληλόγραpον vρα cστ|ν cκάτερον τeν ΖΘ, ΘΒ· :ση vρα ¿ pcν ∆Θ τ¸ ΖΗ, ¿ δc ΘΚ τ¸
ΗΒ. κα| cπε| τριγώνου τοu ∆ΚΓ παρv pίαν τeν πλευρeν τ¿ν ΚΓ εuθεiα ¿κται ¿ ΘΕ, vνάλογον
vρα cστ|ν eς ¿ ΓΕ πρoς τ¿ν Ε∆, οuτως ¿ ΚΘ πρoς τ¿ν Θ∆. :ση δc ¿ pcν ΚΘ τ¸ ΒΗ, ¿ δc
Θ∆ τ¸ ΗΖ. cστιν vρα eς ¿ ΓΕ πρoς τ¿ν Ε∆, οuτως ¿ ΒΗ πρoς τ¿ν ΗΖ. πάλιν, cπε| τριγώνου
τοu ΑΗΕ παρv pίαν τeν πλευρeν τ¿ν ΗΕ ¿κται ¿ Ζ∆, vνάλογον vρα cστ|ν eς ¿ Ε∆ πρoς τ¿ν
∆Α, οuτως ¿ ΗΖ πρoς τ¿ν ΖΑ. cδείχθη δc κα| eς ¿ ΓΕ πρoς τ¿ν Ε∆, οuτως ¿ ΒΗ πρoς τ¿ν
ΗΖ· cστιν vρα eς pcν ¿ ΓΕ πρoς τ¿ν Ε∆, οuτως ¿ ΒΗ πρoς τ¿ν ΗΖ, eς δc ¿ Ε∆ πρoς τ¿ν
∆Α, οuτως ¿ ΗΖ πρoς τ¿ν ΖΑ.
Η vρα δοθεiσα εuθεiα vτpητος ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ δοθείσ¸ εuθεί; τετpηpέν¸ τ¸ ΑΓ opοίως τέτpηται·
oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι·
`¯8
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 10
H
A
E
C
K
G F B
D
To cut a given uncut straight-line similarly to a given cut (straight-line).
Let AB be the given uncut straight-line, and AC a (straight-line) cut at points D and E, and let
(AC) be laid down so as to encompass a random angle (with AB). And let CB have been joined.
And let DF and EG have been drawn through (points) D and E (respectively), parallel to BC,
and let DHK have been drawn through (point) D, parallel to AB [Prop. 1.31].
Thus, FH and HB are each parallelograms. Thus, DH (is) equal to FG, and HK to GB
[Prop. 1.34]. And since the straight-line HE has been drawn parallel to one of the sides, KC, of
triangle DKC, thus, proportionally, as CE is to ED, so KH (is) to HD [Prop. 6.2]. And KH (is)
equal to BG, and HD to GF. Thus, as CE is to ED, so BG (is) to GF. Again, since FD has been
drawn parallel to one of the sides, GE, of triangle AGE, thus, proportionally, as ED is to DA,
so GF (is) to FA [Prop. 6.2]. And it was also shown that as CE (is) to ED, so BG (is) to GF.
Thus, as CE is to ED, so BG (is) to GF, and as ED (is) to DA, so GF (is) to FA.
Thus, the given uncut straight-line, AB, has been cut similarly to the given cut straight-line, AC.
(Which is) the very thing it was required to do.
`¯9
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
ια΄
Ε
Α
Β
Γ

∆ύο δοθεισeν εuθειeν τρίτην vνάλογον προσευρεiν.
´Εστωσαν α| δοθεiσαι ¸δύο εuθεiαι] α| ΒΑ, ΑΓ κα| κείσθωσαν γωνίαν περιέχουσαι τυχοuσαν.
δεi δ¿ τeν ΒΑ, ΑΓ τρίτην vνάλογον προσευρεiν. cκβεβλήσθωσαν γvρ cπ| τv ∆, Ε σηpεiα, κα|
κείσθω τ¸ ΑΓ :ση ¿ Β∆, κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΒΓ, κα| διv τοu ∆ παράλληλος αuτ¸ ¿χθω ¿ ∆Ε.
Επε| οuν τριγώνου τοu Α∆Ε παρv pίαν τeν πλευρeν τ¿ν ∆Ε ¿κται ¿ ΒΓ, vνάλογόν cστιν eς
¿ ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν Β∆, οuτως ¿ ΑΓ πρoς τ¿ν ΓΕ. :ση δc ¿ Β∆ τ¸ ΑΓ. cστιν vρα eς ¿ ΑΒ πρoς
τ¿ν ΑΓ, οuτως ¿ ΑΓ πρoς τ¿ν ΓΕ.
∆ύο vρα δοθεισeν εuθειeν τeν ΑΒ, ΑΓ τρίτη vνάλογον αuταiς προσεύρηται ¿ ΓΕ· oπερ cδει
ποι¿σαι.
`80
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 11
C
B
E
D
A
To find a third (straight-line) proportional to two given straight-lines.
Let BA and AC be the [two] given [straight-lines], and let them be laid down encompassing a
random angle. So it is required to find a third (straight-line) proportional to BA and AC. For let
(BA and AC) have been produced to points D and E (respectively), and let BD be made equal
to AC [Prop. 1.3]. And let BC have been joined. And let DE have been drawn through (point)
D parallel to it [Prop. 1.31].
Therefore, since BC has been drawn parallel to one of the sides DE of triangle ADE, propor-
tionally, as AB is to BD, so AC (is) to CE [Prop. 6.2]. And BD (is) equal to AC. Thus, as AB is
to AC, so AC (is) to CE.
Thus, a third (straight-line), CE, has been found (which is) proportional to the two given straight-
lines, AB and AC. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.
`8l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
ιβ΄
Η
Ζ
Α
Β
Γ
∆ Θ
Ε
Τριeν δοθεισeν εuθειeν τετάρτην vνάλογον προσευρεiν.
´Εστωσαν α| δοθεiσαι τρεiς εuθεiαι α| Α, Β, Γ· δεi δ¿ τeν Α, Β, Γ τετράτην vνάλογον
προσευρεiν.
Εκκείσθωσαν δύο εuθεiαι α| ∆Ε, ∆Ζ γωνίαν περιέχουσαι ¸τυχοuσαν] τ¿ν uπo Ε∆Ζ· κα| κείσθω
τ¸ pcν Α :ση ¿ ∆Η, τ¸ δc Β :ση ¿ ΗΕ, κα| cτι τ¸ Γ :ση ¿ ∆Θ· κα| cπιζευχθείσης τ¿ς ΗΘ
παράλληλος αuτ¸ ¿χθω διv τοu Ε ¿ ΕΖ.
Επε| οuν τριγώνου τοu ∆ΕΖ παρv pίαν τ¿ν ΕΖ ¿κται ¿ ΗΘ, cστιν vρα eς ¿ ∆Η πρoς τ¿ν
ΗΕ, οuτως ¿ ∆Θ πρoς τ¿ν ΘΖ. :ση δc ¿ pcν ∆Η τ¸ Α, ¿ δc ΗΕ τ¸ Β, ¿ δc ∆Θ τ¸ Γ· cστιν
vρα eς ¿ Α πρoς τ¿ν Β, οuτως ¿ Γ πρoς τ¿ν ΘΖ.
Τριeν vρα δοθεισeν εuθειeν τeν Α, Β, Γ τετάρτη vνάλογον προσεύρηται ¿ ΘΖ· oπερ cδει
ποι¿σαι.
`82
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 12
D
A
C
B
E
G
H F
To find a fourth (straight-line) proportional to three given straight-lines.
Let A, B, and C be the three given straight-lines. So it is required to find a fourth (straight-line)
proportional to A, B, and C.
Let the two straight-lines DE and DF be set out encompassing the [random] angle EDF. And
let DG be made equal to A, and GE to B, and, further, DH to C [Prop. 1.3]. And GH being
joined, let EF have been drawn through (point) E parallel to it [Prop. 1.31].
Therefore, since GH has been drawn parallel to one of the sides EF of triangle DEF, thus as
DG is to GE, so DH (is) to HF [Prop. 6.2]. And DG (is) equal to A, and GE to B, and DH to
C. Thus, as A is to B, so C (is) to HF.
Thus, a fourth (straight-line), HF, has been found (which is) proportional to the three given
straight-lines, A, B, and C. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.
`8`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
ιγ΄
Γ Α Β

∆ύο δοθεισeν εuθειeν pέσην vνάλογον προσευρεiν.
´Εστωσαν α| δοθεiσαι δύο εuθεiαι α| ΑΒ, ΒΓ· δεi δ¿ τeν ΑΒ, ΒΓ pέσην vνάλογον προσευρεiν.
Κείσθωσαν cπ εuθείας, κα| γεγράφθω cπ| τ¿ς ΑΓ ¿pικύκλιον τo Α∆Γ, κα| ¿χθω vπo τοu Β
σηpείου τ¸ ΑΓ εuθεί; πρoς oρθvς ¿ ΒΑ, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| Α∆, ∆Γ.
Επε| cν ¿pικυκλί; γωνία cστ|ν ¿ uπo Α∆Γ, oρθή cστιν. κα| cπε| cν oρθογωνί; τριγών; τ;
Α∆Γ vπo τ¿ς oρθ¿ς γωνίας cπ| τ¿ν βάσιν κάθετος ¿κται ¿ ∆Β, ¿ ∆Β vρα τeν τ¿ς βάσεως
τpηpάτων τeν ΑΒ, ΒΓ pέση vνάλογόν cστιν.
∆ύο vρα δοθεισeν εuθειeν τeν ΑΒ, ΒΓ pέση vνάλογον προσεύρηται ¿ ∆Β· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
`84
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 13
C A B
D
To find the (straight-line) in mean proportion to two given straight-lines.
102
Let AB and BC be the two given straight-lines. So it is required to find the (straight-line) in
mean proportion to AB and BC.
Let (AB and BC) be laid down straight-on (with respect to one another), and let the semi-circle
ADC have been drawn on AC [Prop. 1.10]. And let BD have been drawn from (point) B, at
right-angles to AC [Prop. 1.11]. And let AD and DC have been joined.
And since ADC is an angle in a semi-circle, it is a right-angle [Prop. 3.31]. And since, in the
right-angled triangle ADC, the (straight-line) DB has been drawn from the right-angle perpen-
dicular to the base, DB is thus the mean proportional to the pieces of the base, AB and BC
[Prop. 6.8 corr.].
Thus, DB has been found (which is) in mean proportion to the two given straight-lines, AB and
BC. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.
102
In other words, to find the geometric mean of two given straight-lines.
`8¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
ιδ΄
Γ
Α
Β
Η Ζ

Ε
Τeν :σων τε κα| :σογωνίων παραλληλογράppων vντιπεπόνθασιν α| πλευρα| α| περ| τvς :σας
γωνίας· κα| eν iσογωνίων παραλληλογράppων vντιπεπόνθασιν α| πλευρα| α| περ| τvς :σας
γωνίας, :σα cστ|ν cκεiνα.
´Εστω :σα τε κα| iσογώνια παραλληλόγραppα τv ΑΒ, ΒΓ :σας cχοντα τvς πρoς τ; Β γωνίας,
κα| κείσθωσαν cπ εuθείας α| ∆Β, ΒΕ· cπ εuθείας vρα εiσ| κα| α| ΖΒ, ΒΗ. λέγω, oτι τeν ΑΒ,
ΒΓ vντιπεπόνθασιν α| πλευρα| α| περ| τvς :σας γωνίας, τουτέστιν, oτι cστ|ν eς ¿ ∆Β πρoς τ¿ν
ΒΕ, οuτως ¿ ΗΒ πρoς τ¿ν ΒΖ.
Συpπεπληρώσθω γvρ τo ΖΕ παραλληλόγραppον. cπε| οuν :σον cστ| τo ΑΒ παραλληλόγραppον
τ; ΒΓ παραλληλογράpp;, vλλο δέ τι τo ΖΕ, cστιν vρα eς τo ΑΒ πρoς τo ΖΕ, οuτως τo ΒΓ
πρoς τo ΖΕ. vλλ eς pcν τo ΑΒ πρoς τo ΖΕ, οuτως ¿ ∆Β πρoς τ¿ν ΒΕ, eς δc τo ΒΓ πρoς τo
ΖΕ, οuτως ¿ ΗΒ πρoς τ¿ν ΒΖ· κα| eς vρα ¿ ∆Β πρoς τ¿ν ΒΕ, οuτως ¿ ΗΒ πρoς τ¿ν ΒΖ. τeν
vρα ΑΒ, ΒΓ παραλληλογράppων vντιπεπόνθασιν α| πλευρα| α| περ| τvς :σας γωνίας.
Αλλv δ¿ cστω eς ¿ ∆Β πρoς τ¿ν ΒΕ, οuτως ¿ ΗΒ πρoς τ¿ν ΒΖ· λέγω, oτι :σον cστ| τo ΑΒ
παραλληλόγραppον τ; ΒΓ παραλληλογράpp;.
Επε| γάρ cστιν eς ¿ ∆Β πρoς τ¿ν ΒΕ, οuτως ¿ ΗΒ πρoς τ¿ν ΒΖ, vλλ eς pcν ¿ ∆Β πρoς
τ¿ν ΒΕ, οuτως τo ΑΒ παραλληλόγραppον πρoς τo ΖΕ παραλληλόγραppον, eς δc ¿ ΗΒ πρoς
τ¿ν ΒΖ, οuτως τo ΒΓ παραλληλόγραppον πρoς τo ΖΕ παραλληλόγραppον, κα| eς vρα τo
ΑΒ πρoς τo ΖΕ, οuτως τo ΒΓ πρoς τo ΖΕ· :σον vρα cστ| τo ΑΒ παραλληλόγραppον τ; ΒΓ
παραλληλογράpp;.
Τeν vρα :σων τε κα| iσογωνίων παραλληλογράppων vντιπεπόνθασιν α| πλευρα| α| περ| τvς
:σας γωνίας· κα| eν iσογωνίων παραλληλογράppων vντιπεπόνθασιν α| πλευρα| α| περ| τvς :σας
γωνίας, :σα cστ|ν cκεiνα· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`86
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 14
D A
F
B
G
E C
For equal and equiangular parallelograms, the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally pro-
portional. And those equiangular parallelograms for which the sides about the equal angles are
reciprocally proportional are equal.
Let AB and BC be equal and equiangular parallelograms having the angles at B equal. And let
DB and BE be laid down straight-on (with respect to one another) [Prop. 1.14]. Thus, FB and
BG are also straight-on (with respect to one another). I say that the sides of AB and BC about
the equal angles are reciprocally proportional, that is to say, that as DB is to BE, so GB (is) to
BF.
For let the parallelogram FE have been filled in. Therefore, since parallelogram AB is equal to
parallelogram BC, and FE (is) some other (parallelogram), thus as (parallelogram) AB is to
FE, so (parallelogram) BC (is) to FE [Prop. 5.7]. But, as (parallelogram) AB (is) to FE, so
DB (is) to BE, and as (parallelogram) BC (is) to FE, so GB (is) to BF [Prop. 6.1]. Thus, also,
as DB (is) to BE, so GB (is) to BF. Thus, for parallelograms AB and BC, the sides about the
equal angles are reciprocally proportional.
And so, let DB be to BE, as GB (is) to BF. I say that parallelogramAB is equal to parallelogram
BC.
For since as DB is to BE, so GB (is) to BF, but as DB (is) to BE, so parallelogram AB (is) to
parallelogram FE [Prop. 6.1], and as GB (is) to BF, so parallelogram BC (is) to parallelogram
FE [Prop. 6.1], thus, also, as (parallelogram) AB (is) to FE, so (parallelogram) BC (is) to FE
[Prop. 5.11]. Thus, parallelogram AB is equal to parallelogram BC [Prop. 5.9].
Thus, for equal and equiangular parallelograms, the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally
proportional. And those equiangular parallelograms for which the sides about the equal angles
are reciprocally proportional are equal. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
`8¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
ιε΄
Γ
Ε
Α

Β
Τeν :σων κα| pίαν pι; :σην cχόντων γωνίαν τριγώνων vντιπεπόνθασιν α| πλευρα| α| περ| τvς
:σας γωνίας· κα| eν pίαν pι; :σην cχόντων γωνίαν τριγώνων vντιπεπόνθασιν α| πλευρα| α| περ|
τvς :σας γωνίας, :σα cστ|ν cκεiνα.
´Εστω :σα τρίγωνα τv ΑΒΓ, Α∆Ε pίαν pι; :σην cχοντα γωνίαν τ¿ν uπo ΒΑΓ τ¸ uπo ∆ΑΕ· λέγω,
oτι τeν ΑΒΓ, Α∆Ε τριγώνων vντιπεπόνθασιν α| πλευρα| α| περ| τvς :σας γωνίας, τουτέστιν, oτι
cστ|ν eς ¿ ΓΑ πρoς τ¿ν Α∆, οuτως ¿ ΕΑ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΒ.
Κείσθω γvρ eστε cπ εuθείας ε|ναι τ¿ν ΓΑ τ¸ Α∆· cπ εuθείας vρα cστ| κα| ¿ ΕΑ τ¸ ΑΒ. κα|
cπεζεύχθω ¿ Β∆.
Επε| οuν :σον cστ| τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; Α∆Ε τριγών;, vλλο δέ τι τo ΒΑ∆, cστιν vρα eς τo
ΓΑΒ τρίγωνον πρoς τo ΒΑ∆ τρίγωνον, οuτως τo ΕΑ∆ τρίγωνον πρoς τo ΒΑ∆ τρίγωνον. vλλ
eς pcν τo ΓΑΒ πρoς τo ΒΑ∆, οuτως ¿ ΓΑ πρoς τ¿ν Α∆, eς δc τo ΕΑ∆ πρoς τo ΒΑ∆, οuτως
¿ ΕΑ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΒ. κα| eς vρα ¿ ΓΑ πρoς τ¿ν Α∆, οuτως ¿ ΕΑ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΒ. τeν ΑΒΓ,
Α∆Ε vρα τριγώνων vντιπεπόνθασιν α| πλευρα| α| περ| τvς :σας γωνίας.
Αλλv δ¿ vντιπεπονθέτωσαν α| πλευρα| τeν ΑΒΓ, Α∆Ε τριγώνων, κα| cστω eς ¿ ΓΑ πρoς τ¿ν
Α∆, οuτως ¿ ΕΑ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΒ· λέγω, oτι :σον cστ| τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; Α∆Ε τριγών;.
Επιζευχθείσης γvρ πάλιν τ¿ς Β∆, cπεί cστιν eς ¿ ΓΑ πρoς τ¿ν Α∆, οuτως ¿ ΕΑ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΒ,
vλλ eς pcν ¿ ΓΑ πρoς τ¿ν Α∆, οuτως τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρoς τo ΒΑ∆ τρίγωνον, eς δc ¿ ΕΑ
πρoς τ¿ν ΑΒ, οuτως τo ΕΑ∆ τρίγωνον πρoς τo ΒΑ∆ τρίγωνον, eς vρα τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρoς
τo ΒΑ∆ τρίγωνον, οuτως τo ΕΑ∆ τρίγωνον πρoς τo ΒΑ∆ τρίγωνον. cκάτερον vρα τeν ΑΒΓ,
ΕΑ∆ πρoς τo ΒΑ∆ τoν αuτoν cχει λόγον. :σων vρα cστ| τo ΑΒΓ ¸τρίγωνον] τ; ΕΑ∆ τριγών;.
Τeν vρα :σων κα| pίαν pι; :σην cχόντων γωνίαν τριγώνων vντιπεπόνθασιν α| πλευρα| α| περ|
τvς :σας γωνίας· κα| eς pίαν pι; :σην cχόντων γωνίαν τριγώνων vντιπεπόνθασιν α| πλευρα| α|
περ| τvς :σας γωνίας, cκεiνα :σα cστ|ν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`88
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 15
A
E
C
D
B
For equal triangles also having one angle equal to one (angle), the sides about the equal angles
are reciprocally proportional. And those triangles having one angle equal to one angle for which
the sides about the equal angles (are) reciprocally proportional are equal.
Let ABC and ADE be equal triangles having one angle equal to one (angle), (namely) BAC
(equal) to DAE. I say that, for triangles ABC and ADE, the sides about the equal angles are
reciprocally proportional, that is to say, that as CA is to AD, so EA (is) to AB.
For let CA be laid down so as to be straight-on (with respect) to AD. Thus, EA is also straight-on
(with respect) to AB [Prop. 1.14]. And let BD have been joined.
Therefore, since triangle ABC is equal to triangle ADE, and BAD (is) some other (triangle),
thus as triangle CAB is to triangle BAD, so triangle EAD (is) to triangle BAD [Prop. 5.7]. But,
as (triangle) CAB (is) to BAD, so CA (is) to AD, and as (triangle) EAD (is) to BAD, so EA
(is) to AB [Prop. 6.1]. And thus, as CA (is) to AD, so EA (is) to AB. Thus, for triangles ABC
and ADE, the sides about the equal angles (are) reciprocally proportional.
And so, let the sides of triangles ABC and ADE be reciprocally proportional, and let CA be to
AD, as EA (is) to AB. I say that triangle ABC is equal to triangle ADE.
For, BD again being joined, since as CA is to AD, so EA (is) to AB, but as CA (is) to AD, so
triangle ABC (is) to triangle BAD, and as EA (is) to AB, so triangle EAD (is) to triangle BAD
[Prop. 6.1], thus as triangle ABC (is) to triangle BAD, so triangle EAD (is) to triangle BAD.
Thus, (triangles) ABC and EAD each have the same ratio to BAD. Thus, [triangle] ABC is
equal to triangle EAD [Prop. 5.9].
Thus, for equal triangles also having one angle equal to one (angle), the sides about the equal
angles (are) reciprocally proportional. And those triangles having one angle equal to one angle
for which the sides about the equal angles (are) reciprocally proportional are equal. (Which is)
the very thing it was required to show.
`89
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
ιç΄
Η
Β ∆
Ζ Ε
Α Γ
Θ
Εvν τέσσαρες εuθεiαι vνάλογον eσιν, τo uπo τeν vκρων περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον :σον cστ|
τ; uπo τeν pέσων περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί;· κiν τo uπo τeν vκρων περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον
:σον ¸ τ; uπo τeν pέσων περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί;, α| τέσσαρες εuθεiαι vνάλογον cσονται.
´Εστωσαν τέσσαρες εuθεiαι vνάλογον α| ΑΒ, Γ∆, Ε, Ζ, eς ¿ ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν Γ∆, οuτως ¿ Ε
πρoς τ¿ν Ζ· λέγω, oτι τo uπo τeν ΑΒ, Ζ περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον :σον cστ| τ; uπo τeν Γ∆,
Ε περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί;.
´Ηχθωσαν ¸γvρ] vπo τeν Α, Γ σηpείων ταiς ΑΒ, Γ∆ εuθείαις πρoς oρθvς α| ΑΗ, ΓΘ, κα|
κείσθω τ¸ pcν Ζ :ση ¿ ΑΗ, τ¸ δc Ε :ση ¿ ΓΘ. κα| συpπεπληρώσθω τv ΒΗ, ∆Θ παραλ-
ληλόγραppα.
Κα| cπεί cστιν eς ¿ ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν Γ∆, οuτως ¿ Ε πρoς τ¿ν Ζ, :ση δc ¿ pcν Ε τ¸ ΓΘ, ¿
δc Ζ τ¸ ΑΗ, cστιν vρα eς ¿ ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν Γ∆, οuτως ¿ ΓΘ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΗ. τeν ΒΗ, ∆Θ
vρα παραλληλογράppων vντιπεπόνθασιν α| πλευρα| α| περ| τvς :σας γωνίας. eν δc iσογωνίων
παραλληλογράppων vντιπεπόνθασιν α| πλευραί α| περ| τvς :σας γωνάις, :σα cστ|ν cκεiνα· :σον
vρα cστ| τo ΒΗ παραλληλόγραppον τ; ∆Θ παραλληλογράpp;. καί cστι τo pcν ΒΗ τo uπo
τeν ΑΒ, Ζ· :ση γvρ ¿ ΑΗ τ¸ Ζ· τo δc ∆Θ τo uπo τeν Γ∆, Ε· :ση γvρ ¿ Ε τ¸ ΓΘ· τo vρα uπo
τeν ΑΒ, Ζ περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον :σον cστ| τ; uπo τeν Γ∆, Ε περιεχόpεν; oρθογώνι;.
Αλλv δ¿ τo uπo τeν ΑΒ, Ζ περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον :σον cστω τ; uπo τeν Γ∆, Ε περιε-
χοpέν; oρθογωνί;. λέγω, oτι α| τέσσαρες εuθεiαι vνάλογον cσονται, eς ¿ ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν Γ∆,
οuτως ¿ Ε πρoς τ¿ν Ζ.
Τeν γvρ αuτeν κατασκευασθέντων, cπε| τo uπo τeν ΑΒ, Ζ :σον cστ| τ; uπo τeν Γ∆, Ε, καί
cστι τo pcν uπo τeν ΑΒ, Ζ τo ΒΗ· :ση γάρ cστιν ¿ ΑΗ τ¸ Ζ· τo δc uπo τeν Γ∆, Ε τo ∆Θ· :ση
γvρ ¿ ΓΘ τ¸ Ε· τo vρα ΒΗ :σον cστ| τ; ∆Θ. καί cστιν iσογώνια. τeν δc :σων κα| iσογωνίων
παραλληλογράppων vντιπεπόνθασιν α| πλευρα| α| περ| τvς :σας γωνίας. cστιν vρα eς ¿ ΑΒ
`90
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 16
D
B
G
A
E F
C
H
If four straight-lines are proportional, then the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is
equal to the rectangle contained by the middle (two). And if the rectangle contained by the
(two) outermost is equal to the rectangle contained by the middle (two), then the four straight-
lines will be proportional.
Let AB, CD, E, and F be four proportional straight-lines, (such that) as AB (is) to CD, so E (is)
to F. I say that the rectangle contained by AB and F is equal to the rectangle contained by CD
and E.
[For] let AGand CH have been drawn from points A and C at right-angles to the straight-lines AB
and CD (respectively) [Prop. 1.11]. And let AG be made equal to F, and CH to E [Prop. 1.3].
And let the parallelograms BG and DH have been completed.
And since as AB is to CD, so E (is) to F, and E (is) equal CH, and F to AG, thus as AB is
to CD, so CH (is) to AG. Thus, for the parallelograms BG and DH, the sides about the equal
angles are reciprocally proportional. And those equiangular parallelograms for which the sides
about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional are equal [Prop. 6.14]. Thus, parallelogram
BG is equal to parallelogram DH. And BG is the (rectangle contained) by AB and F. For AG
(is) equal to F. And DH (is) the (rectangle contained) by CD and E. For E (is) equal to CH.
Thus, the rectangle contained by AB and F is equal to the rectangle contained by CD and E.
And so, let the rectangle contained by AB and F be equal to the rectangle contained by CD and
E. I say that the four straight-lines will be proportional, (so that) as AB (is) to CD, so E (is) to
F.
`9l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
ιç΄
πρoς τ¿ν Γ∆, οuτως ¿ ΓΘ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΗ. :ση δc ¿ pcν ΓΘ τ¸ Ε, ¿ δc ΑΗ τ¸ Ζ· cστιν vρα eς
¿ ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν Γ∆, οuτως ¿ Ε πρoς τ¿ν Ζ.
Εvν vρα τέσσαρες εuθεiαι vνάλογον eσιν, τo uπo τeν vκρων περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον
:σον cστ| τ; uπo τeν pέσων περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί;· κiν τo uπo τeν vκρων περιεχόpενον
oρθογώνιον :σον ¸ τ; uπo τeν pέσων περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί;, α| τέσσαρες εuθεiαι vνάλογον
cσονται· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`92
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 16
For, by the same construction, since the (rectangle contained) by AB and F is equal to the (rect-
angle contained) by CD and E, and BG is the (rectangle contained) by AB and F. For AG is
equal to F. And DH (is) the (rectangle contained) by CD and E. For CH (is) equal to E. BG is
thus equal to DH. And they are equiangular. And for equal and equiangular parallelograms, the
sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional [Prop. 6.14]. Thus, as AB is to CD, so
CH (is) to AG. And CH (is) equal to E, and AG to F. Thus, as AB is to CD, so E (is) to F.
Thus, if four straight-lines are proportional, then the rectangle contained by the (two) outer-
most is equal to the rectangle contained by the middle (two). And if the rectangle contained
by the (two) outermost is equal to the rectangle contained by the middle (two), then the four
straight-lines will be proportional. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
`9`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
ιζ΄

