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StefanArteni_PerspectiveAsFormAndMedium2|Views: 63|Likes: 0

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/104556811/StefanArteni-PerspectiveAsFormAndMedium2

07/27/2015

Perspective as Form and Medium and the Interplay of Proportion Systems and Perspective II

SolInvictus Press 2006

Generalization Of The Concept Of Symmetry

The very roots of the theory of symmetry (in Greece) are inseparably linked to the establishment of the aesthetic principles - the canons and theory of proportions. The links between the theory of symmetry and aesthetics developed and were strengthened throughout history, where works of ornamental art represented the common ground between the theory of symmetry and painting… The word "symmetry" has its roots in Greek philosophy and aesthetics, where it was used to express balance, proportion, and to point out a whole spectrum of the philosophic-aesthetic synonym terms: harmony, accord, completeness…

Slavik V. Jablan

www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap5.htm

**Generalised, contemporary meaning of symmetry
**

In generalised meaning one can speak about symmetry if – under any (not certainly geometric) kind of transformation (operation), – at least one (not certainly geometric) property – of the (not certainly geometric) object is left invariant (intact). Thus we made a generalisation in 3 respects: to – any transformation, – any object, and its – any property. This generalised meaning of symmetry made possible to apply symmetry to materialised objects in the physical and the organic nature, to products of our mind, etc. Over geometric (morphological) symmetries, we can discuss functional symmetries and asymmetries (e.g., in the human brain), gauge symmetries (of physical phenomena); properties, like colour, tone, shadiness, weight, etc. (of artistic objects). Asymmetry: Dissymmetry: The lack of symmetry The observed object is symmetric in its main features, but this symmetry is slightly distorted (e.g., an arabesque ornament) The observed object is symmetric in one of its properties, but one of its other properties changes to its opposite (e.g., a chess-board)

Antisymmetry:

Gyorgy Darvas

http://symmetry.hu/definition.html

The visual coherence of a complex form as defined by systems theory requires ordered substructure on all scales… A form's visual organization communicates information to people through the surfaces and geometry it presents. Environmental experience involves an intimate interaction of human beings with surfaces and spaces…In classic experiments on human eye motion while scanning a picture (Hubel, 1988; Noton and Stark, 1971; Yarbus, 1967), the eye is observed to focus most of the time in the regions of a picture that have the most detail, differentiations, contrast, and curvature (the experiments referred to did not include color). These are clearly the high-information regions in the picture. Eye fixations establish a fairly narrow "scan path" where the eye spends about one-third of its time, with random excursions to low-information (i.e. plain) regions of a visual. The brain thus selects informative details such as convoluted, detailed contours and contrasting edges for recognizing and remembering an object. Our visual system is built to select those items of concentrated information that can provide the most complete response in the shortest possible time… Rule 1. Every structure must have some subregion with a high degree of contrast, detail, and curvature. Rule 2. Plain surfaces require either their interior, or their borders, to be defined through contrast and detail… Rule 3. Visual information can be ordered via linear continuity… Rule 4. Symmetries and patterns organize visual information without significantly increasing the computational overhead… Interestingly, the cone cells in the retina responsible for color vision are also responsible for our ability to see fine detail (Hubel, 1988), thus linking color with geometry in our perceptual apparatus. Contrary to what is frequently assumed, therefore, color and linear design are intimately related. This leads us to the final rule. Rule 5. Color is a necessary component of our environment. Correcting an old misunderstanding, ornamentation does not superimpose unrelated structure; rather it is an operation that generates highly-organized internal complexity Nikos A. Salingaros, The

Sensory Necessity for Ornament.

www.math.utsa.edu/ftp/salingar.old/sensoryornament.html

…pattern is at once both form and process…formations at one pole and kinetic-dynamic processes at the other, the whole being generated and sustained by its essential periodicity. These aspects, however, are not separate entities but…appear in their unitariness... So we see…again the result of finding the "edge of chaos." Complexity and Chaos Theory in Art by Jay Kappraff www.mi.sanu.ac.yu/vismath/jaynew/index.html

The ornament might be regarded as the origin of the arts, says Niklas Luhmann - not the ornament in the sense of ornamentation, but ornament-interpretation as ground-form of the development of forms from forms, the basic form principle of rhythm, line, arabesque, dynamic symmetry, as the paradox of redundancy and variety at the same time.

Cycladic vase painting

Aegean vase painting

Greek vase painting

Roman mosaic

Roman mosaic

Heimo, carved capital

Russian Icon

Byzantine portable mosaic

Byzantine portable mosaic

Paul Klee

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff

Henri Matisse

Henri Matisse

Henri Matisse

…the word "pattern" denotes a regularity in some dimension. The simplest examples are repeated visual units ordered with translational (linear) or rotational symmetry. Patterns also exist in a scaling dimension, where similar forms occur at different magnification. When geometric self-similarity is defined on a hierarchy of scales, a self-similar fractal is created. The concept of a pattern also extends to solution space, in that solutions to similar problems are themselves related and define a single template that repeats - with some variation - every time such a problem is solved. The underlying idea is to reuse information; whether in repeating a unit to generate a two-dimensional tiling design, or in reusing the general solution to a class of differential equations… Tilings and visual patterns are a "visible tip" of mathematics, which otherwise requires learning a special language to understand and appreciate. Patterns manifest the innate creative ability and talent that all human beings have for mathematics. The necessity for patterns in the visual environment of a developing child is acknowledged by child psychologists as being highly instrumental…A close link exists between carpet designs and mathematical rules for organizing complexity… Any effort to quantify the degree of pattern in a structure or design leads one to consider its information content. There are two separate variables here: (i) the actual information and its presentation, and (ii) how that information is organized. Blank walls convey no information other than their outline. Ordered patterns on the one hand, and chaotic designs on the other, offer a large quantity of information; but it is organized very differently in these two cases. Complex, ordered patterns have a large information content, which is tightly organized and therefore coherent. Chaotic forms, however, have too much internally uncoordinated information, so that they overload the mind's capacity to process information. Random information is incoherent: by failing to correlate, it cannot be encoded [25]. Nikos Salingaros, "Architecture, Patterns, and Mathematics", Nexus Network Journal, vol. 3, no. 1 (Winter 2001), pp. 75-85, http://www.nexusjournal.com/Salingaros.html [The term information obviously refers only to the organized visual complexity of form, the formal assemblage]

