Qdestioas and Answers

OpzitionaI 3 r d Management level

Mum bai
2.0'~August, 2001

It .:

* :r Cf3,X evv-0lr3

3fety, on boaria a ship, is critically dependent on the s & e ~ , &ir values and the environmenr i which they live and work. Basic safety is n inmporated in a ship though regufations and pr es. As kGp7s t r u a - e is exposed ro a highly corrosive environment, w d s rriaiirte machinery is constantly subjected to very severe conditions, hazardous coi:rlii;iufis can develop, misss the ship and its machinery is properiy maiutained. Mariners need to get a sufficient theoretical howledge, to srrpplemtnt their own practical experience. 3 is nccessarj far them to be pmperiy rrairied, both by lectures ashore, as we11 2s by self skdy, w%k a; m. l o enabk stucle~ts a d y , while at sea, the authors have prepared this to text book in the form of a comprehensive s d of questions m answers, w5ic.h d should supplement rfie riurnemrls standard textbooks already avai!abIe. MI. Vikram Gokhaie 22;ld 34. Nmda are b ~ t h already well known in ihi: marine field. They a: Chief Engjneei-s, with e lot of practical experience, both as ship-board engineers, as welt as senior facu!ty in the LBS Coliege of Ar_lwam;ed Maritime Studies m d Research, one of the premier maritime imtitu.tions in India. ,l'%sbook "Advanced Marine Engineehg Knowbrfedge- Volume 333 Qu&ions arsd A~swers"mitten by ?&. V i h m Gokhale and Mr. N. Nanda, ii . a co~omprehensive r1s coverage of the t o p i ~ s required at- an advanced level for . M F<fl Cefiifjatt% Competency at Operation& and 7.iIanifgerneatIevels. of 'L'hey have put in a lot of b a d work and4 have mu& pleasure in payinrg rikj t i i i > ~ >io their dedication and sincere effortLAll Mariners will find this t~ book of coisiderable v&re arid guidance I sincerely +sh them the best of st.~;i:i;ss i;I this book.



Deputy Chief Surveyor with The Govt. of India, ?&inistry of Suriace Transport, Directorate General of Shipping.

arine Engineerjag Knowaedge - Volume B Questions 2nd X Answers' cciiers *he following Functions / Subjects a: the Operatiand and

Functions : 1 . Marine hgincering ar Operariaad ! Managemen? level. 2. Bedrical, Efectronjc and Control Engineering at Operationai ! Managemerit kye!. 3. I./iainlenanse and Xepair at Operational i Management lwei. 4. Ccntroliing Operation cf the Ship and care for persons at Operational / Mmagement kvef.

Page Nos 5 - 28. 29 - 60. 61 - 95.

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Advanced &wine Engineering


VoI. 111

Surveys, Reguiations and Environment Protection


Describe the In-water survey, to classification requirements, of the external underwarer structnre of a VLCC-

The Swvey planning should be worked otit well in advance of :he in-water stirvey, by the ship. in cooptratim 'virh Ihe classificaiion Society. Preparation :Following documentation should be cokcted and consulted wiih a view to seiectin~ areas and structural elements lo be examined. Basic ship information; Documentation on board. ivfzin structural plans including information of higher strengh steels Relevmr previous survey and inspeciion reports. Infomratior: regarding corrosion protection level Location o f heated tanks Informalion regarding relevant maintenance levels To assist divers, coloar photographs should be provided. o f items s w h as ruddzr closing plates and wear-down gauge p!ugs. The design of the ship %mt facilitate in-water inspec:ior, m d repair e.g. Sea inlets must be capable of being blanked off and drained to biiges, shell gratings hinged, if practicable and the anodcs easily changed. The hull should be clean, to have meaningftil maintenance leve! during operation, besides h v i n s a heavy diity coating. This must be camerl out by approved diving company, in clear water, with good visibility. ~ ~ e r a t i b:n A self propelled, steerable survey vehicle fitted with a long range T V camera is a used. To aid steering and to check for hull dis~oition, d o s e up, high resvlution, TV coiour camera gives a true picture of the state of the coatings and we!d szams. In some cases, a 35 mm still camera is fitted. An ultrasonic probe :s provided to measure plate thicknesses and other equipment includes a depth meter and speed indicator. Power is supplied and information ieiayed by means of an unjbilical from the vehicle to ihe survey boat.
Survey Boat equipment: Is usually housed in a console c0ntainingT.V. monitors, plate thickness print out. audio cassetze recorder, video recorder and play back unit, diver communication system, vehic!e control system and associated instrumentation.

The survey vehicle is taken to the staSing datum by a diver. With rhe aid o f one of the TV nionitors and using h e shell expansion plan as a map, the vehicle may

.~iir for an. provided that it is inspected. Examination a n d testing All sp-aces within the hull and superstructure are be examined. defomaticn. a protective coating is not renewed.trl!ts may be tested afloat. asphalt.iperr:jetl with. It should be ensured during this operation. fresh water. that can be carried out in Dry dock.uided.rr~.iii<i sound and adhering satisfactorily to the steel. In addition to plate thickness. Pictures and navigational information are relayed back and video films recorded. where a soft coating has t e e n zpplied or where a protective coating was not applied.it afloat. NI be p. on completion to these reIjairs. over the bottom and sides of the hull. as to facilitate an examination to damzges and other asccrt.ices iused for salt-water ballast. any tanks.2. with a hanu held A camera. the removal of this covering may be c.. Maintenance of class will be subject to the space in question being irgte.. that there is a 2 way co~mnunication bctween diver a d attending surveyor. are to be tested to the Surveyor's satisfaction. casings and si~pecs-structu~-es to be examined.nt to give the maximum pressux that can be experienced in service. Fropcller. In certain circuiiistances. such as inlets and tank p l u g . peak tanks and all other tanks are to be tested si. at Annual surveys.. ~ Advancqd Marine Engineering Knowledye Vol. giving the surveyor an integrated picture of all the required and relevant information. and . nlay be waived. fractu~es. along with plate thickness. All decks. 1r1 cases where the inner surface of the bottom plating is covered with ccrrwi!.:l examination you would carry out on a ship in P r y dock. Where repairs are effected to the shell plating or bulkheads.il examined and gauged. diver may b s used. are . and oil fuel tank:. making special rderence to essential maintenance. ly . print-out can be produced andlor an audio recording. as necessary. excluding double bottom tanks. the internal examination of lubricating oil. The vehicle will also provide pictures of such items as Stem frame. fijl.. Bilse keels and hull ~penings. Double bottom compartments. from the control console. T. Describe toe h. Q. by foilowing weld runs and by reference to other features. tested by beating or chipping. or other composition. provided that their internal examination is also carried o~. Preparation shouid be to a sufficiefit extent.. in way.r excessive corrosion.. for closer inspection of these items and also for inspection of plating on the tun? of the bilge.ifiicir. s!ructucai deterioration. in sp. where - a protective coating is found in Poor condition. Rudder. from the time of coiisil-iuction.

The anchors are to be examine&. f o r touchup and complete coat. s5eciqir.-. un!ess the complete paint is being rcnewed.metal and completely reccrated. ~- - ~- i i I * 1 iI 2 i . by i2 F/o or more.-.. wire and chaias.*he. Hail Pain:iry (Essential rnaintenanee) ?'he shell plating is examined for areas of paint work which must be repaired. are to be made good. : - i f I - 5 = f t g 0 . to confimi sarisfac:oT . The Surveyor is to be satisfied that there are suitabi. air and sounding pipes are to be examined. . i f i t is found that such coverings are broken. before paintjag is &+fled.~ . Ill ! . Compete surface is washed with fresh water and surface allowed to dry.~.mooring ropes . f t : ~ . seciicns are to be remmed. at its most worn pa?. proper 51 of seakng arrangements. ialc. discharges or overflows. the wood is be renewed. Alxen\ion is to be given 10 the condition of the plating under wood decks. in most situations. which may direc: watiter on to the surface to be painted.! Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Vol. from 2s nominal diamerer .= -.:i:r --:'.if decay o r rsr is fosnd or ri. - Thickness measurement : x 2~~. The whole surface of the shell is cleaned and prepared for re-coating with paint. the shell p!ate is cleaned dcwn to bare metal and rest of the areas are cleaned and swfzce prepared for re-coating. bottom plating. type of paint for each coal.. .. which are found defective or excessively reduced in .e. it is to be renewed. = f ~~. Paint sprrcifiiations are to be piovided to the ~ & / d Painting sub-contractor.. This inciudps nu. !he hand parnps. %'her. by materiais of the approved scantlings and quality. a wood deck. ~~ ~ i [ i : i 2 ! \ h The chain cables are to ranged and examined on ail ships over five years aid. deck covering. has worn by 15 WXI or more. -.f ~. -. including stowage. ~~~~ = = - i : : * - The Surveys may reqliire to measure the thickness of the material in ally pxtion of the structure. operatjo1. ~ ~ . i. it is to b e icncwed. Mechanically operated hatch covers zrs to be resed.al tesiing of power components. these are Rule requirement. .e%&e chain cab!es are rzngeii. boot top area and toasid:s.Any parts of the structure.s.o or . W. or are nct adhefizz closely to the plating. or high pressure water jetting 91shot-blasting. be cleaned down to bar.i i so. if any length of chain caSle is found io be r z h c e d in mean diameter.<. thiclaess of t a r 5 coai for each section. to ascertain the iVooCs % 3 = $ : i % ! % * I 1 i condition of the plating.The paint to be used should be compaiible with the previous paint..< ~ decks or sheathing are to be examined . areas where paint is damaged and rus:ins has started. wood is excessiveiy worn.power driven wire Snlshins. . operation. The Windlass is to be examined. -~.. 2 stringen and lies.-. as zecessary. In some instances thz 'null mz.warenight doors.be. before coinmencemeni of painting. o'cnzts. s-oc?ions. Any scuppers.e . where s i p s of wastage are evident or was:JSe is normally fo~md. Surface preparation is done by m a n u ~ Iwire brushing and scraping with steel scrape~. scantlings. :hey are to be examined. 1 . should be biocked or diverted. - i -- i .

3.ile.. nisciiss 1 Verify : i.. " . as per ISM Cock practices. Overdue Certificates I surveys.hci~o-3 Read correspondence file. before acceping respmsibility from outgoing Chief Engineer. ' ' Find out I be aware of : - - - . if any Take copirs and start planning for your stay on board vessel. < 8 1 I j Briefing at ofiice and Tzking-over on vessel A) Briefing at Office Superintendent I Tech.confirm actual figures match the logged figures.J.Advanced Marine Eiigineering Knowhdge Vof. Manager will brief... .. Special tools on hoard . When taking ow.k. . as C/E of a new vessel from a shipyard. Stores Vessel's sailing programme.< i WS ' ) .che-+ %Ie3 8 .th Fill up appropriate check lists . 9 . As Chief Engineer briefly discuss the procedures you will follow :When taking over as Cm of a large vessel.o~ LCek i'ir & (L.uel oil /diesel oil / lube oil soundings .wherever required. if any. and the company's action plan in respect o f this. /pol . 9 -> I. giving all derails.a n y special instructions. Ans. Random checks of alarms / instrumentation. . Read lzttcr prepared by outgoing Chief Engine?. ill 1 1 % & Q. Procedure : .Maintenance status o f Main I auxiliay machinery Spares.: h.- Staius of surveys/certificates Conditions of class. I I T ~ ~ ~ M K ~ D PA td. * Voyage Requirements Bunkers expected * Consumptionpattern v b Oil record book.

- . to Head office. Elect~cal officer and other engineers/staff to corfinn any mcxe known or spzcific problems. . interpretations. .~ i. Siyrt and send a cornbind report. Status on class certificated. L Meet 2/E. - f2i fFe-rent r h e c k f k t Drawings list. . tke E) Shipyard The Objeciive shouid be to ensure th'dt Efficiency of all systems is achieved b e f o r e a c c e p t a n c e . ~ . . 111 Readiness for Port slate inspecri ons-LSA/FFA. : Specifications and capacity. Obtain working specifications covering changes. Contract penalty clauses. B) Shipyard . LiaLoil betwxn Vessei and shipyard is goad Procedure : A) Office : familiarize with the Vessel's contractual position B) At Sbipyard : - Scrutinize progress reports Witness typical program - Inspection afier t n a1 C) A) Taking over (Final) Office Famiharise with vessels contractuai position. by incoming and outgoing Chief Engineers. Guarantee period. additions and anicndments in respect of: 0 Working drawings. Delivery date..Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge ibl. Check a]] files. viz. M a i n t e n a n c e canied out by ship's stafffworkshops. for b r a d new vessel iron. . Taking w e r as Chief Engineer. 0 Speed and fuel consumption.

.. ~ ~ ' ' ~ x . . . #achin&y Vibration.. ... galley and pantry equipment. ~.. . ~ . of Necessary adjustments...._/:<_: . including Accomodation .. .. .hear balai&diagr&s. .. ... . .. ~ ~ .. ~. . : Inert gas t&t.-.. .~~ .~ . .: . .. . if applicable.. * Random inspections of installed including switch gear. if not satisfied with its ~. . .&& &&& . ~ .ey of accommodat&n. as indkated by performance.. esp.jng @tern.. over-speed & power ranges......... . Communication and navigation equipment to be demonstrated... .. ... .. . i trials : Certain eq6ipment may have to bc opened for inspection. . :::. . .for inte&ted bperations). %~.. .~ . . ...mo. . . :. h i n & o n Main engine crankcase.-- .~ ~ steering Sals. . . Crash stod ~ a l s . . . k Bridge *~t@ne control room. Machinery spaces. ... Potable water ~ t m e npiant. .. . .. performance... .. ~ Hull vibration. ~~.~.~ ~- Biack-out test. ~ . Boiler safety vaive test. machinery.. and Machinery spaces. . . . .Plant balance .~ . . ~ * . .. . .:... . . Ins~ection after . Turning circle. _.....-1 ~. ~ i r b o i now? suri... . .. with respect to safety of the ship and personnel. ... . . .~ .. 111 Progress reports. ...' ' ' {~djustment.- Advanced Marine Enginwring Knowledne Vol... ... . . .:~. . : : : : : Ventilation flow rates. . :... ..ecialiy when ship is in tke light condition and .

ts. metal bottles. after satisfactory corny.(iv) Sewage. for the Vessel r and the Owner's Representative wi!: accept responsibility of rhc ship.Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Voi. A]! other garbage including paper. rags. (v) Garbas-. Mediterranean. With rcspzc! to Kegulstions and Pc!lction contrul. Disposal prohibited.i n c c e io c h e c k / c i ~ q C) Taking over (Final) Ccmplete the sea trial data. glass. Baltic & Black Seas. Disposal prohibited. I// Electrical generator windings to be clean and h u l a t i o n readings recorded. 1 3 1 ~ c . Deals \villi pcllittion from (i) Oil (ii) Noxious Liquids (iii) Eazardoiis packaged snbsrances. Spare gear. glass coniniinuted or groirnd > 25 miles off shore.!etlon FF ail the hzucial ziiangernents. lining and packing materiak.g. c o ~ t r o of discharge of oif from machintry spaces o f at: ships l This regulation controls dumping of -11 victuals. nets and garbaye bags. Eve13 stricter coti:rcls for 'Special Areas' e. L Bilges to be cleaned and repainted. Outfit. . Imposes a complete Ban on a dumping of Plastics e. rags. Paper. don?estic and op~r3riozaiwaste oenerated by a ship and her crFw 1 passengers. Disposal pi-ohibited.g. crockery and sin~ilar refuse. > 3 miies. Floating dunnage. 1 J'Q. 4. Here dumping is completely banned .even food waste cannot be dumped within I 2 miles cf iand. Anriex V Outside Speeial Areas Garbage type Piastlcs In Special Areas Disposal prohibiied. > 12 miles. Contracting parties to the com'ention are oblized to -provide facilities in ports for reception c f gaibage~ MARPOL. Cei. F!~elr: and Lbbiicar. Synthetic ropes. expfain Reguiatiens with respect ti.ificatcs of ciass Clezn Eilgc's repaicr if necessary The Master and Chief E ~ g i n e t will sign the Foim of Acceptance.

Ans.p.) It is used to give a measure of the strength of sewage. System to provide a continuos record ofoil content of the effluent. which in the presence of oxygen feed on and consume organic matter.D. -1 I Comminuted or ground garbage must b e able to pass through a screen wi& mesh size no larger than 25 mm. record io be identifiable as to time and date and retained for three years.O. Results o i i h e test are expressed as the amount of oxygen taken by a one illre sample (diluted with aerated water) when incubated at 200 for five days.m.5. Recommended lev& &purnping-oui solids and Bio-chemical digestion of seivage.he rectified before commencing next voyage. Any failure of ~cjuipment be noted in the Oil record book and all discharse stopped.(B. i t identifies the iioiogicai decomposable substances and is a test that depends on the activity of bacteria.O.e. 0.O. of iaw sewage is 300 to 600 mgllitre. > 12 miles. unless the following conditions are satisfied :Control of discharge of oil from hhchinery spaces o:a!l Ship is proceeding on a voyage. With respect to Sewage treatment. Garbage disposal regulations for special a r e s shall take effect in accsrdance with regulation 5[4)(b) of Annex V. The oil content is less thar I5 p. . discuss the foHowing terms : Biochemical Oxygen Demand. en-route and not at anchor.Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledgb Vol. Defect to to . recommend a B. Can be defined as the amount ofoxygen utlised by micro-organisms in the stabilisation of organic matter.O. Not within a Special area The ship is more than i2 miles from the ne-rest cczst. C d i f o r m count. i. filterkg and monitonnz ~quipmeq!is in use. Rlochemical Oxygen Demand (B. of 50 mdlitre aiter treatment. B.D. Oi: Discharge Monitoring and Control systemSystem to come into operason when there is any discharge of effluent into the sea and automatically stop discharge when the oil content exceeds the permirtcd 'zvei. > 12 miles. The required oil separation.D.M. ships I Oil or oily mixture should nc? be discharged into the sea.). !I/ i Food waste not comminuted or ground. J .D. I.O.

1. * 3 f L Afler treatment the residual disinfectant should be as low as poss~ble. 9 .-~~ p p - -~ p ~ p . Arc relatively N h in organic matter. responsible for TyFhoid. i r d i j - f f . I.~. -highveorrosive.5 and !. The pathogen count are disease causing organisms.O. the bacteria break down the organic matter into. carbon dioxid. Biochemical digestion of sewage .7~ g Aerobic Proc255 :Aerobic bacteria require free oxygen to survive.M. hydrogen sulphide and ammonia. Residua! Disinfectant - . that can be removed by laboratory filmtion. Poliomyeiiris. In the aerobic process the bacteria Lie& down the organic matter safely. ~ ~ z. water. methane. Dysentery. t s 5 This pro'cess is also called 2utrefaction. i -\ Recommenr!ed Iweis ofpumping-out soiids Solids:. Anaerobic Process :-/ 3 > 5 i ^ > 6 5 . in Coliform Count:Coliform organisms are recognised as the Indicator Organisms c f sewage pollution. g 3 s i ' . . Colifonn are present in the human inteGme and their presence in water taken as an indication of the pathogen count. . E 1 Ii c Settleable--Suspended solids that wili subside in quiescent liquid in a reasonabii period (usua!ly taken as one hour).k If ?2 .0 mgflilre. recommend a Coliform count of 250IlOO ml.0. C & * 5 . of effluent after treatmert.O. Cholera LM..M.Solids physically suspended in sewage. recomrnen6s i! level.Solids which are in soluiion Suspended .. The Aerobic Process lias end products of fizO i 0 2+ Inen Residue + Energy to synthesis new bacteria. Theses-produced are both noxious --and toxic.as tliey use chemically bound oxygen to survive: in the anaerobic process.~. of 50 mglitre.~.~. .3 Anaerobic bacteria can only multiply in the absence of free oxygt. Dizsolved . each person contributinz between 125 billion. Canadian iestfictior is between 0. . The numbers presenl in sewage are large. The effluent produced is of poor quality and o&er by-producrs are . Suspended level ofraw sewage is 300 to 400 mg/litre. in winter 10 400 billion. - 1 Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Voi. in summer.. g .- . prefers thc use o i Ultra-Violet exposure to the method of Chlorinaiion. after treatment.

Float switches may be used to control the discharge from the lank to the sewage treatment plant.' ~ A ) /' I-. 10 liircs per person .. Ill 4 . 6 . where it is mixed with chemicals.. Chemical recirculation or the Zero discharge system Sewage enters thz chemica! dosage tank. from the toilets by auto stnrlislop of centrifugal pumps.. The water in the sewage tank is used as driving walv i'nr tile ediictor. e. describe briefly she Chemical sewage system and the Vacuum sewage system. A the level in the settling rank s rises.Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Vot. It162 cleiu liqilid is dram through a filter to the Sanitary Hydrophore. in which a further chemical treaiment is added. With respect to Sewage pumping-our systems.A pccssure switch maintains vacuum in the line. After senIing. WL break dom the sewage and improve the.-?-je A".m . which is used to pull in t!ie sewage into the sewage tank. It thcn passes through a conimirtulor (wbich is a grindzr or macerdtoi) that curs :he sewage into small paticies) and e n t m a chemicai treatment tank.ihe sterile sludge may be removed to a Sewage holding rank or incinerated.using 1.colour. UI~ ' This system is based on a vacuum created by an Eductor. V ~ C I Ysewage system. Calculations are based on a daily fiow oS say. The sewage remains in this sction for about 5 minutes before passing to the senling tank. where :he txeatment is agGn qplied. while still maintaining the vacuum in 1ioItli11.r: thc sysiero~ .-wG C ~ ~ = ~ f ' A circulating pump draws un-treated sewage from this tank and delivers back l o riw dosagr rank.2 litres of water per flushing operation. Ans.o m 2. which proviilcs the water supply to the toilet flushes.5 .10 m3. The holding tank is at atmdsFheric t pressure. The %>%%gea n k capacity varies h . . to sierilise and deodourise the!iquid.': r lu i Uiru iS+4cge + i i + .

Ail valves should be checked and those not to be used. Scuppers should be sealed. especially with respect to stopping of bunkers. in case o f emergencies.ii-. . sand) should be readily available Communication systems should be checked.. and shouid personally supervise the operation. Preventive measures to avoid pollu!ion. He must h be in ciose contact ~ ? t she shore 1 barge crew. . . .rnent. issue to the p c r s a n ~ e ! Ans.. Bunkering Operations : The vessei shouid be securely moored. Advanced Mannne Engineering Knowledge Val.. < S@ IT EP) - Ali hose connections should be frequently checked. What instructions wil! you under you. in this respect. Oil absorben: materiai (sawdust. 111 /. must be securely closed. with respect to Bunkering. while bunkering The responsible officer should be famiiiar with ai: aspects of bunkering and the ship's bunkering system.. ~7 J Gnumerate the preventive measures you wot>ld take to avoid po!lution of the env.

. Lubricating oil . minute stand-by Arc hoses in good condition? . aud bunkering stopped. in Diesci oil.ransfer of product is undertakeq the O S c e r must w n f i n the ibi!owing items. a 15 i h i : for shutting d c w d transfer is required. to acknowle6ge~ T 1 akirig 05/erwztch personnel.g. to d i s ~ e r s e case ail oil spili occurs. . .and will i q c i r s a solvent or emulsifier.C _ _ .=r rare bfaximum transfer pressure Anticipated stoppages I'he method of communication bemeen b x g e a ~ ve~sellteminalhas been d established (! ~%illbe understood that except for emergenci?~. removing drip trays.. Frequent sounding 1 &ages should be Taken 'Paflicular care taken when 90% filling. --- Vol Iff AdvancedMarine Engi~zenng Knowledge Bunkering should commence a! the i ~ n i n l u r n pumping rate so [ h a ~ any problems can be detected early. will slso revie-# the subject matter as be:ow- Pinrpiiig Data - Q~murtityand typc of stock to bet:msferred initial trmsfer iatc Maxiinurn transf. Note : A 'persistent' oil is one that wiil not disperse easily e.be connections between the barge and vessel/terminal properly secured 7 - :ire scupper plugs in place ? A continuous deck watch will be kept by barge and vesseU terminal crews In the event of an oil spill. reports. etc) s o PCP All unused manifold connections arc blanked O K Rotii prtics should cany out constant sun-eiilance o f adjacent waters to deted and pii:v:rtt ariy leakage / spillage of oil. clean up.. capacity of tank is strained.Heavy Fuel Oii. - O n completion special care taken when disconnecting hoses.- . like pztrol are not persistent. with the person in-charge of bargdterminal bunkering. . Volatile oils. a clear mderstanding exists on steps to be tnken (conaainment. S e G m any . Each will sign this f o m (sarnule).

:'I in additioii to checking the tightness of the hose couplings. both before and after pumping. The water depth should then be read off a!id iis volumc and weight calculated From the barge or storage tank calibration tables.but 11s accuracy may not always can ~ Sc 100% The o d y safe way of checking. However. conforms. which are to be used with tank caiibration a tables to verify the actual quZtity. is for a sample to be taken and the water coatert ttsted in a water tesz kit. It is the ship's s!affs responsibility to ensure t i n t they ectually receive the quantity ihat has been ordered. 0.: bunkers. what procedures will you foilow.either in 'US barrels' or 'Litres' . Ensuring correct Quantity/L)elivery: Claims of insufficient volume delivery are the cause of many disputes between owners and bunker suppliers. to keep the ship's staff in the clear... With respect to the quantity and required fuel specification a n d how will you ensure this ? Ans When accepting bunkers from a barge or a teimiaal.ask applied on sounding tape. then a lalcr of proicst mus! be niade 311t. in the case of Heavy fuel 011. Barge soundings should be checked by using sctinding tape. a format letter. Excess pressure can cause the hoses. If not. it is important that rhe pumping rate between bunker ba:&lcmiina! and receiving Vessel is asrceii by the barge Master and the vessei's Chief Engineer. or his nominee. Measurements taken on tanks. i ensure thai the correc: qilantity is received.to burst with the harbour becoming polluted resulting in claims.both of . fines . with what has been actuzllv ordere6. The Chief Engineer or his represenLalive must always check the supplier's bar$ terminal tank soundings. The tape should be smeared with paste (usually y e e n in colour). this can be established by rncaiis of a simpie test. Flow melen should be checked. as well as file1 specification. involving water finding . barges and oil tmcks i ! are accepted. !it Q. The Chiei Engineer. it is generally a mle with bunker suppliers. which will turn pink. the Chief Engineci sho&~ always check the local supplier's C o c u m ~ to make certain that the bunker . 8. that ship's figures wl not be accepted.$ and even vessel's arrest.05 'A for 63s oil. both before and afier bbunker delivery Mcters only rccard volume (no! weight) .25% ibr-Diesel oil and i % for cavy oil (of IS0 Cst). in tenns of quailtity. as they are under the independent supervision of Csstoms.Advanced Marlne Engineering Knowiedgc Vol. Due care must be taken-to correct for tempeature variations. if my. ivhen accepti~).vayz check that the bunkers.of protest must be made out. Note: In a quantity dispute. sh9uld al. 1~1iisrn~tk~od a l s be x e d %i Fue: Oli . before and after pumping. to ensure that tiley conform. do net contain hn unacceptabie ?a e the maximum ailowa'uIe being 0. i i any water is detected. to -g of water contaniination be received. In case of distillates. A s a Chief Engineer.

IN wirkh c a n be convened into metric tons. i f this is not done witflin a specikd period.and the local supplier. by using the product's specific gravity and !lien adjuslins for lcmperature differences. in srtparalc tanks.by boik the C h i d Tingineei. because then they will not be a re?resentative of the rota! t3nnage loaded.9. iiom the ship's bunker flange. b) Con(!-01 of discharge with reference to Chemical Carriers. Corittol o f Clisctlarge o f o i l from Cargo Tank Areas of Oil Tankers . Thc delivcrcd proiluck may conform to the specifications. during the course of the pumpin!: process.:: of any quaiiiy problem. .although this is not always possible on smali ships. a sealed sample must be sent b { the Chief y Lrigliieci asiinrc.ict refined from a different crude oil source. / Ans.each om: is corismng of different hydrocarbons from varying sources. and not the bunker barge or shore tank. One silould :. . the product could hecrime completely un-pumpable or unbumable. '1. 'Thi: sample must be representative of the total delivery. Sainpie bottles should be sealed. By carrying out a few simple tests on representative s:~mpi~?s. . lit c..n. so iix>t no mixing occurs . that the prodact is indeed upto specification ant! compatible with existing~bunkers.Advanced Marine Engineering Knovrledge Vol. for about three months or at leas? until thc burtkeis loaded have been consr~mea without prohiem. I hi: lr~ixed products will layer and could re.The supplier may decline to accept liability. and v w y i ~ ~ g methods 3f cracking. incompatibility can occur.hen be retained by the ship's staff. it k imperative that the supplier is advised as soot? as posslbi~. so that a proper analysis can be carried out. but however when mixed in the lank with a pmdl. Two identical samples should be taken. discuss briefly : <:ontrot of discharge of oil from cargo tank areas of Oil tankers. In the event of :I gcrwiiii: &icy problem insins. ~~.. . datzd andsigned hi .Samples of the loaded product must he taken jointly. bunkers should ideally be segregated. Tmt liils for checking fuel quality : Bunker quality on board can be checked wiih a fuel oil test kit. the C h k f Engineer can satisfy himself. Samples should not be taken at the start or 3~ h e completion oC bunkering. a) With respect to regulations. (The prribd for notification should he cie2ir:y stated ihr: suppliefs terns and eocditions)~ I:: lhm!ccrs are the rernsining products from varying world sources orcrude oil. thus there is no 'standardised' heavy oil . ALSOsamples should pot be from just one t a k on the barge. Altemaiiveiy. and ideally taken by drill feed at the discharge side of thz manifold.. Q.u!t in an ~un-pumpable s i u a g ~ anct wrisequent ?nor combustion in the main engine.0 ~t</oid rhese problems.

i.e. rhe separation rakes place by gravity. and depends upon the density difference between oil and water. Most designs of Oily water separators in use are of the gravity / coalescer type. bilge water contzins a mixture of oil in water i.- i i I Wiihin a Special area 50 Within nautical miles from land.eneral. in . The water is know? as the contini~ousphase and the oil is the dispersed phase. Aiso comment on the use of z cna!escing device and heating coits. Thus the larger giobules oroil arc :illc. which was camed on the previous voyage: and the tanker has in oprrarion : An oil discharge monitoring and coiiirol system and slop tank arrangements as required by Regulation 15 of Annex I of MARPOL 73/78. Regarding chemical carriers.d e r s ) of the total quantity of cargo.Advanced Marrne Engineering Knowledge Vol. cl&n - No Discharge except either : clean or segregated b. a small amount of oil in a large amount of water. or when: tne tanker is en route. tll - - Sea areas C Discharge criteria No Discharge segregated ballast No Discharge segregated ballast except except clean . The coalescing device encourages the formation of large oil droplets from the dispersed pha$e.:~:c.d 10 rise due to the density difference. and the instantaneous m e of discharge of oi! doesnot exceed 30 litres per nautfcal mile. Amex I1 of MARPOL 73/78 deals with poliution by noxioils liquid substances. The oily water enters the separator and is slowcd down (ideally lo laminar flow).iliast.000 ( f ~ new . Outside a Special area 'Clean ballast' is the ballast i~ a tank which has been so cleaned that the effluent from &ere does not create a visible sheen or the oil content exceed !5 3pm . .e. and More than 50 nautical miles from lrnd the total q-aiitity of 4 discharged does r sot exceed 1/30. 3-10 With respect to Oily water separators. justify the statenrent : Separation of oif and water depends upon the density difference behvcen oil and c*ater. .

a.. P o i i i ~ t i o nC o n t r o l record b ..1 ' 1 .Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Vol. Ballasting and cleaning of cargo tanks and the discharge ofdirty bi~llast.---with ternzerature. is geater for oil than . drag decreases and the gravity increases.!udesa11 Bilge transfer operations. Reciuce visco~ity washins out. None of above Rrietly jristify your answer. i>ischaiy oveiboa~d purihed bilge water from machinery spaces. Thc ratc or separa:ion depends upon the difference behveen the viscous drag at the oilfwater interface and the effect of gravity. of .har~. Provision f2r washirg out with sea water should be pl-ovidcd. .Loading. . All ?egistered merchant vessels must eany an Oil Record Book. ICcduce viscosity of oil -thus aiding pumpins.thus aiding sepaiation. . BgL2nlp3: Shouid be matched to the application {must not exceed the intenzed capacil] ~ i ! h eseparator). ?'tic correct choice is the option c). Wsidge log .twa!w. Ballasting or cleaning of bunker fuel .iny vessc! fails to carry an approved Oil record book or to make proper entries.. A . ii~r. lricrcase differential specific gravity.. . As the size of the oil globules increases the viscou. i ankers have additional entries to record . ~s 8 !ail!is and the discharge of dirty ballast or cleaning water. Disposal o f oil residue. .@ '0. The fomiarion of larger gkbules is accelerated at the coalescing surfaces.12 Oii poilution regulations require any transfer o r discharge o f o i l or oity mixiawes lo be recorded in :be . Oii Record Book >: 4. Heeiing Coils. fa: Ilcdiice viscosiry o i the oil water . !!ic owner / Master are liable to a substantial fines and / or imprisonmeni. Also as rhe rate of change in density. NI -i ' P!ates cncouragc a laminar flow and act as coalescing suriaccs. lire rale oiseparation will increase . with respect to temperature. lf. h s .. Vane or screw type are the n o s t suitable pumps. . tMvsters log e. transfer during voyage and of rlis<.c ori carso.

A ranker bc:last line as i i discharges directly overboard. The oil pollution reguiaticns p t h i f a t i o n s on the quantity o f oil discharged into the sea. 2. as_most*bsorb in the 3. which.3 Prn waveleggth. The vari&ns. poor with respect to sensitivity and would usually be used only to detect an oil-water interfaces (in an ci!y water Separator). 4. Ultra Violct Absorption. and must operate satisfactorily. Visible Light Absorption.. The equipment must be suitable for reading both high and low levels of contamination 2nd tc respond quickly to sudden changes iit Lhose levels. Its working should be unaffected by considerable periods ofidleness. in absorption rates. A tanker ballas. The equipment must be easy to operate and maintain. Describe the general principles of measurement or the following: a) Ballast Monitor b) Bilge Monitor c) Turbidity meters d) Clean Oi! System e ) infra Red Absorption r7 riitra violet Ans. How is discharge of oil monitored. rust and other debris. Infra Red absorption is a useful method. There is 3 requirement to monitor the overboard discharge from-. Infra Red Absorption. R e first four are al. ( s ~ o ! = ' < G b d P ? A bilge Sischai-ge from the mxhinery space.are accurate. not all can be used on hoard shipj. between heavy oils through to the iighc diesels is approximately 10%. It must be accurate to i !0% . Principles of Measurement : i . Visible Light Scattering. discharge afier an oiiy-water separator.p (J m ) ~~~ The equipmen! mxst be suitable for the marine environmeat (Xithough rilierc are many laborztory me:hods. .(1. 5. due to the presence o f san. Ultra Violet Fluorescence ~ . irrespective of the rypc of oil used.13. There shoul8 be no appreciable loss of accuracy. 3. detector g) Light Absorption & gas measurement. (i 5.

H I . short length of samplc pipe with a minimum number of bends. 'Clilgz i\. . It would be useful if the oil was extracted from the watcr with a suitable sclvent. This is significant a i d adds geatly to the prsblen of inaccuracies.in the middle of the ballast pipe. for the opto-electronics to detect sniali c!~anzcs in a high light level. . Of the two visible light teciiaiques.: hi. Care niust be taken to ensure the ballast line is a:ways Cull of sea water.Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Vol 11 1 However. ilr:m:c the monitor should not be specific to an oil type. The bilge monitor must provide an alarm at IS ~ . watcr also has a strong absorption at the same wave length and this makes detectors complex. If the response time of the monitoring system is Ioii:> ~ n s i d e r a b i e pollution can occur b e f ~ r e large discharge valves can be the closed. the most sensilive is light scattering. but the requirement. Wi!ii the bilge system the type of oil czn vary from fuel oils to lubricating oils.lonitor : I iru~ailation and operational problems with a biige monitor are less than tt~os. does not have the installation of probletr~s the ballast monitor. without distinguishing between. oil and non-oil particles of similar diameter. strips off the pipe-work. . utilizing a fast sample veIocity are iidopted.!i: this leads to problems with the sealing and cleainp of the optical and witldows. the ballast monitor. - Caliasi Monitor : h icprcsentative sa7iple n u s t be extracted. as very short sample pipes can be used.work ofien becomes clogged during periods of inactivity and. ~ .7 ' t ~ alarm. h fast sample flow rate helps in keeping the windows clean. deposited during periods oi'idieness. However this would not allow a speedy response. . 'Yo ensure a representative sample is obtained 2nd to encoiiiaze sood mixing. distoning the accuracy. when restarted. Devices using v r s ~ b h t y light are usually cheaper. erroneous readings are obtained as oil. . This pipe.25 Fm.pling pipe-work. P .. Most monitors depend on an optical teciu~iqi. . they also detect. This is achieved by a strengthened intrusion pipe in the ballast line and :he sample is ?her?con-eyed to the nlonitoi oy 2 puinp. tlltra violet fluorescence suffers from a wide variation in respcnse ! different types of o oil. on a system whcie the oil is present in tihc fonn of particles. Additionally the wir~dow!)roblen> assumes greater importance ar the system may well have to operate with llic machinery space unattended.. Additionaily it is important. Utra vioiet absorption does not encounter the water absorption problem as i t uses a wavelength of 0. Geimaily the response d t h e m c n i t ~ is instantaneous and most of the system r respoilsc delay is in the sam. limits the low range capability. so that no settling-out occurs. absorption and scattcikg. the sample point is usually . Absorptisn devices using any wavelength. . suffers from the effects of sand and rust. being within the engine room. caused by a small spike of oil exceeding the alarm level. the solvent having no absorption of tke infra re2 w e d s n g t h . However. that the operation of the valves shouid not be iniriarcd by a false alarm. . simpler and are nowspecific with rzspect to 31: types. . To reduce the delay. near !he discliarze pump.

R 7-t c F . the water will turn 'milky' to varyjng degrees.. cr ~ ~ c - Laser light nray be used to obtain a well defined Ik*t bean] and a selective light-scattering effect. Alarm and controi panel are in the Engine room. .i&ceil - + - J Mearming reif with rwo P.. in which the light beam and the s i p p i c k e d up by the photocelis are transmitted via optical fibres to the electronic measuring circuit in the engine room. . to cover the extremes of the range.. whereas the intensity of scattered light sensed Ey a photuceli mounitd at an ang!e to the original path will increase.>~--.~ ~ i ~ I me&w. . ! . &-- . . provided the conditions for homogenizing thz sample are well contro!led.~: L. the actual colour of the oil droplets is of no importance. ~ [ $ i + . This principle is used in the Ci: content meter. As the instrument measures the number of pmicles in the water. . ~ -".. '- sj > : kc&. This method can be used for indicating the oil content. but some changes in the calioration are required. pan of rht lighi passing through the czll will be scatiered. operating with infralight. instrument of this type can measure oils ranging from heavy cmde oils to gasoline. The Indicator. .. Another Lnsmtment... .j$ - :~E :Q Turbid@ Meter (Scatterqd Light Detector) : If an oiliwater mixture with a low oil content is heavily agitated. Tub . ' . it is rather sensitive to other contaminants such as rust or air bubbles. f i e intensity of light picked up by a photocell at the end o f a straight path through the cell will be reduced. . A similar instrument. . is also inuse..Measuringci:.i e g f a E ~. : :: . ~ '*' . If a light beam 2 projected through a test cell containing sample water with well-homogenized droplets. so that the oi! droplets become v e y small. operates only on the direct transmitted light through the test cell. based on theturbidity prixip!e. : <.celis .....E..l.. . through-ne mom bulkhead.'- -.. depending on the amount of oil present. Advznced Marine Engineering Kncwledge Vol. r... in which the heavily agitated water circulates. where the penetration is quite small.I . X~ ...cuil c~.

the s i p a l can be calibrated in oil content. ill Infra-red absorption : The absorption o f infra-red !ight by oil can also be m e ~ u r e d . For a given oil-in-water concentration. some energy is dispersed and the emitted light is of a longer wave-length :ha? thr absorbed light. this is done by purifying a small part of water in a micro-filter. for the type of oil being monitored. so that the instrument must bc calibrated each time. As infra-red absorption by the background water is aiso high. am oil-kee reference water of relevant quality must be obtained at all iimes.Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Val. This is the phenomenon . . the instrument response depends on a) the particie size and b) the florescent efficiency of the oil. The difference is caused by absorprioii by the oi! and. . T h e Ultra Violet Detector : The Principle used here is that of Uiha Fluorescence. The effect of particle sizc is minimized by the sample conditioning unit which reduces the oil particles to a uniform size. Different oils contain different amounts of msaturated hydrocarbons. The fluorescent efficiency of the oil is based on the phenomenon that . when illuminated with ultraviolet li@t of a certain wavelength. They radiate light in the visible spectrum. and has be& installed in tankers.molecules of "unsaturated" hydrocarbons become excited.of the emission of light from a molecule which has absorbed light. In the brief period. before the emission can occur. Tte inka-red absorption by the oily water and by oil-free water can then Se measured. The instrument is simple in dcsign.

7 - Spinning cup bu Incinerator Wasit: i oily-water mixtures. oil and water mixtures u p to 25% content. Hydrocarbcn gases are formed.. produce a well-dispersed emulsion. which tend to soften in the flame. which prevents the doors being opened. Solid matter from sewage systems is also incinerated in this unit by homogenizing it with the oily-water mixture. if required. which pass throtigh a series cismall h ~ i e s the in furnace.*::.il I. It is necessary to prevent these agglomerating into a mass that is difficult to extract. Si"d~r/. NI Q. The figurc below shows a small combined water tube iype boiler cum incinerator plant which gives a compact unit with good economy. suitably homogenised. How is the waste disposa: Ans An Incinerator is capable of dealing with waste oil. if the burner is 'on'. waste and soiid matter from sewage plants. Sketch and describe a Sludge Incinerator ? effected. . There is a safety device.Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Yo/. Dry ash has to be removed pcriodicaliy through the ash pit door. duz to the low air supply to this compartment. For this reason many incinerators bum refuse on a grate. These are supplied to a rotsry cup burner. Combustion o i solid paicles requires a considerable dwell time and this is usually achieved by angling the burner to give a 'cyclone' effect. Hence it is necessary to ensure an efficient homogenising process in the sludge tank. but do not readily bum..14. One of the main problems is to dispose-off items like glass and metal containers. Solid waste f n m ?Ite galley and accommodation is collected in bags and placed in a chamber adjacent to thc main combustron chamber. rags. The burning process for liquid waste requires that there are no rapid changes in content.ring thc rotary cup bfirner.$ cm . befjre supp-. The incinerator is capable of burning liquid waste or wet g a r b q e .

with a small crew. 01 k e 'A . as shown abmve. Rwuoxriei~dedNoise Level timiis : Unrnarinzd machinery spaces (UMS) Con!inuousiy manned machinery spaces Ensine control room ( E C X ) Mess moms and public spaces in Accomrnodatio. The human ear is pai-. . Q.iciiIarly sensitij~e noise in the 1000 . but is a econnmica! unit on passenger ships. bulkheads to reduce the spread of noise. (ii) Provision of suitable partitions.l - 1 l o dR(A) 90 dB(A) 75 dB(A) 75 dB(A) Day rooms. noisy machines should be sited in spaces.4 kHz) range. possibie. Since incineration is iniriaied using diesel oil. to ensure sr~fficient air iniakc i:. with theminimum of noise levcl.15. Discuss hriefly the methods used for the measoremeot of Noise levels and t h e recommended limits for noise levels.weightzd sound level' dB(A). f?ieasilren. which incinerate a large quantity of garbage ~. lo sran with a stable flame. (i) (ii) . thar do not r q w c c continuous attendance. such rhrt !hey are remote Smru spixes frequented by personnel (such as Fan rooms) and be fitted witit i:fkc!ive silencers. combined boiler cum iccinerstor units are used. offices Cabins and hospital ?fk?hodo 02' controlling Noise exposure : S. which may not be economical on a cargo ship.4000 Hz [ 1 . ?sovision oi'sound absorbing material in certain spaccs.Cost 05 the incinerating process must be considered. i t is using up fuel. The nomal human ear is sensitivz to frequexies between 20 Hz and Z0. is sciiing-up rapid prssure variations in the surrounding air. of Noise : P-loisc is measxed in terms cf thc 'sound pressure level' excressed in decibeis WG).OOO Hz. daiiy. In an effort io rccovcr t5is cost.?pi!a-:l?iou of Noise sources. 111llow and discharge ducts should be arranged.m. shooid be reg-zlarly inspected and cleaned. Sour~d generated by vibration o f surfaces or by turbulence in air streams. Siicncec. which is to objeciionabie and m+y lead to hearins impaimcnt. 65 dB(A) 60 dB(A) (i) W t w e practicable.

tnasemznt of the ship's Baffast water.when bottom-dweiiing or2amsns may rise up: where propellers may stir up sediment. &move baflast sediment on a timely basis : Where practicable. care should be taken to avoid unnecessary dischharge ofballast water. which account for the following. consideration should be given to the fitting o f sound insulation enclosures (acoustic hoods). patbogens and sediment that may contain such organisms. routine cleaning of the baI!asi iank to remove sediments should be canied out in mid-ocean. (i) In continuously manned mschinery spaces. to reduce theK. . with rzference to lke ccatrol ana m. signs should be posted. =hogens ~ - When loading ballast. ifpossible. 111 Machinei-y Enclosul-es. every effort should be made io avoid the intake of potentially harmful aquatic organisms. - a n d sediments : ir. Ans. Ship's engaged in Ballast water exchange a t sea should be provided with procedures.Knowledge Vd. as Chief Engineer. Free surface effects on stability and sloshing loads in tanks ihat may be slack at any one time. as f2r as practicable. Enumerate the basic safety precautions to be taken.16. dadmess . viz. Minimising iniake of harmful axtttiatic o z n i s m s . which contain machinery emitting noise above the prescribed leve!s and where i t is not practical to isolate this. . If it is necessary to ballast or discharge ballast water in the same port to facilitate safe cargo operations. in a r e s and situations such as: in very shallow water. in your opinion.Advanced Marine Engineering . as applicable: Avoidance of over and under pressurization of ballast tanks. Use of ear protectors Where noise ievels in any space are above the prescribed limits. that has been taken up in another port. duty engineers making r~urine inspections. Manufacturers siiould supply i n f o r m a t h on expected noise lzvels and reco~m~end appropriate ins~allalion metho&. in acwrdvlce vv3h the provisions o f the ship's ballast water management plan. Discuss what precautionary practical measures wouid you fo!lo~v oil baard vessel. Ear protectors shauld be provided for personnel entzncg such spaces. or under controlled arrangements in port or dry dock. advisins the use of suitable ear prolective measures. Q. Avoid baliasting.

humkanes. pump faliure.-. Minimum/maximurn forward and aft drailgk:~. when tilting clean water from the bottom and overflowing.icular attention should be paid to the hazards associated with the freezing of overboard discharge an-angements. Maintenance of adequate 'intact stability' in accordance with an approved trim and stability bookiet. However. and certain watertight and weather-tight closures (e. Time to complete the ballast water exchange or an appropriate sequence thereof. typhoons. W e a t h ~ rrouting in areas seasonably effected by cyclones. which is to be maintained at all times. or heavy icing conditions. calculations of shear forces and bending moments induced by water . e d w i n Engineerhg Knowledge ~ e Vol. I11 To take account of weather conditions. including deteriorating weather conditions. Ballast water exchanges at sea should be avoided in freezing weather conditions. Contingency procedures for situations which may affect the ballast water exchange at sea. par. loss of power. from the top. when it is deemed absolutely necessary. takine into account that the ballast water may represent 50% of the t ~ t a cargc capacity for some ships. Pemissibie seagoing strength Iimits of shear forces and bending moments in accordance with an approved loading manual. relevant to individual types of ships and loading conditions. Pumping of at !cast three full volumes of the tank capacity could be needed to be effective. An evaluation should be made of the safety margins for stabi!ity and strength contained in allowable seagoing conditions specified in the approved trim and stability booklet and the loading rnanual. Documented records of ballasting andlor de-ballasting. ar~d accretion of ice on deck.exchange at sea and to compare with the permissible strength limits. to values not less than those required by the Administration. ballat system valves together with their means of contro!. caution shoukl be exercised. I f the 'flow-though' method is used. Torsions! Forces.g. where relevant. . particular account should be taken o f Stability. since: Air pipes are not designed for conrinuous ballast water o v d o w .~ d v a n . the Some ships may need the fitting of a loading instrument t o perfom. Wave-induced hull vibration. manholes) which may bc opened during ballast exchange should be re-sewred. air pipes. and l Monitoring and contro!iing the mount'of ballast water.

in_gs :he vessels superstructure. sprinklers. a -5re conlro! plan should be drawn u p and be p e r m m e n ~ l y display.liances. Fire drills shouid be held in rotation to include :a. The muster !is: shall show the duties assigned to c. The muster list shall also specify the means of indicating when !he vessci is bc aSandoned. . fuel oil remote shut o f f vaIvcs and en~ine room skylight closure points. in different parts of the vessel b. :he d o s i n g of watertight dgors. : . showing the fire alarm call points. poriabie extinguishers.1. the complete fire a r r a n ~ e m e nand distribution can be seen. Fire Parties I Drills The essential requirement o f a good fire drill is that it is made ? s realistic as possible and nevcr al!owed lo become monotonous o r routine. f. The equipping o f the lifeboais and other lire saving s?pliances. e. valves and other ope~. for calling the crews to their emergency stations. The iacnchir. side scuttles. fan controls and dampers erc. discuss t h e importance of: a) Musterlist b) Fire control PIan Essentirrl R e q u i r e m e n t of F i r e Parties c) Ans. th: whistle or siren. The niuster o f passengers (if any). d. C . a. Section o f the vessel enclosed by f~e-retarding bulkheads. Sections o f the vesse! enciosed by Oje resisting bulkheads. breathing apparaius and fireman's outfits. : e.. b.Fire and Ships Safety Q. showing the following detaiis.2 o f lifeboats and liferafts. t @ Means of access to and escape from compartments and decks. The muster list shall be pemanentiy positioned and displayed throughout the vessel and shei! q e c i f y definite signais or. on a. The sxtinctiun o f fire. General preparations o f any other boats and life saving a~.ew m e m b e r s i n rcspec: of ~.lro1 plans should be annotated. Fire Controt Plan For the extinction of fire. fixed insiaiiations. equipment. Locations of all machinery stops. in b. All crew members. T h e fire cor. fire cloijrs.. C . With reference to C o n t r o l stations a n d F i r e p a r t i e s . At a glance. f Location o f the international ship to shore ccnnectidn(s) g. ventitition systems.

11. in the past. the drill should be carried out without an advance warning. which is equally important to the learning process. hand picked men. . >wiio have a particuiar aptilude. i. d. Many such fires have.. . The following ~ o i n t s considered to be necessary to a good shipboard fire are or-pnisation. This is especially. been allowed to grow in intensity because of the confusion and delay caused by a lack of positive knowledge regarding the whereabouts of all the staff. 1% 3 ?X Fire drills shousd be carried out in the following way : i.. the area must be fully evacuated. personne: to be involved and a full de-brief peiiod afterwards. Fire drills should be conrlucted in different areas oF:he vessel. teams can iiiiiy understand and be understcod. should be put n s Fire Drill Officer. and machinery spaces. on occasions. Fire drills to b e carriedbut a t different times and. i. The organisation should be simple to understand by all onboard. fire mains charged.e n fire and adopt boundary cooling accordingly . confidence and communications as on efficient ream. cergo. .. . . wearers the benefit of experiencing zero visibility. Before any fire drill is actually starled i t is mosr important that a roll call is taken and 211 persocnel accounted for. hoses run out in position and charged. I.worn coii~mnnications/!ine signals difigenily practiced. i ~ i . to simulate a 'body'. to keep ilp-to-date. The system should.C.jer every possible contingency. Fill up an old boiler suit v:ith rags. fixed instal!ation can b e actuated into the space. . These to include details of extent of fire. Fire drills should be varied every time and hypothetical fire situations weatcd to co. Engine and Dcck. All equipment should be brought to a ::\ate o f rcadiness. whose duly i s 1s submit typical fire drill situations relevant to his department.. until the B. for search an<: xescue Teams to get p:ac!ice. and Iluring these drills.e. skil: and knowledge for fire fighting so a s to mgendcr team spirit. before the vessels ~SXST-W CO. ik:e is a strong case ibr ifivoiving speciali~ed fire parties. Use blacked out Breathing appaiatus face =asks o r safety smoke generators lo give B. significant when the case of an engine room fire. A. breathing apparatus should be . 118. . All fire righting equipment to bcutilised. A.e. It is very important for the p-rsonnel to get the feel of itre equipment during practice. as worild be expected in rzal life sitcations. rather ihan in action for the first time. fire pumps started. in evacuatins personnel. One officer from each department.. It should be easily adaptable. Apart from the need to conduct fire drills invo!ving the entire crew. a s far as ~ o s s i b l e be standard throughout the fleer. . scurce of ignition. Try to visua!isc a g i . s o a s to include accommoda:ion area. equipment to be used. 11.

The plan z!iould he scpervised by the senior cfficers on board. not directly engaged i n fire fighting operations. ix. especially regarding machinery space fires. it should incorporate a simple but effective roll call procedure. If the . Emergency fuel shut-off. who wiii be picsent :o co-ordinate and control the proceedings. pursers. . the bridge and the seat o f the tire.jv. s Helmsman. either in starting the fire pumps. ~ i j . Chief ~ n g i n e e r He is responsible !o the Master for the highly technical details. Good communications should be set up and maintained. are used effectively i. looking out for other ships acd a messenger between stations and in the event of a communications breakdown. between the muster point. s o a s to become an effective learn. arid must be given support tasks relevant to the tire sihation. deck crews for cargo and accommodation fires. ~ ~ Duty Engineer As instructed by the second engineer. . either in the engine controls and o r fire fighting operations. vi.. Realistic fire driilsltraining are czrried nut throughout the vessel 10 cover all eventualities. fire i s in thc machi&ry space(s) then he is aiso in charge o f fire fighting operations within. Engine ratings '4s directed by the Second engineer. Assisting Master in the above and responsib:r for shipboard cornmunicalicns between the control stationand the bridge. with appropriate knowledge o f the vessel and fire fighting training. vili. ventilation.e. Third Officer . Engine Room Team SecondEngineer Officer-in-Charge o f engine room and maneuvering of the main engine. Fire fighting parties are we!! trained to operate in all situations. i f the engine room is involved in fire. as part of t h e fire fighting ieams. i t should ensure :hat all personnel. or. should remain at the muster point. 1. Bridge T e a m %aster . engineers for machifiery space fires. fuei oil bunker transfers.Overz!! in command. Alt other personnel. regarding the Ere and the vessel's s p e d . course manzu~erin!: and radio messages sent. stewards for first aid and support services. which should be fully utilised.

.to stand-by at the main switchboard. control and instrumentation equipment compensates for the absence o f the machinery space watch-keeper. spaces. An unattended machinery space is one. exiinguishers. i i Ans. and also in charge of fire equipment . Base y w r assumptions that qualified personnel a r e available to a n s w e r alarms.2 - Discuss recommendations on Safety Measures f o r periodically unattended Machinery spaces in addition t o tbose normaily considered necessary for attended Mlc. Second Officer H c is responsible to the Chief Officers a s regards cargo stowage and transfer. Sensors are used to detect the onset o f potentially hazardous conditions. I f no[. cuuliiig arid orircr. ~ . if the galley arcs is involved. Also to prepare the ship's hospital and-render -firs&d. for all fire fighiing cpcraiions.all hoses. < ~ l C rf Officer-in-charge of all machinery space fires. a i a I / JQ.Electi-ical Officel- .'k b e d -k spaces.~. .. O f f W a t c h Engineer1 Deck Offrcers Assistin. then in prouidinz support scrvicci lo lhc fire fiyl~ltng stretcher party tezms. I I off watch crew members A s direcicd hy thc Officer in Chars:. A l l electrical requirements F i r e Fighting Team Chief Officer Officer in Charge o f fire fighting operations for accommodation and cargo . put on-line additional generators.is tin ?ce.o the Officer in Charge cf fire fighting operations in Ere c m t r o l and fire fighting operations as directed. Second Enginkeer M ~ i ~ r \ C ( ~ \~. and any other duties as directed.x&~e ~f j. foam and breathing apparatus . boii::tla:y Galley persont?el A s Girected by the Officer in Charge in fite fighting operations. or emergence lighting circuits. where the provision o f automated alarm.C u t i c s . To stand-by and Re available for instructions from the secon8 engineer..

an alarm s h ~ u l d warn o f bilge water (a) or other iiquids accunulating ar an unusuzl rate or have reached an abnormal level in bilge wells. Cancel l o A O PROC2AM R .is greater than the.4 . by (b) ensurinz zdequate structursl design. ----~~~ Protection against F!ooding: In mattended machinery spaces. In the chse o f bilge pumps srarting automatically. Fuel oil high p r e s s u r e ~ i p eleakare can b e detected b y using double walled . ' Bridge control of main engine : The engine speed and direction of thrust o f the propeller (in case of controllable pitch propeller) should be f i ~ l l y controllable from the bridge. It should be possible to restricting !be fire to the space o f origin. the (cj shutting dfi" of ventilation fans.Protection against Fire The fire detection system should be capable o f detecting the onskt o f z (a) -fire. an6 shut-off arrangements for frtel pumps should be czntralised in the fire control station. - . . bilge injection-and discharge valves below (c) the waterline should be sited to allow adequate time. The remote starting of fire pumps. in an emergency. until under local control. Navigation bridge and to the duty engineer officer's cabin. . The controls for sea inlet. Visual and audio alarms are relayed to the Accommodation -spaces. skylights and other openings.. means shou!d be (b) provided to inEkate excessive running ('Long run' a&>) 2nd if the influx of :iquid. and be self-monitoring for faults. The oossibilitv of the fornlation o f oil mist. fire extinguishing system controls. casings. . (the usual arrangements apply to prevent oil pollution). Remote automatic control system failure should give an alarm while the preset speed and direction o f thrust o f the propeller should be maintained. the bridge and engineer officer's azio~snodation. in the case o f flooding. .capacity o f the pump. detectors. with means o f stopping the main engines. and the elimination o f combustible materials near doors. together with at least one breathing apparatus a d ' a supply o f fire-fighting -equipment. quick clitsing arrzngements. : Communication : A direct and independent means of communication should b e povi'ded belween the engine control room. for these to be operated. Lsrger valves may require remoie control from above the bulkhead deck. whi!e detccticg at normal ang!es o f trim and heel. can be dc:ected bv Oil mist fd) . These w€lls should b e large enoush to hold mere than the norm'al drainagc expected during the lonzes! unattended operation.-pipes and a leak-off tank with alarm.

dolibl~: bottom tanks. and crankcase oil mist detection.Rlachiraery space : . Turbine Vessels : o w lubricating oil pressure. cperation o f load shedding aimivgxnents and loss of po-aer in 'alarm syslems..iss.. system of alarm. in ships. spacos i n which an internal combustion engine is insralled o r even c i i ! p i y Fuel taiiks. high :emperaturc cooling water / rhrusr h e w i n g / exhaust gas. and high temperarurs of hearings. high satinit)-.ive voltage or frequency variations. Oil supply arrangemenls: High and l o v ~alarms in daily service ianks and malfunction o f oil p ~ .)-. %lolorVessels : 1 . Aity s p w e that is not adequately vmtrlated.i!ncrally make provisions as abobe.. :\!~xiliasy power units : C.:garding entry into enclosed spares. ballast tanks. Death has occurred when people have citicrcd ciicloscd spaces withoul checking for a dangerous almosphere. reserve oil supply.. corrosive or o:cygi:ii absorbing" cargo.. >tare the iastructions a n d T r a i n i n g you would give to stnff.s. d w t keels or even store rooms may c o n b i n toxic or flammable gasc:j o i m i i y be deficient in oxygen. i i s zttention.c ~. shvuld be provided. 3&/~tii reference t o h a z a r d s of enclosed spaces : W h a t oxygen content of air would you accept es -s_fe? 8) Discuss dangers involved d u e to the toxic effect of petroleum B) vapours a n d chemicals. ct i . . but allowing for overriding in emergency situations. which should indicate any fault ihac r q . Maiil propulsion boiiers: Hi:? and low water level. cargo holds... . refrigerated spaces from which the refrigerant riiay leuk. coiT*:rila!ns. including i i i t s l a m if purgiag or re-ignition apparatus malfunctions. additionally giving automatic shut-down i f nrc. o ~lubricating oil pressure. Thp da11gi:i. ri illcrirical system : . Enainpli: are tanks which contain or have contained a toxic. flame and air faiiure. pun& rooms. such a s cargolfuel oil . ~fiws.s ivilicli exist arc many and range from oxygen deficiency to toxic gases.