Α
Β
Γ
Εvν τρεiς εuθεiαι vνάλογον eσιν, τo uπo τeν vκρων περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον :σον cστ| τ;
vπo τ¿ς pέσης τετραγών;· κiν τo uπo τeν vκρων περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον :σον ¸ τ; vπo τ¿ς
pέσης τετραγών;, α| τρεiς εuθεiαι vνάλογον cσονται.
´Εστωσαν τρεiς εuθεiαι vνάλογον α| Α, Β, Γ, eς ¿ Α πρoς τ¿ν Β, οuτως ¿ Β πρoς τ¿ν Γ· λέγω,
oτι τo uπo τeν Α, Γ περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς Β τετραγών;.
Κείσθω τ¸ Β :ση ¿ ∆.
Κα| cπεί cστιν eς ¿ Α πρoς τ¿ν Β, οuτως ¿ Β πρoς τ¿ν Γ, :ση δc ¿ Β τ¸ ∆, cστιν vρα eς ¿
Α πρoς τ¿ν Β, ¿ ∆ πρoς τ¿ν Γ. cvν δc τέσσαρες εuθεiαι vνάλογον eσιν, τo uπo τeν vκρων
περιεχόpενον ¸oρθογώνιον] :σον cστ| τ; uπo τeν pέσων περιεχοpέν; oρθογωνί;. τo vρα uπo
τeν Α, Γ :σον cστ| τ; uπo τeν Β, ∆. vλλv τo uπo τeν Β, ∆ τo vπo τ¿ς Β cστιν· :ση γvρ ¿ Β
τ¸ ∆· τo vρα uπo τeν Α, Γ περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς Β τετραγών;.
Αλλv δ¿ τo uπo τeν Α, Γ :σον cστω τ; vπo τ¿ς Β· λέγω, oτι cστ|ν eς ¿ Α πρoς τ¿ν Β, οuτως
¿ Β πρoς τ¿ν Γ.
Τeν γvρ αuτeν κατασκευασθέντων, cπε| τo uπo τeν Α, Γ :σον cστ| τ; vπo τ¿ς Β, vλλv τo vπo
τ¿ς Β τo uπo τeν Β, ∆ cστιν· :ση γvρ ¿ Β τ¸ ∆· τo vρα uπo τeν Α, Γ :σον cστ| τ; uπo τeν
Β, ∆. cvν δc τo uπo τeν vκρων :σον ¸ τ; uπo τeν pέσων, α| τέσσαρες εuθεiαι vνάλογόν εiσιν.
cστιν vρα eς ¿ Α πρoς τ¿ν Β, οuτως ¿ ∆ πρoς τ¿ν Γ. :ση δc ¿ Β τ¸ ∆· eς vρα ¿ Α πρoς τ¿ν
Β, οuτως ¿ Β πρoς τ¿ν Γ.
Εvν vρα τρεiς εuθεiαι vνάλογον eσιν, τo uπo τeν vκρων περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον :σον cστ|
τ; vπo τ¿ς pέσης τετραγών;· κiν τo uπo τeν vκρων περιεχόpενον oρθογώνιον :σον ¸ τ; vπo
τ¿ς pέσης τετραγών;, α| τρεiς εuθεiαι vνάλογον cσονται· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`94
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 17
D
A
B
C
If three straight-lines are proportional, then the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is
equal to the square on the middle (one). And if the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost
is equal to the square on the middle (one), then the three straight-lines will be proportional.
Let A, B and C be three proportional straight-lines, (such that) as A (is) to B, so B (is) to C. I
say that the rectangle contained by A and C is equal to the square on B.
Let D be made equal to B [Prop. 1.3].
And since as A is to B, so B (is) to D, and B (is) equal to D, thus as A is to B, (so) D (is) to
C. And if four straight-lines are proportional, then the [rectangle] contained by the (two) outer-
most is equal to the rectangle contained by the middle (two) [Prop. 6.16]. Thus, the (rectangle
contained) by A and C is equal to the (rectangle contained) by B and D. But, the (rectangle
contained) by B and D is the (square) on B. For B (is) equal to D. Thus, the rectangle contained
by A and C is equal to the square on B.
And so, let the (rectangle contained) by A and C be equal to the (square) on B. I say that as A is
to B, so B (is) to C.
For, by the same construction, since the (rectangle contained) by A and C is equal to the (square)
on B. But, the (square) on B is the (rectangle contained) by B and D. For B (is) equal to D. The
(rectangle contained) by A and C is thus equal to the (rectangle contained) by B and D. And
if the (rectangle contained) by the (two) outermost is equal to the (rectangle contained) by the
middle (two), then the four straight-lines are proportional [Prop. 6.16]. Thus, as A is to B, so D
(is) to C. And B (is) equal to D. Thus, as A (is) to B, so B (is) to C.
Thus, if three straight-lines are proportional, then the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost
is equal to the square on the middle (one). And if the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost
is equal to the square on the middle (one), then the three straight-lines will be proportional.
(Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
`9¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
ιη΄
Η
Ε

Θ
Β
Ζ
Γ Α
Απo τ¿ς δοθείσης εuθείας τ; δοθέντι εuθυγράpp; opοιόν τε κα| opοίως κείpενον εuθύγραppον
vναγράψαι.
´Εστω ¿ pcν δοθεiσα εuθεiα ¿ ΑΒ, τo δc δοθcν εuθύγραppον τo ΓΕ· δεi δ¿ vπo τ¿ς ΑΒ
εuθείας τ; ΓΕ εuθυγράpp; opοιόν τε κα| opοίως κείpενον εuθύγραppον vναγράψαι.
Επεζεύχθω ¿ ∆Ζ, κα| συνεστάτω πρoς τ¸ ΑΒ εuθεί; κα| τοiς πρoς αuτ¸ σηpείοις τοiς Α, Β τ¸
pcν πρoς τ; Γ γωνί; :ση ¿ uπo ΗΑΒ, τ¸ δc uπo Γ∆Ζ :ση ¿ uπo ΑΒΗ. λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ uπo ΓΖ∆
τ¸ uπo ΑΗΒ cστιν :ση· iσογώνιον vρα cστ| τo ΖΓ∆ τρίγωνον τ; ΗΑΒ τριγών;. vνάλογον
vρα cστ|ν eς ¿ Ζ∆ πρoς τ¿ν ΗΒ, οuτως ¿ ΖΓ πρoς τ¿ν ΗΑ, κα| ¿ Γ∆ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΒ. πάλιν
συνεστάτω πρoς τ¸ ΒΗ εuθεί; κα| τοiς πρoς αuτ¸ σηpείοις τοiς Β, Η τ¸ pcν uπo ∆ΖΕ γωνί;
:ση ¿ uπo ΒΗΘ, τ¸ δc uπo Ζ∆Ε :ση ¿ uπo ΗΒΘ. λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ πρoς τ; Ε λοιπ¸ τ¸ πρoς τ;
Θ cστιν :ση· iσογώνιον vρα cστ| τo Ζ∆Ε τρίγωνον τ; ΗΘΒ τριγών;· vνάλογον vρα cστ|ν eς ¿
Ζ∆ πρoς τ¿ν ΗΒ, οuτως ¿ ΖΕ πρoς τ¿ν ΗΘ κα| ¿ Ε∆ πρoς τ¿ν ΘΒ. cδείχθη δc κα| eς ¿ Ζ∆
πρoς τ¿ν ΗΒ, οuτως ¿ ΖΓ πρoς τ¿ν ΗΑ κα| ¿ Γ∆ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΒ· κα| eς vρα ¿ ΖΓ πρoς τ¿ν
ΑΗ, οuτως ¿ τε Γ∆ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΒ κα| ¿ ΖΕ πρoς τ¿ν ΗΘ κα| cτι ¿ ΕΑ πρoς τ¿ν ΘΒ. κα| cπε|
:ση cστ|ν ¿ pcν uπo ΓΖ∆ γωνία τ¸ uπo ΑΗΒ, ¿ δc uπo ∆ΖΕ τ¸ uπo ΒΗΘ, oλη vρα ¿ uπo
ΓΖΕ oλ¸ τ¸ uπo ΑΗΘ cστιν :ση. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| ¿ uπo Γ∆Ε τ¸ uπo ΑΒΘ cστιν :ση. cστι
δc κα| ¿ pcν πρoς τ; Γ τ¸ πρoς τ; Α :ση, ¿ δc πρoς τ; Ε τ¸ πρoς τ; Θ. iσογώνιον vρα cστ|
τo ΑΘ τ; ΓΕ· κα| τvς περ| τvς :σας γωνίας αuτeν πλευρvς vνάλογον cχει· opοιον vρα cστ| τo
ΑΘ εuθύγραppον τ; ΓΕ εuθυγράpp;.
Απo τ¿ς δοθείσης vρα εuθείας τ¿ς ΑΒ τ; δοθέντι εuθυγράpp; τ; ΓΕ opοιόν τε κα| opοίως
κείpενον εuθύγραppον vναγέγραπται τo ΑΘ· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
`96
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 18
G
C
E
D
H
A B
F
To describe a rectilinear figure similar, and similarly laid down, to a given rectilinear figure on a
given straight-line.
Let AB be the given straight-line, and CE the given rectilinear figure. So it is required to describe
a rectilinear figure similar, and similarly laid down, to the rectilinear figure CE on the straight-
line AB.
Let DF have been joined, and let GAB, equal to the angle at C, and ABG, equal to (angle) CDF,
have been constructed at the points A and B (respectively) on the straight-line AB [Prop. 1.23].
Thus, the remaining (angle) CFD is equal to AGB [Prop. 1.32]. Thus, triangle FCD is equian-
gular to triangle GAB. Thus, proportionally, as FD is to GB, so FC (is) to GA, and CD to AB
[Prop. 6.4]. Again, let BGH, equal to angle DFE, and GBH equal to (angle) FDE, have been
constructed at the points G and B (respectively) on the straight-line BG [Prop. 1.23]. Thus, the
remaining (angle) at E is equal to the remaining (angle) at H [Prop. 1.32]. Thus, triangle FDE
is equiangular to triangle GHB. Thus, proportionally, as FD is to GB, so FE (is) to GH, and ED
to HB [Prop. 6.4]. And it was also shown (that) as FD (is) to GB, so FC (is) to GA, and CD to
AB. Thus, also, as FC (is) to AG, so CD (is) to AB, and FE to GH, and, further, ED to HB.
And since angle CFD is equal to AGB, and DFE to BGH, thus the whole (angle) CFE is equal
to the whole (angle) AGH. So, for the same (reasons), (angle) CDE is also equal to ABH. And
the (angle) at C is also equal to the (angle) at A, and the (angle) at E to the (angle) at H. Thus,
(figure) AH is equiangular to CE. And they have the sides about their equal angles proportional.
Thus, the rectilinear figure AH is similar to the rectilinear figure CE [Def. 6.1].
Thus, the rectilinear figure AH, similar, and similarly laid down, to the given rectilinear figure
CE has been constructed on the given straight-line AB. (Which is) the very thing it was required
to do.
`9¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
ιθ΄
Β Η Γ
Α
Ζ

Ε
Τv opοια τρίγωνα πρoς vλληλα cν διπλασίονι λόγ; cστ| τeν opολόγων πλευρeν.
´Εστω opοια τρίγωνα τv ΑΒΓ, ∆ΕΖ :σην cχοντα τ¿ν πρoς τ; Β γωνίαν τ¸ πρoς τ; Ε, eς δc
τ¿ν ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν ΒΓ, οuτως τ¿ν ∆Ε πρoς τ¿ν ΕΖ, eστε opόλογον ε|ναι τ¿ν ΒΓ τ¸ ΕΖ· λέγω,
oτι τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρoς τo ∆ΕΖ τρίγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον cχει ¿περ ¿ ΒΓ πρoς τ¿ν ΕΖ.
Εiλήφθω γvρ τeν ΒΓ, ΕΖ τρίτη vνάλογον ¿ ΒΗ, eστε ε|ναι eς τ¿ν ΒΓ πρoς τ¿ν ΕΖ, οuτως
τ¿ν ΕΖ πρoς τ¿ν ΒΗ· κα| cπεζεύχθω ¿ ΑΗ.
Επε| οuν cστιν eς ¿ ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν ΒΓ, οuτως ¿ ∆Ε πρoς τ¿ν ΕΖ, cναλλvξ vρα cστ|ν eς ¿
ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν ∆Ε, οuτως ¿ ΒΓ πρoς τ¿ν ΕΖ. vλλ eς ¿ ΒΓ πρoς ΕΖ, οuτως cστιν ¿ ΕΖ
πρoς ΒΗ. κα| eς vρα ¿ ΑΒ πρoς ∆Ε, οuτως ¿ ΕΖ πρoς ΒΗ· τeν ΑΒΗ, ∆ΕΖ vρα τριγώνων
vντιπεπόνθασιν α| πλευρα| α| περ| τvς :σας γωνάις. eν δc pίαν pι; :σην cχόντων γωνίαν τριγώνων
vντιπεπόνθασιν α| πλευρα| α| περ| τvς :σας γωνάις, :σα cστ|ν cκεiνα. :σον vρα cστ| τo ΑΒΗ
τρίγωνον τ; ∆ΕΖ τριγών;. κα| cπεί cστιν eς ¿ ΒΓ πρoς τ¿ν ΕΖ, οuτως ¿ ΕΖ πρoς τ¿ν ΒΗ,
cvν δc τρεiς εuθεiαι vνάλογον eσιν, ¿ πρώτη πρoς τ¿ν τρίτην διπλασίονα λόγον cχει ¿περ πρoς
τ¿ν δευτέραν, ¿ ΒΓ vρα πρoς τ¿ν ΒΗ διπλασίονα λόγον cχει ¿περ ¿ ΓΒ πρoς τ¿ν ΕΖ. eς δc ¿
ΓΒ πρoς τ¿ν ΒΗ, οuτως τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρoς τo ΑΒΗ τρίγωνον· κα| τo ΑΒΓ vρα τρίγωνον
πρoς τo ΑΒΗ διπλασίονα λόγον cχει ¿περ ¿ ΒΓ πρoς τ¿ν ΕΖ. :σον δc τo ΑΒΗ τρίγωνον τ;
∆ΕΖ τριγών;. κα| τo ΑΒΓ vρα τρίγωνον πρoς τo ∆ΕΖ τρίγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον cχει ¿περ
¿ ΒΓ πρoς τ¿ν ΕΖ.
Τv vρα opοια τρίγωνα πρoς vλληλα cν διπλασίονι λόγ; cστ| τeν opολόγων πλευρeν. ¸oπερ
cδει δεiξαι.]
Πόρισpα
Εκ δ¿ τούτου φανερόν, oτι, cvν τρεiς εuθεiαι vνάλογον eσιν, cστιν eς ¿ πρώτη πρoς τ¿ν
τρίτην, οuτως τo vπo τ¿ς πρώτης ε|δος πρoς τo vπo τ¿ς δευτέρας τo opοιον κα| opοίως
vναγραφόpενον. oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
`98
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 19
E G C
A
D
F B
Similar triangles are to one another in the squared
103
ratio of (their) corresponding sides.
Let ABC and DEF be similar triangles having the angle at B equal to the (angle) at E, and AB
to BC, as DE (is) to EF, such that BC corresponds to EF. I say that triangle ABC has a squared
ratio to triangle DEF with respect to (that side) BC (has) to EF.
For let a third (straight-line), BG, have been taken (which is) proportional to BC and EF, so
that as BC (is) to EF, so EF (is) to BG [Prop. 6.11]. And let AG have been joined.
Therefore, since as AB is to BC, so DE (is) to EF, thus, alternately, as AB is to DE, so BC (is)
to EF [Prop. 5.16]. But, as BC (is) to EF, so EF is to BG. And, thus, as AB (is) to DE, so EF
(is) to BG. Thus, for triangles ABG and DEF, the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally
proportional. And those triangles having one (angle) equal to one (angle) for which the sides
about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional are equal [Prop. 6.15]. Thus, triangle ABG
is equal to triangle DEF. And since as BC (is) to EF, so EF (is) to BG, and if three straight-
lines are proportional then the first has a squared ratio to the third with respect to the second
[Def. 5.9], BC thus has a squared ratio to BG with respect to (that) CB (has) to EF. And as
CB (is) to BG, so triangle ABC (is) to triangle ABG [Prop. 6.1]. Thus, triangle ABC also has a
squared ratio to (triangle) ABG with respect to (that side) BC (has) to EF. And triangle ABG
(is) equal to triangle DEF. Thus, triangle ABC also has a squared ratio to triangle DEF with
respect to (that side) BC (has) to EF.
Thus, similar triangles are to one another in the squared ratio of (their) corresponding sides.
[(Which is) the very thing it was required to show].
Corollary
So it is clear, from this, that if three straight-lines are proportional, then as the first is to the third,
so the figure (described) on the first (is) to the similar, and similarly described, (figure) on the
second. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
103
Literally, “double”.
`99
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
κ΄
Κ
Γ
Μ
Α
Ζ
Θ
Β
Η
Λ
Ν
Ε