Byzantine mosaic decoration

Bessarabian rugs

Carolingian plaque Ottonian miniature

Greco-Buddhist relief Romanesque carved ivory, traces of paint

Romanesque Reliquary, wood, engraved copper, enamel and gilding

Russian Icon cloth

Russian carved wood Icon, traces of paint

Raoul Dufy, textile design

Raoul Dufy, textile design

Henri Matisse

Henri Matisse

Henri Matisse

Henri Matisse

Paul Klee

Paul Klee

Paul Klee

Paul Klee

Paul Klee

Maurice Esteve

Maurice Esteve

Maurice Esteve

Marc Chagall

Marc Chagall, maquettes for stained glass window

Chichester cathedral

Marc Chagall, maquette for stained glass window

Tudeley, All Saints'Church

Marc Chagall, maquettes for stained glass windows

Fraumünster, Zurich

Paolo Caliari Veronese (Verona 1528 Venezia 1588) Ceiling of the “Sala dell' Olimpo" (1559 1561) Maser, Villa Barbaro. Al centro c'è la Sapienza divina circondata dagli dei planetari con i relativi segni zodiacali in monocromo. Agli angoli ci sono le personificazioni dei quattro elementi: Giunone-Aria, Vulcano-Fuoco, Cibele-Terra, NettunoAcqua; nei finti cammei ci sono le raffigurazioni di Amore, Fecondità, Abbondanza, Fortuna. [In the center, there is Divine Wisdom surrounded by the planetary gods with the related zodiac signs in monochrome. In the corners there are the personifications of the four elements: Juno-Air, Vulcan-Fire, Cybele-Earth, Neptune-Water; the cameos contain the depiction of Love, Fecundity, Abundance, Fortune.]

Paolo Caliari Veronese

The proper translation of the Greek term symmetry is “common measure”, from the prefix sym, common, and the noun metros, measure. The Greeks interpreted this word to mean the harmony between the different parts…the good proportions… …reflection, also called bilateral symmetry, is a very frequent…manifestation of symmetry…we have made a geometric transformation… …rotation…another frequent manifestation of symmetry… Similitude is a symmetry transformation… Affine projection is a symmetry transformation in which straight lines are transformed into other straight lines but angles are not conserved… Topological symmetry is a symmetry transformation in which the neighborhood relations between the points of the object are left intact, the distances between them as well as the angles between the lines connecting them are altered. Straight lines do not necessarily remain straight. A good example of topological symmetry is the lattice of the points of a squashed sponge… Combined symmetries occur when we perform two or more symmetry transformations on the same object…[e.g.] glide reflection…frequently applied in frieze patterns… In perspective…we find a combination of the symmetry transformations affine projection and similitude…

**Generalization of the concept of symmetry:…During…transformation one or more…properties
**

remain unaltered. We say that this property is invariant under the given transformation…

György Darvas ,

"Perspective as a Symmetry Transformation", Nexus Network Journal, vol. 5 no. 1 (Spring 2003), http://www.nexusjournal.com/Darvas.html

Examples of friezes with the symmetry group 11 in the art of (a), (b) pre-dynastic; (c) dynastic period of Egypt. Slavik V. Jablan www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap24.htm

Sumerian

Akkadian cylinder seal and its clay Impression depicting a water god in his enclosure

Assyrian relief

Greek relief

Romanesque wall paintings

Byzantine cloisonné enamel

Romanesque frieze

Maestro del Bigallo

Romanesque relief

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Massimo Campigli

Massimo Campigli

…symmetry is never perfect. Objects can be invariant in respect of certain transformations, but never under all;…Symmetry often manifests itself in combined and generalized forms, especially in the arts. Here we should emphasize the role of dissymmetry, an expression denoting a property of objects showing symmetry in their general features, albeit slightly distorted. György Darvas , "Perspective as a Symmetry Transformation", Nexus Network Journal, vol. 5 no. 1 (Spring 2003), http://www.nexusjournal.com/Darvas.html

Georges Braque

Serge Poliakoff

Byzantine Icon

Jacopo di Cione

Giovanni di Paolo

Bernardo Daddi

Bernardo Daddi

Fra Angelico (Guido di Pietro da Mugello)

Anonymous

Raffaello Botticini

Diagram by Charles Bouleau

Carlo Crivelli

Perugino (Pietro di Cristoforo Vanucci)

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Georges Rouault

Georges Rouault

Georges Rouault

Andre Derain

Pierre Bonnard

Georges Braque

Stefan Arteni

Ion Tuculescu

Within the desymmetrization method, we can, depending on the desymmetrization means used, distinguish classical-symmetry (non-colored), antisymmetry and color-symmetry desymmetrizations. Under the term "classical-symmetry desymmetrization" (non-colored desymmetrization) we will discuss all desymmetrizations realized, for example, by using an asymmetric figure belonging to the fundamental region, or by deleting their boundaries and joining two or more adjacent fundamental regions, etc. The term "non-colored" used as the alternative for "classical-symmetry", should not be understood literally, since it does not prohibit the use of colors or some of their equivalents (e.g., indexes), but includes as well, all other cases where colors have been used for a desymmetrization without resulting in some antisymmetry or color-symmetry group…The term "external desymmetrization" will be used to denote a desymmetrization achieved by varying boundaries of a fundamental region. Slavik Jablan http://www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap15.htm

