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Teachin g Young Learners 8-13 Years

Extended Assignment: Delta Module 3 December 2011 Word Count: 4,499


Centre/Candidate Number: 10239/182 Sheona Smith

Teaching Young Learners 8-13 Years

Table of Contents

PART ONE...........................................................................................................................4 CHOICE OF SPECIALISM...............................................................................................................4 CONSEQUENCES FOR YOUNG LEARNERS..........................................................................................4 MOTIVATION IN THE YOUNG LEARNER CLASSROOM............................................................................4 CONTENT IN THE YOUNG LEARNER CLASSROOM................................................................................5 IMPLICATIONS FOR YL TEACHERS AND LEARNERS..............................................................................6

PART TWO..........................................................................................................................7 GROUP PROFILE........................................................................................................................7 SELECTION AND ANALYSIS OF NEEDS ANALYSIS................................................................................7 QUESTIONNAIRE IN SPANISH FOR PARENTS.......................................................................................8 LEARNER STYLE QUESTIONNAIRE...................................................................................................8 MI VISUAL SURVEY, TOPIC SURVEY AND TEACHER DESCRIPTION.........................................................8 SELECTION AND ANALYSIS OF DIAGNOSTIC TESTS.............................................................................9 PRIORITIES FOR COURSE DESIGN...................................................................................................9

PART THREE....................................................................................................................11 FORMULATION OF COURSE OBJECTIVES.........................................................................................11 SYLLABUS DESIGN CHOICE........................................................................................................11 COURSE ORGANISING PRINCIPLES................................................................................................12 TEACHING APPROACH...............................................................................................................12 LEARNER STRATEGY TRAINING....................................................................................................12 MATERIALS.............................................................................................................................13 CONSTRAINTS..........................................................................................................................13

PART FOUR......................................................................................................................14

Sheona Smith- Delta Module 3: Teaching Young Learners 8-13 years

Teaching Young Learners 8-13 Years


ASSESSMENT..........................................................................................................................14 THE ASSESSMENT PROGRAMME..................................................................................................14
FORMATIVE PROGRAMME.........................................................................................................................14 SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT PROGRAMME......................................................................................................15 COURSE EVALUATION.............................................................................................................................16 CONSTRAINTS.......................................................................................................................................16

PART FIVE........................................................................................................................17 APPLICATION OF COURSE PRINCIPLES...........................................................................................17 THE BENEFITS OF THE COURSE PROPOSAL....................................................................................17 LIMITATIONS ...........................................................................................................................17

BIBLIOGRAPHY................................................................................................................18

APPENDIX ONE: COURSE PROPOSAL FOR 1ST TRIMESTER (24 HOURS)...............21

APPENDIX 2......................................................................................................................34

APPENDIX 3......................................................................................................................36

APPENDIX 4......................................................................................................................37

APPENDIX 5......................................................................................................................38

APPENDIX 6......................................................................................................................39

Sheona Smith- Delta Module 3: Teaching Young Learners 8-13 years

Teaching Young Learners 8-13 Years

PART ONE
Choice of Specialism
Teaching Young Learners is a challenging yet rewarding career. I have found that in recent years, stakeholders, be they parents or the institutions which pupils attend, have increasingly become avid for some kind of status symbol with regard to the students performance in English. This situation has clearly been identified by experts in the field (Cameron 2001, McKay 2006). I would like to devise a course which motivates students to continue learning English, encourages them to participate more in classroom tasks and helps them become aware of the richness of language through a more content-focused syllabus rather than having them attend class with the sole purpose of passing an exam. .