Τv opοια πολύγωνα ε:ς τε opοια τρίγωνα διαιρεiται κα| εiς :σα τo πλ¿θος κα| opόλογα τοiς
oλοις, κα| τo πολύγωνον πρoς τo πολύγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον cχει ¿περ ¿ opόλογος πλευρv
πρoς τ¿ν opόλογον πλευράν.
´Εστω opοια πολύγωνα τv ΑΒΓ∆Ε, ΖΗΘΚΛ, opόλογος δc cστω ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ ΖΗ· λέγω, oτι
τv ΑΒΓ∆Ε, ΖΗΘΚΛ πολύγωνα ε:ς τε opοια τρίγωνα διαιρεiται κα| εiς :σα τo πλ¿θος κα|
opόλογα τοiς oλοις, κα| τo ΑΒΓ∆Ε πολύγωνον πρoς τo ΖΗΘΚΛ πολύγωνον διπλασίονα
λόγον cχει ¿περ ¿ ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν ΖΗ.
Επεζεύχθωσαν α| ΒΕ, ΕΓ, ΗΛ, ΛΘ.
Κα| cπε| opοιόν cστι τo ΑΒΓ∆Ε πολύγωνον τ; ΖΗΘΚΛ πολυγών;, :ση cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΒΑΕ
γωνία τ¸ uπo ΗΖΛ. καί cστιν eς ¿ ΒΑ πρoς ΑΕ, οuτως ¿ ΗΖ πρoς ΖΛ. cπε| οuν δύο τρίγωνά
cστι τv ΑΒΕ, ΖΗΛ pίαν γωνίαν pι; γωνί; :σην cχοντα, περ| δc τvς :σας γωνίας τvς πλευρvς
vνάλογον, iσογώνιον vρα cστ| τo ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον τ; ΖΗΛ τριγών;· eστε κα| opοιον· :ση vρα
cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΑΒΕ γωνία τ¸ uπo ΖΗΛ. cστι δc κα| oλη ¿ uπo ΑΒΓ oλ¸ τ¸ uπo ΖΗΘ :ση διv
τ¿ν opοιότητα τeν πολυγώνων· λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ uπo ΕΒΓ γωνία τ¸ uπo ΛΗΘ cστιν :ση. κα| cπε|
διv τ¿ν opοιότητα τeν ΑΒΕ, ΖΗΛ τριγώνων cστ|ν eς ¿ ΕΒ πρoς ΒΑ, οuτως ¿ ΛΗ πρoς ΗΖ,
vλλv p¿ν κα| διv τ¿ν opοιότητα τeν πολυγώνων cστ|ν eς ¿ ΑΒ πρoς ΒΓ, οuτως ¿ ΖΗ πρoς
ΗΘ, δι :σου vρα cστ|ν eς ¿ ΕΒ πρoς ΒΓ, οuτως ¿ ΛΗ πρoς ΗΘ, κα| περ| τvς :σας γωνάις
τvς uπo ΕΒΓ, ΛΗΘ α| πλευρα| vνάλογόν εiσιν· iσογώνιον vρα cστ| τo ΕΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ΛΗΘ
τριγών;· eστε κα| opοιόν cστι τo ΕΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ΛΗΘ τριγώνω. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| τo
ΕΓ∆ τρίγωνον opοιόν cστι τ; ΛΘΚ τριγών;. τv vρα opοια πολύγωνα τv ΑΒΓ∆Ε, ΖΗΘΚΛ
ε:ς τε opοια τρίγωνα δι¸ρηται κα| εiς :σα τo πλ¿θος.
Λέγω, oτι κα| opόλογα τοiς oλοις, τουτέστιν eστε vνάλογον ε|ναι τv τρίγωνα, κα| ¿γούpενα
pcν ε|ναι τv ΑΒΕ, ΕΒΓ, ΕΓ∆, cπόpενα δc αuτeν τv ΖΗΛ, ΛΗΘ, ΛΘΚ, κα| oτι τo ΑΒΓ∆Ε
πολύγωνον πρoς τo ΖΗΘΚΛ πολύγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον cχει ¿περ ¿ opόλογος πλευρv πρoς
τ¿ν opόλογον πλευράν, τουτέστιν ¿ ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν ΖΗ.
400
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 20
L
B
A
M
E
C
F
N
H
D
K
G
Similar polygons can be divided into equal numbers of similar triangles corresponding (in pro-
portion) to the wholes, and one polygon has to the (other) polygon a squared ratio with respect
to (that) a corresponding side (has) to a corresponding side.
Let ABCDE and FGHKL be similar polygons, and let AB correspond to FG. I say that polygons
ABCDE and FGHKL can be divided into equal numbers of similar triangles corresponding (in
proportion) to the wholes, and (that) polygon ABCDE has a squared ratio to polygon FGHKL
with respect to that AB (has) to FG.
Let BE, EC, GL, and LH have been joined.
And since polygon ABCDE is similar to polygon FGHKL, angle BAE is equal to angle GFL,
and as BA is to AE, so GF (is) to FL [Def. 6.1]. Therefore, since ABE and FGL are two tri-
angles having one angle equal to one angle and the sides about the equal angles proportional,
triangle ABE is thus equiangular to triangle FGL [Prop. 6.6]. Hence, (they are) also similar
[Prop. 6.4, Def. 6.1]. Thus, angle ABE is equal to (angle) FGL. And the whole (angle) ABC is
equal to the whole (angle) FGH on account of the similarity of the polygons. Thus, the remain-
ing angle EBC is equal to LGH. And since, on account of the similarity of triangles ABE and
FGL, as EB is to BA, so LG (is) to GF, but also, on account of the similarity of the polygons, as
AB is to BC, so FG (is) to GH, thus, via equality, as EB is to BC, so LG (is) to GH [Prop. 5.22],
the sides about the equal angles, EBC and LGH, are also proportional. Thus, triangle EBC is
equiangular to triangle LGH [Prop. 6.6]. Hence, triangle EBC is also similar to triangle LGH
[Prop. 6.4, Def. 6.1]. So, for the same (reasons), triangle ECD is also similar to triangle LHK.
Thus, the similar polygons ABCDE and FGHKL have been divided into equal numbers of sim-
ilar triangles.
I also say that (the triangles) correspond (in proportion) to the wholes. That is to say, the triangles
are proportional, ABE, EBC, and ECD are the leading (magnitudes), and their (associated)
following (magnitudes are) FGL, LGH, and LHK (respectively). (I) also (say) that polygon
ABCDE has a squared ratio to polygon FGHKL with respect to (that) a corresponding side
(has) to a corresponding side—that is to say, (side) AB to FG.
40l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
κ΄
Επεζεύχθωσαν γvρ α| ΑΓ, ΖΘ. κα| cπε| διv τ¿ν opοιότητα τeν πολυγώνων :ση cστ|ν ¿ uπo
ΑΒΓ γωνία τ¸ uπo ΖΗΘ, καί cστιν eς ¿ ΑΒ πρoς ΒΓ, οuτως ¿ ΖΗ πρoς ΗΘ, iσογώνιόν cστι
τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ΖΗΘ τριγών;· :ση vρα cστ|ν ¿ pcν uπo ΒΑΓ γωνία τ¸ uπo ΗΖΘ, ¿ δc
uπo ΒΓΑ τ¸ uπo ΗΘΖ. κα| cπε| :ση cστ|ν ¿ uπo ΒΑΜ γωνία τ¸ uπo ΗΖΝ, cστι δc κα| ¿ uπo
ΑΒΜ τ¸ uπo ΖΗΝ :ση, κα| λοιπ¿ vρα ¿ uπo ΑΜΒ λοιπ¸ τ¸ uπo ΖΝΗ :ση cστίν· iσογώνιον
vρα cστ| τo ΑΒΜ τρίγωνον τ; ΖΗΝ τριγών;. opοίως δ¿ δεiξοpεν, oτι κα| τo ΒΜΓ τρίγωνον
iσογώνιόν cστι τ; ΗΝΘ τριγών;. vνάλογον vρα cστίν, eς pcν ¿ ΑΜ πρoς ΜΒ, οuτως ¿ ΖΝ
πρoς ΝΗ, eς δc ¿ ΒΜ πρoς ΜΓ, οuτως ¿ ΗΝ πρoς ΝΘ· eστε κα| δι :σου, eς ¿ ΑΜ πρoς
ΜΓ, οuτως ¿ ΖΝ πρoς ΝΘ. vλλ eς ¿ ΑΜ πρoς ΜΓ, οuτως τo ΑΒΜ ¸τρίγωνον] πρoς τo
ΜΒΓ, κα| τo ΑΜΕ πρoς τo ΕΜΓ· πρoς vλληλα γάρ εiσιν eς α| βάσεις. κα| eς vρα cν τeν
¿γουpένων πρoς cν τeν cπόpενων, οuτως vπαντα τv ¿γούpενα πρoς vπαντα τv cπόpενα· eς
vρα τo ΑΜΒ τρίγωνον πρoς τo ΒΜΓ, οuτως τo ΑΒΕ πρoς τo ΓΒΕ. αλλ eς τo ΑΜΒ πρoς
τo ΒΜΓ, οuτως ¿ ΑΜ πρoς ΜΓ· κα| eς vρα ¿ ΑΜ πρoς ΜΓ, οuτως τo ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρoς
τo ΕΒΓ τρίγωνον. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| eς ¿ ΖΝ πρoς ΝΘ, οuτως τo ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον πρoς
τo ΗΛΘ τρίγωνον. καί cστιν eς ¿ ΑΜ πρoς ΜΓ, οuτως ¿ ΖΝ πρoς ΝΘ· κα| eς vρα τo
ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρoς τo ΒΕΓ τρίγωνον, οuτως τo ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον πρoς τo ΗΛΘ τρίγωνον, κα|
cναλλvξ eς τo ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρoς τo ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον, οuτως τo ΒΕΓ τρίγωνον πρoς τo ΗΛΘ
τρίγωνον. opοίως δ¿ δεiξοpεν cπιζευχθεισeν τeν Β∆, ΗΚ, oτι κα| eς τo ΒΕΓ τρίγωνον πρoς
τo ΛΗΘ τρίγωνον, οuτως τo ΕΓ∆ τρίγωνον πρoς τo ΛΘΚ τρίγωνον. κα| cπεί cστιν eς τo
ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρoς τo ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον. οuτως τo ΕΒΓ πρoς τo ΛΗΘ, κα| cτι τo ΕΓ∆ πρoς τo
ΛΘΚ, κα| eς vρα cν τeν ¿γουpένων πρoς cν τeν cποpένων, οuτως vπαντα τv ¿γούpενα πρoς
vπαντα τv cπόpενα· cστιν vρα eς τo ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρoς τo ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον, οuτως τo ΑΒΓ∆Ε
πολύγωνον πρoς τo ΖΗΘΚΛ πολύγωνον. vλλv τo ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρoς τo ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον
διπλασίονα λόγον cχει ¿περ ¿ ΑΒ opόλογος πλευρv πρoς τ¿ν ΖΗ opόλογον πλευράν· τv γvρ
opοια τρίγωνα cν διπλασίονι λόγ; cστ| τeν opολόγων πλευρeν. κα| τo ΑΒΓ∆Ε vρα πολύγωνον
πρoς τo ΖΗΘΚΛ πολύγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον cχει ¿περ ¿ ΑΒ opόλογος πλευρv πρoς τ¿ν
ΖΗ opόλογον πλευράν.
Τv vρα opοια πολύγωνα ε:ς τε opοια τρίγωνα διαιρεiται κα| εiς :σα τo πλ¿θος κα| opόλογα
τοiς oλοις, κα| τo πολύγωνον πρoς τo πολύγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον cχει ¿περ ¿ opόλογος
πλευρv πρoς τ¿ν opόλογον πλευράν. ¸oπερ cδει δεiξαι].
Πόρισpα
Ωσαύτως δc κα| cπ| τeν ¸opοίων] τετραπλεύρων δειχθήσεται, oτι cν διπλασίονι λόγ; εiσ| τeν
opολόγων πλευρeν. cδείχθη δc κα| cπ| τeν τρίγώνων· eστε κα| καθόλου τv opοια εuθύγραppα
σχήpατα πρoς vλληλα cν διπλασίονι λόγ; εiσ| τeν opολόγων πλευρeν. oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
402
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 20
For let AC and FH have been joined. And since angle ABC is equal to FGH, and as AB is to
BC, so FG (is) to GH, on account of the similarity of the polygons, triangle ABC is equiangular
to triangle FGH [Prop. 6.6]. Thus, angle BAC is equal to GFH, and (angle) BCA to GHF. And
since angle BAM is equal to GFN, and (angle) ABM is also equal to FGN (see earlier), the
remaining (angle) AMB is thus also equal to the remaining (angle) FNG [Prop. 1.32]. Thus,
triangle ABM is equiangular to triangle FGN. So, similarly, we can show that triangle BMC
is equiangular to triangle GNH. Thus, proportionally, as AM is to MB, so FN (is) to NG, and
as BM (is) to MC, so GN (is) to NH [Prop. 6.4]. Hence, also, via equality, as AM (is) to MC,
so FN (is) to NH [Prop. 5.22]. But, as AM (is) to MC, so [triangle] ABM is to MBC, and
AME to EMC. For they are to one another as their bases [Prop. 6.1]. And as one of the leading
(magnitudes) is to one of the following (magnitudes), so is the sum of the leading (magnitudes)
to the sum of the following (magnitudes) [Prop. 5.12]. Thus, as triangle AMB (is) to BMC, so
(triangle) ABE (is) to CBE. But, as (triangle) AMB (is) to BMC, so AM (is) to MC. Thus,
also, as AM (is) to MC, so triangle ABE (is) to triangle EBC. And so, for the same (reasons),
as FN (is) to NH, so triangle FGL (is) to triangle GLH. And as AM is to MC, so FN (is) to
NH. Thus, also, as triangle ABE (is) to triangle BEC, so triangle FGL (is) to triangle GLH,
and, alternately, as triangle ABE (is) to triangle FGL, so triangle BEC (is) to triangle GLH
[Prop. 5.16]. So, similarly, we can also show, by joining BD and GK, that as triangle BEC (is)
to triangle LGH, so triangle ECD (is) to triangle LHK. And since as triangle ABE is to triangle
FGL, so (triangle) EBC (is) to LGH, and, further, (triangle) ECD to LHK, and also as one of
the leading (magnitudes is) to one of the following, so the sum of the leading (magnitudes is)
to the sum of the following [Prop. 5.12], thus as triangle ABE is to triangle FGL, so polygon
ABCDE (is) to polygon FGHKL. But, triangle ABE has a squared ratio to triangle FGL with
respect to (that) the corresponding side AB (has) to the corresponding side FG. For, similar
triangles are in the squared ratio of corresponding sides [Prop. 6.14]. Thus, polygon ABCDE
also has a squared ratio to polygon DEFGH with respect to (that) the corresponding side AB
(has) to the corresponding side FG.
Thus, similar polygons can be divided into equal numbers of similar triangles corresponding (in
proportion) to the wholes, and one polygon has to the (other) polygon a squared ratio with
respect to (that) a corresponding side (has) to a corresponding side. [(Which is) the very thing it
was required to show].
Corollary
And, in the same manner, it can also be shown for [similar] quadrilaterals that they are in the
squared ratio of (their) corresponding sides. And it was also shown for triangles. Hence, in
general, similar rectilinear figures are to one another in the squared ratio of (their) corresponding
sides. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
40`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
κα΄
Α
Β
Γ
Τv τ; αuτ; εuθυγράpp; opοια κα| vλλήλοις cστ|ν opοια.
´Εστω γvρ cκάτερον τeν Α, Β εuθυγράppων τ; Γ opοιον· λέγω, oτι κα| τo Α τ; Β cστιν
opοιον.
Επε| γvρ opοιόν cστι τo Α τ; Γ, iσογώνιόν τέ cστιν αuτ; κα| τvς περ| τvς :σας γωνίας πλευρvς
vνάλογον cχει. πάλιν, cπε| opοιόν cστι τo Β τ; Γ, iσογώνιόν τέ cστιν αuτ; κα| τvς περ| τvς
:σας γωνίας πλευρvς vνάλογον cχει. cκάτερον vρα τeν Α, Β τ; Γ iσογώνιόν τέ cστι κα| τvς
περ| τvς :σας γωνίας πλευρvς vνάλογον cχει ¸eστε κα| τo Α τ; Β iσογώνιόν τέ cστι κα| τvς περ|
τvς :σας γωνίας πλευρvς vνάλογον cχει]. opοιον vρα cστ| τo Α τ; Β· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
404
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 21
A
B
C
(Rectilinear figures) similar to the same rectilinear figure are also similar to one another.
Let each of the rectilinear figures A and B be similar to (the rectilinear figure) C. I say that A is
also similar to B.
For since A is similar to C, (A) is equiangular to (C), and has the sides about the equal angles
proportional [Def. 6.1]. Again, since B is similar to C, (B) is equiangular to (C), and has the
sides about the equal angles proportional [Def. 6.1]. Thus, A and B are each equiangular to C,
and have the sides about the equal angles proportional [hence, A is also equiangular to B, and
has the sides about the equal angles proportional]. Thus, A is similar to B [Def. 6.1]. (Which is)
the very thing it was required to show.
40¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
κβ΄
Ζ
Κ
Λ
Γ
Ε
Ξ Ο
Π Ρ
Η Θ
Σ
Α Β ∆
Μ
Ν
Εvν τέσσαρες εuθεiαι vνάλογον eσιν, κα| τv vπ αuτeν εuθύγραppα opοιά τε κα| opοίως
vναγεγραppένα vνάλογον cσται· κiν τv vπ αuτeν εuθύγραppα opοιά τε κα| opοίως vναγε-
γραppένα vνάλογον ¸, κα| αuτvι α| εuθεiαι vνάλογον cσονται.
´Εστωσαν τέσσαρες εuθεiαι vνάλογον α| ΑΒ, Γ∆, ΕΖ, ΗΘ, eς ¿ ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν Γ∆, οuτως ¿
ΕΖ πρoς τ¿ν ΗΘ, κα| vναγεγράφθωσαν vπo pcν τeν ΑΒ, Γ∆ opοιά τε κα| opοίως κείpενα
εuθύγραppα τv ΚΑΒ, ΛΓ∆, vπo δc τeν ΕΖ, ΗΘ opοιά τε κα| opοίως κείpενα εuθύγραppα τv
ΜΖ, ΝΘ· λέγω, oτι cστ|ν eς τo ΚΑΒ πρoς τo ΛΓ∆, οuτως τo ΜΖ πρoς τo ΝΘ.
Εiλήφθω γvρ τeν pcν ΑΒ, Γ∆ τρίτη vνάλογον ¿ Ξ, τeν δc ΕΖ, ΗΘ τρίτη vνάλογον ¿ Ο. κα|
cπεί cστιν eς pcν ¿ ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν Γ∆, οuτως ¿ ΕΖ πρoς τ¿ν ΗΘ, eς δc ¿ Γ∆ πρoς τ¿ν Ξ,
οuτως ¿ ΗΘ πρoς τ¿ν Ο, δι :σου vρα cστ|ν eς ¿ ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν Ξ, οuτως ¿ ΕΖ πρoς τ¿ν Ο.
vλλ eς pcν ¿ ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν Ξ, οuτως ¸κα|] τo ΚΑΒ πρoς τo ΛΓ∆, eς δc ¿ ΕΖ πρoς τ¿ν Ο,
οuτως τo ΜΖ πρoς τo ΝΘ· κα| eς vρα τo ΚΑΒ πρoς τo ΛΓ∆, οuτως τo ΜΖ πρoς τo ΝΘ.
Αλλv δ¿ cστω eς τo ΚΑΒ πρoς τo ΛΓ∆, οuτως τo ΜΖ πρoς τo ΝΘ· λέγω, oτι cστ| κα| eς ¿
ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν Γ∆, οuτως ¿ ΕΖ πρoς τ¿ν ΗΘ. εi γvρ pή cστιν, eς ¿ ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν Γ∆, οuτως ¿
ΕΖ πρoς τ¿ν ΗΘ, cστω eς ¿ ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν Γ∆, οuτως ¿ ΕΖ πρoς τ¿ν ΠΡ, κα| vναγεγράφθω
vπo τ¿ς ΠΡ oποτέρ; τeν ΜΖ, ΝΘ opοιόν τε κα| opοίως κείpενον εuθύγραppον τo ΣΡ.
Επε| οuν cστιν eς ¿ ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν Γ∆, οuτως ¿ ΕΖ πρoς τ¿ν ΠΡ, κα| vναγέγραπται vπo pcν
τeν ΑΒ, Γ∆ opοιά τε κα| opοίως κείpενα τv ΚΑΒ, ΛΓ∆, vπo δc τeν ΕΖ, ΠΡ opοιά τε κα|
opοίως κείpενα τv ΜΖ, ΣΡ, cστιν vρα eς τo ΚΑΒ πρoς τo ΛΓ∆, οuτως τo ΜΖ πρoς τo ΣΡ.
uπόκειται δc κα| eς τo ΚΑΒ πρoς τo ΛΓ∆, οuτως τo ΜΖ πρoς τo ΝΘ· κα| eς vρα τo ΜΖ
πρoς τo ΣΡ, οuτως τo ΜΖ πρoς τo ΝΘ. τo ΜΖ vρα πρoς cκάτερον τeν ΝΘ, ΣΡ τoν αuτoν
cχει λόγον· :σον vρα cστ| τo ΝΘ τ; ΣΡ. cστι δc αuτ; κα| opοιον κα| opοίως κείpενον· :ση vρα
406
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 22
H
A B C D
E
G
K
L
M
N
Q R
O P
S
F
If four straight-lines are proportional, then similar, and similarly described, rectilinear figures
(drawn) on them will also be proportional. And if similar, and similarly described, rectilinear
figures (drawn) on them are proportional, then the straight-lines themselves will also be propor-
tional.
Let AB, CD, EF, and GH be four proportional straight-lines, (such that) as AB (is) to CD, so
EF (is) to GH. And let the similar, and similarly laid out, rectilinear figures KAB and LCD have
been described on AB and CD (respectively), and the similar, and similarly laid out, rectilinear
figures MF and NH on EF and GH (respectively). I say that as KAB is to LCD, so MF (is) to
NH.
For let a third (straight-line) O have been taken (which is) proportional to AB and CD, and a
third (straight-line) P proportional to EF and GH [Prop. 6.11]. And since as AB is to CD, so
EF (is) to GH, and as CD (is) to O, so GH (is) to P, thus, via equality, as AB is to O, so EF (is)
to P [Prop. 5.22]. But, as AB (is) to O, so [also] KAB (is) to LCD, and as EF (is) to P, so MF
(is) to NH [Prop. 5.19 corr.]. And, thus, as KAB (is) to LCD, so MF (is) to NH.
And so let KAB be to LCD, as MF (is) to NH. I say also that as AB is to CD, so EF (is) to GH.
For if as AB is to CD, so EF (is) not to GH, let AB be to CD, as EF (is) to QR [Prop. 6.12].
And let the rectilinear figure SR, similar, and similarly laid down, to either of MF or NH, have
been described on QR [Props. 6.18, 6.21].
Therefore, since as AB is to CD, so EF (is) to QR, and the similar, and similarly laid out, (rec-
tilinear figures) KAB and LCD have been described on AB and CD (respectively), and the
similar, and similarly laid out, (rectilinear figures) MF and SR on EF and QR (resespectively),
thus as KAB is to LCD, so MF (is) to SR (see above). And it was also assumed that as KAB
(is) to LCD, so MF (is) to NH. Thus, also, as MF (is) to SR, so MF (is) to NH. Thus, MF has
40¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
κβ΄
¿ ΗΘ τ¸ ΠΡ. κα| cπεί cστιν eς ¿ ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν Γ∆, οuτως ¿ ΕΖ πρoς τ¿ν ΠΡ, :ση δc ¿ ΠΡ
τ¸ ΗΘ, cστιν vρα eς ¿ ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν Γ∆, οuτως ¿ ΕΖ πρoς τ¿ν ΗΘ.
Εvν vρα τέσσαρες εuθεiαι vνάλογον eσιν, κα| τv vπ αuτeν εuθύγραppα opοιά τε κα| opοίως
vναγεγραppένα vνάλογον cσται· κiν τv vπ αuτeν εuθύγραppα opοιά τε κα| opοίως vναγε-
γραppένα vνάλογον ¸, κα| αuτvι α| εuθεiαι vνάλογον cσονται· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
408
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 22
the same ratio to each of NH and SR. Thus, NH is equal to SR [Prop. 5.9]. And it is also similar,
and similarly laid out, to it. Thus, GH (is) equal to QR. And since AB is to CD, as EF (is) to
QR, and QR (is) equal to GH, thus as AB is to CD, so EF (is) to GH.
Thus, if four straight-lines are proportional, then similar, and similarly described, rectilinear fig-
ures (drawn) on them will also be proportional. And if similar, and similarly described, rectilinear
figures (drawn) on them are proportional, then the straight-lines themselves will also be propor-
tional. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
409
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
κγ΄
Η
Α
Β Γ
Κ
Λ
Μ
Ε
∆ Θ
Ζ
Τv iσογώνια παραλληλόγραppα πρoς vλληλα λόγον cχει τoν συγκείpενον cκ τeν πλευρeν.
´Εστω iσογώνια παραλληλόγραppα τv ΑΓ, ΓΖ :σην cχοντα τ¿ν uπo ΒΓ∆ γωνίαν τ¸ uπo
ΕΓΗ· λέγω, oτι τo ΑΓ παραλληλόγραppον πρoς τo ΓΖ παραλληλόγραppον λόγον cχει τoν
συγκείpενον cκ τeν πλευρeν.
Κείσθω γvρ eστε cπ εuθείας ε|ναι τ¿ν ΒΓ τ¸ ΓΗ· cπ εuθεiας vρα cστ| κα| ¿ ∆Γ τ¸ ΓΕ. κα|
συpπεπληρώσθω τo ∆Η παραλληλόγραppον, κα| cκκείσθω τις εuθεiα ¿ Κ, κα| γεγονέτω eς
pcν ¿ ΒΓ πρoς τ¿ν ΓΗ, οuτως ¿ Κ πρoς τ¿ν Λ, eς δc ¿ ∆Γ πρoς τ¿ν ΓΕ, οuτως ¿ Λ πρoς
τ¿ν Μ.
Ο| vρα λόγοι τ¿ς τε Κ πρoς τ¿ν Λ κα| τ¿ς Λ πρoς τ¿ν Μ ο| αuτοί εiσι τοiς λόγοις τeν
πλευρeν, τ¿ς τε ΒΓ πρoς τ¿ν ΓΗ κα| τ¿ς ∆Γ πρoς τ¿ν ΓΕ. vλλ o τ¿ς Κ πρoς Μ λόγος
σύγκειται cκ τε τοu τ¿ς Κ πρoς Λ λόγου κα| τοu τ¿ς Λ πρoς Μ· eστε κα| ¿ Κ πρoς τ¿ν
Μ λόγον cχει τoν συγκείpενον cκ τeν πλευρeν. κα| cπεί cστιν eς ¿ ΒΓ πρoς τ¿ν ΓΗ, οuτως
τo ΑΓ παραλληλόγραppον πρoς τo ΓΘ, vλλ eς ¿ ΒΓ πρoς τ¿ν ΓΗ, οuτως ¿ Κ πρoς τ¿ν
Λ, κα| eς vρα ¿ Κ πρoς τ¿ν Λ, οuτως τo ΑΓ πρoς τo ΓΘ. πάλιν, cπεί cστιν eς ¿ ∆Γ
πρoς τ¿ν ΓΕ, οuτως τo ΓΘ παραλληλόγραppον πρoς τo ΓΖ, vλλ eς ¿ ∆Γ πρoς τ¿ν ΓΕ,
οuτως ¿ Λ πρoς τ¿ν Μ, κα| eς vρα ¿ Λ πρoς τ¿ν Μ, οuτως τo ΓΘ παραλληλόγραppον
πρoς τo ΓΖ παραλληλόγραppον. cπε| οuν cδείχθη, eς pcν ¿ Κ πρoς τ¿ν Λ, οuτως τo ΑΓ
παραλληλόγραppον πρoς τo ΓΘ παραλληλόγραppον, eς δc ¿ Λ πρoς τ¿ν Μ, οuτως τo ΓΘ
παραλληλόγραppον πρoς τo ΓΖ παραλληλόγραppον, δι :σου vρα cστ|ν eς ¿ Κ πρoς τ¿ν Μ,
οuτως τo ΑΓ πρoς τo ΓΖ παραλληλόγραppον. ¿ δc Κ πρoς τ¿ν Μ λόγον cχει τoν συγκείpενον
cκ τeν πλευρeν· κα| τo ΑΓ vρα πρoς τo ΓΖ λόγον cχει τoν συγκείpενον cκ τeν πλευρeν.
Τv vρα iσογώνια παραλληλόγραppα πρoς vλληλα λόγον cχει τoν συγκείpενον cκ τeν πλευρeν·
oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
4l0
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 23
F
A
B
K
L
M
C G
E
D H
Equiangular parallelograms have to one another the ratio compounded
104
out of (the ratios of)
their sides.
Let AC and CF be equiangular parallelograms having angle BCD equal to ECG. I say that par-
allelogram AC has to parallelogram CF the ratio compounded out of (the ratios of) their sides.
Let BC be laid down so as to be straight-on to CG. Thus, DC is also straight-on to CE [Prop. 1.14].
And let the parallelogram DG have been completed. And let some straight-line K have been laid
down. And let it be that as BC (is) to CG, so K (is) to L, and as DC (is) to CE, so L (is) to M
[Prop. 6.12].
Thus, the ratios of K to L and of L to M are the same as the ratios of the sides, (namely), BC to
CG and DC to CE (respectively). But, the ratio of K to M is compounded out of the ratio of K
to L and (the ratio) of L to M. Hence, K also has to M the ratio compounded out of (the ratios
of) the sides (of the parallelograms). And since as BC is to CG, so parallelogram AC (is) to CH
[Prop. 6.1], but as BC (is) to CG, so K (is) to L, thus, also, as K (is) to L, so (parallelogram)
AC (is) to CH. Again, since as DC (is) to CE, so parallelogram CH (is) to CF [Prop. 6.1],
but as DC (is) to CE, so L (is) to M, thus, also, as L (is) to M, so parallelogram CH (is) to
parallelogram CF. Therefore, since it was shown that as K (is) to L, so parallelogram AC (is)
to parallelogram CH, and as L (is) to M, so parallelogram CH (is) to parallelogram CF, thus,
via equality, as K is to M, so (parallelogram) AC (is) to parallelogram CF [Prop. 5.22]. And
K has to M the ratio compounded out of (the ratios of) the sides (of the parallelograms). Thus,
(parallelogram) AC also has to (parallelogram) CF the ratio compounded out of (the ratio of)
their sides.
Thus, equiangular parallelograms have to one another the ratio compounded out of (the ratio of)
their sides. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
104
In modern notation, if two ratios are “compounded” then they are multiplied together.
4ll
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
κδ΄
Θ
∆ Γ
Α Β
Ζ
Η
Ε
Κ
Παντoς παραλληλογράppου τv περ| τ¿ν διάpετρον παραλληλόγραppα opοιά cστι τ; τε oλ;
κα| vλλήλοις.
´Εστω παραλληλόγραppον τo ΑΒΓ∆, διάpετρος δc αuτοu ¿ ΑΓ, περ| δc τ¿ν ΑΓ παραλ-
ληλόγραppα cστω τv ΕΗ, ΘΚ· λέγω, oτι cκάτερον τeν ΕΗ, ΘΚ παραλληλογράppων opοιόν
cστι oλ; τ; ΑΒΓ∆ κα| vλλήλοις.
Επε| γvρ τριγώνου τοu ΑΒΓ παρv pίαν τeν πλευρeν τ¿ν ΒΓ ¿κται ¿ ΕΖ, vνάλογόν cστιν eς ¿
ΒΕ πρoς τ¿ν ΕΑ, οuτως ¿ ΓΖ πρoς τ¿ν ΖΑ. πάλιν, cπε| τριγώνου τοu ΑΓ∆ παρv pίαν τ¿ν Γ∆
¿κται ¿ ΖΗ, vνάλογόν cστιν eς ¿ ΓΖ πρoς τ¿ν ΖΑ, οuτως ¿ ∆Η πρoς τ¿ν ΗΑ. vλλ eς ¿ ΓΖ
πρoς τ¿ν ΖΑ, οuτως cδείχθη κα| ¿ ΒΕ πρoς τ¿ν ΕΑ· κα| eς vρα ¿ ΒΕ πρoς τ¿ν ΕΑ, οuτως
¿ ∆Η πρoς τ¿ν ΗΑ, κα| συνθέντι vρα eς ¿ ΒΑ πρoς ΑΕ, οuτως ¿ ∆Α πρoς ΑΗ, κα| cναλλvξ
eς ¿ ΒΑ πρoς τ¿ν Α∆, οuτως ¿ ΕΑ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΗ. τeν vρα ΑΒΓ∆, ΕΗ παραλληλογράppων
vνάλογόν εiσιν α| πλευρα| α| περ| τ¿ν κοιν¿ν γωνίαν τ¿ν uπo ΒΑ∆ κα| cπε| παράλληλός cστιν
¿ ΗΖ τ¸ ∆Γ, :ση cστ|ν ¿ pcν uπo ΑΖΗ γωνία τ¸ uπo ∆ΓΑ· κα| κοιν¿ τeν δύο τριγώνων τeν
Α∆Γ, ΑΗΖ ¿ uπo ∆ΑΓ γωνία· iσογώνιον vρα cστ| τo Α∆Γ τρίγωνον τ; ΑΗΖ τριγών;. διv
τv αuτv δ¿ κα| τo ΑΓΒ τρίγωνον iσογώνιόν cστι τ; ΑΖΕ τριγών;, κα| oλον τo ΑΒΓ∆ παραλ-
ληλόγραppον τ; ΕΗ παραλληλογράpp; iσογώνιόν cστιν. vνάλογον vρα cστ|ν eς ¿ Α∆ πρoς
τ¿ν ∆Γ, οuτως ¿ ΑΗ πρoς τ¿ν ΗΖ, eς δc ¿ ∆Γ πρoς τ¿ν ΓΑ, οuτως ¿ ΗΖ πρoς τ¿ν ΖΑ, eς δc
¿ ΑΓ πρoς τ¿ν ΓΒ, οuτως ¿ ΑΖ πρoς τ¿ν ΖΕ, κα| cτι eς ¿ ΓΒ πρoς τ¿ν ΒΑ, οuτως ¿ ΖΕ πρoς
τ¿ν ΕΑ. κα| cπε| cδείχθη eς pcν ¿ ∆Γ πρoς τ¿ν ΓΑ, οuτως ¿ ΗΖ πρoς τ¿ν ΖΑ, eς δc ¿ ΑΓ
πρoς τ¿ν ΓΒ, οuτως ¿ ΑΖ πρoς τ¿ν ΖΕ, δι :σου vρα cστ|ν eς ¿ ∆Γ πρoς τ¿ν ΓΒ, οuτως ¿ ΗΖ
πρoς τ¿ν ΖΕ. τeν vρα ΑΒΓ∆, ΕΗ παραλληλογράppων vνάλογόν εiσιν α| πλευρα| α| περ| τvς
:σας γωνίας· opοιον vρα cστ| τo ΑΒΓ∆ παραλληλογράppον τ; ΕΗ παραλληλογράpp;. διv τv
αuτv δ¿ τo ΑΒΓ∆ παραλληλόγραppον κα| τ; ΚΘ παραλληλογράpp; opοιόν cστιν· cκάτερον
vρα τeν ΕΗ, ΘΚ παραλληλογράppων τ; ΑΒΓ∆ ¸παραλληλογράpp;] opοιόν cστιν. τv δc τ;
αuτ; εuθυγράpp; opοια κα| vλλήλοις cστ|ν opοια· κα| τo ΕΗ vρα παραλληλόγραppον τ; ΘΚ
παραλληλογράpp; opοιόν cστιν.
4l2
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 24
E A B
G
F
H
D K C
For every parallelogram, the parallelograms about the diagonal are similar to the whole, and to
one another.
Let ABCD be a parallelogram, and AC its diagonal. And let EGand HK be parallelograms about
AC. I say that the parallelograms EG and HK are each similar to the whole (parallelogram)
ABCD, and to one another.
For since EF has been drawn parallel to one of the sides BC of triangle ABC, proportionally, as
BE is to EA, so CF (is) to FA [Prop. 6.2]. Again, since FG has been drawn parallel to one (of
the sides) CD of triangle ACD, proportionally, as CF is to FA, so DG(is) to GA [Prop. 6.2]. But,
as CF (is) to FA, so it was also shown (is) BE to EA. And thus as BE (is) to EA, so DG (is) to
GA. And, thus, compounding, as BA (is) to AE, so DA (is) to AG [Prop. 5.18]. And, alternately,
as BA (is) to AD, so EA (is) to AG [Prop. 5.16]. Thus, for parallelograms ABCD and EG, the
sides about the common angle BAD are proportional. And since GF is parallel to DC, angle
AFG is equal to DCA [Prop. 1.29]. And angle DAC (is) common to the two triangles ADC
and AGF. Thus, triangle ADC is equiangular to triangle AGF [Prop. 1.32]. So, for the same
(reasons), triangle ACB is equiangular to triangle AFE, and the whole parallelogram ABCD is
equiangular to parallelogram EG. Thus, proportionally, as AD (is) to DC, so AG (is) to GF, and
as DC (is) to CA, so GF (is) to FA, and as AC (is) to CB, so AF (is) to FE, and, further, as CB
(is) to BA, so FE (is) to EA [Prop. 6.4]. And since it was shown that as DC is to CA, so GF (is)
to FA, and as AC (is) to CB, so AF (is) to FE, thus, via equality, as DC is to CB, so GF (is) to
FE [Prop. 5.22]. Thus, for parallelograms ABCD and EG, the sides about the equal angles are
proportional. Thus, parallelogram ABCD is similar to parallelogram EG [Def. 6.1]. So, for the
same (reasons), parallelogram ABCD is also similar to parallelogram KH. Thus, parallelograms
EG and HK are each similar to [parallelogram] ABCD. And (rectilinear figures) similar to the
same rectilinear figure are also similar to one another [Prop. 6.21]. Thus, parallelogram EG is
also similar to parallelogram HK.
4l`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
κδ΄
Παντoς vρα παραλληλογράppου τv περ| τ¿ν διάpετρον παραλληλόγραppα opοιά cστι τ; τε
oλ; κα| vλλήλοις· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
4l4
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 24
Thus, for every parallelogram, the parallelograms about the diagonal are similar to the whole and
to one another. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
4l¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
κε΄
Η Θ
Κ
Γ
Α