Regarded from the symmetry viewpoint, every regular coloring represents a desymmetrization (or "symmetrybreaking") of some symmetry group… Antisymmetry and Modularity in Ornamental Art Ljiljana Radovic, Slavik Jablan http://www.mi.sanu.ac.yu/vismath/radovic/index.html

…a…role in the formation of different ornamental motifs…belongs to the…desymmetrization (symmetry-breaking) procedure… The desymmetrization can…be accomplished by means of colors… …we can…use colors such that it results in so-called colored symmetry groups, from which we can easily determine subgroups as desymmetrizations. Thereby we can use several colors. When only two colors are used, for instance black and white, and if it results in a colored symmetry group, then this (colored) symmetry group is called an antisymmetry group, i.e. a colored symmetry group with only two colors. Antisymmetry is the simplest case of colored symmetry, namely the case where N = 2 (where N is the number of colors used). So even more possibilities for modelling real structures are possessed by colored symmetry groups where N is equal to or greater than 3. Colored symmetry involves change of colors (which…do not have to be interpreted as just colors, but as species of any polyvalent quality geometric or not). Such color changes -- all by themselves -- can be described by permutation groups. . http://metafysica.nl/groups/d2_patterns_2.html

Serge Poliakoff

Georges Braque

Example of a black -and-white colouring. (a) Mirror design; (b) Corresponding mirror curve; (c) Starting the colouring; (d) Final black-and-white pattern (with the grid points marked); (e) Final black-andwhite pattern (with the grid points unmarked); (f) Final black-and-white pattern (with the border rectangle unmarked). This type of black-and-white design was discovered in the context of analyzing sand drawings from the Tchokwe, who predominantly inhabit the north-eastern part of Angola, a region called Lunda. Paulus Gerdes http://members.tripod.com/vismath/paulus/pg5.htm

Many Lunda designs in ornamental art possess an amazing property: equality between figure and ground (black and white). This means that they are antisymmetrical. Slavik Jablan http://members.tripod.com/~modularity/d3.htm Image from: Paulus Gerdes http://members.tripod.com/vismath/paulus/pg5.htm

**GENERALISATION OF LUNDA-DESIGNS
**

As Lunda-designs may be considered as matrices, it is quite natural to define addition of Lunda-designs in terms of matrix addition: the sum of two (or more) matrices (of the same dimensions) is the matrix in which the elements are obtained by adding corresponding elements.

Paulus Gerdes http://members.tripod.com/vismath/paulus/pg7.htm

Paul Klee

**Prototiles obtained using multiple antisymmetry Slavik Jablan
**

[from http://members.tripod.com/~ modularity/isoh.htm]

Polychromatic symmetry [or multiple colors symmetry]

…the various applications of colors in ornaments, e.g., ornamental motifs based on the use of colors in a given ratio, by which harmony balance of colors of different intensities - is achieved, have yet to find their mathematical interpretation. Accepting "color" as a geometric property, and colored transformations as geometric transformations which commute with the symmetries of the generating group, has opened up a large unexplored field for the theory of colored symmetry. Slavik Jablan http://www.emis.de/ monographs/jablan/ chap15.htm

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff, Diptych

Paul Klee

Paul Klee

Jacques Villon

1. COLORED SYMMETRY The theoretical backgrounds for the application of the colored symmetry in the analysis of musical works are given by A. V. Shubnikov and V. A. Koptsik in their monograph Symmetry in Science and Art (1974). In the symmetry analysis of a musical work from the point of view of antisymmetry and colored symmetry, the authors considered so-called "level of light and shade" and the "level of coloring": the first one is mostly represented by bivalent ("black-white") changes of musical parameters, while the second one by considering color changes, which means the permutations of musical parameters. The most of possible colored symmetries (simple antisymmetry, multiple antisymmetry, p-symmetry, etc.) are included in the general theory of P-symmetry (permutational symmetry) developed by A. M.Zamorzaev (1976, 1978). In the case of antisymmetry we have a possibility to analyze any alternating change of some bivalent quality, and to describe "black-white" contrasting of musical parameters (major-minor, piano-forte, ...). Because the structure of every musical work is hardly reducible to some regular repetitive pattern, antisymmetry is more present at a global, then in the local level. More refined, the multiple antisymmetry represents a combination of several mutually independent bivalent properties composed with some symmetry group. In the analysis of a musical work, it introduces the possibility to follow simultaneous changes of that bivalent properties and their correlation. Belov’s p-symmetry, based on the cyclic permutation of p qualities could be used to follow similar cycles that may appear in some musical piece, e.g., a cycle of modulations beginning from some tonality, going further by a series of different tonalities, and then back to the basic tonality. In the general P-symmetry, we have the arbitrary permutation group of qualities (represented by colors), and a possibility for a most subtle analysis. JADRANKA HOFMAN-JABLAN, ANTISYMMETRY AND COLORED SYMMETRY IN MUSICAL WORKS http://www.mi.sanu.ac.yu/vismath/proceedings/hofjablan.htm

Colored symmetry (or permutational symmetry) is present in all musical structures based on the recombination, where some musical material (rhythmical or melodic) is varied using permutations of its elements. The most illustrative examples of the permutation principle can be found in the minimalistic or serial music (e.g., in the works of P. Glass). The general theory of colored symmetry (P-symmetry) gives a chance to consider the compositions of colored symmetries. In this case, it is possible to consider every component of the colored symmetry as an independent symmetry property, and to follow simultaneity of the different musical parameters and their degree of correlation. For example, several antisymmetries may be present in different planes of a musical work (e.g., in its rhythmical and melodic level), and in this case we may consider that as the multiple antisymmetry. Anyway, the main difference between the theory of colored symmetry used in the mathematical crystallography and other sciences, and that applicable to the analysis of musical works is the existence of the strongly periodical (mostly isometric) symmetry group, composed with color changes, that does not appear in musical works. Therefore, for the more refined analysis of musical works from the point of view of colored symmetry, some more recent approaches based on the "local colored symmetries" or "topological colored symmetries" may produce the better results.

