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Modernity, Context and City Planning: Creating Communities of Lasting Value by W. Paul Farmer

Modernity, Context and City Planning: Creating Communities of Lasting Value by W. Paul Farmer

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Presentation from the 14th US/ICOMOS International Symposium, 2-4 June 2011, Washington, DC and Richmond, VA
Presentation from the 14th US/ICOMOS International Symposium, 2-4 June 2011, Washington, DC and Richmond, VA

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12/15/2014

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Modernity, Context and City Planning: Creating Communities of Lasting Value

W. Paul Farmer, FAICP

Outline
• Celebrate World Heritage and examine its tools and techniques • The importance of planning and engaging planners • Balancing public interest and private development • US experience and tools • Engaging a spectrum of disciplines

• The challenge of development and Iconic Architecture • Star Architects • Misunderstanding of ―modern‖ • Vienna Convention problem of ―contemporary‖

Ideological Battle
• Many architects promote a ―no context‖ design philosophy • Koolhaas ―Tabla Rasa‖ • Much of the world views planning as architecture • World heritage represents a humanistic approach

Planning is a broad approach
• • • • Preservation often seen as technical Focused on object conservation Individual buildings or small groups Need a comprehensive approach-Including context • Telling the story of the whole area • Avoiding ―Disney-esque‖ themes and developments—focusing on authenticity

Focus on Urban Fabric
• Challenges of Urbanization • Cultural Identity vs. globalization • Scarce resources in every city • Impact on quality of life • Civic view vs. Ego • A philosophy as much as technique

City Design
• • • • • Reading the city Reflect cultural layers Human perspective Citizen participation Urban design requires intimate to city wide scale • View the city from the civic and personal perspective

Elements of Place
• • • • • • • Customs History Climate Visual elements Scale Architecture Landscape

Comprehensive requirements-• Regularly updated plan • Civic education ―planning culture‖ • Basic tools
– – – – – Zoning Subdivision Capital improvement plan Financial incentives Specialty tools

Critical moments in US Preservation
• Washington DC height limit • Demolition of Penn Station • Establishment of Historic Preservation act 1966 • Grand Central Station court case

Zoning is only a piece of the process
• •

• • •

• •

Incentives like finance Advice, education and discussion Subdivision Design Guidelines Historic Preservation Districts/Overlays Environmental standards Energy standards

Infrastructure and Urban Fabric

Importance of a management framework
• Comprehensive plan • Capital improvement plan establishes the infrastructure to direct development • Identify neighborhoods with distinct character • Establish Design guidelines based on district characteristics

Urban Intersections - Create Useful Parks and Spaces Strict Geometry - Numerous Marketable Building Sites

Design Guidelines
• Strengthen the city’s character • Helps implement the civic vision and plan • Encourage new development that adds value to the city • Establishes a process and criteria for review • Essential for success over time

View Corridors

Height Limits

Design Guidelines—
Elements for Success

• • • • • • •

Clarity of purpose Legal integrity Link to City Plan Third-party review Weather criticism from architects Celebrate results with the public Specific design elements well defined

Heritage area movement


• •

Natural, historic, and cultural resources Managed as an ensemble through public and private partnerships Reflect traditions, customs, beliefs, and folklife that tell the whole story of place Provide opportunities to conserve natural, cultural, historic, and scenic features Provide a wide range of opportunities Require a plan and implementation strategy

Other tools
• Historic Preservation Tax Credits • National Register of Historic Places • Historic Overlay districts • Urban growth boundaries

20% rehabilitation tax credit
• Aimed at commercial buildings • The rehabilitation must be substantial. • The building must be a certified historic structure when placed in service • Qualified rehabilitation expenditures:
– costs of the work on the historic building, – architectural and engineering fees, – site survey fees, – legal expenses, – development fees, and other construction-related costs

• http://www.nps.gov/history/hps/tps/tax/i ndex.htm

Criteria for ―Adverse Impact‖
Under the National Register of historic places (US)
• Physical destruction, damage including Neglect • Alteration not consistent with the guidelines • Removal of the property from its historic location • Change of the character of the property’s use or of physical features within the property's setting that contribute to its historic significance • Introduction of visual, atmospheric or audible elements that diminish the integrity of the property's historic features • Could be applied to World heritage rules

Recommendations
• Incorporate but manage icononic structures • Establish a communitybased plan • Develop multiple strategies based on community defined cultural values • Link heritage and urban form to development objectives and capital budget • Create a mangement framework using many tools • Implement design guidelines • Provide incentives for residents and businesses • Examine the lessons from US heritage areas • Elevate the global dialogue on heritage, planning, and design

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