&entiation :- . The human body can tolerate somewhat higher concentrations for shoiter periods. A standard figure of 500 ppm is quoted for working i : ~a p e t r o l e ~ m atmcsphere but must not be taken a s applicable to vapours containing hydrogen. o f harmful substance in ai. withgat danger to health. and cause symptoms of diminished respor. EV& very s m d l quantities of petrolecm qapcrurs. due to constituents varyins i n t h e i r proportions an2 various constituents having a greater toxic cffect r h a ~ others. Normal oxygen content o f air is approximately 21 O h by volume Toxic Effcct o f Petroleum vapours and Chemicals ~.Oxygen Deficiency . Threshold Limit Value (TL'J) his is the highes< concentration. dull the sense of smell. . Ethane and Butane. The main constituents are Methane.sibi!ity and dizziness giving the i m p e s s i o n o f drunkenncss. headache and irritation o f the eyes. i n h i i d . to which a person may be exposes [or eight hours per day. ivher?. for an indefinite period. TLV for petroleum is not uniform. sulphide or benzene. Propane.. The following are iypical effects from such higher co.

Hydrogen Sulphide, HIS Cmde oils may have the extra hazard of containing m c e quantities of Hydrogen Sulphide. Its presence as a vapour can be detected as low as I p.p.m. in air by its most offensive and pungent odour, somewhat simiiar to rotten eggs. .. . ;- .' . s. : Its toxic effect kowever, is one of.paralysis of the nervous systzm and .. . . one of tbz first senses tg b e rendered - ineffective i s that of smell. Concectritions of 200-30G p.p.ni. vaponr in air will produce such marked eye end respiratory trac: irritation that longer exposure than a few r n i n u t ~ s cznnot willingly be tolerated, At a concentration o f 1,000. p.p.m. a few seconds exposure czn result in immediate unconsciousness and respiratory faiiure which unless quickly restored will be rapidly fatal. TLV is given as 10 p.p.m. but in an enclosed space a nii concentration should be achieved before entry isupemitted withoutthe use ofbreathing apparatus.

When entering an enclosed or confined space, the following principal points shsuid be observed :a) identifying the potential hazards. Instituting and adhering to a risid permit-ro-work system. Ensure thsr bi the space is secure against i-gress of injurious substznces. C) Freeing the atmosphere of'gas and removirig sludge zndlor ether sources of gas (a tank is not cansic3ered gas free if any siudge remains). d) Testing for the presezce of toxic gases and/or oxygen Geficiency e) Instructing or training personnel in the safe conduct of the operation. 9 Provide adequate safety eqilipment. g) Organising emergency rescue t-amsffirst aid.
I f it is found-necessary to er.ter a confined space with breathing apparatus two supplies of air are required. On no account should a person stationed at the entrance attempt t o enter the space before additional-aid arrives, no attempt to enter must be made without breathing apparatus. The testing of the space should be carried out at different levels, and . . . h r t h e r tests to be carried out while space is occupied. Breathing apparatus must be worn, if any doubt exists about the possibility of vapour. ~ i f e l i n e sand safety harnesses should be worn. The lifeline must be capable of being easily detached by-the wearer, in c a s e o f entanglemefit. 4 c y . attempt to rescue a person from a n enclosed space should be based on a prearranged plan. Survival, after loss o f air supply, is time dependent and restoring the victim's oxygen supply is the first priority. Unless the person is gravely injured, e.g. broken back, any physical injury he has sustained is of secondary importance - the victinl must be brought out wirh the least delay. Restoration of the casualty's air supply at the earliest must always he the first priority. All ship-board personnel are already qualified to render first-aid, after attending suitable courses ashore. so detailed descriptiow'h ::'e not been provided here.




Explain in detail h o w a n Oxygen Analyzer w o r k s a n d h o w the m e t e r is zeroed.

Oxygen Analyzer Various types of meters may be used for measuring the oxygen content. A contir,uozs reading type is one in which platinum wire elements are m o ~ n t e din two chambers, one the rneasuling chamber and the other, the reference chamber. Oxygen is paramagetic, i.e. ii is attracted to magnetic fields. Thus one Elamen1 has a magnetic field, while the referewe filament bas no field, an: attracts only the air. The circuit forms parT o f a Wheatstone's Bridge. The filtered and dried gas is drawn across the elements and &e difference in thermal conductivity o f the O,, reiacive to air, causes -.temperature diff~rerice the wires. in This changes the wire resistance, and unbalances the Wheatstone's bridge circuit, generating a resultant current, which is proportional to the percentage o i oxygen in the s m p i e . F a k e readings arc likely if tne gas sarn;.,le contains anorher paramagnetic gas such as NO,.

Zero position check : 'Zero' position setting can be done by using a pre-calibrated sample, and then setting the span of the instrument. Test with 100 % Nitrozen. [ COZ may be used in emergency.] Open control valve for 3 minutes, to obtain zero reading. Now test with atmospheric air to obtain 20.8 % reading for which spa11 control can be adjusted if necessary.



t'sed where ihel o r other combusfihle materid pmdur'cs~rnriou$ ~ r n d r ~ e l s combvslion much b t b r t the appearance OF smokc or of

A rediaactivz sm~rec.such as radium, ionizes Lhc armasphm i n lmtk open and closed cchrnbtrs. llnder norma! condilions. the circuil is elec~ricallyb.~lancrd W h n cornbi~slim products enlet thr: cpca chamber. 15c ion Raw is T t t a ~ d t d and thc e 1 c ~ t ~ : s l resistarrce i s inzrerscd. lhus cr,alin: i~:!salancc, whirl1 t r i g ~ e r s i a u l o m i r Tcsrinp, i 5 r a r r t d out 5y inject in^ a pre-Elid hydro carlmn gas Inlo thc d c i c c ~ w hcnd, hy mranJ;ni a s+cidl spray czn provided.


Advanced Morine Enginering Knowledge

Vol. I l l

7 .

.~~ . -

P h o t o Electric I S m o k e Detector type. These are used where smoke is produced much before any flame is visible e.g. insulation fires.
Light source


Phnto ilectric 4 l

When there is no smoke in the head, the photo electric ccll csnnc: dzteci the flash tube signal. The zddition o f smoke causes light to fall on to the P. E. cell, which triggers the alarm. Testing is carried out by actually passing s ~ o k einio the dckctor hcact.




lnfra-red I Fiame sensor type Used where flames could occur in hot spaczs, wnere heat de., "ctors would not work, such as in the machinery space cylinder head platfarm. The head is designedto sense radiation waves of 25 Sertz, which corresponds to that of naked names. A time delay mechanism reduces false alarms due to Iight reflecting offrotating machinay or similar cause.
1NiRA E D ( F U M E ) D n E C I . O R

. . . ...

Testing i s carried out by a naked flame at 5 m distance.

galleys.ivorking of the detector head. machinery spaces. the local irtdicator. - Detection of faults in cables a n d detector heads Detector heads must be checked on a regular basis and the cables lo them rwsr be checked.ictiva!ed.g.C. according to their posiiion in the spaces be!ng protected. However. 'i'estiog of F i r e detectors : A n efficient fire detection system is required. so direct line of sight). in any zone. The emergency b.is open. G r o u ~ sof detectors are 2rranted in . Small indicator lamps are usually fitted to detector heads to show which head has operated. RATE OF R I j E TYPE HEATDETECTOR Tested by using a heat source. . during testing. (This is for cargo ships . circuits. 4.the requirements for passenger ships are different). C n e is insulated to the atmosphere and the other . A sudden increase i n temperature would cause the open strip to bend quicker tkan t~e'insuiatedone. in rhe 'alarm' state. Most systems operate on 24V D. in the 'no alarm' siate. and are thus arranged..!itery must be capable o f operating the sysrem for 6 hrs. and !& hr. whether high level o i ambient heat is expected (e. as well a s the lamp on the main alarm panel. T w o methods are used : B I:: . The choice o f which type to use depends on the type of fire expecied. so as to detect an outbreak of fire. T h e an'ccted zone will be indicated on the alarm panel. because a fire could damage the cables before the detectors have reacted. gradual ambient temperature increase would cause both strips to move equally and n3t trip <he alarm. by the method appropriate to the type o f detector head. w ~ t h an unattended machinery soace. . Two bi-metallic strips are placed in parallel to form an electrical circuit. as quickly a s possible.g. Enginc room) and whether flame can be easity detected (open spaces. when a vesscl is operaled . When tke detector is . will indicate the . H e a t sensor / r a t e of r:'se sensor These are u s e 6 where iherc may b e high ambienttemperatures e. m d trigger the alarm circuit.

ii) Fire fighting and suppression techniques. 4. (=) (bf International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (I.the alarm sounds. bales and so on. State where information can be obtained with regard to the safe earriagz of hazardous substances as cargo. Nitric Acid.e a level eqtial to the resistance shown plus the cable resistance.g. .6.D. Continuity is checked by monitoring the resistance at the . F o r the hazardous cargo of y o u r choice. iii) Medical effeets and treatment after physical contact. . A general search for any particular cargo is :-e.iiJ o f the line.. discuss the following: i) Storage. Ans. a system fault alarm is acluated. If the resistance of the line measurqd across (a) and (b) is less than the and end resistance . (a) (b) .M. transport and H a z a r d o u s properties. If the resistance across (a) and jb) increases ab0x.a) Loop monitormg b) Line termination monitoring Both systems rely on detectors being open circuit under normal condition^ L o o p Monitoring The alarms are activated by closure of rhe contacts i n the heads through (a) and (b) while continuity is checked rhrough (a) and (d) and (b) to (c) i b ) A V s t I I b Alaz-m panel Detector head i Checking Lines The alarms operate when contacts acioss (a) and (h) close. code) gives (he requirements for carriage of dangerous s c a d s in small packages.G.

explosive.M.e. being . This unbalances the bridge arid causes a resultant current to flow through the meter. The lnternatioual Chzrnber o f Skipping's Tanker Safety G1iiFI. JS po~wcretlb y small batteries. Code lists. False readinss \\'ill hi: obtained if the sample gas contains a very lo. locate NITRIC ACID. due to the catalytic acticn of the filament. ~ I I ~ O I and.N. Q.) or a s parts per million (p!m). identifies rhe substance on a United Nations list and is tinique :o that substance avoidin? confusions due to different languages. Con8bustibk Gas Detector Thc principle of operation is that a samp!e mixture is drawn into the rn-ler b y an aspirator bulb. ?'hc meter is usually marked to read the gas concentration a s a pci-cci~la$eof the Lower Explosive Limit (L.:he substance. The Explosimeier will not detect the presence o f Hydrogen gas. 1 1 ) In the Emergency Schedule.D.L.M. when actually the mixture is i n 'loo rich' a condition. However. which is proporlionat lo ihc tlcaiins cffcct. The meler indica!cs up to the L. where someone irray have been in cantact wiih . code..F.I .Category D. i. thus an unsafe condilion. its propcrties a n d t h e inherent hazards. for analysis) . It also lists its packaging group (e. The U..G.G. No. Tables) gives guidance into recognizing symptoms and their treatment. b Ans.7 Wiiln r e g a r d to carriage of c r u d e Oil a n d associated p r o d u c t s a) Sketch a n d describe a n EipIosimeter suizabie f o r testing P u m p rooms o r Tanks. I. emergency equipment.G.E. since the sample coming into contact with the hob filament will b u m .imple. Calibration procedures you would fofl$w f o r s u c h meters. any deflection of the needle (above zero)-is a potentially h ~ . ~. oxygen conrent.e (Chemicals) gives recommendations for all the above c ~ i t e r i a . procedures and emergency acti?ns arc reconlmendcd in case o f spillage and/or fire.L. Category D gives details of stowage limitations (on deck cnly). Even 'too lean' concentrations are capable of being ignilcd and thlis de:ec!ed. and could thus read zero. it is compact and portable. when the subsiance is zarried in bulk. .i) In I.D. and thus thc co:iccntration of cxplosivc gnscs prcscnt i n the s. (To check for this possibility. small packages) and stowage requirements . This sample is ignited by the catalytic action o f a heaicd filament. The b u r n i ~ g sample heats up only this section of the Wheatstone's bridv: and thus increzses its electrical resistance.A.g. SO as to get a leaner sample. iii) The Medical First Aid Guide (M.F. purge the sarrlple with air.

but the type most conlmonly found on ships is the resiskance type Explosimeter shown below :- Calibration procedure T c s ~ s e s include p .There are many types o f instrumenr.L. as long as the sampling line is kept pinched (i.5% methane) F!ow control Adaptor Test gas Test ki:s for shipboard use are available for-this purpose. penlane (0.E. fnstr~iments used must have flash-back arrestors in the inlet and otrtlcr o f ti-: Detector filament chamber. methane (2. 50% L. such a s 50 % LFL Butane i n air.L. indicating that there is no air ingress).the bulb must not expand. Leak testins may be achieved by pinching the sample line and squeezing the Aspirator bulb . a partial vacuum is maintained. which provide a mixture of a hydrocarbon gas in air. .e.75% pertane) 50% L.E. so as to reduce the fire hazard.

~ r o i o n ~ operation with sd such a gas mixture causes the depositicn o f c a r b o n x e o u s matter gn the sensor ~. the instrument does not give a reliable reading with a deficiency o f oxygen in the gas sample.L. ~ . and the operator needs to be alert to this.- If the concentration o f gzs is about twice the LFL. Lbr a precalibrated sample of 3 % methane. fit the adaptor and connect the tubing. which affect the filament temperature. if necessary?. i s that the needle initially deflects to rhe maximum scale reading. such a s what exists in inertpcd cargo tanks.e. Attach flow controller. a meter reading of 68 % to 92 % of the L. i. Continuous observation is thus required to detect and identify this condition. filament. a reading should be laken when there is no flow. between hvo successrve squeezes ofthe aspirator bulb. For the same reason.. Opcn the con:rol valvc for 15 seconds. To prevent any inaccuracy due to flow rate. In the figure shown. which will affect the response o f the instrument. This meter cannot.F. and then falls back to zero. to such a concentration.~ . The meter should indicate between 37% and 55% defection (adjust span control. therefore. would help to check the accuracy o f the instrument. The response o f the instrument. Factors that can influence the measurement are : large changes in the ambient temperature hcavy or large flow rates. be used for inerted tanks. there is insufficient Oxygen i n the mixture to burn the hydrocarbon gas complettly.

Two sets of relief valves are fitted to the pressure vessel. There are two means of indicating tank level :Remote electrical display of contents (capacitance bridge) a.8 (a) (b) Sketch a n d describe a Bulk Carbon dioxide system. . in a single container at -17' C. A stand by indicator.. Level is determined by frosting on the outside of the pipe (or by level detector). Set A lifts at 24. One is a l w q s in use. This can be filled with C02 to the vessel level. to atmosphere. the tanks are sufficiently well insulated. in case of fire in this space. Sketch and describe a Bulk Dry Powder Installation a s used on LPG & LNG carriers. Two refrigeration systems are fitted. Advanced Morinr Engineering KnmvI~dge VoL JII . whjle the other one is on stand-by. before any danger of "boil off' occurs. to maintain this temperature for a minimum of 24 hours. Bulk Carbon dioxide systeni Carbon dioxide is stored in b d k . for keeping it cool. external un-insulated b. a n d state specifically where such extinguishing media c a n be efiectivelv used. consisting of a vertical. ~ ~ Ans. Set B lifts at 27 bar to the C02 room.5 bzr. Q.- . In the cvznt of loss of power. pipe. Each set has an isolating cock to enable one valve only of the set to be opened up for surveyfrepair. by opening one valve.

the powder gives some sniuliicrlng effect. (I) activates the rr-in nitrogen release operating cylinder. Alarms are fitted for 5% loss of contents and for over-fill o f vessel above 98%. set at 35 bar. I Hose box on deck .. using 8 spanner provided at each valve. in a saving in weight and space. eiitingcishes ti fire rapidly f'he action is simiiar to Flalon. nitrogen flows to tilad$-ypowder compartment. A third relief valve C . closes the E. discharged as a free flowing cloud. If more C 0 2 is needed this valve can be re-3pened by there-release button. this allows for re-release.. R. Pipe system is o f solid drawn galvanized steel pipe (as in the bottle system pipe work). and result. Unlike the boitie system.The remote operated valves in the system can all be operated manually.. protects the system pipe lincs. distributionvalve. Also. Storage vessel is specially fabricated from sophisticated steel. suitable for low temperature operation. Pipe blown through with compressed air periodically. System has lower filling costs than the bottle system. St5 n ysr Bulk Dry Powder installstion When the operating valve in the hose box is opened. Bulk Dry Pqwder Installation (for LPG I LNG Ca~riers) J3r-y pcwder. (2) . which : opens the appropriate direction valve. The system is emptied and internally inspected every ten years. When the required amount o f COZ has been discharged. z signal f r o 2 the electrical contents system.

the stand by system can be operated. ..160 'c.No visible cold vapour cloud then no risk of vapour ignition. w l d vapour forms at lower deck level forming visible condensation cloud which is in the explosive range. The in the container remains fairly constant. until it is nearly empty. When the pressure is about 16 bar. Tla'sh point . I Spillage / Stop source o f leak and contain spillage if possible Sound the alarm Avoid ghysical contact & protect steel deck. protective clothing reqxired.188 "C Auto fgnition 650 'C Density :Immediatelv on va~ourisation = : !. Can cause 'Brittle' fracture of steel work. steady rate due to thermal insulation of the already vapourised layer Hazards Causes 'Frost' burns on physical contact.~ Main constit~~entMethane > 90% is . Nitrogen pressurz from this system holds a valve in the main system closed.Nitrogen flows into the dry powder container via a pressure regulating valve. . . Speed up vapourisation by use a h e water spray or 'Fog' (reduces risk of -fire & o f brittle fracture). Less yiscous & !ig5ter rhan water (Relatiue density i s 0.9 Briefly describe the Physical characteristics of Liquid Nzturat G a s (LNG).4 x air ' At .bok.104 OC = Air At 1 5 ' ~ = 0 5 5 x air ~~ Flammable Two ohase va-oourisation I" .5). Generallv :. Q. . .htgh rate for about 30 secs znd lower. If more dry powder is required. What precautions and action will you take in case of an LNG fire? Liquefied Natilral Gas (LNG) Physical Characteristics: 'This is a clear odour less liquid. the main discharge valve opens and powder flows to the hose. preventing powder enterin3 the main container. wood c!adding & stainless steel drip trays give some protection. stored at . .

Flame propagation is law Position down wind with resulting in a 'lazy the powder jzt slig!$ly flame' depressed. It may not be possible to deal with the fire with the available powder due to the contained radiated heat. NOTE : .188 O C .Use dry Powder with the carbons but there is :ittle maximum rate of smoke. burning paint work etc Large Fires (Conflagration) Co~isider possibility of allowing the fire to burn itself out taking account the of %he risk of the fire spreading and greater damage being caused. with a fine water spray or 'fog' Flame size & heat release TzckIe Fire is similar t o other hydro. even with its low flash point of . . syecp back & forth over the e d r e area ACTION Isolate sourceof !eak Sound Alarm. that ReIgnition could not be contained.. as this would serve to aggravate the fire by rncreased vapourisation Watch for Re-Ignition fiom hot surfaces. water e n t e r i ~ g the pool of liquid LEG. Enclosed sbaces :... application. Protect Personnel & adjacent equipment etc. Extinguishing the fire night run powder reserves so low. Ensure adequate personnel u e a available to tackle fire with a minimum of d c l q Avoid Jet impact o ~ t liquid o pool as this would aggravate the fire -Avoid 'Run Off. . .LNG Fires Requires a HOT spark o r flame to ignite the cold Vapour Rapid vapourisation prevents ignition o f the liquid itself.Use smothering system COz for engine room and Nitrogen for void spaces & vent pipes.

4 . to th? cargo tanks. Qperariotlai Condition The system shall satisfy all the following conditions : 1. Under norrna! running conditions. T h e system shall be capable of supplying -insert gas at a rate o f at least 125% of the maximum rated capacity of the cargo pwnps. 2 . the system shall be such a s to ensure that the volume o f gas (!25% of pump rated capaciiy) i s available. 3..(2.e incapable o f propagating a name. 6 .10 Briefly discuss t h e S t a t u t o r y R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n I n e r t Gas System. 8. i. a positive pressure shall be capable o f bein2 maintained. as we]! a s with inert ?as shall be provided. 7 h e system shall b e designed so as 10 rninirnise the risk of ignition from {he generation of static electricity.. 12. whcii :acks are being filled or have been fillzd with inert gas.. an effective water lock shall be installed.The oxygen content in the ineri gas supply shall not normally exceed 5% by volumc. A scrubber shall be provided which will effectively cool the g a s and remove solids and sulphur combustiun products. except when preparing a rank for enlry by personnel. During cargo disrharge.ed in a n inert atmospheie. 10. . 7 he washing o i tanks shall be capable of h e m g carried out in a inert atmdsphcre.~1 least two fans (blowers) shall be provided which together shall be capable of delivering at least the emount o f gas stipulated (125%).. S u i t a b k means lor purging tanks with fresh air. the development o f excessive pressure or vaculln1. Empty tanks shall be capable o f being maintair. so deficient in oxygen that the armasphere within a tank may b e rendered inert.in addition. a s prescribed for ventilating outlets o f t a n k s ~ 9.apours from the tanks to the machinery spaces and uptakes and prevent . Branch piping tblinert gas shall be fitted with stop valves or equivalent means o f control at every tank. DISCUSSh e i m p o r t a n c e of a n y a l a r m s necessary. 7. At other time sufficient gas to ensure compliance o f this regulation shall be available. 5: . t inert Gas System Requirements (STATUTORY) The Inert gas system shall be capable of providing on demand.Means shall be provided to present the return of hydrocarbon gasses or \. ]. Exhaust gas outlets for purging shall be suitably located in t h e o p e n air a r d shall b e to the same general requirementc. 1 4 . 11. The need For frxs'n air to enter a tank during hormai operations shall be eliminated. a gas or a mixture of gases.

the pressure and oxygen content of the gas in the supply main on the discharge side o f the fan. Fuel is burned in the exhaust.---- ~- Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Vol. . The eXhsust f'rorn the turbine (which always uses a very large amount o f excrss air) is Icd to a combined scrubbcrlafterburner arrangement. The final exhaust is then scrubbed a r ~ d to thc inert gas main. L6.' -p i I 3 q - 0 iiri auromatic shutdown of the system shal! be an-anged at predetermirxd [ f ) above. at all time when inert gas is being supplied. 17. High gas pressure in inert gas main. 50 .. to reduce the oxygen content. It i s designed I . . Alarms shall be provided to indicate :a) b) c) d) e) Hieh oxygen content in the inert gas main. High i-tmperzture 3fgas in the ineit gas main. When used in this way tile incrz 9 s rvould replace the Carbon Dioxide bottle sysrem. (e). ro "stand alone". jmirs in respect of (d). L o w water pressure to the scrubber. lnstrumentation shall be fitted for continuously indicating and permanently recording. Means for indicating the Temperature acd pressure i r ~ the inert gas main shall bz provided. 18.pressure in the water supply to the deck water seal.Such instrumentation shall be easily accessible to the officer in charge o f cargo operations. - Q. Portnb!e instruments suitable for nneasuring oxygen and hydrocarbon gas and the necessary tank f i t t i ~ g sshall be provided for monitoring tank contents. i t can not be used as a bulk fire extinguishing system for the engine room due to the slow speed at which the gas is generated (Note! For engine rooms the incrt xss has to have an 80% discharge in two minutes). J I I I S . T h e one shoivn incorporates a gas turbine which generates electrical puwer. led This arrangerrrent show above could also be used a s an emergency generator and bulk tire extingsishing system (for cargo holds). The ship shall be provided with an inert gas system manual covering operational. ~I'hetre are many variations o f this type of inert gas system. L O W. Low gas pressure in the inert gas main. safety and occupa:ional health requirements relevant to !he system.11 Explain the principle o f Autonomous I n z r t G a s Generator Autonornous Inert Gas Generator :-Snls system does not draw the gas from a boiler uptake.

. including such items as buoyant oars. fishing lines. 2.12 Discuss Life Saving Appliances as required for Class VI1 ships. boat hook. smoke signals. With a simple sketch esplairi the working of 1.3 m long and must carry sufficient equipment and provisions to ensure a high degree of survival. fi-?:-aid equipment. Centrifugal Brake Ans. Lifeboats In an emergency it may be necessary to disembark from one side and hence life boat accommodation must be provided on each side of the ship for all the ship's personnel.In other autonomous systems the gas may be generated without using a gas turbine. Q. The life-saving eqxipment required on board a ship is governed by its classificuion. compass. lampjs). H a n d Brake . The boats must be at least 7. . suitable rations and fresh water. distress rockets. hatchets. The fol!owing notes refer to the requirements for Class VII ships. The two ciasses which cover the majority of ocean-going vessels are Class I and Class VII.

There are three baGc rypes of davit : a) radia! . . In ~ i tankers having midship accommodation there is a risk that in the ! event of fire. . . radia! d z v i s :ire acceptable but seldom used on mo3ern vessels.e. .Allvanced Marine Engineering Knowledge i.. launch the high side lifeboats. . i.. for ferrying the abandoned vessel. . b) luffing c) graviry For sma!! working boats not rsyuircd to act as lifeboats. . It is usua11~ crcw ashore and transporting light stores. One of the lifeboats must he fitted with a compression ignition engine and carry sufficient fuel for 24 hours continuous running at 6 knots.25 :cnne in & cargo ships. Davits . Gravity davits are fitted on most modern ships and have the advanl?oz thet when released move automatic. the two sections o f accommodation may be separated and hcnce ii is necessary t3 provide two lifeboatsamidships and . two aft. . ~ ~ Gravity .. 52 . Luffing davits maybc uscd for boats under 2. ~. or explosion.bL IN .. One function of the motor lifeboat is to two the remaining boats clear of the uscZ as a working boat. ~.. . . The davits must be capable of Lowering the boats when the ship is heeled to 15" on either side. . .al!y into position. .. . . They have advantage of having few mechanical parts but are awkward to handle. ~-. . . Should the heel exceed 15" It may be impossible to ~ . .

self-igniting lights are fitted ta at least half of the number provided. For w e near the ship one lifebuoy is carried on each side and provided with 1 5 fathoms of buoyant line. A separa:e centrifugal brake is fitted to restrict the speed o f descent to 56 mlmin. Lifejackets Each crew member must be provided with a lifejacket which may be m-2c from buoyant material such as kapok or (except in tankers) may be inflatable. oil and variations in temperature and climatic conditions which are likely to be encountered on open sea -voyages. . These lights must be of the electric type on tankers. The wire which allow the boat to be lowered arc termed "falls" and are controlled by a small winch. The lifejackets are capable of being worn inside-on! and are .A \\-ire rope span is fitted to the stop o f the davits and knotted llfeljnes i d Ci-om i h e span into t h e boat. while the power supplied to the winch must be sufficient to raise the boat at 1S mlmin. minimum. allowing embarkation to the lbwered boat from the boat deck. . At least two o f the lifebuoys should have self-activating smoke signais for daylight recognition a d must he carried on the bridge. . In order to enable personnel to be more easily sighted a? night. The boats are lowered by raising a weighted lever known as a "dead man's handle" which releases a brake in the winch. ready for quick release. The lifebuoys may be of cork or any other suitable buoyant material which can withstand the effects o f sea water. Hand operated Brake -Lowering I Brake shoe To engage brake $ I Cent-ifugal Brake Lifebuoys At least eight life-buoys must be carried on all but the smallest ships to assist crew members who have fallen overboard.

The liferafts are extremely seaworthy. be constructed o f non cornbus~ibii: niaterial and to have a n insulation value such that the average tcnipcraturi: of the unexposed side will not rise more than 139 "C above the .designed to turn the wearer to a safe floating position within 5 seconds so that an unconscious person w m l d float safely.13 1 Wjth reference to t h c >hip's strvctural fire protecticn. They must have a rigid s:ructi. the container bursting open and the life-raft floating clear. Lifejackets must have lights and whistles attached. discuss : Classification of D i v i s i o x viz. Ans. are usually of the inflatable type stored in cylindrical fibre-glass conraiiirrs. suitably stiifeaed snd constructed so as to prevent the passage of smoke and 11ame up to the cnd of the 60 ininures standard fire test. A Class Ihese are divisions formed by bulkheads a-3 decks which are constrtucted of steel or other. *-Class. Fittcd with grab lines and painter. and. T h e y must be insulated with non-combustible material such that the average temperature of the unexposed side will not rise more than 139"' C abovi. decks. the original temperature nor will the temperature at any one point rise m o w ti~anI X O " C above the original temperature within the following times : . able to iloat [stable) either way up and not depend upon inflation fot. ceilings or linings which arc cor~structed as to prevent the passage of flame to the end of the so fitst SO rniriutes of the standard fire test. ~~. They must. Class A Cliiss A CLass A Class A - 60 30 15 0 60 minutes 30 minutes 15 minutes 0 minutes B Class Thcsz are divisions formed by bulkheads. The iiferafl:. equivalent materials. &Class. Liferafts Liferafts are provided on most ships and are required to have ssfficirnt capacity to carry 50% of the total number s f persans on board. provide excellent protection frcm exposure.m. Q. Infiaiion cakes place automaticaliy when the life-raft is launched overboard. Must withsrand drop test. C-Class ) What special czre is takert for passenger ships b) cf H o w openiogs are protected. buoyancy. Buoyant Apparatus This is required on sorce passenger vessels. being fully enclosed.

The hull. . fire de~ection and fire alarm system may he fitted i n these spaces and in addition a fixed fire detection and . sanitary spaces etc. The hull. the mean length of which must not in general exceed 40 m.15 Class B . the bulkheads forming zone boundaries should if possible.original temperature nor will the temperature at any one point rise more than 225" C above the original temperature within the following times. facings.! C procedure. Within limits. grounds. in ail accommodation and service spaces and also where necessary. be vertically in line with the watertighr sub-division bulkheads situated immediately below the bulkhead deck. veneers and decorations may be of combustible materials but most exposed surfaces in accommodation and service spaces must have low flame spread characteristics. the requirements are slightly less stringent. For ships carrying nGr more thzn 36 passengers.. mouldings. Alternatively an automatic sprinkler.'. superstructures and deck houses must be divided into main vertical zones. Except in spaces having a very l o w fire r i s k . a l l linings. ~ An incombustible material is one which neither b v m s nor gives fcr off nammable vapours in sufEciect q u s n t ~ t y self ignition when heated to approximately 750 O according to an esrablished re. The boundary balkheads ar. control stations except spaces where there is little fire risk such a s void spaces.d decks of zones mxst be of A class standard with fire integrity standards ranging from A-60 to A-O a s laid down in the Rules depending upon rhe fire risk o f the spaces invoived.. Structuraf Fire Protection ?assengzr Ships These notes are based on the requirements for passenger ships carrying n~orc khan 35 passcngcrs.. A fixed fire detection and fire alarm system must be fitted through-out each separate zone whether vertical or horizontal. ceilings and insulations must be of non combustible materials. icnging from A-60 to C Class. . qxis:ructures. decks and deck houses must be of steel or other equivalent material. Class B . srructura! bulkheads.0 15 minutes 0 minutes C Class These are divisions zoristructed o f i n c o m b ~ s t i b i ematerials but need nor meet any of thc requirements of the stzndard fire test in relation :o passage of smoke or flame or temperature rise. bulkheads and decks within vertical zones may have fire integrity standards --. Similariy. Any steps and recesses must be kept to a minimum. NOTE: ~ .

? .... as.sitilated. .and . ~ . . .. .: . stairway encl&res ... ~.enclosed.steel constructioc unless an equivalent material i s specifically approved.\oipbe opened or closed by one person from each side of the bulkhead. that a . -.. g2Fire doors in main vertical zone bulkheads . . . ~ . . : . All stairways must b e of. .. Doors must be constructed of steel o i other' equivalent material.. . I .~ Protection of Openings . . ~.. : . . . >. fire alarm system fitted to provide smoke detection in corridors. . . . Doors and f r b & in A-class divisions must beconstnicted t 3 provide resistance to fire 3s well as smoke and flaine a s f a r . . and from spaces in which the crew is normally employed. . .5 degrees.. .. . Each d o o r must be able. :. .~~~.~. The tire integrity standards of divisions of spaces fitted with a sprinkler system may be reduced.. . . at The release mechanism must be designrd so that the door will automatically close in the event of disruption of the control system.ldvuncedMarine Engineering Knowledge Y! S I o. .~ . . Protection o f stairways and Efts in Aeco. ~.mmodatioo spa& Stairway and ladders must be provided to provide means of escape to the lifeboat and life-raft embarkation deck fromall pas&%@r and crew spaces . .. " ~ . . Unless lying wholly within a space they are to be within~enclosuresformedby A Class divisions with positive means of closure at all openings except that a stairway connecting o n l y t w o decks need not . must be capable of release from a control station either simultaneously or in groups and also indi~iduatly the door..< .~. . bulkhead or door is fitted at oile level. : .of smoke or flame from one between deck to another and must be povided with means of closing so as to perniit the control of draught and smoke. ~. must be of the self-closing type capable of closing against an incliniti6nof 3. . . equivalent to that of the bulkheads in which t h e d o o r s are. All such doors except those that are normaliy'closed. . .~. .~. accommcdation spaces.~ -. Hold back hooks nor sxbject to control station release arenot permitted. Lift trunks have the same fire integrity standards as stairway enclosures. ... . .. . . I be fitted. -4 Class Divisions . ... is practicable ~.. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ -4 3 P 1 4 B Class D i v i s i ~ n s Doors and door frames must have a resistance to fire a s far as practicable equivalent to rhe division in which they are fitted except that ventilation openings of limited area aiid fitted with a grill made of non . .~ ... Doors are to be of non combustible combustible material L material. ... . be.. .. . stairways and escape routes withir. . . . ~ .. provided . They must be fitted so as to prevent the passage .-..

rnachiiwl-). whilst ducts of cross sectional area not exceeding 0.02 m2 need not be o f non combustible material subject to limirarions o!i their length 2nd position. The following are some o f the reqcirements to illustrate the principals involved. in conjunctionwith sleeves and. draught stops.-ithin ~ c c o m n ~ o d a t i o n service spaces : and (a) Method I C All bulkheads. One of the followin_r methods clf protzctim must he adopted 1.02 m' passing through A or B class divisions rrlust be fitted with an insulated steel sleeve unless the duct is of steel in x a y o f thc div~zion.All linings. . must be of non combustible B or C Class standard. . ceilings and their associa~cd r o u n d s ~ilust be oi. Dry Cargo ships The hull. cxcrpt houndary hulklicads p r c \ i w s i y incntioned. superstructure. The dampers must operate automatically but nmst be iapabl? of being closcd nianuhlly from b x h sides o f the division. using suitable materials.\ lixcd lire drtcctio!l and lire xlilrm sysrun n ~ u s tbc installed anJ ~:r:mged to pl-ovidr smoke deieclion and manually oprratsd call poinix i n all corridors. structural bulkheads decks and deck houses most be construcred o f steel.. ducts of smaller area need not be o f steel but must bc of non combustible material.. Ducts with a crosz sectional area exceeding 0.nailsombustihlc material. Ducts h a v k g a sectional arra o f not less than 0.. conlrol srations. stairways and escape routes within a c c t > ~ i ~ x l ~ . dampers where ducts. corridurs.Ventilation T r u n k i n g Precautions must be taken to maintain the tire integrity of bulkheads and decks through which trunking passes and to reduce the likelihood o f smoke and hot gases passin2 from one space to another. .c> spaces r a n y front 11-50 to C Class dependins upon the tire risk involi-eii. .075 m' must be constructed of steel or equivalent.spaces and c:ir. Ducts with a cross sectional area exceeding 0. The fire integrity standard of boundary bulkheads and dccks separating adjacent spaces within the ship such i~~ acconi~tiodation.075 m' must be firt-d with fire dampers where they pars through A class divisions. > d : ~ t i ~ > ~ ~ 5pcL-s. . This achieved by . pass through divisions. . The damper must be provided with an openclosed indicator.

nc restriction on the type o f internal bulkheads except that in no case musi !he area of any accommodation spacc bounded .vice spaces acd control stations must have low flame-spread characteiistics.0 Class divisions and self closing doors. Leas! s t orre Level by ji 'least B . A fixed fire detection and fire alarm system must be inscatled and arranged to delect the presence of fire in all accommodation spaces and servicc spaces except where there is no substantial fire risk sdch a s void spaces and sanirary spaces.iOs which penetrate m l y a single deck must be surrounded by A . acconimodation spacrrs inay be fitted forward of such spaces. a s far a s practicable. Ail exposed surfaces in corridors and stairway enclosures and surfaces <i!icluding grounds) in concea!ed or inaccessible spaces in accommodation and scc. draught stops and their associated grounds are to b e of non-combustible material. combustible veneers o f limited thickness may be applied to ti~~r\. is the same as for method I11 C.0 Class divisions a n d be protected by seif closing doors at all levels. 1. galleys and other service spaces.~ Method 111 C Generally. cargo pump rooms and cofferdams which isolate cargo or slop tanks from i~iaziriricryspaces of category A.0 Class divisions with steel doors at both ends. Stairways which penetrate only a single deck are to be protectzd at . (c) ~ . slop tauks. be equivalent to t h a t of lhs division in which they are fitted.and control stations.%y arl K Class or B Class division exceed 50 m2 alrhough this area may be increased for public spaces. stairway enclostxes and control statidns. The arrangemects for ceilings pic. if necessary. a fixed fire deiection and alarm system must be fitted in a similar manner to Method 1C. linings. Oil. Vi:tlii!ation ducts must i n general be o f non-combustible material. The fire resistance o f doors must.combus:ible bulkheads in accommodationand services also corridors. ~. in aadition. except spaces where there is no substantial fire risk such as. . An automatic sprinkler fire detection and alarm system must be fiti<ed to protcct accommodation spaces. void spaces: sanitary spaces etc. although. 'l'artkcrs Accommodation space must bc positioned aft o f all cargo tanks. Stairways and lift trunks which penctrale inore than a single deck must be surrounded by at least A .. in ail cases. They must b:: fitted with dampers and s!eeves in way o f divisions in a similar niaiwr:r to passenger ships. the ceilings.

.contro1 stations. However. sanpling or other equipment should be introduced into the tank for 50 minutes afttr the cessation of the injection of inert gas. This shouid be established by monitoring the efflux gas From the tank being inerted. air inlets and openings must not face the cargo area and their distance from the iront o n the sides o f superstructure must be ai.r ~ t yslandard of boundary bulkheads separating adlacen: q . . spaces within the accommodation range from A-60 to C &ss in a similar manncr ro dry cargo ships. sampiing or other equipment should be inserted until it has bpen established that the tank is inert.Esierior boundaries of superstruclures and deck houses enclosing accommodation and s e r v i c e spaces must be insulated to A-60 s:andard on all surfaces facing the carso tanks and for 3 n~ aft of the front boundary. :in be introduced provided all metallic components are securely earthed. Q. . discuss procedures you w o n l d - initiate to ensure s a f e operations in T a n k i r s . ullaging. no dipping. Entrances. ullaging. The navigating bridge is also exempt so long 3s rapid gas and vapour. the same precautions should be taken as when re-inerting after breakdown and repair of the inert gas system. no dippins. After 30 minutes.ll A s Chief Eneineer of a vessel. there s h o u l d b e a delay o f 3 0 minutes following the cessation of inert g a s injection before inser!ion o f the sampling system. be During the initial inerring of the non-gas free tank. d&ng discharge and air enters the If [he inert gas plant breaks d o w ~ tank. w h e n i t is known the efflux gas is truly representative o f the gas condition in the tank. tightening o f doors and windows can bc o b t a i x d Tk.e fire i n t e. The protection wi<hm accommodation and service spaces must be in accordance with Method IC as requited for dry cargo ships.leasr L160 b u t not less than i m althollgh t h i s ~ n z e dnot a p p l y to c a r g o control statidns a:so provisior~and store room5 having no a c c e s s ~ t oacconmoZation spaces.. The recpirernents :elating to combustible veneers. low flame spread paints. sprvice s p a c i s and. . Metallic components of rhe sampiin: sy&m i h o i ~ l d securely earthed. equipmen. i f i t is necessaryto introduce 3 gas sampling system into rhe tank for this purpase. lifts and ventiletion trunking are similar 10 dry cargo ships. pratection of s r i r w a y s . During the re-ineriing following a breakdown o f the inert gas sysrem.

h i t circle diameter : 1 . sketch the coupling f a n d s t a t e t h e materials . Inner.5 mm with eight washers. the connection should be accessible from either side of the vessel and be plainly marked.~ couplings. or to inteiconnect t w o ship's Fire I ~ n e s for the purpose o f fighting the fire. (2) .~s t Wha I n t e r n a t i o n a l s h o r e coupiing The purpose of the International shore cocnection is. to be zbie no connect the shore water supply to the ship's Fire line. Outside diameter : 178 mm. Holes 4 holes of 19 mm diameter equidistantly place slotted to the Zange periphery. Flange thickness 14. is a n Internntionaf s h o r e coupling ? Briefly describe its purpose.2 mm. .diameter 64 mm. bolts a n d nuts.: Gasket any suited to I N per mm servlce When fixed on the vessel.d. . which is required to be c i w i r d in the ship and has the~following specification . Flange surface flat face Four 16 mm bolts. The earthing o f the introduced metallic conducting equipment a s recommended above should he maintained until 5 hours have elapsed from the cessation o f the inert gas injection.. 50 mm in len th p. (1) ' TIIF: International shore connection is shown. use a n d components t h a t go with it. YQ.

. or 3 -. . . there will be a tendency for high pressure liquid to flow back to . turns due to the i:lput poker tc the shafifrom a prime mover. . and changes direction as it flows into the impeller. we can say That Volute is responsible for the 'conversion or' kinetic energy to head'. r i b) The. .. not only will there be a drop in pressure. . :. itself.. besides creating other problems like excessive vibration. . . ~ . while running. due to increased 'play' between the shaft and the wear rings. -:ljetweenthe impeller and the wear rings. The 'volute' casing is bisically a duct having a smoo?hIy incrraing cross-sectional arca. such as the clearance . Thus.connectionto a central priming system. . centrifugal pumps are r. b) Volute is responsible for 'conversion of kinetic energy to head' Pumps are not se:f priming. . ~ ~. in order to ensure that the pumps do not lose suction. With reference to Centrifugal pumps. a) Fiuid enters the eye of. the low pressure side. such as an electric mctoi. . [~ - . and need some externa-assistance.1 F-l . Boilers. . -41~0. Thus. .~ . through any large clearances. state Ans. if sealing is not proper. The fluid is given kinetic energy by the rapidly spinning impeiier. . boitcrlwater treatment ~ ~ . Consequently. while the wear rings provide a stationary sealing arrangement.e... juptify & discuss the following :a) Impeiler can 'convert shaft input to fluid kinetic energy'. Deck machinery . ~ . from kinetic to potential (or pressure head) rakes place between the suction side and the discharge side. Q. . we can say that the Impeller caii 'convert shaft work input to fluid kinetic . as the liquid ieaving (he volute casing has decreased in kinetic energy (or velocity). but also a drop in esciency. is usually of gun-metal. the materials used. L F- d) The conversion of energy.fluid exiting the iinpeller has a high kinetic enerzy when it enters the volute casing.. -.. presence of air) will carise the pump to 'lose suction': Thus..abm-ce of liquid ji. Heat exchangers. c) d) Clearances behveen impeller and ear rings are critical. . If the clearance should be excessive. The impel!er. either in the foim of shaft drivm priming p m p s . energy'. P u m p s and pumping systems.' ~~~ . drinking water systems ~. so that it exits the impeller at a high velocity.the impellei. . . the impeller of aluminium bronze. . while increasing its potential energy (or presscre head). The impeller rotates. the shaft of stainless steei so as to prevent corrosion. -c) Since the suction effect or 'lift' of the pump depends on flow of liquid though the-pump. . ..ot 'self priming'. .: Auxiliary Machinery ~~. Materials : The cayin.

'here is a rotitling 'cing' of water. which shuts when the s p i o i r l is primed. there is alternate increasing and n &x<i:nsing vnlwne at the sudion and discharge ports.Q. since it carries out air extraction for ail the cet!!tifiugd puraps in the Engine room. preventing system water getting into the pri'rning pump. to allow the drive to be disconnected. with a simple sketch. due ! the eccentric shape. h cnntrot valve may be fitted. the working of a %quid ring' priming ptimp. . This tank is tkiii~er conilected to variocs centrifugal pumps in the engine room. i . s k a central priming unit. 'i'i~critser~ioiris filled with fresh water to reduce corrosion and a h coolirlfi coil may be fitted which is circulated by t e main pump discharge. Due to the action of centrihgal force. to remove water &om the priming pump casing and hewx iduce sh& load. which must follow the shape o f the casing. XIUS.2 in case of rs pumping system : a) Explain. Alternatively. when the syskrn is hdly primed.~. Liqtiid ring priming pump ad- Ziquid ring pump iri~pellzr concenmc with the drive shaFt and the impeller is fitted is into an 'eccennric'pump casing. This creates a pumping action. whkh is used for air extraction from a central priming tank.. when the main system tank is fully pritrtcrl. 'I'hc air suctign is via a float operated valve. b3 Briefly describe e Central Priming System and state its advantages. as showk. a clutch may be fined on the drive shafi.A. and has of . which is opened.. Ans.

the n connection betwsen the vacumn tank i: the pump suction is shut off. that can take place through t h e e main paths r(i) At the meshing point of the teeth. (iii) Less maintenance. and is consideied to be more economical and effkient. b) k z: 2~ . c b! . if both pumps (i) fail.. Small pipe linei may be easily broken or blocked. due to a rise in the. The system usually h ? two priming pumps. . To ensure maximum displacement (output per revolution) tooth depth is increased to the maximum practicable and the number of teeth reduced to the some high-throughout pumps have only eight or nine teeth. (ii) Between the tips and the cylinder walls. which is float operated. as only one priming pump is running Dis~dvantages No priming avzilable to ali centrifugal pumps in Engine room. since only one priming pcmp is doing the J o b for all ceniiifugal pumps. .wzler Icvel). ( i i ) Saving in poww.5 bar (absolute) and a cut-out pressure of 0.C e n t r a l p r i m i n g system This is a central system for air handling. to Since one central !a&. than to have individual shaft-driven priming pumps for each centiifugal pump. Compared with individual priming units. there are certain advantages. briefly comment on the followiog : Tooth depth is to be increased to the m~xiznum possible. when the float rises.3 With reference to Gear pumps. Advantages (of the centld priming system) ji) Lower first cost (sharing of priming arrangement between a I x g e number sf pun7ps).^. Typical clearances.3 bar(abso1ute). 63 . a) b) Leakage in gear pumps. . . I k: z l a) $ + 5 & E ! minimum'^. thus rendering the priming effective. c) d) Materials of construction. thus preventing the pump from drawing water (from the systza). There are two main operating problems with these pumps. (Rarely occurs. is c o ~ e c t e d many pumps in the Engine room. (iii) Failure of the float valve WGUMallow water to flood the central priming system. . one of which is leakage. (iii)Betwecn the sides of the gears and the wear plates. there (ii) are iong lengths of pipe1ines-fhn the vacuum tank to the individual pumps. (2. When the air is exhausted (i.e. The vacuum tank has a valve. This pump is usually of the liquid-ring type and operates automatically between a cut-in pressure of 0. for a group of centrifugal pumps. Ans. o n e in use and the other ~ stand-by. a s well as disadvantages. if proper routing maintenance is done).

sanitary are acceptable..... Gears .1. Additionally there is a further load on the bearings...4 mrq m Typical materials (For gear type pumps) Casings and end covers .. briefly discuss : Rules for vessels (relating to zbove)... .& 0.. that a gear pump is not hydrostaticaliy baiasced. must be taken by the bearings... Vliik! reference to Bilge pumping systems.cast iron. especially to unusual form o f compartments and the piping system design should not allow flooding imrier (Lamage conditions. c) Typical Clearances & 190 mm For a distance between wheel centre lines of 60 Clearance on diameter . One such pump should be of the remote controlled submersible type o.e power pumps and controls should be so placed. up to ihe dead cenhx or mesh point..... Ei:Ticient drainage should be provided..... all reasonable damage conditions. for vcssels over 90 m in lxigti! :... The trilbalance'd forces..13 m & 0. Ruies relating to Bilge pumping systems..13 1. provided they are of sufficient capacity and are conn. 2. 3. ..yncii pump should.... -0.... as &ey come into nxsh =d the space behveen them decreases. V e s s e l shall have at least four independently powered pumps connected to the main bilge line... also en::ine driven pumps......4 h) r) ii) e) Ans. bronze or gunmetal.. to p x n p o u i watw and to drain any adjacent damaged watertight compartments (inclxling between decks) under all reasonable damage conditions.scted to the main line. under. due to the progressively increasing pressure imposed on the fluid trapped in the teeth......... What could be reasons for 'ine~fective'Biigepumping ? What are Mud boxes and ?'here are they fitted ? What is The importaace o i an ' ~ p p ~ o v e d Bilge alarm system'? How is the iso!ation of Fuel acd Ballas: systzms done? A f~iplng system and pumping plant should he provided...Hardened Steel or Stainless Steel. that at least one pump is always available.. due to this.. t1. d) ....... as there are distinct suction and discharge pressure zones.m.. 0.. Ba!last.\ ! Q.The other operating problem is. be located in a separate watertight como.. stzel. .... where possible.5 mm Axial Clearance...~rti~~enc. .

Problems relating lo Bilge pumping systems (a) Air in System :Perforated pipe Perforated jointing. mud boxes. Ail valves. Damaged or badly made joints at valves. Air drawn in. All pumps which are essential for bilge services are to be of the selfpriming type. Eirect suctions on other suitable pumps o f equivalent capacity is accepted. are to be as straight a s possible. easily acces. The bilge piping sysrem is ro be separate f r o n cargo and oil fuel systems.itle. all machinery space pipes to have self-closing cocks. especially at the pump gland. Lack of fluid in suction well. unless an approved central priming system is p r o m . . . 5 6. bilge injection. Air drawn in at valve glands. Cooling water pumps having bilge ejection connections need not be of self priming type. the holes through ~which should be approximately 10 mm diameter and their combined area not Less !>an twice the area of the suction pipe. Spindles to all master valves. Bilge valves should be of the ndn-return type. Also. Ends of suction pipes should be enclosed in pasily removable strum boxes. where provided. Each pump should have a direct suction to the space in which i t is situated. Main engine circulsting pumps shall have a direct suction (with non return valves). normally provided with closing plugs. such suction to be at least the same bore as the bilge main.3/ -< d .shou!d be led above the engine rcom pfz-tform. draining the lowest level in the mzchinery space.L/ . extended spindles. Sounding pipes. to be clearly marked and accessible at all times. Bilge pipes are to be provided with Mud boxes. such suctions should be arrrnged a n each side. . Not more than two such suctiocs arc required and in the machinery space. such ~ suction pipe bcing at least 2 1 3 ~of the diameter of the main sea inlet. should be separate from the main bilge system.4. Emergency bilge pumping systems.~~ Ethesepumps. where provided.

damage to parts or insufficient speed. Too fine a strainer w ~ u l dresult in frequent chockage and loss of suction. - Loss of efficiency due to increased clearances.i pipe to the p u z p and causing danage to ihe pump impeller. In ships above 2000 gross tons two independenr systcms of level detection are provided. The ~ u box has a 'zoarse' strainer. waste or rags. Tt~z a!arm system is to operate audible and visib!e signals at the Engic~econtrol room. the Engine control room (ECR) slation. . l'hc system gives warning that fluid level in the engine room bilgi::. Mud boxes are fitred to prcvent dcbriz (which collects ip the bilges) from passizg along the suc!io. the alarms mtrst opera?e on the Navigation bridge. (e) Pump defect .(b) Loss of suction (c) No discharge (low or zero suction pressure) (d) High discharge pressure. to prevent liquid from overflowing from the bilge pits. Automatic starting of bilge pumps may be acceptable provided the following conditions are met :- . so that it will d remove only larger particles. M u d boxes Each bilge suction pipe terminates in a 'mud-box'. When the vessel i s under BrIdge control. where it is intciitied that the engine and/or boi!er rooms will not be continiicus!y manned at sea. from enietirig the pump. the station from which the machinery is controlled.air in the system above. in ali pub:ic spaces and in the Duty Engineer I Chief Engineer O f f i c d s accommodation. has reached a pre-determined level. . 'iigb Bilge level Alarm system l n case of Unmanned Machinery Spaces (UMS).as - 3ischarge valve shut. onto the tank top. This level is to be sn?iicir:ntly low.foreign material in mud boxes. Thus. pistorx and valves. i. which is basically a device to remove large particles. an approved 'bilge high level' alarm systrm is tc be provided to give timely warning of flooding. .e. and which shotild be in direct communication with the Navigation bridge. or too many suction valves cpen.suction valvz shut or choked.

Q. or even a hole in the ship's side. which considerably reduces the salt water corrosion problem. bu: i-mtead. along with the ballast water. and modem vessels have seg-gated ballast tanks. ti~us a v i ~ g h separate $pz-lines and pumps. coolers. .Advonceif Mnrim Enginecring Knowledge Yo/I / / 1 . which is inherent in marin? systems. 2. which wi!l prevent any such inter-connection. valves and filters. In case of heavy leakage of liquids. which are sea water cooled. Since sea wa:er is limited to a small section of pipes and coolers. Ans. special materials may be used to limit corrosio~ problem there at a comparatively reduced cost. Isolaticn of Fuel and Ballast systems It is imperative that the Fuel oil system and the Ballast system are not only isolatd from each other. Central cooling system The Central cooling system uses a 'closed circuit' of fiesh 'chemical!y treated' water for !he coolant side of dl the primary hcat exchangers. (as compared to the cost of doing this in a conventional system). To take of the problem of pollution of the sea. which are only used for sea water. Explain the salient features of a Central cooling system and discuss its advantages and disadvantages over a conventional cooling system. The 3 i l / Water Ballast Chest has blanks fitted. who will then take necessary action. This fresh water is itself cooled by Ceniml coolers. Thus the few salt water pipes may be protected by rubber-lining. the automatic bilse pump is rot dircctiy ccmected over-board. zs well as appreciably reduces maintenance costs and down-time d m to difficuities posed by repair / replacement of corroded pipes of conventionr?lsea water cooling systems. the heavy ingress into the bilges may detected. having no inter-connecticn. since it cannot cope up with the heavy ingress of liquid. The salt water is thus limited to one set of pumps.5 - . and nms for too long a time.vi:b thz cargo system. scch as from a burst water main or any fuel I lube oil pipe. that error in zpe~ating valves will not permit the fuei fromfuel tanks to be accidentally discharged over-board.g tank. causing contaminztien of servicz fuel tanks with di:strous consequences &d a possible s k t down of main and asxiliaq engines. a bilge pump '!ong run' alarm is activated. which will alert the Duty watch-keeper. Also there must be no oppcflunity for inadveflent transfer of salt w a ~ e r into the foe1 sysiem.. If the bilge pump starts auto~natically. which could seriously jeopardize tbt safety of the vessel. and the cooler plates made of special corrosion resistant metals like Titanium. wiil pump the contaminated bilge water into the Bilge ho1dir. but segregated in such a way.

Fresh 'rreateci' water for the circuit is circulated by its own Central coding pumps.. In steam ships. as the actual S. the sea water is discharged directly overboard. which means that it can either pass through the Cooler or is bypassed. 'Low iemperatu~e'fresh water. the main condenser is having an independent sea water circuil. scavenge coolers. After passing through the Central coolers.W.Ccnlnl C. system is small.water coolers. Tbe S. W pumps take suction 'om both sides of the Engine room. lube oil coolers and so on. W. to cool the Iiicker . through sea chests (High and low) and filters.. . used by the central cooling system. while the central cooling system provides the coolant for all the other coolers in the Engine room. with temperature control by means of a three way valve awangernent. Centrnl Cooling System Due to the differing temperature require men:^ of the main systems there would be various cooling water circuits :Sall wa:er for <he Centrat cooiers.lvlaterials for i his part of the system c a l be of high quality. 'Nigh lernper&e' fresh water (Jacket xater cooling system).