Β
Λ Ε Μ
Ζ
Τ; δοθέντι εuθυγράpp; opοιον κα| vλλ; τ; δοθέντι :σον τo αuτo συστήσασθαι.
´Εστω τo pcν δοθcν εuθύγραppον, ; δεi opοιον συστήσασθαι, τo ΑΒΓ, ; δc δεi :σον, τo ∆·
δεi δ¿ τ; pcν ΑΒΓ opοιον, τ; δc ∆ :σον τo αuτo συστήσασθαι.
Παραβεβλήσθω γvρ παρv pcν τ¿ν ΒΓ τ; ΑΒΓ τριγών; :σον παραλληλόγραppον τo ΒΕ, παρv
δc τ¿ν ΓΕ τ; ∆ :σον παραλληλόγραppον τo ΓΜ cν γωνί; τ¸ uπo ΖΓΕ, ¿ cστιν :ση τ¸ uπo
ΓΒΛ. cπ εuθείας vρα cστ|ν ¿ pcν ΒΓ τ¸ ΓΖ, ¿ δc ΛΕ τ¸ ΕΜ. κα| εiλήφθω τeν ΒΓ, ΓΖ pέση
vνάλογον ¿ ΗΘ, κα| vναγεγράφθω vπo τ¿ς ΗΘ τ; ΑΒΓ opοιόν τε κα| opοίως κείpενον τo
ΚΗΘ.
Κα| cπεί cστιν eς ¿ ΒΓ πρoς τ¿ν ΗΘ, οuτως ¿ ΗΘ πρoς τ¿ν ΓΖ, cvν δc τρεiς εuθεiαι
vνάλογον eσιν, cστιν eς ¿ πρώτη πρoς τ¿ν τρίτην, οuτως τo vπo τ¿ς πρώτης ε|δος πρoς τo vπo
τ¿ς δευτέρας τo opοιον κα| opοίως vναγραφόpενον, cστιν vρα eς ¿ ΒΓ πρoς τ¿ν ΓΖ, οuτως
τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρoς τo ΚΗΘ τρίγωνον. vλλv κα| eς ¿ ΒΓ πρoς τ¿ν ΓΖ, οuτως τo ΒΕ
παραλληλόγραppον πρoς τo ΕΖ παραλληλόγραppον. κα| eς vρα τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρoς τo
ΚΗΘ τρίγωνον, οuτως τo ΒΕ παραλληλόγραppον πρoς τo ΕΖ παραλληλόγραppον· cναλλvξ
vρα eς τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρoς τo ΒΕ παραλληλόγραppον, οuτως τo ΚΗΘ τρίγωνον πρoς τo
ΕΖ παραλληλόγραppον. :σον δc τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ΒΕ παραλληλογράpp;· :σον vρα κα| τo
ΚΗΘ τρίγωνον τ; ΕΖ παραλληλογράpp;. vλλv τo ΕΖ παραλληλόγραppον τ; ∆ cστιν :σον·
κα| τo ΚΗΘ vρα τ; ∆ cστιν :σον. cστι δc τo ΚΗΘ κα| τ; ΑΒΓ opοιον.
Τ; vρα δοθέντι εuθυγράpp; τ; ΑΒΓ opοιον κα| vλλ; τ; δοθέντι τ; ∆ :σον τo αuτo
συνέσταται τo ΚΗΘ· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
4l6
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 25
F
A
B
C
K
G H
E
D
L M
To construct a single (rectilinear figure) similar to a given rectilinear figure and equal to a differ-
ent given rectilinear figure.
Let ABC be the given rectilinear figure to which it is required to construct a similar (rectilinear
figure), and D the (rectilinear figure) to which (the constructed figure) is required (to be) equal.
So it is required to construct a single (rectilinear figure) similar to ABC and equal to D.
For let the parallelogram BE, equal to triangle ABC, have been applied to (the straight-line) BC
[Prop. 1.44], and the parallelogram CM, equal to D, (have been applied) to (the straight-line)
CE, in the angle FCE, which is equal to CBL [Prop. 1.45]. Thus, BC is straight-on to CF,
and LE to EM [Prop. 1.14]. And let the mean proportion GH have been taken of BC and CF
[Prop. 6.13]. And let KGH, similar, and similarly laid out, to ABC have been described on GH
[Prop. 6.18].
And since as BC is to GH, so GH (is) to CF, and if three straight-lines are proportional then
as the first is to the third, so the figure (described) on the first (is) to the similar, and similarly
described, (figure) on the second [Prop. 6.19 corr.], thus as BC is to CF, so triangle ABC (is)
to triangle KGH. But, also, as BC (is) to CF, so parallelogram BE (is) to parallelogram EF
[Prop. 6.1]. And, thus, as triangle ABC (is) to triangle KGH, so parallelogram BE (is) to par-
allelogram EF. Thus, alternately, as triangle ABC (is) to parallelogram BE, so triangle KGH
(is) to parallelogram EF [Prop. 5.16]. And triangle ABC (is) equal to parallelogram BE. Thus,
triangle KGH (is) also equal to parallelogram EF. But, parallelogram EF is equal to D. Thus,
KGH is also equal to D. And KGH is also similar to ABC.
Thus, a single (rectilinear figure) KGH has been constructed (which is) similar to the given recti-
linear figure ABC and equal to a different given (rectilinear figure) D. (Which is) the very thing
it was required to do.
4l¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
κç΄
Θ
Β
Η Α
Γ

Ζ
Ε
Κ
Εvν vπo παραλληλογράppου παραλληλόγραppον vφαιρεθ¸ opοιόν τε τ; oλ; κα| opοίως
κείpενον κοιν¿ν γωνίαν cχον αuτ;, περ| τ¿ν αuτ¿ν διάpετρόν cστι τ; oλ;.
Απo γvρ παραλληλογράppου τοu ΑΒΓ∆ παραλληλόγραppον vφ¸ρήσθω τo ΑΖ opοιον τ;
ΑΒΓ∆ κα| opοίως κείpενον κοιν¿ν γωνίαν cχον αuτ; τ¿ν uπo ∆ΑΒ· λέγω, oτι περ| τ¿ν αuτ¿ν
διάpετρόν cστι τo ΑΒΓ∆ τ; ΑΖ.
Μ¿ γάρ, vλλ εi δυνατόν, cστω ¸αuτeν] διάpετρος ¿ ΑΘΓ, κα| cκβληθεiσα ¿ ΗΖ διήχθω cπ| τo
Θ, κα| ¿χθω διv τοu Θ oπορέρ; τeν Α∆, ΒΓ παράλληλος ¿ ΘΚ.
Επε| οuν περ| τ¿ν αuτ¿ν διάpετρόν cστι τo ΑΒΓ∆ τ; ΚΗ, cστιν vρα eς ¿ ∆Α πρoς τ¿ν ΑΒ,
οuτως ¿ ΗΑ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΚ. cστι δc κα| διv τ¿ν opοιότητα τeν ΑΒΓ∆, ΕΗ κα| eς ¿ ∆Α πρoς
τ¿ν ΑΒ, οuτως ¿ ΗΑ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΕ· κα| eς vρα ¿ ΗΑ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΚ, οuτως ¿ ΗΑ πρoς τ¿ν
ΑΕ. ¿ ΗΑ vρα πρoς cκατέραν τeν ΑΚ, ΑΕ τoν αuτoν cχει λόγον. :ση vρα cστ|ν ¿ ΑΕ τ¸
ΑΚ ¿ cλάττων τ¸ pείζονι· oπερ cστ|ν vδύνατον. οuκ vρα οuκ cστι περ| τ¿ν αuτ¿ν διάpετρον
τo ΑΒΓ∆ τ; ΑΖ· περ| τ¿ν αuτ¿ν vρα cστ| διάpετρον τo ΑΒΓ∆ παραλληλόγραppον τ; ΑΖ
παραλληλογράpp;.
Εvν vρα vπo παραλληλογράppου παραλληλόγραppον vφαιρεθ¸ opοιόν τε τ; oλ; κα| opοίως
κείpενον κοιν¿ν γωνίαν cχον αuτ;, περ| τ¿ν αuτ¿ν διάpετρόν cστι τ; oλ;· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
4l8
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 26
K
A G D
B
H
F
C
E
If from a parallelogram a(nother) parallelogram is subtracted (which is) similar, and similarly
laid out, to the whole, having a common angle with it, then (the subtracted parallelogram) is
about the same diagonal as the whole.
For, from parallelogram ABCD, let (parallelogram) AF have been subtracted (which is) similar,
and similarly laid out, to ABCD, having the common angle DAB with it. I say that ABCD is
about the same diagonal as AF.
For (if) not, then, if possible, let AHC be [ABCD’s] diagonal. And producing GF, let it have
been drawn through to (point) H. And let HK have been drawn through (point) H, parallel to
either of AD or BC [Prop. 1.31].
Therefore, since ABCD is about the same diagonal as KG, thus as DA is to AB, so GA (is) to
AK [Prop. 6.24]. And, on account of the similarity of ABCD and EG, also, as DA (is) to AB,
so GA (is) to AE. Thus, also, as GA (is) to AK, so GA (is) to AE. Thus, GA has the same ratio
to each of AK and AE. Thus, AE is equal to AK [Prop. 5.9], the lesser to the greater. The very
thing is impossible. Thus, ABCD is not not about the same diagonal as AF. Thus, parallelogram
ABCD is about the same diagonal as parallelogram AF.
Thus, if from a parallelogram a(nother) parallelogram is subtracted (which is) similar, and simi-
larly laid out, to the whole, having a common angle with it, then (the subtracted parallelogram)
is about the same diagonal as the whole. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
4l9
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
κζ΄
Λ
Α
Ζ
Θ
Β
Ε
Γ Κ

Μ
Η
Ν
Πάντων τeν παρv τ¿ν αuτ¿ν εuθεiαν παραβαλλοpένων παραλληλογράppων κα| cλλειπόντων
ε:δεσι παραλληλογράppοις opοίοις τε κα| opοίως κειpένοις τ; vπo τ¿ς ¿pισείας vναγρα-
φοpέν; pέγιστόν cστι τo vπo τ¿ς ¿pισείας παραβαλλόpενον ¸παραλληλόγραppον] opοιον oν
τ; cλλείppαντι.
´Εστω εuθεiα ¿ ΑΒ κα| τετpήσθω δίχα κατv τo Γ, κα| παραβεβλήσθω παρv τ¿ν ΑΒ εuθεiαν τo
Α∆ παραλληλόγραppον cλλεiπον ε:δει παραλληλογράpp; τ; ∆Β vναγραφέντι vπo τ¿ς ¿pισείας
τ¿ς ΑΒ, τουτέστι τ¿ς ΓΒ· λέγω, oτι πάντων τeν παρv τ¿ν ΑΒ παραβαλλοpένων παραλλη-
λογράppων κα| cλλειπόντων ε:δεσι ¸παραλληλογράppοις] opοίοις τε κα| opοίως κειpένοις τ;
∆Β pέγιστόν cστι τo Α∆. παραβεβλήσθω γvρ παρv τ¿ν ΑΒ εuθεiαν τo ΑΖ παραλληλόγραppον
cλλεiπον ε:δει παραλληλογράpp; τ; ΖΒ opοί; τε κα| opοίως κειpέν; τ; ∆Β· λέγω, oτι pεiζόν
cστι τo Α∆ τοu ΑΖ.
Επε| γvρ opοιόν cστι τo ∆Β παραλληλόγραppον τ; ΖΒ παραλληλογράpp;, περ| τ¿ν αuτήν
εiσι διάpετρον. ¿χθω αuτeν διάpετρος ¿ ∆Β, κα| καταγεγράφθω τo σχ¿pα.
Επε| οuν :σον cστ| τo ΓΖ τ; ΖΕ, κοινoν δc τo ΖΒ, oλον vρα τo ΓΘ oλ; τ; ΚΕ cστιν
:σον. vλλv τo ΓΘ τ; ΓΗ cστιν :σον, cπε| κα| ¿ ΑΓ τ¸ ΓΒ. κα| τo ΗΓ vρα τ; ΕΚ cστιν
:σον. κοινoν προσκείσθω τo ΓΖ· oλον vρα τo ΑΖ τ; ΛΜΝ γνώpονί cστιν :σον· eστε τo ∆Β
παραλληλόγραppον, τουτέστι τo Α∆, τοu ΑΖ παραλληλογράppου pεiζόν cστιν.
Πάντων vρα τeν παρv τ¿ν αuτ¿ν εuθεiαν παραβαλλοpένων παραλληλογράppων κα| cλλειπόντων
ε:δεσι παραλληλογράppοις opοίοις τε κα| opοίως κειpένοις τ; vπo τ¿ς ¿pισείας vναγραφοpέν;
pέγιστόν cστι τo vπo τ¿ς ¿pισείας παραβληθέν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
420
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 27
F
A C K
G
D
L
N
M
B
H
E
For all parallelograms applied to the same straight-line, and falling short by a parallelogrammic
figure similar, and similarly laid out, to the (parallelogram) described on half (the straight-line),
the greatest is the [parallelogram] applied to half (the straight-line), which (is) similar to (that
parallelogram) by which it falls short.
Let AB be the straight-line, and let it have been cut in half at (point) C [Prop. 1.10]. And let
the parallelogram AD have been applied to the straight-line AB, falling short by the parallelo-
grammic figure DB, (which is) applied to half of AB—that is to say, CB. I say that of all the
parallelograms applied to AB, and falling short by a [parallelogrammic] figure similar, and simi-
larly laid out, to DB, the greatest is AD. For let the parallelogram AF have been applied to the
straight-line AB, falling short by the parallelogrammic figure FB, (which is) similar, and simi-
larly laid out, to DB. I say that AD is greater than AF.
For since parallelogram DB is similar to parallelogram FB, they are about the same diagonal
[Prop. 6.26]. Let their (common) diagonal DB have been drawn, and let the (rest of the) figure
have been described.
Therefore, since (complement) CF is equal to (complement) FE [Prop. 1.43], and (parallelo-
gram) FB is common, the whole (parallelogram) CH is thus equal to the whole (parallelogram)
KE. But, (parallelogram) CH is equal to CG, since AC (is) also (equal) to CB [Prop. 6.1]. Thus,
(parallelogram) GC is also equal to EK. Let (parallelogram) CF have been added to both. Thus,
the whole (parallelogram) AF is equal to the gnomon LMN. Hence, parallelogram DB—that is
to say, AD—is greater than parallelogram AF.
Thus, for all parallelograms applied to the same straight-line, and falling short by a parallel-
ogrammic figure similar, and similarly laid out, to the (parallelogram) described on half (the
straight-line), the greatest is the [parallelogram] applied to half (the straight-line). (Which is)
the very thing it was required to show.
42l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
κη΄
Π
Γ
Α Σ Β
Ρ

Τ
Θ Ο
Ε
Η Ζ
Ξ
Λ
Κ Ν
Μ
Χ
Υ
Φ
Παρv τ¿ν δοθεiσαν εuθεiαν τ; δοθέντι εuθυγράpp; :σον παραλληλόγραppον παραβαλεiν
cλλεiπον ε:δει παραλληλογράpp; opοί; τ; δοθέντι· δεi δc τo διδόpενον εuθύγραppον ¸; δεi
:σον παραβαλεiν] p¿ pεiζον ε|ναι τοu vπo τ¿ς ¿pισείας vναγραφοpένου opοίου τ; cλλείppατι
¸τοu τε vπo τ¿ς ¿pισείας κα| ; δεi opοιον cλλείπειν].
´Εστω ¿ pcν δοθεiσα εuθεiα ¿ ΑΒ, τo δc δοθcν εuθύγραppον, ; δεi :σον παρv τ¿ν ΑΒ
παραβαλεiν, τo Γ p¿ pεiζον ¸oν] τοu vπo τ¿ς ¿pισείας τ¿ς ΑΒ vναγραφοpένου opοίου τ;
cλλείppατι, ; δc δεi opοιον cλλείπειν, τo ∆· δεi δ¿ παρv τ¿ν δοθεiσαν εuθεiαν τ¿ν ΑΒ
τ; δοθέντι εuθυγράpp; τ; Γ :σον παραλληλόγραppον παραβαλεiν cλλεiπον ε:δει παραλλη-
λογράpp; opοί; oντι τ; ∆.
Τετpήσθω ¿ ΑΒ δίχα κατv τo Ε σηpεiον, κα| vναγεγράφθω vπo τ¿ς ΕΒ τ; ∆ opοιον κα|
opοίως κείpενον τo ΕΒΖΗ, κα| συpπεπληρώσθω τo ΑΗ παραλληλόγραppον.
Εi pcν οuν :σον cστ| τo ΑΗ τ; Γ, γεγονoς iν ε:η τo cπιταχθέν· παραβέβληται γvρ παρv
τ¿ν δοθεiσαν εuθεiαν τ¿ν ΑΒ τ; δοθέντι εuθυγράpp; τ; Γ :σον παραλληλόγραppον τo ΑΗ
cλλεiπον ε:δει παραλληλογράpp; τ; ΗΒ opοί; oντι τ; ∆. εi δc οu, pεiζόν cστω τo ΘΕ τοu Γ.
:σον δc τo ΘΕ τ; ΗΒ· pεiζον vρα κα| τo ΗΒ τοu Γ. ; δ¿ pεiζόν cστι τo ΗΒ τοu Γ, ταύτ¸ τ¸
uπεροχ¸ :σον, τ; δc ∆ opοιον κα| opοίως κείpενον τo αuτo συνεστάτω τo ΚΛΜΝ. vλλv τo ∆
τ; ΗΒ ¸cστιν] opοιον· κα| τo ΚΜ vρα τ; ΗΒ cστιν opοιον. cστω οuν opόλογος ¿ pcν ΚΛ τ¸
ΗΕ, ¿ δc ΛΜ τ¸ ΗΖ. κα| cπε| :σον cστ| τo ΗΒ τοiς Γ, ΚΜ, pεiζον vρα cστ| τo ΗΒ τοu ΚΜ·
pείζων vρα cστ| κα| ¿ pcν ΗΕ τ¿ς ΚΛ, ¿ δc ΗΖ τ¿ς ΛΜ. κείσθω τ¸ pcν ΚΛ :ση ¿ ΗΞ, τ¸
δc ΛΜ :ση ¿ ΗΟ, κα| συpπεπληρώσθω τo ΞΗΟΠ παραλληλόγραppον· :σον vρα κα| opοιον
cστι ¸τo ΗΠ] τ; ΚΜ ¸vλλv τo ΚΜ τ; ΗΒ opοιόν cστιν]. κα| τo ΗΠ vρα τ; ΗΒ opοιόν cστιν·
422
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 28
105
O
A B E
F G H
K
Q
P
R
S
T
U
X
V
D
N
M L
C
To apply a parallelogram, equal to a given rectilinear figure, to a given straight-line, (the applied
parallelogram) falling short by a parallelogrammic figure similar to a given (parallelogram). It
is necessary for the given rectilinear figure [to which it is required to apply an equal (parallelo-
gram)] not to be greater than the (parallelogram) described on half (of the straight-line, which
is) similar to the deficit.
Let AB be the given straight-line, and C the given rectilinear figure to which the (parallelogram)
applied to AB is required (to be) equal, [being] not greater than the (parallelogram) described
on half of AB (which is) similar to the deficit, and D the (parallelogram) to which the deficit is
required (to be) similar. So it is required to apply a parallelogram, equal to the given rectilinear
figure C, to the straight-line AB, falling short by a parallelogrammic figure which is similar to D.
Let AB have been cut in half at point E [Prop. 1.10], and let (parallelogram) EBFG, (which is)
similar, and similarly laid out, to (parallelogram) D, have been applied to EB [Prop. 6.18]. And
let parallelogram AG have been completed.
Therefore, if AG is equal to C then the thing prescribed has happened. For a parallelogram AG,
equal to the given rectilinear figure C, has been applied to the given straight-line AB, falling short
by a parallelogrammic figure GB which is similar to D. And if not, let HE be greater than C.
And HE (is) equal to GB [Prop. 6.1]. Thus, GB (is) also greater than C. So, let (parallelogram)
KLMN have been constructed (so as to be) both similar, and similarly laid out, to D, and equal
105
This proposition is a geometric solution of the quadratic equation x
2
−αx +β = 0. Here, x is the ratio of a side
of the deficit to the corresponding side of figure D, α is the ratio of the length of AB to the length of that side of
figure D which corresponds to the side of the deficit running along AB, and β is the ratio of the areas of figures C
and D. The constraint corresponds to the condition β < α
2
/4 for the equation to have real roots. Only the smaller
root of the equation is found. The larger root can be found by a similar method.
42`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
κη΄
περ| τ¿ν αuτ¿ν vρα διάpετρόν cστι τo ΗΠ τ; ΗΒ. cστω αuτeν διάpετρος ¿ ΗΠΒ, κα| κατα-
γεγράφθω τo σχ¿pα.
Επε| οuν :σον cστ| τo ΒΗ τοiς Λ, ΚΜ, eν τo ΗΠ τ; ΚΜ cστιν :σον, λοιπoς vρα o ΥΧΦ
γνόpων λοιπ; τ; Γ :σος cστίν. κα| cπε| :σον cστ| τo ΟΡ τ; ΞΣ, κοινoν προσκείσθω τo ΠΒ·
oλον vρα τo ΟΒ oλ; τ; ΞΒ :σον cστίν. vλλv τo ΞΒ τ; ΤΕ cστιν :σον, cπε| κα| πλευρv ¿ ΑΕ
πλευρ; τ¸ ΕΒ cστιν :ση· κα| τo ΤΕ vρα τ; ΟΒ cστιν :σον. κοινoν προσκείσθω τo ΞΣ· oλον
vρα τo ΤΣ oλ; τ; ΦΧΥ γνώpονί cστιν :σον. vλλ o ΦΧΥ γνώpων τ; Γ cδείχθη :σος· κα| τo
ΤΣ vρα τ; Γ cστιν :σον.
Παρv τ¿ν δοθεiσαν vρα εuθεiαν τ¿ν ΑΒ τ; δοθέντι εuθυγράpp; τ; Γ :σον παραλληλόγραppον
παραβέβληται τo ΣΤ cλλεiπον ε:δει παραλληλογράpp; τ; ΠΒ opοί; oντι τ; ∆ ¸cπειδήπερ τo
ΠΒ τ; ΗΠ opοιόν cστιν]· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
424
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 28
to the excess by which GB is greater than C [Prop. 6.25]. But, GB [is] similar to D. Thus, KM
is also similar to GB [Prop. 6.21]. Therefore, let KL correspond to GE, and LM to GF. And
since (parallelogram) GB is equal to (figure) C and (parallelogram) KM, GB is thus greater
than KM. Thus, GE is also greater than KL, and GF than LM. Let GO be made equal to
KL, and GP to LM [Prop. 1.3]. And let the parallelogram OGPQ have been completed. Thus,
[GQ] is equal and similar to KM [but, KM is similar to GB]. Thus, GQ is also similar to GB
[Prop. 6.21]. Thus, GQ and GB are about the same diagonal [Prop. 6.26]. Let GQB be their
(common) diagonal, and let the (remainder of the) figure have been described.
Therefore, since BG is equal to C and KM, of which GQ is equal to KM, the remaining gnomon
UXV is thus equal to the remainder C. And since (the complement) PR is equal to (the com-
plement) OS [Prop. 1.43], let (parallelogram) QB have been added to both. Thus, the whole
(parallelogram) PB is equal to the whole (parallelogram) OB. But, OB is equal to TE, since
side AE is equal to side EB [Prop. 6.1]. Thus, TE is also equal to PB. Let (parallelogram) OS
have been added to both. Thus, the whole (parallelogram) TS is equal to the gnomon UXV .
But, gnomon UXV was shown (to be) equal to C. Therefore, (parallelogram) TS is also equal to
(figure) C.
Thus, the parallelogram ST, equal to the given rectilinear figure C, has been applied to the given
straight-line AB, falling short by the parallelogrammic figure QB, which is similar to D [inasmuch
as QB is similar to GQ [Prop. 6.24] ]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.
42¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
κθ΄
Φ
Γ
Θ Λ Μ
Ο
Β
Α
Ν Π
Ε
Ζ
Η
Κ
Χ