JADRANKA HOFMAN-JABLAN, ANTISYMMETRY AND COLORED SYMMETRY IN MUSICAL WORKS http://www.mi.sanu.ac.yu/vismath/proceedings/hofjablan.htm

One of the essential generalizations of classical symmetry is the P-symmetry of A.M.Zamorzaev. In the case of P-symmetry, the transformations of the qualities attributed to the points, are combined directly with the geometrical transformations and do not depend on the choice of points. Other proposed generalizations such as polychromatic symmetry of Wittke-Garrido or complex symmetry are not included in the scheme of A.M.Zamorzaev's P-symmetry. For these generalizations, the transformations of the qualities attributed to the points, essentially depend on the choice of points. The mentioned generalizations are included in Wp-symmetry that was introduced by V.A.Koptsik and I.N.Kotsev… The recent generalizations of colored symmetry, Lungu Alexandru www.mi.sanu.ac.yu/vismath/lungu/index.html

Plane Symmetry Groups

…there are three classes of discrete subgroups of Euclidean group E2. The first is the class of discrete subgroups of E2 without translations - the symmetry groups of rosettes. This class is infinite. The second class contains the groups with a translation subgroup generated by one single translation - the symmetry group of friezes. That class contains 7 non-isomorphic symmetry groups. The third class are the wallpaper groups. Their translation subgroup is generated by two independent translations, and this class contains 17 non-isomorphic groups. Ana Kozomara DISCRETE PLANE SYMMETRY GROUPS http://members.tripod.com/vismath1/ana/ana3.htm

Variations of the Sun symbol (Paleolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age)

The rosette with the symmetry group D4 (4m) occurring in Paleolithic art

Examples of Symmetry Groups of Rosettes G20 Slavik Jablan http://www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap21.htm

Formation of rosettes with the symmetry group D2 (2m) by a superposition of rosettes with the symmetry group D1 (m) (Paleolithic, France). Examples of rosettes with the symmetry group D1 (m) (Paleolithic, France and Spain).

The cross motif - rosettal symbol with the symmetry group D1 (m), D2 (2m) or D4 (4m).

Examples of Symmetry Groups of Rosettes G20 Slavik Jablan http://www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap21.htm

Examples of rosettes of the type Cn (n) and Dn (nm) in the Neolithic ceramics of Middle Asia: (a) C4 (4); (b) C6 (6); (c) C5 (5); (d) D4 (4m); (e) C4 (4); (f) D4 (4m); (g) C4 (4) ((a)-(d), (g) Samara; (e), (f) Susa; around 5500-5000 B.C.). Examples of Symmetry Groups of Rosettes G20 Slavik Jablan http://www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap21.htm

Examples of rosettes of the type Cn (n) and Dn (nm) in the Neolithic ceramics of Middle Asia (Susa, Hacilar, Catal Hüjük, Hallaf, Eridu culture), around 6000-4500 B.C. (7500-5000 B.C.?).

Examples of Symmetry Groups of Rosettes G20 Slavik Jablan http://www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap21.htm

Examples of antisymmetry rosettes with the antisymmetry group D8/C8, that in the classical theory of symmetry are treated as rosettes with the symmetry group C8 (8) (Hajji Mohammed, around 5000 B.C.). Examples of Symmetry Groups of Rosettes G20 Slavik Jablan http://www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap21.htm

Antisymmetry rosettes in Neolithic ornamental art: (a) D4/D2, Danilo, Yugoslavia, about 3500 B.C.; (b) D6/D3, Near East; (c) D4/D2, Near East; (d) D4/C4, Middle East; (e) C8/C4, Middle East; (f) C4/C2, Dimini, Greece

Variations of the (a) Chinese symbol "yang-yin" with the symmetry group C2 (2) and (b) the triquetra motif with the symmetry group C3 (3).

Roman mosaic

Taddeo di Bartolo, map of Rome

**Symmetry Groups of Friezes Slavik Jablan
**

[http://www.emis.de/monographs/j ablan/chap23.htm]

Examples of friezes with the symmetry group 11 in Paleolithic art.

Examples of friezes with the symmetry group 11 and the formation of geometric ornamental motifs by stylization and schematization of natural models (Paleolithic).

Slavik Jablan, http://www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap24.htm

**Examples of friezes with the symmetry group 11 in Neolithic art (Hallaf ceramics, around 5500-4500 B.C.).
**

Slavik Jablan, http://www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap24.htm

Examples of friezes with the symmetry group 1g in the Neolithic art of Yugoslavia: (a) Butmir, around 3500 B.C.; (b) Adriatic zone, around 3000-2000 B.C.

Examples of friezes with the symmetry group 1g in the art of the late Paleolithic and early Neolithic (FontarnaudLugasson, Laugerie Haute, Le Placard, Marsoulas, around 15000-8000 B.C.).

Slavik Jablan, http://www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap24.htm

Examples of friezes with the symmetry group 12 in Paleolithic and Neolithic art: (a) Mezin, USSR, around 12000-10000 B.C.; (b), (c) the Neolithic of Europe; (d), (e) Hacilar, around 5300 B.C.

Examples of friezes with the symmetry group 12: (a) Bakun, Iran, around 5000-4000 B.C.; (b) Malta, around 3000 B.C.; (c) Crete, around 3000-2500 B.C.

Slavik Jablan, http://www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap24.htm

Friezes with the symmetry group 12 in the Neolithic art of Yugoslavia: (a) AznabegovoVrshnik, around 5000 B.C.; (b) Hvar, around 2500 B.C.

Examples of friezes with the symmetry group 12 in the pre-Columbian art of America (Mexico).

Friezes with the symmetry group 12 with the application of spiral motifs: (a) Neolithic art, Butmir, Yugoslavia; (b) Egypt.