Advantages (1) Less corrosion and hence less maintenance. as would be the casewith sea water. b) Limited applications of Axial flow purnps. 0. (3) Plant is more complex and vulnerable to problems. whose temperature varies with the geographical location of the vessel. They can be single stage (ore impeller) or multi-stage (with two or 'more impellers. which reduces the thermal efficiency and thus increases the operating costs. purnps. c) ~ h a . valves and associated piping. such as break-do-rn of ihe Central cooling circuit. in series. . or have connections to a Central priming system. which is also undesirabk -- Centrifugal pumps are not self-priming. ( 3 ) Constant tzmperatur: of ioo!ant to various systems. When the suction head is low. Both these. discuss : a) Working principle of Cen:riftig-1 puings. ( 2 ) Greater initial first cost. Disadvantages (1) Two separate heat exchmger systems means a greater overall temperature difference. or chockage. tkey are fitred with external priming arrangemtmis. The pump's characteristic is decided at the design stage. whea the energy exchange from shaft work to fluid kinetic energy is fixed by pump speed and impeller diameter. due to leaking tubes. This gives a better and easier control and thus impoves the operating conditions fcr the running machinery. silting or marine growth on cooling surfaces.6 a) - With reference to pumping systems. with increased reliability as systems are not subjected to unscheduled maintznance. a c t e r i f t i e s of a S c r e w purnpz. such as shaft driven priming pumps. since no change in the coolant tempera:urz. Centrifugal purups : These purnps are used for the maximum applications on board ship. or when the fluid temperature is near its saturation value. Ans. I t is n3t good practice to have too large a head per stage. on a single shaft) end singie entry (from one side only) or double entry (which givesbetter balance). as the design cost would add to tile ccst cf extra cquipmsnt for the Cmtral ccolers. which would hanper operation of all other services. factors result in high fluid velocities. This would require either unnecessarily high speed or excessively large impeller diameters. these pumps can suffer from severe erosion resulting from cavitation. When used on duties that requires a suction lift. (2)Reduced initial cost of equipment ( as compared to using the same naterials for a conventional system) as the quantity of items having sea water is less.

. which together with the low v. which is important. Fluid entry into the casing is also easier with this type. Hence they are economical if operated at a rate c!ose to the optimum design range. hence they are prone to cavitation. In this respect they arc useful as.P. as a means of level coiCrol. The vayes c w be backward curving.Advorrced Marine Engineering Knowledge Vd. there is no problem with rc-cqiarrsion. when considering rhe number of pumps in a corifined space like the engine room. of induced fluid velocities. Screw punps S c r w pumps have a good low speed efficiency. which would reduce volumetric efficiency. requiring low heads. which is the rmst common. They is no ~upswcptvolume in their operation hence. These plumps have a vety limited suction capacity. b) Axial flow pumps Axial flow pumps tiave the disadvantage that they develop a very low O hex1 G m) per stage. s m i @ or forward curving. although the double entry impeiizr has a reduced N.b . They are small and compact.H. resulting in less friction loss in the suction head.S.l ii. Erosion c m also result from operating away from designed speeds (shock). Also. or with some duties.I They aperate with very tow noise levels. Eithlr siilgle or double entry impellers can used. e. All of tiiese factors considerably limit their appiication. The ikrmt may also hzve to cope with any hydraulic unbalance at the impeller. the Hzad-Flow characteristic shows a region of instability at low flow rates and low flow operation is Gangerons. but they are made of very special materials. The choice is determined by the d ~ t y Forward ciurving vmes give a power curve that goes !bough a maximum. They are used for high volxne flow rates. then reduces wi:h incl-eased throughput: The backward cuwifig vane has a power requirement increasing with thoughput. required. They have a characteristic e~eiciency cun. Serious vibrztion occurs in litis u:atable region and operztion in this range is not recommended. ! There is a variety of vertical arrangements.e that is very steep. . P4ivery is free from p i s :A t'Lon. fiom the ef'fict of debris entrained with the fluid. In a of them there is a need -?or a thrust m g e m s n t to support the mass of the rotating elements. c) . make them ideal for handling viscous fluids. Circi~latingduties.l'iri:y will also p m p in either direction. I11 Nnle : Some pumps are designed to mn with cavitation. than the equivdent single entry type.g. so can be used for heeling and trirn:ning applications. a s they offer very finle resistance to flow. P~mps casinzs are often = r a s e d with the Prime mover (usually an electric motor) niounred vertically above. in a scoop system they cat! be left idling when not required. giving a small compact arrangement xnd covering very little floor space. . or Nett positive suction head. This is offset by their ability to give this small head increase ro a very large mass flow of fluid.

made of carSon. which w 9 u l ~ reduce the friction. and car. Some amoun: of cargo is usually lei7 behind.and packed to prevent gas transit along the conduit As liquid cargoes are near the Boiling point. With reference to centrifugal pumps : a) Sketch Typicai Discharge eharactcristics. The low temperature of the cargo is utilised for keeping the bearings cool. This needs to be reduced by : Cables being of special metal insulation. be driven by a prime mover. the pump is comected to a long shafi. that can p d o r m a! ihc very low cargo temperatures. to avoid possibility of leaks contaminating the cargo. e. e. with no possibility of air ingress. This means that hydraulic inems cannot be uuiised for the prime mover. If the flow of car20 is insufficient. (i) (ii) External junction boxes being exp!osion proof . which senres to keep the l a d cool. Overheating of pump shaft bearings is avoided. the pumps will probably be (iii) fitted with Inducers. both in loaded and discharged condition. There are suitable bearings. which is made of a suitable material which is not affected by the cargo. stainless steel. (i) Why are submerged hydraulically-driven pumps not used for b) liquefied gas cargo? (ii) How is overheating of pump shaft hearing avoided? State how risk of fire azd explosion in cargo tanks is obviated. Since the cargo is under pressure. sinc? the oil would be below its pour point. Am. .g.Alluoneerl Marine Engirze~rirtg Knowledge Vol. as the liquefird gas cargo passing over the bearing cools it. Thus the fire hazard is minimised. at the deck level.Bs there is some difficulty in obtaining a hydraulic fluid. this could lead to over-heating of &e hearings.7 a) With reference to carriage and pumping of liquefied cargo : a) Explain a saitable pumping system. which could possibly spoil the cargo. ) The risk of fire and explosion is always present. I/I Q.Als6 the use of hydraulic submerged pumps requires motor p$es io be triple cased. Pumping system (liquefied gas cargo) Liquefied gas cargo is usually at very low tempea:urss. both C) in loaded and discharged condition. by The long shaft emerges from the cargo tank. showing variation of throughput as diseharge head and speeds are altered. thus the shaft is usually located within the discharge pipe itself.g. b) (i) (ii) Pumps are usual!y electric and not hydraulic. which are ~rotected thermal cut-outs. and there is no need of using inert gas. there is a mix of liquid and gas. Instead. There are also thermal cut-outs to prevent the bearing from damage. such as b flame proof electric motor iocated on the outside.

if required. A means of air extraction.hen piimp is morc than 2 meters above this lightest draught. It will also be noticed that the efficiency curve for the pump is convex. it can be seen that the minimum power occurs when there is rro ilovi and when the discharge head is at its highest . - .b) . Statc the releyaoce of dischwge characteristic. with a throw of 12. From a mathematical consideration of lhe action of a centrifuga! pump it can be shown that the :heoretical relatioxhip between head. Th-u+put. .. wit! minimum th~oughoutoccuming w ~ e n the head is muimum. there will be some head loss. and depend on the WQ curves or. I'hc cinirgency fire pumps is to be positioned. so that it will be able to operate at the iightest draught to be encountered (also allowing for fall in pump perfomance). to suction. . together with ffiction ‘asses due to fluid contact with the pilmp casing and inlet and impact losses.in other words. Ans. Q is a straight line. Duz to shock and eddy losses caused by impeller blade thickness md orher mecha$ca! considerations. ligure.is Iimit~d 4 5 m) the pump&& system should provide 2 jets of water.c) Explain why this characteristic is desirable. result in zhe H/Q curve shown in the . This loss n i increasing slightly with th~oughout. H and throughput. From the Figure. for priming purposes. the curve can be steep to give a relatively large shut-off head. Q 'Chese losses. Since throughput decreases E -the discharge head is increased. for selection of an emergency fire pump. when lilt: discharge valve is closed. must be provided.. The final shape of this c w e wili vary accordiig to the design of che pwn:). unless the pump i s of the positive displacement type (even wi& positive displacement pumps. which means that maximum efficiency occurs at a point~somewhere between and rrlaxirr~um minimum discharge head and throughput conditions. there is no P-ecessity to fit a relief v d v e to centrifugal pumps. through 1215 mdiameter nozzles.5 m.

Q. 10 provide lubrication of the universa! joint (knuckle) in the plate. Note : Both Radial and Axial piston pumps al-e Gnly suitzble for fluids rha! have Lubricatiag properties. The usual arrangement. How is Braking carried out ? Discuss the importance of Override controls. n e pistons are hollow to reduce inertia. The arrangement of the cylinders and pistons with their axes parallel to the shaft makes for a very compact design w?& small outside dimensions. is to have either a rotating swash plate and a stationary cylinder block. The latter is the mosr commor?. Ans. The small radius of the rotating parts allows higher rot~tionalspeeds than the equiva!ent radial piston pump. in the "Swash Plate" pump. A typical example has the piston rod with a small ho!e :bough.9 Briefly describe the working of a Smash Plate pump. Many models have pressure limitin5 amngements to reduce erTecrive piston stroke if peak pressures are attained. . a Crane circuit using a variable-stroke pump. Explain with .I block diagram. or a rotating cylinder b!ock and a stationary swash p!ate. being more adaptable to aive an accurate i o n u d of thz flow.

. 'sle~w'anglr. A!! t i ) Tensioning Mooring Winch :Moor-ir~g winches provide the facility for tensioning upto 15 times of the fiill load. openkg the salenoid. . i n a coiiventional Mooring winch. . the winch cannot 'pay out' more when .. luffing and slewing operations. . Should the rope become . . unless brake is off or unless it is manually operated. Once i t is reached. circuits. ' System presslire will 3epend on the position of the "Swash Plate" and the size oL ii~e load. a hydmulic cylinder being used to rotate it. . m . The'completesy$em has three such .: Whi:rl the Winch has an 'auto tension' arrangement.motor arrangemerit. .power is off. one each for the hoisting. Override controls :These are needed to prevent damage or operation in unsafe areas e.iomally. there are features adrliriorral lo the manual controls.g. . load is held by the motor brake or by a barrel bmki:. I. defaulting to the 'On' position. rill: brake is spring loaded...~ C r a n e circuit Thc block. which allow the wire rope to be 'paid off so as t o restorc !he rope to a pre-determined 'tension'. The signal to operate the brake comes fri>rc~ a micro-switch on the 'Swash Plate' control lever. .~ ." i h e rzquirernent is to hold a !oad securely end allow a smooth changeow from the static position to mcvemect and still be 'fail-erc'. diagram illustrates the use of a variable stroke pump and a fixed smke hydrdulic. ~. . maximum and minimum 'luff'' angle and 'sf&ck r ~ p e protection. .

the pump may be stopped. E. however.g. Ans.oxide films. fluid press sensing. the winch would haul in the rope. Pressurising the tank and stripping from the bottom of the tank well. the box being connected to the strippi~lg line. Q. Using a s:ripping box in the tank. if the cargo pump were to be stopped. There is usuaily an empty space or cofferdam provided between the :lydraulic lines to the prime mover. which is used to pressurise the tank. which norn~ally I. . To take care of this. After this has been done. in such a way that it fills with up with the liqvid (cargo) and thus tlie cargo is displaced up the stripping line. This system is simple and does pot rely oil rotating machines.such c. However the non-return valves can give rruuble if ?he cargo can crjstallise. Thir. Submerxib. a caiehl set&g cf tank relief valves is required. by a. and the contents of the cargo tank. without any danger of leak of cargo back into the suction side. are broken down by the unnecessarily high water velocity.g. The hydraulic rnotar 1s driven by hydraulic pressure produced by hydraulic pumps located elsewhere. The discharge line. e. Load sensing devices arc used with auto mooring winches.e or deep-well~pmpsare used driven by a prime move:. The suction of the pump is normally towards the tank bottom.11.. a i d purging is carried out. would remain full of cargo and couId leak back into the tank. This process is very s!ow and requires a large quantity of Nitrogen (or inen gas). This is to reduce the possibility 2f any mixing of the t w z The cofferdam is also ?ressurised before stopping the pump to check for any leakage. means of a smail diameter pipe. There are three systems approved under MARPOL. zs a hydraulic motor. to aid in the easy removal of cargo. Identify with reasons. directly into the deck manifold. Now purging connections are opened.li&g inside the outlet line is blown out through a riser tube. the centrifugal cargo pump is left running and the deck discharge valve is shut. Also. minimise corrosion.10 What are the various systems for Cargo Stripping systems. approved under MARPOL ? Ans. box is alternately put under vacuum and pressure. b. so that the cargo rcrnai. after the deck discharge valve. by means of inert gas or compressed air. to reach this pre-deternlined value of tension again.slack'. Q. factors which contribute to : a) Failure of multi-tubular heat exchangers b) High water velocity in the tubes of heat exchangers. c) Steep temperature gradient across tube walls. which is located izside the tank. Back flaw is prevented by non-return valves. Problem Areas in Heat Exchangers Impingement : Near mlet ends of tubes .

inability to hold . if the sea-water flow is upwards. Bacteria give off sulphurated hydrogen. Location oFa perforation is a streightforwai2 matter in the case of a tubular heat exchanger.. ~ . although substantial leaks may become evident thro:igh iapid loss of lubricating oi!. wit11 ifpossikble. Erosion :.d pressuriszd with air. can creare con-osion problems. further aggravating the situation. u . . the only way to locate leaks is by visual inspection of n tire $ale surfaces. after which the heat exchanger should be left drained. l'o. - Corrosion Corrosion by :=a-water may occasionally cause perforation of heat transfir surfaces. since the dye glows with a vivid green li. Mdstage. Having drained the heat exchanger oisea-water snd removed . 5. When an ultra-violet light is shone on to the tt. V e r ~ t i r and Draining l~ I t is importantthat. single-pass heat exchangers o f the shell-and-tube or plate types. since this attacks . which snacks rdbe material. 0 Th tesi i'or leaks i n air coolers or drains coolers. thus thetubes will continue to corrode n t i . . rube in turn can be plugged at one end x.of foreigi matter.abrasive solids and high water velocitits can cause erosive . The tube is under continuous attack causing thinning ' a i d cventual perforation. some flow of the liqaid on the other side of the surface will be apparent. any seepage is seen. k t vi:rtically-mounted. it is usual to add a special fluorescent dye to tile shell side of the cooler. until the ship re-enters service. c q out the following: each . . can cause local increase in water velocity and twbulence. if the metal under the deposit~becomzsanodic. 4. 'fliis will cause ieakqe of one fluid iiito the other but this is not always easy to iktect i f ihe leakage is small. from m y tabes which zre perforated. 2. Partial blockage. whether this is of the shell-and-tube type or of other tubular constriic!ion. jacket vieter an< so on.-prewge indicates a leak. . to tke rest of the surface m d electrolytic ection accurs. the coolant should run full. Anaerobic bacteria :. such as for dry-dock. rirhrs dry enough to witness any seepage. Acidic water can cause general wastage of the tubes. in the case of clil and water coolers. .-. venting will be automatic.ghi.~besand tube plates. ~ . 3. clean and flush ti~rw~gii fresh water.he covers or headers to exposethe tube ends. * L plate heat exchangers. refitting or lay-up: i! is advisahie to drain the sea-water side of heat exchangers. . i h e protective oxide film.In polluted waters. in which it is difficult to get the .aid rllc detection of leaks in a large cooler. in any heat exchanger. 0 On docking for any protracted period. on the metal surface.' The tubes are under continuous attack. Deposits :.

Tube bores are cleaned by-brushing out.(Oil coolers) Rising oil temperature causes scale formation and deposits on the insides of tubes. . a vent cock fined at the highest point in the heat exchanger should be opened. Tube failure is a rare occurrence nowadays: it may occur froin corrosioil/stress cracking or de-zincification of brass tubes. b) There should be a certain minimum velocity of coolant. or by corrosion/erosion arising from entrained air in or excessive speed of. i With other arrangements.A Iemporxy solution is to seal-off the leaking lubes (with plugs). ai all times. o Cil loss inro coolant :. 31ushes are needed to clean or solvents can be circulatedto remove this. Hoxvever. When it occurs the defective kib: may be fitted with a wooden plug or a capped ferrule until i t can be renewed conveniently.This is also the case with heat exchangers mounted in the horizontal condition. c ) The tubes are passed through alternate baffles that suppoa the tubes and also dil-ect the fluid flow. This is especially important if the location of the heat exchanger is such. by ase of compressed air. Regulation of coolant flow is usually done at the outlet valve and not the inlct valve. The trichloroethylene vaporises. M a j w cooling defects :. the efficiency of the Heat exchanger i\ii)l be. with single or mclti-pass tube errangements. deposits or other insu!ating material forms a film which contributes towards a .drastically affected. when first introducing seawater into the heat exchanger and thereafter periodically to ensure full running. provided that the sea-water inlet tranch faces downwards and the omlet branch upwards. r The simplcst method of degreasing the steam side of tubes is as f o l l o ~ s A : vessel containing tri-chloro-ethylene is secured to a bottsin manhole and is wax-med eently. . when sea water is used as the coolant.pei-forated tube can cause appreciable leakage . condenses and falls into the vessel. circulating water. which may accelerate corrosion. bringing with it the grease and oil from them. hence Wbt: renewal is Pecessary. that i t is above the water line. Any scale. and of do-zinciiication of aluminium brass rubes where fit!ed. Replace tubes as soon as possible -This may require the ariliing-out of tube ends and fitting of new olies by suirable expansion tcols. o i s:eei.!oss cf tubes. when the remainder of the system is drained. the water will drain substantially completely out of the heat exchanger. This agent is tcxic if inhaled and precautions must be taken. thus the fomation of air pockets. 77 E . A drain plug a1 the lowest point should be provided. With these arrangements. Cooler designs usually cater for IG%. rises among the rubes. Altenatively impressed current cathodic protection may be used. so that there is no -siltage and the heat exchanger is always runningfull of sea water. . zinc or ~ n i l dsteel sacrificial anodes are fitted to the tube plates. so that all the iubc surfaces are swept clean. afrer a certain number of tubes are blsnked. 3 - -g g Maintenance To preyent gross wastage due to galvanic a c t i ~ n the cast iron.

Unprotected iron in water boxes and in parts of the pipe system.of tubular heat exchaagers. the steep te~nperature gradicnr leads to stresses. while itself corroding.These are of aluminiam-brass (76% Copper. 7i'iihe-Plntes. iron sections have been inszl-tecl ill pipe systems and iron has been introduced into the sea water.DOXCS Cast iron or fabricated steel. After final assembly. T u b e P ~ o t e e t i o n: Thtxe is n protective film of iron ions. Tubes . by corl-osion of iron in the system. Thus. always designed to keep riii-bi. formed along the rube length. The nurnber of tribes always has a fouling allowance. or cupro-nickel or even stainless steel may be used. Q. A m Sheil and tube :ype heat excknnger : >\NODE SHELL AND TUBE TYPE HEAT EXCHANGER Wlslerials : Shell .llow easy wididrawal. The latter treatment consists of dosing the sea water !o a :.higher reniperature gradient across the tube wall.generally of cas! iron or fabricated steel. so that the water boxes can be removed. per day for a few weeks and snbsequenr':port for a short period. giving reasom for your choice. the supply of iron ions is from other sources. Wtliei. dosin:: again before enrering and after l e a v i n ~ .or^ sacriticiai anodes have been fitted in water boxes. The tubes are often ex!~anded in to the tube plate but can be soldered.tIetice and coated for corrosion protecricn. soft ii. without disturbin: r k rube stack. in the !ititit of fi:r~oussulphate. Usually assembled. brazed or welded. 22% Zinc and 2% A!urniniumj. the tube stack is machined to Et in the shell bore (the shel! is also machined) to a. which contribute towards eventual tube failure. docs assist in prolonging tube life. Explain methods used for tube protection in heat exchangers.ti-ei12th of 1 ppin for an hour. Thus. Naval brass tube plates are use6 with alnminiuni-brass tubes. In non-ferrous systems.12 Sketch a longitudinai cross section of a tubular heat exchangerindicating diieriions of flow Briefly describe what rnsterisls you wonid use in the consrruction.The tube piate material should suit the tube material and the method of fixing.

is facilitated by the lype of cooler described. Give reasons. a form of corrosion in which the iror. the sea water should enter a1 the bottom aild leave at the top. . whether the following statements relating to Plate type Heat exchangers. a) Scantlings of carrying bars and clamping bolts are designed to b) accommodate enlargement of pack. Synthetic :ubber 'O' rings fgr the s!iding tzbe plate p-rmi~ free expansion The practice of removing the tube stack and replacing it afier rotation radially thro~gh180 degrees. Fcr alu~niniu~n-brass. suffers from graphitization. to impingemen! dunage. Titanium and stainless steel are used to reduced plate failure. Wl~err Manufacturers recommend 1nat coolers be arranged vertically. Clearance is required at the cooler fixed end for removal-of the mbe stack. Air in the cooler system will encourage corrosion and air locks will reduce the cooling area and cause overheating. The tube stacks are made up to have one fixed tube plate at one en2 and the tube plate at the ~ t h e end. with jointing material. It may be of cast iron or fabricated from steel. Plate corrugation patterns are designed to create turbulence. which is free to move when the tubes expand or contract. which would otherwise insulale the various parts of the systern). distilled <. Vent cocks shonld be fitted for purging air and cocks or a plug are required st the bottom. are true o r false. become ~utlets. czre must be taken with the water velociry thro~gh trbes.to allow for poor flow con?roI . A more than minimum flow is vital to produce moderate tur5ulei~ce which is essential to the beat exchange process and to rzduce silting and settiemen1 in the tubes.it is equally bad practice to save sea-water speeds of less than 1 d s . d) T ~ a p e r a t u r c and pressure of fluids handled a r e con~pletely unrestricted.5 m/s. To avoid the impin~einentattack.Electrical contiruity in the sea-water circuiating pipe-work is imponant where sacrificial anodes are installed. Metal connectors are fitted across flanges and Cooler sections (where there are rubber joints and '0' rings. the Although il is advisable to design to a lower velocity thm this . Premature tube failure can be the result of pollution in coastal waters or extreme turbulence due to excessive sea-water flow rates. horizonral insrailation is necessary. upper limit is about 2. is removed and only the soft black graphite remains. for draining. The shell is in contact with the liquid being cooled which may be oil. Unprotected cast iron in contact with sea water. r The fixed end :ube plare is sardwiched between the she!! and water box.I. State c) the other materials used. This may which are prone prolong cooler life by reversing the flow so that-tube entran~es. fresh water with corrosion inhibiting chemicals. Cooler end covers and water boxes are commonly of cast iron or fabricated from mild steel.

created by 'troughs' pressed into.110°C False Plate heat exchanger cannot deal with e&essively high pressures or temperaiures. to accommodate different requirements. This process makes possible the use of low-grade heat (such as that from the main engine jacket water) in the process. .Stainless steel Frame Coated Mild stecl. 80 . Skate the correct answer. This type of flow produces a very low fouling rate. . into harmful constituents.15 5x Temperature : 90 . Brine concentration should not be allowed to exceed :- . be able to take care of the maximum number of plates which could be used. Thgs.oineering Kno>:I~dge VoL 1 1 1 - Ans.. The plate form can produce turbulent flow with Reynolds number as low as Ten. (and also expmsive) and thus reduce the rate of plate failures.. . . b) Loss in czpacity and economy. due to limitations of plate gasket matelia: Also. they cannot deal with large vohme flows associated with law pressure vapours and gases. the scantlings should. Ans. ~ d) .Advunced Marine En. the brine concentration should be prevented . a) . hkteriais used in Plate type heat exchangers : Plates Titanium . 3 4 i n a Fresh water generator. loink Nitile nlbber Working pressure : 8 -.<. ~ True To reduce scale formation in evaporators and to prevent the breakup of the dissolvedsolids. h . from falling below a particular value. . C) Corrosion in evaporator. a) b) True Corrugations. the plates. cj . with a sufficient nargin of safety. produce sufficiently high turbulence. ar?d this can be increased or decreased within limits. to minimise one o r a eombination of the foliowing :a) Seale formation on tube nests. True The capacity of a heat exchanger is determined by the number of plates. True Titaniun and stainless steel are extremely resistant to corrosion. supporting with adequatejustification. it is essential to operate evaporators at sub-atmospheric pressures.

Ans. are held together against an end plate by clamping bolts.Removai by periodic acid clean. as well as by a suitable coating on the shell. c) False. To maintain these valves.m. Thus. from the production pointof-view. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of Plate type heat exchangers to Shell and tube type. since suscien: capacity is only maintained by having a ninimum feel-rate (dictated by the size of the orifice ir. By w n t i n u o u injection of chemicals into Brine feed e.5 x 1132 1. which are supported beneath and located at the top by parallel met8. Thus.1. m y scale formed would be mainly Mg(OH)2. they are cheaper and easier to manufacture. Corrosion in the Evaporator is prevented by chemical treatment. with adequate support.g. is that their higher efficiency is reflected in a smaller size.8elo1u S O T brine temperature. during maintenance. Another major advanage over tube type coolers. 2 to 5 p. This gives a very compact arrangement. Plate type heat exchangers Vs Shell and tube type.ible and are easily reached for cleaning. is that the heat transfer surfaces are acces. . They are made up from an assembly of identical metal pressings with horizontal comgations. the Brine feed line). Treatment :. Sodium Phosphate 2 lo 4 p. The most obvious feature of plate type heat exchangers.l bars.dbove 80°C brine tempcrawre. continuous brine extraction is necessary . P3lyelectroiytes b) True.p.p. any scale formed wouid be mainly CaC0. unlike tubes. which are difficult to clear. Fall in Briue wncentration %ou!d affecl h e producrion of disiillatc. which may not be pro@y supported over their entire length.m.coil evaporators for Flash type evaporators. change in brine concentration wouid not haye any appreciable effect on the corrosion process. for the same cooling capacity. The plates. each with a Nitrile mbber joint. I x 1/52 for Single effecr submerged . . unlike tubes..

unlike the tube type. Ciiernical treatment f o r potabie w a t e r Manually adding silver salts or solutions. Both of these factors also contribute lo hear exchange efficiency. In case of tubes. rhs etectrolytic p y s s is the one currently employed by many ships. without compromising the strength of the tube. The Nitrile rubber seais are bonded to the plates with a suitablt adhesive. ~ ?hi* alrlourit of metal released is controlled by the current setting of rhe . This gives a much higher heat transfer rate. Stairless stzel has also been used and other materials such as aiumir~ium-brass. Chemical cleanins by imrr. :: Q. Manufacturers may recommend achemical flushing to removt: rhis in sity without dismantling the heat exchanger. positive siiver ions are released from a silver anode. It also bresks up the boundary layer of liquid ~ K c tends to adhere to the metal and act as a heal h ba&r when flow is slow. Excess turbulence. which is cheap and meets the requirements. Fouling on the sea-water side is the most usual cause of deterioration in pzrForniance. have the best resistance to corrosiorderosion. However.con%gations promote turbulence in the flow of both f l ~ i d s and so encourage eficienl heat transfer.. which can result in erosion of the pla!e material.er. the thickness cannot be redticed by any appreciable amount. . a) 1ie:Scr'ibc a system to improve potz3ility of fresh water. where flow through Lubes is at right angles to the flow through the shell. In oil coolers or heaters. while larger volume flows are controtled by a metering pump. Anr. . 1o t ! ::li:chu:yi1c process. The corrugations make the plates stiff so permitting the use of thin material.ion or in siru. Soft deposits may be removed by bmshing. Seals around the ports are so arranged that one fluid flows in alternate passages betwzen plates and the second fluid in the intervening passages. as it fbrms 1 GO-reatrnent. is recommended for st. Titmiurn s a t e s althotigh expensive. The turbulence in plate type cannot be so created. The plat.16 A cornpnny circular draws attention to the fact that bacteria harmful to imcnarts cwn exist in drinking and washing water. is avoided by using moderate flow rates. They additionally increase plate aea. $1 S!ir% constrainrs piaced on installation and xse of systems for shipboard production of fresh water.-hanger. The method of cleaning the sea-water side surfaces depends on !he type of deposit and heat -:. the surfazes o f plates which are r q o d do sea witer are liable to corrosion/erosion and suitable materials must 5s seiecied. Turbulence as dpposed to smooth flow causes more of the liquid passing behveen the plates to come into contact with them. progressive fouling may t i i e piz? on Ihr oitiside of the tubes. The laner may not be ideal fgr vessels wbich operate in apd our of poris with poliuted waters. since borh fluids are passing in opposite directions. c) Stale maintenance and treatment rccomrnended for fresh water tanks.ihborn deposits. allows for ~recis'edosing of srr~niiatnolints of water produced on board. usually in oppositt: directions.

to Iimit growth of marine organisms) be used at such suctions. Cleaning process should include disinfectian with a 50 p. by evaporatio~'distillationorrevers? osmosis. Silver is Non-comxive no health hazard (less quantity of silver is take" ir. These suctions should only be used to produce domestic water when the vessel is more than 20 miles from land or (often wzll in excess o f 20 miles away). In order to maictain this level at outlets. Ultra-violet sterilizin2 is no longcr considered sufficient as the sole . while drinking water 11 in a day. This aIlu. remote from estuarial Tins stippty water should be passed through sand filters before being used ir. it may well be necessay to keep the chlorine level in the storag.l s t i With larger volumes.esidual silver in the water ?revens rz-irxection. - ~ . and does nor have m y evaporation problem. than when using silver cutiery) p.g. Sea water suctions to evaporators or reverse osmosis plants must be exclusivt!y for thar purpose and no chemicals (e. Special propertiss of sil-qer are claimed to offer some advantages over thc chlorine method.electrical supply.. because the concentration of silver sdded is at a higher le-~ei. One electrode has the capacity to treat 4000 m3 of water during its life spa% Such a system is the 'Electro-Katadyn' system. Tanks should also be emptied and hosed out at six months intervals. The operating costs of such a system are relatively low. Water for washing is considered the same as drinkicg water. Thek is no longer m y difierence in regdntions. .p. This current value is influenced by the conductivity of thc water.p. evaporator or reverse osmosis piant. . between drinking water and wash water. When fiow rates are small. ~- ~a'intenance Fresh water sterage t d s to be opened up and manually cleaned at twelve month intervals. Fresh water &ta:ned From ashore or water produced on board. The required dosage for the full 30w is achieved by mixing the :wo flows. relating to treatment or purification. The free chlorine at outlets must be maintained at 0 2 p. must be chlorinated or disinfected wi:h Silver ton treatment.us a wide range of flow rates t be handled. before it passes to the Domestic water storage tanks.n. without the significant pressure o loss in case of c o ~ p l e t e flow through the system.tanks at a much higher value. is low. People inspecting and working domestic water tanks should wear clean clothing and should not be suffering from any communicable disease or skin infection. only some o f the water passes through the unit.. chloilne solution.m. means of sterilization. all the water passes through :he . which in the case of water produced on b a r d .

Distribution system The various elements of the freshwater production. every Pkee months. The freshwater tanks arrangement in every ship should enable tanks to be used in regular rotatim. re-charged or items replaced where appropriate. Fresh water trends to Le acidic. neutraliser lmineraliser.17 State why fresh water ~ r o d u c e 6 using a low grade Sea$ source can be unfit for haman consumption. after cleaning and maintenance. . Ans. before it is pumped to ihe storage ranks. During water treatment . free chlorine and left for 12 hours.m. i i i accordance with the makers' instructions. especially where temperatures could rise lo levels.filters. un-treated fresh water is not 6 t for humm consumption. cleancd. . of the fresh hot and cold water distribiition systems. in order to avoid the associated with stagnation. to disinfect the system.p. the complete storage delivery and . filters. evaporators. which mighi provide tke optimum wfiditions fer bacterial growth (viz. III The cleaning of the various elements of the domestic water system (such as calorifiers. from machinery space to the M e s t outlets should be charged with "super-chlorinated" water at 50 p.AdvuncedMorine Engineering Knowledge YO~. Overall design. . flushed out.. reverse osmosis plant. pumps) must be carried out regularly and a special log of such maintenance be maintained. This psssibility increases as the size of rhe system increases. 15-C to S O T ) . Explain how distillate must be treated lo render it Elf for drinking. . pumps.. to ensure that ail loose scale or sludge can be completely drained off. should be dcsigxed 19provide maximum circul~ion the systems and to avoid of dead-legs. mineralisers. .all filters. Calorifiers or pressure tanks should be designed where possible. . wlieir sections of the system are no: kepi in continuous use. It can tlherrfore be aamagins to the human digestive tract.. pressure tanks. @orine so!ution. auto-chlorinator. ' . to enable scale deposits or products of corrosion to be removed and cleaning to be facilitated. F3r Chis reasoc. Calorifiers shouid be provided with adequate access. stagnant zones forming and should be fitted with efficient connections at the lowest poin: of the unit. carbon filter. by Q.m. distribution system. .p. back washed. Shower heads and Air Conditioning s p a y nozzles should be cleaned with 50 p. treatment and deliver:. ultra-violet sterilizer (where fitted) should be inspected. due to its reddy absorption of carbon dioxide. softeners . calorifrer. to avoid. softeners. Explain bow system should be operated to avoid this problem.should have all sea water drawn through suitable sand filters before being introduced to !he water making apparatus and all water produced by such plants in new ships must he disinfected by an auto chlorinating unit. system. At every refit or dry-docking period.

The above requiren-ent is to be checked in the presence of the Surveyor.IS \.OO on hr-other side is not to . speed of not less than 9 m/min. both -. ~ speed. !: -~. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ? c % ~6. Ar*chor aild windlass test Ans.. c) Air Receiver tests. this is usually carried cut and the time recorded.on one side to 3"oil the o'her side. a simulated condition can be con&Although the test does not require both anchors to be lifted simultaneously.. ~~~ ~ b) Stee:i.. of the Main engine. using a standard pressure gtiuge. eachpcweiucit muzt be able to be brouiht spe&iiy into operation and must be ab!e to steer the ship at navigable speed In dddiriun. A Surveyor is present to see the test and to issue the cei-tificate -stating that it has been duly carried out.an ~anchor from a depth of 82.~ . to demonstrate proper functioning.5m12 cable lengths) at a mean _-. How is over-pressure prevented ? How is the correct functioning of this safety valve ensured ? Ans.S e E i / - test i c t i i e presence of the Classification Society Surveyor to ~. steering gear power units z e fitted in duplicare (to avoid fitting auxiliary gear).3 - E c g l i i &. The test is ca-ied out with the stop valve and feed check valves shut and the boiler under full firing conditions . &iig verify the efficiency of the windlass.. Ahead and Astern. c) Air Receiver tests Where the Main engines are manged for direct air starting.-. The_!iie~takn from 3 3 on m e sideto. to veriEy efficiency of windlass. . b) Steering gepr tests. if o f the non-reversible type. with tile ship at thk maximum service .~~. 2.\~he windlass mus: be capable of-----.-. without replenisbmencif of the reversible type and not less than 6 consecutive starts. In practice. demonstrate the mechanical hncticning of the sear and its ability to satisfy ~.~. the gauge having been tested and certified as to its accuracy. -~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ .. to provide not less t h a n i s consecutive starts. n e automatic steering gear and course recorder may also bc tested at this time. on a windlass fitted with 2 cable lifters. If the depth of water is inadeqliate. ~ .5 m to a depth of 22. 28 seconds. -- ~ -. Wh~re =air. a) to This is carried out in the presence of a CIassifis~fio~Soc~ty~Survey~r.nggyr -. the total Air Receiver capacity is to be sufficient.~ Rule requirements. discuss : Anchor wiiuduass r a k e test.a)' W g h respect to Deck machinery. :he units opcrzring together must be able to put the rudder hardover from j j" .19 Describe how 3 boiler sxfety ~ a l v e set to the working presscre. A visual check is a h made to enaiye that the anchors stow corre::ly and that chain washing facilities are adequate. Boiler safety valves are set to 3 %above the required working pressure. b is Q. . exceed -~ both units are tesred separately and togeiher.

ionabl. . which has Potassium Chromate added as an indicator. of pressure is also generzlh carried out. and boiler priming. -~ lmporranf : To ensure that the loading of t : safety valves cannot be interfered with. ~~ ~ ~ .ssion.on the size. bur ~wiih improvement in valve design. the firing rate and its type of construction. 3. who thus assumes res?onsi3'ility ior it. and hence maintain heat rransfer rates. Q..hc appiictl load.woc!tjnu pressure. The rrlaxirnurn acceptable level of chlorides in the boiler water varies. then contamination of boiler water is the most li!dy explanation.. .-' ~ ~ The pressure in the boiie.20 Referring to a spring-loadsd Bciler safety valve.The compression screw is adjusted to let boiler blcw off only at ihc required pressure:The . Ans. ilepenclin. .O'&&~G. acidity. . The isst is a titration of Silver Nitrate (alkali) with a sample of boiler water (acidic). ---~ ~~ ~ Q. caused by the increased c~q:?:. Extend boiler surveys to the maximum allowed (30 months).! 2 . Thc following tests may be canied out to asceflain boiler water condition : Chloride : This is s measure of the chlorides which are present. Wit3 rx2'ercnce to marine Boilers : a ) Why is Boiler water treatrned carried out ? b) Discuss the various tests carried out. It is the a well !sown fac! that the more a spring is compressed. ?he padlock key is left in charge of the ckiei'enginezr.s. explain what is meant by -the 'Awumulation of pressure' test ? Ail. .._ _. usually a) ac! inrliciiiion of sea water contamination. aAcr h they have been set. ihe greatzr musi be . High chlorides will cause increased scale. Keduce !he corrosion of toiler tubes and shell 2. 89% of the salts present in sea . >..~compression ring is then machjned and is f!ttedi!nr. it is the one objec. . to ascertain Boilerwater condition. ~~. cotters are fined through the spindle and spindle caps %xi then ?adlocked.. so that the spindle caps which enc!~se thc compression screws rnak? them coxpierely inaccessible. ~. the test for accurntilation : -. is liab!e te rke.21.f.. due to the increased spring load.Iace .water are Sodium chloride and Calcium/ Magnesium chlorides.z feahre of the spiing-loaded type o f valve. . At the time of the Safety vafGFtest. Should the chloride level rise.u. its disadvantage has been overcome. 'Ilk rise is known as "Accumda$ion of pressur?". malting certain the compression screw abuts fairly and squarely on the rin!:. -?-da~mier treatme&&c_aitd out to : 1.:The maximum accumulation of pressure allowed i.s ?. Reduce the scale formation. ~. even after the safety valves have lifted.

while if it should be too high. If this sludge is not removed. which can : attack Popr 1 alloys in the feed system. if the phosphaie rescrvi. . Totai Dissolved Solids : This is a measure of all thz dissolved soIids in the water including those resulting from the treatment chemicals. and excess hydrazine will form ammonia. It gives an indization o f salt water contruninalion. The test is carried out using a Comparator. hydradne or sodinm sulphite. and the transformation o f half the carbonates to bicarbonates. 'P'ajkslinity measures the alkalinity due to hydroxides. Total alkalinity snouid be less than 2 x 'P' alkalinity.Alkalinity : There are generally two measurements of alkalinity. Total a l k a l i ~ l y e a r e s the alkalinity of dl the boiler salts. then foaming can take piace. Phosphates : An adequate reserve of phosphate should bc p. is neutzalised by Sulphuric acid of a known strength.while too high a reserve leads re 'foaming' and possible excess production of siudge. neutralised by a quantity of Sulphuric acid. Oxygen Scavengers . The tests to induce cloudiness or colour change.eseni in the boiler water. which measures the colour change of the boiler water test sample. Excess dissolved mlids produce foaming as well as increased deposits. and phosphates. Tests are normally carried out using an electrical conductivity meter. Too high a level is aiso to be avoided . the boiler sampi-. wher.Excess level of sulphite will raise the density levels. is too !m. then corrosion may occur. including m bicarbonates. These salts would depmit as scale. which are taken. on the heating surfaces. The test is carried out ro establish the level of chemical reserve. The test is carcied out using Phenolphthalein. but the sample should be neutralised before testing. If the chemical reserve is low. and 'Total' alkalinity. This test is a more accurate method of determining alkalinity. This treatment is only useful on closed feed systems. which may enter. as an alkaline sample will affect the TDS reading. 'P'alkalinity (phenolphthalein). Note that bicarbonates carmot exist under normal boiler conditions. and their presence in t h e boiler water saxple is d j e to exposure of the sample to air. to neutralize any hardness salts. This test is carrieci out using Methyl-Orange indicator. than simple pH testing. in the phenolphthalein test. it will settle out and deposit on the heating surfaces. which indicates the level of phosphate reserve. If alkalinity is too low then corrosion could Qccur. but is not as accurbte as the chloride tcst. and this may occur when Jsrgr qumtities of untreated feed is admitted to the boiler. o f either one of the two chemicals mainly used. These chemicais are added to chemically deoxygenate ths boiler watcr. as oxygen will enter the feed at an open hot-well.

This limits the outlet temperature to (165 + 15=\180°c. then head space. The saturation temperature of steam at 7 bar is 165 OC. and allow the possibility of cok-end corrosion. This allows the excess powcr to be fed back to the crankshaft. Thus there is a limit to the amount of heat extraction. thus exhaust temperatures may be slightly lower. ste. which is used to drive a centrifugal air compressor (Turbocharger). It would be possible to remove a greater quantity of heat. to allow the transfer of energy (say 2 minimum of 15 OC). i. Discuss : a) Methods used to recover waste heat energy. (one exhaust stroke every two revolutions). which reduces waste heat recovery. in a bid to i:nprove the thermal effici6ncy. from sulphuric acid enack. The water is circulated through coils lying in the path of the exhaust. There muyt be a Cemperature difference. Modem engines utilise fuel more efficiency.~ ~ @ : I ~~~~ ~ 2. between hot gas andsteam. takins suction from the main boiler drum.. 4. : f i s is a boiler. a k e ~ suitable cooling. The cow. If the heat recovery from an exhaust gas stream were to be dolrhlei:. Several nethods . 2. As the heating surfaces are arranged vertically. then the heating surface area needs to be increased by three times as much. the boiler . Waste heat recovery from exhaust gases is used to improve overall thermal efficiency of marine propulsion engines. 3. Here. b) Factors which determine the amount of heat. if it is allowed ?J impinse on the heating swfaccs of the waste heat boiler. To avoid 'cold' corrosion. the feed water temperature should not lower the metal temperature below the dew point of the exhaust gas stream.pump. thus total heat output is reduced from a similarly rated engine. if the steam pressure and hence satmition temperature was lowered. But thir would also' reduce the exit temperzture from the waste heat unit. which utiiises the waste he2t from exhaust gases to generate steam. ~ Factors which determine how much heat may be recovered include : b) 1. x t i c h provides the ppwer for the compressor unit. which can be recovered.m@m. This factor is also relevant for the feed water entry temperature.22.~r? to recover v m t e heat energy from exhaust : used . which is ?round 1 8 0 ' ~ . the exhaust outler temperature shouldalways be above the dew point. Thus. The space available for the heating surfaces is another limitation. Exhsusr gii turbine. even if . by means of boiler circulating water . -Ecoo&er~sif . ~with the heated waie+tc~am returning to ~~~. the energy from the exhaust gases drives the turbine.pressed air is supplied to 'the engine as scavenge air.becomes limited. t!ey discharge only half the volume of gases. i. Ans. Exhaust gas turbine directly coupled tc~:he crarks'naft (TCS system).Q. Although fow stroke engines may exhaust hotter gases.

Tiie superheat tcmperarure is dependant upon the entry temperature of the gas. of high caustic alkalinity. This defect is more common in riveted boilers. to Stress corrosion : This is sin~iiar the above. the area must increase. Thus. subjecting it to increased corrosive attack. with an allowmce for a zeta1 temperature difference of around 25 OC. due to build-up of soot deposits on the tubes. either due to direct flame iGpingement. Thus. caused by low alkaline conditions @reduces localked deep pits) and oxygen presence @reduces rounded isolxed pits). This causes incieased scale thickness build-up and causes the tube to bulge just before rapture. Corrosicrn fatigue. self-cleining. in order to maximise ihe wasre heat output. the gas velocity must be small. to some extent. results have shown that design ga5 velocities below 10 m/s greatly increase the occurrence of soot fires. Discuss the distin~uishing features of the followinp. The fatigue cracks produced are aggravated by corrosion. but in this mechanisn~~ the alternating stresses expose the bare parent metal. without undue corrosions. When engines are operated for 2xtende6 periods at low power. Caustic cracking or Ernbrittlernent : This is a form of intercrystalline cracking by water. . Corrosion fatigue :This produces fine fatigue cracking which results from alternating stresses caused by poor circulation.z + x: . rr :h ihe funnel space is used. to the Waste hes: unit. for the same heat transfer. However increasing the size. Pifting : This is produced by corrosive action. whereas velocities of 20 rnh were. coming into contact with steel. However. then the high wall temperatures will lower the mechanical properties of the tube. whereas fatigue cracks pass across these boundaries. 6.23. in order not to exceed the maximum pressure drop. / Q. also increases the gas pi-essure drop across them. or mechanical bending due to pressure effects. If the 'pinch point' is low. indicating that the metal temperatures - . Embri:tiement. low pressure with high superhea: temperature is desirable. a. Examination of the edge of the failed tube would show a martensite microstructure. additional cleaning or frequent higher power runs must be c a n e d out. and differs from corrosion fatigue in that caustic cracking follows the grain boundaries. usually in w a y of ths water line. Overheating. Stress Corrosion. This attack occurs over a wider surface area than corrosion fatigue. which has been stress relieved. Overheating : If boiler tubes become overheated. which increzses fatigue cracking a d canses coi~osion fatigue. of the Economiser units. or lack of circulating water. Boiler defects : Pitting. Over pressure.

The failure mode colild be more sudden. I Blow down/scum vsive.e. If there is more than one boiici-. L~-- ~ A ' - L____ ' Safe@ Values :These are to protect the boiler from overpressure. valve so as to ensure a flow of steam through the superheater under blow-ofi'conditions. they must be screlv-down non-return type (to prevent 10% of steam from othm boilers in the event of loss of pressure due to burnt tube) may be fitted w i t h emergency automatic closing device. but without the --~-. metal failure (plastic and brittle rapture) would be seen. Thus. 1 i'ressaie gauge. thus less prominenr tube bulging would OCCUI~~~ ~ I . rathcr than thermal stresses. are referred to . Overpressure : This could be. ?. S a k i y ralves.. characteristic . 1 independent Low boiler water ievel fuel shut-off device and alarm. There should be a! least two safety valves on the steam drum and one on the Superheater oat!cr header. . 7 v Cla.&assed as the failure of the tube by . as b o i l c ~ o u n t i n e s . these are needed to control reduced steam flow. i . c-.Sicam stop va:\. They are nonrctutn. 'i'i~ose. microstnxture change to h 3 rnarrenslte material or scale build-up. .-____ mechanical stresses..sit'iciition society's minimum requirements -- 2 . / .. Various valves and fittings are required for the safe and proper working of a boile!.i\ i . and that rapid cooling (under 10 seconds) had taken place. Main Stop Valves : These are momted on the Superheater outlet header and ennbli: rhr: boiler to be isolated from the steam line. The Superheater safety valve must be set to lie before the srealii d c i m sah!. the boiler water cannot blow back into tile feed line.. attached dirccily to the pressure parts of the boiler. -2 indrpcndmt Warer gauge glasses (or equivalent).had gone above 730 OC. with positive indication of thc rrpi:i~ arid closed positions. Auxiliary Stop Valves : As the main stop valves are not connected to auxiliary stearn line. Main Feed check valves are often fitted to the economiser ir11i:i header. so ihat in case of loss of feed pressure. Fccd Check Valves : These are Screw down non-return valves. 1 Salinoineter cock or valve. They are C:!ted with extendeb spindles. iiidepcndmt Feed check valves.

. to prevent overheating. is known as the 'Blowdown'. .l the control --roomi' .. - Adva?iced !Mnrine Engineering K~o. . to ensure protection of the superheater elements.~. as this represents a loss of usable steam. Wlicn. which normally takes place after an over-presswc has been relieved. i r i s usual for these to he loaded in excess of the Superheater safety valves lifting prsssure. At high pressures. ihus ensuring a steam flow through the ~u~ethealefilemeni. l I. e. I t is important that under all rates of evaporation.ulerige Yo/. though..6 >. Water is blova-dowr. since oil being lighter floats at the surface. . : $ 2. or wheu the boiler is shut down to drain it. 9-- . this can be taken care nf by blcwing down from the water surface. These blow down valves discharge inlo a line leading to a ship side discharge valje. which can remove oil or scum from the surface of the water in the drum. 2s is sometimes the case. ! 1: f 1 F Pressure Gauges : These are fitted.3 9 1 _ . as the pressure of the sample isreduczd at atmospheric by a ecolirig coil. ~p~ --. so that the Superheater_~afety valve will iift first. . which reduces the lemperature of the sample to a value below 10o0c.. It consists of a shallow pan situated just below the water level. as it is just as important that the Superheater safety valve must also shut last. in practice." :-Jg .-I ~ a [ . t . JJJ I> ! - Water Gauges : There are usually two gauge glasses on the Main stzam drum -~ and a remote level indicator mounted at a convenient position i. as required.r.. '~ < & . -- - t .x. Blo:v down vaives : These ar? fit:ed to the water h m s .~ . to the Main steam drum or t'he superheater outlet header. . J' Salinometer Valves : I hese are fined to the water drum to enable samples to be drawn off (control 9f fzed treatment).? j! . The pressure drop. . ~~ ~~ ~~~ 1:' ~~ .:. . it is necessary to prevent flnsh-off. sufftcient stenm is passing through the superheater.alve fiul1-y open bcfole tile second can be w3rked open. fan :he boiler to reduce its density. 1 Scum Valve : These are fined to b!~wndown the water from the surface.. This Blow-down is limited (by classification societies) to 5%. It will be obvious that. additional saturated steam safety valves are fitted on the steam drums. s <. 3. In this way the seating ofthe first valve is protected f r c n damage so reducing the risk af leakage when *e valves are closed. Safity valves are normally fitted to the Superhezfer outlet headcr. - 3 -1 . . . ~. 2" ::i ?< L. a more usual figure would be 3%. Ji 9 x . On this account. to enzble the boiler water to be blown-down. for Superheater protection. Usually two valves in series so thai first v. not only is it important that ths Superheater safety valve lifts before the Main drum safety valve but that the Blow-down factor must be considered. The Safety valve lifting pressure (for Main drum and Silperheater) is to be set at a pressure not exceeding 3 % above the approved working pressure of the Boiicr. [f there is a possibility of oil contaxtinaticn. These valves discharge into the same blow-down line.

such as carbon ash. 2. and h) kiydrogen burning in the air. dissoc~atksteam requires temperature of 2500°c.. by keeping 2 LY.. Also regular blow-downs s h d d be carried out. Ans. d) e) 'Blow-back' in the furnace. ilnd this type of fire will be self supporting. it is also extremely important to clean the surfaces. with a good quality of feed water to avoid hardness I scale formation. This mot is rich in carbon. / b Y d m 4 P Y 2 !he heat transfer surfaces in a clean condition. of the furnace surfaces. and subsequent reduction in furnace-wali strength.e Econoniiser. > 4m * . where soot may collect. types of reaction a e occurring two Iron burnicg in the steam. .oot / ilnburnt fuel which accumulates on the heal transfer surfaces of &. in an auxiliary Boiler : a) Furnace distortion. during low load mming. This overheating is caused by the furnace wall being insulated from the water by either scale. a) Furnace distortion : Distortion. and can meit the tubes themselves @which (Meral tires). usua!ly in the mgine. Difficulty in maintaining water le-/el. Sufficient steam content. . 3. drained and vented. or oil. until the steam supply is cxiiausted. Thus the boiler water must be kept in good cocdition. A 'metal fire' may occur under the following conditions : I. To . A metal temperature above 700 OC.Q35. mud. 3 FeO. and maintaining a proper s!eam/water circulation through the tubes at all times. and is caused by poor cornbustim. if it is to be Iefi dry. then it must be properly bianked-off. b) Uptake fires. If a tube stack is to be bypassed and run dry for any duration. source of this additional 'fuel? is the i dis$o_ciaterinto hydrogen and oxygen at these ele&ed Temperatures. Describe holy the following conditions can be avoided. c) Feed water contamination by oil. cccurs due to overheating. However these fires often have a zreater intensity than 'normal' fires. Faulty cm:bustion will increase the problem. Uprake fires : This is the burning of the . 1 I t is imperatwe to avoid these potentially cat5strophic fires. but at 700'~ the Colio~wing reaction occurs : Heat 3 Fe + 12 H20 . The presence of a catalyst. i12 Hz - bj - a' a) Orice the fig is start~d.

Give the reasons for failure of Bciler tubes. but their effects are accenmated by the increase of solid contem Fee6 weter cmtamination by oil : If oil enters the boiler. of the colour of the flame . This can be caused by oxygen pining or under-deposit pitting. Proper maintenance of burners should be carried ost. When the firing rate is increased.- ~ ~ ~~ - . minimum fuel should be admitted. which insulates the tube. below that.. Ans. Overheating of the tube due to insufficient water flow. for the same steam delivery. as foaming is due to high levels of impurities withir.e. colour indicates a fuel-rich flame. at sea. sudden application of heai.~ r e r i. oil dribbling. ? a 'minimum flame'.ination could be the fue!lll:be oi: heating coils. Foaming. While lighting up. Furnace blorv-back : This occurs due to insufficient purging of the Furnace. due to foaming 2nd swell. which can safely withstand working pressures and stresses. The msin sotircz of ccntarr.Difficulty i n maintaining water lwei : This may be due to defective control valve. Severe contamination affects the Boiler operarion. of the boiler water. . to maintain 2. Boiler tubes can fail I leak in the following conditions : Excessive corrosion of the tube. and this may make the control of the water le-?el unstable.a deep yellow 4. can also have an influence. A correct aidfuel ratio should always be maintained. the air registers (flaps) fully open. oil depn~its or 2. and the forced draught fan 'On'. the boiler water. while tile bumer is off. to prevent . it will coat the heating surfaces. Regular inspectior. the boiler water level will rise. --~~ L. The biow-backs occur due to an accumiilation of oil an6 its vapour w i t h the furnace. fi& will you detect tube failure ? Discuss a temporary repair you could carry out. The effects of swell and shrinkage is due to boiler design. on a leaky Boiler tube. heavy scale formation. or as an incrcase in the fuel cnnsumption. or a defective Boiler feed pump. occur when a sudden admission of air occurs into a fuel-rich flame. during bumer firing. To avoid this occurrence : There should be en adequate period o f time (of air purge) with 1. To . ta avoid a excessive build-up of oil. which is ignited by a re-lit b . and significantly raise the metal temperatures. before ignition occurs. is used in thz Observation tank of prevrnt this occurrin" a Weir systeln-----_-~ TGK6iwell. The effect c m also . can be seen in the gauge glass. which reduces wall thickness to a value I. reducing heat transfer. The i~dicctic:lof oil in the boiler water.

III 3. Temporary repair could be carried ol. use of improperly expanded tubes. then the failed tube must be removed a d renewed. producing increased thermally induced stresses. n e tube can then be punched-out. must be carried out.. and by NDT. Using a plug or tapered stapper. increased mechanical stress and movement between tube/ tube plate.for more details of tubes repairs i renew&. and carry out the tubelplate artrciiinent (either by expmding).. l i time permits and suitable materials / spares allwx a permanent repair ro Sc carried out. 2.Advarrced Marine Engineering &owledge Vol. t 3 rectify a tube leakage. it is also unsafe to operate with a large number of piuggcd tzbes. ie Kekc to Marine Engineering Practice . Obvimsly <he best method is tuhe renewal. which increases the temperature differential between the tubes. to verify). Leakage at the tubdtube plate. stamped onto the tube. but lack of time I facilitis mean titat temporary repairs. Insert a new tube of proper rating (check material specifications or part nurribc. thus remwing all tirc wr:ld/expanded section of rhe tube. and tightened into place by a long threaded bar fined inside the tubk. or 'forcing' of the boiler. then the reducer1 eEciency of the boiler will make tube rencwal more cast effective. . Reillok ail scale from the area of th. and I'i~e finished weld is normally inspected for visual defects. ro t b working pressure of the boiler. like plugging of leaking tubcs.weld by lisht grinding. and under the supervision of Class. using acceptable weidirig kct~nique consumables. then stopper plugs could be welded onto the failed tubes. so long as the tube ends have not thinned out or been damaged. I-1y:imnlic pressure testing should be carried out on completion. Inspection OF the plate should b e carried out to check for thinningkracks. provided welding is carried out by an approved welder. since plugglibg is only a remporary solution. One method is to grind the tube Cush with the tube plate. depends upon various factors arid the location. Welding is the preferred method (less chance of tube /plate leakage). Tube h i l u r e and repairs : The method to tist. using warm watei. Note that the causes of tube overheating will also increase the frequency of tube leakage at the tube plate. and may even lead to further failure. Once a large mmber of tubes (more than 20%) are plugged. Should a competent welder be available. which is 5:ted at both ends of the failed tube.t by : I .

which operates the danlper.i i j Q. compared to the slow response of the air loop. over the F.regulator. The output from the slave controller also acts as the set point for 11ie f.27. controlling the fuel sbpplied to the burners.orced dr~ughl controller. When the stcam lo. The air flow signal must be higher. A signal representing the air flow is compared with this signal in the low signa: selector. Note the constant differential pressur. the increasing steam flow signal will not allow more oil lo tlow until the low signal selector allows the signal through (when there is an excess of air to ensure combustion). valve. Sketch and describe the combustion control system of an auxiliary Boiler. The steam flow transmitter signa! (after being linearised by the square root extractor) also goes to the slave controller.he1 ratio. The problem arises due to a fast response of the fuel oil loop to 3 load change. Any deviation from its set point changes the signal to the low signal selector. 1 il 1 Steam Ir i The signal fram the steam pressllre transmitter is f d 10 the Master controller. from the master controller. c What are the safety devices i above system. acts as the set point for the slave controller. The sutput. takes account of the Boiler pressure. In ihe control system shown diagrammatically.Advonced Mnrine Engineering Knowledge Vol.~d Fan is increased. to nlaintain the fuel oil valve characteristic. Ans.O. steam flow rate md also regulates the air . where it is compared with ihe desired value. the final signal. for the selector output to change and alter the fuel oil control valve settin%. .

Q.28. Describe an Auxiliary packaged boiler control, with special references to the safeties provided. .4ns. This type of boiler is generally used for auxiliary duties and, as such, i~ . isunlikely that severe changes in demand will be inflicted upon it. Also, being of the smoke tube construction, the critically of feed rate is somewhat dimin.ished, considering the relative mass of water in the boiler and the stetming rate cf the boi1r.r. The water levd control would be less sophisticated - (pcbably 2-iem Proportional i lnregral) - wiih High and Low level cut-outs and alaxns. In the system shown, the b d e r pressure controls :he HighLow flame, by operating the Oil-Fnel spiil tu suction. . . If a h i ~ h firing rate is required thm no spill would occur. if a low tiring rate were required, then SOIL: of the fuel would be zllowed io spiii back to suction. Ti?e Oil fuel supply is shut-off completely by an Odoff solenoid activated by signals frcm the Water l e d , Steam pressure, Forced-dra~!gh: air acd F a e failure sensors. in




Tk so!enoid would sl~ur-offthefi\el supply t s the burner under any of the following condirions :

' Low wste; level


(a Low-low \vater !eve1 wvcold Iock-out the system. requirfn~ manual reset.) a

Kish x+ater level High Boiler pressure

Low forced drauyht air pressure Flame failur? Forced draught fan failure These alarms and trips should be tested regular!^, by actually altering the controlled condition manually, under close supervision, to initiate alann nnd trip conditions.