Ξ
Ψ
Παρv τ¿ν δοθεiσαν εuθεiαν τ; δοθέντι εuθυγράpp; :σον παραλληλόγραppον παραβαλεiν
uπερβάλλον ε:δει παραλληλογράpp; opοί; τ; δοθέντι.
´Εστω ¿ pcν δοθεiσα εuθεiα ¿ ΑΒ, τo δc δοθcν εuθύγραppον, ; δεi :σον παρv τ¿ν ΑΒ
παραβαλεiν, τo Γ, ; δc δεi opοιον uπερβάλλειν, τo ∆· δεi δ¿ παρv τ¿ν ΑΒ εuθεiαν τ; Γ
εuθυγράpp; :σον παραλληλόγραppον παραβαλεiν uπερβάλλον ε:δει παραλληλογράpp; opοί;
τ; ∆.
Τετpήσθω ¿ ΑΒ δίχα κατv τo Ε, κα| vναγεγράθω vπo τ¿ς ΕΒ τ; ∆ opοιον κα| opοίως
κείpενον παραλληλόγραppον τo ΒΖ, κα| συναpφοτέροις pcν τοiς ΒΖ, Γ :σον, τ; δc ∆ opοιον
κα| opοίως κείpενον τo αuτo συνεστάτω τo ΗΘ. opόλογος δc cστω ¿ pcν ΚΘ τ¸ ΖΛ, ¿ δc
ΚΗ τ¸ ΖΕ. κα| cπε| pεiζόν cστι τo ΗΘ τοu ΖΒ, pείζων vρα cστ| κα| ¿ pcν ΚΘ τ¿ς ΖΛ, ¿ δc
ΚΗ τ¸ ΖΕ. cκβεβλήσθωσαν α| ΖΛ, ΖΕ, κα| τ¸ pcν ΚΘ :ση cστω ¿ ΖΛΜ, τ¸ δc ΚΗ :ση ¿
ΖΕΝ, κα| συpπεπληρώσθω τo ΜΝ· τo ΜΝ vρα τ; ΗΘ :σον τέ cστι κα| opοιον. vλλv τo ΗΘ
τ; ΕΛ cστιν opοιον· κα| τo ΜΝ vρα τ; ΕΛ opοιόν cστιν· περ| τ¿ν αuτ¿ν vρα διάpετρόν cστι
τo ΕΛ τ; ΜΝ. ¿χθω αuτeν διάpετρος ¿ ΖΞ, κα| καταγεγράφθω τo σχ¿pα.
Επε| :σον cστ| τo ΗΘ τοiς ΕΛ, Γ, vλλv τo ΗΘ τ; ΜΝ :σον cστίν, κα| τo ΜΝ vρα τοiς ΕΛ,
Γ :σον cστίν. κοινoν vφ¸ρήσθω τo ΕΛ· λοιπoς vρα o ΨΧΦ γνώpων τ; Γ cστιν :σος. κα| cπε|
:ση cστ|ν ¿ ΑΕ τ¸ ΕΒ, :σον cστ| κα| τo ΑΝ τ; ΝΒ, τουτέστι τ; ΛΟ. κοινoν προσκείσθω τo
ΕΞ· oλον vρα τo ΑΞ :σον cστ| τ; ΦΧΨ γνώpονι. vλλv o ΦΧΨ γνώpων τ; Γ :σος cστίν· κα|
τo ΑΞ vρα τ; Γ :σον cστίν.
Παρv τ¿ν δοθεiσαν vρα εuθεiαν τ¿ν ΑΒ τ; δοθέντι εuθυγράpp; τ; Γ :σον παραλληλόγραppον
παραβέβληται τo ΑΞ uπερβάλλον ε:δει παραλληλογράpp; τ; ΠΟ opοί; oντι τ; ∆, cπε| κα|
τ; ΕΛ cστιν opοιον τo ΟΠ· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
426
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 29
106
A
B
C
F H K M L
P
U
X
D
V
G N
E
O Q
To apply a parallelogram, equal to a given rectilinear figure, to a given straight-line, (the applied
parallelogram) overshooting by a parallelogrammic figure similar to a given (parallelogram).
Let AB be the given straight-line, and C the given rectilinear figure to which the (parallelogram)
applied to AB is required (to be) equal, and D the (parallelogram) to which the excess is required
(to be) similar. So it is required to apply a parallelogram, equal to the given rectilinear figure C,
to the given straight-line AB, overshooting by a parallelogrammic figure similar to D.
Let AB have been cut in half at (point) E [Prop. 1.10], and let the parallelogram BF, (which
is) similar, and similarly laid out, to D, have been applied to EB [Prop. 6.18]. And let (parallel-
ogram) GH have been constructed (so as to be) both similar, and similarly laid out, to D, and
equal to the sum of BF and C [Prop. 6.25]. And let KH correspond to FL, and KG to FE. And
since (parallelogram) GH is greater than (parallelogram) FB, KH is thus also greater than FL,
and KG than FE. Let FL and FE have been produced, and let FLM be (made) equal to KH,
and FEN to KG [Prop. 1.3]. And let (parallelogram) MN have been completed. Thus, MN is
equal and similar to GH. But, GH is similar to EL. Thus, MN is also similar to EL [Prop. 6.21].
EL is thus about the same diagonal as MN [Prop. 6.26]. Let their (common) diagonal FO have
been drawn, and let the (remainder of the) figure have been described.
106
This proposition is a geometric solution of the quadratic equation x
2
+αx −β = 0. Here, x is the ratio of a side
of the excess to the corresponding side of figure D, α is the ratio of the length of AB to the length of that side of
figure D which corresponds to the side of the excess running along AB, and β is the ratio of the areas of figures C
and D. Only the positive root of the equation is found.
42¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
κθ΄
428
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 29
And since (parallelogram) GH is equal to (parallelogram) EL and (figure) C, but GH is equal
to (parallelogram) MN, MN is thus also equal to EL and C. Let EL have been subtracted from
both. Thus, the remaining gnomon UXV is equal to (figure) C. And since AE is equal to EB,
(parallelogram) AN is also equal to (parallelogram) NB [Prop. 6.1], that is to say, (parallelo-
gram) LP [Prop. 1.43]. Let (parallelogram) EO have been added to both. Thus, the whole
(parallelogram) AO is equal to the gnomon UXV . But, the gnomon UXV is equal to (figure) C.
Thus, (parallelogram) AO is also equal to (figure) C.
Thus, the parallelogram AO, equal to the given rectilinear figure C, has been applied to the given
straight-line AB, overshooting by the parallelogrammic figure QP which is similar to D, since
EL is also similar to PQ [Prop. 6.24]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.
429
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
λ΄
Ε
Β
Γ Ζ
Α

Θ
Τ¿ν δοθεiσαν εuθεiαν πεπερασpένην vκρον κα| pέσον λόγον τεpεiν.
´Εστω ¿ δοθεiσα εuθεiα πεπερασpένη ¿ ΑΒ· δεi δ¿ τ¿ν ΑΒ εuθεiαν vκρον κα| pέσον λόγον
τεpεiν.
Αναγεγράφθω vπo τ¿ς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τo ΒΓ, κα| παραβεβλήσθω παρv τ¿ν ΑΓ τ; ΒΓ :σον
παραλληλόγραppον τo Γ∆ uπερβάλλον ε:δει τ; Α∆ opοί; τ; ΒΓ.
Τετράγωνον δέ cστι τo ΒΓ· τετράγωνον vρα cστι κα| τo Α∆. κα| cπε| :σον cστ| τo ΒΓ τ;
Γ∆, κοινoν vφ¸ρήσθω τo ΓΕ· λοιπoν vρα τo ΒΖ λοιπ; τ; Α∆ cστιν :σον. cστι δc αuτ; κα|
iσογώνιον· τeν ΒΖ, Α∆ vρα vντιπεπόνθασιν α| πλευρα| α| περ| τvς :σας γωνίας· cστιν vρα eς ¿
ΖΕ πρoς τ¿ν Ε∆, οuτως ¿ ΑΕ πρoς τ¿ν ΕΒ. :ση δc ¿ pcν ΖΕ τ¸ ΑΒ, ¿ δc Ε∆ τ¸ ΑΕ. cστιν
vρα eς ¿ ΒΑ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΕ, οuτως ¿ ΑΕ πρoς τ¿ν ΕΒ. pείζων δc ¿ ΑΒ τ¿ς ΑΕ· pείζων vρα
κα| ¿ ΑΕ τ¿ς ΕΒ.
Η vρα ΑΒ εuθεiα vκρον κα| pέσον λόγον τέτpηται κατv τo Ε, κα| τo pεiζον αuτ¿ς τp¿pά cστι
τo ΑΕ· oπερ cδει ποι¿σαι.
4`0
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 30
107
E
F H
B
C
A
D
To cut a given finite straight-line in extreme and mean ratio.
Let AB be the given finite straight-line. So it is required to cut the straight-line AB in extreme
and mean ratio.
Let the square BC have been described on AB [Prop. 1.46], and let the parallelogram CD,
equal to BC, have been applied to AC, overshooting by the figure AD (which is) similar to
BC [Prop. 6.29].
And BC is a square. Thus, AD is also a square. And since BC is equal to CD, let (rectangle) CE
have been subtracted from both. Thus, the remaining (rectangle) BF is equal to the remaining
(square) AD. And it is also equiangular to it. Thus, the sides of BF and AD about the equal
angles are reciprocally proportional [Prop. 6.14]. Thus, as FE is to ED, so AE (is) to EB. And
FE (is) equal to AB, and ED to AE. Thus, as BA is to AE, so AE (is) to EB. And AB (is)
larger than AE. Thus, AE (is) also larger than EB [Prop. 5.14].
Thus, the straight-line AB has been cut in extreme and mean ratio at E, and AE is its larger
piece. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.
107
This method of cutting a straight-line is sometimes called the “Golden Section”—see Prop. 2.11.
4`l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
λα΄
Α

Β Γ
Εν τοiς oρθογωνίοις τριγώνοις τo vπo τ¿ς τ¿ν oρθ¿ν γωνίαν uποτεινούσης πλευρiς ε|δος :σον
cστ| τοiς vπo τeν τ¿ν oρθ¿ν γωνίαν περιεχουσeν πλευρeν ε:δεσι τοiς opοίοις τε κα| opοίως
vναγραφοpένοις.
´Εστω τρίγωνον oρθογώνιον τo ΑΒΓ oρθ¿ν cχον τ¿ν uπo ΒΑΓ γωνίαν· λέγω, oτι τo vπo τ¿ς
ΒΓ ε|δος :σον cστ| τοiς vπo τeν ΒΑ, ΑΓ ε:δεσι τοiς opοίοις τε κα| opοίως vναγραφοpένοις.
´Ηχθω κάθετος ¿ Α∆.
Επε| οuν cν oρθογωνί; τριγών; τ; ΑΒΓ vπo τ¿ς πρoς τ; Α oρθ¿ς γωνίας cπ| τ¿ν ΒΓ βάσιν
κάθετος ¿κται ¿ Α∆, τv ΑΒ∆, Α∆Γ πρoς τ¸ καθέτ; τρίγωνα opοιά cστι τ; τε oλ; τ; ΑΒΓ κα|
vλλήλοις. κα| cπε| opοιόν cστι τo ΑΒΓ τ; ΑΒ∆, cστιν vρα eς ¿ ΓΒ πρoς τ¿ν ΒΑ, οuτως ¿ ΑΒ
πρoς τ¿ν Β∆. κα| cπε| τρεiς εuθεiαι vνάλογόν εiσιν, cστιν eς ¿ πρώτη πρoς τ¿ν τρίτην, οuτως
τo vπo τ¿ς πρώτης ε|δος πρoς τo vπo τ¿ς δευτέρας τo opοιον κα| opοίως vναγραφόpενον. eς
vρα ¿ ΓΒ πρoς τ¿ν Β∆, οuτως τo vπo τ¿ς ΓΒ ε|δος πρoς τo vπo τ¿ς ΒΑ τo opοιον κα| opοίως
vναγραφόpενον. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| eς ¿ ΒΓ πρoς τ¿ν Γ∆, οuτως τo vπo τ¿ς ΒΓ ε|δος πρoς
τo vπo τ¿ς ΓΑ. eστε κα| eς ¿ ΒΓ πρoς τvς Β∆, ∆Γ, οuτως τo vπo τ¿ς ΒΓ ε|δος πρoς τv vπo
τeν ΒΑ, ΑΓ τv opοια κα| opοίως vναγραφόpενα. :ση δc ¿ ΒΓ ταiς Β∆, ∆Γ· :σον vρα κα| τo
vπo τ¿ς ΒΓ ε|δος τοiς vπo τeν ΒΑ, ΑΓ ε:δεσι τοiς opοίοις τε κα| opοίως vναγραφοpένοις,
Εν vρα τοiς oρθογωνίοις τριγώνοις τo vπo τ¿ς τ¿ν oρθ¿ν γωνίαν uποτεινούσης πλευρiς ε|δος
:σον cστ| τοiς vπo τeν τ¿ν oρθ¿ν γωνίαν περιεχουσeν πλευρeν ε:δεσι τοiς opοίοις τε κα| opοίως
vναγραφοpένοις· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
4`2
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 31
D
A
C B
In right-angled triangles, the figure (drawn) on the side subtending the right-angle is equal to the
(sum of the) similar, and similarly described, figures on the sides surrounding the right-angle.
Let ABC be a right-angled triangle having the angle BAC a right-angle. I say that the figure
(drawn) on BC is equal to the (sum of the) similar, and similarly described, figures on BA and
AC.
Let the perpendicular AD have been drawn [Prop. 1.12].
Therefore, since, in the right-angled triangle ABC, the (straight-line) AD has been drawn from
the right-angle at A perpendicular to the base BC, the triangles ABD and ADC about the per-
pendicular are similar to the whole (triangle) ABC, and to one another [Prop. 6.8]. And since
ABC is similar to ABD, thus as BC is to BA, so AB (is) to BD [Def. 6.1]. And since three
straight-lines are proportional, as the first is to the third, so the figure (drawn) on the first is to
the similar, and similarly described, (figure) on the second [Prop. 6.19 corr.]. Thus, as CB (is) to
BD, so the figure (drawn) on CB (is) to the similar, and similarly described, (figure) on BA. And
so, for the same (reasons), as BC (is) to CD, so the figure (drawn) on BC (is) to the (figure) on
CA. Hence, also, as BC (is) to BD and DC, so the figure (drawn) on BC (is) to the (sum of the)
similar, and similarly described, (figures) on BA and AC [Prop. 5.24]. And BC is equal to BD
and DC. Thus, the figure (drawn) on BC (is) also equal to the (sum of the) similar, and similarly
described, figures on BA and AC [Prop. 5.9].
Thus, in right-angled triangles, the figure (drawn) on the side subtending the right-angle is equal
to the (sum of the) similar, and similarly described, figures on the sides surrounding the right-
angle. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
4``
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
λβ΄
Γ Β Ε

Α
Εvν δύο τρίγωνα συντεθ¸ κατv pίαν γωνίαν τvς δύο πλευρvς ταiς δυσ| πλευραiς vνάλογον
cχοντα eστε τvς opολόγους αuτeν πλευρvς κα| παραλλήλους ε|ναι, α| λοιπα| τeν τριγώνων
πλευρα| cπ εuθείας cσονται.
´Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τv ΑΒΓ, ∆ΓΕ τvς δύο πλευρvς τvς ΒΑ, ΑΓ ταiς δυσ| πλευραiς ταiς ∆Γ,
∆Ε vνάλογον cχοντα, eς pcν τ¿ν ΑΒ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΓ, οuτως τ¿ν ∆Γ πρoς τ¿ν ∆Ε, παράλληλον
δc τ¿ν pcν ΑΒ τ¸ ∆Γ, τ¿ν δc ΑΓ τ¸ ∆Ε· λέγω, oτι cπ εuθείας cστ|ν ¿ ΒΓ τ¸ ΓΕ.
Επε| γvρ παράλληλός cστιν ¿ ΑΒ τ¸ ∆Γ, κα| εiς αuτvς cpπέπτωκεν εuθεiα ¿ ΑΓ, α| cναλλvξ
γωνίαι α| uπo ΒΑΓ, ΑΓ∆ :σαι vλλήλαις εiσίν. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| ¿ uπo Γ∆Ε τ¸ uπo ΑΓ∆ :ση
cστίν. eστε κα| ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ τ¸ uπo Γ∆Ε cστιν :ση. κα| cπε| δύο τρίγωνά cστι τv ΑΒΓ, ∆ΓΕ
pίαν γωνίαν τ¿ν πρoς τ; Α pι; γωνί; τ¸ πρoς τ; ∆ :σην cχοντα, περ| δc τvς :σας γωνίας τvς
πλευρvς vνάλογον, eς τ¿ν ΒΑ πρoς τ¿ν ΑΓ, οuτως τ¿ν Γ∆ πρoς τ¿ν ∆Ε, iσογώνιον vρα cστ|
τo ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τ; ∆ΓΕ τριγών;· :ση vρα ¿ uπo ΑΒΓ γωνία τ¸ uπo ∆ΓΕ. cδείχθη δc κα|
¿ uπo ΑΓ∆ τ¸ uπo ΒΑΓ :ση· oλη vρα ¿ uπo ΑΓΕ δυσ| ταiς uπo ΑΒΓ, ΒΑΓ :ση cστίν. κοιν¿
προσκείσθω ¿ uπo ΑΓΒ· α| vρα uπo ΑΓΕ, ΑΓΒ ταiς uπo ΒΑΓ, ΑΓΒ, ΓΒΑ :σαι εiσίν. vλλ α|
uπo ΒΑΓ, ΑΒΓ, ΑΓΒ δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι εiσίν· κα| α| uπo ΑΓΕ, ΑΓΒ vρα δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σαι
εiσίν. πρoς δή τινι εuθεί; τ¸ ΑΓ κα| τ; πρoς αuτ¸ σηpεί; τ; Γ δύο εuθεiαι α| ΒΓ, ΓΕ p¿ cπ|
τv αuτv pέρη κείpεναι τvς cφεξ¿ς γωνάις τvς uπo ΑΓΕ, ΑΓΒ δυσ|ν oρθαiς :σας ποιοuσιν· cπ
εuθείας vρα cστ|ν ¿ ΒΓ τ¸ ΓΕ.
Εvν vρα δύο τρίγωνα συντεθ¸ κατv pίαν γωνίαν τvς δύο πλευρvς ταiς δυσ| πλευραiς vνάλογον
cχοντα eστε τvς opολόγους αuτeν πλευρvς κα| παραλλήλους ε|ναι, α| λοιπα| τeν τριγώνων
πλευρα| cπ εuθείας cσονται· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
4`4
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 32
C B E
A
D
If two triangles, having two sides proportional to two sides, are placed together at a single angle
such that the corresponding sides are also parallel, then the remaining sides of the triangles will
be straight-on (with respect to one another).
Let ABC and DCE be two triangles having the two sides BA and AC proportional to the two
sides DC and DE—so that as AB (is) to AC, so DC (is) to DE—and (having side) AB parallel
to DC, and AC to DE. I say that (side) BC is straight-on to CE.
For since AB is parallel to DC, and the straight-line AC has fallen across them, the alternate
angles BAC and ACD are equal to one another [Prop. 1.29]. So, for the same (reasons), CDE
is also equal to ACD. And, hence, BAC is equal to CDE. And since ABC and DCE are
two triangles having the one angle at A equal to the one angle at D, and the sides about the
equal angles proportional, (so that) as BA (is) to AC, so CD (is) to DE, triangle ABC is thus
equiangular to triangle DCE [Prop. 6.6]. Thus, angle ABC is equal to DCE. And (angle) ACD
was also shown (to be) equal to BAC. Thus, the whole (angle) ACE is equal to the two (angles)
ABC and BAC. Let ACB have been added to both. Thus, ACE and ACB are equal to BAC,
ACB, and CBA. But, BAC, ABC, and ACB are equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.32]. Thus,
ACE and ACB are also equal to two right-angles. Thus, the two straight-lines BC and CE, not
lying in the same direction, make the adjacent angles ACE and ACB equal to two right-angles
at the point C on some straight-line AC. Thus, BC is straight-on to CE [Prop. 1.14].
Thus, if two triangles, having two sides proportional to two sides, are placed together at a single
angle such that the corresponding sides are also parallel, then the remaining sides of the triangles
will be straight-on (with respect to one another). (Which is) the very thing it was required to
show.
4`¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
λγ΄
Ζ
Λ
Η
Κ
Μ
Θ
Α