Slavik Jablan, http://www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap24.htm

Examples of friezes with the symmetry group m1 in the late Paleolithic (Magdalenian) and early Neolithic.

The formation and development of friezes with the symmetry group m1, with the "kolo" motif, in prehistoric art.

Examples of friezes with the symmetry group m1 in Neolithic art: (a) Hallaf, around 5000-4500 B.C. The initial motif, the stylized head of a bull is similar to the Egyptian symbol "ankh"; (b) Hallaf; (c) Crete. The motif of double ax, "labris", was very often used in early Greek ornaments. Slavik Jablan, http://www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap24.htm

Examples of friezes with the symmetry group 1m in Paleolithic art: (a) l'Abri Mege; (b) La Pasiega; (c) Marsoulas.

Examples of friezes with the symmetry group 1m in Neolithic art, around 6000-3000 B.C.

Friezes with the symmetry group 1m in Paleolithic art (Maz d'azil, La Madlene, Barma Grande, Laugerie Base, around 10000 B.C.). Slavik Jablan, http://www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap24.htm

Examples of friezes with the symmetry group mg in Paleolithic art.

Examples of friezes with the symmetry group mg in Neolithic art: (a) the early Neolithic of Europe; (b) Catal Hüjük, around 6400-5800 B.C.; (c) Hallaf, around 6000 B.C. (7600-6900 B.C.?); (d) Hasuna, Iraq; (e) Magelmose, 7500-6500 B.C.; (f) Pakistan around 3000 B.C.; (g) the pre-dynastic period of Egypt, around 4200-3600 B.C.

Slavik Jablan

http://www.emis.de/monographs /jablan/chap24.htm

Examples of friezes with the symmetry group mg: (a) Eynan, Palestine, around 10000 B.C.; (b) Aznabegovo-Vrshnik, Yugoslavia, around 5000 B.C.; (c) Naqda culture, the pre-dynastic period of Egypt; (d) Mycenae. Slavik Jablan, http://www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap24.htm

Friezes with the symmetry group mm in Paleolithic art.

Friezes with the symmetry group mm in the Paleolithic (Magdalenian, around 10000 B.C.) and Neolithic. Slavik Jablan

http://www.emis.de/monographs /jablan/chap24.htm

Friezes with the symmetry group mm often symbolize an even flow of time, years and similar phenomena with a high degree of symmetry. It is interesting that in such cases time is considered as non-polar.

Examples of friezes in the ethnical art, that possess precise symbolic meanings and the corresponding names: (a) "Up and down", "The Sun", Water", "Breathing"; (b) "The rhythm of water" (Congo); (c) The Sun above and below water (horizon)" (Pueblo Indians); (d) "Days of the full Moon" (Celebes); (e) “Endless running of the years" (Celebes); (f), (g), (h) "The continual motion of the Sun" (Fiji).

Antisymmetry friezes in Neolithic ornamental art: (a) 11/ 11, Greece, around 3000 B.C.; (b) 12/12, Greece; (c) 12/11, Near East, around 5000 B.C.; (d) 1m/1m, Near East, around 5000 B.C.; (e) 1m/ 11, Near East; (f) 1m/11, Anadolia, around 5000 B.C.; (g) m1/m1, Near East; (h) m1/11, Near East; (i) mg/11, Greece; (j) mg/ 1g, Near East, around 5000 B.C.; (k) mg/12, Anadolia; (l) mm/mm, Tell el Hallaf, around 4900-4500 B.C.; (m) mm/m1, Hacilar, about 5500-5200 B.C.; (n) mm/mg, Near East.

Slavik Jablan www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/cha p24.htm

Wallpaper symmetry groups (plane symmetry groups or plane crystallographic groups): visual representations

p1

p2

pm

Xah Lee http://xahlee.org/Wallpaper_dir/c5_17WallpaperGroups.html

pg

pmm

pmg

**Wallpaper symmetry groups
**

Xah Lee http://xahlee.org/Wallpaper_dir/c5_17WallpaperGroups.html

pgg

cm

**cmm Wallpaper symmetry groups
**

Xah Lee http://xahlee.org/Wallpaper_dir/c5_17WallpaperGroups.html

p4

p4m

p4g

**Wallpaper symmetry groups
**

Xah Lee http://xahlee.org/Wallpaper_dir/c5_17WallpaperGroups.html

p3

p3m1

p31m

**Wallpaper symmetry groups
**

Xah Lee http://xahlee.org/Wallpaper_dir/c5_17WallpaperGroups.html

p6

p6m

**Wallpaper symmetry groups
**

Xah Lee http://xahlee.org/Wallpaper_dir/c5_17WallpaperGroups.html

**Symmetry Groups of Ornaments G2
**

In the plane E2 there are 17 discrete symmetry groups without invariant lines or points, the crystallographic symmetry groups of ornaments: p1, p2, pm, pg, pmm, pmg, pgg, cm, cmm, p4, p4m, p4g, p3, p3m1, p31m, p6, p6m, two visually presentable symmetry groups of semicontinua p10 1m(s1m), p10mm (smm) and also one visually presentable symmetry group of continua p00∞m (s∞∞)…A plane continuum with the symmetry group p00∞m ( s∞∞) represents the area where all the other plane symmetry groups exist…also visually presentable are the symmetry groups of semicontinua p10 1m (s1m) and p10mm (smm). They are derived, respectively, as the extensions of the visually presentable continuous symmetry groups of friezes m01 and m0m by a translation perpendicular to the frieze axis. In ornamental art, the symmetry groups of semicontinua usually are presented by adequate systems of parallel lines, constructed by such a procedure.