Naval Architecture and Ship Construction Q.f. With reference to the Ship's anchor and cable arrangements, describe how q c b o i t h e following a r e attached to the ship, using simple sketches : a) ,Cable stopper. . . b) Anchor. c) The 'chain locker' end of the anchor cable.
' '

. .

ws tte s&<_s k ~ , h n c . K i ' i % ~ * ~ _ a ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~
2-x \ e -%


, \ -% -% .

- . . S T \ - ,
\ \

~~ ~

gf the pipezwin theshain locker is %ell mouthed' and ower fined.&h a solid roundrubbing edge, to prevent !he cable % o n chafing.

a) The cable stapper is used to lock the chain, to take weight of the anchor off the Windlass. It is in the form of a bar, as shown iri the sketch below. Anchor is pulled tightly into the hawse pipe by means of a bottle screw, called 'Devil's claw', having a book at one end that fits isto the chain l n , znd is s a z r d into an eye ik plate at the other.

. . b) The connection of ihe'anclior t'o tiis cabie should be such, as to permit the rolarion of the anchoi, witlioi~tallowin: tile cable to get twisted. This is done by means o f two shackles, whic!i art. connected by a Swivel joint. ..



. .

. ~ . . .,. . . .




i-11@ -rhaiil'c11;tiiiheiockrp~e i ~ ol fan z n ; e ~ ~ ~cabiey is connect?d in s~icha way, tiiat (ken: : ca!i iicliro,cil, tiizanci13i- e nby ,simply rorning the Hand wheel the c

above.), w h x h rc-si~ir.; : ~ scrr\s being !ifred, aroi~nd i :lie whicli t!ie cable is slid. As r!;e screw iifis. 111,.lice ciitl c i the c&e ivili slip 0111. This is an arrangemenl to pem~ir emerswcy elease of the cab!<, wilhont havinx to physically reilch the 'bitter end'.

Q. 2. A) Describe, with a sketch, how an aluminium superstructure is attached

to the s l e d deck. Indicate all materials used. (B) Discuss the use of a l u m i n i u n ~ f o r s h i p construction, explaining i t advantages a n d disadvantages. Ans. Aiuniinii!m is frequently used in ship-bidding to construct d e c k h o x e or even rile entire superstructure (Passenger ships), as the weight saving is considerab!?. this reduction in weight (on top) reduces the need for having permanan ballas1 (in Passenger ships). thus thcre 1s a two-fold beneiit. This benefit, hoxever. may not be significant in other types of vessels, such as bulk carriers or cil tankrrs. which have a comparatively smaller superstructuie. The direct connection. of a i alun!inium plate io a steel deck. can give rise lo .ga]vanic9 corrosion When two dizsimi!ar metals ( here : stze! and aiuminiun2: a r e connected directly, they form a -galvanic' cell and there is a resuitant potential difference between them, as they differ in their positions in the Galvanic table. The relative pszltion of metals, in the Galvznic series. also depends on whether they are active or passive. Passive means that there is some coating, like a tilm ofoxide, which prevents further corrosion. The common probleni Faced lie:e. in ship construction, is the galvanic cori-ojiol, berwzen the mild &el platin? oi'rhe ship's hull with the bronze or nickel ailo?s of the ~ropeiler.Anoti!e~- comnio!? problem is faced in the attach;neni oj' :rn Aiuininiunl supersti-i~cri~te ; stssl deck, as comnioniy fotind in passcngzlto i vessels and cruise ships. Thc only solution is to ?revent contact between the dissimilar metals. so as 10 prevent the setting-up of galvanic acuun. Various metheds have been tried our. A coating of Barium Chromate betreen the surfaces is one such measwe.

. .


In other cases, neoplene is used as the insulation in between. The deck-hotrse is bolted on to a steel angle by means of galvanised steel bolts. which are rnci!-cled by Neoprene Fcrmles. The gasket may be of any insulating inaierial (like Plascote). A sealing compound (Aranbee) is used to prevent the ingress of a n y water. which could lead to corrosion.



' S ? E EDECK 1 ~

. Ans. i. a forward Lower Hold is so arranged. as 20 permit the iilling of ballast water. The Haichway must elso be made water a ~ l d rig!it. pro\. If the Lower Hold is to be used for caniage of liquids. Deep T a n k Hatchway T a n k Lid 1:) case of Deep ranks being used for oil fuel. 3ulkheaa stiffeners are spaced nor more than 600 m m apart and have Srackris at tho head and the foot.irders on either side o i t h e cenrre lice. The deck plating &us[ be at least I mni thicker than that of ihe boundary bulklieads Beams are nonnsi size. the Centre of Gravity is unduly lowered. there is a need to have a 'Deep' tank loward. with the Machinery spaccs also aft.44 rn above the tank top. They ar~e stiffened at every third frame by brackets. including the scantlings and the method of testing. Thus. such as fuel oil. the sides and boundary hulkheads are additionally stiffened by means o f deep. so as to reduce the Free surface effect. provided they are not smafler than the bulkhead stiffenxi. Where and why are Deep tanks fitted on merchant ships Y Describe with the help of suitable sketches. so a s ro achieve the reqxired trim easily. 3. Also. For :his reason. and is'calle8 a s ri Deep tank. Light intercostal plates called Stringers are fitted horizontally s o as to meel the sii-dei-5. A !Vast. the Deep tank may be used for any other liquid. Most modem vessels are of the 'Aft accommodation' type.' Besides-sea water ballast. and spaced not mcre than 3 m apart vertically The :irders are stiffened at their inner edges. plate iz fiired in a longitudinal direction. in order to resist the maximum possible head due to the liquid carried. The beams imust be additionally supported by intercosial !. so as to prevent the escape of any liquid. so as to permit the oil levels to equalise on either side. it" only Double bottom tanks were used for ballast. Frames are riomally made at oil !cast I5 % stron~er. which may bi: perforated if required.ided tliat this is nor less tlian 2. running !ii:ht around the inside of the tank.IS well as the suige of liquid. horizontal girders.Deep ianks are tested by fillins with waier to thk maxi&m head which c'omes in practice.e. . when required.Heavy oil o f Flash point not less than 60 OC niay be car~ried.e. when roiling. it can b e used ior Bunkers. it obviously needs to be strengthened.Q. A middle line biii!thead is fitted if the tank extends across the fidl breadth of the vessel. the important aspects of Deep tank construction. and are conriectzd at the tank comers by iliin:ed brackets. i. the vessel may become 'too stiff '.

fi~eeing ports m w i have . leading to floodiny. if deficient. on standard values o f strength and form.the vessel inmt have adequate and also a minimom range of stability and ri$ting lesel-s.2. ships are sub-divided as Class A. which includes all vesgels carrying ..el. so a s to cepe with adverse weather conditions.y.4 (e. ventilators n ~ o s thave a means of closino. cocks and sea chesrs must be as . or there may be floatiiiy bulwi~ks. air pipes extending above the freeboard deck nlrist have a certain minirnunl heiSllt and means of closing.locking arrangements. . as th: case may he. the machinery space openings including any doors. no1 fallins ii: Class . the constnlction of hatch-coven and theii. c) Using a simple diagram. b) Explain the term 'condifions of assignment' a n d explain h o ~ vthese 31-e maintained for a ship.bulk liquid cargo ie. The change in the freeboard allowed would dcpend o n the degree o f water-tightness or weather-tightness.specificntions. standard sheer. a) State the reasons Tor freebonl-d requirement. rankers) and Class B. which is usually the nmin deck. on either side. overboard valves must have a non-return 31-rangenlent and a means of closini: from above. Freeboard is the distance from the water-line to the e d s e of the ~ ~ p u e r n i o s t continuous deck ai the ship's side. Assigned freeboard is the freeboard allowed.i~mfreeboard is assigned to provide adequate reserve buoyancy. T h e height and stiffening of hatch coaminjs. which includes aii the remaining types. one Hns. or liave two valves in the same line. the extent o f superstructures fitted and for bow h e i ~ h tabove water-line. ail ship's side valves. T o help i n differentiating the anlouni of freeboard to be assigned lo different type5 of vessels. obtained by correcting for variation from the standard depth. 4.) Conditions of Assignment The ship is first assigned a basic minimum freehoard.gi tlo:wj's Resister is shown by !he letters L and R. A cenain mlnin.Q. as well as a possible limited loss of buoyancy in the event of ship runnins aground or colliding. T h e load-line mark indicates the summer load line and the Assigning authority-(e.I minimul1l area. indicate freeboards f o r T y p e A a n d T y p e B giving of the type of ships fal!in:: in either category. con!ainer vessels).

throtrgh which the upiakes pass without any connection. giving details of the $&hod of attach'meni of'the Funnel a n d horq suppork is provided. I?: & 5 ~ Sketch and describe an arrangement of funnel uptakes.platfo~m A silciiczr is fitted to e n-~ i n e i:pte:-es. which are stiffened internally by angles or flat bers running verticzlly. while the free end on rap is sliffenzd by a moulding. The support is givsn by means of wire stays. niid have a slidisg riirg sr. Therz is a p l a t f ~ m about i m high inside the funnel. W h a t are the materials used in construction and their scantlings 7 Ans. The upiakes pass through hales cut in the p1a:fornx. door. The funnel is connecred lo the deck by a boundary an&. t Tk.angemei!i ro p e n ~ i expansicii. v!hich is doir~: by tileans c f bellows. attached by lugs to the funnel and rlie deck. Ladders m r ! xiaiiiigs prgvide access for mainrmance and inspection Section titrough n Funnel . and are con:iectzd hy ~ncijri-: of :an arigle iron or ring to thc uppet. in order to take care of the expansion.e iop of the u?t&es ead a: the lop oftlie fmmel.I i nh eK I Vul.. capable of being opened from both sides. The funnel is composed of an outer casing of steel p1a:es 6 m n to 8 miit in thickness. which is half round in section. and capable of being tightened by means of rizging screws. for a motor vessel. Access is by rnezns of a water-righ.and is supported on its own seat.

which are vcnical stiffe~ers. and these must be not more than 3 11) apart. are fitted under the harch corners to sxengthen the connection &ween the coamingr and the hatch end beams. The height of the coaming cl?ould be such. the co~istrllctio~i a hatch way. which rewks in reduction i n strength a f the Siruclure. where they are exposed to the weather. the height is A 5 0 mm. Horizontal plates. D / ' n #? 43 mm - AFT Y LY s The strength of the deck plating is reduced by the o?eningi ciit into it. called stays. it is 600 mrn. madp up by Comings. at least 180 m m deep.on freeboard decks. . they we to be stiffened iurrhcr by bulb bars. Stress concentrarions could occw. as shown. The deck girder is fitted in line with the side coarnings. Full penetration fillel welds are used for seitins . are htted to connect thc above stiffene~s to tlie deck.which are reduced by having the deck extending inside the hatchway.at [he square edges o f the coa~viiigs. through a of deck and show frow the coamirtgs are attached 10 [ h e structure. called Gussets. Hatchways are cut aut of the deck. aft of 'Aof the length ofthe ship. Ans. 6 . In order to restore the slrtn$. Explain the steps taken to avoid exctxive stress concentration at the harch corners. ai shown in the s!:eich below. which i. Half beams are attached to the deck girder.4 . The corners are rounded off. The loss of resistance due to beams being cut in way o i the hatches is made good by adquate stiffening.whichever is more. If coamings are 600 mm or more in height. and the radius nlust be at least 1124 of the breadth of the openin:: or al least 300 mm. z3"liiional stifiening meassres need l o bc taken. Vertical brackets.welded to the sides of the hatchways. a s to pseveqt the enIIy 3f sea water . On superstructure decks. fined horizontally near the upper edge of the coaming. Descl-ihe with sketches.i good join.

till 25 .ei y frmi: space. T h e ship experiences severe srress dul-ing pitching.np*.. fi~ameddouble borionis. !it !I-ansveisel. when !he fcre end emerges from the water and slams down with tremendous iorce.50 % abaft the siem.velds. on the s t r u c t u r e of the vessel. is to be strenghened by increasing the rhickness of iiie outer bottoln piatin?~ or Also. \\'hat is Pounding ? \\'hat ar-e the effects of pounding. which is called as Pounding.e"i. fi-om %. str-ei~:thcniil: :he coiinections Corn ?he .115. a n d whet precnutions ueed to be taken during design. ~ ..ide sheil to rlie inlie: b d ~ o n l rankside !jrdi:!-. and m i ~ s t ' b e coniiiiiio:i.h o f the length or 5 %.=m Pounding region The forward section...3 $ 15-3081. T [ . . ~. . fix pounditis !region hzs solid plate connzcred !o the outer bottom plariny by floors at c.plate noors are fitted a i every a!tc7wIe frame sphce.: orc'oukllr bb~t.7.In longitudinaily fwmed double bot~onis.Q. to reduce the effects o f t h i s ? 4. 9tp ' & 5%L I 9.

the pins in the hinges . care is taken to maintain the stiffness. These are of mild steel or cast steel. 8 .all as practicable. They are normal:y ofthe siidiilg type . Water-tight doors. the access to the tunnel iiom the engjne room is through a wa!er-tight door. while pernitting access. this however k i n g made bixger in passengzr ships. The water-right doors must be capable of being closed upto a list of 15' and opening / shutting must be possible both lccally as well as from a remote location above the bulkhead. showing the status of the door i. passenger ships reqvire water-tight doors to ailow passage. from one part of tne accomrnodatio& to another water-tight pan. The closing may be by hand (vertical screw thread f r ~ m remote) or by hydraulic rams. .e open or closed. t o give an eyivalznt strength to that of an un-pierced bulkhzsd. In ships having shafl tunnels. if vertical stiffeners are to he cut in way of tile opening. a) Sketch a water-tight door and frame. depending on the requirements.either horizontal or vertical. an indicator is to be provided. the scantlings of the stiffeners on either side o f the opening are increased. Water-tight doors are provided to maintain the watei-tightness o f a bulkhead. by framing and reinforcing it. This is done before the door is fitted in the ship. When c u n i ~ gopenings in water-tight bulkheads. Similarly. At this remote location. If the stiffener spacing is t o be increased to accommodate the opening. are to be tested by a hose test. in cargo vessels (rarely found in modem cargo vessels). In case of hinged water-tight doors a t higher levels. The opening should be as sn.nust be of 5urr-metal.0 . being 1000 t o 1250 mm high .and 700 mm wide. while those in passerzer ships are tested by submerging under a head ofwater extending to the deck above the water-tizht bulkhead. Ans. b) Explain how water-tightness of the door is ~ n s u r e d .

b) Hardness and Elasticity. 7. \\ihich has beer3 subjscted to cyclicat applicaiions of load. rolling. bur progrrssi\? c!i!argc:cn~entof' a small imperfection. Uiiclility: The ability of a material 10. 1 I. ~h. hammering. . 7.i ~ h iirrie clcibrmarion. Lead). d) Malleability and Toughness. wcar. 8. h) Fatigue Failure 1 f3tigue limit and i) Creep. until the average stress across the ierrminiu!: ritcia! causes iiactut-e. 10. and is generally temperature dependent ( c . Sudden failwe under load.l'otigi~ness: The amount of energy a niaterial can absorb hefore ir fractures. be plasrica!i) d~fornicclwi~hout iiaciure: by being drawn in' me f9rm of a wire. 0 Stiffness. when 'red' hot).) or Rrilinel number (R. Hardness : The ability to withstmri scra:ching.P. e. impressed force is renmoved. It is similar to malleability. - 5. [his . Ans 1. jusr bcfore fracr~kre usually expressed as a psireiiray scia~ei ductility.K. artlount of stretch.s: Opposite to touzhness. Cast iron is brittle. 6 Steel is plastic. stretching takes place befcre fracture.is .-- Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Vo/. Stirfness: A nieasure of a component's ability to resist deflection.h-r. (e. elot~arioi. Malleability: The ability to be physically deformed (beaten into sheers). 9. This may produce a slow.g. indentatian (by a harder body) denoted by the Vickers number (V. /I/ YQ. b y pressing. Write Metallurgy short notes on : a) Strength. EiasiicitJ. 6.g. g) Brittleness. . The-. ro 4.~. when subjectzd to shock loads(e.N. l3riltlener. Elongation : When a sample of a inarerial is pulled (ill a cesiing ti:acIiiite).). e) Plasticity. c) Eior~.niion a n d Ductility. whiie Nodular spheroidai iron is iess.iluctnatin~~. PI~iticily:The opposite of elasticity. The loading map he alternative. : The atility fa mzterial tinder stre!ch to return to its orizinal an shape 1 dimensicns. - abrasion.N.2. This prlJpcl-ry is necessary for forging. repetiti~i' ol. lzod lest). 3. \ \ . of ~Faiiguc Sailure: T h e B i ~ r e a consonent.

!t is used h l increased strength at high tempeiature. along with Nickel. It is used with a low carbon steci: to increase tensile stren:th. '"mper brittleness (in A'ickel-Chrome steels). This is ss used. i t also increases resistance to fatigue. Used in boiler rube material. wirhoul caiisini: failure. i)Sulphur a n d Phosphorous. over a long period o f time. for an onlimited number o f cycles. . Molybdenum: This eliminate. - ~~~ Vanadium: This i s a De-oxidising agent. whicll can be applied to 3 rnemb-r.>__ .t. Creep: When a component is loadcd. It is liable to a n p o s e graphite. i. . at a stress well b e l u x the Ultimat: Teqsile Stress (UTS). . Fatigue Limit: This is the greaiest sties8 or range of stresses.aL may exhibit extension and ultimately fail. Ij Y Q2 . without brittleness. but also incl-cases brittieness. ~ . d)Molybdenum. Ans. c)Chrome. _. it reduces the iron oxide conten. h)Silicon. e)Vanadium. V I a n p n e s e : Manganese increases hardenability in steel. Upto about 8% Nickel will not affect the ductllii! 'Tliis is used in n1ate.Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Voi NI i?. The effictj: s f creep are serious deformation at high temperatur?.ials subjected to high stiesses . Silicon: Silicon improves fluidity. iinpr %rains. if irnpropsii> tempered. pump rods. Nickel: Nickel i ~ c r e a s e sstrength and corrosion resistailce by the formatioi1 01.-? Cobalt: This improves hardness.. Used in machine tool-bits and cutters in the form ofTungsten Carbidr.5. g)Cobait. and thus improves castability. and is thus found in -* superheater tube? and turbine rotors It also increases the 'creep' resistance.e. for Nickel-Chvome strels. J b)Nickel. I t enables increased content of Manganese. It can be brittle. - -- Tungsten: This refines the grain size. C h r o m i u m : This increases h ~ d n ~ 'and resistance to corrosion/erosion. f)Tungs!er. to i:nprove hear resistance and c o r ~ o s i o n resistance. in the material.. ti:e 111e. Explain t h e effects of the following elements o n steels : a)Mangane:e.

Cast Iron and alloy steels. c) Flame H-rdening c Ans. Nitrid!ng.This process is done by enrichin: cnrbon content of the surface and applying t h ~ treatment.y$i-. It reduces strength. rich material (e. . E. Alum~ntumBrass. \vhich is not required to be hardened).0. increases hardness / brittleness.g Hardening of gear teeth). Gear teeth.~.s&nJ Case hardening This is a process by which the outer surface of a mild steel component can be hardened. . Ans. Used oli surfaces of Cast steel. The C coinponent is heated locally to about 800 ' and quickly quenched by water . Manganese Bronze.-(e. - Thr skin is carbon-enriche: by 'soa iqg the component in some carbon.temperature 3bove 900 " The depill of rhe rarjon-enriched skin will depend upon the mate& used for enrichment and on the length oT soak.. -~~~ . - '. Skin depth . Cunrnetal and Monel metal. .. lowers the meltinspoint. Good heat and electrical conductor.8 mm. (~ 0 .8. becoming hard and fairly brittle.upto 0.6% Sulphur cmtent is a1:owable.$I\= - What are the alloys of Copper? Discuss briefly the properties and basic //composftion of various alloys of Copper. q0o cL.the risk of exfoliation. C o w : I t is a soft and ductile material but ages / work-hardens very quickly. I'hosphorous: This is also an impurity. such as Brass. Muntz metal.125mm (5 hours) to 0. ail around or on selective Lieas (you c2n paint the pan of the burface. ipray. circulated by Ammoniz gas and = . ~ t.l .Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Vol:/I/ Sulphur: This is usually an impurity.3 # PLQCm 1 The component is placed in gas-tight container. It reduces strength and increases the brittleness. J J Q . Flame .g. . charcoal) at a . 5 ) Nitriding. The heated to 5 change from 'nmreated' to 'hardened' skin is more gradual . (2 hours) LO h r n (12 hours). . s h o r t n o t e s Wri e - on : - a ) Case hardening.5 5bc q .Hardening. Admiralty brass. increases fluidity. The depth of the "c2:se" may vary from 0.this reduct.05mm (24 hours). Admiralty bronze. .

L ~ ! >h9. . . . h. 5 % Sn.id also resists ' i ~ n p i n ~ c ~ : : ~ i .rity 31-i!.s (70U. 5 .2 . 55% Zc. .Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Vof.a i h ny t h o n z r is 80% Cu. ~.. ilczincificatioii.it i q a goad ailpurpose Brass. 22% Zinc) Aluminium Brass is -':* Mi--. include ZC/b Al.I(I (l'b). addilioti 01.?!loy o f Copper and Zinc. iised f c i ~ p ~ o p e r ~ i e s . bul more c o m n ~ o nalio>s have i p t . .~:~. 601-10 Brass (knon. 19% Al.i . . i n h he order of 2%.-~~~. L * ~. This has good casting qualities fni. ii?anganese Bronze is a high-tensile Brass (58% CLI. 29% Cu.. ~ d r n i l . bur is less d11c:ile . is ducrile. 1.94 CII. Bronze is an alloy of Copper and Tin (about 10% Sn). ?'his Brass is aidel!. . w l i ~ ~ e is anodic to copper and c o r r o d ~ sleavinz a spongy mass of copper. it is stion: and corrosion rssisiont. iiicrea\ts machiiie~biiitya.C. ' 'i coiidenser tubes and rube-plates.01 16 0. < attack:. Adding L.~+:. 2% Zn. Moncl Metal... and is suitable t b r heavy duty bearings and for steam turbine blades. can be hot or cold-~vorkedand forged.. Brasses contaiiiing up ro 5 9 % Zinc are known as u Brasses.yd 5.pump casings. . by their respective percen:ages of Copper and Zinc.orking alloy for heavyduly bearings and fur p!~opellers. 68% Ni. i ~ ~ l~ between >9 % and 43 % Zinc are known as B-Brasses. a p p r ~ s i n a t e i y1 %. * .) fiirther iniiibirs corrosion. C u and 29 % Zii with 0 l%Sn). used for co~idensertube piates. Gunmetni. They are g e n e i ~ l klio.05 %) ~-:si~i.-. (76 Copper. ziiic lle-rincificati~n: I t is a type of corrosion.25% Mn.~! .. 2nd is used for pump casings.'. 125% Fe. 2% Manganese(Mn) and 1%Sn.n as M u n t z Metal) is stronger.w>w T. sI . j?: Fe. and is iised ia. I t is highly corrosion resisiant. brasses are available. Corrosion I-esisrance can be funher improved by addins Nickel (Ni). 0 1 % P5osphorous. bur conibared by Nickrl (to Bronze).it has model-are strenqri. * L i l Adding Tin (51. g.-.yJ . Ill : . D r a w n Phosphor Br~onze. ~ >. .-A\ L~ h C . 50% Zinc . . proponions depending upon the plirposc anticipaled. TIie 7% .I-. E. If Aluminium [Al) is added. 70130 Brass is 70 Copper. ~ / - 3j.g.R ~ ~ r : s t - 18 a~l. 2% I:bn(Fe).. tubes and tube-plates. ! 2' L! i5. . A trace of HI-senic (0.c i k nnmes. 10% Sn.vl. Brasses c o ~ i i n i r .imp?lIers and in chemical applications. De-~luminilication:Similar to de-zincification. 5% Mn.2. impellers.4dinir.. bearins housings and valves.. is used in the work-hardened condition. 7% c ~ i i r i ~ eleriieiirs).. I t is hot-v.. it intpro\-ts the erosion and corl~osioll E. containing up to 45 % Zilic..~. . which is 88% Cu. /7 . .

but more brirtle than the HCP form. it transforms to a Body Centel-ed Cubic (BCC) structure. This esceptionrti si~-rngtll to \\-eight ratio is maintained over a wide temperature ranyc (from . Hence. Due to the difficulty of obtaining the metal from its ores. . Being near the cathodic end of the galvanic series. and thus not for general use. due to its affinity for Hydrogen. Titanium alloys. Also alloying elements can retain or stabilise a s ecific crystal fxni. Usually casting is carried out under vacuum conditions to avoid oxidation.Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Vol. i t is very expmsive. it is niuch stronger. titaniun? peribrms as a 'Ysble' metal. and it can exist in two crystallographic forms : At room temperature it has a Hexagonal closepacked s:ructure. ? eie\/atcd-ternl)erat~~re plocesses. What is t h e use and importance of Titanium. require care and experlisz.200 "C to 5%) The prcsence of a thin but tough and tenacio~ts oxide surface tilni. (iv) Low coefficient of expansion. Other properties are:High melting point (compared wit!> steel) ii) (ii) Low thermal canductivity (iii) High electrical resistivity "Cj. At about 900°c.' ' Titanium is one of the few allotropic metals (like steel). Oxygcr~ cc Nitrogen . \vitl. Th9 pure metal has a low :ensile strength r i 1 6 i\/l~l/m') and a high ductility (50%) Due to traces impurities in its com~nercial form. as weli as rhs sza wat::r environme~t. Ans. it's tensile strength is upto 700 M N I ~and the ductility is 20%. sucha5: b) c) Strength Corrosion Resisrance Titanium has the highest strength-to-weight ratio of acy struc~c:ml metal(about 30% better than either Aluminium or steel). have been used. tensile P srm~ths upto 1500 MNlrn-. In the BCC form. NI 5 . Like steel. titanium can be heat treated.all these impurities can cause embrittlement. Titanium (Ti) is the fikh most abundant metal and has many desirable engineerin2 properties. Fabrication o f titanium is difficult. a s regards non-Ferrous metals. The mechanical properties of the mctal are related to the crystai form. such as welding. provides escelient corrosien resistznce to borh aimospheric.

These will accept pre-made 'Keys'. It provides sufficient strength.21%C. at right anglps. caulked and 'dressed-off. in lcyers.Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge VoL 11 1 6.e.S. It has proved popular. What is Metal-locking ? What repairs a r e czrried out by hletal~-. . The studs seal against pressure and exert a tensile stress along t h t 'keys'. These are careftil!y spaced . and enables the casting to be repaired 'in-silu'. Key material is Invar (56% Ni. Broken pieces arc accurately re-alig~edand held in fixtures or clamps. Distributes the load to non-critical areas. the line of fracture. alpn:. without having to disnianrle and remove the componenr to shole workshops.iompz&f to replacement of the casting). Holes are drilled and then 'joined' by accurate cliiseling. afier 'peening'. js.~ . Holes are then drilled and tapped. Gaps are then drilled. due to its cost benefits (as . Can be done "In-Situ" .locking? Ans. plugged and 'dressed' :o complete the seal along the original crack. by pneumatic hammers. k M e t t a l o c k 01 Metal-lnckiug. . The 'keys' restore the rigidity to the casting. Maintains 'stress-relieved' condition. is soft but work-hardens to zn Ul?imate Tensile Strength (U. jigs are used co Fosition the 'F3ttern' ~f holes across the crack.79% Fe). in lieti a ~~.) of 780 MN/ m'.~ 'cold' repair of brokenhacked castings. ~~ ~ 'Holes' 0 0 o\o 0 'Key' inserted in 'slot' 'Keys' are thin 'peened' into the slots.alternate h d e s leaving d gap which is less than the hole diamzter. tapped. The affected surfaces have to be carefil!ly prepared. No new stiesses or strains. to create 'slots. by chiseilng or grindine. Disadvantages : Keys are subject to 'creep' .of a specified shape. Advantages : Dampens cornpressior. I t has a low coefficient of expansion. of repizcernent of the casting. 0.T. Studs arc thex tightly fined and 'snapped' off. 63.thus saving in time and costs. . stresses. i. Q.

riary. for a given material. i lOOi<ES LAW i I T the I SUDDEN EXTENSION A' I - TIME spccimen is unloaded. c7cy:ng'. A typical creep curve of strain. there is primary creep BC (or trafisient creep).~at E. b) Brittle fracture.7. there may b~ le.tn:sses the creep strain (in a given time) becomes less significant. Creep is a function of slrcss and temperature. creep is readily apparent at stresses approaching the tensile strength. The total strain at m?tti. below which creep is absent.ii)sequent recovery: Creep can occur at lower tenpera:ure but at relatively higher stress levels. in relation to thi: instantaneous strain. . This is followed by seccndary creep CD. The la!ter is called creep rupture. In a room temperature tensile test.. After the initial sudden extensim AB (occurs in zero time on :he scale used). A x Creep is a time dependent strain. on a base of time. Ill DifJcrcntini cxmmci~n smnctirnrs hc n prohlern mn * T l e location of cracks may leave ins~ifficientparent metal to achieve proper ~. ro define when creep will be a factor. creep leading to fractu. .Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Vol. arbitrary criteria have to be selected. there is an imrwdizte recovery of strain (according to Hooke's I-dw) but negligible sl. as com?ared to high temperature creep. in which the creep rate is constant with time. At lower :. Q.e is typic~lly only a smd1 frxticn of the valm to h c t u r e in a comparative tensile test. Iir engineering design. cr accelerating. I t is not possible to define an absolute Limit. Finally. at any point on the curve. Explaln the actions of following metallurgical phenomena: Creep a n d stress rupture. in which the strain rate decrexes with time. shows several distinct stagzs.

coarse. piain carbon and !ow alloy stesls were considered adequate for use upto 550 OC. than is expected to be eventually expected ii. go. 0. However.. service. lead with a melting point of 3 2 6 ' ~ exhibits similar creep phenomena at room temperature as does nickel (with a rnelting point ot.refractory metals are being developed. at either higher :emperaiures or ili~!lr: ctrcsses. whic!i have high mdting points. Different pure metals have similar creep characteristics.g.5% Mo) were then used. Mild steel. when tested at the same temperature ratio. For use above 1 OOO'C. Hencr the high meltin? point metals are the basis of creep-resisting alloys. Ni. Brittle fracture is characterised by very high speed propagation. used extet~sivelyin ships can behave in this manner. For example. rollowed by the >!inwnic ( or high nickel) all'ys. E. can fracrure in a brittle manner. are the a!lcys containing metals with 'high creep resistance. NI The parameter of importance is the ratio of the operating temperature to the melting point (on an absolute scale). before fracture. in some cases.ial plastic deformation takes place. The main protection against creep. Tests of even one year's duration are costly (and lenzthy). ar? used. Alloying will modify the creep behavior at a ziven remperatwe ratio. Niobium (melting point 1950 ' c ) . crystalline surface often exhibits 'chevrons' ('Vee' markings) which point back to the source of fractuie.-- -- Advanced Manne Eng~needng Knowledge Vol. with very little prior plastic deformation.d stainless steels ( I 8% Cr. especially graphite. Usually the alloys will contzin molybdenum. slop can be suppressed. bur subsequent developmenrs forced operating temperatmes above 1his Speci. so that substan. with ' c r e ~ p 'being domirianr above 400 k.. Normally ductile materials undergo 'slop' within the structure. norinally considered quite ductile. Tungsten (melting poim T387 'c).Thesc largely satisfied !he requirements of steam and diessl powzr plants upto the 1940s. Brittle Fracture : : i Some nxtals. Above 1 5 0 0 ' ~ ceramics. Extrapolalion of creep curves to longer times than the experimental data Is a mbjor fac:oi i i l the cievtlnpmenr ornew alloys and for the provision of design -data' o i estabiisned materials.155 'c) at 600 OC. Considering cornponen!s for high temperatQres. yet many engineering compotieiits are intended for ten or more years life. such that the fracture occurs suddenly. Molybdenum (melting point 2622 U C). T i e bright. The tendency of brittle fracture to occur increases with:- . 11 is usual lo carry 0111 creep tests over a limited period.

is : esccpi glrss artd is one of the most commox causes of failure of engineering cornponenls. or sgupporr points . comers of open. simplest rype of laboratory fatigue test. even below it's nominal yield stress.3. This can lead to i'ract~~re. rigs. Charpy or Izod. -notch-ductile' std is ir~ ciitiial posirioils. Hence thicker plate are more prone than thin plates. Thicker plates may be wed. i: g. shear strake. usually associated with the presence of notches or stress concentrations. On fully welded s h o p . . The specimen is slightly 'waised'. vhict? would seriously lower the observed fatigie strength.%reiil p ! 6 3 rivetzd toge. whilst supporiing deadwsight loads. in o!der ships.rnaximun~stress at any section occurs at the surface and fluctuates hariiioriically about zero.i: may b a sudden change from ductile to brittlc bekaviors. The effect o f low tenqxrature can br: simulated by a notched bar impact test. This i's type of L~ili~re: known as fatigue failure. e. E. and the specimen is rubjecced to aliwnating bending moments. It wm!d be impractical to remove every possible notch or stress coriccntration. Varioi~s loading arrangements can be used.st piece tested in a inborator) ? Expiain the influence cf rnateriai def:xts. . ro prevent fracture developing at the loadin:.in other words. kezl.her. Ans. l'l~e load on many str~xtiti-a! components varies repeatedly.e. . the region of failure is 'selected' by indilcirig a change iri section. explain t h e i n f u c n r e o C i t r r s s level a n d cyclic frequency c n expcct-d operating life. How i s a 7'c. bilge strake. I f the energy ro fracture is plorted against tcmperatttrc tl1ei. Q. With reference to fatigue of engineering centponents. fix tiit. a lest piece is rotztcd coririrutoitsly. Also. in service.8. i. of hisher strength.. ( h ~ . This is known as : the 'ductile-brittle' transiti~n. between equal maximum tensile and compressive strcssi:s. Arresting techniques can be used to prevent the spread of cracks. since the crack could not propzgate GCriiSS cj. Ill The presence of tri-axial stresses.g. Very gen!le changes of secrion must be used [a avoid stress concentrations. high tensile steel. even thougii the maximum load (stress) is very nnxh lower than the n~~ . 1 occurs in all classes of materials. rivettd seams would arrest the crack.Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Vol. the working temperature cannot be altered. Low temperatures. High swain rates. on safe operzting life o f engineering components.~ t i a lukirnaie tensile sir-rigth.

there is no apparent plastic deformarion. succ?sslve specimens. recognition of a fatigue fracture is not so easy. using or log-log scales. Unlike the tensile fracture. fatigue. me S-N curve is sometimes divided into two regions.1 Advanced Marine Engineering Knowiedge Vol. Below tkis. or endwance strength. starting at a high stress level and progressively red~lcingsrress or. the effect is known as high stress. These are called as S-N Diagrams. . the S-N curve approaches a finite stress aptitude. however great the number of cycles. The appearance of a fatigue fracrure has several characteristic features(at least i n ductile materials such as Mild steel). 11 A series of identical specimens are tested to fracture.-'a fraciwe will not develop. decreases with increasing number of cycles. In materials with less ductility. b < NGN-FERROUS The S-N diagram indicates that the fatigue strength. such as alumin~mallays. Below N = lo4 cycles. adjacent to the fracture. or low cycle. Typical S-N s~mi-log diagrams h r non-ferrous and ferrous metals are shown. For ferrous metals and a v e v few others. The stress anlp]itudes (S) are plotted against the number of cycles to fracture p). called the fatigue limit. fatigue Above N = 10' cycles. it is known as low stress. or high cycie.

wiai give 6ifferent results in laboratory fatigue tests. A knowledge of the behaviour of the . 9. have a limited working Life ? Ans. Fatigue cracks usually start from some point of stress concenlralion. subject to fatigue. than do larger specimens or the actual structures.6 Endurance Pounds per sq. mini~sculeitrains thar are no. This in turn leads ro thz formation of sub-niicroscopic cracks.?ciatciies. s h a v fillet.There are a number of reasons for this. micro-structural defect or even a bad tool mark. Tine surface finish has a tremcndous sfiec: on fatigue strength :Type of finish Surface rougkness Micro inches Ground Lapped Super-finish 16-25 12-20 5. p. poor distribution of load between bolts and weld flashes. coaxeness of the:surface. Fatigue cracks are not necessarily the result of tiulry niateriai. Sometimes. What is the effect of surface finish on this ? Why does a component.!rticularly when there are stress concentrators. . 9 1 . the lower the fatigue strength. Small specimens of represenrative 111al. inch. The influence o f cherniczl~actionis complex and difficult to reduce to quarililativc terms.000 Designiltg against failure by fztigue. such as a key-way. until failure occurs. bad design vill limit the working cross-section of a coinpollcnt subjected to alternating stresses.Advanced Marine Engineering Knowiedge Vol. Ill @ Q. completely recoverab!e are pi-oduced. In each half cycle. Any "locked-in" stress from bad welding cool out or thermal stress can rnakr: a signiiicant contribution. is very much itlore cornp!ex and dific~ilt riian designing for static st!-ength. which include the high sensitivity :o local stress concentrations and rhe larse dr:)cndence on the corrosive environment.egi:arities.00 i 16. The minute strains tend to be at grain boundaries and around surface in. Due to this thcre is a gradoal reduction i l i ducti!iry in the incremenrally strhin hardened areas. the effect of these crack is to concentrate stresses.OOO 100. The decrease in usable strength under cyclic leading iz directly attributed to the fact that the material is not an idcal homogenous d i d . Fatigue. Explain what is meant by fatigue. The larger the specimen. too-small fillet radii. This explains the minute attention that is required to be given to the cross-section. These are only a few of the frequent causes of fatigue failure.

Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Vol. TIlr percentage.8% carbon. i Steel is x alloy of Iron. Upto 1. 11 1 material in fatigue will allow an assessment of the useful life of the component to be made. like a reddish brown dust Ferric oxide. even fiesh water Col~osion resistance of a material is more impcrtant then its static tensile strength. -~~. as for kxample. in holding-down bolts. the fatigue strength in air is nluch higher than in water.8% carbon can exist in steel as a chemical compound called iron Carbide. when running. in 'grey' Cast Iron. so that i t can be replaced. The changes ofproperties. I O . For plain steels. plain carbon steels show a marked reduction of fatigue strength in fresh water .wo commsn alloys of iron: * -~ ~ a) Sreel m d b) Cast Iron. A ~ / Q . For example. s t r e ~ g t h . after an appropriate working period. ductility and Hardness. Properties of steel in the normal state are :_Strength. with refereace to hardness and ductiiily.. the following changes lake place:- . This enables the steel properties to be modified by heat treatment. The corrosion products formed.ductility and fl hardness change wit!> heat treatment ? What are the processes in tile treatment of steel ? hr Ans. but easily machinabl. of carbon present. with carbcn as the al!oyinp element. 2. exists in the form of flakes of pure graphite. in determining the corrosion fatigue strength. This makes the material weak in tension. when the fretting corrosion destroys the joint faces. As the carbon percentage increases. in the case of steel. such as a bot1om end bolt of a four stroke engine. can help to detect this condition. when two components at-e pressed against each other. while Cast Iron has between 2% and 4% carbon. when subjected to heat treatment. Thus slight but repeated relative motion occrrs. How do the properties of. A similar phenomenon is frrtting cormsicn. There are two factors of importance to the marine engineer : I. Explain how the toughness of steel can be improved. Thete are . Steel has less :han 1. The carbon. while chromium steels are only slightly affected by water and the corrosion fatigue strength is unaffected. determines it's properties. The properties of steel in its normal state.

and dfter 0. The comprcssivr strength of the Cast iron is mush higher 690 MN/n12.2% ' carbon is much harder :hen steel with 0.ti value given is from the tensile test only. which indicates that this material is best siiii. in case of the high carbon steel. the Ductility is reduced. on the strength is that up to 0. are:. Both the low and high carbon sti-el are capable of being machined in the normal state. .83 %.i~. the streugth reduces. She effect of carbon. in its grey form. Cast Ilon has a lower meiring point than steel and is much easier to cast. Strength . NI Hardness : This increases with increase in carbon content. D~tstitily : As the hardness increases with carbon content.2 % carbon. so it should not be subjected ro shwk loails. ht1 g n 250 i DuctilityNegligible Harness 280 Brinnel I Compared with steel. to prevent 'scrface hardening'. the strength increiszs.tii:s of Cast iron. chari of properties and carbon content is listed below for comparison. . I t is also very brittle.. the value of the strength of Cast iron is very low. -20% 1 125 ! Prop::i. bent.e. ? Carbun Content . steel with 1. - MNI~' Ductility( %) !ensile Srreng! Hardness No. as is the mallcabi!ity.Advanced Mar:ne Engineering Knowledge Vol. although the speeds of machining must be low.i:il to compressive loads.83%. Thus mild steel can be cold worked. due to brittleness. altl~o~. i. and manipulated in presses but medium and high carbon steel has to be 'hot worked'.

If a h a d stzel is heated to ibe correct temperature and cooled ~lowly. a partial change occurs and the steel becomes very tough. If a steel in an abilorn:ally hard rough oranrl. by heat treatment.'annealed'. tz revert back and stee! %ill be very soft oi. ill Heat frei~trnentof steel : There are four processes. containing enough carboll. oil. 4. thzt tock place due to hrat. the ihanges d o not y have time to rever! tack and the steel is hard. 2 Hardening Tempering Ameaiing biormalising 1. . drv sand. If steel. it wi!! retuiw to its normal state and is said to be 'normzlised'. the form. !f cooleii slowly= t quenching ii. If cooled quickly in water.c any streszes are r-lieved.Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Val. C H U T TREATMENT 1 CHART TEMPERATURE ZONE FOR AND HARDENING % CARBON .depend on carbon content and can be shown in a simple graph. by ~radualiy cooling down. These 2re:- I. correct temperature and cooled in sti!l air. The temperatwe whele these changes take p i x . that the cerbon is in. or in the furnace in itself. The cooling-down process is conriolled. is lieaisd t c certain temperatures. there be m p l e time fo: changes. changes.eaIed state is heaied to lhi. by which the properties otsteel can be modified.

without appreciable plastic flow and at low average stress. before cooling the steel. . determine iocghness . Ctmpy test uses a similar size of specimen. moving at 3. This was found first observed in heat-treated al!oy steels. thzt the.50 OC above the critical temperature. with i ~ i $ l nor eloi~gatiofiand reduction of area.4 $9 ... by a 27. .$ Note that the temperature is 900 OC for pure iron.83% carbon.5 mls. .s .2 kg pendulum. i r may fractrtre in the presencs o f a notch or crack.~ . for treatment of plain carbon s!eels. ~ the lzod and Charpy tests. was questionable. to measure a as marcrial's ability to withstand stress concentrations. the opposite is ~mfr. low 'notch m!ghr!ess' may occur in metals. with u root radius 0.Evec thou$ a material is diictile in a tensile test..e. which was a highly ductile and standard construciional material. :o a depth of 12 mni..a $:.ir~ately ti~!e. Q. .+a. of' thc pendulum. following fractures in many of the early ail-welded ships. Various notchedbar..13. were developed.x & . '. It was observed. due t o i h e absence of any form of heat treatmefit tiler. such as $lass or ceramic.-. . -3 1 ~--~ 1 . impact tests.: : & irrur * . will have very i o ~ y notch toughness. GQ $~. in th:: rnarmer necessay to give the required properties. IIi .-c -.the Izod Impact Tcst. 0nt:ine the test carried-out fi. lr: the Izod tea. . Y & ? SZ . the top of which is level with the notcli.g e :I - . Discxss how rviil ycu repair a high pressure steam pipe by welding. the specimen is a square bar (10 x 10 mnl). However.c_.--.-. .t~. riotch toughness of mild steel. standard tests of notch toughness. in the absence of any -stress raiser'. falling to 7 0 0 ' ~ lor 0. i2 = . i. To ensure thut the desired changes !lave occurred. I: is held verlically in a vice. witli a notch cut in 2. the notched side.-. in rhe presence of any stress concentration.r. The on c n e y y (ir~ Joule) absorbed in fracturing the spccinlen or bending i t to a!low fiee pasxi!!:.*+ .25 mm. is obtained fioiii the decrease in amplitude of the l l ~ I .l . 'Notch toughness' is a measure of a material's strength.? : i $&-& : E. * . and other similar metals. Brittle materials. . but have qu!R iiigir strengths. It is thus possible in determine the correct temperatures. and ensure that it's properties a r e nut lost? Ans. such as a notch or a crack.--. These temperatures where changes take place are called Critical temperatures.. tension test. The Izod and C h a q y tests are srill [hi. will fracture readily at a notch or surface xratch.--Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Vol. in which a 45' ilotch. s u c .. A crsck can propagate through mild steel.$ tp :! . after which temperature is constant for increase in carbon content. Brittle materials. the component must be heated to 20 . in a straigh!. Explain 'Notch toughness' in mzteria!~. with little plastic deformation and at low applied stress (75 MN/rn2). iz cut across one face. above which change occurs and below which any change cannot occur. . and the fi-ee end s!si~c!<. those that fracture wid? little plastic deformation. Similarly. . the chiet' p1-obIen1being in high strength alioys.

. With reference to corrosion in See water systems. caused by turbulence. A Iaqe copper sheer nailed down with steel ins . d. The rate of corroxive attack depends on how much curien~. . w i ~ hcorrosion of the latter (anode) taking 1e place. Any variation in Ion ccncentration against a mrtaliic suriace will give rise to similar corrosion. if the two nletais are close on the galvanic table.. De-zincification of Brass Graphitisation Stress Corrosion Impingement Attack. wliich b m and collapse. Cavi!atic~ 4 t t z s k 'Rate o f Corrosion' Attack. This airack not only removes any protective films. This is refe-red to as Electro-chemical corrosion. e. (current density). Nowadays. Corrosion Cells If one part of z metal surface is esposed to a higher concentration of oxygen than another part. Ill the middle. b. A common example is a partially throtiied sea-waler value.Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Vol. Snnd Erosion Bacterial Attack. Q. Am. until a hole appears and the component fails. i t is considered that a material is satisfactory in service.i2. over a sniall aiea of metal surface. The current is less. c. if used above the transition telmpereture range and unsafe below i t . Tllr energy absorbed 11: a test (at room temperature) was iegarded as a Sllffi~ieilt criterion of a material's resistance to ii-acture. f . Over a transition iempera!iire range. g. briefly discuss : . but physically removes n~etal. on the opposite side to the notcli. acts on the anodic area. per unii ar-e. 11 is simply supporrd 21 botli ends and st[-itck with a 27.. the energy value c h a ~ g e s fairly a p i a l y from a high vrtiuc to a low one. the higher osyoenated area tends to become positive and r : lower area negative (anodic). the energy ?bsorbed is measured as a function of the temperatilie.~.2 kp pendulum in the middle. Cavitatioa Attack Cavitatian attack is due to t!x hammering effect of streams of vapour buihles.

where the filins al-c undamaged. the flow carrying entrained air bi~bbies. as the anodic area would be very large. File by addition of small amounts of tin (1%) helps to retard this corrosion. as there is little chaage in outward appearance. can also assist the attack. consisting !argely of graphite. Partial fouling. if a large sheet of steel were fastened with copper pins. where thc impingement takes place. by debris and lack of ail. the attack on the sreel sheet would be negligible. as compared with the small cathodic area of the copper pins.This effect can occur even if the tiow velocity is loi. become the anodic amls. where flanges are out-of-line and there are sharp bends. - Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Vol. Certain brasses can be inhibited from this attack by the additior of zrna!l amount of arsenic. the mctal Is uoequally stressed. Typical factors contributing to impingement attack are badly designed or as:jeinbicd systems. This attaCK is aiicn vverlooked. The attack on the metal follows the lccal renloval of the (nom~al) protective film.however.- . leaving behind a porous weak spongy copper. Ill would result in a large cathode area (copper sheet) and a small anode area. the faster the flow velocity. the greater the rate of corrosion. Dc-zincification Of Brass : This is the removal cf the zinc from tlie brass a!iciy. The continuo~rsimpingement of sea water prevsnts any pissivaiing film from re-forming. Graphitisation In sea w a t q the imn matrix of cast iron can be selectively corroded away. . Tne galvanic effect of qaphitisarion can be serious on adjacent "no!i-ferrous" compontnts. ?he laypi vi' yiC~phite remainin2 is more noble than any of t k copper-alloy compoiii-m. The subsequent corrosion is caused by ammonia. Thesites. The more complex brasses can not be ~nhlbi?ed this method. Thrse would be an intense attack on the steel pins.Lweeii adjacent areas.. Ie'iving behind a Fragile sile!l. liowever. hence their corrosion can follow the graphitisation of cast iron. .~. (Single 1)hast: brassesj. This stress can be enough to set up a galvanic coupit: ibi. If a brass component is "cold worked" by being bent and shaped. whicl: sets u p a concentrated attack at the grain bouxdaries in the areas of unequal stress.. b~tiichare surrounded by the large (unaffected) cathodic areas. Stress Corrosion.release pipes. lmpinpernent Attack This is the result of the devdopment of high speed turbulenr flow in the waccr.

r. .. as well as protects the systenr.r .upto..... The natural cxide films can be ieinforced by iron compounds i n the water...unl w a k r speed. lion addition can be ferrous sulphate dosing into the sea-yarer stream. !o avoid inipingernent attackfAluminium Brass (76% Cu. Q.ide iron compounds. . =' . and the shadow formed is studied.. each material lias an optiil. Using the impressed current technique has the advaiitaze of avoiding the handling of 1ar. ferrous cornponenu..5 misec Titanitlm cart.~.. This prrve:lts ciirrosion pf t h t anose material... ~. o ~ ~ .nl/sec . Slight overdosing.(anaeiobic) produce hydroger. which could he a lhazard.. T h e abras~vzeffect o i sand can ca. .~ ~.. 4.. Ans. This can result.~ ..13 Describe each of the follorving Non-destructive tests (NDT) a) Radiqgrapky. 3 . ~ Sand Erosion.. This method controls the rate of coil-osion. ~~~. bclr also pro-. Radioirxplty This reveals rhe presence and nature of discontinuities. This occurs in ~ h a l i o w waiers. in a well designed system. eithci. sulphide. but excessive amounts can build iip the themal resiztancp to hear transfer. d) Magnetic psrticle test.. .Even with sniooth flow. sustain.e aruounis of dosing chemicals. Bacteria ~ t i a c k .."enera1 thinning or canassist corrosion by removing protective films. 2%AI) .. Hence sacrificial anodes of soft iron not only provide protection. frcm ley-up or prolonged period . .10-12 inls and is iniperviou$ to any rapid changes in velocity.ed.. The . .in pol1u. bacteria.. . . . ihrough the anode. in the interioi of welds and castings.on . but opposite current. c) Ultra Sonic. ~~ .7rn/sec Cu-Ni (9011 0 with 2%Fe a n d l %Mn) .... 22"/oZn. which can result in considerabi: eorro~ion f the. Gamma Rays. watei-s.:sc a ..:. by impressing an equal.is not harmful... bj X-rays. ~3. assist inresisting inrpii?gen~ent attack. .. A layer or film of hydrate ferric oxide deposits. Short wave radiation s ~ t c h a s x-rays or gamma rays ai-e passed through the object being examined. Protection can also be achieved by impressed current.. - Cu-Ni (70130 with I0/3Fe and I%Mn) ..

5. casting faults such a s sl~i-in!cage r ~cavities. However.g. a i - i'his method uses the reflection of sound waves. Cobalt 60 has a half-life of 5. 192 is roughly equivalent to a 500. be ~sercised with the use of x-rays. such as i!~adeqitatejoint penetration. The quantity of x-rays emitted. and their posiri'ons are marked by regions o f contrast. Iriditur.but due to decay. this method is be coin in^ mot-e popl. tllan x-rays or other radio-active means. and this sensilivity c m be checked by placing or. cracks and such defects absorb less radiation than docs the sound metal. slag). Blowholes. 60 mm or grre3. . Being safer for the o!)eriitor.06 7. w small as 2% o f the object thickness. for steel. rnoie psnerratinz x-rcys.1.:iil ul' area covered. 111 film placed &hind the object.3 yean arid is useful.000 V x-ray set. sonic being attenuated (absorbed). since neither electrical power nor water supp!y is required. !he side o f the object. dark or light. the attenuation being a function o f the density and thickness o f the weld.increasing the Voltage produces harder. depending on the type o f image obtained. 1000 Tube Voltage (kV) I50 250 Half value :hichess (mm) 4.0. The quality of the rarliaiinn depends on thz valthge applied to the tube .0. depends on the electron cunent. by a peizo. incornplere fusicn.00 15.g. Defects.electrical crystal.49 car^ is ti. its limitation is t!ae ext.g. on strikinx a metal target. X-rays are produced by d~wornposXonof radioactive substances . measured by a millimeter. stepped pieces of meaa\l e. porosity. cracks and other weld defects.Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Vol.ilar. Pulses of high frequency sound waves are applied to :he cornpolleiit under test. tilie to its environmentally friendly nature. G a m m a Rays This radiation is used for outdoor work and in confined spaces. Typical faults revezled by radiography incixdc rim-rnztollicl inclusions (e. Penetration powcr is given by the thickness of the material required to have the amount of radiation -e. No1 ail a fluorescent screen or on a the radiation penetrates the component. a s regards per~ct~xting power and has a useful life of 40 days.0 rnrn to provide contrasting degrees of absorption. where a greater pcnefrating power is required.2. X-Rays are generated when a %ream of electrons from a fiiarneni is suddcnly stopped. can be detected.g. 0. a s radiation above a certain levcl cart cause harm to ihc body.m thickness of steel plste. the strength of the sour%: decreases with time (Half life). 1. c.

so that the position of the signal. or sound waves. small surface openings.is the:. When penetration is complete.Advaiiced frlarine Engineering Knowledge Vol. through a liquid (usually a film of oil). like cracks. which draws penetrant from a defect and produces fluorescent indications under U~ V. There are different types of penetrants. In the intervals between pulses. Dye Penetrant : 'Jses visible dyes. The sound wave is in the . applied. in Iieb of the older iitcthod of drilling holes to analyze wastage. 111 The electrical pulse protluced by the instrument is converted. the excess penetrant must be removed. and is drawn inrr. by chalky dtveloper. in a siiniiar Magnetic Pnrticle Inspection A magnetic iield is established in a colilponent of ferromagnetic material. and !he surface from which it originates~ By inoving a probe siid <akin2observations from other surfaces. applied by dipping or spraying. by a transducer. gives an indication of the distance between tlx crystal generator. rev:a!ed way to the fluorescent process. The signals received are siiown ori a cathode ray tube (CXT). A dry powder method is commo:ily used. A developer.ultrasonic' frequency range of I . l i ~ h t . or from any flaws in the pat11 of tlie beam. which ais applied to tlie surface and observed in cracks^ aftcr tile excess lias heen rrnioved. the extent and shape o i t h e flaiv can be clearly determined These readings are acceptab!e for siirveys. which was a destructive test. oil the screen. t h a are oprn ra the surface. by capillary action.5 mHz. such as cracks or pores. The sound bean] generated is introduced into the component under test. which excludes air and permits the passage of sound. Dye Penetrnnt Inspection This is a sensitive techniques icr locatiz: minute discontinuities. followed by hot air d~ying. but a colloidal water suspension may be used. Fluorescent : Highly fluorescent liquid with good penetrating qualities is applied ro the surface. which has a time-base connected to it. a crystal detects the echoes e reflected either from the far e d ~ of the component. so in . fluorescen! and visible dfe. Disconti~iuitics the component cause a break in the path of magnetic flus. into n~echanicalvibrations. to avoid interference with actual defect observation.

hi:h amperage a d low vc!tage. i .it11 liiizly divided Ferro-magnetic povider particles ( e . the magnitude and direction of the eddy cul-rents are aircierl by ciiscs:itinuities in the metal.omica1 than penetrant inspection. sensitivity drops rapidly. . weld faults such as incomplete fusion. in i m g e t i c materials. Ep% -. may not he rcatliiy tlistiiigiiished.i. . and requires less clean in^. Thus. this rnelhod can only be used with Fel-ro-magnetic materials . an alrernatii~g eli:i. that may occur in the form of cracks. I'. may cleate discontin~iities... -. the positions of defecti are ~cvealzdby observation of magnetic jmr?icle distribution or lines of force. AC or rectified cuirent.For the laner.~*Q.g. bz>oi:d zbout j mt:~ hclow the surhce Typical processes use DC.k%ee ~m. The magnetic particlr methods has the advantage. i t rvill reveal subsurface f l a w . any differences in i?!agiictic characterisrics of ma:erials. ro ie:isrrr the tliscut~liruti~y Since eddy citrrcnts may he induced in any conductor. scnirvs.. ‘ I =@&3$ 1- . ~ .ti. in dissinilar metal joints. some discrirninatioii may be ctbtained. :!lose filled with slag.attraction for fine-n~agne!icparticles. iron i i i i n ~ s ) bein2 applied dry or froin a suspension. voids and s o on. Also.or~~agneric:i: iidd is usually produced Sy an inductor of suitable shape. may be two-fold : eddy currexts are induced and. Muii-mapetic materials 111Eddy ccrrent tesis. that it will reveal defec~s under thin paint films or plating.Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Vol Ill that minute poles are established at these discontinuities.d Eddy current tests are those. These poles have a sirongel. sub-surface cracks. since tli. in close proximity lo thc tezt area. magnetic as wcll as rrowmagiietic marerials can be invesdga~cd. usual!). \\. and any such change is picked op by a ciekctor coil.. which out-line the irregularity. and can be used to deteci swhcc cr sub-surface discontinuities. Defects which may be detected are surface cracks of all kinds. fiequenrly applied thorough two probes. *$ . The effect of an Electro-magnetic fiei. it will also I-weal those defects that are not open cracks and therefore not detectable by dye pew:[-ant. requiiin~the area under test ro be s~~bjecteci to \he influence of an alternating elecrroinagnetic field.i t cannot be used for non-ferrous alloys or austriitic sreels. e. on the !est area.:lciy Ctirrent (Electromagnetic) Testing . w : g r & .whici~elroneously indicate fauits. The outlines of s~b-surface fli~ws may not be acctirate. than the surrounding 'sound' parent niatei-ial. ina:pt:tic fields are set up These two effects. if the material is magnetic. and is h e r and more ecor. but with experience. that acts upon appropriate electronic circuitry. caxfiil sekction of the mngne~izing ficqucncy. . Sowever.

