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SPINES, CHESTS, BACKS & BELLIES

Part I: The Axial Skeleton

Axial Skeleton

Vertebral Column

Parts of the Vertebrae
Superior articulating surface Body or centrum Pedicle

Transverse process

Lamina Spinous process

Inferior articulating surface

Parts of the Vertebrae
Vertebral foramen Centrum Pedicle

Lamina

Spinous process

Transverse Process

Intervertebral Disks
Superior articulating surfaces

Intervertebral formen

Intervertebral disks

Inferior articulating surfaces

Spinal nerve

Types of Vertebrae

Cervical, Thoracic, & Lumbar Vertebrae
Thoracic Lumbar

Cervicals

7 Cervical Vertebrae

Cervical Vertebrae (Inferior surfaces)

Giraffe Cervical Vertebrae

Atlas Bone
Transverse foramen Anterior arch

Vertebral foramen Superior articulating surface Transverse process Posterior arch

Atlas Bone (C1) Inferior view
Inferior articulating surfaces

Axis Bone (C2)
Superior articulating surface Dens or odontoid process

Transverse foramen

Resembles a small headed football player in prayer before the big game.

Atlantoaxial Joint

Dens

Cervical Vertebrae (C3-C7)
Transverse foramen

Bifurcated spinous process

Resembles a small carnivore: fox or raccoon

12 Thoracic Vertebrae
Superior demifacet

Inferior demifacet

Thoracic vertebrae articulate with the ribs at demi-facets; resembles a giraffe.

Thoracic Vertebrae

Thoracic Vertebrae

Facets on transverse process

Ribs & Demifacets articulating with Thoracic Vertebrae

Ribs
Vertebral end Sternal end Head

Neck

Tubercle

Costal groove
(posterior)

5 Lumbar Vertebrae
Centrum

Spinous process

Resembles a moose.

Lumbo-sacral joint

Sacrum

Sacrum
Posterior sacral foramina Sacral canal Anterior sacral foramina

Sacral promontory Transverse lines

Medial sacral crest

Lateral sacral crests

Sacral hiatus
Sacral Cornu

Proximal coccyx

Superior view of the Sacrum
Sacral crest Sacral canal

Centrum or Body

Ala

Coccyx Bone

Coccyx
Cornu

Three to five little vertebrae in humans; more in vertebrates with tails.

Costal Cartilages
7 True ribs

5 False ribs

2 floating ribs which lack cartilage

Sternum
Manubrium

Body or gladiolus

Xiphoid process

False Ribs

Floating ribs

Note: Floating ribs are a type of false rib