Slavik Jablan http://www.emis.de/monographs/ jablan/chap25.htm

Symmetry Groups of Ornaments G2

Slavik Jablan http://www.emis.de/monographs/ jablan/chap25.htm

Symmetry Groups of Ornaments G2

Slavik Jablan http://www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap25.htm

An Example of ornament symmetry groups Slavik Jablan http://www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap26.htm

Ornaments with the symmetry group p1…for the first time occur in Paleolithic art...The origin of these ornaments, obtained by multiplying an asymmetric figure by means of a discrete group of translations, may be interpreted also as a translational repetition of a frieze with the symmetry group 11, already existent in Paleolithic ornamental art. Both of the axes of generating translations are polar. Since the symmetry group p1 does not contain indirect isometries, the enantiomorphism occurs. A fundamental region usually has an arbitrary parallelogramic form. Due to their low degree of symmetry, ornaments with the symmetry group p1 are relatively rare. Mostly, they occur with stylized asymmetric motifs inspired by asymmetric models in nature, rather than by using asymmetric geometric figures.

Examples of ornaments with the symmetry group p1 in Paleolithic and Neolithic art: (a) Chaffaud cave, Paleolithic (Magdalenian); (b) Paleolithic bone engravings, around 10000 B.C.; (c) Hacilar, ceramics, around 5700-5000 B.C.

An Example of ornament symmetry groups Slavik Jablan http://www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap26.htm Ornaments with the symmetry group pgg are usually realized by the multiplication of a frieze with the symmetry group 1g by a glide reflection perpendicular to the frieze axis.

Ornaments with the symmetry group pgg in Neolithic art: (a) Jarmo culture, around 5300 B.C.; (b) Catal Hüjük, around 6380-5790 B.C.; (c) Djeblet el Beda, around 6000 B.C.; (d) Tripolian culture, USSR, around 4000-3000 B.C.; (e) Siyalk, Iran, around 4000 B.C.; (f) Susa and Butmir, around 5000-4000 B.C.

Ornaments with the symmetry group pgg: (a) Columbia, around 800-1500; (b) pre-Columbian art, Peru; (c) the ethnical art of Oceania.

An Example of ornament symmetry groups Slavik Jablan http://www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap26.htm

Examples of ornaments with the symmetry group pgg in the art of Egypt and the Aegean cultures

Similarity Symmetry and Conformal Symmetry

Similarity Symmetry

Non-metric construction of a figure with the symmetry K (k > 0).

The symmetry group K (for k > 0) occurs in ornamental art, though not frequently, due to its low degree of symmetry. It plays a special role in fine art works using the central perspective. Slavik Jablan www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap32.htm

Fra Angelico (Guido di Pietro da Mugello)

Carlo Crivelli

Diagram by Philip Resheph

Paolo Caliari Veronese

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Claude Monet

Edgar Degas

Edgar Degas

Vincent van Gogh

Vincent van Gogh

Vincent van Gogh

Albert Marquet

André Derain

Visual interpretations of the continuous similarity symmetry groups: (a) D∞K (∞mK); (b) L1; (c) C2L1 (2L1).

Paleolithic spiral ornaments: (a) Arudy; (b) Isturiz; (c) Mal'ta, USSR (Magdalenian, around 10000 B.C.)

The basic visual-symbolic characteristic of the symmetry group L is a double visual dynamism, caused by the visual suggestion of a rotational motion and centrifugal expansion, resulting from the rotational and dilatational component…The symmetry group L is applied in painting works having the central perspective as the element, or even as a basis of the complete central dynamic composition of the work (e.g., in the baroque, in Tintoretto's works), creating thus the visual impression of an expanding rotational motion. Slavik Jablan www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap32.htm+perspective+symmetry+transformation

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

Diagram by Charles Bouleau

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos), diagram by Charles Bouleau

Woven baskets of the American Indians, which suggest the similarity symmetry of rosettes C5L (5L) and C4L (4L). Slavik Jablan www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap32.htm+perspective+s ymmetry+transformation

Dancing Apsara, style of Angkor Vat

Francesco Primaticcio

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Edgar Degas

Vincent van Gogh

Similarity symmetry group DnK (nmK): rosettes with the similarity symmetry group D12K (12mK) (the monastery of Dechani, Yugoslavia). Slavik Jablan www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap32.htm +perspective+symmetry+transformation

the perspective gradient shown in a 60° circle of view Bruce MacEvoy http://www.handprint.com/HP/ WCL/perspect2.html

Decani monastery, wall painting

Göreme Museum. Elmali Church, Cappadocia, Turkey [Photo Dick Osseman]

Göreme Museum, Karanlik Church, Cappadocia, Turkey [Photo Dick Osseman]

Sucevita monastery, dome fresco

Sucevita monastery, fresco

Russian icon

Istanbul, Kariye or Chora Church [Photo Dick Osseman]

Correggio (Antonio Allegri)

Ercole de'Roberti (Ercole d'Antonio Roberti)

Vittore Carpaccio

Vittore Carpaccio

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Albert Marquet

Jacques Villon

Jacques Villon

The idea of conformal symmetry was given in the monograph Colored Symmetry, its Generalizations and Applications by A.M. Zamorzaev, E.I. Galyarski and A.F. Palistrant (1978) as a generalization of similarity symmetry... conformal symmetry rosettes are used in ornamental art by almost all cultures. They have a special place in Romanesque and Gothic art, within rosettes used in architecture. Slavik Jablan http://www.emis.de/monographs/jabla n/chap41.htm

Examples of conformal symmetry rosettes with the symmetry groups of the type DnRI, which are used in ornamental art. Slavik Jablan http://www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/ chap42.htm

Canterbury cathedral

Chartres cathedral Chartres cathedral

Marc Chagall, studies for stained glass windows, Metz cathedral

Marc Chagall, study and stained glass window, Metz cathedral

Marc Chagall, studies for stained glass windows, Reims cathedral

Marc Chagall, stained glass windows, Reims cathedral

Directly linked to these problems, and covered by the theory of similarity symmetry and conformal symmetry, are the questions of the theory of proportions, the roots of which date from Greek geometry. It held a special place in Medieval and Renaissance architectural planning and it reached its fullest expression in applications of the "aurea sectio" (or the "golden section") and musical harmonies used in architecture and in the visual arts. Slavik Jablan http://www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap42.htm