15.voltage. Analysis sf Cast Iron : Carton Man.0% 0.c'anese Silicon Phosphorous Su!p!lur 2.he above analysis. liaving . Give the analysis of a cast-iron considxed sui:able for cylinder liners..ust he kept to a minimum ? Ho!v can the tensile srr-ength be incl-exsed incf tile :-esistnnce to wenr bc i n ~ p r o w d ? Q. relative to each other. 11 1 Wlngnetic materi. The frequency of the e. sinr. in the fwnace.f.Il ainounts of c h r m ~ e nickel may be used. The involves sxrounding a coniponent with coil(s) and moving [he two. State the mechanical properties of the cast-iron. Alternatively. Cast-ii-on.! "/o The Silicon content shou!d be kept as low as possible. What impurity n. by the additioii of mild steel scrap to the pig iron chalge.tiun. when subjected to continued heating. a d these variables are analyzed electronicaily. 1-hese cuboids take the load from the journal or pin and transmit i r to the s u p p o r r i n ~ .by comparing faulty and sound material respoilses.7 % 0. The wear resistance can be ilnprovrd and by small additions of vsnadiun~. The tcnsile strengtli of cast-iron is iornetimes increased. current. Silicon pr31110te~ growth in cast-iron.Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Vol.m. The antin~ony forms cubes or cuboids. changes in the eddy current or the magnetic flux may be interpreted bv means of several different variables .-ptll oipenctr. which are very hard.. but is usually in the ranze of 500 to 20. Q. impedance. fieid depends on t l ~ e 3. to provide the desired informstion in a usehl form . has a tensile strength of appiasimateiy 216bfNIm'.000 Hz. This ma!& is sufficiently sofi to acconimodate the small changes in alignment betuxen the journal and the beal-inz surfaces. gescribe the composition of white-metal bearings~ Ans. f\lii.tls The distribwion of magnetic flus is affected by discontinuities i n the inateria.14. The tin content for~nsrhe matrix.0 YO 1.4 % C. ph2se or seine combination thereof.

*. a white-metal is analysci! as follows : 111mIysis Tin Antimony Copper Cadmium 38 % 8% 4% traces 126 . The copper constituent prevents segregation. require a different netal.- ~dvanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Vol. When the white-metals ingots are melted. es:reine care ! n u s be exercised to p v e n t overheating the metal. from a more flexible cssembly with a thick layei. very stiff crosshead asseniblies. slow speed. Give the analysis of white-metal. forming long needles which interlace ic a crisscross pattern through the liquid tin. to prevent separation of the consrituer~ts. For example. +$:d .ing.16. when bearings are centrifugally cast.is Tm ~ntinlony Copper Xi ?-lo% 4-5 - 38 ?A YO The white metal used for diesel engine bearings. y< For modern. W i : - . suitable for diesel engine Main and Rotlo~~i-end bearings What are the special requirements of the xvhite-metal ustd in cr?ss:tcad hearin23 ? >\?s. the antimony ctbes tend to float and co:igiornerare. a process referred to as 'segregation'. in an evenly dispersed pattern through the tin matrix. The copper has a high melting point and solidifies firs. for each bearing. nwst be formulated initially h r ? previous experience. . The requirements OF the white-metal depend on the design of thc b::ar. is produced by metal refiners and sold u d e r various brand names. The interlaced copper needles hold the antimony cubes. Thc requirements. Cadmium improves the toughness of the bearing metal and helps prevent fatigue. 'flir: loads placed L i the crosshead bearings of modern engines are extt-cmely heavy. When the bearing is being cast 3 r d the white-metal is in molten state. highly rated crosshead engines. Care must be also exercised. and then modified following service experience. 1 I I I I Q.+A + $ : L s~ . . prior to casting.$& . They also have a high resistance to wear.Anal-/!. with a thin whitei!l?tk!l layer. to g i w the desired characteristics.* -.k:. IN tilatrix.

Plastics are made u p g f lono. Due to its low fric~ionairesistance. Wlint a r c pi.\ ensines. One material. The cotisriruent moiec~rlesw e c a ~ b o n and i ~ y d r o ~ e n compou:xis.!easances.I t is to:!fh: lins n lo\\. it may be used as a packins hi.~stics?Where is use made of plastics.fZzli. and can be machined from rod 0'. This rnatei-iai has a very low coefficient of friction and rezistslieat.pump shafis with !ligh rubbing speeds PTFE is supplied in moulded 0rings. This is a clear vlasric. . A wide range of plastic matel-ials are ~iscdlo make marine paints and surface coatings. in diesel ertgincs and ancillary equipment? Name the p1:rstic used. which gave ~ o o dservice in old water-iubricared bearings is Tufnol. They swell i i i warei.moleciiles. I t gives se~wice pump and valve g l a n d s 11 in 1x1s also been used as an additive in m i l e l~ibe oils. . sound absorbcnls andhohding cements. Their use is limited to insiru~nen~s electrical 5ttin:s.bearinss in pumps and on screw si~afts. or in shtet or shredded fom:. / / I Q. I t is used for glanii packing or for coalina coriveniional soft packins. i t also has soud chemical rcsisrancr in the presence of oil. t!ierrnal ir~sulation. and imay also contain a wide i-anze oisoal or petro:eum oils. cliains of identicai.Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Val. coi. it is also inilde into fihres. c o n ~ n > o n ! ~ me6 for instrument glasses. Poly-tetra-flirro-etliylene (PTFE or. They a:-e used hi.piale sections. The and Nylon This iliareid is iised for small bushes and ~earwlieels it1 i~isliulnents. ieve! gauge tubes (not for boiler or high presscrsteam service). arid Gear case si$i glasses. to reduce the fi-iction at start-up Phenolic resins. These resins are ilornially bonded with linen or othm fibrotis materials.17. an acrion to be considei-ed. Plostics have so far not been sjed for any 31 the rnajor components of dies. i ~ e they arc polymers.pix). I'oly-mriiryl-nierha-zcry!ete (Pel-. when calcularin~ bearing i.'I'eilon).ni o f li-iclion.

30 m g K g (maximum). 7iscosity 700 Cst at 50 O (maximum). Ans. justify the need to have proper ~~erifications. IS0 8217. for distillate fnets: a measure of igcition Cetaue surnberquality Cataiytic finesabrasicn A typical fuel specification for a main propulsion marine engine : ncnsiq 991 Kg/m3 (maximum). A!urnZitium '/madium 600 mgKg (maximum). for use with their e~gines. 30% ofthe Vanadium content Viscosity Density Flash point Pour point Carbofi resiche- ij .1. fuels -7 I n the case of marine fuel oils. 5 % b y weight (maximum).2 % by weight (maximum). and CIMAC. which give limi~ing specifications for each grade of fiiel oil. Engine nanufacturers usually specify the required fnd parameters.g. State typical fuel specifications data for a two-stroke main propulsion engine. Water Ash 0.&v 5 . cylinder m d turbocharger deposits. L3S ns 6843. Sodium .. solidification in tanks and pipelines. H e a ~ y oil (marine) fuel Standards have formulated by various o r g ~ ~ i z a t i o e. 1 % by weight (maximum). Asphalt sulphur . Sulphur corrosive effect '/anadium undesirable by itself. C 22% by weight [maximum). ~onracison carbon 14% by weight (maximum). but when present with sodium. J fouling of gas ways and piston rings. Water sods!m content of salt water. C Flash Point 60 O (minimum). leads to exhaust valve corrosion. Specification for fue!s would indicate: handling prehelting and centrifuging C usually measured at 15 O fire risk factor. LA 5 :&'/! .j F.\ZZGnd Q. Ash abrasion. especially with high vanadium content. which can cause overhcating &nd failure. A mass ratio o f 1:3 o f Na:Va can be iroublesome.

/-- J Vanadium Coo A hard. Neurralisation Value .) Foaming Mixture with air causing Cavitation and he3i transfer difficulties. which forms sludge and acids Flash point the temperaare at wnich an lnflvnmable mixture with air is formed. Write a brief note on the adverse effect. As ? general rule. This corrosion is rapid with steels but no metals is immune. In thkcombusti& process. The build-up can be very rapid. b) Sulphur. boundary lubncaiion and oxidation qualities. These compounds. as 'high temperature corrosion'. detergent. there niusl be adequate film strength. the main effect being from the Vanadium. white metallic element. which means. it is tied up in the covalent bond structure of the hydro-carbon. . by washing them away Dispersancy the abl!ity to absorb particles in suspension. Melting point (of the pure metal) . What are the general parameters to be considered for selection of lubricating oil ? Ans. - Viscosity Oxidation Cylinder oil : Cylinder oii should have gcod.the ability to neimaiise acids (TBN No. Q. c) Sodium. the Vanadium compounds adhere to the metal surfaces. since thpre is more coutamination of crankcase oil by hel. may cause:a) Vauadiurn. In marine fuel. ii 'can readily combines to form a variety of 'low melting point' compounds. that a fuel containin%high values of each of the fotlowing. The process is commonly referred to. p-eh+ sodium l l e d ~ k u U/V COI-S:OQ 2 '=? .Marine Engineering Knowledge YoL 1 1 1 Q. [rmk engines require a higher TBN No. Also. among cther things. Iis neutralising qlialitj is given by in TBN Wzmbcr. when in the liquid state. i~eql~iring mcre =ti-oxidant and detergenUdispersan addi:ives.3. typical of which are : Sodium Metavandate.forming needielike deposits. which depends on the Sulphur coqent oithe fuel.1710°C. Detergency the ability to prevent deposit fomaticn. can do a considerable amount of damage by liquid metal anack. d) Ash particles. measure of intermoiecular fiction reaction with oxygen.that it can not be removed easily.5500 kgim3. densty .2. dispersant propefijes. In the solid state. Sodium Vandate and Vanadium Pentoxide.Advnrrced .

iIence. especia:ly at temperatures below the Dew point.-~ ~- Vol. V. is an air pollutant. the Fuels with the lower Specific gavity having the higher Calorific value. then solidify on the first cool metal surfade they meet. !he Paraffic molecule. of high valve of a) Carbon Residue./Sodium ': This is a constituent of fuel.e. What is the adverse effect. The Calorific value is estabiished with the 'Bomb Calorimeter'. ". when cleaning. b) Asphaltenes and c) Ash. out. Hence there is a relationship between Specific gravity and Caiorific value. or may be a part of the chemical stiucture. i. like Vanadium. which is called as 'cold end' corrosion. In the latter case. Calorific Value : The heat value for carbon is 34 MJkg and for hydrogen. (o o[ t h e . 2S02 + o2 = 2. &om the combustion process. per unit volume. M0. contributing to slagginer gas side fouling. r$ . The Paraffin moleiules are larger than the corresponding Na~htha or Aromatic molecules. on Cud quality.y . + H. Ans.O = E2S0. they cmnot be sntrifuged. IN ddvonc~d Murim Engineering Knowledge Note: Dust from Vanadium deposits is an imtant to the respirarory systein. low melting point compounds. for molecules with the same number of Carbon atoms. which can be suspended in the oil. 4./anadill* cOflM-? c $ .S0. . so there are less of them. Tnis ~rocess reiies an cozdensation.vater vapour and the temperahire of the exhaust gas. the catalyct action. it is necessary to provide protection. hence Loth. it is 122 MJkg. 1 I . nom. ~.O~(Catalyst) so. 0 . The presence of free sxygen is required. Sulphur : Sulphur dioxide. Discuss the significance of Calorific values in assessing the standard liquid fuel.. so its removal can be achieved.dly part of the moltcular structures of the fuel. will have a larger heat release. like sodium. I I J Carbon Residue (Conradson Carbon) : This is a measure of the carbonaceous residue remaining. Ash particles : These consist of earth and metal contarnicwrs. Rcoocing of the 'excess' air in the combustion process helps in retarding the fennation of the danaging acid. after destructive distillation of a sampk of oil. 7 - B Y WEIGW. it forms acids. however proper fuel treahnzn: : is still essentia!. and 3ppears in almost all the harm&!.the ~ a r t i a~res.4.Sodium is no: . J r mar. with its greater number of hydmgen atoms. than the equivalent Naphtha o r Aromatic molecule.. (acidj.x SX A . are important. It gives an indication of the graphite carbon forming tendency and is a 132 1 . besides which. The use of 'load contro!lcd' coeling has limited the formation of acids.. and also helps in woidino. They tend to melt or soften in the flame. the density of corresponding Naphtha and Aromatics is greater than the Paraff~n.sure l of the . whi-h has significantly connibuted to the reduction o the 'cold end' conosion problem.

Shouid excessive sludge 3ccur a s a resu!t o f instability Dr incompatibility. These may come from sea water.. should the equilibrium of the suspension be disturbed. but nickel and vmsdium are usually present as oil soluble compounds. provided that the spark has sufficient energy to initiate ignition. elaborate on the importance of 'Auto ignition' temperatures of fuel oil/fubricating oils. The content and nature of ash depend largely upon the source of the crucie oil and the concentrating effect o f the refinery processes uscd. Ash-foming constituents include aluminum. ln m y case. Auto Ignition temperature : Any petroleum vapour. heaters and pipelines.-. dust. silicon.guide lo the Tale of fouling. Ans. Most of these elements exists as oil-insoluble matter in the &el. as to guarantee coixpatibility between fuels from different sources. Piston ring sticking and slagging in boilers is attribstable to high va!ues. However. Fuei oil on-board test kits provide a simple way to test for compatibility. w_:lich have been known to cause extensive damage to fuel pumps and liners> . store difieienr bunkers separately and change-over anly after finishing-off one type. . nickel. iron. . in the flammable range of concentrations can be ignited by a flame or spark. however the s a m ~ l etested ashor? in a laborarory will be able to give a more sccurate analysis. With reference to risks of shipboard fires. s ncverthe!ess incompatible with the first fuel]. --. in producing the residual fuel.. the Asphaitenes remain in suspensiorr. . whenever two fuels are mixed. The presence of aluminum s e 9 y indicates the fear of catalyst fines (from a caralysr cracking process). free from carbonaceousmatter. precipitation of Asphaltenes will nrclir n~ slndee. In a stable fuel. . . causirg the over!oading of centrifuges aid the clogging of filters.5.as far ac practicable. is referred to as ash. in addition to those elements which occur naturally in crude oil. which (althoueh bv itself stable] i-. sodium and vanadium. Thus a risk exists. using filter p3Ger. Q.~ . The source of Aluminum is usually the catalyst uscd in secondary reining techniques. Instability can be caused by heating but is unlikely to cccur unlzss the application of heat has been excessive and prolmged. it is prudent :o avoid mixing of bunkers . calcium. ~ t a b i f i t yand Compatibility : A fuel oil can be looked upon as a dispersion of Asphaltenes in an oily medium. s i x t most icputabie suppliers manufacture their products to provide a reserve o f stability.. it may stan to fall our immerlia:ely in storage tanks. A refiner cannot always manufacture in such a way. dirt. - ~ ~ Ash : The residue. scale from tanks and pipes. catalytic iines. . [oossibly by mixing with a second fuel. which remains afier is burned in air.

--7 I I C r e u e : This is semi-solid lubricant ofhigh viscosity having a filler and soap. The minimum temperatures.Advonced Marine Engineering Knowledge VoL III For such means of ignition. I t remains for a longer time on relatively slower moving surfaces . before any hazard exists. d) Oxidaiion. Lui)r.V I .* : & :. Fortunately. will ignite. * Lacquering. l Q. the lube oil film provides 2 scnl for compression. which is very I much lower than that of a flame. - . due to slow speed. . the vapours of !he more volatile petroleums are ihe less hazardous.. . for 'auto ignition' vary with the hydrocarbon content of the fuel. are the most hazardous. oils ( n o ~ i r i r ~ e roils). It is easy to lubricate parts which are inaccessible I difficult to reach. where there can be no hydm-dynamic 2. .lr5oc.a . the lubricant carries away heat and thus prevents ~t szizure. 650 C !t will be seen &om this. is iri @is context therefore. 3. c) Emulsion. vapour requires to be at such temperatures for a long period. In case of pis tor^ iirlgs.x*. What is Grease and where is it useful ? Explain the foilowiog terms : a) Scuffing. . liquids of intermediate aqd high volatility.ica?ion: The primary purpose. ) : 'What factors can lead to corrosion in White metals bearings ? Aris. b) Pitting. that the heavier and thus the less volatiIe the hydmc. and nlzo helps to keq) o l ~dirt. 4. M . lilrn..? - . Cornpotind lube oils : These consist of 5% to 25% animal or v e e e-. only if a subs!ar~iial body of it is raised to the auto ignition temperature. I! provides essential lubrication.&& . .G. Besides this. Typical 'auta-ignition' temperatures are: Fuel oil vapcur .i ~. 260' C Lube oil vapour 280 C Low Octane Gasoline vapour 390GC High Octane Gssoline Vapour 470 C Methane . Petroleum vapour. . i. howzver. What are the basic purposes of lubrication? Differentiate between d n s r a l lube oils and compound oils. of lubrication is to reduce friction and wml: i t also helps to keep surfaces clean by carrying. i 7 . It also provides a seal. added to the remaining quantity of mineralox al 3 : .. basi: stocks are obtained from thedistillation of crude oil. ?diueiril lube oils : These represect themajority of lube oil used on board. the !on~er the 'auto-ignition' temperature. *. away deposits.

Wear is basically of two types : a) Abrasive wear. Ans. brittle. 3. Lube oil which is conlaminared. can form an emulsion. As a result of a constant high pressure. Corrosion 31 White metal bearings : Wh&metai Tin can corrode. if it becomes detached. bearings are tin based. Additives offer somc protection. if an electrolyte is present. ring grooves. and b) Corrosive wear Abrasive wear depends on several factors. due to overheating. . from this lacqucr layers. where the lubricant film is diflicult to maintain. Emulsion : When two or more liqrids are non-miscible. then L. 2. Oxidation : Some substances have an affinity for oxygen. as well as the journzl.7.g. Lube oil can get oxidised. ?iston skirts. Stress. Pitting : This is seen as minute pits or cracks on bearing surfaces.ey rend to form an emulsion. tin oxide layers occur in patches. Lacquering : These are hard deposits firmed on high temperaturc regions. the size of impurities and the surface finish of rubbing surfaces. Hard. 4. due to the adverse conditions in the cylinder during combustion. Eleceolyte (water or other contaminmt). which can result in a reduction of additives. 5. sludge df a softer nature is more liable :o be deposited.Advanced M o r i m Lzrgineering X n ~ w I e d g e Yo/. ~h~ formation of the oxide layer can reduce clearance. but care must be taken to avoid oil contamination. Surface discontinuities. such as at start-up. in the bewog material. This oxide layer is twice as hard as steel. W h a t is boundar y lubrication ? Explain the term 'hydro-dynamic lubrication'. cause overheating and seizure. Factors contributing to the formation of tin oxide : 1. fatigue prcdiices minute crackirg at contact surfaces. I11 - Terms used in lubrication : Scuffing : This occurs when there is a break-down o f lubrication or oil flow between surfaces. On coolers surfaces. E. causing microscopic tack welding. such as the quality of lubrication. - Q. can damage both the bearing shell. liners. or has deteriorated to jgch a d e g e e that it will not separate &om water. producing compomds which may be acidic and cause severe corrosion. Usually found on the cylinder liner surface. Gil temperature. What a r e the different types of wear found in marine diesel engines ? Explain the ways in which they can be minimised. Bouadary lubrication. and combine 10 form their oxides.

. whlch fuahcr aggravate the problem. there may be micro particles entrained with the lpbricanr. or from the oxidation of M e oil.ties. resuit in large asperitizs 'work hardening' and breaking-off. the rpm and the shafl lqad.sto the greatest amount of abrasive wear of the bearing.siicit as the lubricant viscosity. which may not be :.Advonced Marille Engineering ~ t m k e d g e Vol. a poor surface Snish and insuff~cient mming-in period. the bearing is operating under 'Full fluid-Elm lubr. IrI When observed under a microscope. giving loca: area reduction. Local pockets of lubricant are trapped and the viscosity alterj locally. is what is the reit-rrt-d to a s elasto-hydrodyamic hbrication. This resol!s in wear of the 'high spots'. Factors such as suddcnly increasing load. This value deter-rnir~i:s type of fiction in a bearing. . as the coniact patch is not suff~cientlylarge to dismbute the lqad evenly. by the combination of oxides wirh the cordensed water. When these su-faces ~ b the points of contact are severely loaded. to run 'dry'. Tbe Formation of acidic vapour is assisted by heat &om 'friction welding' of adhesive type wear. This resplts in surface ii::rerioration.jer'. tt-iippcd in the surface asperities. Ivricrc panicles can ozcasionaily bridge the gap and smooth off the tips of as.atiw~'. which su$~(~orts shaft and prevents contact behvee. at the point of closest approach. Condensing acid vapours 'etch' the -surface. usually formed during the combustion pfocess. thezfriction canses thc the. The only lubrication is due to any retained oil. and is what happens when a component has been propedy 'run-in'. Elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication : The formation of a fluid film. there is a Ulin film. the distance betwqert tne jouma! arid bearirlg. T h i s absencc of fluid fiim at start-up coiili-ib~ulr. which is part of abrasive w e y Additionaliy. 1 . bsatirq. This improves the surface finish by increasing the contact area. is dependent oh a number of fi~ctol-. Thc surface of the metal localli suff&s elastic deibrrr~ation greater t a the averzge value. and the bearing is operating under 'boundary lubrication'. Usually these particles are &om the softer material. the rotating shaft attempts to 'climb-up' the bearing. the debris of which is responsible for furthe! wear. in a sort of 'ginding' process.~ metal stlrfaces.'or a bearing of given dimensions. by chemical attack. this t e ~ d s seprirate the points hz to of dosest approach. At start-up. even supposedly 'finished' surfaces have an Llneven surface.i<. a d accelerating mechmical wear. At small values. Mm-to-metal contact occurs.i~liicienlro takc thc load.alio<l oC the surfaces. . It' the value is larger. which consists of 'hills' and 'dales'. Acid can be formed from the r:omhustion products. duc to the high fluid pressure. When this value is large enough to ensure compleie st:piti. Corrosive Wear : This is wear that take2 place as a result qf the col-iosive action of acids.

Ferrography : This involves the separation of wear debris of fermus t p e magneticaliy.8. The magnetic field gradient increases as the particles move downwards. distant 5 mm from each other. The amount of material deposited is measured by the attenuation of light from a !i$ht source placed below the tube. The larger particles get deposired first. which may be around the wear particles. as Chief Engineer. Typical sensors measure parameters like Eequency.met. A sample of oil. bronze appears d z k brown. Wear severity is indicated by difference between optical density at two points. Further.Q. for example. amplit&e. which appear green. Describe how. W h a t is 'performance trend analysis' and what a r e the means to monitor them ? hs. The sample is fed to a transparer. In normal rubbing wear. velocity and so on. which b r e k s down any gel. Thz larger particks are depozited at the entry rzgion of the tube. . and arranging in the order of pariic!e size i^ol examination. The slide is analysed by a n optical microscope.green. the majority of the particles are small. for most of the engine room mzchiner]. the oii containing the wear debris is sorted by size along an inclined glass slide. These would be continuous measuring devices. when low carbon and alloy steel particles appear to be bluish. tube. and the smaller particles and the oxides of iron gci deposited later on in the tube. using Condition monitoring. As the severity of the wear increases. Spectrometric Analysers This technique is called SOAP ( Spectrometric Oil Analyses P r c g a m m e ). you would monitor the 'health' of the engine room machinery. The r e s ~ l t s fiom The sensors ran be mdtched against stored data. so does the number of bigger panicles. by any of the following methods : Atomic absorption spectrometer Emission spectrometer. and chromium and aluminium are bright white colours. Cast Iron appears Ii&t brown in colour. The light passing is tietected by photo-electric transducers. The magnetic force attracting the paticles is pro?oitional to the size and magnetic susceptibility. The input datz for a computer-based monitoring system is From sensors. This helps in distingcishing metallic objects from oxides. In a Ferrc-graphic analyser. is diluted with a solvent. Other &jCcts appear in various shades of ye!low. Opaque objects appear red. Oil samples containing wear debris are taken from the sump and analysed. Thus particle identification is possible. Green light is transmitted through trensparent objects. Red light is directed through the objective of the microscope. the slide is heated to 330" C.: precipita:~~ cn either side of which are the polss of a ma. along the tube length.

certain' wavelengths get extinguished. The oii sarr~pieis passed thou* a sensor. f i'article counters The si e of vxious particles of the wear debris can be determined by rncans of particle counters. rotating Grqhite disc canies the ojl ran?le. The monochromator is tuned tc accept li&t of a certain wave length. which is proportionai to the size of tiii: j)a. From the combiistion of the oil sample. since light travels only in straight lines. IF the cornpositim of various components in the c d c a s e . it is possible to analyse. may indicate the extcnt of corrosion. a number of elements. -very atom absorbs light c f its own specific wave lengfh only. w e are able to get the concentration of various elemznts. Corrosion Monitoring Ttit: pzrarneters to be measured are :X!i: m e of coirosion. is h o w n . and indicates the concentration of the particular element present.magpsiurn. the total depth of corrosion. It im its limitations. consisting of a light source and a photo diode. The procedure has :o be repeated for each of the elements to be detected. A. In a iight beam passing through the flame. silicon and silver. and that received by the monochromator via the s a q l e . since deep corrosion may not be accurately analysed.rn. thw the probability of getting the largest particle sizeisvery high.The turbulent flow in the tube results in rotation of the particles. based on visual inspection. in parts per million (p.~~ts. and i t is pxzible to measure the amount of light absorbed. The difference is the amount of light absorbed. These methods are used to monitor water quality in boiler feed water. due to their absorption by the Eree atoms o the metals in the sample. Since each element has its own characteristic wave length.The Atomic absorption spectrometer is based on the principle that. ~odian.chemical methods include analytical. in the oil sample. The ratio of metallic ions in a sample. or the thickness of good marerial remaining.c?icie. metailic elements in the oil sqnple are atomised. Accordingly an electrical signal is sent from the photo diode. after which they emit their characreristic wavc lengths. iron. lead. A meter indicates the difference behvecn the originai light received directly by the light source. the intensity oC which is measured by various dctxtors. Chcmical and electro. potential or galvanic methods. A particle paszing through the window blocks light according to its size. simultaneously. A spark excites the vanous metallic clem:. which work on the light blockage principle. zluornium. z E!ements which can be analysed b s this method include copper.). Bearing material.'aluminium. viz. then it is possible to identify the source of the wear debris in the oil sample. . nickel. accortling to the amount of light re~eived. In an Emission spectrometer. Direc: observation is the oldest method. which is subjected t3 high voltage excitation.p.

NC: series. an6 detecting any change in pnformmce. Pour point. piping and well a s ship's side plates and other surfaces. I. A?* P&formance Tre@ monitorjng . by an ificrease in the wear rates of piston rings. Cracking point.ous :emperatmes 2nd pressures are con:i~. (Rsfer the text-book 'Marine Engineering Practice' . so its electrical resistance increases. it is possible to record the readings on a continuous basis. Similarly. with reference to thr analysis of lube oil. Suggest. .. on board ship : Viscosity index Viscosity index improver. for more details on thi. . by . Cloud point. Ultrasonic methods are being increasingly used for flaw detection and thickness measurements in pressure vessek.. Deterioration in fuel c. exhaust gas analysis. thcs large area coverage is not possible. hence it is not much .uously monitored. howtver it is slow. which of the following data is of use.Es crass. Neutralisation value. ~ o n i i o r i n g perfoimance of a system involves the measwtment and the recording of relevant parameters. Elecrncal resistance technique is based on the principle that.used for ship's work. and hazardous. which can then be investigated and put right. var. Oxidation. Parameters like 6x1 consumption. it is t possible to find ~ u the corrosion rates. thennography and acoustic emissicn methods. vaiious parameters changing. The disadvantage of this methcd is that only a small surface may be tested at a time. ultrasonics. thus simplifying the maintenance.Non-destructive Testing methods (NDT) include radiogaphy. if an on-line detecting system like S P W A is fitte5. eddy current. as colrosion decreases . Eddy current technique is p r i m s l y a surface technique. wherc it is not possibie to drill holes or cut samples for visual inspection. change in the exhaust gas analysis readings could point to faults in the combustion of fuel.working of piston ring wear detecting systems). Explain the following terms. Radiography is ussful as permanent records can b e kept. Thermogaphy is used to locate increased surface tempera%ies due to carnosion damage in furnaces. d i n g preventive actions. with reasons. Foaming point.:. ~enetration below depths o f 5 to 6 rnm are hard to obtain.onsumption figures could be duuc I:. before corrosion can develcp to extreme limirs. lube oil consumption. Excessive consumption of lube oil could also be detected. Detergent I Dispersant oils.seciion.

The basic precaution against exidation is with the right choice of base Sock. containing a metallic salt. as additionai to acid formation. to Nelrtralisation Value : This is a measure of an oi!'s ability to react with an acid reagent. An oil. To compare the viscosity/temperame characteristics of different oils.I.Measuring the acidityialkalinity of the oil is important. or if measured with a base reagent. This is given a qscosit!.) This gives the relationship between viscosity and temperature of an oil. Cross-head type engines use cylinder oils with a T. (typical examples of these are Isobutylene polymers ind Acrylate co-polymers.. can react cliemi~alljj The prodccts of this 'decompositicn' are weak organic acids. . would have an average value of TBN of 25 . for both TAN and TBN. The by-products of oxida:ion are acids and varnishes. Copper and snme lron oxides. exhibits !ittle change of viscosity with tenlperature. Others include Phenols and Aromatic amines. long chain polymers. is i preferred.30 ing0(OK)lgrzm. which can be used in additive form is Zinc Dialkyld-thiophosphate. Oils of containing carbon have an affinity for these peroxides and combine with them io fonn harmless compounds.I. Tjvical of these chemicals.N. sl~idge pioduced. to iapede fiow at higher temperatures. The oxidation of lubricaticg oil is a chain reaction. Viscosity Index Improvers : These are high moiecular mass. The results are expressed as mg of Potassium Hydroxide &OH) per gram of oil. Detergent oils. This is given a V. Certain metals. Additives used are complex compounds. based on two reference oils is wed. which lead to an increase in the viscosity. a classification method. in Trunk piston engines. This is measured as the Total Base Number.). In doing sf>.g. the main problem is due to e~cessively high temperahire of lube oil. = 0. they block fwiher oxidation. e. The other (Paraffinic). These are zd6ed to lubricating oil stocks.(V. The rate of oxidatior. h y commercial lube oil falls within this range.80 m~O(OH)/gram. particulariy in the high temperature region. w + temperature. being organic. are active catalysts in the oxidation pr~cess. I. when considering its use with fuels of known sulphur content. it is the Total Acid Number.However. This base stock is based on the "Saturated" hydro-carbons. = 100. such as Calcium Carbonate (CaCO. TBN. for each 10 'C rise in temperabe.B.) wi!h oxygen. such as paraflins. involving the initiai f ~ m a t i o n peroxides.Viscosity Index:. with the least tendency to change of viscosity. Index. to achieve complete neutralisation. leading to layers of gum or iamish farming. This sludge tends adhere to the meta! surfaces. One reference oil CNapthenic) exhihits a large visosity change. is doubled. Oxidation : Lsbric&~g oil. TAN.. Oxidation is is harmful. V. from which the oil is manufactuied. with tempzaiure. of 70 .

Describe. Add 15 ml of Xylene solvent to the flask. additive. Eold the dish over a naked flame or gas. before placing 8-10 drops in an aluminium foil dish. To prevent them from coagulating and thus depositing dsewhere. 0. this indicates the presence of water. to quickly determine i f xater contamination is present. Shake the oil sample vigorously. even at a concentration as low as 0. to determine its effectiveness. which coujd result in oil starva. into a greater number of smaller molecules. in a given sample of lube oil. Add the contents of two sachets of the reagent power. Testing of lubricating oil (a) Crackle Water Test : This is a simple test. replace the screwed cap and shake vigorouslv. I a 'crackling' sound occurs. at which a haze or cloud appears. Cracking Point : If the oil is heated to a suficiently high temperature. ?cur Point : The pour point of an oil is 30 O a b o ~ e temperature. Ans. Shake the ~ i l s m p l e vigorously. The cloud point c f an oil is usually applicable to parafEn-base oils. by volume.Dispersant Oils : The addition.10. detergent oils usually have a dispersant. the tests carried out on a lubricating oil. These additives are complex compounds. This additive enslues that the harmful combustion products and vamishedgums from oil oxidation. . are kept in siis~ension dispersed evenly throughout the and oil.ioii and beving failure. then add 5 ml at the bottom of the reaction flask. by washing them awaywith the lubricating oil.These may prevent the oil flowing. the hydrocarbon molecules break-down thermally or 'crack'.1 %. to the plastic 'floater' cup and carefully place this cup on:he surface of the oiVsolvent mixture.Detergent . C Cloud Point : This is the temperature. prevents burnt combustion products frvm depositing on piston rings. Calcium Hydride. This f test can determine the presence of water in lube oil. allowing flow. under prescribed conditions. in marine ecgines. Agitatiol can break cp the wax cryst-I:. This 'cloud' is caused by when the oil is coc!ed. under prescribed sonditiol~s. for pumping purposes. :he iomation c f ax crysta!~. of a detergent additive. such as mctallic-based su!phonates and phenates. Foaming : This is csually due to a failure in the design or due to maloperation. of water in a given oil sample. iu brief. taken front the engine lube system. These can thm be removed. Oils require to be about 8 O above the Pour point.ct an air-lock. at C the which the oil just ceases to flow. Foamlng can causelpumps to . @) Quantitative Water test : This is to determine the actual percentage. for continued usage.

2%. up 101. oil. Acid Test : This aetermines the presence of strong acids in the (c) ~ i r o n g eripine lube. where the 'used' oil has stopped. Obtaic a representative oil sample from the engine oil systcm. If the :msirion of this 'used' oil is within the two marked lines. Drop a spot onto the test blotter pry::% ?rid allow the spot to develop for at least 2 hours. . III Secure the screwed cap to the reaction flask and shakc vigorously for one minute. Replace the stogper and sh&t the test tube wgorously for e l leasi two minutcs.e stopped directly opposite the 'W0' refsrence mark. Shake the flask every 5 minutes and read tqf gauge aEer 25 mini~ies. by viscosity comparison.. oil is accsptable for further use.The gauge will give a direct reading of thq percentage. add 3 ml of the fresh oil into the reservoir on the dlarrttel marked with 'OiO' and 3 ml of the 'used' oil into the other i-cservoir. ThzS add 24 mi of 'Bromwresal Green' Indicator and 2 ml OF Kerosene. in terms of alkalinity reserve. An initial green coJour indicates strong acids in the oil and is rzgarded as a 'border line' cclour indicates the presexe of stroi?g . on its ch:rrmel. The 'fresh' oil should ha1.ci& case. C x e should be taken to subject the 'used' oil to other checks. Till rhe 'Flow-stick' on its oblique base. then the 'used' . on the grounds of viscosity. to (e) Swoluble content test : This test is to determine the amount of insoluble [iatlicles in the 'used' oil sample. by shaking the test tubc. with a sample o i 'tiesh' oil.AdvoncedMorine Engineering Knowledge Vo/.4 to 0. Now quickly return the 'Flow-stick' to a horizontar position. by volume. of water content. and hoid in this position. pr-cferably after the main lube oil iilter. the oil is fit for further service.s. With the 'Flow-stick' lying fiat. until tile 'fresh' oil has nearly reached the 'OJO' reference mark. Note the point. (dj Comparative Viscosity : This is to determine whether a 'used' !u5e oil i s suiiahle for further service. Aliow contents to settle and observe colour of the liquid it! the tloltom of the test !ub% A bice cdour ictiicatts the absewe of strong a i d s in . r\dd 3 1111 of 'dilute' oil (or 3 ml of 'fresh' oil of the-same type). as a result of the depletion o f nsrmal alkalinity reserve 1evc. An initial yellow/g~een in the oil and the oil is uusstisfactory. Shake the oil sample vigoi-ously and add 6 ml of the s m p l c t9 the test tube. before coiklirrtnir~g use it. . Allow the 'used' oil sample to cool to ambient temperature. Compare the spot swiih stewJan1 'spots' of known carbon content in the oil ofbetween 0.ample vigorously and then place 3 ml in the test tube. Shake the oil :. ?'hosr)il!ghly mi:i. of the engine lubricating oil.3 #x.he cil and.

ro determine t h e q u a l i v and conditiou of : a) Lube oils.g. Shake the oil sample vigorously and then add to the test tube upto 25 ml. fit the stopper and shake the test tube vigorously. Add 3 drops o f Potassium chramate to the sample and shale the test tube. sea water from leaking coolers) in lubricating oil. is Q. Contamination by fuel oil can significantly affect this. Each brand of oil requires its own chart.(0 Salt water determination test : This is lo determine of presence o f salt water (e. is useful as viscosity. one drop at a t h e (shake sP. until the sample o f water just turns a permanent 'reddisn-brown' colour. Remove a reasonable sample oiwater from the bottom of the test tube and filter into a smali test lube. . 2escribe some simple ship-board tests. salt water is absent or negligible. Add Silver nitrate solution. even after the addition o i Silver nitraie. 2) Sea / Frcsh water determination : The sea water conteni is found by the Silver niiratc test described eariier. will indicate the presence I absence o f a sufficient reserve of alkalinity. 3) Alkalinity test : A simple colour indication test. salt water co~tamination confirmed. Add 10 ml of distilled water. Add 20 mi of Xylene solvent to the test tube. If only o n t or two drops of Silver nitraie produces a reddish-brown colour. a. If the water remains a yeiiow/greeo cnlour. 6) Flash point : The flash pcint of oil can be checked with the PenskyMartens apparatus. to enable separation of oil and water. h s . for one minute. The following tests can be conducted on board 1) Water Content : Percentage of water is indicated by the Calcilim carbide test. Lube oil tests. 4) TBN Tpt : The TBN test involves a pressure reaction flask and propel chart interpolation. 5 ) Comparative viscosity : This simple test. using pH pzpzr. using the flow-stick comparator described earlier. b) Fue: oils. Remove stopper and stand the test tube in hot water for 15 to 30 minutes. More than 0.25 % is normall) unacctptab1e.ll. well as an all-round indicator of oii condition. The open flash point is normally taken as the guideline for the suitability for further use.er each drop).

However. The flash point is measured by the Pensky-Martens test described earlier. then it is esseniial to perform the compatibility test. Viscosi:y.ixidre of the hvo fuel is dropped on a filter paper. such as centistokes (Cst). A r.Advoneed Morirre Engineering Knowledge Yol. but k. especially with a high range of sodium/vanadium and ash deposits. Density : The correct value of deinsi.g. to decide on the amount o f hearing for fuel trvlsfer and injeclion purposes. 30 O for a heavy fuel). problems.aval). C Viscosity :The resistance to flow. For conventional ceiitrifiiges. to create a spot.(E. by itself is Lor an indicator of ignition quality. . ! tthe A!cap system @y Alfa I. This is normaily measured by hydrometer. as the abrasive particles present in a fuel could cause fuel pump. time t&en by a failing sphere in a standard apparatus). Flash point is the lowest temperature at which oil gives-off suffiriext vapour to fdrm a11 inflammable mixture with air. Minimum C acceptable value for machi~lery spaces is 60 O . Pour point : This is the lowest temperature that the oil can f o a( lw before solidificction takes place. to lest at different temperarures. nomaliy at 40 O for distillate fuels and C C at 50 O or 10QOC. Measured by test kits. \4i f Water content : Water contamination can create. It is measured by various types o f viscomcters (e. as the ambieni tempcraturz rarely exceeds this v21ue. As mentioned earlier. to determine whzther the fuels are csmpatible.. ivhich is compared with a standard chart. 1 1 1 following tests can be conducted on board : I) Compatibility : Compatibility refers to the ability of two (or mol-e) differmt fuels to mix. for residuai fuels. if that is not practicable. and also to %sure proper purificztion procedures.g.y is necessary for quantity calculations. which can be expressed in di~ferent units. higher values can be taken by special centrifuges. Flash point : Most kits have some form of flash point testing apFamus. without -creating sludge and problems in combustion. it is preferable to avoid mixing bunkers From &fierent sources. using some form C of refrigeration sprays. and similar systems by other nanufacturers (like Weslphaiia). and specified nl 15 O . Usual limit for residual fuel i c 30 ppm. this is normally restricted to 991 Kg/rn3. Catalytic fines : Presence of 'cat fines' is usually a cause For concern. injector and vaive damage. It is =ecessay to determine the value.

and filters. should be sufficient to kill all infection. The viscosity and chernicd composition of the oil is altered and any additives zre reduced in effectiveness. Microbial degradation. 2. they become self sustaininz ir. leads to a change in the chemical composition. rnine~zladdiiiv-s :o oils .~ The resultant intensity of red spots are compared to a stanXard c%art. 3 1 4 >Simple microbiologicaI tests include the use of slides coated with a nutrijive gel.. gowth. hydrcgen sulphide and ?. Once infection is established.v.light. They need a dilt of Carbon. The pu~ifier exchanger should be run at 70 + 'C and the oil heat &ntained at this temperature. but leakage ofwatei in10 the sump. this respect. to g c w . . c5 . The most practical physical method is the use of heat in ' conjunction with purification. The choice of suitable biocides. Conditions found in the cradcases of proper!! maintained ma.*. The following guidelines of operation are suggested:/ The water content of the crankcase oil should never be allowed to : 1. W h a t a r e the indicators of microbial infection. giving rise to anodic pitting. to be added to a particular brand ofoil must only be done with tile advice of the oil supplier. which are dippcd in the 'suspect' oil and inc&fi$ ~~~n$&ti. oxygen availability and so on.al: of these factcrs could increase the suscep!ibility lo microbial attack.12. The prifier intake must be from near the bottom o f t h e sump. . Microbe gowth c m cause coirosion by Coming organic acids. Various microbes have different ?k$ference for temperature.ierwhich could leak in. Unusua! :? ! Slimin?& m t e 011 3 Corrosion or honey coloured films on jcunals 3 > Brown or black deposits in thz crankcase and sump Heavy siudge accumulation of crankcase and purifier 3 Frequent filter choking or back-flushing. They need waier initially. Discuss the effects leading to corrosion.iile engines do not normally support microbe growth.$ &$ Microbial growth in lube oils : /"" Microbes have an+-?bility to degrade organic and scnne inorganic materials. Oxygen gradients can be produced. the use of corrosion inhihitors in :he cooling \v. ~ i ~ e i i n e s a i d n a m w passages becoming i r e q u ~ n tblocked. rise above 1 %.b h ~ c h will indicate the presence of bacteria. Renovation at 80 C for 12-21 hours and treating the sump and system with biocides or steam lancing.Q. and what are the guidelioes for situations where the lube cil is found to h e s o infected ? Ans. 3. in lube oils. but as water is a by-prdlc! o f their )&*I\. l~ Indications of microbe infection: %. it may be combated by suitable biocides or physical treatment.mmonia. Nitrogen and Phosphorous along with plenty of free water.. acid or alkaline cmdition~.. i 3. ma!functio~o f t k pl!ri!iczticn systerr?.

4. as compared to their benefits. characteristics. as t3e accumulated deposits of oxidation products may suddenly cause clogging of oii holes atid damage of bearing%. natur?l!y detergent (in compariscn wit. Coolant inhibitor concentrations should be maintained as recommended. However. or These oils arc of napthznic origin.nt. they can 'wash z. othenvise the additives will be rernoved. may attack antiiiiction materials (containing Cadmium) in bearings. Prsi:a!~iiorrs recommended with use 0fH.D. . Ans. Also. 6. Heavy duty oils are generally suitable for use in marine engines. Caicium phenyi stearate is an example of an effective detergent a J i i e which possesses the ability to break large sludge particles into smaller arrd more manageable ones. Regular testing should be canied out. deal with the Beater quantities of carbonaccous particles which may acc~unulate forced lubrication system. Briefly compare the r q o i r e m e n t s of Cragkcase oil and Cylinder lube oils in Marine twostroke inain propulsion engines. 2 ::ii:zrs or purifiers of adequate capacity / capability must be provided to . the high cost has to be taken into con side ratio^^. i. t h a e oils wiii have:. lubes are much more expensive than the best quality of straight riiiwxal oils. for a typical main propulsion two:stmke marine engine.! p i l r d f i n base). 5. With respect to lubricating oils. which reduces the wear rate considerably. Ttrcse 'r1D oils have additives which act by increasing the fluid film thickness to take care of heavy loads.e. Crwiccase system oil. 7 h c additives used in H. in 3. Besides the normal properties. justify the usage cf heavy duty oils and the precautions to be taken in respect to their usage. Oxidation stability. Alkaline properties to protect against ccrrocicn. which are working under adverse service conditions.:ay' their own oxida:ion products. l'hese oils should not be mixed with normal oils.dispcrs. Care needs to be taken to avoid wastage 1 leakages. which inay pmve expensiv& due to the high costs involved. deposits between pis tot^ rings m d grooves arc prevented.D.4. oil:i . Colirparison of Crankcase and Cylinder lubes for main propulsion m ~ i i i c: s Crankcase !ube oil has a high detergent and dispersant quality. Che~nically active filters must not be used. The entire sump oil should be purifier: ewxy 8-10 hours. :leavy duty operatian is encoun1:red under sustained high speed rur~riir:~ heavy / fluctuating :oads in adverse weather conditions. LLD. Detergcct .

i. . as 'floc'. It must have a high Viscosity index. Lube oil must he c!cm and as h. contacl with. based on a classification involving two temperatures. Owing to the ccsts involved. U'he~. It mustnot emulsify %with water. how it is conducted. withoct losing its !ubrication qualities. Also. Eesirable properties of Steering gearhbe oil : I. fuels containirg !arge amou3is of impurities are used. It is possible that oil stored in reserve Tanks may include a sizab!e amount of contaminants or corrosion products. due to the severe conditions. depending upon service and type of engine. appropriately sized filters.3. It must be ahle t3 work under high pressures (e. The respective temperatures are noted and recorded a s the 'haze' and 'floc' temperatures. with which it comes in contact. which are comparatively more economical to use in the Crankcase cil. and describe. This is because of the possibility of condensation in reservoirs. i n comparison to crankcase oil. state what zould be the S e a l properties of lubricating oils used in the steerinz gezr ? Expiain what is meant by FLoc Test.e.h!y pure as possible. It is a L w temperature test. Totai Sase nurr-ber is much higher . and the difficulty in maintaining a lube oil film of adequate viscosity and film strength.e. so :hat lr&ages from rams are minimal. performed by giadually o chilling a mixture of 10 % oil and 90%Freon 12 until haze and precipitation of wax crystals. The cylinder lube oil is subjected to more rigorous conditions. This oil has a comparatively higher detergenc y and needs more al'. It should be of a sufficient viscosity to assist in sealing.has an SAE 30 number. in brief.a!inity. This is a once-thxough use oil.o f the order of 7 0 or even 80. It must not react chemically with any metal surface that it comes ir. a floc test needs to be performed. under such adverse conditions. like hall and socket joints. Q. The syskm oil must meet 10 micmn standards. or even use many additives. the job of the cylinder oil can tend to become very difficult. foiiowing shut-downs or maintenance. owing to the severe c~nditions existing in the combustion chamber. T h e r e f o i ~ suitable additives mus! be prwided to prevent deposits. or even in low ambient tenperaturzs.14. It should not oxidize. The SAE number of an oil is an indication of its viscosity.o. 2. 63-75 bar). and it should not cause a deterioration of any rubber seals or gaskets. 4. Ans. it must not lose viscosity at low ambienl temperatures. I n your opinioa. and is thus being regularly changed. are observed. 5. while Crankcase oils need not have even half as much. 3. Floc test : To determine the tendency of lube oils towards flocculation. under which i t does its job. which is infrequently chacged. i. it cannot he synthetic oi. It must not shear in difficuit applications. capable of removing 98 % by weight of all particles larger than 10 microns are required.

which causes excessive load to be taken up by the stem tube bearing. that the entire surface will transmit torque ? I Ails. This exerts more load on the adjacent bearings. A lone . with reference to shaft coupling designs.Shafting. Intermediate shafi bearinzs are so placed and aligned. overhung mass on the stem wbe hearing.. Ans. in the a l i g ~ ~ e nto. it has a ix+dlucsd ilcx. a i loose chacks can increase this effect and over-load adjacent shaCt beasi~igs. which reduces the yr-oblrm considerably. t s take up the weight and sag of ti]: shalt Each bearing takes up a certain portion of ihz load. .~of the hull. causing them to over-heat. describe a muff coupling. resulting in over-heating and vibrations. i ~ ihc ship's loaded and ballast conditions. Mc:wevr:r. Long lengths and fabricated structlures are more prone to hog and sag wi!n %tying seas The shaft. Loose foundation boii:. 'She advantages of a Muff coupling. The lk etid support. i ''tail shaft is like a large. Modem shafts are more ilexible.'". i'itrvs. and ensure a larger and continuous support :br the shaft. R) 3 I r:) O i x i s s . Steering G e a r a n d Controls Q . does no: conform to ihc flexing of the hti!l. How can such vibration and over heatino he mininrised 7 Explain why the aft position of the Engisie roan1 reduces these problems. shafi. that they help to reduce any tendency to sag. Also. Rough seas often bring the propeller out of the wacer. i. . and may be used for connection of the [xopcli. A Muff coupling is a shrink fit. which produces little or no ill-effect on the shaft. to match the permanent sn. rk effect of any . Ailowances are made. the ship's structure being much stiffer at !he after end. even under such drastic conditions. &.is it ensured.-ay of shaft bearings. depending upon :hc luading partern and the stiffne. Any one of th: bearings can get excessively worn.propeller shaft is equivalentto a long beam with intermediate suppor!~. j I C : . tr . 2 . "/itti a simple sketch. Alignment is based on t i % fair curve method.causing iheni to over-hezt. possible flexing of the shaft is isolated. beizg a much stiffer cornpcnent. .: o f rile tail-end shafi. increasing the deflection and a-iEkcting the alignment.:r. Llow. & 'Xe I-s + $ * .* 5 + & J i:. Propellers. ~ ~ i3 @ 2 3 irT 8 0 . 1 Stare the principle cavses ofvibration and over heating in main shafting and iis hearines.board^ . by v. there still exists a slight whirl i n any ro!a?i?g shaft. to a definite pre-calculated load. thc length of the shaft is drastically reduced. of improved material and reduced scanrlings. the stern tube. fi-om the Main engine's crankshaft." :i . allowing the shaft to be easily withdrawn out.& -?$.e. ? . is given a definite slope. By siting the Engine room RR. ensure-that t all irrierrrlediate bearings are proportionally loaded. which varies.

o f t h e innslsleeve. which compresses the inner sleeve. This value gives a surface interiace pressure cif at least 1200 bar.:The bore. is slig!ltly larzer than theshaft dianietei. An increase. be machined to a high degree ofaccuracy and finish.inner and a relaiively thicker outer. xhich actuallji separates the two components.5 mm would br required. mating surfaces need to . between the mating surfaces of the sleeves. ~ . of atatit 1.tion. The twelve bolt holes would be pre-bored after mounting. cser the unfitted diameter.02 rnm is required. to 70 nim and reamed to final dimer~sions Propeller shaft coupltno 70 L To ensure full transmission of torqce and thrust. so that it grips both shafts.nsmi!ted is about 2 N-m. rhe nean torque tr. rhe n?atiiy surface between the t w having a slight taper (l. is reduced by injecting oil at high pressure. To check that the correct amomt of 'pull-up' has been achieved. the final ou~side diameter s f the mrer sleeve is meas-red. when thc outer sleeve is driven up the taper of the is hydra~iic unit at oce end. With the flange type.jO). For this diameter. allowing normal friction between the sleeves. a thit~.l i consisis of iwo sleeves. rr push up of 6. The c o u p l i n ~ made. ar a factor of sefety of between iwo and three.. Whtn the outer sleeve has reached its correct position. To makc the drive-up easier. This oil forms a loadcarrying film. the fric. the oi! pressme is rzleased and the oil drains cff.

Advanced il/rrrilre Engineeri,r,o Knoaleiige

Yol. I l l


F O ~examination of thc shafting, durinz a propeller shaft survey, e x p i a h , with particular attention to key-way and propeller shaft con a) How crack detection methods are x e d . b) Repairs to propeller shaft cone, in case of corrosion damage.

Ans. Crack derecrion may be carried out by [he dye-penetrant method or !he rnasneric particle method described earlier. Masnetic particle inspectioi. prefened, becaiise i t is more sensitive to sub-surface cracks, when properly carried our. in boih cases, the area to be checked inust he ihoroughly cleaned. As far as possihie, qvaiified personnel should be used, who are working to r e c o p i standads. The sensi~ivityof the magnetic panicle inspection is easily checked usirag a fidd strength indicator. If cracks detected are not easiiy removable, lighi po!i:itling, it is advisab!e !o check the dcpth of the crack by ultrasoniq before proceeding.

i ?g :zz

Propclls %hail

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:I is iallowed to reduce the diameter by upto 3 % (corresp&dino to a decrease iri torsional strength of 1 0 %) by machining or grinding. Therefore, if the depth of the craz!c is more than 1.5 % of shaft diameter, the shaft should he repleced. I?$pdirs of corroded or cracked shafts, within the limits given above. should Rc :jilluothIy groiind out, to reduce stress concentrations lo a rniniln~ll71. The hollows shotlid be filled with a rneral filler, if in way of sealing r i n g .



In the case of a pl-opelier-shai7 of normal steel and the propeller h ~ of b srainless steel, ttig holes of !lie propeller flang,e, and the ,flange itself, have to be carefully~. inspected for Eleciro-chemical corrosiog. ,. . . . . .. .. . . .~ . Repairs to the propeller shaft cone Corrosion, on the conical pan of the propeller s h a f t m a y be repaired by machining the taper. This wilt result in the propeller moving forward, which must be counter-acted by fitting a spacer, beiween !he shafi couplings. The maximum thickness, -allo;ved f o r this spacer, is 25% of thc intermediate shafis flange thickness. It is therefore th; intermediate sh& flange thickness, which deremines thq maximum amount which can be machined-off the ccne.. -Intermediate shafi coupling Canye thickness 1DO mr.1 then, maximum size of spacer, which may be emp!oyed 35 mm and if, the propei!er shafr taper 1 : 12 25:) 2 the radial amocnt which may be mx:zin~d-off Thus rhe radial imornt is approximately 2 mm. Surface c ~ r t t ~o itthe propeller bore !o :he shaft cone shoi~ldbe c* c h, e.s. by using 'Priissi n blue' TFxre shou!d be a mini!i\uri of 70 % contacr pat~b+$~cii . .- . should be e cnly d~str~buted





Bate : Besides rectification of the damage, the cause must also be detem~ilied. Preventative action nceds to be taken, to avoid a recurrence. The usual source of leakage.is from a badly jointed and sealed fairing cone, on the back of the propeller or leakage past the sealing ring andior gasket on the forward face ensure the " 0 ring is the correct size, so that compression and sealin9 is achieved.

Q.3. Draw a cross-section of a keyless propeller with sleeve. What material weuld you suggest for the sieeve, of a tapered, forged, mild steel propeller shaft and why? Explain, in brief, 'the procedure for rernwal of key-less prupellers and the reasons for filting key-less propellers. Ans. A key-less propeller transmits torque by friction and this requires a contact area of around 80 %, between taper and boss. An expensive (afid critical) machining process i n the bore would thus Se nezezsar;. A rough-bored propeller wirh a fitted sleeve elimina~esthis requirement. The keyless propeller, fit:ed by thc hydraulic expansion of the boss, was designed t i kave vcry high boss stresses. in the final 'as fitted' condition. dus to the low coefficient of Friction at the interface. Also temperature differentials can still cause problems. Both these problems can be reduced, by using a cast iron sleeve (which has similar expansion rates to steel ) and the increase in coefficient of friction is considerable. Cast Iron = 0.24 ;Mild Steel = 0.12 : Bronze = 0.08.


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siccVc P ~ ~Caci I ~ ~ ( ~ lion] Key-less Propeller

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The sleeve is then passed to the propeller manufacturer and is fitted into lhr propeller boss and secured by a high strength epoxy c o m p o u ~ dby a pressure injection process. The propeller is fitted to the shaft by a dry push-on force, from a 'Pilgrim nit'. The material for the sleeve, of a tapered mild steel propeller sh is Pearlitic Cast iron. This has minimal fretting qualities. It is machined, handbedded lo the Tail shaft and pressed-on. Removal of the pro. injection, between sleeve and shaft.

1Ie;asons f o r titting keyless propeliers :







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When a large amount of power, at lower speeds,' is required to be transmitted, the operstinp torque is very high. The load imposed on a key would be excessively high. . . Use of a key creates a 'nress raiser', which is the site o f stibsequenr d & q e end failure. The larger and heavier propellers require a geater press-on force, which cannot not be achieved, due to friction, during the press-on process. at the tiper, at the nut face and at :he nut threads Often the result is a locked nut or yieldsd threads. There is no method of checking the friction grip, in case of a key. Stresses &t thz proijzller boss are urhiowr.. So=e plastic yield occurs during the f i t t i a ~process. After two or more removals and re-fittings. failure could occur at the kily or key-way. Ahead movement crcates a p s h - u p of the pmpeller on rile key. This n&es it very aiif;cult to remove ( usually a ccnsiderablr axcount of heat needs 10 be applied. which results i n thermal stresses, as well a i stress corrusion cracks. ) -. . pmpeirer and- shah are of different materials,-tke di;ierrnt coef5cienrs ?f expansion can cause 'slip', especially when in warm cot~ditions.

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. to a ce~zain s degrze. In the conventional s ~ a l i n g system. t . 7here is thus a possibility of intermixing of sea water ar. once system is set us. Asiti Poilution : The air is ejected f?gm air bamer into Ei-5 ~ o n ~ ~ l e i e ! ~ sepaiates sea water and oil. The leakage oil andfor sea water to after most zharnber is T? discharged autonlatically into the bilge i v i i h z spillin2 0of -2 the oil into the sea. through tke sliding sllrface of the seai ring. by having an air space between kc ail side and 2 the stxi water side. collccrecl inboard and drains. which increases the'chance of a leakage. = ~ Pollution-free oil sealing system : (Refer Advanced Marine E n g i n k g Voil) This has been developed. necesswy to xaintain rn adequate 1 g ':.mbly ? 4. 3 3 !G . iron1 low to h i ~ h stern tube gravity tanks). what is the main feature of the 'Pollution-free' . With respect to the improvements in shaft sealing systems. Even wt1e11the ship's draught changes (ballast or loaded cor2ltion). c~eaied by ihe head of the sitrn tube oil 9ravitp talks. r e free: No adjustrncnts required. a sealing system ? What are the materials used for t h e seai ring asse. The air pressure. air cantrol unit has flow controliers. to the aft seal. w!iich can damaze the seal. to ensure no oil pollution occurs. The sez water and oil arz directly in contact. The situation becomes still wcrse by shaft vibration. Ans. : Advantages : 1.~iiierr is lin~ited~?lanual adjustment of the oil prexure in the stem tube.S. iiseal rings izil. iiutomatic pressure control of oil and air follon%g irl dmli is achieved on every after seal I-ing.Q. $ i)u[ no! excessive pressure to ensures a good seal. all zeal chambers are filled with oi!. to the drain callectian x31. Ar.d 011 orcurring at l l ~ c seaiing surface. there a x m adequate measures to contain [he oil contamination. without having s Ysil prcssuie :.g ~+ & . sea water or stern titbe oii leaks into the air ~ ~ m b e itr is . doe to the greatex p!:sstiri. through piping. 5 ~ changing ovci. in case. throiigh j lip of the -* seal ring. This air blows into the sea water side. The leakage of oi! and subsequen: I-isk of poll~~tionf the s r . o 9 t h ~ nc. Comparison of the conventional and the 'Pollution-free' oil seal. diiycre~~ce.\ avoidable. and the result of a lea'i?g seal is the loss of the complete stem tube oil into !he sea. \taler is not . and a n & rqulator of cotisran! flow rate type. Also. is controll& by having a cmslan! flow rate.