Consequences for Young Learners


During the last decade there has been increasing support amongst education theorists for communicative teaching and richer content in the Young Learner classroom (Nunan, 2004, Moon 2000, Phillips 1994, Scott and Ytreberg 1990 cited in Cameron: 2001). Due to the volume of candidates between ages 7 to 12 taking part in large scale exams throughout the world, there has been an increase in course books designed with these exams in mind. This may have a knock-on effect on what is being taught in the YL classroom. Teachers of this age group should be aware of the danger of reducing their repertoire of activities to those focused on passing young learner exams (Cameron 2001). The negative backwash of this situation was highlighted by a recent report carried out by Aston University and the British Council. (Garton, Copland and Burns: 2011) Young learner teachers need to ensure that the syllabus provides a variety of activities and a change of pace within the lessons to avoid the phenomenon of 2nd grade washout or damaged disposition (Katz, L.1997: 18).This is a sad but very real experience in which childrens disposition to learn has diminished. This coincides with Vale and Feunteun who stress that motivating activities are essential for childrens learning. (1995:69)

Motivation in the Young Learner Classroom


Many Young Learner teachers would recognise students with this lack of disposition. This attitude can manifest itself in disruptive pupils who do not wish to participate in their learning or even attend classes. (Dorneyi, Z. 2001). It may also be the case that children as young as eight are expected to suffer in their mastery of the language, a situation which most adult learners can avoid as they have the choice as to whether they attend class or not. A similar observation was succinctly made by Dornyei: Many teachers as well as students share the belief that serious learning has to be hard work, and if it is enjoyable, it is doubtful that is serious or significant (2001:72) Sheona Smith- Delta Module 3: Teaching Young Learners 8-13 years 4

Teaching Young Learners 8-13 Years


However, the decision to attend English class is not in the hands of our younger students. Therefore, to maintain motivation in a young learner classroom it is essential to include a variety of task types together with interesting and relevant input. (Halliwell 1993). Children, as opposed to more mature students, have very short attention spans and are easily distracted. The inclusion of topics chosen by the students or which have special interest for them would help to maintain their attention. It is also important for learners at this age to have activities broken down into manageable chunks so that they focus on the task in hand. As children move closer to puberty their ability to keep in mind the communicative aim of activities becomes easier. (Cameron 2001). Dornyei gives us an insight into how pupils motivation levels ebb and flow (2001). This applies to both young learners and adults, however, children do not have the cognitive ability to see the abstract affordances that language learning can provide as do adults, or the capability to see beyond the classroom and appreciate how they will benefit from what they are learning now. It has been established that children learn better if they are made aware of the horizontal relevance of what they are learning rather than the vertical relevance. (Katz, L. 1997:18). That is, children need to see that the skills and knowledge used in the classroom are meaningful and useful today rather than expecting them to appreciate how these will affect the following months exam.

Content in the Young Learner Classroom


The previous points mentioned have made me aware that young learners need to spend more time on topics and that their learning should be more holistic. Young Learners are at an entirely different cognitive stage in their linguistic development to older learners (McKay 2006). This factor highlights several important aspects that must be addressed in a learning-centred classroom. (Cameron 2001:1) One such important aspect is the use of rich and varied input in the learning classroom. Content can be previously selected by the teacher and students with individual pupils learner styles in mind. Children do not come to our classes as tabula rasa so we need to be conscious of the many individuals we teach and consider using a variety of approaches and materials. (Lightbown and Spada: 2006) I have observed that students are more engaged in their learning and participate more with each other in classes in which richer-content is used. This type of peer collaboration, together with teacher scaffolding, helps learners to move into their zone of proximal development from where they can develop their language skills and advance without the fear of failure. (Cameron 2001) Indeed, collaborative work in conjunction with lowstructure tasks helps lower affective filters and leads to entertaining, fulfilling language experiences for the learners (Halliwell 1993). Students who are given the opportunity to learn through a topic based syllabus tend to be more focussed on the content and meaning of language and are thus freed from a standard diet of rote-learning, endless lists of lexis and meta-language which is beyond their cognitive level. (Vale& Feunteun.1995), (Halliwell 1993)

Sheona Smith- Delta Module 3: Teaching Young Learners 8-13 years

Implications for YL Teachers and Learners


Learning a foreign language at this early age, an age at which some experts speculate is crucial in order to obtain native-like mastery in the language (Patkwoski cited in Lightbown & Spada. 2006:69 ), should in fact be childs play. It is, therefore, up to teachers to provide the praise and approval that children seek in order to maintain their enthusiasm and creativity, (McKay 2006) implement languagerich content and meaningful activities to give children opportunities to take risks and thus increase their language intake. (ibid)