…each system of proportions gives rise to a sequence of 1's and 0's referred to in the study of dynamical systems as symbolic dynamics. Proportional systems based on phi , root 2, and root 3 were the principal systems used to create the buildings and designs of antiquity… Root 2 and root 3 geometries also have connections to the symmetry groups of the plane [Coxeter 1973]. Systems of Proportion in Design and Architecture and their Relationship to Dynamical Systems Theory by Jay Kappraff http://members.tripod.com/vismath/kappraff/kap1.htm

**The Law of Repetition of Ratios
**

This concept has been popularized by the twentieth century designer Jay Hambridge who referred to it as dynamic symmetry [Hambridge 1929], [Edwards 1968]. In Figure 4a the law of repetition of ratios is applied to a golden rectangle

of proportions 1 : φ to obtain a gnomon equal to a square (S), i.e., G = S. In Figure 4b dynamic symmetry is applied to a rectangle of proportion

1:θ, which we refer to us as a Roman rectangle, to obtain a gnomon of a double square, i.e., G = S + S. In Figure 4c, for a rectangle of proportions proportions 1: √2, G = U, i.e. , if the root 2 rectangle is divided in half, two root 2 rectangles are created (see Figure 4d). For a rectangle of proportions 1: √3, G = 2/3 U, i.e., the unit is the 1/3 part of the original rectangle (Figure 4e)

1 : ψ, we obtain G = S + S + U. For a rectangle of

Law of repetition of ratios where the unit is a) a golden rectangle; b)a Roman rectangle; c) a 1 + √3 rectangle; d) a root 2 rectangle; e) a root 3 rectangle.

Jay Kappraff http://www.mi.sanu.ac.yu/vismath/kappraff/kap3.htm

Turkey, Antakya mosaic. Orpheus and the Beasts [Photo Dick Osseman]

Roman mosaic (Turkey), approximately φ [Photo Dick Osseman]

Roman mosaic (Turkey) approximately φ [Photo Dick Osseman]

Roman mosaic, approximately √ φ

Byzantine icon, approximately √ φ

Anonymous Siena master, approximately √4

Giovanni Francesco da Rimini, approximately 1 + √2

Giovanni Francesco da Rimini, approximately √3

Fra Angelico (Guido di Pietro da Mugello), approximately a φ rectangle

Luca di Tommé, approximately √ φ

Niccoló di Buonaccorso, approximately φ

Attributed to Cosimo Rosselli, approximately √ 2

Anonymous German master, approximately √4

Felix Klein proposed that group theory, an algebraic approach that encapsulates the idea of symmetry, was the correct way of organising geometrical knowledge; it had already been introduced into the theory of equations in the form of the [Evariste] Galois theory. Secondly, he made much more explicit the idea that each geometrical language had its own, appropriate concepts, so that for example projective geometry rightly talked about conic sections, but not about circles or angles because those notions were not invariant under projective transformations (something familiar in geometrical perspective). The way the multiple languages of geometry then came back together could be explained by the way subgroups of a symmetry group related to each other. [From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia]

Indra's Pearls. The Vision of FELIX KLEIN David Mumford, Caroline Series, and David Wright Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002. From the publisher:

In Hindu mythology, the heaven of Indra contained a net of pearls. Each pearl was reflected in its neighbour so that the whole universe was mirrored in each pearl. This idea was rediscovered by mathematicians, first by Felix Klein, one of the great geometers of the late nineteenth century, who started with infinitely repeated reflections and was led to forms which are the chaotic images of symmetry generated by interacting spiral flows. For a century the images, painstakingly drawn by hand, barely existed outside the mathematical mind. In the 1980's, the authors embarked on the first computer exploration of Klein's vision, and in doing so, found further extraordinary images of their own. This book leads the reader on a journey from the arithmetic of complex numbers to the simple algorithms which create these delicate fractal filigrees in extraordinarily beautiful forms. It explains the pictures at a variety of levels, starting with basic algebra, continuing through do-it-yourself programs and explorations of the mathematics behind them, to the forefront of modern research.

a Kleinian group whose limit set consists of circles

a degenerate Kleinian group

Peter Liepa, http://www.brainjam.ca/fractals.html

Generalization Of The Concept Of Symmetry: Roman Mosaics

[Photo Galen R. Frysinger, www.galenfrysinger.com]

[Photo Galen R. Frysinger, www.galenfrysinger.com]

[Photo Galen R. Frysinger, www.galenfrysinger.com]

[Piazza Armerina, photo Galen R. Frysinger, www.galenfrysinger.com]

[Piazza Armerina, photo Galen R. Frysinger, www.galenfrysinger.com]

[Piazza Armerina, photo Galen R. Frysinger, www.galenfrysinger.com]

[Piazza Armerina, photo Galen R. Frysinger, www.galenfrysinger.com]

[Piazza Armerina, photo Galen R. Frysinger, www.galenfrysinger.com]

[Piazza Armerina, photo Galen R. Frysinger, www.galenfrysinger.com]

[Piazza Armerina, photo Galen R. Frysinger, www.galenfrysinger.com]

[Photo Galen R. Frysinger, www.galenfrysinger.com]

Generalization Of The Concept Of Symmetry: Byzantine Mosaics

[Photo Galen R. Frysinger, www.galenfrysinger.com]

[Photo Galen R. Frysinger, www.galenfrysinger.com]

[Photo Galen R. Frysinger, www.galenfrysinger.com]

[Photo Galen R. Frysinger, www.galenfrysinger.com]

[Photo Galen R. Frysinger, www.galenfrysinger.com]

[Qasr, Libya, Photo Galen R. Frysinger, www.galenfrysinger.com]

[Qasr, Libya, Photo Galen R. Frysinger, www.galenfrysinger.com]

[Qasr, Libya, Photo Galen R. Frysinger, www.galenfrysinger.com]

[Qasr, Libya, Photo Galen R. Frysinger, www.galenfrysinger.com]

[Qasr, Libya, Photo Galen R. Frysinger, www.galenfrysinger.com]

[Qasr, Libya, Photo Galen R. Frysinger, www.galenfrysinger.com]

[Qasr, Libya, Photo Galen R. Frysinger, www.galenfrysinger.com]

[Qasr, Libya, Photo Galen R. Frysinger, www.galenfrysinger.com]

Generalization Of The Concept Of Symmetry: Byzantine Mosaics in Sicily

Photos Galen R. Frysinger [from www.galenfrysinger.com]

Generalization Of The Concept Of Symmetry: Medieval Wall Painted Decoration [from www.burgenseite.com/faschen/farben_txt.htm]

Generalization Of The Concept Of Symmetry: Byzantine Style, Gothic and Early Renaissance Painting

Guido di Graziano

Guido di Graziano

Guido di Graziano

Giovanni Baronzio

Giovanni Baronzio

GIOVANNI BARONZIO, "Pala del Mistero della Croce"

GIOVANNI BARONZIO, "Pala del Mistero della Croce“, detail

GIOVANNI BARONZIO, "Pala del Mistero della Croce“, detail

GIOVANNI BARONZIO, "Pala del Mistero della Croce“, detail

GIOVANNI BARONZIO, "Pala del Mistero della Croce“, detail

GIOVANNI BARONZIO, "Pala del Mistero della Croce“, detail

GIOVANNI BARONZIO, "Pala del Mistero della Croce“, detail

Master of the Lazzaroni Madonna Master of Monteoliveto

Bartolo di Fredi

Bartolo di Fredi

Bartolo di Fredi, The Coronation of the Virgin and detail

Duccio di Buoninsegna

Ugolino Lorenzetti

Estouteville Triptych, German School, 14th Century

Vigoroso da Siena

Fra Angelico (Guido di Pietro da Mugello)

Agnolo Gaddi

Agnolo Gaddi

Lorenzo Veneziano

Pesellino(Francesco di Stefano)

Antonio Alberti

Visual Parallels

Anonymous, 13th century, stained glass window

Peter Paul Rubens

Diagram by Charles Bouleau

Roman mosaic

Istanbul, Aya Sofya decoration, (Photo Dick Osseman)

Anonymous, 13th century, stained glass window

Piero di Cosimo (Piero di Lorenzo)

Duccio di Buoninsegna

Matteo Giovanetti de Viterbo

Roman mosaic

Roman mosaic

Roman mosaic

Roman mosaic

Hildegard of Bingen

Late Roman mosaic

Vatopédi, fresco

Greek vase painting

Roman mosaic

Roman mosaic

Jacopo Torriti, Santa María Maggiore, Rome

Anonymous Romanesque master

Andrea del Castagno (Andrea di Bartolo di Bargilla)

Roman mosaic, Turkey, Antakya Museum (photo Dick Osseman)

Luca di Tommé

Roman mosaic

Byzantine mosaic

Anonymous Spanish master

Anonymous Catalan master

Anonymous Spanish master (traces of paint)

Frontal of Guills

Margarito (Margaritone) D’Arezzo

Simone Martini

Bonaventura BERLINGHIERI

Margarito (Margaritone) D’Arezzo

Frontal of San Miguel

Anonymous Spanish master

Anonymous Italian master

Giovanni Toscani

Francesco di Giorgio Martini and Neroccio di Bartolomeo di Benedetto de Landi, predella fragments

Pesellino (Francesco di Stefano)

Unknown German master

Diagram by Charles Bouleau

Roman mosaic

Master of the Ashmolean Museum predella

Fra Angelico (Guido di Pietro da Mugello)

Anonymous Florentine master

Fra Angelico (Guido di Pietro da Mugello)

Cimabue (Cenni di Pepo)

The Vienna Dioscorides, Byzantine miniature

Roman mosaic

Anonymous English master

Giotto (Ambrogio Bondone)

Roman mosaic

Bartolomeo Bulgarini

Liuthard, about 870, Codex Aureus

Initial O from a Missal dating from the beginning of the 15th century

Luca Signorelli (Luca d'Egidio di Ventura)

Lorenzo di Credi

Russian Icon

Stefan Arteni

Anonymous Flemish master

Luca Signorelli (Luca d’Egidio di Ventura)

Sandro Botticelli (Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi)

Roman mosaic

Roman wall paintings

Istanbul, Kariye or Chora Church, (Photo Dick Osseman)

Workshop of Raffaellino del Garbo

Domenico Ghirlandaio

Diagram by Charles Bouleau

Filippo Lippi

Domenico Veneziano

Masaccio (Tommaso Cassai)

Lorenzo di Credi

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres

Eugène Delacroix

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo

Georges Braque

Bronzino (Agnolo di Cosimo di Mariano Tori)

Diagram by Charles Bouleau

"Deer or deer antlers spinning around a central cross-sign...." Interior of deep bowl. Late Cucuteni.

Frankish Psalter

Roman mosaic

Lorenzo di Bicci

Roman mosaic

Roman mosaic

Roman mosaic

Anonymous Spanish master

Bicci di Lorenzo

Anonymous Spanish master

Lorenzo Veneziano

Master of the Trevi Crucifixion

Duccio di Buoninsegna

Unknown Bohemian master

Anonymous Sienese master

Paolo Veneziano

Giovanni Francesco da Rimini

Taddeo Gaddi

Taddeo Gaddi

BARNA DA SIENA

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Ancient Near Eastern Art the Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin v 41 No 4 Spring 1984

Art Review 2009-11

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