The exami'ation ir usually by surface crack detectiop methods. by performing a non-destructive test. h) 2 year& c ) 5 year. Q. Others : No additiunal air source is necessary for sys'cni Aft seal ring conditicn can be rnonitcred in Engine room. withdrawing and examining the entireshaft. witb a small downward a n d e .. The fishing net protector. in stem tubes. The downward angle is maintzined to avoid 'Age loading' of shafting. Simple piping s y s t m c3n be a x n g e d . .5 The survey period for oil hhricated stern tubes. in its entirety. if required. During each survey. Air film is formed under after most seal ring Forced oil circulation acts on cooling the afi seal ring. The wear-down of the stem-tube bearing is reccrded and the condition of inboard and outboard seal assemblies assessed and repaired. . The survey consists o f removing rhe propeller. Explain why the fitting of stern tubes. the tail shaft need not be withdrawn for examination. which should include the end of key-ways (if fitted). L . room Load on af: seai rings can be adjusted from E n ~ i n e One seal ring of aft seal is reserved for emeriency oil leakage. Low and constant pressure is loaded on a h sea! rings. is a) 1 year. -. d) 10 years. Where arrangements are such. withcst having to fir the usual Stem tube header tanks. may he considered necessaw - Ans The Survey period is 5 years. Seal Ring Garrer Spring Rubber Body Provides radial lo2d. to the complete sarisfacrio~l of the surveyor. Extension of seal ring sewice life : . thsforward end of the tapr is examined. madeof hasrr alloy (Nickel allpy) which has the stronges: corrosion resistance. as to permit effective examination of the forward end of the taper and key-way. of tapered shapes.3. guards h e aft se'al.

f la . Air film is formed under after most seal ring Forced oil circulation acts on cooling the afi seal ring The fishing net protector. 1s Q. The survey consists o f removing rhe propeller. of tapered shnpes. The wear-down of the stern-tube beasng is reccrded and the condition of inboard and outboard seal assemblies assessed and repaired. to the complete satisfaction of the surveyor.. Ans.5 The survey period for oil lnhricated stern tubes. usually by surface crack der~ctignmethods. T h e Survey period is 5 years. may be considered necessary. the forward end of the taper is examined. \ '* u .3. . d) 10 years. if required. -.. The examimtion i. a) 1 year. the tail shaft need not be withdrawn for examination. withczt having to f i r the usual Stem rube header raAs. with a small downward angle. Load on afi s e d rings can be adjusted from Engine room. in stem tubes. Materials : Seal Ring Garter Spring Rubber Body . i h r i n g ezch survey. . The downward angle is maintained to avoid 'Age loading' of shafting. withdrawing and examining the entireshaft. as to permit effective examination of the forward end of the taper and key-way. Simple piping s y s t m c m be a x n g e d . h) 2 years. Others : No addiriunal air source is necessary for sys!cm Aft seal ring conditicn can be monitcred in Engme room. *-~. . which should include the end of key-ways (if fitted). c) 5 years. Provides radial I o ~ dmadeof haste alloy (Nickel alloy) which has the Strongest corrosion resistance. Extension of seal ring service life : Low and constant pressure is loadedon aft sea! rings. Explain v h y the fitting of stern tubes. in irs entirety.guards the aft seal.Where arrangements are such. One seal ring of afi seal is reserved for emergency oil leakage. by performing a non-destructive test.

so that the correctly positioned stem boss is accurately bored o x .en bearing wear. secured on stem boss t y tappzd bolt5 having wire lashing.Traditional chocks are of Cast iron are individually fitted and must bcas.nis is radially and axially aligned. the girder top plate of thr Gear box seating and engine seating is machined slightly. a i d the stern-tube is fitted complete wi?h propeiler and tail end shah. 'She holes in both the flanges (gearbox and propeller shaft) arc findly rmnred arid fit bolts located. I r may be noted. the jacking bolts on the gearbox can be rcrnawxl. As the holding down bolts and chocks are installed. 5 e bxiiig bar is removed a d :he mt. unless the vessel is in the same condition. Shaft alignment : The first operation comprises of sighting the centre line of rhe shaft. as and when the shaft was installed. Sighting is acciiiateiy . that the engine. The boring of the stern boss is carrieci otit by a boi-ing b2r. so that ti~crc i s no distortion of the bed plate.-ma1 diameter of the stem-t~be mhchined to accurhtely suit the in iluier is diatnelcr of the S m boss. a load over at least 85 % of their area. The taii eild s h d i is lowered from inside the Engine room. prior laucching of vessel and insened into the stern-tube (from inside the Engine room).leterntined by various means. on installation. The stem boss should be so positioned. from the propeller shaft to the main propaalrinn unit. when aligned to ihe tail end shaft. Assuming that there is a reduction Gear box. to the outer flange of the tail r:nd shaft. wottid have sufficient chock thickr. Arrs. giving rise to error. Alignment can be checked by conventional methods bu! the results are uncenain. lri a similar manner. with an outboard facing taper.0. Afier the boring opention is complzie.ess. that <he engine alignment is of utmost impohance. with regard to loading. The gear box can then be checked. . The stem-tube is p s h e Z in with the strong-back and : fiilallj. t\e same is Lowered in ::ngine room and . which could lead to crankshaft nlisaligr~rnent. 'Jne. The gear box is inirially installed with jacking bolts. This is done before the vessel is taunched.io the outboard flange of the gear box and the it~stdlation similarly completed. wilich are adjusted to establish its correc: relation with the propel!er shaft.6. drescrihe the method used for the installation a n d alignm6nt of a coaapkte traismission shaft system. Oil seal rings and propeller are then fitted. Good alignment is to ensure that the bearings are conectly loaded and the shaft is not severely stressed. prior :o lowering gear box /engine. the Main engine is lowered and the fly-wheel flange is radially and axially aligl~ed. such as an optical telescope. To facilitate the fitting of the chocks. hull d&rrmtion and other factors can affect tile results.

. The matching of the main propulsion engine and the propeller is essential if maximum efficiency is to he achieved. Here the mechanicai efficiency. and periods of sustained idle or low load operation must be included as well as those at hip11 loads. the plant weight. The plant design and engine Selection will be affected if the profile includes frequent or extended periods of maneuvering or astern running.-able extra costs involved. How is the propeller matched to the main propulsion engine of a vccsel ? What a r e the advantages of using controllable pitch propellers ? 'What is meant by the operating profile of an engine? Ans. cairn and heavy weather.Q. Selection of proptilsion engines of light weight or low specific fuel con. other factors that aflec! the selection of engine? for a particular applicqion musl be considered. For propulsion engines. reliability. however . or if requirements are better met by one or more medium or high speed engines driving thc propeller through geakins or electric drive. power and rpm of the engine are at their mDst desirable values. cruising and high ship speed. direct coupled type is most suitable. file! ciuaiity and consumption. Where special purpose vessels are requiring more flexibility. clean and fouled hu!l. . towing or icebreaking and running free. acquisition cost. Mztchisg involves findin: h e intersection where the torque. consideration must be given -to whether a single engine of the low-speed. maintenance requirements. the machl~ery space volun~e. which may not be justified for conventional cargo vesseis. and operation with and without attached auxiliaries. A requirement for.~. In selecting propulsion engines. diemeter 2nd so on) rill they arc at the desired pari of the curv. low weight or minimum machinery volume may be achieved at the expense of high fie) consumption or high maintenance requirements. of pitch can improve the inaneuverahility of the vessel. Power produced by :he engine s h o ~ ~ be ld more than sufficient to take care of the power absorbcd by the propeller.his is echieved at tile expense of more complicated controls (for CPPi. as well as the canside. operating modes may include conditions of deep aild ligllt draft. Among these are ihe ship's type. Once tht. All important modes must be considered. . required engine rating has been es!ahlished.umption. ~ o n t r o l l a b i ~ pi:ch propellers are being uszd.7. for example may not result in the lightest or mosi cost-effective power plam The operating profile of zn engine asseses the time spent in various operating modes. and present and future spare pans cost and availability. and then adjusling the engine { opeiatin: poiili j acd the popeller { pitch. the transmission losses and propeller efficiency ha\ie to be taken into consideration. so that the required alteratior.

The final ariiplitude will depend on the external or 'forced' frequencies.e. bc forced to vibrate ai olher frequencies. and the maximum or pzak value is the 'An~plitude'. Icatiing to i~nacceptablyhigh amplitude of vibration. ivla-hii~es. All structures vibrate at a certain frequency. is + . i t is often considered sufficient to take care of two node. 'She magnituj? of osci:lation varies. Further. nods. there will be points at which hi: vibration is zero ( viz. roughness and weather conditions. in vertical. such as diesel engines. i. with respect to vibmtiora ? Ans. These poiiirs are referred r. The value of this Natural frequency is calculated Sy the expression : 1 4XE3 wherc.Since the vibration is of a 'wave' farm. Vibration is the periodic movement of molecules in a zubstance. adequate allowance has to be kepr. which can serioiisly weaken a srructilse and lead to damage. frequency. logether with the plane of -iibiation is referred to as the 'Mode' of vibrati~n viz. Though the ship may vibrate in a number of modes. frequently suffer from vibration problems.e half cycle crosses i the o nsgarive half cycie).. the frequency of applied forces will match the natural frequtncy. It can. the number of vibrations per unit time. due to external sources. by itself. due to out-of-balance forces.node veirtical mode. i t . hoivwer.o as the 'Nodes'. Q. Tillus. mode. WI is a function of the mass and its distribution. so as to reach a suitable matching of propeller and engine. h r practical purposes. and L is ihe length. Tile ininher of nudes. 'I'he point at which this amplirude is maximum. whereas deflections tluo to hogging or sagging may be upto 50 rnm per 100 m of length. as well a s limitations on draught (leading to limitations on propeller ciiarnzter) will Further complicate the issue. of great danger. The reciprocal of the Perioi will give the 'Frcqueilcy'. I is the second moment of area about its neutral axis. vihalior~ not. The structure is normally vibrating at iis Natural frequency. 2 . natural frequency and resonance. these vibrations are transmitted to the ship's structure.6. The time betcveen successive cycles is termed as the 'Period' of vibration. which is termed its Nat81ral freqwncy. due to fouling of hull. the points where positi. vertical and horizontal modes. period.Changes in hull resistance. What is Vibration ? W h a t is meant by the terms amplitude. is termed as 'Resonance'. and ti~rce 'i'llc normal amplitude of ship's vibration is limited to 20 mm. At Ilesonance. Consequently. horizontal or twisting (torsional) pla~es. 'margins' are maintained.

Offset. 'Measured value. back. Also called zs Sensor. Deviatioc : the difference benveen the desired value and the measured value. to ini:iate some corrective action. as mea.Error signal and Feed.~Q.~ . This signai is sent to the Cornpazitor. high :frequency vibration may cause interference with electronic equipment. Controlled condition : The variable. other than the Set point.wred by the sensor. lransdurer. I. . Control point. which can be used by the control system. Ans. 3. Offset : This is sustained deviation. 5.g. Define the following terms : Controlled condition. on components already subject to heavy strzss may prove disastrous. Ceviation. Enor signs1: The signal produced by the Comparator. the controlled condition will stabilise at some point of equilibrium. . 8. with change in load conditions. which is termed as the conrrol point. ~. Offset occurs in simple proportional control: 6.. that is being controlled. the cumulative effect of vibration and corrosion. The element which measures the cnntrolled condirion ( variable ). a d -is thus undesirable. Control point : In a simple proportional control system. and 2ioducer a signal conespon6ing to it. . after comparing the measured value with the set value. Tbis could change.. is called the controlled condition. which occurs.9. .However.) at some poin: other than the Set vaiue. in orde.. ~. . Measured value : Actual value of rhz controlled conditicn.. when the measured value stabilises (reaches equilibriur. E. 7. Monitoring element.. Also. . temperature in the engine cooling system. 4. Feedback : The transmission of the measured value to the Cemparator is termed as the feedback. : ' i ~ 2 Monitoring element : . speed in an engine governor.

Disadvantages 3f closed loop : More expensive (than open loop). where the input to the process is independent of the output.nay no. Advantages of closed loop : Finer control. Possibility of hunting (loss of stability). ijluadvantages of open loop : Not suitable for complex systems. thus easier to troubleshoor I repair No hunting Suitable !br systems. and generate . then this form of control is called as closed loop control. have built up. If a human operator does the job of observing the output and taking the necessary corrective action. The purifier does not check whether or not the siudze has been removcd. An example of a manual closed loop could be water level control. Open loop control : This is the simplest type of control. having considerable laad changes. and accordingly opens or shuts the feed-check valve. ( i. Excessive deviation from set point. hs. When the operator is replaced by a controller.III error signal. a Comparator to get the ifeviation (frox the measured value and !he set value ). where precise control is not essential. or even if there is any sludge at all. A marine e x m p l e is the oil purifier or centrifuge. Closed loop control : In a control system. irrespective of the amount of sludse that may or . ths input is usually dependant on some other variable. Sincc the output is not scnsed. which can now correct the input. that uses a l semor ( to provide feedback of the controlled condition ).e. Adv-atages of open IGOP : Cheaper (than closed loop). An operator observes the water level. What is Open and Closed loop control ? Give some of their advantages anddisadvantages. Suitable for systems having considerab!e load changes.g. we 'close' the loop ). Thc puriiler desludg:~ after a fixed time interva!. if therc is some means to moijror the output. and a correcting signal to the Motor element to take appropriate action m the input.Q.lO. . time. Simpier. then it is a m m ~ a closed loop. to maintain the desired level. with m a r h e examples. then it is celled as an Automatic closed loop. with less chances of deviation. e.

in both the ballast. d) ~ e n d i ' n g stresser. which cannot be climinzted. for rhermal lih of engine.Q. can lead to damage tc gearingkngine or can result in failure of shaft bezrings. to . f) T h x e should b an adequate sllowance. as wei! as the loaded condiiion. in each shaft secticn. While checking the shah alignment. 13 te at accepiaS!e levels. in which i t is fitred. the 'Fair Curve' method of alignment is used. What a r e the criteria for shaft alignment ? Describe the procedure of the 'Fair curve' alignment method. on each braring. In an attempt to reduce the effect of rhe flexing on the shaft. discuss the reasons for the stel-n-tube bearing being a t a skope. - Bearing Reaction influence numbers for thc arrangement above : (Force per unit of vertical displacement) . e) There shou:d Ge a minimum transfer oFany Seading moment. is bored at a slope. ~ allow the shaft to assume the 'fair curve'. Excessive flexing of the modem ship of very large izngths. the following criteria shouid be me1 : a j Simi!ar m d known positive ioads. b) There should be accepiable le+elsof vibration. To protect this bearing. withour a suitable flexibility at the shah. the stern frame. from the tail shaft to the crankshafi cf ihe Main engins. The overhung mass of the propeller has a significant effect on the stern tube bearing. particularly with a h end installations. Ans. C ) There should be maximum distance between bearings (giving f l e ~ i b i l i : . in the stern frame. e) The above criteria ro be taken care of.ll With respect to propeller and shafting. from the : 'cold' condition ro actual operating temperatures.

the stern frame is bored out and. :hat is a smooth (or 'fair') curvz. Tk.. shear forces in the shaft.o increase its load by 48. The influence numbers exprcss the change.Jeuton/mm).This tablc above gives the effect of raising a given bearing unit (here: raising bearhg PJo. which would increase it's load by 165.itetl to give the rcquired 'fair curvc'.~ .ecl height and attitude. . the effect on the aft shaft bearing would be . most important. . iising rhis data.hen Lhc ship is in service.. on the other bearings. The shafting installation works from the trail siiaii its a datum. 4. after the launch of the ship.: coupling. ?hat allows for a slope at the stem bearing and an acrentable line-up to the engirt. for each bearing in the s y s t a n They also give the effect of raising one bearing. fi\iicr the engine is finally chocked and boitcd. hcnce the data urcd cannot bc uscd to c h d ali~"rw:ot. bending moments in each slinA section and. setting-up data for the shafting. Shaft Alignment ' F a i r corvp' alignment is based on an analysis of the shafting as a conti~iious beam.c results give the bearing loads throughout the system and also gi-w: a mics of influence ncmbers. with multiple s u p p ~ r points. The final part of this process is setting the engine bed-plate at tile wir. The final analysis is carried out on this 'fair curve' shaft line. when h: ship is in sewice. The setting up procedure is carried out in Lhc c. whcn the couplings arc aligncd and bolioil.~ computer:%. The calculations are done b. the shaii s y s w n is unsupported (on temporary supports). I)esigners use rhis data to obtain a shaft line. the shaft system is instalied. The couplings are set with gaps antl offsets that are the result of the final shaft analysis. The initial malysis considers the : sh:ifiing to be lying on a straight h e datum. The iirnl lini: of the shafting is the smooth curve required for optimum bearing load. Durifig the installation of the shaft and engine. This gives thz loads on cach bearing. -. in load over unit change in vertical movement O. The gaps and offsets are ca1citi. . thc shaft bcarings arc p i o i'he shaft couplings are brought into line and the coupling b o l t fitted.cl~:rni: 'Iieht ship' condition.

the height of one bearing. produces a varying end-thrust. in shaft system. back to the zero . with a hydraulic jack system. (lift per unit forcej.~ ~ 1. This method only gkes the shaf! line.. pmcedure repeated at 90" intervals of shaft rotation. The jack loads. given by the number of blades multiplied by revolutions per second. using a seaiiive micrometer arrangemcct. Pilgrim Wire (alignment) : The pilgrini wire method of obtaining the shaft line is popular and easily understood. c) Diiferent loading patterns. to check. Ans. a) Axial vibration Causes : These can be Propeller induced. Usiag rhe 'Pilgrim' wire. A wire is stretched over rhe shafts as a d ~ t u m . The gradual slope is when the bearing load is being transferred to the jack and is !. these are : .lift position. This occurs at a frequency.The are two accepted methods of carrying out a check on the alignment. Determination of Shaft alignment : (Checking shaft line with hydraulic jacks) The jacks are insta!!ed and -&e shait is raised ir. pre-tensioned by weights.he spring constant for the seating. is then taken. The jack method is a realistic means of checking the shaft line but care is needed in its application. The propeller. working in a non-uniform wake. discuss : a) Causes of Axialvibration.. can determine if a shaft is bent faker running agrou~ld).12. - Q. at cenain points of ihe stem frame. It does not give the shaft bearing loads. R e micrometer is used to complzre a small electric circuit. Measure the actual bearing loads. gives the act31albearing h a d (load at zero lift). b) Axial vibration damping. if too smati. The blade clearances. The steeper s!ope is a measured bearing influence numbe. although ii is often racpssery :o swing connecting rods to allow this. The height o t t h e shaii to the wire. for the exisiing ship conditicn. With respect to propeller shafting. This shou!d show a relationship with the calculated influence number. at each bearing. The alignment over all the shafiing. This will show two distinct s!?pes. inclcding the crankshaft czn be determined. bearkg and housing. 2. Extrapolating the steeper slope. increments. when the ship is in service. . relative to another. with rhe jack load and t h e corresponding lift being recorded m d plotted. can also produce pulsating end forces.

Friction Gpposes motion. which reduces the amplitude of vibration. is the propeller.They can also be Engine induced (Direct drive diesels). in a~ial vibration. is the dominant criterion. established without a forcing or exciting force. If the exciting forces are i r t phase with tine natural frequency. C) Shaft Loading : The shaft system operates with different loading patterns. as with the direct drive diesel. . stiffens the thrust seating. away from aft has a larger second moment of area and less twisting. produces end forces along the crankshaft. mci positioning it Fa. by the propeller thrust being offset from the centre line. This bending moment can be aggravated. As with all vibration. causing an unacceptable bending moment in the crankshaft. Whether it is below or above this line. The wider section. at the aft end of the shafting. with certain types of thrust. acting like a pistcn in the water. bj Axial vibration damping : Damping is usually achieved by viscous fluids. With geared drives. depends on the ship's condition . over each rcvolution. These occur at a frequency given by the number of cranks multiplied by revolutions per second. This is small iz value and is usually co~lsidered. then rescnancr will occu. The shaft acts a spring. If axial vibration is a major problem (this can be established during Sea trials). are the reasons that engine manufacturers insist on the thrust being part of the engin?. the thrust position is always a compromise. in conjunction with the possibility of t h s t offset. For separate thrust arrangements. The dominant load is the overhung mass of the propeller. between positioning it as far aft as possible (shortening :he vibmting shaft length). the natural frequency.. Some damping is achieved by the lubricating oii in the shaft bearings and at the thrust pads. This can result in very large vibration amplitudes and ultimately failure. along-with the propeller damping. additionally the !h-ts: seating can act a spring. being subjected to varying end forces. Using an integral tiirust.!oaded or ballast. 11 alSo is adjacent to the very stiff sectiou near the engine. This factor. viscous dampers are fined to the ends of the crankshaft).encugh forward in the wider part of the ship's cross section. The major damping. the searing design is of great importance. causing considerable bending moments. Cmnkshaft deflections (crank 'spread').

has a marked effect on the shaft line. and skill main:ain satisfactory bearing loads. due io i t working in a con-uniform wake pattern. can contribute to funher bending moment. is a normal feature. in the set up. so they can carry loa6 rzversals. hvariably. at the end of their operational life. Roller bearings offer a very low starting torque and are free from wear. This is an asset. They c n be of :he sclid form (requiring a muff coupling) or of the split type to allow easy assembly. between jight and loadrd condition. adjacent to the tail shaft. In this location the pads would be in both halves of the bearing. such as the extreme aft end. There are four possible modes of vibration in the shah system and all are encountdied 10 some degree. This is essenrial for turbine-xgine ship:. Brief describe ir!vsntages and disadvantages of folierviq types of intermediate shaft bearings : a) Hydro8ynamic white metal bearings. This has to be allowed for. b) Tiiting pad hrarifigs. a during turniag gear operation. c) Roller bearings. without having to absorb diametric clearance. . There is also a variation in the engine torque (direct drive diesels] and the resisting torq!le frcm the propeller will vary. 13 meet these ex?reme conditions.Additional to the main bending moments. both misalig. when the ship is in an extrexe ligfii condition.hent &xd changes to the line. For other bearings there would usually be pads in the lower half. so that pcak amplitudes are not attained in the rail shafi bearing. The after bearing usually has a reduced clearance. Thrust Bearings can be directly connected to the engine or gearbox (Integral thrust) or can be separate (old designs).13. when transverse vibration may very low damping qualities of these occur and tends to zompensate for t l ~ e bearings. - H y drodynamic white metal bearings are usuaHy designed for engine operation with the relat-d need for wear resistance. The align men^ is always a cornpromice. d) Tllrust b e r i n g s . the shafting aiid machinery are aligned. where slow rotation during warm-up periods and lengthy turning-gear operation. Q. Rol!:r bearings are of zero clearance. They have a specific life (related to load and revolutions per minute) and usually have to be replaced. for particularly heavy duty. Tilting pad type bearings are chosen. The attitude of the ship. resulting from machinery expansion.

1 1 1 ~irect attachment can result in an unacceptable tilt to the wheel or the after most section of the crankshaft. : Tli~ nunber of bolts should be such a? ro carry the torque withsut shear '!'$I-:!ii::iion at the coupling'faces doescontribute. 77:s bolts -re tightened to R specific value of pre-detem~i so a tu achieve coaCderable fric?ion at the c.14. M'itni reference to propeller shafting. reducss the degree oiinterference fit. each hole is ~ x h i n e d and h m e 2 in The hole is slightly tapered. . Casing distortion tends to magnify this effect.ighiened. Axial vibration effects can be te:rimental.pi. . and each bolt is rhen machined to su hc!c.! rcwrsa1s Lake place . HYDIWULICT1CI:TENINC Oil L Ans. till they reach thcir clastjc limit.ol.ng faces. but the value of its coniribuiion is debatable. as tly are transmitted directly to the geer hox (or engine) foundations.especially when going astern.AdvoncedMorine Engirreeriq Knowledge Vol.re never over-.chances of failure (of bolts) arc greater. a) b) C) .'unloading the top padsat the zxpense of the lower. This pronounced in thrusts of the horse shoe trpe as :The summation of the loads carried by individual pad displaced below the shafi &is. ie Q. how are fitted 3o:ts insfali What r a c t c n govern the design of silch bolts ? Gorv can failur sucb bolts) take place ? Sketch a typical hydraulicdy tightened Haw are "interference fit' bolts installed and rzmoved ? When fined bolts are used. with the integral thrusts. Bolts ?. thiii:. Overstressing thc boliz.

Roller cage me made from liglri alloy or bronze joined by steel clamps. Nuts are fitred at each end of the holt. and the bolt assembly withdrawn from the flange hole. which is then tensioned to induce accuraie tixial loading. matching taper bored s1ee. High tensile screws in c!amping rings provide an 'interfereace fit' between inner race and maft. . so expanding the sleeve to develop a radial fit in the bole. and cil is :hen injected thruugh an oil-way and distribution groove to the tapered interface to bring about separation. The radial fit bolt consists of a tapered bolt.x and two round nuts. The nuts are removed. Races hav: ang!ed joints to provide continuity of rolling contact. These can be used for shaft d:'ameters upto i250 mm.d) Interference fit . Bearing races and rollers are of hardened chrome sreei. The radial fii bolt is removed by relzasing the clamping eifect of the nuts. while pulling the bolt into the taper bore.aiding attachment. Describe split roller bearings for msin and auxiliary Shafting. How zre they overh-ukd ? Ans~ A Split roller bean'ng (for main and auxiiiary shafting) is designed as a conventiunal roller bearing wi'h the main components halved.hey are inserted into the coupling hole in the clearance condition. The simultaneous high axial and radial loading maintains vital shaft alignment. Q.15. A hydraulic bolt tensioner locates and restrains the sleeve. The sleeve is assembled loosely on to the bolt and together .

Cover the unprotected part of the shaft with red lead putty and marline wound tightly round shaft. the icngitudinal stress wiil be now be taken by thr: i-tiink shah. This may cause the bearin~s w o r ~ as the thrust force traxmitted to hot. the whole thrust comes cn the crank shaft. Check shaft diameter fcr roundness and parallelism. so that sea water is kept out. 1 If the holding-down boits of a thrust bearing should become slack. .i>ns 1s due to galvanic action taking place. For some applications (especially at slow spped and moderate loads) wider :olerznccs. if doing so. ease back the side screws and remove the radial screws (if provided) for fitting outer race. Damaged parts should not be interchmged.by the action of the sea water I : at these points. Outer races need not be removed from the cartridges.m ine pistons. Where does corrosion occur on the tail shaft ? How is the shaft protected from this ? What are the methods used to reduce this ? Ans. However. unless contaminated. The tail shaft being in contact with sea . . the whole being then covered with canvas. the shaft has a continuous liner shrunk on to it.siilt in closing the crank web. Carefully ease out the cagz jcining clip. corrosion can take place on the shaft at the ends of the liner. but. which would be forced forward. :(). taking care the top half outer race does not faii. the following methods are used : I. Iilc cause of crank web becoming slack on the shaft (or crank pin) in often allributed ro the thrust being partly taken by the main bearings.Advanced Marine Engineering Knowled~e V d . a brass liner is fitted. caused. is subject to electrochernicsl corrosion. Complete roller bearings are interchangeable between similar cartridges Ligkly oil threads and mating surfaces.water. Fit a rubber ring between the propeller boss and the end of the liner. 3. and in some cases cause a total breakdown. the ifon corrodes vapidly. as on stmdard shafting. 'Lb protect the shaft completely from corrosion. which may li. to the main bearings and bottom ends of the connecting rods woulri cause the components to get out-of-line. which w o d d throw a greater stress on all the working-pans of the erbginz. If tine thrust bearing should give way suddenly. untii the web of the crank comes in cmtact with the main bearing brass.. To reduce the contact with sea water and to provide a good bearing surface. therefore. so that the crankshaft will :j~ilyhave ro bear the stresses transmitred 5o. The prrservative need not be removed. 111 Overhaul : To dismantle the bearing. what effect would it have u p 3 the working of the engine ? Ans. To minimise the corrosion. can be accepted. 2. lifi the top half squarely.117. The function of the thrust bearing is to taLs t5e thrust and also all the longitudinal stresses transmitted by the propeiler. If the i h s t braring bolts hhould become slack.. Maintain the bearing silrfaces clean. i4 brass and iron are in contact with each 0 t h and salt water gets at the point of contact.

:f the propeller were to work loose on the shaft. Q. Whz! is the object of this practice 7 How do hollow shafts compare for s t r z ~ g t h . a te dency to shearing and a bending stress adjacent to the webs. In large vessels hollow shafts a r e fitfed ir! place of solid shafts. the torque becomes gradually less.' If t h e propeller were to start getting loose. thrust shaft. Q.~ n hollow pans between liner and shaft are filled up with red lead puny by y means of a force pump. hollow shaft. Ans. but going towards forward end. The stresses. A propeller e working l o ~ s on the shaft is dangerous. i t causes z ' h o c k ' to be hzard in 3 c engine-rsorn.20. s d emuring that sufficient contact surface exists. where they will be better able re rerist torslon. the shafts may he compared as D~ for solid and (D4-d" for hollow. how would this he known ? Ans.18. It should also be ensured that the tail end nut is adequrtely secured. The strength of a solid shaft va-ies as it's (diarnete~)~. where D = external diameter. and propelfer shaft ?Compare tbe diameters of each. for m y kind o f repair. in peference to a s d i d one. are . the shafts may be compared as D' for solid.torsion. with solid ones ? If a hollow shaft is fitted in place of 2 solidone. while the strength of a = (Laree diameterj4. with side 'play'. The after end of the crankshaft transmits the torque of the whole. FOI weight. until at the . from Ahead to Astern.vonld he the heax-ier of the two ? Ans. is to reduce the weight of rnateiia!. whea the shafi is turning. Great care needs to be taken in fitting the propeller on the taper. the advantage gained (in :olfow shafts) 1s in removing the molecules of metal from the centre core and placing them at the extreme radius. it rmst b e noted that for the same strength.[SrndI diameter)' Hollow shaft varies as Large diameter For stiffness. the h$llow shafi is iighler It must also be noted that rhe diameter (extsmal) ~f the solid shafi makes it the stronger. in the crank shaft. The object of fining E. and the crank pin is in shear stress. and d = internal diameter.-h . m d as (D2-d2) for hollow.19. since the ship's propulsion depends on this and it is difficult to access this at sea. Briefly.engine. whi. with a little 'play' on the shaft. n Q. especially when the engines are reversed. The webs are stressed in bending. to develop adequate friction to hold the propeller tight. What are the stresses on the crank shzft.

looking forward. Q 2 2 . in the everit OF breakdown and replacement. the c r o c k shzft 636 mm. with rci'i:iwce to the running of the propeller and how can this--be avoided ? . usun!ly m a d !he same (in diameter) for the purpme of being interchangeable. and propeller shaft 679 mm respectively. especially when in a 'heavy' sea. the after end of rhc propeller shaft is in 2 contii. provided it is working in an unyielding medium.. or torsion and tension going Asrem. it is subject tc~ alternate bentiing stress. 1 What is meant by rhe 'pitch' cf a screw propel. c k c r s of cavitation. They are. the stresses are torsion and compression while goiny n Ahead. The diameters of the various shaft may be compared as follows : Taking a diameter of 600 mrn intermediate shafiing. the thrust shaft could bs 613 mm.ion to torsion. lei-osion. the diameter of the various con. \\. if the 'trailing' cdze: of the propeller are worn ? Discuss the term 'Cavitation'.er ? Zxpfain the di!'frr-enre behvcen a 'right-handed' and a '!eft handed' propeller. and st3te itow carti of them revolves.e.n o i the i-rigine. Ans. in some instances.foremost journal the torque is nil. ihere is no slip'^ When standing at the aft end.wlu<ir. in one r.i. In addit. Due to pre-tensioning by the tightening of the tail end nut. For this reason. and compression while running Ahead. Ans. The tips of the propeller blade and the 'trailing' edges are particularly siix:.. They may be completely eroded and tom away by [he . anti-dockwise). due to ihe an overhmging u-eight of the heavy prope:ler and this latter stress is greatly an!$ilied by the movement of the stem of the ship. i t will rcvoive fiom right to left coming over the top centre (Le. clockwise). may occur at any part of the propeller blade. however.m is grea!est on the p o 3 guide on the up and down stroke. torsion and tension while going Astern. with a righihacd propeller.i. L tke thrust shaft. and a 'left handed' propeller will be the reverse of this . due to cavitation. the continual pitting causes the entire bIxJi: to be eaten away. on the main propulsion machinery. The 'pitch' is :he axial movement of the propeller.p!ibie lo erosion.heit: l i ! ~s!iclion is high. a 'right-hand$d' pi-opcller will revolve from left to right coming over the top Lentre (ic. i.e. but will be greatest on the stzrbsard guide. leading to cracks and possible failure.ponents of the crank shaft need not be the same. with a left-handed one. and shearing at collars~ he propeller shaft is subjected to the most severe stresses of all. The pre:::.at h e . i What is the effect. but is common over three significant regions .ual statt: oftension. with bending..

~mdhle Since the thrust of a propeller varies as the square of the revolurions. .7 of the radius (where the load is usually at a maximum) and at the 'root' of the blade (where the sections very thick and the pressure distribution is adversely affected by the small gap between the blades). by uniform a wake field. it becomes tiifficuit to avoid cavitation."dg&@. is Lg .tips (where the rotational speed is highest). The collapsing cavities give rise to noise effects. r r ~ @ + .cm The creation of these czvities. Avoid the incidence of locat 7 . with a resultant reduction in I . catising 3 cavity or 'bubble' to fomj. filled with a mixture of water vapollr and sorrx air. This may be accomplished by -3 &ij~. Reduce the blade angles and the angles of incidence. by adopting 7 -~i?' k~ sliehtly larger diameters. but will also result in a loss of speed. If this sea water pzsses across the back of the blade znd meets I high suction region. . by using materials which are stronger and more resistant to the effects of cavitation. rhen reducing the revolutions~wil~ reducecviratm. it is more likely to occur in propellers operating near the surface and will occur more readily in wanner waters. possible. h %r over the length of the blade. Cavitation is essentially a boiling phenomena and the action of the propeller blades causes the surrounding water to 'boil' at ordinary sea temperatures. Means of avoitiing cavita!ion : incrraes rhe total blade area and this reduce :he thrusriunit area of 1) . adjacent to th. a1 0. Reduce the thickness of blades..*VL - - - 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) the using suitable amounts of camber and a suitable shape of entrance..-~S/-~ $ .p r c p 3 e r biade. "Z--. Provide the maximum immezio. as "cavitation. complete 'back' cavitacim occurs. than in cold regions. g. At extremely high speeds.to achieve as suction peaks near as leading edge.T. 4) by using section shapes. 6 . Since cavitation is affected by pressure and temperamre. in order to diminish the load 3) Vary the in critical rcgims. As spceds and power increase. accampanied by nigh frequency vibrations. especislly in the modem 'aft end' accomodation ships.. fcr the sarni: total thrust. the nett pressure of this water rnky fall be!ow the vapour pressure of the water (at that temperature). z2>s increasing the Blade area ration (BAR) at constant diameter or increasing the diameter of the propeller. since air is always present in sea water. Avoid the occurrence of unduly high sections on the back of the blades. W . . ilr which the back of the Bkde is completely covered with a sheet of vapour. which are undesirable. which gives a more uniform distribution of 8 '.-.iev~iutions. blade surface.

improved stesring efiiciency. resdting in increased thiust. Also.g. thus water flowing through the duct gains in veiocity. high t h s t conditions e. due to ir~cicaii-dwa!er velocity over the mbber. Ans. where thrust increasesof upto 40% have been achieved. that the propeller thrust can be urilizzd for sieixirg purposes. b) Free rota iing . where gains in propulsive efficieccy.S c ~ e i d e type): r yile. makes them very suitable for the propulsion of vessels.Schneider type). far vessels such as ice breakzrs. owing to restricted drausht. dcc to a more unicnnn wake cwiidirion ifi way of the propeller. those which require lasge steering power at low speeds. due to a low pressure region generated at the duct entrance. Describe cach of the following : a) Ducted propeller (Kort nozzle). Ttere is also a thrust from the A c t itse!f. They have also been fitted to VLCCs.Jane wheel (Voith . ai:owing a greater mass of water to be accelerated by the propel!er. have been achieved. Ducted frooeller (Kort nozzle) : a j These are prcpe!!ers ~pcrating a duct or no7zle.~ y this propeller is not superior to that of a comparable screw. <?&i. Kort nozzles *ere inrroduced on vessels operating at low speed. of b?!t theis. b) Frce rotating vane wheel (Voith . These propellers may also be L ! : X ~ :or ~vessels. reduced prope!!er diameter: ard psopelli. e n. . of up to 6%. resulting in reduced fuel consumption or an irlcrease i n speed.~proiection. whicic norrnaily operate in crowded and restricted waters. O i i w advactages inc!ude reduced vibration.23.in which there is not sufficient room to use screws of arlcquatc diameter. The duct has an aerofoil in type cross-section. Sratc their advantages and disadvantages. tugboats and ice breakers.peculiar advantage is.Q.

of Vane unit. bul 01 at Disadvantages : h?ore complicated constrncrion. . the level in the operrting taiik falls and an alan:. does require a flat bottomed vessel. in the Eotary type steering gear. This is 38 mm. Icwer. gun metai line<. because gf increesed mechanical losses. 3. Bushes R Y ~ S Forged s:ee! (gromd finich). aft n~idships.24. a) Cylinder Cast steel.tilure)? c j Why is the Rudder angle limited to 3 5 O ? Explain. e) State where clearance for wear is provided. the system continues to operate. Gunmetal. Crossheai: soiid d r a m steel. which operates its automatic 1sola:in~ and Bypass v a i x . e) Vertical clearance.hen the continued loss of oil results in activating the alarm an4 change-over to the orher circui1. Valve bodies b) In ihe event of hilure. If the leak exists in the presently operating circuit. hence splitting the system into two independent circuits. ) State mzterisls ssed forvanes. because there is an increase in turning circle diameter.7jhe Voith-Sclmeider propeller unit may be placed forward. whicii :I . by high tensile Steel bolts and dowels. as compared to a screw propeller. due to loss offlnid. Csst steel. which does not help in steering efficiently. than with a screw propeller. is set-off: Anotlier. Ans. Q. as the angle increases. float switch activates the controi unit. greater w e i ~ h t and vulnerability. 2. allows for wear down (if a carrier bearing is clearance. in the vane unit. the bypass-on the other pair having Seen cpened. If there is no further oil loss. Pipe work forzed steel. The system operates on any one pair of rams. Energizes rile solenoid. Propulsive coefficient is smaller. as hydraulic integri:y exists. d) The Vanes are manufactured from spheroidal Cast iron and secured to the (Cast steel) motor and stator. forged steel flanges. crossheld and other parts? b) What h a p p m s in th? even: of loss of tlxid (f. c) Rudder angle is limited to 3j0. With respect to steering gears : a) What arc the materials of the mms. fitted) and for a ji~mping .

if the main steering gezr is iirreci with dcpliczte power units and dllplicate connections uplo the Kudder stock. in 60 seconds. (2) Means are to be provided. Ccrrifizd hydraclic p i p and electric power cables to bz used for rhe steering gear exclusively. All power operated steering gear are to be provided with arrangements for relieviiig shczl. It must also be capable ~i putting the Rudder over from 35' on one side.. fioin an angle of 35' on one side. other vessels with both power units operating). with the ship a[ half speed or 8 knots. What are the special requirements of Steering Zear for Tankers ? Wilai iests a n d drills are carried out on the Steering gear. from a position Aft. tirider the same conditions (Passenger ship5 with only one of the power units. Stcering G e a r Regulations : Ships must be provided with an efficient main and auxiliary steering (1) gear. but the auxiliary gear is not required. which ever is the greater (8) Tankers of 10.Q. prior to the Vessel's departure from a Port ? Am. with power cables capablr of withstmdin: i 00% over-load. (Building commenced after Is' Jan 1980) Power supplics : . 13 rllow ihe v e s ~ e lto be steered.i. with the ship moving Ahead at maximum sewice speed and with the vessel a: ii's deepest draught. the method s f indication being independent from the steering control system. ( 3 (4.--17) An efficient locking or braking arrangement must be titted.25. (5) - -j-(6) . if necessary. to enable the Rudder to be maintained stationary. to 354 on the other side.000 GRT and above. ?he main steering gear must be capable of purring the Xuddei over. A u x i l i y steering gear should be capable of putting the Rudder over from 20 on one side to 20' on the other side. to 30' on the other side. Briefly discuss the Steering gear Regulntions with respect to Main ant1 auxiliary steering gear.. The exact position of the Rudder must be kdicated at the main steering position. in not more than 28 seconds.

Angular position of rudder to be indicated on the Bridge 2nd Steering (d) compartment (Steering flat). .>. in relation to actual position of Rndder. Means of commmication to he provided between Bridge and Steering (c) compartment (Steerizig flat).Emergencysteering. a) Double seated (Double ported) valves are arranged so that the fluid forces across the plug are balanced. Tests to include ike operation o f : . Rudder angle indicator and Remote steering control system. i re rudder angle indicatar.Main / Auxiliap stzering system.>Visual inspection of gear and linkages. . b) Materials used for double seated valves'and reasons..26.000 GRT and above) : [2sm Two rer?ote control systems from the bridge. 12 &ours before leaving Port and entry made in the log book. the Power units to start automatically. Ans. This is to come into operation within 45 seconds of power failure acd sttould be capable of meeting the requirement (8) above. yEridge steering position. with special reference to Asbestos. An alternative power supply is required. i Pcwer faiiue alarms.'*FullRudder mmemenz. Q. to provide for 30 minutes continuos operation for one Power unit. . These usually require a smaller valve movement. Power nits to tr able to be slarted from the Bridge (manual or automatic) and e!arms fitted on the Bridge to indicate power failure. after powcr is restored. . In a control system. c.(a) (b) In case of power failure. c) Various gland packings. fitted with failure alarms. (2) Csntrol of steering g-ar to be provided in the Steering gear (b) compart-nent. (c) May 1982) Control systems (Tankers 10.kutornatic isolating equipment. h relevaax Operating instruction showing changeover procedures to be displayed on Bridge and in the Steering compartment. explain : a) Double seated control valves and their purpose. Steering Tests & Dril!s : Steering system to be tested withir.

to dissipaie heat. 'Chevrcn' packing. Wear resistance. Oil packings are iisually rubber-proofed cGt!on 2nd for loit.F. ibl.t h e gear. Stress raisers. With hazardous'fluids a co~?iplctrly tight. which cuuld arise in gem ?heels. with the 'Vee' expanded rtgai~. is used. as thc temperature may quickly destroy any buill-in Iobricanc. pressures. above 15 bar. an2 imposing increased resistance to valve movement.T. 4. a iubricanr may b2 requit-ed. where the material may be nitrile rubbcr~ ft These c2n a!low complete shut off. Tlie type o f giand and p x k i n g will depend oil the contl-ol valve application. wwith dooble poned valves a?d produce a softer action on cloiii~g. The asbestos s t ~ m i d s be spun with brass wire !or strength artd can also be inteivovtn wi:h san anti-friction rna:erial. Surface fatigue resistance. can be ground in. Tlis yiand liousing may have cooling fins around it. belloivs seal can be used Lubricated packing can be used (P. then complete shut off is not possible ( 1 io 2% leakage is nornial). Factors to Se cansidered in selecting gear steels will be : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Strergth. may aggravate the conditioil. Ar~s. b) Seat rnzteriais can be metal ( usually stainless s1eel o r m0nel) \vliicIi ~ i v e liigh wear resistance. yreasy ipacking of heinp is used. i. 260°C. A l ~ e r n a t ~ v e l y z oseats can be used. State the factors to be considered in selecting steel t o ] . Compatibility with a manufacturing process b) Fatigue Tooth Fracture Tooth loadmg creates stresses.E. If metal seats a!-e used iv1111 double poned valves.27. With respect to Reduction pparing : a. b. Discuzs various surface defects. materials r-equiie no lubiization upto 230 OC). rlius p r e v e n t i i ~ ~ expansion. Asbestos is necessary for stram and other hig11 teinperatui-e and high pressure niediums.a given movement. a. pits in the surface of the teeth. can cope with most fluids and cal: handle 11i~l1 tem?eratures. have larger flow capaciiies. which m l y cause fatigue fracture.or. Where the temperature is very hi$.st the land. . Mstal seats are required f o ~ emergency shut-off duties. Normally the glands on these va:ves are %riy long to give good sealing ) with minimum friction. Bending.e.

Failure may occur at the root on smaller pitch gears and at the pitch circle diameter (P.C.D.) for larger teeth. Ridging : A form of scratching under heavy load, due to plastic flow, caused by a high spot (usually on the pinion) ploughing through the surface of the mating tooth Rippling : Plastic yielding under heavy sliding action. This is characterised by a fish scale pattern. This is casstd by surface shearing swesses.
Q.28. If you were instructed t o carry out an examination of a set of gearing, how would you go about it ? Ans. Prior to making an examination of a set of propulsion reduction gearing, the inspection hole covers 2nd nuts lnust be opened. Clean off so that dir;, paint chips, and Foreign matter will not fall into the geartng, when he covtrs are opened up. The lumiiig gear is put in, the usual precautions having beer. takcn at the engine ccntrol station, prior to tulrizg the propeiler with the turning gear. The first part of the examination wi!l be tr, check gear oil sprayers and oil flow f;-om bearing ends; if they are nn: firted witn drain pockets, either before shuttins the oil pump or by mming the p m p at the ei~do i the examin-tion. If a grid or perforated plate is fined in the run-down connection betwecn the gear casing and the drain tank, it should be inspected for any debris, white metal flakes and so on. The profiles of the pinion teeth should be examined, noting' particularly the wear pattern markings and the cortact surfaces, both ahead and astern sides should be examined. If the contacts surfaces are normal, the alignment wiil be i, order. : Main wheel gear teeth are examined in the same way. If the pinion teeth are hardened, defects in alignment will most likely show up in the gear wheel teeth first, especially if the gearwheel teeth have a softer surface than the pinion teeth. The root fillets in all teeth must be examined for the stw. of any fatigue cracks, even though they are more usual in pinion teeth. If any bearings are fitted within with any wiring (connected to temperature sensors), these are to be examined. The fastenings, clips and connections on lubricating oil pipes to bearings and oil sprayers must also be checked out. Prior to replacing covers, the gear teeth, where cleaned during the examination, should be coated with oil. Make a note of the findings, so that they can be written up in the log-book or work reports, without omissions or inaccuracies.




b, c.
Ans. a. .

Air conlpressor Air compressor: Whai is 'Bun~ping'clearance ? Flow is it checked ? ~ t a t ~ t reasons for an increase in clearances. he W h a t are the causes 1eadi;lg to reduced v o h m e t r i c efficiency ? What could be the efCect of k a k y valves ?


Bumping clerracce This is t h z t e m given to tile ciearence between the piston and the cylinder cover, at the tap end of the stroke. This is necessary to prevent ,.mc~;iianicai contact between the moving piston and the-valves and g e a r - * I r c m be ye?/ eteiiy checked, by inserting lead gauge wire of known p. ,,lckness, above the -,iston top. Now siowly ?urii the compressor over by hand. The thickness of the !-ad wire is now measured and should nimnaliy be around 1% of the cylinder bore (check the manual For the exaci figire) :f the bumping clearance is rrrorc, then rhe volvmetric er6ciwc; dxreases. This is because rhe volume of tile space above the piston tap dzsicies rhe compressio~ratio and hence the final yressure Having insuificient burnpip: clearance can lead to nechanica; dainayr This is uslialiy adjusted by mean? of shims. The burnp piny' c!earanc~changes due to bcaring wear down or due to piston crown wear, or even 5y insuflicienr thickness o f t h e gasket of the by cylinder cover Adjustment is ~lsually shim packs betweenconnecting rod and boriom-end bearing block or even between cylinder cover and block. 'With tandem type pistons, it is necessav to be able to adjust each stage separately (since the piston is con~mon). C ~ u s e of' reduced volumetric efficiency : s Excessive ' ~ u n i ~ i nc!eirance~ g' Di:Fcctive (leaky) valves. .. lle!jtrictior~s the discharge lints. in Resirictinns in Inrercooler i AfttrcooIer or reduced heat transftr. Clio!,ed irttake filter. Vlorri piston rings. . ~. ~~~. :'orsibie effects of leaky valves include : reduction in eFEciency, incretlrc in tire first stage pressure (due to leak in second stase a~cticr?), drop i r i first or second stage pressures ( due to leak in respective suction valvw)~




b- : - -


a) b)

case oSa survey o f the Air receivers : k l o w is the stir-vey inspection carried out ? Whnt are tire Ilegulations pertaining to Air receivers ?


Dtiririy a sturvey, an inspection of the following will be done : I) Visual icrspection of all concerned parts.


3) 4) 5)

Caiibratlon of liners, pistons, piston rings, crankshaft and bearings Calibration of pressure gauges Pressure testins of Inter / M e r coolers Testing of relief valves. 6 ) Operational test. Regulations : 1) There should be at least tv..o receivers, of equal capacity. 2) For reversible engines, they must have the capcity t o give 12 or more starts, without any fimher rep!erishing. For non-reversible :ngines, six or more Zans are required. 3) Relief valve should be provided, to prevent an accumulation of C) pressure, to a value no greater than 10% of the working pressur:, witk thz Compressors running and the Air receivers' outlet valves closed^ Fusible plug to be fitted if rhe relief wive czn be isolated. (this is 5) fitted to take care of the presstire rise associated du: to ari abnormal ris2 in the temperature e.2. fire in the Ensine room ) 6 j Outlet valves shculd he of a siow opening type, to prevent a pressure 'surse' in the air pipins Capacity Calculations:1.5 to 2 times the Engine's total displacement volume, to give the minimum mass of air per sta.1. h ~ l t i p l y by 12, to give the total mass of starting air required. this This should now equal the total mass of air in both bottles at the maximum stipulated pressure, taking into account the mass of eir which -aovld be remaining in the bottles at the minimum starting air pressure (unusable mass of air). What are the areas to inspect during a survey of Air receivew ? What ore the possible reasons for Starting airiine expiosions ? List the safety devices on S t a r t k g air systems. How will you prevent a reoccurrence of a Starting a i r line explosion ?


1) 2) 3)


a. b . c. d.


Inspection :First confirm that the pressure is properly vented off. 1 . Top inner surface to be checked 2. Bottom inner surface (sludge deposits can be acidic). 3. Circumferential welds. 4. Longitudinal welds. 5. Welds in way of compensation rings. 6. Particular anention to drain connections. 7. Condition of the coating.


Startinp air line explosion : For an explosion to take place, three things -( a required : : 1. Fuel : Lube oil carryoverfrom air compressors. Leaky air starting vdves causes fuel and sparks getting blown back, Excessive ~. lubrication of system components. . 2. Oxygea : This is abundantly available and cannot be controlled. Leaky air s:arting vaives causes sparks to blow back. j Heat: External heat from hot components nsar- by.^


. c.

Safety d e v i c s : Flame. traps. Bursting caps. Ftisible plugs. RelieFvalves Non-r~turn valves.
Swrring air !ine esplosiorx may be prevented by : I) Reguiar drairing ofair receivers / lines^ 2) The good condiriw of cylinder starting air valves. 3 ) Preventive maintenance and cleanliness of the air staging sy5te.n



W o w does the stress vary, in the shell material of a compressed a i r receiver, both in the longitudinal 2nd the circumferential directions ?


'!'ha si~cll rliickness, of a compressed air receiver, is i e s (thin), in relation to the
tlianreti:r. it can therefore be considered as a thin-walled vessel, where the stress i s uc\iibrnt across the thickness ofthe materia!. Let

. ,

intei-nal d;ameter :rf the air receiver^ shell thickness. 1' working pressurq. . . . ~.~ . . s!ress = load 1 area ii'a scccior~ unit axial length is taken, the circumferential, or 'hoop'stress is of . .~ DxP i.-,: = ----21 aild tile lr~ngitudinal stress is Dp 4 : DxP ----Dxt 41 l s o m which it cail be seen, that thestress, in the material of the cylindrical siir:Il i n ihe axial or longitudinal direction is only fifty per cent of the hoop or circumferential stress, or the hoop stress is twice the axial 'stress. . .
= . = =.

Air-conditioning Q. ice crystals will form. due to the iiature o f the reefer c a r p When carrying fniit. which occur in the handling of reefer cargo. at r e ~ u l a r intervals. when in a refriyerated ho. this rate is increased to 70 to 80 air chanses~per hour Dce t~ the larse range of temperatures. (Small ice crystals reduce the mechanical damage).With frozen cargo. Reefer containers . The hold insulation tried to ensurr an even temperature for the contaicer surroundings. Micro-organism become inactivated at about -10 O ar. Modern cellular container vessels have done away whh the need for dedicated reefer holds. Early container ships had insulated holds. length) have their own independent refrigeration system. When reefir containers are unloaded.These low temperatures may require the h i t t2 be pre-cooledibefore loading. various gases are liberated in (he hold. there may be probiems due to chanye of electricity supply. to keep the inside temperatures uniform. Lowest rate of air circulation (for deciduous fruit and frozen cargo) is approximately 30 to 40 air changes per bour of the empty container. This requires complicated ship's pipe work. How xre the temperRtllres monitored ? What pzoblems could be encountered in the handling of refrigerated cargo ? Ans. but some may require water (for condensers). . To prevent fruit flies from causing problems.1. without danger o f over-heating.d. the temperature should be kept in the range 0. Engines are used at the docKslde and on the l a d leg: of its journey. The system is asually air coded.till shore facilities are available. Besides the mechanical problems of therefrigeration system. as well a s liberates carbon dioxide.S0C. With hiyher tempera!ures occumng naturally under the weather dcck and thr hatches. Reasons for controlling the carbon dioxide include : 181 I I I i t i j . which can carry sir-cooled units.6 to 1. specialized cellular container vessch are used.s refrigeration system powered by an internal combustion engine or by the ship's electrical power. the ship prwidrs the electrical power. a i~igh rate of air circulation is required.cgularly monitored.of about 20 R. the uppermost containers iequired the most cooling. which could result in inescient or no cooling.Refrigeration. to supply electricily for tke reefer conlai~crs. for camage c f reefer bo::es but the main insulation was still the container envelope.d chemical deterioralion is lowed to a negligible rate at sub-zero C temperatures below -i8 "C. The fruit absorbs oxygen and generates hest.-in order to prevent the rerfer cargo from getting spoilt A log is normally kept of the temperatures. Air c o o l d condenser units tend to oveiheat inside the hold (of a general cargo vessel). The Reefer container can have i. which may cause mechanical crushing of the meat cells. With bananas. at which the fruit may have to be carried. There are various problems. there are other problems. Thus. On it's sea trips. Temperatures need to be . Describe a self contained refrigeration unit ror a container vessel. . Units h a y need to be chazged to diesel driven compressors or the ship may have to unload a portable diesel genzr3tor.

g. hence its Pour point and Viscosity must be correct. The FIoc point is detti::i~ined by cooling a sample of refrigerant containing 10 % oil .g. Wax crystals in a at ~ e h ~ ~ . discuss : a) Properties. eventually forttiir~g wax crystals. is the main problem. rhe carbon dioxide ccntent is taken as an indicator far t h l ethylene cantsnt S h y l e n e content is difficult to measure). A build up of deposited oil will seiiotisly afFect heat transfer. The separator is . used in an ?ir conditionii~g system. is the Floc point. Porr Authorities may require carbon dioxide coGtents to be !ess :han 0. I n the case of Refrigeration lube oils.lever one hundred percent effective. This means that the lev4 in the sump is a balance.i. As the lube ~ i reaches the cold par! of the system. (1) 0. When in the crystal state. bu! most of it is returned periodically by the oii separator. !he oil will deposit. consequently.) Flocculation.~re which the wax precipitates. and the retn{?ecatun: at which this occurs is call the Floc poiat.. . iz to lubricate arid to seal. The purpose of the luSe oil. between the lube oil in circulation ( m i x d with the %a:. would have a detrimental effect on expansion valves and orr riii. it is essential l tiliii irr behaviour at low temperatures does not affect the plant. The lube oil comes into coii. if . e r a i isystem. Bananas) may give off ethylene.ys occur. It exists in the form of cloud-like tufts (or flocs). pacicularly with screw compressors. Some fruits (e. kept in a carbon dioxide content in excess of 2% (Core putrefaction caused by anaerobic bacteria). Apples) may develop internal browningof the flesh.2 A 11.ill alwti. can cause a wax to form and precipitate. in the w::i-k:q range of tsrrperatures. in a refrigzratior: system. i~ r i . Preventing the deposition of this oil. the wax is a flocculent.)and the !she oil in the machine.the !i. of a finely divided precipiiate. The evaporator coil size is usually desi~nedto ensiul:: a high enough flow velocity of the refriyerant. i.e the oil must not cungeal.. I~'1occulaiioii: FLocculation is defined as the coalescence. Cooling. ihe oil is present i r i a siution with the liquid refrigerant.5 (4) %. .() 2 A 5 %concentration of carbon dioxide is dangerous (to human life). As carbon dioxide and ethylene are pi-esent toyether.~i!~. a iiydro-carbon. into larger particles. At low iiowis. which can cause the (3) remainder to~ripenmore quickly. to entrain the hibe oil. hence some of this type of contamination u.it hr: avoided. Explain the principle nf a Psychrometer. 1.. Lube oil is c a ~ i e d over from the Compressor. of reefer lube oil. would normally be very miscible wiih the !?eons.i:rnti. some Iiibe oil always goes :hrough the system. on the hean transfer surfaces..:c< with the refrigerant and its miscibility is an important factor The oil bei. ARer the condenser. Some fruits (e. The carbon dioxide content is kept less than 1%.

parafin based oils are not used.ablc air movement over the bulbs. afid dehdmidifiers are used in Air conditioning systems to reduce this condition so as to keep the air in the 'Comfort zone'. The 'As new' behaviour of a refrigerat~on can be affected. one or more compressors may be used. and we say thai there is a high relative humidity. F& examplr. Acs. to maintain the correct density Sodium hydroxide (caustic soaa) may be added for corrosion protection.I n zeneral. to achieve a low Pour and Floc point. by means of a thermostatic expansion valve.this should be just enough to ade~uaiely coot the space.vick a ~ :he other with its bolh dry.or seccndary refrigerants. The expansion valve contmk the cooling effect by varying the amount of liq>d mfiigerant flashing off into vapour . then the lube oil should be changed Psychrometer : This is a device used to determine the velative humidity of the uses two matched thermometers. The tezperature of a 'cold room' is maintnined. tosupply the refrigerant to various cooling coils. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the Brine system. The secondary refrigerant is circulated through the reefer helds o is led tto 2n air cooie~. High humidity is undesirable. inside the spaces to be refrigerated. This is directly related to the m o i r w e content in the atmosphere (humidity). Cargo hold refrigeration : This may use primaq. which reduces the temperature of this thermomerer. d In one type cf instmment. If contamination is suspected. . The basic i~strurilent bulb suzound by a damp . if there is oil any kind of contamination. Q. In dry air.3. In the secundary system. if it was raining. by regu!ating the flow of refrigerant. as this maintains ihe alkalinity. Refrigeration oils are de-waxed. the naphtha based type being preferred.. causing excessi. to which the Calcium chloride may be added. some o i thc xatzi on the v:et bulb evaporates (absorbs latent heat). the primary refrigerant is used to cool the secondary refrigerant. The difference between the two tempcratiires h e . In the primary system. the ins:rument is whirled in the zir to give a conside.:e frosting (this-is controlled by maintaining a slight a e p e e of superheat). without allowing excess liquid refrigerant to flow back to the compressor. the wet bulb and the dry bulb) is a measure of how much evaporation has occurred (on the wet bulb). Describe a Cargo Kefrige~ation system. one with its atmosphere. then no evaporation would take place (because the air is already saturated with moisture). r Brine (Calcium Chloride) is the most common secondary refrigerant The system is usually fitted with a header tank. that has an effect on the oil.