PART TWO
Group Profile
The False Beginner group chosen consists of 11 children aged 8; 9 boys and two girls. These children attend the local school in which extra-curricular activities take place. The proposed course falls within the extra-curricular activities held for one hour twice a week. The learners are in 3rd Grade Primary in the Spanish school system and have 2 hours of English within the school timetable. Their English teacher, who is Catalan, uses English for activities in the course book but not for classroom management or instruction. Thus, the students exposure to varied target language input is limited. However, the students hear a certain amount of target language within their social setting as they have native English speaking peers. The advantage of this has been a surge in integrative motivation in both students and parents. (Williams and Burden 1997; Dubin and Oshtain 1986; Dornyei 2001)

Selection and Analysis of Needs Analysis


One of the overarching principles in Needs Analysis at the planning phase (Nunan 1998) is the necessity to gather information about the learners current state and the desired goals for the course. (Graves 2000:101). I share the view expressed by Long (2005) and Nunan (2004) amongst others, that young learners are often not aware of their needs and wants. For this reason, I have used several tools to analyse affective, communicative and learning needs (Munby 1978; Hutchison and Waters 1987). These are outlined below:

Questionnaire in Spanish for Parents

I.

I concur with Yalden (1987) in that questionnaires are an economical way to gather information. Parents are the principal stakeholders within the societal context of the course and can give valuable insights into their childrens needs and preferred learning styles. (Ioannou and Pavlou 2003) The use of questionnaires with graded answers, although subjective, (Richards 1990) provides informative data regarding the parents wants. All parents marked Speaking as a priority activity in the classroom. This also collates with the 70% who marked Communicative Activities as important, 50% #5 and 20% #4 and a total of 70% for # 4 and #5 in Pronunciation. However, it seems that parents are also keen on activities which mirror regular class content (40% for #5 and 30% for #3) as well as a grammar focus in the extra-curricular class (20% marked #4 and #5 respectively). Only 20% marked #5 for self- assessment.(App:2)

II.

Learner Style Questionnaire


I. This questionnaire was designed for the learners to complete and includes the use of visuals to aid understanding of the rubrics. The learners have expressed their needs through the completion of the survey (Nunan 1988) and this helps to provide a framework for setting objectives within the course. The results demonstrate that Reading 33%, is not a popular activity for the students. Listening/Listening to stories received high percentages; 100% and 91% respectively. (App:3)

MI Visual Survey, Topic Survey and Teacher Description


Two surveys carried out, Multiple Intelligences and a Topic Survey, have given an indication of the types of activities and content appropriate for the course. 91% of learners claimed to be visual indicating that the use of visual material was essential. 75% marked naturalistic, thus, certain topics include some information on flora and fauna. 66% marked Kinaesthetic, which highlighted the need for TPR type activities. 50% of students also marked logical thus activities such as categorising and data collection have been included. The student descriptions of a good teacher provide data as to the expected teacher roles and methodology suitable for the learners. Some key phrases mentioned by the students were; Fun Makes us work hard Doesnt get angry when we make mistakes Gives us exams

This may indicate that the students need activities which challenge them. As well as expecting entertaining classes they appear to want activities consistent with a more traditional teaching approach. (App: 6)

Selection and Analysis of Diagnostic Tests


Parents require their children to improve the structures and content that they are learning at school. (App.2: 60% gave Q1.3 between 3-5 on scale; Cameron 2001) The diagnostic test chosen is designed for students beginning 3rd Grade Primary and tests their knowledge of systems worked on throughout the previous year. (Cameron 2001; Nunan 2003)

I.

Activity types and methodology used in the groups school class were checked to verify that the skills test mirrors the activity types that the students are used to. (Cameron: 2001;Georgiou and Pavlou: 2003; McKay 2006; Nunan 2004) The Diagnostic Skills Test provides scaffolding for YLs in the form of lexis and visuals. (40% of students are visual according to parents). An important factor in maintaining some lexical support in Section 7 Writing is that students of this age still struggle with spelling in L1. (Cameron 2001) However, support in two writing tasks (App: B3) was withdrawn to create more of a challenge (William and Burden: 1997, Rixon 2011). In the Writing section, the average mark was 50%. Students interviewed after the test mentioned faulty recall of lexis and a lack of confidence in spelling. (App:4) As Speaking is a priority, a direct oral test with the use of a scene card was used. (Pierce and OMalley cited in Shabban 2001; Hughes 2003). The results of this integrative test highlight that the majority of students cannot go beyond one word utterances. (Hughes 2003) For example; almost 50% of students needed a lot of help to understand questions and more importantly, 9 out of 11 students could give only 1 word answers. It appears the students are not accustomed to oral interactions.( App:5) A quantitative mark was given for the skills-based test and a criterion-referenced mark for the performance-based test. This provides a wider sample of data. (Hughes 2003)

II.

III.

IV.

Priorities for Course Design


Based on the above, the following communicative, affective, cognitive and content objectives for the course have been determined: Inclusion of richer input through topic based content. Introduction of learner strategies to improve recall and recording of new lexis.

Improvement of speaking and writing sub-skills to go beyond one word utterances. Encourage enjoyment of and participation in stories. Introduce alternative summative assessment throughout the course.

PART THREE
Formulation of Course Objectives
There are many frameworks for setting goals, (Munby; Stern; Genesse and Upshar; Saphier and Gower), however, Nunan (1988) posits that goals should be formulated with the learners needs in mind. Based on this, the goals prioritised in this course are derived from learner data and incorporate needs from different perspectives: Linguistic, learner and learning. (Nunan 2000) These goals have been narrowed down to specific objectives which will help to differentiate the content, skills and strategies focused on within the units of the course (Graves 2000).
GOAL 1: Inclusion Richer Content of GOAL 2: Learning Strategy Use to improve recall of lexis 2A: SS will be better able to record new lexis + structures. 2B: Show receptive + confident attitude in own ability to learn + gain autonomy. 2C: Use repetition, word association + chunking to improve recall of target lexis+ structures GOAL 3: Improve Speaking and Writing Skills to go beyond 1 word. 3A: Learn to use linking devices; and, but and because. 3B: Express opinions and interact using oral expression in situations using verbal and non-verbal procedures. 3C: Demonstrate better writing skills through use of linking devices.

1A: Implement reading subskills to help decode texts 1B: Listen to + understand messages/lexis in various oral interactions 1C: Give SS access to semiauthentic material.

1D: Practise + value reading for enjoyment

3D: Encourage care and interest in presentation of written texts, including spelling of target lexis.

Syllabus Design Choice


Richards (1990) concludes that an effective syllabus can be designed using a combination of approaches. Therefore, I have chosen a multi-layered syllabus which includes theme based content, a skills focus and a spiral element. An implicit focus on grammar is also included as parents felt this was necessary for their childrens progress (App: 2) In topic based syllabi the inclusion of richer language provides greater opportunities for peripheral learning which according to Wood (1988) is important for children. Work on improving the skills of speaking and reading is planned and this addition creates a more process orientated model of syllabus (White cited in Johnson and Johnson 2006).

Course Organising Principles


Graves (2000) suggests that courses be divided into units of work. The course has thus been divided into three blocks: All about Me; The Olympics and Countries: England. Each is programmed over a period of 8 hours, taking the total amount of teaching hours to 24. Topics are based on the hands-up survey held in the class. (See Part 2, App: 6) This involvement in choosing content maximises the relevance of the topics for the learners (Woodward: 2001). Young children move from concrete ideas to abstract (Wood 1988). Hence, the progression from taking about oneself (concrete) to the more abstract themes of Countries and The Olympics. The spiral element within the syllabus boosts acquisition of vocabulary and structures as they are developed over the 3 units, (Schmidt cited in Lightbown and Spada, Graves 2000, