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Sceince Reviewer

Sceince Reviewer

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Published by: Nacho Villanueva on Sep 01, 2012
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1st Term Science Exam Reviewer Cells I. Cell Theory a. Cells are the basic unit of life b.

Cells come from preexisting cells c. All living things are composed of cells Scientists who contributed to the study of the cell a. Robert Hooke i. Discovered and named the cell in 1665 b. Anton Van Leeuwenhoek i. Made a better version of the microscope c. Robert Brown i. Discovered the nucleus of the cell d. Theodor Schwann i. Discovered that all animals have cells in 1838 e. Mathias Jacob Schleiden i. Discovered that all plants have cells in 1839 f. Rudolf Virchow i. Discovered that all cells come from preexisting cells Cell Classification a. Presence/Absence of nucleus i. Eukaryotes 1. Have nucleus 2. Examples: Animal and Plant cells, Protists, and Fungi ii. Prokaryotes 1. Don’t have a nucleus 2. Examples: Bacteria b. Number of cells i. Unicellular 1. Examples: Prokaryotes, Some protists ii. Multicellular 1. Examples: Animals, Plants, some Protists and Fungi Prokaryotes a. Small Cells (<5µm) b. Always unicellular c. No neucleus or any membrane-bound organelles d. Circular DNA, without Proteins e. Small Ribosomes f. Has Cytoskeleton g. Reproduction is always asexual h. Cell division is called Binary Fission Eukaryotes a. Larger Cells (>10µm) b. Often Multicellular c. Always have nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles d. Linear DNA

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e. Has Cytoskeleton f. Reproduction is either asexual or sexual g. Cell division is by Meiosis or Mitosis h. Small Ribosomes Basic Cell structure a. Plasma/Cell Membrane i. A thin flexible barrier around the cell made of phospholipids and proteins ii. Separates the contents of the cell from the outside environment iii. Supports and protects the cell b. Nucleus i. Plural: Nuclei ii. Large structure containing the cell’s genetic material (DNA) iii. Controls Cells activities c. Cytoplasm i. Fills the cell’s interior ii. Contains organelles Eukaryotic Cell Structure a. Cell wall i. Found in plants, algae and fungi ii. Lies outside the cell membrane iii. Allows H2O, O2, CO2 etc. though b. Nucleus i. Small dense region. Here the ribosome assembly begins ii. Sub parts of the Nucleus 1. Chromatin a. Granular materials within the nucleus b. Consists of DNA bound to a protein c. Condenses to form Chromosomes 2. Chromosomes a. Distinct thread like structure containing the DNA passed from one generation to the next 3. Nuclear Envelope a. A double envelope covers the nucleus b. It’s dotted with thousands of nuclear pores 4. Nucleolus a. The place where Ribosomes are made b. Composed of protein and nucleotides 5. Nucleoplasm a. Basically the Cytoplasm of the nucleus c. Cell Membrane i. Fluid Mosaic Model 1. Because of the different components shown in this model, and because it’s a liquid it is called the Fluid Mosaic. Model. ii. Components of the Cell membrane

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1. Proteins a. Intrinsic i. Inside the cell b. Extrinsic i. Outside or inside the cell. 2. Lipids a. Phospholipids i. Make up the bilayer b. Cholesterol i. Prevents the membrane from solidifying at low temperatures. iii. Cytoskeleton 1. Network of Protein fibers supporting the cell’s shape and anchoring organelles a. Actin Filaments i. Helps the cell’s movement b. Microtubules i. Hollow tubes ii. Facilitates cell’s movement iii. Centrioles 1. Help assemble the animal’s microtubules c. Intermediate Filaments i. Stable – Don’t break down ii. Act similar to the support columns of a building Specialized structures in Prokaryotes a. Pili i. Protein Filaments ii. Help cling to surfaces iii. Part of Cytoskeleton b. Plasmid i. Circular DNA that self replicates c. Peptidoglycan i. Attached to bacterial cell wall (Sugars attached with peptide bonds) Organelles a. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) i. Rough ER 1. Has Ribosomes 2. Site of Protein synthesis ii. Smooth ER 1. Has enzymes that produce lipids and carbohydrates 2. Has no Ribosomes iii. Largest internal membrane iv. Composed of Phospholipids v. Serves as a system of channels from the nucleus vi. Functions in storage and secretions vii. Sends goods through vesicles

b. Golgi Apparatus (Named after Camillo Golgi) i. Collections of Golgi Bodies 1. Collects, packs, and distributes molecules synthesized at one location in the cell and utilized at another location ii. Sorting station and storage of the Cell c. Lysosomes i. Small organelles willed with enzymes ii. Breaks down lipids, Carbohydrates, and proteins from food into particles for the cell to use iii. Suicide Bags 1. Linked to death of cells (Apoptosis – Major way by which eukaryotes remove damaged and potentially dangerous cells) d. Vacuoles/Vesicles i. Sack-like structures (Stores water, Salt, Proteins and Carbohydrates) ii. For Plant cells one large central Vacuole iii. Pressure allows support for leaves/flowers iv. For Animals and single celled, many but smaller 1. Transports substances in cells 2. Vesicles e. Organelles with DNA i. Mitochondrion 1. Bounded by exterior and interior membranes 2. Interior partitioned by Cristae (Pronounced Cristy) and Crista for singular 3. Breaks down food to make ATP 4. Power House of the cell ii. Chloroplasts 1. Uses energy from sunlight To make food 2. Bound by two envelope membranes 3. Found in photosynthetic organisms 4. Contains green pigments called chlorophyll I. II. Cell Transport Cell membrane a. Semi-permeable i. Selective permeability Cell Transport a. Active Transport i. Uses ATP ii. From low to high concentration iii. Examples 1. Bulk Transport

a. Endocytosis i. Phagocytosis 1. Ingestion of bacteria or large particles ii. Pinocytosis 1. Ingestion of Liquids b. Exocytosis i. When contents of a vesicle is released out of the cell b. Passive Transport i. Doesn’t use ATP ii. From high to low concentration iii. Examples 1. Diffusion a. Simple i. Gasses Go through the membrane without going through protein channels b. Facilitated i. Goes through the membrane with the help protein channels c. Osmosis i. This is also facilitated diffusion but it’s for water. c. Homeostasis in Cells i. The energy flow in the cell must be towards a dynamic equilibrium or steady state that is continuously changing within certain ranges or norms. Bioethics I. II. The study of moral and ethics in biomedical fields a. Life and death situations Principles a. Autonomy i. Respect for decision b. Nonmalficence i. Doesn’t intentionally harm c. Beneficence i. Beneficial d. Justice i. Form of fairness

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