. since the primary refn'gerant is sxpensive. . Different Icnii>eratures can be easily controlled in the reefer holds. especially if a number of difkrent temperature brines are used with mixing arrangements.SECONDARY REFRIGERANT CIRCUIT Ardv. in case of leakages. (3) I-lavin$ha secondary refrigerant. (2) Brinc k i n g capable of contamination. corrosion probiems in pipes and heat exchangers can create inefficiency and increased maintenance and costs. This adds to the operating costs. by varying the qiiltnrity of brine in circuhtion. (2) Niint: being cheap.~r. . is easy to make up.es the Brine System : of [I) t'siiiiary refrigerant cirsuit is limited to the machinery spaces. This allows greater flexibility in simultaneously canying large reefer cargoes at different temperatures. This is important i n case of any leakeges. Dkwdvnntngrs of the Brine System : ( I ) Extra pipe work makes a complex arrangement.riii. Control is achieved by throttling or bypassing brine or by having more than one evaporator in the system and mixing the diiYerent temperature brines. doubles the number o f heat exchangers in itre system. in difi~:ir:rn reefer holds.

. before the crankcase. Avoid rapid pressure drops in the crankcase. Shon cycling periods. . After a prolonged standjtill. isolate the Compressor by closing suction and discharge stop valves.thz pump cannc~t4rax. necessary to allow su%cienr h e for the oil level to re-stabilize. the lube oil has a considerable ability io entrain or absoib refriserant vapour. under a violent f0-m generation. Due to the difference in vapour pressure between refrigerant and oil. especially at low temperature. until the oil separator rises to operating temperaiur? 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) . there is an increased risk of 'burn5) out' of the motar Especia!!~ in R??compressors. While starting. the compressor should be bj stopped immediately. A 'cold' return line from the oil separator indicates the presence of e refrigerant in the oil separdroi i ~ stop valve in the return line. the fans a) should always be started beiore the compressor.Q What could be the reasons f o r lube oil t o absorb refrigerant vapour 1 Describe measures you will adopt. To reduce fnsrning in the oil sump. until possible throttling the suction side stop. During standstill periods. which h could cause increased iuear and the possibi!ity of seizure. with the risk oftuo low an oil level in the crankcase. 1) Troubles with the lube cil pump . :his involves : Consumption of oil. to 3) i ~ c a degree. under circunistances where the oil temperature is close to the saturation temperature on the suction side of the piant. the viscosity of the oil is r?duced. 'Oil hammer' in the cylinder. to reduce foaming in oil sump^ Ans. take precautions to prevent an oveitlow in plants with forced air circulation over the eva?orators. the greater p x t of the absorbed refrigerant lvili quickly be frecjaiier the pressure lowers in the crankcase). In hermetically sealed compressors. while the oil sump is cold. stan the compressor with reduced capacity. that the lubricaiicn properties are greatly reduced. When starting a reefer compressor. If necessary. should be kept closed. more oil is absorbed by the refrigerant.:alve springs and ihe unloadins device. valve. it is therefore. TIY Expansion valves should be correctly adjusted. At the slightest sign of liquid 'knock'. knocking sounds have ceased. reqcires immediare attention. the oil level drops. with the increasing content ofrefrigerant in the lube oii. rhe punctue voltage irom winding to earth is reduced consioerably. Reduce the compressor capacity before restarting.v the boi!ing 2) mixture of R22 and lube oil. with the subsequent risk of damage to 4) valve piatt-s. the following measures can be taken : I) After starting the compressor. with the resalt that sufEcient oi! pressur? cannot be genera!& Due to the rnix&in refrigerant. in a refrigerating compiesso.

this reduces the concentration of refrigerant in'oil by about 80%. In a Refrigeration system. Charge : The liquid level in the condenser is too high.a~.r d y . Ans. but the fluid speeds are fast enough to force the oil to travel around and back to the cornprmsor suction. for the cGmpresssr motor. d) I'iioistuw in thesystem : This ~~ormally comes in with the i q r e s s o f air in the system. if the evaporatoi is flooded.. It leads to an iced-up evaporator. with correspsnc'ing increase in saturation temperature and pressare. a) Uatder-charge : Low compressor suction and discharge pressiire. It may also result from Overcharge. their heat transfer rates will impaired. Air can be removed by d r ccllrclina the system gas (into the condenser). Tor 4 Compressor cycles intermittently on the pressure switches. ~ S Z @y . There is possibility of txcessive liquid refrigerant gettin3 to the evaporator. This can happen if the Oil separator is not wol-king c o i . Moisture may freeze a i tire expansion valve. e) Oil in tht: xystem. d ) Moisture in the system. condmsirig sudace. 1 . :t~i *. Xigh superheat at the comprEssor suc:ion. It wi!l contribute to corrosion in the system It may cause lubrication problems a d brcnkdown of the oil.1 -. giving icing at compressor suciion. (Possibility of overhearing and riii "J . c) Air in the system :!:os. ~~e .7) If?he compressor has a heating elenent. and I) Flooding. 5) tI 7 + . -~s~ ~ ~ i ~ . e) <Xi ~ I s. this should be used for 4 to 8 hours. 3 Q. b) Over charge. c p'a k y or' the system givins long running periods.. and a presswe drop across the expansion valve. iI -.. It may be due to fault*/ oc ii~correctlv adjusted expansion valve. This reduces the avalab!c..sibility of small air bubbles in liquid sight glass. !. giving some of the icdications of undercharge.. ~-. 1 Compressor ilmriin~ extended periods. Also due to the Solenoid valve leaking.: s :Z . If there is excessive air. lower than normal OVFR. state the effects of following : a) Under charge. If the oil is heated to about SODC before starting. (Coil collects in the condenser and evaporator. R m m temperatures rising 6.rgevapour bubbies in liquid sight glass. > -- 186 . krnrnerer reading. This may cause the reefer compressor to overheat. The cold room temperatures may rise. ir may reduce the cooling .ysim : I Tirecr: are normally always a small quantity of lube oil in the system. &+ !$za $= 3 G ..~ ~ Z . in relation to the saturation point at 20°C. with a high discharge pressure (with normal contln~singtemperzrure). before starting the compressor. leaving the condenser cooling water on and venting out the air 6om the top ofthe Condenser. 3 I) i ' l o o r l h l ~ : . c) 4 i r in the system. 5. breakdown at compressor delivery) 2.S.This is %:an as liquid gettins back to the compressor suction.

These are known as "Sekctive absorbers" and they allow ultra-violet radiation to pass through. Glass is also a 'selective absorber'. and Sulphur (SOX) are the "Primary polluiants" of the atmosphere. 'smog'. and the new Emission control regulations have brought about a drastic reduction in the . but absorb infra-red radiation. being water soluble. Hence any infra-red radiation. C a . like cancer. and Sulphuric acid. and this can result in 'global -. Hence. Fuel is a hydrocarbon and after complete combustion forms H20 and COz. Carbon monoxide. CO. that is generated at sea level. by isiug ultra-violet radiation (from the 2. C02 is the most damaging. which are known as 'greenhouse gases'. Additionally. Ozone. c) Incomplete combustion of the Fuel will result in the formation o f Carbon monoxide (CO). : c) Ans. as are gases such as C02 and N20.1 \ Emissions With respect to emissions from marine engines to atmosphere. is dangerous. and disscives heavily 'toxic' materials. since a combinarion of ozone with hydrocarbons forms a familiar city ~roblem a photo-chemical 'smog'. for both animal and plant life. discuss : Need to limit emissions of Nos. heat. will enter the 'water table' This 'contaminated' ground whter is nsed by boih plants and animals. at low levels.e.e. SOX. [ a) Emissions : The mides of Nitrogen ( O) N. i. i. i ~ \ The acids are absorbed in the clouds and then become 'Secondary b) poilutanrs'. Both NO3 and SGs are emitted from marine engines.varming'. Hence there is a need to limit emissions of CO/CO2 from engines. and i 1. i Sulphur~udSulphuric c i A a +NOx can combine wkh 01. a) What is 'acid rain'. is prevented from escaping through the atmosphere. 'global warming' a n d bow is it b) d a t e d to the exhaust emissions ? Formation o SO-. thzre is an urzent need to limit the emissions. This is carcinogenic (cancer forming) and : to thus t ~ x i c human and plant life. because they cause the formation of 'zcid rain'. sunj. which are increasingly getting more stringent. present i n the ground.. before the levels get out-of-control and destroy / damage the health r of ~ u ecosystem. These toxic materials. This 'cont3minated' rain water has a pH of about 4.~ . . This gas is toxic to human 5fe. . They -an pollute in two ways : i NOs and SSs dissolve in watm to form NitroudNitric acids. Ozone. to form 0 3 . which is increaxingly darnazing their ~ : c w i j iand ia suspected to be one of the reasons for :he increasing incidence of fatal diseases. causing an estimsted 55% of the greenhouse effect. allowable levels.

Reduce mass o f scavenge air. 2. Primary methods : These can be summarized under various headings : I. discuss various design changes to the engine. At the elevated temperatures and pressures of today's highly rated engines. Reduce the combustion temperaiures. Hence. Tile reaction may be written as : C + 0 2 -ico + % 0.3Nz Points $3 note : 1. NO is found in the exhaust gas. (Air contains 79 OA Ni). 4 S!ow turbocharger response t3 load change (turbo lag) The result is observed as emission of solid panicu!aks (smoke) and carbon monoxide gas. Ans. (e-hich reduces NOs formation). NO2 and N2O are represented by the general t e r n N o s . Retarded timing of fuel injection. . Formation of Sulphuric acid : Sulphur is contained in the asphaltencs present in the fuel When these are burned. Formation of CO : This is due to the incomplete combustion of fuel. I : This seems the most obvious soiution (although not practical).2. being a major constituent of air (79%) was previously considered inert in the combustion reactions in the combustion chambers of engines. The practical minimum air requirement is the ctoichiometric figure plus the required excess to ensure complete combustion. i Poor penetratiodturbulence. Tao large a droplet size. the Sulphur is oxidised by o s y ~ e n Q. The quantity of air available varies as a function of the time available for con~bustioll(two stroke has less time. there is a tendency for the Nitrogen to react and form oxides. C~llssdering point no. With respect to the control of emissions from engines. Consider the reactions : 8Nz + 202 -> 4 N 0 + 6N2 4N2 + 0 2 3 2 N 0 i. scch as NO. Also NO + 'A 0 2 -> NO2 and N2 i % Ot -> N20 The various oxides of Nitrogen.Formation of NOx : Nitrogen. . which is the reason for the increased level of emissions in two strokes). as compared to four stroke. N2 + Heat -> 2NO -his is a reversible processO2+ the cooling of the gases i i l the exhaust I but system prevents the reverse reaction. which is a function of: 1 . which haveled to reduction in NOI levels.

the more the NOS formation.T. which 13 turn lead to higher NOx formation. Thus any reduction will increase the load on the coolins systems. Another alternative is to 80 in f ~ r electronic fuel injection with microprocessor contrcl. Ifwe mix with exhaust %ascontaining NO + 0 2 2 W r + H + C + ~ N & + ' / ~ O Z . This lead to an increased bcrn-out $me. the part-[cad pressures/temperatures were rGsed (V. the amount of acid produced -has reduced signiticantly. Secondary S methods involve the use ofthe Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCX) y s t e n ~ ~ Briefly the SCR system involves : 1. However.). With the adoption of loadcontrolled ccoling.2. the bu!k o f the fuel cnarqe is injected 3. there will be an increase in the specific fue! combustion. which can control the combustion proass to reduce the emission levels significantly. such as d w b l e injection are being tried out. fkber varizrions. Considering point no. the higher the cycle temperatures and the longer the residence time ai high temperature. Points t note : o lil crder to raise thermsl efficiency and reduce specific fuel combustion. No sca-densesystem is 100% efilcient. This increased the time available f ~ r combbstion.400 OC. In order to lower'them. highly alkaline cylinder oils were used.vhich lead to hixher NOz formation. 5. 2. j In order to rsdlice fuel costs. by h t u r e legislation.ed (rpm) wzs reduced. + Heal + Catalyst -> ?Hz + NZ+ Catalyst. In order to raise propulsive efficiency with direct drive e n ~ i n e s . 1. Mixing the exhaust s a s with Ammonia.the engine sp. then secondary methods could be used. So any reduction of air will affect the combustion efficiency. .> + 3N ~ 0 + 0 2 + C . this is now seen as an incieased level of Silx in the exhaust Secondary methods : Primary methods try to reduce N o s levels. to existing legislation levels. the fuel quafity was reduced. In order to reduce corrosion due to condensation of Sulphur gases. In order to limit after-burning. Also. ZNH. This increased the cycle tenpcratures. ~ H2 Ifwe mix with exhaust gas containing N20 + 0 2 2NH3 + H t C + N1O + 02 -> 2 h + 3HzO + C~ .rhase of cynbustion. Passing the resultant mixture through a catalytic reactor at a tempeiature between 300 . during the first . 2. Scavenge air is used (on both two and four stroke ensines) to reduce the thermal load.I. 3. 2 : It is known that. but when more intensive N o r reductions are demanded.

The Ignition q can be considered as an index of :he ease.rorvlcilg !'or. with which a h ~ e will i l when injected into the hot ccrrpressed air charge in the cylinder. the higher pressures make it compress completely and do not show up on the 'Light spring' card. By superimposing [he scavengi: mariiii~ltl pressure on the diagram the fouling of the S F can be seen. Reducing ignition qualily increases the delay period. The Fuel quality setring (FQS). i. (the delay period) is a ir.r-Ie. by ad-gancing Gr retarding [he fuel timing. K. . eirs of changing the Ignition quality. Indicator cards. T i e residt is an increased pe-k pr-sii~ and better thennal efficiency. [I1 -Combustion. when under the no conditions in an internal combustion engine.h i s .however. rakes care of t diffknces in ipition quality. Usage of 'Light spring'. varioils components. refer to 'Advanced Marine Esi~ineoring Knowledze . Some fuels have a reduced 'igaitio dslzy' period. usually counteracts theeffeci of reduced h e 1 mass at igiirio.. The time which elapses hetween the first droplets o f fitel en the cylinder and the stG of combus:ior.te E. is variations. The light spring is used to indicate the pressure variations existing in the cytindtr only during the g?ls exchange process. varies. scavenging and exhaust processes.is a light tension.Adurisced iWor. Ignition is the star! of the burning p Curnhusrino is t3e complete burning process. on the working of the FQS system and a ske showing ihr.1'. A hi igiitiori quaLily fuel will hzve 13w arotnaticaily and hish p r a cori!enr. - 190 . used in an !ndicstor. From this diagram. For more details. L i g l ~spring cards : This is a special spring.-. The effect of changing the ignition qua1i:y : As all fuels are differen 1hey diiier in rheir ignition quality. on the engine. to amplify the slight changes in pressure ~ not able during the process 3f scavenge or exhaiisr. the pressure at exhaust vallfi: opening and BDC can be obtained.. to ger i a picture cf the pressure variations during scavenge and exhaust processes The normal (heavy) spring is used to indicate the complete r?!nze of pressure in the cylinder during the complete c. Since the spring h. of the ease of igcition. Ignition quality : The ability of a fuel to ignite. Light spring cards are used to indicate fouling of the scave ports and the exhaust system.e. to i-educed iynitica delay period. The large and rapid'heat release.Vol. associated with para iiicls.rgilteerirr. Fuel pumps and injectors Wn-it& short notes on following : igrlition quality. and are considered lo have a better igniti~n quality..

Ans Discuss. The hand-held unit will down-load to a PC. which are measured by the data-logger at the time of taking the readings. These take a voltage inpr. .Q. This rneans that 'rogue' readings wilt not be used. softwares can be nsed to help in trouble-shooting. which affects the magnitude o f transmitted pressure waves. For a detailed description and sketch of the Indicator. For an engine running at I00 rpm. The accuracy of the Planimeter. A full a. waves being transmilted down a narrow passage. but a corrected 'mean' wiil be used to adjust the engine power se!tings. d. It is extremely unlikely that ail cycles will exhibit the same charactefistics. by the Indicator unit. Modem Indicators. record should be kcpl of the following : When the fuel was first burned. \":?at action was taken to detect and reduce them. What action I repairs could be canied out. Thus recorded powel variations may be due to errors in the readings by the Indicatcr unit. 4. have over-come these limitations !o a large extent. This brings in an error. mill take appropriate steps.1'. Conventional Indicator cards have the following limitations :The pressure sensing spring of the Indicator relies on pressure I. refer to 'Advanced Marine Engineering Kncwledge . Q. 3. The Indicator card is the basis used to adjust engine parameters.2 million cyclrs would occur. which also display standard power calculations and other relevant information. to enable faults !o be easily identified. microprocessors can calculate !he flex in the crankshaft at different speeds. and also accurately measure exact position of TDC.V01. Ans. as well as the assumptions taken in pswer calculation. Electlonic indicators have an advantqe. in one month.3. When I What were the first signs of fuel related problems. b. In addition. c. Readings can be superimposed. In case of a problem arising due to receiving sub-standard quality of bunker fuel. discuss how you. in detail. using piezo-electric transducers. and use this for re-adjustin8 the timing. in addition. the limitatioxls in the recording and assessment of Indicator cards taken by a conventional indicator. sincc TDC positions would vary with the flex. in this respect. The pressure transducers can measure and store a large number of readings. We assume that the same diagram is represtntativc of all cycles of that unit. can Also. The calculation of the Indicated powcr [of a cylindel-j relied so the accuracy o f a hand-traced P!animeter. will be poor. such as ignition-delay. the actual site of i ~ i t i o n occur randomly in the unit. 1. This means that the cylinder pressures (from the same unit) can be registered as slightly different pressures.2. a s Chief engineer of the vessel. power and other parameters. compression pressure. 2. Ikom a sensor mowred near the flywheel.t from cylinder pressure transducers.

to show that the engine (or any specific component) was well maintained and within the normal 'service' life. ! law. Combustion performance can deteriorate when the following occur : I) Incorrect fuel injection within the cylinder. in relation to the specific circumstances govemino the contract. 102 . Q. Copies of hunker receipts m s t be p r e s e w d The Ouxer can then put the Charterer andig: Supplier on notice. due to A. i f they allow a reasonable length to time to discover any defect in quality. once the vessel had ceased to bum the 'suspect' fuel. When w3s the 'off-spec' fuel last burned and its disposition. There are certain limitations placed in supplier's contracts. or seating faces. Any relevait reports from surveyors.4. I . 3. Many bunker suppliers rely on the 'limitation clausi'. . one coatract states 'Owners to give notice within 7 (seven) days o. i n n contractual terns. All trmsfers o f 'suspect' bunkers should be recorded in full.What components were overhauled. 2) H O I V yoti trace the causes of poor combustion 7 will Ans. Most imponant of all. This limitation period ranges From as little as 3-4 days to 3-4 months. any Quality dispute'. zlleging that the fuei is ~oCfspec' and has caused damage to his vessel's engines. Photographs should be takzn of the damaged co!nponenks. B. e. Previous logs or records should be referred to. in detail. x. whether or not thcse tanks were Lnitiaily empty and details of quantirles held in each tank. !? Also a sample ofe! pre. If temperature is too low then. . c) I : : 3 . to confirm that the problem was due to the fuel only. undawriters and engine manufacturers should be kept. Fie car1 lodge a complaint with the Charterer or supplier. a) Fouled injector nozzle. 2. Chanse in performance of the engine. reasons for deterioration in combustion. which seeks to impose a time consiraint on the Pxchaser. such limitations are regarded as enforceabie.kms bunker. i be The following procedure skc~uld followed: Exact recxds should be kept of rhe t a d a in which the suspect fuel was placed on delivery. Another more reasonable clause states 'claims on account of quantity. Incorrect assembly of injector nozzle during overhaul b) Excessive wear of injector holes.' Incorrect temperature of the fuel. Copies of bunker receipts must be preserved. the ship's retained drip sample drawn during the bunkering must be kept safe. I) Discuss. f.4nf damage to machinery pars should be recorded. . during which the notification of a claim has to be made. For example. qiiality 3r any other claims shall be communicated in writing to us immediately after discovery'.

inspections are made on the following. as velocity through the scasenge pons . Scavenge air pressure and temperattire. C. Fouling of the turbocharger and thus low charge ai. possihiliry o f afterbuming and checking the power balance between cylinders. c) Reduce the q n n t i t y of excess air normally supplied. and the set pressure should be within 6% of the maker's recommendations. affectins fuel efficiency. 3. injector tip should be clean.:>ill be reduced. with no erosion damage present on plunger / control valves. whicn will increase smoke levels and emissions. D. as weil a s produce 'late ir~jection'thus : Fuel econnniy will be affected. E. Check the spray pattern. and hence increases combustion time and increases exhaust smoke levels. The droplet forms a hard layer around it. Fuel injector condition. thus fuel droplets become larger. a) b) Fuel pump internal wear. 5. which reduces evaporation and hence afiects the burning. The plungerhamel wear should be within limits. Draw cards should be taken to analyze the injection process. which reduces the compression and thgs ppak pressures. Fuel pump.a) Viscosity increases. . This affects the mixing and combustion process. againsi nigher gas presstires in the cylinder. Fuel viscosi:j should be correct. which reduces mixing. This will reduce the maximum pressure delivered by the pump. resulting in inadequate surface area for combustion and slower burning. Penetration will reduce. b) Fuel spray become more compact.ow of exl~ausrfrom [he cylinder and t l l ~ i z reduce cylinder content purity. as fuel supply is injected later. Foilling of the Exhaust gas boiler. The correct air pressure (for or the engine load) could be found from test bed ~ s u l t s previous records. which includes the checking of injection timing. 2. Checks to be made of rhe fuel viscosity using a calibrated visconleter. 6 ) Reduced air 'swirl'. a7 2) Tracing the cause of poor combustion requires the following : 1. pressure a) This will reduce the oiitf. if individual cylinders are experiencing poor combustion : 4. b) This will also affect the pressure of scaven_eeair. The injector should not dribble. This will increase the hack pressure and hence fernperattire at the end of the exhaust stroke.

'Xi~enwill you need to inspect the cam and haw is this carried out ? Is the torque on a canishaft constant or varyin.iuctt a probleni wirh cross-head type engines. As bowicing speed is proportional to .:ri scating (and increases seating velocity). Usually a design prfiblem. arid hence secondary injections are possible. .lation) This is a problem in trunk piston engines. Excess leakage of fuel into camshaft system feootami. the maximum fuel pressure achieved and also will inject i! 'late' in the engine cycle. 25 411s.g. 111 es!ri:rni. Fuel pririlp seizure Se:iztii-e can take place Detween the pltingerharrel due to different ~~~~~~~~~~atrires.3 Ails. Q. producingcylinder imbalance. 1. If the valve: i s worn. I .Il inci-ease plitnger wear. rather than eccentrics. It will increase cam wear and iiicreasc the risk of a crankcase explosion (low flash point). which increases the shock '?adins niid thc inorive force required. or at plunger/seal= due to build-up of cilrbonaceous particles. the pump will stop reciprocating verticaily. and reduce time lac to refill pipe-line at the (lest irijecrioii. Plungesf Barrel wear This is caused by abrasive particles in the fuel. i t i\. Xxplairi why plungers are driven by cams. giving details or the same.Discuss the common faults which could arise in fuel pumps. this will r e d ~ c e quantity of fuel i t rernoiies from the pipeline the w1i. i t will reduce the anmunr of fuel injected. oi-bouircing. Caviiation damage This is ca~iscdby excessive pressure drop at the spill ports. since it can introduce low fiaslr ipoirit (fuel) oil with abrasive pariicles inlo camshaft I sump. Iivalve leaks or spring is broken. .. 2. rzducing sealing efficiency. prodicing erosion damage just above the helix control edge. Slnoolt~ deceleration. Need ro avoid sudden accelerations.6. This is not so :. but just as impor-la:ll is l i i c need to rotate and hencestop fuel uelivery. With i-::fer-ence to fuel pumps : a) b) c) Describe the cam (profile). Wc::! at tliscliarg: valve In aiixiliary engine fuel pumps. The profile of the &el cam is dictated by the following requirements: n) 1. the discharge valve is pl~ovided io proclk~cicnntrolied reduction in discharse $pe pressure to avoid secoiidary : ~ i j c c ! i u w . . then a cpater quantity of firel ivili 'cscnpe' and hence less fuel mili be injecte2 (compared is other cylinders) at iit:xt injection.ases.( . to avoid the plunzer i e a v i n ~ cam profilc a i tile the c~rd ofinjeciion.

Thus.issibIe the speed. which varies dliring the injection process. :akin2 care of the rate of injection. Any flaking indicates over!oad . which . such as a crank or an eccentric to achieve this. harmonic motion unir. pulp plunger.change cam. or slightly nsin. cam. The returnstroke o f the fuel pump has a similar effect. When it is time for the valves to close.cam. depends on pump strokebore size. it is extremely difficuit for a syrnmeriica. However increasing this radius also reduces the effective stroke of th. in case of a cam. iii) To phase spill and filling sesuences. The Level ofmax fuel pressure required. The torque on a camshafi varies considerably through the cycle. the reaction a f the compressed spring closes the valve. This 6. snd effective nozzle ares. such that pressure fluct~iations in the inlet chamber are reduced. to produce [he best proftle. the action af the spring forces the roller on to the cam. any mo6ifica:ions can te'easily cmied out. . camshafi m d camshaft drive. without bouncing. iv) To comb?. There is a rapid decrease in fuel pressure when spill ports open. This is when the cam will. During the period that the valves are closing. The amount of dweli angle provided at the toe of the cam profile may take inlo consideration some of the following : i) checking plunger clearance ii) ensure that on four stroke engines. When a cam is opening an air inlet valve or an exhaust valve.fised replacement. Any light cracks to be removed. the action of the cam. 5. dictated by the speed of fuel 4. The fuelling rate ~f the engine. Damage :a cams is usually due to fatiguzd spring and result of extensive shock loading.I~creasing nose radius will reduce k and so increase the pern. compresses the valve springs.the fuei and exhaust cam profiles on a single two stroke engine camshaft: for reversible engines. and check the fuel oil viscosity. The cam surface should be :mooth and bright. Some of the work done in compressing the spring forces the roller on lo the cam and some of the work (done in compression the spring) is returned to the engine through the roller. engine speed.. The same action occurs with exhaust valves opened by the pressure from a hydraulic pump and closed by the action of a pneumatically opera!-d +ran. the fuel injection will rake place near to erhaust valve opening timing. This can be at constant velocity. Considering the above. needs cuffrcient sized spill ports and slowing plunger speed.iiill be a compromise of the various factors invglved.~falling before spill ports open. in opening the valve. due ro the action of the canis on the valves and rhe fuel-pump's operatins mechanism. The basic cam profile is extremely complex.

' . 2 polar lwizting mGment diagram. when the chain stretches ? Ans. if we torque transmitted by the camshaft to a cam is plotted or. i t will be seen that during the period a va!ve is opening the torque wili be positive and when the valve is closing it wiil be rxgativs. so that the idltr sprocket wheel moves towards o r away from the chain increasing or reducing the tension. When the sommation of the torq~e're~uirements each cam is platted. The torque on a camshaft varies considerably through an engine cycle due to the action of the cams on the valves and fuel-pump operatin g mechanism. in some marine engines. chain adjustment is controlled by measuring the transverse displacement of the free length of the chair. by adjustment of the chain tensioning device. The same action occurs with exhaust valves opened by the oressure from of a hydrau!ic pump and closed by the a c t i o ~ 2 pneumatically operated piston. During the period that :he valves is closing the action o f the spring f ~ r c e sthe roller cn io the cam and some of the work done in compressing the spring forces the roller on to the cam 2nd some ofthe work done in compression the spring is returnttd co the engine through the roller. the 'stretdh'. or increase in length. 1 Q. while in service. camshaft and camshafi drive. thr vxiation in camshafi torque decreases. This load variation may cause problems in the dliving gears. Is the torque on a camshaft constant o r varying ? What effect does camshaft torque variation have on the camshait drive ? Ans. When it is time the for the valves to C~OS?. How is this increase in length accommodated and how is the increased transveise vibration catered for. within the limits of the gear backlash. for it wiil be seen that the torqoe requirement for driving the catnshaft vaees consi6erably t!xoughou: the cycle. As 'rhc number of cylinders increase.8. roller-chain vibration or iransverse swing. the action of the cam in opening the valve compresses the valve springs. 4. At the other end of lhe lever is a nut fitted in a yoke. or cause the roller chains to vibrate and swirg. reaction of the compressed spring closes the valve. the load on the camshaft drive also varizs. A screw passes through the nut. The return stroke of the fuel pump has a similar effect. When a cam is opening an air inlet valve cr an exhaust valve. whick p a y chatter. As the torque requirement to drive the camshaft varies. Turning the screw causes the lever to move about a fulcrum. cam. The roller chains used to drive engine camshafts eventually increase in length. At regular intervals. increase the load on the camshaft drive and may 'cause dificulties in service.Advanced Morine Enginecriag Knowledge Y ! 1 1 o. of roller chains is taken up.7.. Gear-wheel chatter. This usually consists of an idler sprocket wheel mounted at one end of a lever.

and any wear will increase the nozzle hole shape. emulsifli-d with water. The tensio% sprocket is fitted to the slack side of the chain. Note that many manufacturers smooth the hole entry. In othei. A change to oval from round shape wi:l influence the fuel droplet size spread.~ingi s corrected. The shapdsize of the nozzle holes are fixed at:he de9. s d change of flow into nozzle hole. the camshaft sprocket is giadcaliy retarded. have gn engines ? Ans.engioes n i>e1icui spring loading device is fitted on the lever nut and screw. restoring the spring comprzssion te ils proper figure gives the chain its cot-rect telision. and in s x h cases. Reduce the penetration. Usually the iniio Lld = 3. 2.s of holes. and the diameter depends lipon the quantity of fuel injectio~:required znt! the nombe1.9. Atonlisation is mainiy achieved at the needle seat passage. As th chaiil stretches and is re-tensioned. which occu~s the less dense cylinder gases. into Keep the atomisation level and injection pressure sufficient. a) Nozz!e hole size Thc two main parameters are diameter and lengh.e Adjusrnlent is controlled by measuring the transverse t l i s p l a c e ~ i i e ~ ~ ~ its mid-position. between two designated sprockeis. which stabilises nozzle characteristics. o The quantity of fu-1 s fixed by the power requiremeni of tlir engine. discuss the criteria a n d the imporlance of the hoie sizes of nozzles. In some engines. 197 . a) With reference to fuei injectors. the amount of compression on the spring is reduced. Q.80 % power.o i holes is set by the need to achieve a uniform spray pattern. if operared for long periods on i o . The nozzle hole diameter is reduced to : 1. This can affect valve t h i n s end fue!-irijzction timing The camshaft mtist th:n be repositioned reletive to the engine crankssae. the camshaft couplings canfior be moved angularly and relativeiy to the camshaft sprocket wheel. The anrplitude is controlled by guides and dampers. The diameter of the holegjs fixed by the need to penetrate the cylinder to a certain extent (60%) and achieve good atomisation. As tlie chain stretches. Slow stzaming nozzles can be used when regnlar and prolonged engine operation is required between 50 . as mass now rate is reduced. so that the retarded tii-. without iutermixing o f the individual sprays. an5 burr the entry/cxit profile. the indibidual cams musi be re-timed. Transverse vibration o f the roller chain is caused b y I O ~ ~ U P variations in the camshaft and torsional vibratory movement of tlie crankshafr. Thus changes to the diameter and entry profile will reduce the amount of atomisation which occurs. entry profile to the nozzle hoie. Tne nombet. b) Whal is the effect on an ezgine.ign stage. ~ ~ speed a n d power 1eve:s 7 c) What effect will fuei.

c.engine noise. A small reduction in the specific fuel :onsumption. to preven: boiling of i'r. Over Penetration. grzatcr heai changes in the fuel HeatindSe~vice ir~pui. i. 3~ An increased ignition delay per. with 'normal' size injector nozzles. the water droplets cause a fali ii: ihi: ri:suliarit gas temperatures. With a high level ( 30% ) cf water.d XISO the tendency to 'knock'. mainly in ~ I d e r i:rigiries. 198 .ion pressurrs. This will greatly increase 'e the liner wall temperature (as well as thermal stresses).od. 1. increases both the maximum pressure rise during combustion. or csiiuisiried with the parent fuel. c) Emnlsilied fuels Waier can be introduced into th: cylinder either by a separate injector. so that a high level of fuel impingement on the liner wall takes piace.. An Emulsion will increase the viscosity of the injected fiie!. The liquid streamtravels too far into the cylinder.e. b. exhausttemperatures and fuel consumption will in&ease. ?. Stable emulsions are more easily formed with FiTO and ihe level o f water in the file1 can rise upto 30% (more thzn this creates prohisms with the fuel pump). This leads to a lower level of NOx formztion. . then . witn the increased vaporizarion of hiel. d. Tliis will remove the liner lubrication. Scored needle. Gas density .lO.15 %. in the fuel injector. Slack needle. Ans. b) Low spfzd and power operation If the engine is operated for long periods at low speeds and power levels. bcr the high consumption of fresh water and the ixi-e&sed speci5c fuel consumption mike the ecmomics debatable. when the gas density within the cylinder is rzdruczd or with over-size holes. which ieduces the fornationof sdot'and N ? Iwels. when prolonged slow steaming is carried ou[. Q. A rsdiuced flame temperature. smaller diameter nozzles must be used to compensate. respeel lo combustion in marine diesel engines. thus system is required. mechanical loadins. ar. in the fuel injector.? water content. which operate with lower Fuel injec. NOx levels could be C. in the fuel injector. discuss effects of: :i. extiaust miolte. and avoid Overpenetration. Hence. but 10% is found to give the best resrlts. coupled with an increased discharge pressure. O r e r Penetration : This will occur.? rzductjon is due to low scavenging pressures and this occurs during low power operations. When thc iuriihm emulsion is injected into the cylinder. -. Weak spring. . rerli~sid by 10 . a.

b. s. Scored needle : Similar to slack needle. d. or during tank heating. I . the fuel droplet sizz will increase during these injection periods.. ..i~ . . If a fuel oil is kept suitably heated. Slack needle in an injector : The cause of a slack needle is excessive wear.-It may consist of carbonaceous material from the fuel. as that causing a 'slack' nzedle. . due to leaks in coils. water. due to . The fault differs from 'slack' needle in the observatior: of tlie defect and that fuel leakage will stili be relatively smal!. - . ? ! . . i t h. . ~ . wax from the fuel.. i - !~.. . rain. . T h x . Wax is contained in most fuel oils. The cause is the same. c. . The ability of Kefinenes to extract more and more high giade fuels I distillates from crude oi!. : :. . Water ::water contamination often occurs during loading... due to condensation. wherhereas the effect of & increased drcplet size ? (towards the end of combustion) will increase smoke z?d HC levels. which have incre-aed the storage problems. ~ .1 i . discuss the problems associated with storage of fuel . organic and inorganic substances. compared with a 'slack needle' fault.. The effecrs are similar :c that o i h a v i l ~ ~ scored needle. cdntamination kith sea water (more dangerous). and the consequent rise in prices. usualiy due to ?oar fi1:rzticn of fuel. dissolved.ts Lecome important to extrxt the riaximum out of the crude oil. c f contaminants and the deterioration of the quality of the residues. the greater amount being in :he residual component. Sludge : This separates out from marine fuel oil in storage. Weak spiinss will lead ti. such as tank scale. metal fatigue.ition de!ay 2nd an i~creased tendency iwvards diesel knock.. With the dimillishing reserves of oil. These residues farm the base of marine fuels. s2ring in an injector : This will cause the injecior to open and close at a lowei-pressure. over a period of time. ! i <- oil and the problems due to inorganic sludge (contaminants). Storage problems with marine fuel. to make i t economically viab!e. Ans. With reference to Cueis. It may occur during . has resulted in a coxentratior.dguide. . . 0. This causes uneven wear a between needie a~. which will cause increased friction in the needle operation. or storage. The effect of increased droplet size (at stan of combustion) wi!! increase igr. the wax remains .

The cross-head guide. t o use the unworn surface. and to avoid impact loads on the Guides. when this reversal occurs. is called the 'ahead' guide. Factors governing clearances a) Crosshead guide : Upper limit The need to keep good alignment between Crosshead. to ensure h a t wear is within the ! h i t s stipulated. Piston and Liner.ouides and slipper. State the factors. but will not remedy damage due to roughness. In two-stroke engines. Ans. Since it is not possible to rotate journals through 180 " . The guide is provided to maintain the baiance ofthe working parts.2. as the Crosshead moves from 'ahead' to 'astern' faces. which govern bearing clearances. c) Bpttom end. and there is no pericd when the bottom half is 'relieved' of load. then the Cross-head may nerd over-haul.1.e. when the engine is ~ n n i n g the 'ahead' direction The other guide is termed the 'astern' guide. or. Excessive ovality or cracks will also necessitate replacement. un!ike Tour strokes. Excessive ciearances would rcsdt in shock loading. the Cross-head beinng is iini-directionally Isaded. d) Thrust Bearing. The oil film would be squeezed from between the surfaces.Q. Q. during the wcrking s!rok=. Polishing with hemp rope and mild abrasive may take care of minor scratches. Misalipnent of the piston rod ill iis $and and of the piston in the !iner could occur. the 'lcaded' surfaces of bearing or journals are hezvily worn. i. As the Piston passes TDC or BDC. . the bearing may need renewal. The Ahead cross-head p i d e canies the cross-head side thrust. Thus. and special care needs to be taken. there is a reversal of load on the cross-head . Bearings and bolts W h y are there astern faces. that may necessitate Cross-head replacement ? Ans. if more than one third of the contact area is 'scored'. tiowe-~er. with the possibility of mechanical damage to both the top end bearing and the slipper. the lubrication of this bott3m halfis extremely critical. on the Cross-heads of unidirectional engines? What are the reasons for limiting the Cross-head guide clearances ? What a r e the reasons. in even if the engine does not run in the astern directim (uni-directionail. in the following components of marine engines : a) Crosshead guide. Crosshead. if roughness has caused a large area of the bearing surface to be 'wiped'. which cames the load during the expansion or working stroke. b) Top end.

when the pi11 'flexure' occurs. This is because the bottom surface is atways under load. d) Flexing of the bearing. Ans. so that the resulting oscillatory motion is 1101 sufficient. With the Cross head bearing operating under high load a n d a noncontinuous rotation.': of a hearing is vital. to generate proper hydrodynamic lubrication. which can cause erosion damage ro rllk \\hire m?!al surface. and ilvoid s c i z ~ ~:ti crhc extremes. . should alignment nor be conect. and the need lo retain clearances. ivllen bearing rsaches the propsr opera8ng temperature. b) Bearing strength. c) Proper lube oil supply. Thrust hearing d) Uppei limit Prevent Iarse inertia ibrces on bearings. or running-gear misalignment.0allow [he yuides to cxjmnd. wit11 excessive axial movement. The surface finis.oir-ct I i ~ i i i t - 1. pinon rings may contract GI? the liner. and prevent rapid jou117aI movememi. whether on rhe compression stroke. during chansec from anead ! astern. and reduce possible edge-loading. b) T o p end o r Cross-head bearing : Upper limit To avoid loss ofoil pressure with large convergentidivergent profile. Loiver limit - To avoid 'edge loading' of the bearing. discuss the importance of : a) A high surface finish. c) 1 Bottonl end o r Crank-pin bearing : I n Need to retain the oil pressure. when the oil rthn thickness is so small. or the power stroke. If esccsst\-c. - Lower limit Allow some oi: leakage. since the lube oil does nor have a chance to enter the bearing easily. Prwent ensine cranks1i.3. Lower limit - Allow rhe thmst pads to tilt and thus generate The required oil pressure. that metal-to-metal contact may take . Added to this is the fact that the conversion of vertical movement (of piston) to rotational movement (or crankshaft) mkes place here. Q. io prevent nver-heatins and possible reduction of oii vixosiiy. Thns there is no time for an oil film to form. a) Surface Finish : The crossheed of a two-srroke marine engine is unidirectionaily ioadcd.li mixalignmen:.L.

which the bearing cannst withstand. These will act as oil reservoirs. With I!. or reduce its ihickness l b y bonding it to a lining material). we can reduce tlle specific 1oadir. and at this time. supported a! the ends. thus spreading the load gradually over a larger area. .place. some manufactukrs have made supply grooves into !he bearing surfaces.: to regain the oil film.4. once motion rc-ockurs. in . the rotational motion ceases twice every revolution. so that a full length crosshead bottom bearing can be used. for the same length.g. we can delay the onser of boundary lubrication. Discuss : a) Scoring. or fatigue wiil occur after a 'number' of cycles. which supponsir~ducesally bending of the pin as well as increases the effective bearing area (B&W MC.so that the bearing will be quickly lubricated. boundary lubrication occurs. Q. the stops in the motion and the r e v e ~ a in movement. To improve the bearing strengh. so that the degree of pin distor!ion is matched by the mounts. Provide flexible bearing mounts. although it is known that rapid journal movement can starve a hearing. we can either change the material (to !ln-aluminum). Also. by increasing the contact area of the bearing. so that the degree of bending is reduced (MAN B&W) Mount the piston rod on top of the crosshead pin. b) Bearing strength : The strength or fatigue limit o f the bzaring material has a major influence on the operational life of the bearing. Sulzer RTA). If the metal is unable to withs:and the high pressurs imposed on ir.min_e or 'bearing' surface. By improving the surface fini. If we apply a load in the middle o f the pin length. and reduce its effect occurriny. sincc !he hi+cr pressurc wil: allow tiic bcari81. This will causes bending of the pin and c+ae edge loading ofi the crosshead bearing. In this bearing. Another improvement is the increase i n the lube oil supply pressure. makes l i t very difficult to maintain oil pressure at the n.order to improve this. Bearing damages in journal bearing and tilting pad thrust has occurred.? crosshead hearing. To alleviate this prob!em different designs are used : 1. Increase the diameter of the Crosshead pin. and hence edge loading is greatly reduced (Sulzer).h. 3. c) Proper lube oil supply : The bearings are assumzd to be running 'full' of oil at all times. 2. there is a bendipg moment acting on the crosshead pin. due to foreign matter or dirt. This will increase the stiffness of the pin. the metal will either yield. d) Flcriog of the bearing : The crosshead pin can be considered as a simple beam.

and scoring of both bearing a d mating surfaces. is greatly reduced at high temperatures. or 3f other b ~ a r i n g linings. due to excessive unbalance or journal instability.op afid bottom halves. high cyclic centrifugal loading due over-speeding. specially o f low melting point materials smh a<white meta!s-ad lead-base overlays. check the balance. Black scab or wire wool damage. with degrees of severity depending upon the nature a i d size of the dirt particle. providing sufficient clearance exists. 3. burnishing of bronze bearings. surface wipiny of white metal lined thrust pads i caused by the imposition of dynamic loads in excess of the fatigue s strength of the bearing nlaterial at operating temberature. and corrosion of lead-based white metals. or to both these causes. If lightly wiped. alone. In case ofThrust bearings. d u e to electrical discharge. 'Din' may cause polisking of the surfaces of whit? metal !in& bearings. Hence overheating. This is usuell~due to inadequate iunning clearance. Damage d u e to faultyassembly. a) Scoring due to foreign matter or dirt. oil gallerks or cylinder bore. may cause fatigue failure. may be caused by acidic oil oxidation products These are formed by ingress of water (in service) into the lube oil. Pitting. fl Wiping of bearing. in both . present at the I.surface-is one. b) Wiping of bzariog : A 'wiped' bearing . Cavitation erosion. alignment of coupling and so on. If there is excessive vibration. meking and smearing is evidek.b) c) d) e) g) Ans. time of assembly^ Entertained dirt entering through breathers or air filters. with consequent surface overheating. abrasive wear of ovei!ays. A wiped surface may follow disruption of the oil film. derived from combustion of the fuel. Wnite metal-tined bearing can be wiped. cyclic out-of-balance loading. shafts not truly 'cylindrical'. due to manufacturing defects. Overlay-plated copper lead bearing can get wiped due to a barreled journal. the bearing can be refitred after cieaning the surface to remove any loose metal. Other causes are : Over-load. Fatigue strength. This can occur due to contamination of the lubricant : Deformation on crankshaft. or oil fiIn tliichess and type ofbexing material. ad panicIes 2. c) Corrosion : Corrosion in copper-lcad and le'hd-bronze alloys. . Corrosion. where surface rubbing. It may also be due to inadequate oil supply. Metallic wear particles resu!!ixg from abrasive wear o f moving pans. due to extreme loading. due ro inadequate clearance. and shafI vibrations. or by the decomposition of certain 011 additives.

due to electrical discharge : Electrical discharge occurs throuph the oil film. .Advnneed Marine ~ n & e e r i z i ~ Knowledge Vol. once it is started and susceptibility ro scab formation depends upon the nature of the lubricant and the composition of the stee! oft& shaR or collar. Excessive 'interference fit'. c a d e very severe damage to the mating steel surfacewhich is literally 'machin& away'. which may obscure the original pitting. due to the presence of sulphur. by abrasive wear or scoring. exposes the underlying lead to attack. 'The harder the bearing material. Fretting damage dse to inadequate 'interference fit' in flimsy housings.. b i proper centrih~ing. in copper-lead or lead-bronze inter-layers. In case of sulphuric acid corrosion. ARer replacing the be&ng shells. Inv&tigate the oil condition periodically. . the overlays may be corroded. it may be necessary to replace the bearing. with the formation of so-called 'wire-wool'. it may be better to avoid phosphor bronze. Eliminate the water in lube oil. ~ . This may occur due to faulty insulation or eanhing. by dirt. In severe cases. by contact with thz sieei jcumal or thrust col!ar. between journal and tearing in electrical machinery or on the rotors in fans and turbines. a) Cavitation erosion : A n impac: fatigue attack is caused by the formation and coilz~se vapour bubbles. If severe. themocouple lcads and water connections. periodically examine to confirm thereis nb more elect$cal discharge. in the oil film. appear to be particulmly suscep$ble lo scab formation. especially around any insulation. may occur very rapidly a d the cause i sometimes difficult to diagnose as s pitting of the bearing surface is followed ultimately by wiping and failure. and use phosphor-6% a!Ioys like lead bronze or sil bronze. . especially in high speedmachines with bearing rubbing speecis over 20 meters per second. in excess of I%. i The action is self-propagating. I11 Removal of overlays. and becoming embedded in !he bearing. This scab will ther. . under conditions of rapid pressure of changes. n g material. I f) Pitting. causing bearing boredistortion. investieate the practicality of increasing the oil pressure or modifying the groove by tiending the zdges or contours to promote a more stream-!ined flow. 2. or by changing to a h a r k b e ~ . . which ma. Z %.y form a hard scab of material. the greater is its resistance to cavitation erosion. g) D&magedueto faulty assembly : Under thisheading are include? 1. in case of cavitation. to ascertain the level of corrosion. or to the build-up of static electricity. with particular attention to Iittings such as guards. which may be bridging the insulation. Steels c o n e g chromium or manganese. 9) Black scab or wire wool damage : 'Black scab' or 'wire wool' damage is caused by large die partisles $robably'not less than i m across) czrried into the c!earance space by the lubricating oil. Examine earrhing connections. This can occur at very low voltages and may czuse severe pitting on bearing or journai s ~ f a c e sor both. In exEeme cases damage .

Heavy pressure near the bearing 'parting tines'. Local 1:1ossin:ss: This appearance often occurs on new bearings. 1 1 1 3. Check the bearing clearance. Heavy pressure on the bearing edge (often one-sided) with revealed bronze aRer a short 'running-in' period. 5. These glossy iireas disappear after ~mnins-infor a fairly long time. The bearing shells sometimes become concave during operation. 7. It is essential to find and remedy the cause. A bearing should be relieved over 10' from the parting line. 4. Entrapment of foreign matter.06 mm thick.-The bronze may be exposed in the relieving zone. for survey. Fouling at crankshaft fillets. This is during the ruming-in process. These areas are something characterized by gloss. afier a short 'running-in' perigd. . Discuss in detail holy you will access the condition of hearing shells and the actions you propose to rectify the dcfects tintifed. Remove the marks with scraper or fine steel wool.Advanced Marine Engineerie: Knowledge Yol. between bearing and housing. scaling should be treated with a scraper. The criteria below apply to tri-metal bearing. If a uniform dull grey s-rface is observed. In most cases. Q.the fillet radius of z re-ground journal is not in order. which consist of a steel shell with lead bronze lming and a galvanic white mctal piating. 6. Misalignment or shaft deflectioa. Glossy areas along the hvo edges of the bearing. This is not admissibie. All loose panicles must be removed. about 0. This indicates that the bearing is overloaded along the two edges. in the region of bearing split. If large. they shculd be tightly scraped. the areas being very sharply limited. check the fillet ~mdius between journal and webs. the bearing should be 'touched up' with fine steel wool or a scraper. tongue-shaped and ~ l i g h : ! ~ raised areas of gloss shouid occur after a short running period. m d needs no further attention. Effect of joint face 'stagger' or absence of joint face relief. Heavy pressure below the relief area (on one or both sides). and sometimes they show cracks and scaling of the plating. Effect of ginding the shaft in the wrong direction. ~ 'Tozgue-shaped' areas of gloss on one side. Glossy areas should be touched up with tine steel wool. causing uneven wear of bearing. If the loss is very in!ense. and is caiised by locally uneven lube oil film thickness. due to incorrect shaft radii. Do not use emery cloth. in bearillgs causing overheating and damage. the bearing is iunctionjng perfectly well. in' of the bearing. during assembly.03 :c 6. The #loss disappears after about a hundred hours of operarion. of a main engine unit. has beec 'opened-up' Ans. causing bearing bore distortion and localised overheating.5. If the crank shaft has been re-ground. A Main bearing. It is caused by the wear during the 'rnnning.

Deep scratches are best smoothed out with fine steel wool or a scraper. deep score marks both in the lead bronze layer and the plated overlay.bearing must be replaced and the engine manufacturer notified.o be checked. Cracks in the plated overlay. however. or:--if they occur in large patches (exceeding about 15% of the bearingsurface). Ensure extreme cleanliness during assembly. If necessary. However. Sometimes a dark layer becomes visible.1 1 1 Check the lateral beafing clearance and the bearing cap for misalignment. These depressions are harmless. this wzar pattern occurs after a short period of operation. If large pieces break off when isolated patches are pricked wi:h a scraper or another pointed tool. since there is a danger of the oil feed being interrupted. Measure the :rank web deflections. C&s and scaling in the plate* overlay. re-align the crankshaft or bed plate. Check the bearing clearance. . check the bearing fur maximum clearance.can be caused by dirt. Galvanic plated overlay worn over a large area. S m h e s in the platplatedoverlay d in the lead bronze. If. Replace the bearing shells.Advanced Morine Engineering K. the beariny musr be replaced. The bearing can be fitted again unless a very marked accumulation of crack exists in ?he loaded zone. i Bg~pmarkso~the_oilgraoves. iiDepressions caused by erosion or cavitation. They are recognised by the stepped edges of the damage areas. Provided that such scratches are not veIy concenrrated. generally. if they are accompanied by damage in the lead bronze layer. check rile crankweb deflections. Diagonal glossy areas. Watch the wear of the shaft. when an apparently intact spot is lifted off. check the surface condition of the journal and smooth it aut. These scratches m . If additional hearings are fed ~wiihoil from tius bearing. between ihe lead bronze and the plated overlay. Chzck the bond of the overlay. shortage of lube oil may be the cause. The borderline itself is very irregular and. These depressions are generally sickie or kidney-shaped. This dark layer can appear if the bearings have no intermediate nickel dam. bronze exposed. particularly after the initial running-in period. Aftcr a long period o f operation and with a smooth surface a s well as smooth transitions at the edges. the. These cracks are harmless. remove the loose panicles immediately. these beariogs must a!. Make sure the bearing shells and caps are fined accurately. smaller are= with depressions exist next to the borderline. if necessary. The plated overlay is no longer bonded. Gaivanic plated overlay worn over a fairly large area (bronze exposed). Re-polish if necessary For the main beaEngs. they are harmless. Check the oil filter and the piping between the fi!ter and the engine. Check the surface roughness of the jounial (2/1000mm). there is no danger. If the plated overlay contains cracks and scaling.rowledge Yol. These must be removed.

. as metal fatigue will cause failure below the UTS of a matm-al. Check the pre-strrss of thq bearing shells in the housins.6.nxst Se rcplacerl and i t is essentia! !o determine the cause. journal wear on the crankshafr is much reduced by the plated overlay. In the induction stroke. Follow the engine manufacturer's instniitioni ?bout tightening the bearing bolt>. The piated overlay is vely smeary. Heavy working traces on the outer surface o i thc bearing awl some areis of fretting corrosion. bolts o f 4 strokes . The bearing shc!!s . it is zdvisable not tl open properly running hearings unnecessarily. The she!ls have become convex on the inner surface. Check the fix1 injection pump. . Check the to~siontil vibration damper. If the engine has tie-rods.are more susceptible to failure. If this pattern already occurs after a short running period. but on one side only. Explain why bottom-end bolts a r e prone to failure. paying particui2r attenticln to the assembly instructions. due to the variance of forces imposed on it. Identify those features. in addition to the pretension load of the bolt due to tightening.f pitting occurs on several bearings. it is essential to trace the cause and to replace the bearing fconsult'the engine manufacturer). incorporated into the design of bottxu-end bolts. an alternative load will be imposed due to the stresses involved. The bottom end hearing. as littie material as possibleshould be removed from tkis over!ay. to inhibit failure. If several bearings should exhibit this phenomenon.. Apart from that. Since every bearing has to settle in again afler refitting. the iead bronze is partly exposed (mainly along the transversz centre line).y as regards tightening the b a i n g bolts. Sh.lec. The plated overiay has much better 'running-ic' and emergency iunninz properties than the lead bronze. Q. alternating forces are imposed on the bearing bolts. This is due to tube oil black with shortage. Thc bearing csn remzin. eveu under normal running conditions. where the journal pulls the piston down. Pt . Check the bearing for good seating. Heavy pressure on one edge as a result of inaccurate construction. Great care must be . Very oitm the outer surface of the bearing is q:ii~e carbon deposits. and what checks are to be carried Oiit.ia. If refinishing is necessary. es. Pitting on thc joint surfaces (dividing line) of the bearing shells. as a rcsult of nrnning hot. ~ Ans. notify the engine manufactiirer. do not align the bed plate by tightening or slackening the tie-rods (frame distortion). i* This phenomenon is caused by vibra$ion. Explain how this tendency is either aggravated o r inhibited-d y i n g main:enance. ~. thz pre-stress of the bearing sheik in the housings must be checked. The bearing must be replaced. Hence the fatigue strength of the bearing bolts becomes a factor.- Wear of the plated overlay over a fairly large area (bronze exposed).

in order to reduce any change in gequency.l a) Droop. Thus. which are required to maintain different speeds. to produce a small output movement. explain the foilowing terms : Q. with sufficient force to overcome he1 linkage resistance. This will lead to hunting.Governors With respects to governors. w ~ c is available to move the fitel contro!. Fropulsion engice governcrs are essentially devices. d) D e a d Band : The minimun change in speed (increase or jecrzase) required. try to maintain a steady speed. with a minimum of hunting. Ans p ) Droop' The drop in speed from no h a d to stable full load speed.i. which is undesirable They must be capable of detecting any change in speed and then applying the correcrive action required. on the other hand. e ) Stability. d) Dead Band. Any deviation in speed produces a corrective action. which is undesirable. rhe iiilal output is a compromise between Sensitivity and Stability. is called as the Droop h$ Isochronous : -/V ?so' mms cmstm?. e) Governor effort. thus an Isochronous governor is one which tries to mkntain a zonzta~i: stable speed. due to the imbalance between the centrifugal force on the h bails and the spring force. f ) Sensitivity. for different loads. b) Isochronous. c) Gwernor Effcrt : The resdr~nt fcrce.. e) S t ~ s i l i t y : The opposite of sensitivity . the ability to reach equilibrium (stable speed) . befare the governor can take any action. Alternator prime movers. A sensitive or 'fine' governor requires only a small change in speed. This ccuid change.e. regardless of load. . with which the Governor vies to maintain a desired speed. due to the friction in the actuating mechanism. f) Seusitivity : This is a measure of the accuracy.