Ν
Β
Γ
Ε
Εν τοiς :σοις κύκλοις α| γωνίαι τoν αuτoν cχουσι λόγον ταiς περιφερείαις, cφ eν βεβήκασιν,
cάν τε πρoς τοiς κέντροις cάν τε πρoς ταiς περιφερείαις eσι βεβηκυiαι.
´Εστωσαν :σοι κύκλοι ο| ΑΒΓ, ∆ΕΖ, κα| πρoς pcν τοiς κέντροις αuτeν τοiς Η, Θ γωνίαι
cστωσαν α| uπo ΒΗΓ, ΕΘΖ, πρoς δc ταiς περιφερείαις α| uπo ΒΑΓ, Ε∆Ζ· λέγω, oτι cστ|ν eς ¿
ΒΓ περιφέρεια πρoς τ¿ν ΕΖ περιφέρειαν, οuτως ¿ τε uπo ΒΗΓ γωνία πρoς τ¿ν uπo ΕΘΖ κα|
¿ uπo ΒΑΓ πρoς τ¿ν uπo Ε∆Ζ.
Κείσθωσαν γvρ τ¸ pcν ΒΓ περιφερεί; :σαι κατv τo cξ¿ς oσαιδηποτοuν α| ΓΚ, ΚΛ, τ¸ δc ΕΖ
περιφερεί; :σαι oσαιδηποτοuν α| ΖΜ, ΜΝ, κα| cπεζεύχθωσαν α| ΗΚ, ΗΛ, ΘΜ, ΘΝ.
Επε| οuν :σαι εiσ|ν α| ΒΓ, ΓΚ, ΚΛ περιφέρειαι vλλήλαις, :σαι εiσ| κα| α| uπo ΒΗΓ, ΓΗΚ,
ΚΗΛ γωνίαι vλλήλαις· oσαπλασίων vρα cστ|ν ¿ ΒΛ περιφέρεια τ¿ς ΒΓ, τοσαυταπλασίων cστ|
κα| ¿ uπo ΒΗΛ γωνία τ¿ς uπo ΒΗΓ. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| oσαπλασίων cστ|ν ¿ ΝΕ περιφέρεια
τ¿ς ΕΖ, τοσαυταπλασίων cστ| κα| ¿ uπo ΝΘΕ γωνία τ¿ς uπo ΕΘΖ. εi vρα :ση cστ|ν ¿ ΒΛ
περιφέρεια τ¸ ΕΝ περιφερεί;, :ση cστ| κα| γωνία ¿ uπo ΒΗΛ τ¸ uπo ΕΘΝ, κα| εi pείζων cστ|ν
¿ ΒΛ περιφέρεια τ¿ς ΕΝ περιφερείας, pείζων cστ| κα| ¿ uπo ΒΗΛ γωνία τ¿ς uπo ΕΘΝ, κα|
εi cλάσσων, cλάσσων. τεσσάρων δ¿ oντων pεγεθeν, δύο pcν περιφερειeν τeν ΒΓ, ΕΖ, δύο δc
γωνιeν τeν uπo ΒΗΓ, ΕΘΖ, ε:ληπται τ¿ς pcν ΒΓ περιφερείας κα| τ¿ς uπo ΒΗΓ γωνίας iσάκις
πολλαπλασίων ¿ τε ΒΛ περιφέρεια κα| ¿ uπo ΒΗΛ γωνία, τ¿ς δc ΕΖ περιφερείας κα| τ¿ς uπo
ΕΘΖ γωνίας ¿ τε ΕΝ περιφέρια κα| ¿ uπo ΕΘΝ γωνία. κα| δέδεικται, oτι εi uπερέχει ¿ ΒΛ
περιφέρεια τ¿ς ΕΝ περιφερείας, uπερέχει κα| ¿ uπo ΒΗΛ γωνία τ¿ς uπο ΕΘΝ γωνίας, κα| εi
:ση, :ση, κα| εi cλάσσων, cλάσσων. cστιν vρα, eς ¿ ΒΓ περιφέρεια πρoς τ¿ν ΕΖ, οuτως ¿ uπo
ΒΗΓ γωνία πρoς τ¿ν uπo ΕΘΖ. vλλ eς ¿ uπo ΒΗΓ γωνία πρoς τ¿ν uπo ΕΘΖ, οuτως ¿ uπo
ΒΑΓ πρoς τ¿ν uπo Ε∆Ζ. διπλασία γvρ cκατέρα cκατέρας. κα| eς vρα ¿ ΒΓ περιφέρεια πρoς
τ¿ν ΕΖ περιφέρειαν, οuτως ¿ τε uπo ΒΗΓ γωνία πρoς τ¿ν uπo ΕΘΖ κα| ¿ uπo ΒΑΓ πρoς τ¿ν
uπo Ε∆Ζ.
4`6
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 33
K
A
C
D
F
G
H
M
N
E
B
L
In equal circles, angles have the same ratio as the (ratio of the) circumferences on which they
stand, whether they are standing at the centers (of the circles) or at the circumferences.
Let ABC and DEF be equal circles, and let BGC and EHF be angles at their centers, G and H
(respectively), and BAC and EDF (angles) at their circumferences. I say that as circumference
BC is to circumference EF, so angle BGC (is) to EHF, and (angle) BAC to EDF.
For let any number whatsoever of consecutive (circumferences), CK and KL, be made equal to
circumference BC, and any number whatsoever, FM and MN, to circumference EF. And let
GK, GL, HM, and HN have been joined.
Therefore, since circumferences BC, CK, and KL are equal to one another, angles BGC, CGK,
and KGL are also equal to one another [Prop. 3.27]. Thus, as many times as circumference BL
is (divisible) by BC, so many times is angle BGL also (divisible) by BGC. And so, for the same
(reasons), as many times as circumference NE is (divisible) by EF, so many times is angle NHE
also (divisible) by EHF. Thus, if circumference BL is equal to circumference EN then angle
BGL is also equal to EHN [Prop. 3.27], and if circumference BL is greater than circumference
EN then angle BGL is also greater than EHN,
108
and if (BL is) less (than EN then BGL is
also) less (than EHN). So there are four magnitudes, two circumferences BC and EF, and two
angles BGC and EHF. And equal multiples have been taken of circumference BC and angle
BGC, (namely) circumference BL and angle BGL, and of circumference EF and angle EHF,
(namely) circumference EN and angle EHN. And it has been shown that if circumference BL
exceeds circumference EN then angle BGL also exceeds angle EHN, and if (BL is) equal (to
EN then BGL is also) equal (to EHN), and if (BL is) less (than EN then BGL is also) less (than
EHN). Thus, as circumference BC (is) to EF, so angle BGC (is) to EHF [Def. 5.5]. But as
angle BGC (is) to EHF, so (angle) BAC (is) to EDF [Prop. 5.15]. For the former (are) double
the latter (respectively) [Prop. 3.20]. Thus, also, as circumference BC (is) to circumference EF,
so angle BGC (is) to EHF, and BAC to EDF.
108
This is a straight-forward generalization of Prop. 3.27,
4`¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ç΄
λβ΄
Εν vρα τοiς :σοις κύκλοις α| γωνίαι τoν αuτoν cχουσι λόγον ταiς περιφερείαις, cφ eν βεβήκασιν,
cάν τε πρoς τοiς κέντροις cάν τε πρoς ταiς περιφερείαις eσι βεβηκυiαι· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
4`8
ELEMENTS BOOK 6
Proposition 33
Thus, in equal circles, angles have the same ratio as the (ratio of the) circumferences on which
they stand, whether they are standing at the centers (of the circles) or at the circumferences.
(Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
4`9
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ζ΄
ELEMENTS BOOK 7
Elementary number theory
109
109
The propositions contained in Books 7–9 are generally attributed to the school of Pythagoras.
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ζ΄
´Οροι
α΄ Μονάς cστιν, καθ ¿ν cκαστον τeν oντων cν λέγεται.
β΄ Αριθpoς δc τo cκ pονάδων συγκείpενον πλ¿θος.
γ΄ Μέρος cστ|ν vριθpoς vριθpοu o cλάσσων τοu pείζονος, oταν καταpετρ¸ τoν pείζονα.
δ΄ Μέρη δέ, oταν p¿ καταpετρ¸.
ε΄ Πολλαπλάσιος δc o pείζων τοu cλάσσονος, oταν καταpετρ¿ται uπo τοu cλάσσονος.
ç΄ ´Αρτιος vριθpός cστιν o δίχα διαιρούpενος.
ζ΄ Περισσoς δc o p¿ διαιρούpενος δίχα ¿ ¸o] pονάδι διαφέρων vρτίου vριθpοu.
η΄ Αρτιάκις vρτιος vριθpός cστιν o uπo vρτίου vριθpοu pετρούpενος κατv vρτιον vριθpόν.
θ΄ ´Αρτιάκις δc περισσός cστιν o uπo vρτίου vριθpοu pετρούpενος κατv περισσoν vριθpόν.
ι΄ Περισσάκις δc περισσoς vριθpός cστιν o uπo περισσοu vριθpοu pετρούpενος κατv πε-
ρισσoν vριθpόν.
ια΄ Πρeτος vριθpός cστιν o pονάδι pόν¸ pετρούpενος.
ιβ΄ Πρeτοι πρoς vλλήλους vριθpοί εiσιν ο| pονάδι pόν¸ pετρούpενοι κοιν; pέτρ;.
ιγ΄ Σύνθετος vριθpός cστιν o vριθp; τινι pετρούpενος.
ιδ΄ Σύνθετοι δc πρoς vλλήλους vριθpοί εiσιν ο| vριθp; τινι pετρούpενοι κοιν; pέτρ;.
ιε΄ Αριθpoς vριθpoν πολλαπλασιάζειν λέγεται, oταν, oσαι εiσ|ν cν αuτ; pονάδες, τοσαυτάκις
συντεθ¸ o πολλαπλασιαζόpενος, κα| γένηταί τις.
442
ELEMENTS BOOK 7
Definitions
1 A unit is (that) according to which each existing (thing) is said (to be) one.
2 And a number (is) a multitude composed of units.
110
3 A number is part of a(nother) number, the lesser of the greater, when it measures the
greater.
111
4 But (the lesser is) parts (of the greater) when it does not measure it.
112
5 And the greater (number is) a multiple of the lesser when it is measured by the lesser.
6 An even number is one (which can be) divided in half.
7 And an odd number is one (which can)not (be) divided in half, or which differs from an
even number by a unit.
8 An even-times-even number is one (which is) measured by an even number according to an
even number.
113
9 And an even-times-odd number is one (which is) measured by an even number according
to an odd number.
114
10 And an odd-times-odd number is one (which is) measured by an odd number according to
an odd number.
115
11 A prime
116
number is one (which is) measured by a unit alone.
12 Numbers prime to one another are those (which are) measured by a unit alone as a common
measure.
13 A composite number is one (which is) measured by some number.
14 And numbers composite to one another are those (which are) measured by some number
as a common measure.
15 A number is said to multiply a(nother) number when the (number being) multiplied is
added (to itself) as many times as there are units in the former (number), and (thereby)
some (other number) is produced.
110
In other words, a number is a positive integer greater than unity.
111
In other words, a number a is part of another number b if their exists some number n such that na = b.
112
In other words, a number a is parts of another number b (where a < b) if their exist distinct numbers, m and n,
such that na = mb.
113
In other words. an even-times-even number is the product of two even numbers.
114
In other words, an even-times-odd number is the product of an even and an odd number.
115
In other words, an odd-times-odd number is the product of two odd numbers.
116
Literally, “first”.
44`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ζ΄
ιç΄ ´Οταν δc δύο vριθpο| πολλαπλασιάσαντες vλλήλους ποιeσί τινα, o γενόpενος cπίπεδος
καλεiται, πλευρα| δc αuτοu ο| πολλαπλασιάσαντες vλλήλους vριθpοί.
ιζ΄ ´Οταν δc τρεiς vριθpο| πολλαπλασιάσαντες vλλήλους ποιeσί τινα, o γενόpενος στερεός
cστιν, πλευρα| δc αuτοu ο| πολλαπλασιάσαντες vλλήλους vριθpοί.
ιη΄ Τετράγωνος vριθpός cστιν o iσάκις :σος ¿ ¸o] uπo δύο :σων vριθpeν περιεχόpενος.
ιθ΄ Κύβος δc o iσάκις :σος iσάκις ¿ ¸o] uπo τριeν :σων vριθpeν περιεχόpενος.
κ΄ Αριθpο| vνάλογόν εiσιν, oταν o πρeτος τοu δευτέρου κα| o τρίτος τοu τετάρτου iσάκις ¸
πολλαπλάσιος ¿ τo αuτo pέρος ¿ τv αuτv pέρη eσιν.
κα΄ ´Οpοιοι cπίπεδοι κα| στερεο| vριθpοί εiσιν ο| ανάλογον cχοντες τvς πλευράς.
κβ΄ Τέλειος vριθpός cστιν o τοiς cαυτοu pέρεσιν :σος eν.
444
ELEMENTS BOOK 7
16 And when two numbers multiplying one another make some (other number) then the (num-
ber so) created is called plane, and its sides (are) the numbers which multiply one another.
17 And when three numbers multiplying one another make some (other number) then the
(number so) created is (called) solid, and its sides (are) the numbers which multiply one
another.
18 A square number is an equal times an equal, or (a plane number) contained by two equal
numbers.
19 And a cube (number) is an equal times an equal times an equal, or (a solid number) con-
tained by three equal numbers.
20 Numbers are proportional when the first is the same multiple, or the same part, or the same
parts, of the second that the third (is) of the fourth.
21 Similar plane and solid numbers are those having proportional sides.
22 A perfect number is that which is equal to its own parts.
117
117
In other words, a perfect number is equal to the sum of its own factors.
44¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ζ΄
α΄
Ε
Θ
Α
Ζ
Γ
Η
∆ Β
∆ύο vριθpeν vνίσων cκκειpένων, vνθυφαιρουpένου δc vε| τοu cλάσσονος vπo τοu pείζονος, cvν
o λειπόpενος pηδέποτε καταpετρ¸ τoν πρo cαυτοu, cως οu λειφθ¸ pονάς, ο| cξ vρχ¿ς vριθpο|
πρeτοι πρoς vλλ¿λους cσονται.
∆ύο γvρ ¸vνίσων] vριθpeν τeν ΑΒ, Γ∆ vνθυφαιρουpένου vε| τοu cλάσσονος vπo τοu pείζονος
o λειπόpενος pηδέποτε καταpετρείτω τoν πρo cαυτοu, cως οu λειφθ¸ pονάς· λέγω, oτι ο| ΑΒ,
Γ∆ πρeτοι πρoς vλλήλους εiσίν, τουτέστιν oτι τοùς ΑΒ, Γ∆ pονvς pόνη pετρεi.
Εi γvρ pή εiσιν ο| ΑΒ, Γ∆ πρeτοι πρoς vλλήλους, pετρήσει τις αuτοùς vριθpός. pετρείτω, κα|
cστω o Ε· κα| o pcν Γ∆ τoν ΒΖ pετρeν λειπέτω cαυτοu cλάσσονα τoν ΖΑ, o δc ΑΖ τoν ∆Η
pετρeν λειπέτω cαυτοu cλάσσονα τoν ΗΓ, o δc ΗΓ τoν ΖΘ pετρeν λε|πέτω pονάδα τ¿ν ΘΑ.
Επε| οuν o Ε τoν Γ∆ pετρεi, o δc Γ∆ τoν ΒΖ pετρεi, κα| o Ε vρα τoν ΒΖ pετρεi· pετρεi δc
κα| oλον τoν ΒΑ· κα| λοιπoν vρα τoν ΑΖ pετρήσει. o δc ΑΖ τoν ∆Η pετρεi· κα| o Ε vρα
τoν ∆Η pετρεi· pετρεi δc κα| oλον τoν ∆Γ· κα| λοιπoν vρα τoν ΓΗ pετρήσει. o δc ΓΗ τoν
ΖΘ pετρεi· κα| o Ε vρα τoν ΖΘ pετρεi· pετρεi δc κα| oλον τoν ΖΑ· κα| λοιπ¿ν vρα τ¿ν ΑΘ
pονάδα pετρήσει vριθpoς eν· oπερ cστ|ν vδύνατον. οuκ vρα τοùς ΑΒ, Γ∆ vριθpοùς pετρήσει
τις vριθpός· ο| ΑΒ, Γ∆ vρα πρeτοι πρoς vλλήλους εiσίν· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
446
ELEMENTS BOOK 7
Proposition 1
E
G
A
H
F
B D
C
Two unequal numbers (being) laid down, and the lesser being continually subtracted, in turn,
from the greater, if the remainder never measures the (number) preceding it, until a unit remains,
then the original numbers will be prime to one another.
For two [unequal] numbers, AB and CD, the lesser being continually subtracted, in turn, from
the greater, let the remainder never measure the (number) preceding it, until a unit remains. I
say that AB and CD are prime to one another—that is to say, that a unit alone measures (both)
AB and CD.
For if AB and CD are not prime to one another then some number will measure them. Let (some
number) measure them, and let it be E. And let CD measuring BF leave FA less than itself, and
let AF measuring DG leave GC less than itself, and let GC measuring FH leave a unit, HA.
In fact, since E measures CD, and CD measures BF, E thus also measures BF.
118
And (E) also
measures the whole of BA. Thus, (E) will also measure the remainder AF.
119
And AF measures
DG. Thus, E also measures DG. And (E) also measures the whole of DC. Thus, (E) will also
measure the remainder CG. And CG measures FH. Thus, E also measures FH. And (E) also
measures the whole of FA. Thus, (E) will also measure the remaining unit AH, (despite) being a
number. The very thing is impossible. Thus, some number does not measure (both) the numbers
AB and CD. Thus, AB and CD are prime to one another. (Which is) the very thing it was
required to show.
118
Here, use is made of the unstated common notion that if a measures b, and b measures c, then a also measures
c, where all symbols denote numbers.
119
Here, use is made of the unstated common notion that if a measures b, and a measures part of b, then a also
measures the remainder of b, where all symbols denote numbers.
44¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ζ΄
β΄

Η
Α
Ε
Β
Γ
Ζ
∆ύο vριθpeν δοθέντων p¿ πρώτων πρoς vλλήλους τo pέγιστον αuτeν κοινoν pέτρον εuρεiν.
´Εστωσαν ο| δοθέντες δύο vριθpο| p¿ πρeτοι πρoς vλλήλους ο| ΑΒ, Γ∆. δεi δ¿ τeν ΑΒ, Γ∆
τo pέγιστον κοινoν pέτρον εuρεiν.
Εi pcν οuν o Γ∆ τoν ΑΒ pετρεi, pετρεi δc κα| cαυτόν, o Γ∆ vρα τeν Γ∆, ΑΒ κοινoν pέτρον
cστίν. κα| φανερόν, oτι κα| pέγιστον· οuδε|ς γvρ pείζων τοu Γ∆ τoν Γ∆ pετρήσει.
Εi δc οu pετρεi o Γ∆ τoν ΑΒ, τeν ΑΒ, Γ∆ vνθυφαιρουpένου vε| τοu cλάσσονος vπo τοu
pείζονος λειφθήσεταί τις vριθpός, oς pετρήσει τoν πρo cαυτοu. pονvς pcν γvρ οu λειφθήσεται·
εi δc pή, cσονται ο| ΑΒ, Γ∆ πρeτοι πρoς vλλήλους· oπερ οuχ uπόκειται. λειφήσεταί τις vρα
vριθpoς, oς pετρήσει τoν πρo cαυτοu. κα| o pcν Γ∆ τoν ΒΕ pετρeν λειπέτω cαυτοu cλάσσονα
τoν ΕΑ, o δc ΕΑ τoν ∆Ζ pετρeν λειπέτω cαυτοu cλάσσονα τoν ΖΓ, o δc ΓΖ τoν ΑΕ pετρείτω.
cπε| οuν o ΓΖ τoν ΑΕ pετρεi, o δc ΑΕ τoν ∆Ζ pετρεi, κα| o ΓΖ vρα τoν ∆Ζ pετρήσει. pετρεi
δc κα| cαυτόν· κα| oλον vρα τoν Γ∆ pετρήσει. o δc Γ∆ τoν ΒΕ pετρεi· κα| o ΓΖ vρα τoν ΒΕ
pετρεi· pετρεi δc κα| τoν ΕΑ· κα| oλον vρα τoν ΒΑ pετρήσει· pετρεi δc κα| τoν Γ∆· o ΓΖ vρα
τοùς ΑΒ, Γ∆ pετρεi. o ΓΖ vρα τeν ΑΒ, Γ∆ κοινoν pέτρον cστίν. λέγω δή, oτι κα| pέγιστον. εi
γvρ pή cστιν o ΓΖ τeν ΑΒ, Γ∆ pέγιστον κοινoν pέτρον, pετρήσει τις τοùς ΑΒ, Γ∆ vριθpοùς
vριθpoς pείζων eν τοu ΓΖ. pετρείτω, κα| cστω o Η. κα| cπε| o Η τoν Γ∆ pετρεi, o δc Γ∆ τoν
ΒΕ pετρεi, κα| o Η vρα τoν ΒΕ pετρεi· pετρεi δc κα| oλον τoν ΒΑ· κα| λοιπoν vρα τoν ΑΕ
pετρήσει. o δc ΑΕ τoν ∆Ζ pετρεi· κα| o Η vρα τoν ∆Ζ pετρήσει· pετρεi δc κα| oλον τoν ∆Γ·
κα| λοιπoν vρα τoν ΓΖ pετρήσει o pείζων τoν cλάσσονα· oπερ cστ|ν vδύνατον· οuκ vρα τοùς
ΑΒ, Γ∆ vριθpοùς vριθpός τις pετρήσει pείζων eν τοu ΓΖ· o ΓΖ vρα τeν ΑΒ, Γ∆ pέγιστόν
cστι κοινoν pέτρον. ¸oπερ cδει δεiξαι].
Πόρισpα
Εκ δ¿ τούτου φανερόν, oτι cvν vριθpoς δύο vριθpοùς pετρ¸, κα| τo pέγιστον αuτeν κοινoν
pέτρον pετρήσει· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
448
ELEMENTS BOOK 7
Proposition 2
B
G
F
A
E C
D
To find the greatest common measure of two given numbers (which are) not prime to one another.
Let AB and CD be the two given numbers (which are) not prime to one another. So it is required
to find the greatest common measure of AB and CD.
In fact, if CD measures AB, CD is thus a common measure of CD and AB, (since CD) also
measures itself. And (it is) manifest that (it is) also the greatest (common measure). For nothing
greater than CD can measure CD.
But if CD does not measure AB then some number will remain fromAB and CD, the lesser being
continually subtracted, in turn, from the greater, which will measure the (number) preceding it.
For a unit will not be left. But if not, AB and CD will be prime to one another [Prop. 7.1].
The very opposite thing was assumed. Thus, some number will remain which will measure the
(number) preceding it. And let CD measuring BE leave EAless than itself, and let EAmeasuring
DF leave FC less than itself, and let CF measure AE. Therefore, since CF measures AE, and
AE measures DF, CF will thus also measure DF. And it also measures itself. Thus, it will also
measure the whole of CD. And CD measures BE. Thus, CF also measures BE. And it also
measures EA. Thus, it will also measure the whole of BA. And it also measures CD. Thus, CF
measures (both) AB and CD. Thus, CF is a common measure of AB and CD. So I say that (it
is) also the greatest (common measure). For if CF is not the greatest common measure of AB
and CD then some number which is greater than CF will measure the numbers AB and CD. Let
it (so) measure (AB and CD), and let it be G. And since G measures CD, and CD measures BE,
G thus also measures BE. And it also measures the whole of BA. Thus, it will also measure the
remainder AE. And AE measures DF. Thus, G will also measure DF. And it also measures the
whole of DC. Thus, it will also measure the remainder CF, the greater (measuring) the lesser.
The very thing is impossible. Thus, some number which is greater than CF cannot measure the
numbers AB and CD. Thus, CF is the greatest common measure of AB and CD. [(Which is)
the very thing it was required to show].
Corollary
So it is manifest, from this, that if a number measures two numbers then it will also measure their
greatest common measure. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
449
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ζ΄
γ΄
Ζ Α Β Γ ∆ Ε
Τριeν vριθpeν δοθέντων p¿ πρώτων πρoς vλλήλους τo pέγιστον αuτeν κοινoν pέτρον εuρεiν.
´Εστωσαν ο| δοθέντες τρεiς vριθpο| p¿ πρeτοι πρoς vλλήλους ο| Α, Β, Γ· δεi δ¿ τeν Α, Β, Γ
τo pέγιστον κοινoν pέτρον εuρεiν.
Εiλήφθω γvρ δύο τeν Α, Β τo pέγιστον κοινoν pέτρον o ∆· o δ¿ ∆ τoν Γ ¿τοι pετρεi ¿ οu
pετρεi. pετρείτω πρότερον· pετρεi δέ κα| τοùς Α, Β· o ∆ vρα τοùς Α, Β, Γ pετρεi· o ∆ vρα
τeν Α, Β, Γ κοινoν pέτρον cστίν. λέγω δή, oτι κα| pέγιστον. εi γvρ pή cστιν o ∆ τeν Α,
Β, Γ pέγιστον κοινoν pέτρον, pετρήσει τις τοùς Α, Β, Γ vριθpοùς vριθpoς pείζων eν τοu ∆.
pετρείτω, κα| cστω o Ε. cπε| οuν o Ε τοùς Α, Β, Γ pετρεi, κα| τοùς Α, Β vρα pετρήσει· κα| τo
τeν Α, Β vρα pέγιστον κοινoν pέτρον pετρήσει. τo δc τeν Α, Β pέγιστον κοινoν pέτρον cστ|ν
o ∆· o Ε vρα τoν ∆ pετρεi o pείζων τoν cλάσσονα· oπερ cστ|ν vδύνατον. οuκ vρα τοùς Α, Β,
Γ vριθpοùς vριθpός τις pετρήσει pείζων eν τοu ∆· o ∆ vρα τeν Α, Β, Γ pέγιστόν cστι κοινoν
pέτρον.
Μ¿ pετρείτω δ¿ o ∆ τoν Γ· λέγω πρeτον, oτι ο| Γ, ∆ οuκ εiσι πρeτοι πρoς vλλήλους. cπε|
γvρ ο| Α, Β, Γ οuκ εiσι πρeτοι πρoς vλλήλους, pετρήσει τις αuτοùς vριθpός. o δ¿ τοùς Α, Β,
Γ pετρeν κα| τοùς Α, Β pετρήσει, κα| τo τeν Α, Β pέγιστον κοινoν pέτρον τoν ∆ pετρήσει·
pετρεi δc κα| τoν Γ· τοùς ∆, Γ vρα vριθpοùς vριθpός τις pετρήσει· ο| ∆, Γ vρα οuκ εiσι
πρeτοι πρoς vλλήλους. εiλήφθω οuν αuτeν τo pέγιστον κοινoν pέτρον o Ε. κα| cπε| o Ε τoν ∆
pετρεi, o δc ∆ τοùς Α, Β pετρεi, κα| o Ε vρα τοùς Α, Β pετρεi· pετρεi δc κα| τoν Γ· o Ε vρα
τοùς Α, Β, Γ pετρεi. o Ε vρα τeν Α, Β, Γ κοινόν cστι pέτρον. λέγω δή, oτι κα| pέγιστον. εi
γvρ pή cστιν o Ε τeν Α, Β, Γ τo pέγιστον κοινoν pέτρον, pετρήσει τις τοùς Α, Β, Γ vριθpοùς
vριθpoς pείζων eν τοu Ε. pετρείτω, κα| cστω o Ζ. κα| cπε| o Ζ τοùς Α, Β, Γ pετρεi, κα| τοùς
Α, Β pετρεi· κα| τo τeν Α, Β vρα pέγιστον κοινoν pέτρον pετρήσει. τo δc τeν Α, Β pέγιστον
κοινoν pέτρον cστ|ν o ∆· o Ζ vρα τoν ∆ pετρεi· pετρεi δc κα| τoν Γ· o Ζ vρα τοùς ∆, Γ pετρεi·
κα| τo τeν ∆, Γ vρα pέγιστον κοινoν pέτρον pετρήσει. τo δc τeν ∆, Γ pέγιστον κοινoν pέτρον
cστ|ν o Ε· o Ζ vρα τoν Ε pετρεi o pείζων τoν cλάσσονα· oπερ cστ|ν vδύνατον. οuκ vρα τοùς
4¯0
ELEMENTS BOOK 7
Proposition 3
F A B C D E
To find the greatest common measure of three given numbers (which are) not prime to one an-
other.
Let A, B, and C be the three given numbers (which are) not prime to one another. So it is re-
quired to find the greatest common measure of A, B, and C.
For let the greatest common measure, D, of the two (numbers) A and B have been taken
[Prop. 7.2]. So D either measures, or does not measure, C. First of all, let it measure (C).
And it also measures A and B. Thus, D measures A, B, and C. Thus, D is a common measure
of A, B, and C. So I say that (it is) also the greatest (common measure). For if D is not the
greatest common measure of A, B, and C then some number greater than D will measure the
numbers A, B, and C. Let it (so) measure (A, B, and C), and let it be E. Therefore, since E
measures A, B, and C, it will thus also measure A and B. Thus, it will also measure the greatest
common measure of A and B [Prop. 7.2 corr.]. And D is the greatest common measure of A and
B. Thus, E measures D, the greater (measuring) the lesser. The very thing is impossible. Thus,
some number which is greater than D cannot measure the numbers A, B, and C. Thus, D is the
greatest common measure of A, B, and C.
So let D not measure C. I say, first of all, that C and D are not prime to one another. For since A,
B, C are not prime to one another, some number will measure them. So the (number) measuring
A, B, and C will also measure A and B, and it will also measure the greatest common measure,
D, of A and B [Prop. 7.2 corr.]. And it also measures C. Thus, some number will measure the
numbers D and C. Thus, D and C are not prime to one another. Therefore, let their greatest
common measure, E, have been taken [Prop. 7.2]. And since E measures D, and D measures A
and B, E thus also measures A and B. And it also measures C. Thus, E measures A, B, and C.
Thus, E is a common measure of A, B, and C. So I say that (it is) also the greatest (common
measure). For if E is not the greatest common measure of A, B, and C then some number greater
than E will measure the numbers A, B, and C. Let it (so) measure (A, B, and C), and let it be
F. And since F measures A, B, and C, it also measures A and B. Thus, it will also measure the
4¯l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ζ΄
γ΄
Α, Β, Γ vριθpοùς vριθpός τις pετρήσει pείζων eν τοu Ε· o Ε vρα τeν Α, Β, Γ pέγιστόν cστι
κοινoν pέτρον· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
4¯2
ELEMENTS BOOK 7
Proposition 3
greatest common measure of A and B [Prop. 7.2 corr.]. And D is the greatest common measure
of A and B. Thus, F measures D. And it also measures C. Thus, F measures D and C. Thus,
it will also measure the greatest common measure of D and C [Prop. 7.2 corr.]. And E is the
greatest common measure of D and C. Thus, F measures E, the greater (measuring) the lesser.
The very thing is impossible. Thus, some number which is greater than E does not measure the
numbers A, B, and C. Thus, E is the greatest common measure of A, B, and C. (Which is) the
very thing it was required to show.
4¯`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ζ΄
δ΄
Ε
Ζ
Γ
Β
Α ∆
´Απας vριθpoς παντoς vριθpοu o cλάσσων τοu pείζονος ¿τοι pέρος cστ|ν ¿ pέρη.
´Εστωσαν δύο vριθpο| ο| Α, ΒΓ, κα| cστω cλάσσων o ΒΓ· λέγω, oτι o ΒΓ τοu Α ¿τοι pέρος
cστ|ν ¿ pέρη.
Ο| Α, ΒΓ γvρ ¿τοι πρeτοι πρoς vλλήλους εiσ|ν ¿ οu. cστωσαν πρότερον ο| Α, ΒΓ πρeτοι
πρoς vλλήλους. διαρεθέντος δ¿ τοu ΒΓ εiς τvς cν αuτ; pονάδας cσται cκάστη pονvς τeν cν τ;
ΒΓ pέρος τι τοu Α· eστε pέρη cστ|ν o ΒΓ τοu Α.
Μ¿ cστωσαν δ¿ ο| Α, ΒΓ πρeτοι πρoς vλλήλους· o δ¿ ΒΓ τoν Α ¿τοι pετρεi ¿ οu pετρεi. εi
pcν οuν o ΒΓ τoν Α pετρεi, pέρος cστ|ν o ΒΓ τοu Α. εi δc οu, εiλήφθω τeν Α, ΒΓ pέγιστον
κοινoν pέτρον o ∆, κα| δι¸ρήσθω o ΒΓ εiς τοùς τ; ∆ :σους τοùς ΒΕ, ΕΖ, ΖΓ. κα| cπε| o ∆
τoν Α pετρεi, pέρος cστ|ν o ∆ τοu Α· :σος δc o ∆ cκάστ; τeν ΒΕ, ΕΖ, ΖΓ· κα| cκαστος vρα
τeν ΒΕ, ΕΖ, ΖΓ τοu Α pέρος cστίν· eστε pέρη cστ|ν o ΒΓ τοu Α.
´Απας vρα vριθpoς παντoς vριθpοu o cλάσσων τοu pείζονος ¿τοι pέρος cστ|ν ¿ pέρη· oπερ
cδει δεiξαι.
4¯4
ELEMENTS BOOK 7
Proposition 4
D
C
F
E
B
A
Any number is either part or parts of any (other) number, the lesser of the greater.
Let A and BC be two numbers, and let BC be the lesser. I say that BC is either part or parts of
A.
For A and BC are either prime to one another, or not. Let A and BC, first of all, be prime to one
another. So separating BC into its constituent units, each of the units in BC will be some part of
A. Hence, BC is parts of A.
So let A and BC be not prime to one another. So BC either measures, or does not measure, A.
Therefore, if BC measures A then BC is part of A. And if not, let the greatest common measure,
D, of A and BC have been taken [Prop. 7.2], and let BC have been divided into BE, EF, and
FC, equal to D. And since D measures A, D is a part of A. And D is equal to each of BE, EF,
and FC. Thus, BE, EF, and FC are also each part of A. Hence, BC is parts of A.
Thus, any number is either part or parts of any (other) number, the lesser of the greater. (Which
is) the very thing it was required to show.
4¯¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ζ΄
ε΄

Γ
Η
Β
Ζ
Θ
Ε
Α
Εvν vριθpoς vριθpοu pέρος ¸, κα| cτερος cτέρου τo αuτo pέρος ¸, κα| συναpφότερος συναp-
φοτέρου τo αuτo pέρος cσται, oπερ o ε|ς τοu cνός.
Αριθpoς γvρ o Α ¸vριθpοu] τοu ΒΓ pέρος cστω, κα| cτερος o ∆ cτέρου τοu ΕΖ τo αuτo
pέρος, oπερ o Α τοu ΒΓ· λέγω, oτι κα| συναpφότερος o Α, ∆ συναpφοτέρου τοu ΒΓ, ΕΖ τo
αuτo pέρος cστίν, oπερ o Α τοu ΒΓ.
Επε| γάρ, o pέρος cστ|ν o Α τοu ΒΓ, τo αuτo pέρος cστ| κα| o ∆ τοu ΕΖ, oσοι vρα εiσ|ν
cν τ; ΒΓ vριθpο| :σοι τ; Α, τοσοuτοί εiσι κα| cν τ; ΕΖ vριθpο| :σοι τ; ∆. δι¸ρήσθω o pcν
ΒΓ εiς τοùς τ; Α :σους τοùς ΒΗ, ΗΓ, o δc ΕΖ εiς τοùς τ; ∆ :σους τοùς ΕΘ, ΘΖ· cσται δ¿
:σον τo πλ¿θος τeν ΒΗ, ΗΓ τ; πλήθει τeν ΕΘ, ΘΖ. κα| cπε| :σος cστ|ν o pcν ΒΗ τ; Α, o
δc ΕΘ τ; ∆, κα| ο| ΒΗ, ΕΘ vρα τοiς Α, ∆ :σοι. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| ο| ΗΓ, ΘΖ τοiς Α,
∆. oσοι vρα ¸εiσ|ν] cν τ; ΒΓ vριθpο| :σοι τ; Α, τοσοuτοί εiσι κα| cν τοiς ΒΓ, ΕΖ :σοι τοiς
Α, ∆. oσαπλασίων vρα cστ|ν o ΒΓ τοu Α, τοσαυταπλασίων cστ| κα| συναpφότερος o ΒΓ, ΕΖ
συναpφοτέρου τοu Α, ∆. o vρα pέρος cστ|ν o Α τοu ΒΓ, τo αuτo pέρος cστ| κα| συναpφότερος
o Α, ∆ συναpφοτέρου τοu ΒΓ, ΕΖ· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
4¯6
ELEMENTS BOOK 7
Proposition 5
120
D
C
G
B
F
H
E
A
If a number is part of a number, and another (number) is the same part of another, then the sum
(of the leading numbers) will also be the same part of the sum (of the following numbers) that
one (number) is of another.
For let a number A be part of a [number] BC, and another (number) D (be) the same part of
another (number) EF that A (is) of BC. I say that the sum A, D is also the same part of the sum
BC, EF that A (is) of BC.
For since which(ever) part A is of BC, D is the same part of EF, thus as many numbers as are in
BC equal to A, so many numbers are also in EF equal to D. Let BC have been divided into BG
and GC, equal to A, and EF into EH and HF, equal to D. So the multitude of (divisions) BG,
GC will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) EH, HF. And since BG is equal to A, and EH
to D, thus BG, EH (is) also equal to A, D. So, for the same (reasons), GC, HF (is) also (equal)
to A, D. Thus, as many numbers as [are] in BC equal to A, so many are also in BC, EF equal
to A, D. Thus, as many times as BC is (divisible) by A, so many times is the sum BC, EF also
(divisible) by the sum A, D. Thus, which(ever) part A is of BC, the sum A, D is also the same
part of the sum BC, EF. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
120
In modern notation, this proposition states that if a = (1/n) b and c = (1/n) d then (a +c) = (1/n) (b +d), where
all symbols denote numbers.
4¯¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ζ΄
ç΄
Ε
Θ

Η
Α
Β
Γ Ζ
Εvν vριθpoς vριθpοu pέρη ¸, κα| cτερος cτέρου τv αuτv pέρη ¸, κα| συναpφότερος συναp-
φοτέρου τv αuτv pέρη cσται, oπερ o ε|ς τοu cνός.
Αριθpoς γvρ o ΑΒ vριθpοu τοu Γ pέρη cστω, κα| cτερος o ∆Ε cτέρου τοu Ζ τv αuτv pέρη,
vπερ o ΑΒ τοu Γ· λέγω, oτι κα| συναpφότερος o ΑΒ, ∆Ε συναpφοτέρου τοu Γ, Ζ τv αuτv
pέρη cστίν, vπερ o ΑΒ τοu Γ.
Επε| γάρ, i pέρη cστ|ν o ΑΒ τοu Γ, τv αuτv pέρη κα| o ∆Ε τοu Ζ, oσα vρα cστ|ν cν τ;
ΑΒ pέρη τοu Γ, τοσαuτά cστι κα| cν τ; ∆Ε pέρη τοu Ζ. δι¸ρήσθω o pcν ΑΒ εiς τv τοu Γ
pέρη τv ΑΗ, ΗΒ, o δc ∆Ε εiς τv τοu Ζ pέρη τv ∆Θ, ΘΕ· cσται δ¿ :σον τo πλ¿θος τeν ΑΗ,
ΗΒ τ; πλήθει τeν ∆Θ, ΘΕ. κα| cπεί, o pέρος cστ|ν o ΑΗ τοu Γ, τo αuτo pέρος cστ| κα| o
∆Θ τοu Ζ, o vρα pέρος cστ|ν o ΑΗ τοu Γ, τo αuτo pέρος cστ| κα| συναpφότερος o ΑΗ, ∆Θ
συναpφοτέρου τοu Γ, Ζ. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| o pέρος cστ|ν o ΗΒ τοu Γ, τo αuτo pέρος cστ|
κα| συναpφότερος o ΗΒ, ΘΕ συναpφοτέρου τοu Γ, Ζ. i vρα pέρη cστ|ν o ΑΒ τοu Γ, τv αuτv
pέρη cστ| κα| συναpφότερος o ΑΒ, ∆Ε συναpφοτέρου τοu Γ, Ζ· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
4¯8
ELEMENTS BOOK 7
Proposition 6
121
E
G
A
C
D
H
F
B
If a number is parts of a number, and another (number) is the same parts of another, then the
sum (of the leading numbers) will also be the same parts of the sum (of the following numbers)
that one (number) is of another.
For let a number AB be parts of a number C, and another (number) DE (be) same parts of
another (number) F that AB (is) of C. I say that the sum AB, DE is also the same parts of the
sum C, F that AB (is) of C.
For since which(ever) parts AB is of C, DE (is) also the same parts of F, thus as many parts of
C as are in AB, so many parts of F are also in DE. Let AB have been divided into the parts of
C, AG and GB, and DE into the parts of F, DH and HE. So the multitude of (divisions) AG,
GB will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) DH, HE. And since which(ever) part AG is of
C, DH is also the same part of F, thus which(ever) part AG is of C, the sum AG, DH is also the
same part of the sum C, F [Prop. 7.5]. And so, for the same (reasons), which(ever) part GB is of
C, the sum GB, HE is also the same part of the sum C, F. Thus, which(ever) parts AB is of C,
the sumAB, DE is also the same parts of the sumC, F. (Which is) the very thing it was required
to show.
121
In modern notation, this proposition states that if a = (m/n) b and c = (m/n) d then (a + c) = (m/n) (b + d),
where all symbols denote numbers.
4¯9
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ζ΄
ζ΄
Η
Α
Γ Ζ ∆
Β Ε
Εvν vριθpoς vριθpοu pέρος ¸, oπερ vφαιρεθε|ς vφαιρεθέντος, κα| o λοιπoς τοu λοιποu τo
αuτo pέρος cσται, oπερ o oλος τοu oλου.
Αριθpoς γvρ o ΑΒ vριθpοu τοu Γ∆ pέρος cστω, oπερ vφαιρεθε|ς o ΑΕ vφαιρεθέντος τοu
ΓΖ· λέγω, oτι κα| λοιπoς o ΕΒ λοιποu τοu Ζ∆ τo αuτo pέρος cστίν, oπερ oλος o ΑΒ oλου τοu
Γ∆.
`Ο γvρ pέρος cστ|ν o ΑΕ τοu ΓΖ, τo αuτo pέρος cστω κα| o ΕΒ τοu ΓΗ. κα| cπεί, o pέρος
cστ|ν o ΑΕ τοu ΓΖ, τo αuτo pέρος cστ| κα| o ΕΒ τοu ΓΗ, o vρα pέρος cστ|ν o ΑΕ τοu ΓΖ, τo
αuτo pέρος cστ| κα| o ΑΒ τοu ΗΖ. o δc pέρος cστ|ν o ΑΕ τοu ΓΖ, τo αuτo pέρος uπόκειται
κα| o ΑΒ τοu Γ∆· o vρα pέρος cστ| κα| o ΑΒ τοu ΗΖ, τo αuτo pέρος cστ| κα| τοu Γ∆· :σος
vρα cστ|ν o ΗΖ τ; Γ∆. κοινoς vφ¸ρήσθω o ΓΖ· λοιπoς vρα o ΗΓ λοιπ; τ; Ζ∆ cστιν :σος.
κα| cπεί, o pέρος cστ|ν o ΑΕ τοu ΓΖ, τo αuτo pέρος ¸cστ|] κα| o ΕΒ τοu ΗΓ, :σος δc o ΗΓ
τ; Ζ∆, o vρα pέρος cστ|ν o ΑΕ τοu ΓΖ, τo αuτo pέρος cστ| κα| o ΕΒ τοu Ζ∆. vλλv o pέρος
cστ|ν o ΑΕ τοu ΓΖ, τo αuτo pέρος cστ| κα| o ΑΒ τοu Γ∆· κα| λοιπoς vρα o ΕΒ λοιποu τοu
Ζ∆ τo αuτo pέρος cστίν, oπερ oλος o ΑΒ oλου τοu Γ∆· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
460
ELEMENTS BOOK 7
Proposition 7
122
E A
G C D F
B
If a number is that part of a number that a (part) taken away (is) of a (part) taken away, then the
remainder will also be the same part of the remainder that the whole (is) of the whole.
For let a number AB be that part of a number CD that a (part) taken away AE (is) of a part
taken away CF. I say that the remainder EB is also the same part of the remainder FD that the
whole AB (is) of the whole CD.
For which(ever) part AE is of CF, let EB also be the same part of CG. And since which(ever)
part AE is of CF, EB is also the same part of CG, thus which(ever) part AE is of CF, AB is
also the same part of GF [Prop. 7.5]. And which(ever) part AE is of CF, AB is also assumed (to
be) the same part of CD. Thus, also, which(ever) part AB is of GF, (AB) is also the same part
of CD. Thus, GF is equal to CD. Let CF have been subtracted from both. Thus, the remainder
GC is equal to the remainder FD. And since which(ever) part AE is of CF, EB [is] also the
same part of GC, and GC (is) equal to FD, thus which(ever) part AE is of CF, EB is also the
same part of FD. But, which(ever) part AE is of CF, AB is also the same part of CD. Thus, the
remainder EB is also the same part of the remainder FD that the whole AB (is) of the whole
CD. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
122
In modern notation, this proposition states that if a = (1/n) b and c = (1/n) d then (a −c) = (1/n) (b −d), where
all symbols denote numbers.
46l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ζ΄
η΄
Β
Η
Α Λ Ε
Ν
Γ Ζ ∆
Μ Κ Θ
Εvν vριθpoς vριθpοu pέρη ¸, vπερ vφαιρεθε|ς vφαιρεθέντος, κα| o λοιπoς τοu λοιποu τv αuτv
pέρη cσται, vπερ o oλος τοu oλου.
Αριθpoς γvρ o ΑΒ vριθpοu τοu Γ∆ pέρη cστω, vπερ vφαιρεθε|ς o ΑΕ vφαιρεθέντος τοu ΓΖ·
λέγω, oτι κα| λοιπoς o ΕΒ λοιποu τοu Ζ∆ τv αuτv pέρη cστίν, vπερ oλος o ΑΒ oλου τοu Γ∆.
Κείσθω γvρ τ; ΑΒ :σος o ΗΘ, i vρα pέρη cστ|ν o ΗΘ τοu Γ∆, τv αuτv pέρη cστ| κα| o
ΑΕ τοu ΓΖ. δι¸ρήσθω o pcν ΗΘ εiς τv τοu Γ∆ pέρη τv ΗΚ, ΚΘ, o δc ΑΕ εiς τv τοu ΓΖ
pέρη τv ΑΛ, ΛΕ· cσται δ¿ :σον τo πλ¿θος τeν ΗΚ, ΚΘ τ; πλήθει τeν ΑΛ, ΛΕ. κα| cπεί, o
pέρος cστ|ν o ΗΚ τοu Γ∆, τo αuτo pέρος cστ| κα| o ΑΛ τοu ΓΖ, pείζων δc o Γ∆ τοu ΓΖ,
pείζων vρα κα| o ΗΚ τοu ΑΛ. κείσθω τ; ΑΛ :σος o ΗΜ. o vρα pέρος cστ|ν o ΗΚ τοu Γ∆,
τo αuτo pέρος cστ| κα| o ΗΜ τοu ΓΖ· κα| λοιπoς vρα o ΜΚ λοιποu τοu Ζ∆ τo αuτo pέρος
cστίν, oπερ oλος o ΗΚ oλου τοu Γ∆. πάλιν cπεί, o pέρος cστ|ν o ΚΘ τοu Γ∆, τo αuτo pέρος
cστ| κα| o ΕΛ τοu ΓΖ, pείζων δc o Γ∆ τοu ΓΖ, pείζων vρα κα| o ΘΚ τοu ΕΛ. κείσθω τ;
ΕΛ :σος o ΚΝ. o vρα pέρος cστ|ν o ΚΘ τοu Γ∆, τo αuτo pέρος cστ| κα| o ΚΝ τοu ΓΖ· κα|
λοιπoς vρα o ΝΘ λοιποu τοu Ζ∆ τo αuτo pέρος cστίν, oπερ oλος o ΚΘ oλου τοu Γ∆. cδείχθη
δc κα| λοιπoς o ΜΚ λοιποu τοu Ζ∆ τo αuτo pέρος eν, oπερ oλος o ΗΚ oλου τοu Γ∆· κα|
συναpφότερος vρα o ΜΚ, ΝΘ τοu ∆Ζ τv αuτv pέρη cστίν, vπερ oλος o ΘΗ oλου τοu Γ∆.
:σος δc συναpφότερος pcν o ΜΚ, ΝΘ τ; ΕΒ, o δc ΘΗ τ; ΒΑ· κα| λοιπoς vρα o ΕΒ λοιποu
τοu Ζ∆ τv αuτv pέρη cστίν, vπερ oλος o ΑΒ oλου τοu Γ∆· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
462
ELEMENTS BOOK 7
Proposition 8
123
C
A E
F
G K M N
L B
H
D
If a number is those parts of a number that a (part) taken away (is) of a (part) taken away, then
the remainder will also be the same parts of the remainder that the whole (is) of the whole.
For let a number AB be those parts of a number CD that a (part) taken away AE (is) of a (part)
taken away CF. I say that the remainder EB is also the same parts of the remainder FD that the
whole AB (is) of the whole CD.
For let GH be laid down equal to AB. Thus, which(ever) parts GH is of CD, AE is also the same
parts of CF. Let GH have been divided into the parts of CD, GK and KH, and AE into the part
of CF, AL and LE. So the multitude of (divisions) GK, KH will be equal to the multitude of
(divisions) AL, LE. And since which(ever) part GK is of CD, AL is also the same part of CF,
and CD (is) greater than CF, GK (is) thus also greater than AL. Let GM be made equal to AL.
Thus, which(ever) part GK is of CD, GM is also the same part of CF. Thus, the remainder MK
is also the same part of the remainder FD that the whole GK (is) of the whole CD [Prop. 7.5].
Again, since which(ever) part KH is of CD, EL is also the same part of CF, and CD (is) greater
than CF, HK (is) thus also greater than EL. Let KN be made equal to EL. Thus, which(ever)
part KH (is) of CD, KN is also the same part of CF. Thus, the remainder NH is also the
same part of the remainder FD that the whole KH (is) of the whole CD [Prop. 7.5]. And the
remainder MK was also shown to be the same part of the remainder FD that the whole GK (is)
of the whole CD. Thus, the sum MK, NH is the same parts of DF that the whole HG (is) of the
whole CD. And the sum MK, NH (is) equal to EB, and HG to BA. Thus, the remainder EB
is also the same parts of the remainder FD that the whole AB (is) of the whole CD. (Which is)
the very thing it was required to show.
123
In modern notation, this proposition states that if a = (m/n) b and c = (m/n) d then (a − c) = (m/n) (b − d),
where all symbols denote numbers.
46`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ζ΄
θ΄
Β
Ε
Θ
Ζ
∆ Α
Γ
Η
Εvν vριθpoς vριθpοu pέρος ¸, κα| cτερος cτέρου τo αuτo pέρος ¸, κα| cναλλάξ, o pέρος
cστ|ν ¿ pέρη o πρeτος τοu τρίτου, τo αuτo pέρος cσται ¿ τv αuτv pέρη κα| o δεύτερος τοu
τετάρτου.
Αριθpoς γvρ o Α vριθpοu τοu ΒΓ pέρος cστω, κα| cτερος o ∆ cτέρου τοu ΕΖ τo αuτo pέρος,
oπερ o Α τοu ΒΓ· λέγω, oτι κα| cναλλάξ, o pέρος cστ|ν o Α τοu ∆ ¿ pέρη, τo αuτo pέρος cστ|
κα| o ΒΓ τοu ΕΖ ¿ pέρη.
Επε| γvρ o pέρος cστ|ν o Α τοu ΒΓ, τo αuτo pέρος cστ| κα| o ∆ τοu ΕΖ, oσοι vρα εiσ|ν cν τ;
ΒΓ vριθpο| :σοι τ; Α, τοσοuτοί εiσι κα| cν τ; ΕΖ :σοι τ; ∆. δι¸ρήσθω o pcν ΒΓ εiς τοùς τ;
Α :σους τοùς ΒΗ, ΗΓ, o δc ΕΖ εiς τοùς τ; ∆ :σους τοùς ΕΘ, ΘΖ· cσται δ¿ :σον τo πλ¿θος
τeν ΒΗ, ΗΓ τ; πλήθει τeν ΕΘ, ΘΖ.
Κα| cπε| :σοι εiσ|ν ο| ΒΗ, ΗΓ vριθpο| vλλήλοις, εiσ| δc κα| ο| ΕΘ, ΘΖ vριθpο| :σοι vλλήλοις,
καί cστιν :σον τo πλ¿θος τeν ΒΗ, ΗΓ τ; πλήθει τeν ΕΘ, ΘΖ, o vρα pέρος cστ|ν o ΒΗ τοu
ΕΘ ¿ pέρη, τo αuτo pέρος cστ| κα| o ΗΓ τοu ΘΖ ¿ τv αuτv pέρη· eστε κα| o pέρος cστ|ν o
ΒΗ τοu ΕΘ ¿ pέρη, τo αuτo pέρος cστ| κα| συναpφότερος o ΒΓ συναpφοτέρου τοu ΕΖ ¿ τv
αuτv pέρη. :σος δc o pcν ΒΗ τ; Α, o δc ΕΘ τ; ∆· o vρα pέρος cστ|ν o Α τοu ∆ ¿ pέρη, τo
αuτo pέρος cστ| κα| o ΒΓ τοu ΕΖ ¿ τv αuτv pέρη· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
464
ELEMENTS BOOK 7
Proposition 9
124
F
A
C
G
B
D
E
H
If a number is part of a number, and another (number) is the same part of another, also, alter-
nately, which(ever) part, or parts, the first (number) is of the third, the second (number) will also
be the same part, or the same parts, of the fourth.
For let a number A be part of a number BC, and another (number) D (be) the same part of
another EF that A (is) of BC. I say that, also, alternately, which(ever) part, or parts, A is of D,
BC is also the same part, or parts, of EF.
For since which(ever) part A is of BC, D is also the same part of EF, thus as many numbers as
are in BC equal to A, so many are also in EF equal to D. Let BC have been divided into BG
and GC, equal to A, and EF into EH and HF, equal to D. So the multitude of (divisions) BG,
GC will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) EH, HF.
And since the numbers BG and GC are equal to one another, and the numbers EH and HF are
also equal to one another, and the multitude of (divisions) BG, GC is equal to the multitude of
(divisions) EH, HC, thus which(ever) part, or parts, BG is of EH, GC is also the same part, or
the same parts, of HF. And hence, which(ever) part, or parts, BG is of EH, the sum BC is also
the same part, or the same parts, of the sum EF [Props. 7.5, 7.6]. And BG (is) equal to A, and
EH to D. Thus, which(ever) part, or parts, A is of D, BC is also the same part, or the same parts,
of EF. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
124
In modern notation, this proposition states that if a = (1/n) b and c = (1/n) d then if a = (k/l) c then b = (k/l) d,
where all symbols denote numbers.
46¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ζ΄
ι΄
Ζ
Η
Ε
Θ

Α
Β
Γ
Εvν vριθpoς vριθpοu pέρη ¸, κα| cτερος cτέρου τv αuτv pέρη ¸, κα| cναλλάξ, i pέρη cστ|ν o
πρeτος τοu τρίτου ¿ pέρος, τv αuτv pέρη cσται κα| o δεύτερος τοu τετάρτου ¿ τo αuτo pέρος.
Αριθpoς γvρ o ΑΒ vριθpοu τοu Γ pέρη cστω, κα| cτερος o ∆Ε cτέρου τοu Ζ τv αuτv pέρη·
λέγω, oτι κα| cναλλάξ, i pέρη cστ|ν o ΑΒ τοu ∆Ε ¿ pέρος, τv αuτv pέρη cστ| κα| o Γ τοu Ζ
¿ τo αuτo pέρος.
Επε| γάρ, i pέρη cστ|ν o ΑΒ τοu Γ, τv αuτv pέρη cστ| κα| o ∆Ε τοu Ζ, oσα vρα cστ|ν cν τ;
ΑΒ pέρη τοu Γ, τοσαuτα κα| cν τ; ∆Ε pέρη τοu Ζ. δι¸ρήσθω o pcν ΑΒ εiς τv τοu Γ pέρη
τv ΑΗ, ΗΒ, o δc ∆Ε εiς τv τοu Ζ pέρη τv ∆Θ, ΘΕ· cσται δ¿ :σον τo πλ¿θος τeν ΑΗ, ΗΒ
τ; πλήθει τeν ∆Θ, ΘΕ. κα| cπεί, o pέρος cστ|ν o ΑΗ τοu Γ, τo αuτo pέρος cστ| κα| o ∆Θ
τοu Ζ, κα| cναλλάξ, o pέρος cστ|ν o ΑΗ τοu ∆Θ ¿ pέρη, τo αuτo pέρος cστ| κα| o Γ τοu Ζ ¿
τv αuτv pέρη. διv τv αuτv δ¿ καί, o pέρος cστ|ν o ΗΒ τοu ΘΕ ¿ pέρη, τo αuτo pέρος cστ|
κα| o Γ τοu Ζ ¿ τv αuτv pέρη· eστε καί ¸o pέρος cστ|ν o ΑΗ τοu ∆Θ ¿ pέρη, τo αuτo pέρος
cστ| κα| o ΗΒ τοu ΘΕ ¿ τv αuτv pέρη· κα| o vρα pέρος cστ|ν o ΑΗ τοu ∆Θ ¿ pέρη, τo αuτo
pέρος cστ| κα| o ΑΒ τοu ∆Ε ¿ τv αuτv pέρη· vλλ o pέρος cστ|ν o ΑΗ τοu ∆Θ ¿ pέρη, τo
αuτo pέρος cδείχθη κα| o Γ τοu Ζ ¿ τv αuτv pέρη, κα|] i ¸vρα] pέρη cστ|ν o ΑΒ τοu ∆Ε ¿
pέρος, τv αuτv pέρη cστ| κα| o Γ τοu Ζ ¿ τo αuτo pέρος· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
466
ELEMENTS BOOK 7
Proposition 10
125
A
B
G
C
E
H
D
F
If a number is parts of a number, and another (number) is the same parts of another, also, alter-
nately, which(ever) parts, or part, the first (number) is of the third, the second will also be the
same parts, or the same part, of the fourth.
For let a number AB be parts of a number C, and another (number) DE (be) the same parts of
another F. I say that, also, alternately, which(ever) parts, or part, AB is of DE, C is also the
same parts, or the same part, of F.
For since which(ever) parts AB is of C, DE is also the same parts of F, thus as many parts of C
as are in AB, so many parts of F (are) also in DE. Let AB have been divided into the parts of C,
AG and GB, and DE into the parts of F, DH and HE. So the multitude of (divisions) AG, GB
will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) DH, HE. And since which(ever) part AG is of C,
DH is also the same part of F, also, alternately, which(ever) part, or parts, AG is of DH, C is also
the same part, or the same parts, of F [Prop. 7.9]. And so, for the same (reasons), which(ever)
part, or parts, GB is of HE, C is also the same part, or the same parts, of F [Prop. 7.9]. And so
[which(ever) part, or parts, AG is of DH, GB is also the same part, or the same parts, of HE.
And thus, which(ever) part, or parts, AG is of DH, AB is also the same part, or the same parts,
of DE [Props. 7.5, 7.6]. But, which(ever) part, or parts, AG is of DH, C was also shown (to be)
the same part, or the same parts, of F. And, thus] which(ever) parts, or part, AB is of DE, C is
also the same parts, or the same part, of F. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
125
In modern notation, this proposition states that if a = (m/n) b and c = (m/n) d then if a = (k/l) c then b =
(k/l) d, where all symbols denote numbers.
46¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ζ΄
ια΄
∆ Β
Ε
Α
Γ
Ζ
Εαν ¸ eς oλος πρoς oλον, οuτως vφαιρεθε|ς πρoς vφαιρεθέντα, κα| o λοιπoς πρoς τoν λοιπoν
cσται, eς oλος πρoς oλον.
´Εστω eς oλος o ΑΒ πρoς oλον τoν Γ∆, οuτως vφαιρεθε|ς o ΑΕ πρoς vφαιρεθέντα τoν ΓΖ·
λέγω, oτι κα| λοιπoς o ΕΒ πρoς λοιπoν τoν Ζ∆ cστιν, eς oλος o ΑΒ πρoς oλον τoν Γ∆.
Επεί cστιν eς o ΑΒ πρoς τoν Γ∆, οuτως o ΑΕ πρoς τoν ΓΖ, o vρα pέρος cστ|ν o ΑΒ τοu Γ∆
¿ pέρη, τo αuτo pέρος cστ| κα| o ΑΕ τοu ΓΖ ¿ τv αuτv pέρη. κα| λοιπoς vρα o ΕΒ λοιποu
τοu Ζ∆ τo αuτo pέρος cστ|ν ¿ pέρη, vπερ o ΑΒ τοu Γ∆. cστιν vρα eς o ΕΒ πρoς τoν Ζ∆,
οuτως o ΑΒ πρoς τoν Γ∆· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
468
ELEMENTS BOOK 7
Proposition 11
126
A
F
E
C
B D
If as the whole (of a number) is to the whole (of another), so a (part) taken away (is) to a (part)
taken away, then the remainder will also be to the remainder as the whole (is) to the whole.
Let the whole AB be to the whole CD as the (part) taken away AE (is) to the (part) taken away
CF. I say that the remainder EB is to the remainder FD as the whole AB (is) to the whole CD.
(For) since as AB is to CD, so AE (is) to CF, thus which(ever) part, or parts, AB is of CD, AE
is also the same part, or the same parts, of CF [Def. 7.20]. Thus, the remainder EB is also the
same part, or parts, of the remainder FD that AB (is) of CD [Props. 7.7, 7.8]. Thus, as EB is to
FD, so AB (is) to CD [Def. 7.20]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
126
In modern notation, this proposition states that if a : b :: c : d then a : b :: a −c : b −d, where all symbols denote
numbers.
469
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ζ΄
ιβ΄
∆ Β Α Γ
Εvν eσιν oποσοιοuν vριθpο| vνάλογον, cσται eς ε|ς τeν ¿γουpένων πρoς cνα τeν cποpένων,
οuτως vπαντες ο| ¿γούpενοι πρoς vπαντας τοùς cποpένους.
´Εστωσαν oποσοιοuν vριθpο| vνάλογον ο| Α, Β, Γ, ∆, eς o Α πρoς τoν Β, οuτως o Γ πρoς
τoν ∆· λέγω, oτι cστ|ν eς o Α πρoς τoν Β, οuτως ο| Α, Γ πρoς τοùς Β, ∆.
Επε| γάρ cστιν eς o Α πρoς τoν Β, οuτως o Γ πρoς τoν ∆, o vρα pέρος cστ|ν o Α τοu Β ¿
pέρη, τo αuτo pέρος cστ| κα| o Γ τοu ∆ ¿ pέρη. κα| συναpφότερος vρα o Α, Γ συναpφοτέρου
τοu Β, ∆ τo αuτo pέρος cστ|ν ¿ τv αuτv pέρη, vπερ o Α τοu Β. cστιν vρα eς o Α πρoς τoν Β,
οuτως ο| Α, Γ πρoς τοùς Β, ∆· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
4¯0
ELEMENTS BOOK 7
Proposition 12
127
D A B C
If any multitude whatsoever of numbers are proportional then as one of the leading (numbers is)
to one of the following so all of the leading (numbers) will be to all of the following.
Let any multitude whatsoever of numbers, A, B, C, D, be proportional, (such that) as A (is) to
B, so C (is) to D. I say that as A is to B, so A, C (is) to B, D.
For since as A is to B, so C (is) to D, thus which(ever) part, or parts, A is of B, C is also the same
part, or parts, of D [Def. 7.20]. Thus, the sumA, C is also the same part, or the same parts, of the
sum B, D that A (is) of B [Props. 7.5, 7.6]. Thus, as A is to B, so A, C (is) to B, D [Def. 7.20].
(Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
127
In modern notation, this proposition states that if a : b :: c : d then a : b :: a +c : b +d, where all symbols denote
numbers.
4¯l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ζ΄
ιγ΄
∆ Β Α Γ
Εvν τέσσαρες vριθpο| vνάλογον eσιν, κα| cναλλvξ vνάλογον cσονται.
´Εστωσαν τέσσαρες vριθpο| vνάλογον ο| Α, Β, Γ, ∆, eς o Α πρoς τoν Β, οuτως o Γ πρoς τoν
∆· λέγω, oτι κα| cναλλvξ vνάλογον cσονται, eς o Α πρoς τoν Γ, οuτως o Β πρoς τoν ∆.
Επε| γάρ cστιν eς o Α πρoς τoν Β, οuτως o Γ πρoς τoν ∆, o vρα pέρος cστ|ν o Α τοu Β ¿
pέρη, τo αuτo pέρος cστ| κα| o Γ τοu ∆ ¿ τv αuτv pέρη. cναλλvξ vρα, o pέρος cστ|ν o Α τοu
Γ ¿ pέρη, τo αuτo pέρος cστ| κα| o Β τοu ∆ ¿ τv αuτv pέρη. cστιν vρα eς o Α πρoς τoν Γ,
οuτως o Β πρoς τoν ∆· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
4¯2
ELEMENTS BOOK 7
Proposition 13
128
D A B C
If four numbers are proportional then they will also be proportional alternately.
Let the four numbers A, B, C, and D be proportional, (such that) as A (is) to B, so C (is) to D. I
say that they will also be proportional alternately, (such that) as A (is) to C, so B (is) to D.
For since as A is to B, so C (is) to D, thus which(ever) part, or parts, A is of B, C is also the same
part, or the same parts, of D [Def. 7.20]. Thus, alterately, which(ever) part, or parts, A is of C,
B is also the same part, or the same parts, of D [Props. 7.9, 7.10]. Thus, as A is to C, so B (is)
to D [Def. 7.20]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
128
In modern notation, this proposition states that if a : b :: c : d then a : c :: b : d, where all symbols denote
numbers.
4¯`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ζ΄
ιδ΄
Ζ
Α ∆
Β
Γ
Ε
Εvν eσιν oποσοιοuν vριθpο| κα| vλλοι αuτοiς :σοι τo πλ¿θος σύνδυο λαpβανόpενοι κα| cν τ;
αuτ; λόγ;, κα| δι :σου cν τ; αuτ; λόγ; cσονται.
´Εστωσαν oποσοιοuν vριθpο| ο| Α, Β, Γ κα| vλλοι αuτοiς :σοι τo πλ¿θος σύνδυο λαpβανόpενοι
cν τ; αuτ; λόγ; ο| ∆, Ε, Ζ, eς pcν o Α πρoς τoν Β, οuτως o ∆ πρoς τoν Ε, eς δc o Β πρoς
τoν Γ, οuτως o Ε πρoς τoν Ζ· λέγω, oτι κα| δι :σου cστ|ν eς o Α πρoς τoν Γ, οuτως o ∆ πρoς
τoν Ζ.
Επε| γάρ cστιν eς o Α πρoς τoν Β, οuτως o ∆ πρoς τoν Ε, cναλλvξ vρα cστ|ν eς o Α πρoς
τoν ∆, οuτως o Β πρoς τoν Ε. πάλιν, cπεί cστιν eς o Β πρoς τoν Γ, οuτως o Ε πρoς τoν Ζ,
cναλλvξ vρα cστ|ν eς o Β πρoς τoν Ε, οuτως o Γ πρoς τoν Ζ. eς δc o Β πρoς τoν Ε, οuτως o
Α πρoς τoν ∆· κα| eς vρα o Α πρoς τoν ∆, οuτως o Γ πρoς τoν Ζ· cναλλvξ vρα cστ|ν eς o Α
πρoς τoν Γ, οuτως o ∆ πρoς τoν Ζ· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
4¯4
ELEMENTS BOOK 7
Proposition 14
129
F
A D
B
C
E
If there are any multitude of numbers whatsoever, and (some) other (numbers) of equal multitude
to them, (which are) also in the same ratio taken two by two, then they will also be in the same
ratio via equality.
Let there be any multitude of numbers whatsoever, A, B, C, and (some) other (numbers), D, E,
F, of equal multitude to them, (which are) in the same ratio taken two by two, (such that) as A
(is) to B, so D (is) to E, and as B (is) to C, so E (is) to F. I say that also, via equality, as A is to
C, so D (is) to F.
For since as A is to B, so D (is) to E, thus, alternately, as A is to D, so B (is) to E [Prop. 7.13].
Again, since as B is to C, so E (is) to F, thus, alternately, as B is to E, so C (is) to F [Prop. 7.13].
And as B (is) to E, so A (is) to D. Thus, also, as A (is) to D, so C (is) to F. Thus, alternately, as
A is to C, so D (is) to F [Prop. 7.13]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
129
In modern notation, this proposition states that if a : b :: d : e and b : c :: e : f then a : c :: d : f, where all symbols
denote numbers.
4¯¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ζ΄
ιε΄
Ζ
Α

Β Η Θ Γ
Ε Κ Λ
Εvν pονvς vριθpόν τινα pετρ¸, iσακις δc cτερος vριθpoς vλλον τινv vριθpoν pετρ¸, κα|
cναλλvξ iσάκις ¿ pονvς τoν τρίτον vριθpoν pετρήσει κα| o δεύτερος τoν τέταρτον.
Μονvς γvρ ¿ Α vριθpόν τινα τoν ΒΓ pετρείτω, iσάκις δc cτερος vριθpoς o ∆ vλλον τινv
vριθpoν τoν ΕΖ pετρείτω· λέγω, oτι κα| cναλλvξ iσάκις ¿ Α pονvς τoν ∆ vριθpoν pετρεi κα|
o ΒΓ τoν ΕΖ.
Επε| γvρ iσάκις ¿ Α pονvς τoν ΒΓ vριθpoν pετρεi κα| o ∆ τoν ΕΖ, oσαι vρα εiσ|ν cν τ; ΒΓ
pονάδες, τοσοuτοί εiσι κα| cν τ; ΕΖ vριθpο| :σοι τ; ∆. δι¸ρήσθω o pcν ΒΓ εiς τvς cν cαυτ;
pονάδας τvς ΒΗ, ΗΘ, ΘΓ, o δc ΕΖ εiς τοùς τ; ∆ :σους τοùς ΕΚ, ΚΛ, ΛΖ. cσται δ¿ :σον τo
πλ¿θος τeν ΒΗ, ΗΘ, ΘΓ τ; πλήθει τeν ΕΚ, ΚΛ, ΛΖ. κα| cπε| :σαι εiσ|ν α| ΒΗ, ΗΘ, ΘΓ
pονάδες vλλήλαις, εiσ| δc κα| ο| ΕΚ, ΚΛ, ΛΖ vριθpο| :σοι vλλήλοις, καί cστιν :σον τo πλ¿θος
τeν ΒΗ, ΗΘ, ΘΓ pονάδων τ; πλήθει τeν ΕΚ, ΚΛ, ΛΖ vριθpeν, cσται vρα eς ¿ ΒΗ pονvς
πρoς τoν ΕΚ vριθpόν, οuτως ¿ ΗΘ pονvς πρoς τoν ΚΛ vριθpoν κα| ¿ ΘΓ pονvς πρoς τoν
ΛΖ vριθpόν. cσται vρα κα| eς ε|ς τeν ¿γουpένων πρoς cνα τeν cποpένων, οuτως vπαντες ο|
¿γούpενοι πρoς vπαντας τοùς cποpένους· cστιν vρα eς ¿ ΒΗ pονvς πρoς τoν ΕΚ vριθpόν,
οuτως o ΒΓ πρoς τoν ΕΖ. :ση δc ¿ ΒΗ pονvς τ¸ Α pονάδι, o δc ΕΚ vριθpoς τ; ∆ vριθp;.
cστιν vρα eς ¿ Α pονvς πρoς τoν ∆ vριθpόν, οuτως o ΒΓ πρoς τoν ΕΖ. iσάκις vρα ¿ Α pονvς
τoν ∆ vριθpoν pετρεi κα| o ΒΓ τoν ΕΖ· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
4¯6
ELEMENTS BOOK 7
Proposition 15
130
F
H
D
A
B
E
G C
K L
If a unit measures some number, and another number measures some other number as many
times, then, also, alternately, the unit will measure the third number as many times as the second
(number measures) the fourth.
For let a unit A measure some number BC, and let another number D measure some other
number EF the same amount of times. I say that, also, alternately, the unit A also measures the
number D as many times as BC (measures) EF.
For since the unit A measures the number BC as many times as D (measures) EF, thus as many
units as are in BC, so many numbers are also in EF equal to D. Let BC have been divided into
its constituent units, BG, GH, and HC, and EF into the (divisions) EK, KL, and LF, equal to
D. So the multitude of (units) BG, GH, HC will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) EK,
KL, LF. And since the units BG, GH, and HC are equal to one another, and the numbers EK,
KL, and LF are also equal to one another, and the multitude of the (units) BG, GH, HC is equal
to the multitude of the numbers EK, KL, LF, thus as the unit BG (is) to the number EK, so the
unit GH will be to the number KL, and the unit HC to the number LF. And thus, as one of the
leading (numbers is) to one of the following, so all of the leading will be to all of the following
[Prop. 7.12]. Thus, as the unit BG (is) to the number EK, so BC (is) to EF. And the unit BG
(is) equal to the unit A, and the number EK to the number D. Thus, as the unit A is to the
number D, so BC (is) to EF. Thus, the unit A measures the number D as many times as BC
(measures) EF [Def. 7.20]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
130
This proposition is a special case of Prop. 7.9.
4¯¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ζ΄
ιç΄
Ε
Β
Α
Γ

Εvν δύο vριθpο| πολλαπλασιάσαντες vλλήλους ποιeσί τινας, ο| γενόpενοι cξ αuτeν :σοι
vλλήλοις cσονται.
´Εστωσαν δύο vριθpο| ο| Α, Β, κα| o pcν Α τoν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τoν Γ ποιείτω, o δc Β τoν
Α πολλαπλασιάσας τoν ∆ ποιείτω· λέγω, oτι :σος cστ|ν o Γ τ; ∆.
Επε| γvρ o Α τoν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τoν Γ πεποίηκεν, o Β vρα τoν Γ pετρεi κατv τvς cν τ;
Α pονάδας. pετρεi δc κα| ¿ Ε pονvς τoν Α vριθpoν κατv τvς cν αuτ; pονάδας· iσάκις vρα ¿
Ε pονvς τoν Α vριθpoν pετρεi κα| o Β τoν Γ. cναλλvξ vρα iσάκις ¿ Ε pονvς τoν Β vριθpoν
pετρεi κα| o Α τoν Γ. πάλιν, cπε| o Β τoν Α πολλαπλασιάσας τoν ∆ πεποίηκεν, o Α vρα τoν ∆
pετρεi κατv τvς cν τ; Β pονάδας. pετρεi δc κα| ¿ Ε pονvς τoν Β κατv τvς cν αuτ; pονάδας·
iσάκις vρα ¿ Ε pονvς τoν Β vριθpoν pετρεi κα| o Α τoν ∆. iσάκις δc ¿ Ε pονvς τoν Β vριθpoν
cpέτρει κα| o Α τoν Γ· iσάκις vρα o Α cκάτερον τeν Γ, ∆ pετρεi. :σος vρα cστ|ν o Γ τ; ∆·
oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
4¯8
ELEMENTS BOOK 7
Proposition 16
131
E
A
B
C
D
If two numbers multiplying one another make some (numbers) then the (numbers) generated
from them will be equal to one another.
Let A and B be two numbers. And let A make C (by) multiplying B, and let B make D (by)
multiplying A. I say that C is equal to D.
For since A has made C (by) multiplying B, B thus measures C according to the units in A
[Def. 7.15]. And the unit E also measures the number A according to the units in it. Thus, the
unit E measures the number A as many times as B (measures) C. Thus, alternately, the unit
E measures the number B as many times as A (measures) C [Prop. 7.15]. Again, since B has
made D (by) multiplying A, A thus measures D according to the units in B [Def. 7.15]. And the
unit E also measures B according to the units in it. Thus, the unit E measures the number B as
many times as A (measures) D. And the unit E was measuring the number B as many times as
A (measures) C. Thus, A measures each of C and D an equal number of times. Thus, C is equal
to D. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
131
In modern notation, this proposition states that a b = b a, where all symbols denote numbers.
4¯9
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ζ΄
ιζ΄
Ε
Α
Β

Ζ
Γ
Εvν vριθpoς δύο vριθpοùς πολλαπλασιάσας ποι¸ τινας, ο| γενόpενοι cξ αuτeν τoν αuτoν cξουσι
λόγον τοiς πολλαπλασιασθεiσιν.
Αριθpoς γvρ o Α δύο vριθpοùς τοùς Β, Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τοùς ∆, Ε ποιείτω· λέγω, oτι cστ|ν
eς o Β πρoς τoν Γ, οuτως o ∆ πρoς τoν Ε.
Επε| γvρ o Α τoν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τoν ∆ πεποίηκεν, o Β vρα τoν ∆ pετρεi κατv τvς cν τ;
Α pονάδας. pετρεi δc κα| ¿ Ζ pονvς τoν Α vριθpoν κατv τvς cν αuτ; pονάδας· iσάκις vρα ¿
Ζ pονvς τoν Α vριθpoν pετρεi κα| o Β τoν ∆. cστιν vρα eς ¿ Ζ pονvς πρoς τoν Α vριθpόν,
οuτως o Β πρoς τoν ∆. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| eς ¿ Ζ pονvς πρoς τoν Α vριθpόν, οuτως o Γ πρoς
τoν Ε· κα| eς vρα o Β πρoς τoν ∆, οuτως o Γ πρoς τoν Ε. cναλλvξ vρα cστ|ν eς o Β πρoς τoν
Γ, οuτως o ∆ πρoς τoν Ε· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
480
ELEMENTS BOOK 7
Proposition 17
132
E
A
B
D
F
C
If a number multiplying two numbers makes some (numbers) then the (numbers) generated from
them will have the same ratio as the multiplied (numbers).
For let the number A make (the numbers) D and E (by) multiplying the two numbers B and C
(respectively). I say that as B is to C, so D (is) to E.
For since A has made D (by) multiplying B, B thus measures D according to the units in A
[Def. 7.15]. And the unit F also measures the number A according to the units in it. Thus, the
unit F measures the number A as many times as B (measures) D. Thus, as the unit F is to the
number A, so B (is) to D [Def. 7.20]. And so, for the same (reasons), as the unit F (is) to the
number A, so C (is) to E. And thus, as B (is) to D, so C (is) to E. Thus, alternately, as B is to C,
so D (is) to E [Prop. 7.13]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
132
In modern notation, this proposition states that if d = a b and e = a c then d : e :: b : c, where all symbols denote
numbers.
48l
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ζ΄
ιη΄
Ε
Β
Α
Γ

Εvν δύο vριθpο| vριθpόν τινα πολλαπλασιάσαντες ποιeσί τινας, ο| γενόpενοι cξ αuτeν τoν
αuτoν cξουσι λόγον τοiς πολλαπλασιάσασιν.
∆ύο γvρ vριθpο| ο| Α, Β vριθpόν τινα τoν Γ πολλαπλασιάσαντες τοùς ∆, Ε ποιείτωσαν· λέγω,
oτι cστ|ν eς o Α πρoς τoν Β, οuτως o ∆ πρoς τoν Ε.
Επε| γvρ o Α τoν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τoν ∆ πεποίηκεν, κα| o Γ vρα τoν Α πολλαπλασιάσας
τoν ∆ πεποίηκεν. διv τv αuτv δ¿ κα| o Γ τoν Β πολλαλασιάσας τoν Ε πεποίηκεν. vριθpoς δ¿ o
Γ δύο vριθpοùς τοùς Α, Β πολλαπλασιάσας τοùς ∆, Ε πεποίηκεν. cστιν vρα eς o Α πρoς τoν
Β, οuτως o ∆ πρoς τoν Ε· oπερ cδει δεiξαι.
482
ELEMENTS BOOK 7
Proposition 18
133
E
B
A
C
D
If two numbers multiplying some number make some (other numbers) then the (numbers) gen-
erated from them will have the same ratio as the multiplying (numbers).
For let the two numbers A and B make (the numbers) D and E (respectively, by) multiplying the
number C. I say that as A is to B, so D (is) to E.
For since Ahas made D(by) multiplying C, C has thus also made D(by) multiplying A[Prop. 7.16].
So, for the same (reasons), C has also made E (by) multiplying B. So the number C has made
the two numbers D and E (by) multiplying A and B (respectively). Thus, as A is to B, so D (is)
to E [Prop. 7.17]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
133
In modern notation, this propositions states that if a c = d and b c = e then a : b :: d : e, where all symbols denote
numbers.
48`
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ζ΄
ιθ΄
Η Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ
Εvν τέσσαρες vριθpο| vνάλογον eσιν, o cκ πρώτου κα| τετάρτου γενόpενος vριθpoς :σος cσται
τ; cκ δευτέρου κα| τρίτου γενοpέν; vριθp;· κα| cvν o cκ πρώτου κα| τετάρτου γενόpενος
vριθpoς :σος ¸ τ; cκ δευτέρου κα| τρίτου, ο| τέσσασρες vριθpο| vνάλογον cσονται.
´Εστωσαν τέσσαρες vριθpο| vνάλογον ο| Α, Β, Γ, ∆, eς o Α πρoς τoν Β, οuτως o Γ πρoς τoν
∆, κα| o pcν Α τoν ∆ πολλαπλασιάσας τoν Ε ποιείτω, o δc Β τoν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τoν Ζ
ποιείτω· λέγω, oτι :σος cστ|ν o Ε τ; Ζ.
Ο γvρ Α τoν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τoν Η ποιείτω. cπε| οuν o Α τoν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τoν Η
πεποίηκεν, τoν δc ∆ πολλαπλασιάσας τoν Ε πεποίηκεν, vριθpoς δ¿ o Α δύο vριθpοùς τοùς
Γ, ∆ πολλαπλασιάσας τούς Η, Ε πεποίηκεν. cστιν vρα eς o Γ πρoς τoν ∆, οuτως o Η πρoς
τoν Ε. vλλ eς o Γ πρoς τoν ∆, οuτως o Α πρoς τoν Β· κα| eς vρα o Α πρoς τoν Β, οuτως
o Η πρoς τoν Ε. πάλιν, cπε| o Α τoν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τoν Η πεποίηκεν, vλλv p¿ν κα|
o Β τoν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τoν Ζ πεποίηκεν, δύο δ¿ vριθpο| ο| Α, Β vριθpόν τινα τoν Γ
πολλαπλασιάσαντες τοùς Η, Ζ πεποιήκασιν. cστιν vρα eς o Α πρoς τoν Β, οuτως o Η πρoς
τoν Ζ. vλλv p¿ν κα| eς o Α πρoς τoν Β, οuτως o Η πρoς τoν Ε· κα| eς vρα o Η πρoς τoν
Ε, οuτως o Η πρoς τoν Ζ. o Η vρα πρoς cκάτερον τeν Ε, Ζ τoν αuτoν cχει λόγον· :σος vρα
cστ|ν o Ε τ; Ζ.
´Εστω δ¿ πάλιν :σος o Ε τ; Ζ· λέγω, oτι cστ|ν eς o Α πρoς τoν Β, οuτως o Γ πρoς τoν ∆.
Τeν γvρ αuτeν κατασκευασθέντων, cπε| iσος cστ|ν o Ε τ; Ζ, cστιν vρα eς o Η πρoς τoν Ε,
οuτως o Η πρoς τoν Ζ. vλλ eς pcν o Η πρoς τoν Ε, οuτως o Γ πρoς τoν ∆, eς δc o Η πρoς
τoν Ζ, οuτως o Α πρoς τoν Β. κα| eς vρα o Α πρoς τoν Β, οuτως o Γ πρoς τoν ∆· oπερ cδει
δεiξαι.
484
ELEMENTS BOOK 7
Proposition 19
134
G A B C D E F
If four number are proportional then the number created from (multiplying) the first and fourth
will be equal to the number created from (multiplying) the second and third. And if the number
created from (multiplying) the first and fourth is equal to the (number created) from (multiply-
ing) the second and third then the four numbers will be proportional.
Let A, B, C, and D be four proportional numbers, (such that) as A (is) to B, so C (is) to D. And
let A make E (by) multiplying D, and let B make F (by) multiplying C. I say that E is equal to
F.
For let A make G (by) multiplying C. Therefore, since A has made G (by) multiplying C, and has
made E (by) multiplying D, the number A has made G and E by multiplying the two numbers C
and D (respectively). Thus, as C is to D, so G (is) to E [Prop. 7.17]. But, as C (is) to D, so A (is)
to B. Thus, also, as A (is) to B, so G (is) to E. Again, since A has made G (by) multiplying C,
but, in fact, B has also made F (by) multiplying C, the two numbers A and B have made G and
F (respectively, by) multiplying some number C. Thus, as A is to B, so G (is) to F [Prop. 7.18].
But, also, as A (is) to B, so G (is) to E. And thus, as G (is) to E, so G (is) to F. Thus, G has the
same ratio to each of E and F. Thus, E is equal to F [Prop. 5.9].
So, again, let E be equal to F. I say that as A is to B, so C (is) to D.
For, with the same construction, since E is equal to F, thus as G is to E, so G (is) to F [Prop. 5.7].
But, as G (is) to E, so C (is) to D [Prop. 7.17]. And as G (is) to F, so A (is) to B [Prop. 7.18].
And, thus, as A (is) to B, so C (is) to D. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.
134
In modern notation, this proposition reads that if a : b :: c : d then a d = b c, and vice versa, where all symbols
denote numbers.
48¯
ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΩΝ ζ΄
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