. no oil flow occurs.. . b) Have excessive sensitivity to small speed charges.. or 'huntlng'. The flow is directed :o the servo or power piston. and explain what is in built ihto the governor system to overcomesuch friction. in a mechanical Governor.2 Friction developing between the moving parts of a Governor. If we consider the engine running at a stable speed. controls the flow of oil t o the servo or power piston. after a delay. With the hydraulic servo governor. Fail to react to small speed changes. connected to the fuel racks. Give the correct answer. under the now greate: spring force. the warserrhe reguiarion and this results in a short period but a large temporary deviation. The greater the mass. in turn. is termed the 'Dead band' and is inherent in a Governor. Similarly a small fal! in engine speed will not be sensed. > . which is inherently unstable. This arrangement greatly amplifies the governor eKo& while allowing the bail head to be kept small. but controls a pilot valve. for 'fine' governing.. Explain the working of a hydraulic Governor.<:. until the decieasc in c ~ m i h g a lfcrce q c a l s the frictional force present..~* .. .. by an amount that will generate zn increase in the centrifirgal force.A : i .. It also gives v W sensitive control. in turn. 0. -bout h e desired speed. occur. is thp colrect answer. before any corrective governor action can occur. This arrangement gives a movement (of the pilot vaive) in proportion to the change in the speed.. there will be a certain amount of speed fluctuation. . will cause the fuel rank to move in the 'increase fuel' direction and. a) Fail to react to small speed charges. the 'ball-head' (fly weight) no longer acts on the file1 linkage directiy. the engine speed will recover and overshoot. The pilot valve will close off the flow and open the servo space to drain. which is turn deperrds on tile masses d the flyxcights. :: 209 . This action will be repeated.'. Before equilibrium at any speed is reached. The engin: speed must now rise. c) d) Remain in neutral position. Conversely small r~lasses give a long period with small temporary deviations. The period a d magnitude of these fluctuations will depend on the sensitivity a f the Governor. due to the time lag. before any movenxnt ~f tne &el linkage car. .. This. Ans. linkages and control valves will cause the Governor to : React with insufficient speed droop. the speed will fall reducing tne centrifugal force. . :. ~ i *. due to increased centrifugal force. until stability at original speed is eventually reached.':. TNS range of speeds. . then we must consider the effeci of fi~iction within the Governor and it's linkages. . suEcient to overcome the friction in the mechanism.. Ans..3 ~**. If now the engine ioad is increased. .. ~ . This. This will cause the pilot valve to move down.. allowing the oil to flow to the servo piston. . withotit response fro% the Governor. h) If ws take a pizcticai case into consideration. 4.... .

. since the movement of the compensating piston. The c centrifugal force is reduced. between the servo or compensating piston and the speeder spring. or compromise. As the servo starts to increase the fuel racks. which results in afall i engine speed. between stability and sensitivity. This give a better relationship. since this increases as the 'square' of the speed. rather than the linear law of parallel springs.It is quite common to find a conical or mwrnper-shape0 spring. as the servo moves. HYDRAWTC GOVERNOR Fuel racks The arrangement shown here includes a feedback. how the governor is operating and explain what is meant by'compensation'. with a sketch. with feed-back (cmnpexsation). to achieve a balance.4 The Governor of a typical Main engine (propulsion engine) is hydra~rlic. Compensation brings in stability. Ans. reduces the rate of change of ihe fuel rack settiny. oil pressure also acts on the feed back or compensating piston. The operation of the govtmor is basically the same but now. at the expense of sensitivity. at a lower speed. Explain. as this follows a 'square' law. wiih the change in centrifugal force. allowing oil flow to the servo. consider an increase in Load. used as thq 'Speeder' spring. so the spring force is now greater and the pilot valve moves down. allowing an equilibrium condition. which resets the piston valve. This is termed as Compensation. 43. it also acts on the feedback or compensating piston. This action creates stability. the The compensation can be controlled by ~ i y i n g needle valve setting. which resets the piston valve.

Show the Droop setting mechanism. where 'load shxiny' i. Q. f< & . then a further modification to the hydraulic governor is required. with a diagram. 3 ' : ..-. This is achieved by the introduciion of 'speed droop'. required. the working of the Governor. Ans. In cases. This is a form of 'resei' action: :~ Z -3 .5 How is 'isochronous' performance achieved in auxiliary engine governors ? Explain. as well as stable operation.

and Consequently the maximum load.in turn. Poor oil conditioll. due to w n t d n a t i o n . .. lever. will depress the transmitting or actuating compensating piston.. . which uses an electric motor (mo. . which can be safely &&Tied. causing the receiving compensating piston to liff the floating. The adjusrment procedure is normally specified in the manual. which resets the pilot valve. the floating lever acts to return the pilot valve. is specified as the routine maintenance. . . b j Local speed setting knob. thus causing a speed 'droop'. an2 then opened another '/r turn. This is the usual cause ofgovernor malfunction. especia!!y with respect to the C v e m o r 02 condition. it limits the . There should be no hunting. c) Load Limiter h o b .~~ is used to limit the 'stroke' of the power piston Thus. for overhaul. but is usually adjusted &em 'full operf. td directly change the tension of the speeder spin& to achieve the desired speed.. to its original setting and equilibrium is achieved. This therefore corresponds to the increased engine load. . to keep a governor ia good condition ? Explain the following with reference to Governors : a) Compensation. since they contain very complex and delicately balanced parts.This 'may be required. Local speed setting knob : This is in ' b e of remote conrol system failure. during normalrunning.The b o b on the dial is turned.sluggishness in normal operation. The same thing is zehieved by the remote control.onthe engine of the prime mover. is the need for extreme cleanliness. 212 .mtid above the governor) to change the spring tension. leads to^ increased Eriction and . then gradually closed until engine just s t m s to hunt. The only important aspect. if engine problems donot g o w load above a certaih'poinf. to the . at a lower speed. ~ Adjustments :C~m~ensationffkedle vaive) : This is only to be adjusted if there is excessive hunting or excessive. Hydraulic governors are not nolmally serviced on board. at the original speed but wjth an increased fuel rack position. usmlly every 1OGO h-5. his rn&&ximiiGl. Regular 03 changes.6 What maintenance practices will you f6:low. As the oil in the compensating system leaks throuph the needle valve. .AdvancedMarine Engineering Knm&dge VoL I11 This. . This gives a transient equilibrium.makers. LoadLimiter knob : T. Ans. wear. in the evem of woin parts or mechanical damage. . They are returned.. . of routine maintenance cn board. . The droop setting lever acts to reduce the speeder spring tension proprticnately at higher speeds. Q.~ ~ . d) Speed Droop h o b .

When the % engine speed exceeds a set zmount (e~g. if stable operation is to he achieved. For Main engine : Main engine speeds are much lower than the normal rpeed of an auxiliary engine. Over-speed trip : This protects the engine from excessive speed. Aiso. With reference to ihe functioning of a Governor. there is a proponionate fall in speed. b) i Advantages of Electronic Govwnors : Extremely fast respcnse (do not use mechanical weights).15 of the normal speed). This speed droop is necessary for parallel operation of the machines. that for a droop characteristic. then the speeds must be constant. This is usually independent of the Governor.Vol. which are fa: superior tc any possible mechanical arrangement. The characteristic for a governor ~vith droop is a 'drooping' line.1' for a Q3. For Auxiliary engines : Over-speed is set at 15 % o f the nornial speed. 7 . to reduce the possibility of over-speed.7. if they are to share the 'load' equally. the prcpeller acts as a speed regulator. when load sharing is required to be altered. between the two machines. Ans. explain : I. . This is no: generally adjusted. It can he seen. (1. It is then the governor characteristics.Speed droop knob : This knob controls the Droop setting.. When two diesel enzines are synchronized either electrically or mechanically (geared). for fine adjustments. hence negligible 'Dead band'. The relationship between two engines running in parallel with similar droop characteristics.b. which determine how the load is shared. Refer to 'Advanced Marine Engizteering Knowledge descr~pt~on the Electronrc governor of . since i! has a lot of inenia. as compared to one which is having a straight line or zero droop (isochronous). This requires a nanual reset. a weighted bo!t overcomes it's spring force and strikes a lever (knife edge disengages) and fuel is shut off. (iv) Microprocessor controllers. between different Alternators. Suitable for load sharing duties (easily adjustable). Why 'Droop' is necessary for parallel operation of Alternators.I) Explain the functioning of a n Over-speed trip. in the event of a governor failure. . b) What a r e the advantages of an 'electronic' Governor? Ans. (v) Easily adapted for extra functions e. as the lrad is increased. than one (vi) sensor. S o friztioi. (ii) (iii) Simple instaliation and a d j u s t ~ e n t . or failure of a particular sensor. can use more. Over-speeci is set at 20 % of the normal speed.

then the required characteristics and the load sharing operation is shown in the following figure : The top left diagram shows the situation afier synchronizing. The bottom centre diagram shows the situation after the speed control on number one machine is reduced. If speed droop is incorporated on a: least one machine. This is shown on the following characteristics. . and returning frequency back to normal. From this it should be obvious. it takes ?art of the load r and at the .I f we consider the case of two diesel alternators operatins in parallel. and stable operationwill be achieved.same time the frequency is increased. that load sharing is achieved by alteration of the fuel settiilg of the machines. for the case of isochronous governors and also for both having speed droop. with all the ioad taken by machine number i As the speed control of n ~ m b e 2 is increased. If the governor characteristics are isochronous. giving more load to number 2 macnine. then there will be no crossing points along the characteristics and the load sharing will be unstable. then there will always be a crossing point at any given load..

(I) (iij Flsme trap.'reli:f valve or bursting disc. (viii) Jacket cooling water low pressure trip. (v) Running direction interlock. Exhaust valve I port opening puts a limit to the period of the 'air kick'.l a ) Why is the timing of air start affected by the exhaust opening ? b) w h i t is meant by overlap and why is it required ? c) Describe the relevant safety devices a n d interlocks.at another cylinder air sizrtiiig valve is opened. Son-mum valve in rhe Automa!ic air startins valve. This imposes a limit on the effective stroke of air start. (x) Fuel oil low pressure trip. or unburnc fuel blowing back i n from leaking cylinder air starring valves. Heat . What precautions should be adopted to obviate the risk of such a n occurrence ? Ans. (ix) piston cooling low pressure. (vi) Line drains.O. and !hus limi!s the period of startinz air supply ro a unit. Overlap is the period. before the earlier unit valve closes. Starting air line explosions occur due to a combination of three factors : Fuel . Since the tolque is varying during the starting period. Explosions have occurred in the starting air pipelines of marine engines Describe the conditions. This makes it easier to srart the engine. (Vii) L.which could be from the same leaking cylinder air starting valves 01 from anorher heat source near-by. and how an explosion may be caused.which is abundantly available in the starting (compressed) ail. when one unit >tarts getring air. This ensures tt.Starting Air Systems With reference to Air starting systems : Q. the earlier unit is still getring stariin: air. which could lead to such an accident. iis ro:que is insofficknr in magnitude. since any more supply of starting air (after the exhaust opens) would re. of turning the engine. when two or more cylinder air starting valves are simultaneously open. . witliout doing any effective work. Low pressure trip. h e to the angularity of the conneciing rod. at a higher torque.which may be lube oil carry-over from air compressors. (iii) (iv) Turning gear interlock. Oxygen . Q 2 .line. Safety devices and interlocks will compl-ise o f : Pressure relief device .ult in the iompressed air passing directly out of the unit. Due to the overlap.

during running. while rile engine is running. Regulal-ly over-haul cylinder air starting v:dves. What a r e the factors to be considered ? Ans. (i. by feelins rhe air stanins p i p s by hand.3 i. before attempring to restart.. give a new stop eider and wait for rpm to fall to the specified level. during the first few minutes. sufficient long enough to reverse the direcrion of rotation). Q. to apply the 'Air c) brake'. 2. 4 ~. 3. Leak from a air starting valvc a n gc! worsc a! an iccreasing rare . to avoid excess carry-over of tube oil into iiir lines. Safety devices : All safety devices in the air stariing system should be al\vays in good working condition. if this is neglected ? Ans. due to the 'way' on the ship. at a specified rpm. clean and regrind. What normal maintenance of a i r starting valves is required and what are the consequences. The d) Engine rpm is to be kepi low. Precautions : Keep rhe air starring system lines clean and drained.d be done. Every 6. Ring Astern on the Tekgraph and give the 'air kick'. a) Wait till the engine rpm falls.e. when ilot in im. where necessary. Inst?uctions :(B&W L-MC) Acknowicdge the Telegraph and slop the ensine (F-~ei lever to zero). and the action of the Astern mnning will put a tremendous load on the engine.0C9 to 8000 hrs. unbunt fuel may pass into the sir sta:ting system . Consequences of neglect : 1. 2. The engine is now braked Ci. Describe the actions to be taken. normal!y be abou: I mm) The copper joint ring to be renewed at evc:y werhaul. This is because rhe ship may stil! have 'way' on it. . dismantle. Maintain air compiesso~-r in good condition. . The engine is now to be ran in the Astern direction.irrepiirable and costly damage may occur. Do not waste siaiting air. 3.fire haznrd. Heavy vibrations may occur initially. to the required level. upon receiving a teiegraph order for 'Emergency fcll astern'. it comes r o a halt. If the rpm is too high to stop the engine. Lcss of compression. the engine speed b) < 40% MCR speed). will affect h e combustion efficiency. Excessive grinding ca< reduce the clearance between the operating piston iuid the valve cover Aiways check that !his clearance is scfficient (this shoilid . whichJs-not ro be exceeded. each cyiinder air stwting valve.e. 4. . Reguiar checking of valve tightness (condition) shou.. Hot gases .

The cylinder air starting valves are operated by the Distribt~tol-. ill the cwreci sequence for starting (the Firing order). The starting air. This is a safety feature. Ans. from a starting air line explosion. with [he turning gear engaged. to the Air bottles. ~b~hict! t u n is operated by the starting lever through the starting valvein Tile tturnirig geai. which prevents the engine fro111 accidmihly bcilig stasted. Starting ar?d Reversing : AIR STARTING SYSTEM 94 f - The Air Bottle is linked to the Air starting manifold through l l i t Autornaric air starting valve. which has a non-return valve to pi-event ihc possibility uf a blow-back. two things need to be done . The Automatic air starting valve is operated by means of [he pilot v. in the event of air leakage from the Automatic ailsta-ting valve.g : In case of reversal.interlock prevents the enginz from being sterted.llw shown. Describe an arrangement fitted to prevent the engine front being started in the 'wrong' direction. also acts 10 engag: the Distributor. Rerr:rsil. from the starting valve.5 Explain how the starting and reversing of a large main propulsion engine is accomplished.fizstiy the fd csnls rieed ro be re-positioned correctly for the astel-n direction. and secondly .(1.

i. since the fLlei cams are mounted on the camshaft. REID FOR NR CONTROL SYSTEM . The Rcming direciion interlock in this engine is connected to the camshaft.'-we is contrary to the command from the Telegraph. the camshaft. In this siruation. Running Direction interlock : I t the direction o i rotation of the en.INTERLOCKS . in case ihe ecgine is already running. tifen oil pressure doer ::at act on the fuel c w o f f servomotor. the fuel cut our servo must operate to shut-off fuei. If [he camshaft does not revct-se.. lo do bcth these thing.the Distributor cam needs to be repositioned. to give the correct sequence for starting in the astern direction. BLSCXWC VNVE - 1 . the camshaft is repositioned by a reversing Servo-motor. and wilj be operated by the movement of the camshaft. thus preventing the restarting of the engine in the wrong direction. and the Distributor also gets its di-ise the same sout~ce. Thus fuel is cut-off. In the engine shown.e. we consider i t as the -wrong' direction. as call be seen in rhe sketch below. In addition. the stailing air is not allowed to be released.

2 ~ ~ ~...<g. Check for Cylinder air starting valves faults. if any haveoperated... to the cylinder air srarring valves . Distl-ibutor faulty / Governor faulty Booster servomotor faulty. 4. s y s t e m s . 3. ..Advanced Marine Engirzeedcg Kmwledge Voi N I ~XZL- : 1 PT . Failure of a i r starting system : Starting air supply blocked.~. Chcck for an Air-lock. Check for Servcmotor faults.Jr Ans.erncr fault..? Y s t e mshipigiv@reasons:for. &'o s t r o k e mazn propulsiok d i & I . a ~i i r z ! k Check the signal I 10 Szrvomotor (camshaft and disrributor). boardfiiliiie:to'reverse. Low lube oil presure.go !hrough the whole siicuir.. due to '2bsing' of the Fuel system Engine fails to Start / Reverse : 1. ~.~*~.testing o f components.a i . Cl:cck for a Gc. Cherk that Fuel Limiter has not operated (low Scavenge air pressul-e). Air starting valve defect : Cljeck for seized valvr (by turning it). ..~&~P-Fxl-m -.. .6. 5.%I : I . Main starting air components... - i Elocking device operating : Turning gear e n g a g ~ dor the Telegi-nph \vro!iz Jil-eftion inter!ock. Regulai Maintenance : I. . Regulai.viz.. Automatic ail. Sticking control valve in pneumatic control system. iow fuel ?ressuie. 3. . whether the Booster Is operatin:.& g i n ~ ~... t ~ a i ~ s ~ r t i n g . ..~. ~ f oer a :: o n ~ f ~ -< '~ . i ~ ~ ~~~s~~s r s .~ . . due to Receiver stop valve being shut.~.to move !he iuel racks. whether the boosrer air signal is being supplied. If c o n m i air pressure is satisfactory.. Ciieck the Interlocks. ..~.3n:ir:. 2.. Q.srarting valve not openin2 or loss of control air to pilot valve operating the Automatic air strrting valve. Supply (control) air system. 2. o n . ' . Remote control sj. . from the staning lever to [he autv Air starting valve. . low pistoi: coolin: pressure.z!em failure : Firs: check the control air supply. u .Wit%-refererice. at the Lime o f rtarting Chtck the Fuel supply^ Clicck the linkages in the system. siart checking tiiz complete system.. : A <+ f a . Fuel cut-off serT!omotor opei-acing due to operation of 21 ti-ip .

tn addition to the above. checking with NC1T. This rnetl7od minimiies distortion. These ofien penetrate par[ 'vay through the wsll. between the e x h a m rnd inlet \. Springs ir? pairs. Other common defects are: high temperature corrosion of the underside. Cracks propagte from the watsr side. Good computability with guide materials Good wear resistance.ahQ. are niio prons to cracks forming at the thin sections. Defects : a) C o ~ m o n failures arc cracks. Partial crackillg can o h he repaired by grinding out and then. Materials suited for valve stems. due to leaking exhaust v a h e cage seais. as annealing 1 carried our or. . gas erosion and acidic corrosion. alon: with !iigi~ diffei&ntialsin iocai . leading [o mechanical saess failwe. I lave good creep rc:. seats. Low thermal expansion Typical Nickel based nlfoy b) e) d) a) . i h e previous runs of weld. discuss : Properties required for materials of such valves. This is w a l i y caused by imuificient cooling.Engine components Q. Y roperties required : Mxititain strength at high temperatures. before tlic s x x t stage is~carr~ed our.1.ista~icc. Four stroke engine cylinder covex. which redcces the heat transfer rare or corrosion weakening of the materia!. seats a n d valve cages. This is associated with scaie or sludge build-up. Ans. mechanical stress induced by either over-load condition or tinevrtn tightening-down procedures. Ans. series o r parallel. Valv:: types a n d arrangements. valve faces. b) Briefly state how repairs to partial cracks could be carried out. With reference ro Cyiinder head vaiws. a) Enumerate the defects which could lead to cylinder cover failures in two and four stroke marine diesel engines.1 o : machined : dy Good corrosion and erosion rcsistmce. which occur in the walls cf rhe coolins space. cracks.ernFzraIures. afrer suitahic build-up with multi-pass welding.

nitrided).b) Materink : Valse laces ot'ren have a stellite layer welded on. This $ves good corrosion d i d w x i o n resistance. buckling risk for loll5 sp~ii!. some employillg si11+ slxings whilr: others employ multiple springs~ 5in::le spr. This is cheap. 50% Co Cr Xigh mnperz:sre corrosion : 1.'ttiigsten) 20?4 IS% 2% 10% V:aive seats are often Kirnonic. with the stem guide being a separale item tisudly pearlitic Casi iron. Contbustion chamber design more flexible. easy to manufacture and the guide ma. Lower inertia. since components usually much lighter.istant finish. Simple cylinder head required. which is maintained at high temperatures. c] VaIvr tylm 2nd arrangements :. Stellite Mo C W(. 2. Siriiplevalve construction. Tiitre are sevei-a1 spring arrangements in common use. thin a zompanynt subjeci to a uniform strezs. Lowcr mdal temperatures.jsarid Iwgc diameter springs have higher stress and bending moments. SiiwJe (!arye) valve : siinpk operating gear. V~lve cages arc usually Cast iron.ents subject to attern~ting srress will suffer corrosion dama&!ea1 a iower ten?ptraiure. Seat damage increases the temperature ievel. Valve stems may be sui-lice hardened to irnpro\. are popper typzs and arc fiited in tither sin$e (iarse) or miii (smali) valve arranzements. 13 prolong the service life.iog : This is the simplest solution and it vibrates at a lower natural freqwiicy. which gives a hard corrosion ~. Mi!l!iple (srna!lj valves : Srnailcr valve lift required. ivhich in turn accelerates the desti-uciign process. with stellite facing. i. Less distortion of valve lid at operating temperature. iish conicnt of fuel. .e wear (chromed.ings : Springs Eire required to support the mass of the valve in the cylinder head.ornpoi. Volunietric efficiency improved. Tiie iuajoiiiy.oriai has good computability. d) V:rlve spi.zc::. lrowever there is [he risk of valve bounce. of vsives in use. 3 .

nor rs-seating fully. jamming in guide. build-up o f debris or? . as well as the increased risk to the e n ~ i n e case ~f air supply failure. . expansion due to too high a temperature creep. gas cutting into and damaging thevalve and seat. The leakage of air. Air springs : This is the prefened arrangement for modem engines. allowing smaller guidekern clearances. . . . . 0. Surging of Turbocharger.' Reduced compression and cylinder power. Abrasive damage : This is due ta coctaminants in fuel. It also gives safety factor in event .Springs in Series : This rcduces bending stresses. after burning.Insufiicient cooling. High temperature corrosion : ?his is essociated with a high sulphur and vanadium content of fuel and high metal swface temperatures. Overheating. Failure to re-seat : Incorrect lappet clearance. this arrangement alters the narural frequency m d so avoids axial vibration. damaged spring. 4. s eliminates most of the problems suffered by niechmical springs. . . .. are more complex. .of the single valve of modern eilgiaes. poor combusiicn. It reduces distortion of material. a) Valve Defects : Exhaust valves are the most prone to the following. which significantly reduces the uneven wear. overload. ai ~ 5 . ~ b. Impactdamage : Thiscould be due to heavy seating. .3 Wri:e shori notes on following : a) Exhaust valves defects and indications. . . It also allows thevaive to rotate easily. . due to excessive tempeiaturcs. . leading to leakage. 5. .. . It reduces stem temperatures.~especiaily advantageous with HFO.of any one spring breakage.~~ the valve seat. which affects the large mass$s. . It causes a reduction in texhper8ture. 5. Springs in Parallel : Parallel springshave reduced inertia. . 1 . b) Importance of cooling and effects of excessive cooling. . Any of the abovefau1ts:ean cause the valve to fail. but they apply to all types of valves. are some of the draw-backs. * Smoky exhaust. and the increased rnaint'enance due to the need to in supply air constantly. Importance of Valve coojing :~ .. Reduces buckling bur is more compler. There is no inertis. Pas. . 2. air or combustion products of cylinder lube oils. indications of leakinz valves : High Exhaust temperatures. .~ ~.

the washer is coxpressed a d ioad is trznsferred ro tht: balls.he closcd p o ~ ~ l i o the Belleville washer is loaded ayalnst the n. n e ramp springs return ihe bails to their origical positions. As valve opens. and the process continues. e Further incr-cse in pressure causes the balk to move along :he ramp. . As the valve closes. .P E =E 1! -- ~- c - Advmced Marine Engineering Knowledge Vol. - c) Operation of the Mechanical Rotator : With va!vc iq . thus causing rotation of the vaive stern. IIJ S= . the washer bears agaixt the rotato. thus relic-ving the pressure on the balls. body o i t h e Rotator. which are spring loaded.: . body.

the roughness should be 2 pm. the volume of the oil retained on the liner surface is reduced to near zero. When thc liner becomes too polished. after a prolonged running. depths cf the c r x k s should be gauged (cheekqd by dye peneriant tezt). Describe types of cylinder liner wear. Give reasons Tor these failures. The upper right sketch show a method of gauging piston crown burn down using a profile gauge. This polishing of the liner is removed.ArI~wnced Marine Engineering Knowledge Vol.5 Describe common failure of piston crowns. . This profile is produced initially by using coarse honing tools to remove machining irregularities and to provide good oil retention packets. Cracks occuning on the underside are due to henna1 loading.15 pm. I n the case of Cylinder h e r wear. Q. 1 1 1 Q. to produce an effective of seal between piston rings and the liner wall. of hvo stroke marine diesel cnginer. When grinding to profile. There should be a gooti surface finish.6. Ans. Cracks on top could be due to stress raisers. when the pisrodliner is de-glazed using rarborundum stones. what do you understand by the term 'bore polishing'. This is of the inrernally webbed type. Ans. Then a fine honing process is employed to remove the asperity peaks and provide a bearing surface or plateau. The total roughness is around 8 . with a bearing of around 40-70% contact patch. The above sketch shows the faiiuie areas of the pistan crown.

which the top of the pision enters. and depend on several factors. dwing rhe upward movement and thus preveilt the bre&-down the lube oi! film By redacing the rate of liner polishing. d> Reduction of combustion prodrkts of the liner / ring interface : The hard p r o h c ~ s combustion. due to temperature) can cause a fall in the effectiveness of neutralising the acid. and h e r xvall polishing. and rhe iubriczting oil consumpiion increaszs due ro evaporation from the rhickcr oil fill. If the liner profile is to^ rough.80 TBN cylinder oil with a standard value of Sulphur content. m d this will also affect liner polishing. Too high a TBN value wi!l result in excessive alkalinity. in two stroke main propulsion engines : Matching of lube oil to the sulphur content of fuel. Q. This step has proved effective in reducing the amount of coke deposits. When the liner becomes too polished the oil is not retained on the liner wall and passcs through the ring pack a n d thus is burnt. will of increase iiner/ring :vzar. to reduce wear rates. has been intxoduced. To prtvent . a) Matching of lube oil to the sulphur content of fuel : The TBN value of the cylinder lube oil should be correctly matched to the sulphur content in the fuel to be used.?is. having 3 rcdxed diametci at the top cf the piston. resulting in a rapid rise in the conosive wear rate.. Too little a TBN value results in failure to neutmiise the acids. Crosshead engines use 70 .! ! . c) d) - . c) Materials of piston ring a n d liner : Some manufacturers laser-harden the liner wall. the number of points where feed is appiied (single or multi level) and the bore of the engine. which could change with a change in the Sulphur content. the increase in boundary lubrication between lincr and ring will cause the liner wear rate to increase. A sepamte firing ring is provided at the iop of the liner. such as the viscosity of the oil.g. Explain the influence of the iolloviing f3ct*t-s on the cylinder liner / piston ring wear rates. ringllinzr wear is high. which itself is eo&sive. . 1 . ~- - r i_ Timing of injedon. a stepped pistor. ~ -. since insufficient viscosity would. . 8) Correct cylinder oil feed rate. It produces calcium deposits (soft). Even a slight change in the viscosity (e. b) .7 . the !iner and pistan ring wcar rates are reduced. if allowed to make contact with the liner wail.'-) Arlvmced Mnrine En@nzering Knowledge Yo/. i Firing or combustion pressure : Increase in firing pressxe with increased nngconract with the liner wall. III - - I 1 i I The rate at which the liner wall becomes polished in service depends upon : a) Oil iced rates : If the liner lubrication is sufficient.. not allow the oil to spread sufficiently. b) i -. .- b) Correct cylinder oil feed rate : The feed rates are important. increasing wear. ej Material of piston ring. Ans. which c= mb against the k e r wdl. Wall temperature of running surface.

leadiny to loss of I~. EZ~.ture / L i n e r wall temperature : For the cylinder lubricant ri~ tc opciare satisfactory.. d) 0 ~ 1 c i ~ x i iiernper. the two stroke engine cylinder lubrication is critical.. to ensure : thai t h e lube oil enters the liner when pressures are least. where copious quantities of lube oil is s(~k!ihi.lvr:thinning 7 ) 'I'imin~ It is vital to inject the lubr oil at the correct part of the cycle. which give increased hardness to the ring.rieriirl : Basic material is Castiron.: ~.. It is difficult to give a firm figiiie ..~tiresurface to be protected... which reduces the TBN values. and each quill position. The follow in^ alloying materials are commonly used : (I) Silicon. and varies from 180°C to 2jO''C oi more. .Arivirnced Mnrine Engineering Kno~oledge Y ! III o. F. and can spread zrifticieniiy to adequatsly cover the e. which finally penetrates the top (filing) rino.220°C. and the clearances of the compression rings wii! dictar tbe awial q~.. Unlike four stroke engines. otherwise : 1. el Ria$ i'/(.. in order that ring lubrication caL be effective.Running-in coatings could be copper.de n rtle liner wall. vanadium and titanium.it is easier tojudge this in practice . (2) Phospiiorus. Ovoicooling of the liner must thus be avoided.the rate is correct when the piston r i n q arc slightly damp. would reduce the film thickness.?rn@rature depends on the load on the engine. Engins nimufacnirers attempt ro keep the maximum wail temperature aiound 220''C.d of injection w d d bz when the piston Is inovirrg upwards.apoiaiion (of the lighter fiac!ions) will increase.of bore cooling and load controlled cooling system. Oil cnrtirol rings. which maintains the carbon in a graphite form.. Cylinder lubricator feed rates can be dependant upon engine speed. m d the lubricators are bdwecn the top and seccnd piston i s .i?"ti!y of !ube oil. Optimum temperature is acili::vwl by i s e . laid on top of chromed or non chrorncd soifaces. hence the liner wall temperature shoiuid be i n the region 2G0 . Too low a wall t&qxr~turcwould lead to over-cooling and corrosion. 3. without loss of Huid iilm thickness. ~I'iierrnalcracking of the cylinder oil occurs (aiound 300°C).'Ihe'normal ?eri. A steel matrix with free graphite at p i 1 1 bo!~ndaries: This give the piston ring its self lubricating property. Load dependant lubricators have been introduced to ensixre the appropriate lubrication under a11 conditions. 2: 7'lie oxidation level will incresse. Normal wall ' !. Wear resistance of ring is usually attained by chrome plating or plasma c o a i i n ~ . or load dependant. the piston rings are free to move and liner wear rates are IOLY ttie quantity of oil feed can be adjusted on eacb cylinder. as the feed rate should be dependant upon the quantity of fuel injected rather than engine speed. th? temperature should not be too high.~hi~:ation.

~i.9 Ar. A crack can oniy grow. This. with cracks appeari& as paint defects The defecis should be recorded. Marine diesel engines. especially if acceleratinp. then try to bridge the crack. Ans.will include dri!!ing a d lapping. as the C h i d Engineer. when the stress levels imposed on it are. as fitted or.2% of the cylinder diameter. preventive action should he taken. . If possible.Q. which it can dissipate through the parent material.8. from the time tile engine is started. which are beneath thesurface.6 2. and the absence of any deformation ' makes detecrion more dificult. Many cracks are dormant or will only grow slowly and not pose any ~robiems.. Drilling the end of the cpck can be beneficial. instead of reducing then. higher than the strain energy. Should the crack be found to be growing. This value is required for ensuring the correct ring expansioq. Iiiscuss t h e following : to aj How will carry out the inspection ?Suggest remedial repairsfmeastires. and place the crack affected area i n cornpreision. the axial ring height should be from 1. . . but masnetic particle inspection (MPI) will show those cracks. the axial ring height should be from 1.. if cracks are present.5% of cylinder Bore. Butt clearances : Normally 0. engine bed plztc is s 5 s ~ e c l e d be cracked. The initial search sill probably be carried out visually. where craclddefects are most common. For two stroke engines. etean the sunounding area and use NDT t G improve impeclioil Dye penetrant is easy t o w e and interpret. Importance ofaxizl clearance : The piston ring must be free in it's groovs.6% of cylinder diameter.~s. . le. If shore facilities are not available.9 .-atei! on the areas. then 2. Note that fatigue cracks cccur with very little plastic deformation. to reduce such incidents in future ? What rhccm will you carry c u t ? Ans. 5 ) Reasons for cracking in transverse girders. when fitted in the unworn portion of the cylinder linzr.c+? arrd orientatio~~. and w e n from 'cold' to 'ii~l!~load' cocdi:io. take. but try to avoid 1101 work. :. . a) in order to determine. what action will you. ' ' - - Q.Always check tension of the surroun&-bolts. Give values for axial and butt clearances of piston rings. inspections should be concc. If cracks arc discovered..2. Values : For fcur stroKe engines. The foliowing course of action could be taken and the extent o f each defect wili determine the specific action : 1. with reference to position. as this will increase stress levefs. however finding the iip ' of ..he crack will be difficult.

Poorly carried out work may worsen the defect. Check power balance. as 'delayed cold cracking' may occur. using the best methods available. highly loaded area. overlunder) IFa crack is discovered. 2. by grinding or arc. Crankshaft alignment is incorrect I . and closely monitor the area during the work. . The !eve1 of [!we forces are dep-ndant upcn !b. holding &ownbolts and chocks in the effected area. 2. Small driect to rrigger?he crack * I. before and after such work. Try to take a photo or trace the crack. 1. hardening in the heat aKected zone ( t I A Z ) 4. Tie bolts are inccrrectiy tensioned (i. Obtain approval of class surveyor. i. rather than improve it. then welding with possible pre and post heat treatment. if corrosion is present. The cnid crack resi!!s from a combination of four factors : t .If shore faciiities are extensive. regular check should be made of this To reduce future inciden~s. and can be increased by crarksiiaft mlsa1i:nrncnt ioadiny on the main bearing itself Thus a crack could occur from : Overload situation. Ail steel areas should be protected frulll the lube oil which could become acidic if incorrect!^ maintained. presence of dissolved hydrogen !. and joints involving castings. of adjacen: cylinders.e.J -. so that checks tail be rnede. so that it can easily be established whether the crack is increasing i i i size or not. and totd engine power Check tension of all fastening devices. by excess power or high cylinder pressures. which are transrnieed into tkc trmsverse ~il-deis. arising from 1. i. that the Welder is followi~glaid down procedures. as well as inspecting the transverse girder at every crankcase inspcction.d position and length of the crack. Try and obtain the Welding procedure approval certificate to be used.e. This will include gouging. heavier steel structures.ocedures could be followed. Check crankshaft alignment using the deflections method i2eco1.e. These checks will inciude those of 1 to 3 detailed above. The condition of the crankcase paint work can accelerate fatigue Failure. Cylinder overloaded. 5. are the I-unning gear foicei (tra~ismitiedinto the niain bearins) aui' the combustion reaction forces (transmitted viii the tie ho!ts).e combtis:ion loads. MPVDye penetrantlvisual. This type of failure is the most common in higher tensile steel. tie bolts. High residual stress in the joint .?arty two of the above can be elimina:ed t h a the crack is unlikeig to occur b The major forces. then the crack should be removed and filled by metal similar or superior to the parent metal. the following p.

The transmitter consists of fixed face plate contacts and a brush . Electrical systems L O C A L E"": ~ e s c r i b the operation of an electrical engine Telegraph system. By energking each receiver coil separlrrely and progressively. Toothed wheel tvoe : Light beam : A beam is directed through the teeth towards a phoro cell. The receiver ccnsrsts of a 3 phase i:ator winding with a permanent ~ m g f i e rG0r (wound rotor for A. capacitive or photoelectric type prod&ing two alternating voltages. i t is possible to achieve subsequent step transmission in three positions.~' The telexraph . arrangtment.' When'the shaft twists of under torsion.1 1 1 A. due to twisting of the shnft. Most types measure the angular distortion of a :haft. . . one switch being operated. f o r measllritig the shaft torque. Alarms : Alarms are : A 'curreiit iailuie' alarm. This increases as [he shnft torque increases. a tooth on one wheel coincides wi!h a slot cn the othelwheel.C..motor. and allowing thefreely rotating magnet 1s find its o.l rao-~vayslvitcll . ~' Q. 2) A 'wronx-way' alarm ' io indicate propeller djrection iontraiy to b) t e l e p p h o r d ~ r The wrpng way alnr!n is b. The advantage of the above types is. The electric telegraph employs the synchrostep system. ~~~~ d Brr^Se . carrier with 3 contacts revolving coaxially. thatno slip rings and brushes or other sliding contacts on the .cAns. SIATIO. .~sically. Various types of torsion meters can be used. Sy rhe receiver. If tv.y. Describe She sarious types of Torsion meters used on vesseis. so that 'zero' light falls on the photocell.4*)d"dER!'-.in the e n g i ~ room.. an<: the othefswirch by the :ii:inz/propellcr via ii friction cl!rtci:. I . E C K e .. positioning a receiver pointel. Ans.. of the coils a d so provide up to 11 definite steps. operation) t which canies the pointer. a Pick-up heads : The pick up heads can be inductive.o or more coils are eiergised. yrovides a means of tran'sn~ittinr:ordeis from the bridpe a~ control station to the Steering flat. the waveforms become out-of-phase. ro indicare power suppiy failure.wn equilibrium.2.Ad:~anceu' Mnrine Engineering Knowledge Vo?. at 15 intervals. The following are the different types : . then there is better coritrol of the magnet. themag~iitude the phase difference is a measure of the torque and also the polarity of the phase difference is an indication of direction. and a reply handle iii the engine room pasitioning a reply pointer on e the biidge. The actual instrument incorporates resistors to give partial magne:ization 0. a torsion meter is used. ~ - . i . Where the measurement of shafr torque is necessary. Reply b y the receiving station to the transmitter station requires the system to be dup]icared with a transmitkr handle on ?he bridge. At zero torque.

one elemeni is reduced in resistzncr and other increased. especially at the low voltages and low currents involved with measuring equipment. that cluiie a long axial length of shaft is required.ildvnrzced Marirze Engineering Knowledge Vol. 2. varies accol-ding to shaft torque. The transrnittcd signal is modolated by the changing resista& of the slralr. distortion of the shaft occurs: .~.eavy shafts. . ~ . the axial lcngth ofshaft required is quiteshort. .. is robust and ~ndlcates torque and direction 4 .. so the hridee is unbalanced. . the fluxes and the secondary emE's ctldnge and an output voltage is produced..elements have the same resistance and the bridge is balanced. in l>ifielmt. is robust and is intended For use with t. ~ .connect thc resistors into a resistancebridge. . one air g p incr~hsesand other dccmases. The twd transformer windings are connected in series. k the air gaps are equai bill when th2 shaft twists under torsion. . before any work is commenced : . 1 1 1 shaft are required.. Strain Gauge Type : Two ?esisrance strain gauges are cem~ntzd:&<beshaft at 4.The disadvantage is. . . when working on lrieii vortage equipn~ent. so !hat the output voltage V. on Ans.ia! Transformer type : ' ' [ riaitsformer cores are carried on coilars attached ro the shaft... There are no slip r i p ~ por brushes. .. With the shaft torque applied. 'Enumerate the safety precautions that you would observe. eauge elements. both fluxes are equal 3nd the output 'voltage V o is zero. .. Slip rings a i d briishez are shown but these can be eliminated by fitting a radio transmitter on the shaft and & receiver nearby. A bad contact (of a sliding contact) can produce gleat problems.. Q. such (hat the primaries carry the same. the unit has a v e r y short axial lengih. With this type. A t zcto torque. both strain pug. ~ . Slip rings are necessary to stipply power to the radio !~. so that. This is so.The zivanometer indicate ihz torquz. The foliowing procedure is recommended.alisrnit!erbut the slip rings are riot incl~de3 the measurins circuit.3.. Slip rings and 5 ' brushes. When the scar: is stibjected to torsio~.. 'Niih zero torque both air gaps are equal. Torductor type : Tliis type uses the principle thrt the magneticpemeability'of steel is changed by stress. At zero torque. being a measure of the to-que and dtiection SIlp rings and brushes are fitted. a measurable angular . board vessels. the shafr twisrs.exciting current and the secondaries are in opposition.

The points. electrically isolated by the means available. where oil-filled apparatus has to be examined acd possibly I-epienished. acd if there is any equipment of the bartery-opei-ated type. the parts to be isolated. the necessary earthing . befox work car. they must be of im aaproved insulated type. where these operations are to be cari-ied out. which could make !he circuit 'Liv?? . designates the work to be done. and the fifth part is the csncellation GF thpennit-to-work. Even the 'Caurian' notices must b e iixed and removed by the person-in-charse. shooitl be specified in rhe permit-to-work. caniii~ence on 'Live' equipment.ecautions azainsr shocks should be taken. such as using insulating stands. where such work is to be carried out. and that 'Caution' notices have been affixed to apparatus or its control equipment I O convey a warning against interference with such apparatus or control gear The third part is signed by the s a n e person.. the spring must be dischar~ed.s! be lcckcd. The keys must berctained by the person-in-charge.z.nl. to be cni-ried OLI:. the part upon which work is to be carried on1 inns: be in& 'Ctad' i. and i s statutory. 'Danser' and 'Caution' notices near 'Live' conductors must be constructed of non-metallic materiai. If the work. o l the compoiient to be examined. screens.lze ~ appratus. In case of l ~ i g !volt. Any auxiliary circuits. Although it should be a permanent fixture. PI-eferlbly. boots. if of the spring type. The second part confirms that isolarion and earthing have been carried out and that 'Danger' notices have been affixed to warn anyone approaching 'live' equipment. When it is necessary to work on 'Live' Low 01medium-voltage switches. the conduciors rendered 'Dead' mtlst be efficiently earthed mci sIiol-tcircuired. Satisfactory earthing must be maintained thioughout the opel-ational period and any at~tomaticfire prorective system must be temporarily made inoperative. This rnust de in duplicate and contain five parts. The first pan.. signed by a responsible officer. must be disconnected. ~ n switching y appa&us. acd 'Caution' notices affixed. . or. that n placard for the treatment of electric shock is affixed in a prominent position. it should be ensured. and where 'Danger' and 'Caution' notices are to be affixed. ~ Precautions : To comply with the firs: part of [he psrmit-to-work. the fusz controlling [hi solenoid musi be withdrawn.:dvtmced Morine Engineering Ki~owledge Voi. some form of voltage indicating device should be used. entai!s the use of hand-lamps. to ensure that the csnductors are 'Dead' before earthing is applied. 111 A permit-to-work must be issued by a responsible office. smoking or the use of nsked flames must be strict!y p~ohibited. to the work. or the solenoid operated type. when the work is completed or temporarily stopped. p. gloves and tools. which might constitute the means of +I feedback.

while topping-up Barrel-ies the acid is highly corrosive. immediately cover them with boiacic powd. When mixing electrolyte from solid material. . it is advisable to wear protective goggles.wash out with clew water followed by a solution of boracic powder . since the hydrogen gasgign-offi~a tire hacad. whether lead acid or alkaline type. It should be swilled with water or a diluted saline soiutisn immediately.~gi:~eeiing Knowlerlgc. not to do anythin: likely to cause a s p a 1 new the batteries on charge. h'elllr?lisil~g agents should always be available. Voi. as this will completely destroy it.4iJkikaline and lead acid batte. -1In the case of bums. All battery compartments should be well ventilated lo remove gasses. .&) Xake a note of !he Fire fighting appliances available nzal-by. which are emitted while on charge^ Battery examination should never be carried our with naked li$rs. The gases given off from any battery on chat-se. First aid FOI the eyes . to ensure that they are tight.not necessarily haniiful io : healihy skin. M-t-l jugs must not be used for topping-up Battery water.lead-acid bmeries~ Protective clothing should be used. from time to !ime. and not water to acid.01-n sntul-ated solution of boracic powder. d o not allow metal objects to rest or fall between them. are e a v e . i. The electrolyte (caustic potash) is corrosive and should be handlzd with care.Boracic powder for alkaline batteries and household salt or washing soda foi. into an alkaline battery. Alkaline Batteries : As the steel cr!l containers are 'live'. which i could cause acid to fume. III Discuss the safety aspects of Battery inspection. Ans. !-bier apron and goggles. provided it is washed off. naked lights and smoking in battery compeltments. Avoid getring any acid on your boiler-suit. Never put the acids. Lead Acid Batteries : Always 2dd acid to water.one teaspoonful to a pint of water.Advarrced Marine '. (Saline solution :one level teaspoonful of household salt to '/2 a pint of water). Gas-tight type lighting fittings should be used for illuminating the battery l~oom.ries must be charged separarely a&niust not be kept in the s-me room. (31-e shoirld be taken. Wash wilh plenty of waten f* d& P. as soon as poss.. All terminals should be examined. It should not be allowed to come into cmti-act with the skin or clothing. Dilute sulphuric x i d is.e. in the event of spillage . mbber gloves and apron. requires immediate first aid.ble. A splash in the eye however. Loose wires and tools mtist not be placed on top of thc ce!ls. G i b e r gloves. A t13tice should be posted prohibiting. from lead acid batteries.

that the current has f o ~ n d ~ iparhr back e (from the 'live' wire to the n e u s This means. so always ensure ihat your body does not form that path ! S Resistance si the body. however. What is a How would you trace 3 short circuit ? How do you trace a n 'earth fault' ? Megger ? Ans. . in case cf electrocutio~. Q. Always check the insulation resistance. This can lead to excessive ~ I I C of ~ ~ currenr.t. A 'short' is usuz!ly caused by the condocrcr becoming uncovere5 (ie.6. especially wheri~here joints in cables. what is the meaning of a short circuit ? Why does it occur? IIow can it beprevented ? Ans. 111 Q. In the double-wired system (insulated neutral) used on board ship. as in the case of circuits ashore. when dealing with electrical equipmer. each sectional fuse box should be n examined. Never touch any cond~ctor. n break in the insularix covering). This is most common in ships that are 'single wired'. that current is not passing properiy through the appliance in question. when dry. This will be detected by the fuse of the affected circuit. to complete 3 short circuit. . as soon as practicable. To trace where a short circuit has occurred. body's internal rzsist-nce falls rapidly. 1nsilla:ed pliers are also useful. Short circuits can be prevented by good maintenance and safe working are practices.Advanced Marine Engineeril~p Xnowlerlge Vol. Electrical wires should always be led elearof sources of water and not be sited in places iiable to water logging. if care is taken to check for any damiige to insulation and sarth f a u l ~and these are made good. to findthe circuit i which the short has occurred. The meaning of 'shdrt circuit' is. which would have blown. In a n electrical circuit. is qui:e high. with f2tal consequences. as only one cable requires to make contact withthe hull (earth) of the ship. This is fortunately rare. that is a good conductor. to cause a short circuit. This allows the 'live' :able to come ii~to eltctrical contact with any substance. resisance.h of leas. which causes the fuses to 'blow'.7 . . !he Wear safety shoes with insulated soles. both 'iive' and neutral wires must be in good contact. .unless you are sUre that it is earthed. Current always follows the pa.

as there is a surgeof current during the short circuit. Thezr can bc piug!:cd in 01. would also b e -a short c i h i t . than ar she sections at which no leakage of current is taking place.iv:uii will be put in and a c h section of the circ-ii wi!i izqni. By checking each section of the 'dead' circuit. an indication will be seen on the dial of the Megger. When a cable becomes 'bare' and makes contact with the hull of the ship. the fuse would blow. TEST FOR OPEN CIRCUT Tr. of a two-wire insulated systein. It is an . If there i v an 'earth fault' of that part being tesced.by means o f a &Tultimeter. a short circuit has taken piace... to cause a short circuit. A n appearance of burning accompanies a 'short'. I11 To locate which part of the circuit has 'shorted!. the swiicii of rhi. Refer to 'PAarine Engineering Practice' for details of electrical fault-finding. is connected to on. as an 'carth'.idli:--wired system on ships. i m e a n t by a n e a r t h in the cab& of a n electrical installation. A Mezger o r Meg Ohmmeter is just a small generator (called a rnagneio). as in the case of a short circuit. and the eanh lamps watched. Thr: end of the lead. !'k Caulty section will be indicated by the deflection of meter needle being less. each sectional switch should be put 'On'. in turn. ~wouid have n o immediate effect on the operation of the machine. in this case. Q3.Multimeter. from the resistance in series.out: in order to Zet the necessary pressure o r voltage.-e to bz i w c d h y dl.end o f i i i c coinponcnt io be tested and the other end from the magneto is earthed. <. An 'earth fault' in the 'live' o r the neutral wires.. W)aan. i. the faulty section can be detected. having an insulated neutral. an 'earth fault' on both iile clivc' incl [he neutral wires would be required. on s h p ' d ship ? How is it f o u n d out ? W h y a r e e a r t h l a m p s necessary ? Ans. which will cause burning. T h e earth will be in the circuit in which a difference in the intensity of the earth lamps rakes place. i t is ccrrncd as an 'earth fault'. T o trace an 'earth' fault.e. In the case of a single-wired system. i w x c ar which particuiar part of circail the car:h has teken place. enclused in a case containing a number of resistances in sei-ies.-- Advanced Marine Engineering Knowledge Vol. the whole circuit should be examined. I n t h e case of the do~.


so that the nut is tightened 'square' onto spot faced bearing housing This prevents the possibility of yield of threads. particular attention must be paid to the bottom end bolts.. especially those gn 4 stroke engines. Check for kactures by NDT or: by 'sins&'. t a k p when handling these bolts. especially on shanks. 3. by reducing the area which can regst the applied stress. is observed. hence increasing resilience of tEe bolts. so that even though 3. as the majcrity o f fatigue failures are initiated a s a mechanical defect. 2. especially on shanks. sttiking with a hammer to check if the bolt is 'sound'. The design of the boEom end bol% is precise.fati-we life exists. i. Ni fiiiets are of generous radii. X 3 Check the f?ee length of bottom end bolts in service. and not at a stress concentration point.. Check for mechanical damage. greatest stress occurs there. when either designed kfe is over. The minor stress concentration at the defect allows a crack to start and grow. to prevent stress wncmtrarions Iiuusing are designed to allowbolts to be as long as ?ossihle. A defective bolt sounds diffecent. Main design points: Bolt shanks should be snialler in diameter than the thread root. discard the bolt if any corrosion 1. 4. Whenever bearing ars examined. A portion of the shank has a tight clearance in the hole. Checks to be made: Check for corrosion by acidic lube oil. a 6esignsted service life can be assigned to tham. it is possible that yield has taken place. to ensure that uneven t~ghtenmghas not taken place 5 Discard the bolts. over-speed occurs or piston seizure has occurred . Check land~ngfaces. If they are longer. so tllaf 1.e. against a new one. . which eventually weakens the material. 2.

Bearings 128.system Advantap Chain Locker Combustion r e t i o n quality Poor combustion Communication Conditions of Assignment Corrosion Bacterial attack Cavitation attack Dczincitication Evaporates. Motor vessels 34. Persistent oils 16. Bilge alarm 64. Classreprements 90. Autonation 59 . EIzi2ical system 34. Bilge pumping system Boilers 86 . Clearances : 178. Bulk system Narms Boil-off Relief valve setting Central Cooling . Deviation 15 9 ~ Error sicpal 153. 178.160. Main Boiler 34. Furnace distdrtion 92. Waste r m v e r y 88. Combustion control 95. 91. Alarms 32 .66.l~rndlex Page Nos. Offset 159. tilt pad 165. Pressure test 86. Loading instrument Safety precautions 27. Tube failure 94. ~ C Air Compressors 178 . Anchcr. White metal 128. Qua. Packaged 96.18. Precautinns 15. %last water 27 . Capacity calculations 179. Settings 86. Regulations 178. Operatinns !5. Contrul point 159. Disputes 17.3 4 ~ Aux. Aux. Oil supply 34. 33. 179. Unacceptable perccr~tagcs 17. . lnsriuctions 16.28. Letter ofPrs:st 17. Documents 17. Szmples i 8. Barium Chromate 99.IS. Hazards 28.96. Page Nos.64. 28. Ballast syxtem isoiaiion 67. 165. 165. Safety valve 93. Ccntrolltd condition 159. Open 1 closed loops 160. attachment T e s kits 17-.92 Cable stopper CaICrifier Camshaft Carbon filter COT. Bunkerins 15. 1 6 7 Thrust.ltitp/quality 17. 27. Water uearmen: tests z6. Monitoring element 159. Roller . Explosions i 80. Control measures Evaluation 28. Turbine vessels 34. Oil spill 15. Uptakak-fire 92. Bridge control Buoyanr apparatus 54. tests 85. Meanred value 159. Surveys Air Receiver.191. Bolt failures 207. Feed-back 159. Power systems 34. 34. Volatile oils 16. Defects 89.

Todc effects .237. Sand erosim Stress corrosion 89. . NOx ievels 188. Rotators 228. . 187. Dnk ~Vachincry 85.. Monjtorjng 41. Hest sensor 40. supervision 31. . Eanhing 235. TLV . Fire protection 33. W S 30.44. effects of 36. 134.199. M a red sensor 39... 231.234. Fie p'h. Constru~ion..ieeboard. Fresh water Storage tanks 83. Acid rain . 132: . I 0 8217 S . Safeties Short circuit 234. Lra& cylihder cover Euhar?si d v e Liner w a er Valve defects Valve springf 221. Smoke detectors 39. Gravlry type 52. Fuel oil Auto ignition 133. .requirements 101. . Detectors 38 -41.200. Flooding proteaion Fire wnml plan 29. . . braking . Alarms 41. Sulphur m N ~. Ring clzarances 228. Fauk deection 40. Dry powder 46 . ~ ~ . 52. 3 1 . impingement attack 122. I. and Safety 29 . 199. 130. Smog .187: Enclosed spaces 34-36. 130. Cranecircuit. 130. Cable testing 236.189.144. Explosimeter 42 . Peak t&g~ 43. Lutiing type 52. test$ 100. ~. ' Calorific value Cxbon residue 132. Operation 42. Telegraph 230. E L 42.Page Nos. 33. . ~ Electrical systems 230 . CrossheadBearings .47. Guides 201. Cetane number 130. 200 .. ~ u e injecton l 197 -199. 74. Eulk system for LPGLNG Dz<ts HzS. So . Safety measures. C M C 130. Fire drills 30. Rhdiai type 52. Torsion meter 230. Measurement 43. 132. z t && .205. 239 . G levels 35. 132. Piston a w n 225. Battery inspection 233. Page Nos.133. Fresh water Generator 80. Elashb& -xestoi 43. . Deep t a n k 100.~ Sodnrrn Specifications . Checking lines $1. Damage 202 . . 123. Calibration procedure 43." Emissions 187. ~ . Beddate. . Testingof deteciors 40. . Fatiwe 89. Ash particles 130." . Global warming 187. Hazards 34. Ionisatien sensor 38.60. Catalytic fines 130. E n ~ n rcomponents~ .

. Comparison of oils 146. Indicator cards 190. Detergent oils 141. Medical aid 42. Viscosiry 142. Deai band 208. Indicator 191. Compound type 134. &ease 134.4 2 ~ Fire fighting 42. 131 194 . LigFt spring &ds 190. Load seiting 212.Iindlew Page Nos. Emulsion 135. Cloud pint 141. Inec Gas 48. 194.195. Lube oils 130. Hatchways. Plate type 78.147. Defects 156. Load Liniter 212. Insoluble conlent 142. Isochronous 208. Falls 52. 135.193. FIoc test 147. 136. Stahl?ory requirements 49. 42. Corrosion in bearings Cornsion monitoring 138. Defects 76. Fenography 137. International Shore couplifig 50. Sensit&iry 298.54. Tube protection 78. Alkalinity. Cylinder oil 131.dim in case of fire Chaiactzristics LSA 38. Flashpoint test 143. ). Stresses 103. Erosion 75.214. Mars 50. &WG Code 41.143. Generator 51. 51 . Abrasive wear 135. LNG 47-48. L i e jackets 53 Life rafts 54. Elastohydrodynamic 136. Chemical cieanin: 82. Parallel mnning 214. Failure 75. Electronic 213. Shell t y p 81. Tess Vanadium Fuel Pumps Cam profile Faults 144 Page Nos. Corrosion 75. Wydraulic 209. construnion 103. Stability 208. Corn?mor. Lifeboats 51. Venting 76. Life buoys 51. Maintenance Materials 78. Properties 41. Foaming 141. 154. 145 .134 . Corrosive wear Cracking point 141: Crackle test 141. 136. Examination 177. Condition monitoring 137. Governors 208 . compensation 210.82. 138. Draw cards 193. Heat Exchangers 75 . Droop 208. Cenrrihgal brake 53. Impingement 75. Gearing 176 -177.51. Overspeed trip 213. 47. Hazardous cargoes 41 . 21 1. 77. h s t 143. Storage 41. Eland brake 53. Lacquering 135.

Floc point 182. reason. Materials 61.219. Re-ine~ing a d a t 59. $MethodI C 57. 168. Method m c Oil tankers 58. Split rdler karing 167. ducts 56. Cen:rifuga: 61. Anchor examination 7. stairways 56. Dry cargo ships 56.Page Nos. . accommodation 56. Characteristics 71. !2xplosions 215. Overheating 148.176. Safe operation. Gear 6:. Over charse Propefies 182. Steering gear Materials 173.205 . Protectio% openings 56. 69. Regdations. Comminutor la^ Chemical type 14. Boat equipment 5. Cargo refrigeration Container unit 181. Axial Row 70. Regulations 11 . Sludge incineiation 25 . Protection. Safety doices 215. 156. Machinery spaces 12. tests 38. Interlocks 218.59. Overlap 215. 219. 183. Crack deteciion 150~ Fair curve method 161. Failures. Protection. Swash plate 73.155. Method u C 57. . Clearances 61. Moisture 186. 7. 173 . Pumps 61 . Bolts 165. 162.206. Clearances 64. Flocculation 182. lankms Scale formation 59. Sewage pumping 14. 154 . Passenger ships 55. Eductor type 15. Water treatment 82. Screw 70. Startjng air system 215. H 1 Q cun8e 72.171. D~scharge 72. Flooding 186.13. StMing / reversing 217. 161 . Disposal 25~ Sofiener 87. Cargo stripping system75. Shafting 148. Air in system 186. 156.. Foaming 185.186. Alignment 156. Psyckfomeler 182~ ~ Paze Nos. Monitoring 12. Stresses 169.26. 80. Tznk capaiiry IS. . Oil discharge (tankers) 18. Surveyi 5 . Suwey !SO.76. Priming pump Deepwell type Lb!G 71 Emergeiicy fire pump 72. Emergency 216. Materia!~ 64 Tooth dzpti~ 63. P i l e wir: 162. NFSH 71. Hatch mvers ' Refrigeration 181 . 38. Annex V 11. 62. Snipboard f i e organisziion 30. Corrosion 168. Centrat priming 63.151. Oil discharge (chemical)l8.175 Shudural Fire protection 54 . Vacuum t j ~ e 15.174 . Special areas 11. 15.7. 58. Protection. Maintenance 216.

Shipyard tzsts 10. v atcr irsaimeqi E1zctiokitadyn Potable Ppm value r_~i*ra violet Untreated water Windlass brake tea Vibrations 148. .%# . Null Examination 7. Surface preparation 7. -4s C E 9 -. Mode 158. Axial 153. 7. blain bearing 205 .206. As C E on new vessel 9.Pnge Xos. Shipyard programmes 10.1 6 4 ~ Amplitudz . Hull Painting IWS operation : Takin: over 8-11. Resonancc 158. 158. Tl?ic%nsss txeasuizrnent 7. Node 158. 158. Sea :riais 10~ V4a:?r-tisht doors A!taciinient Testing . 16: . 5.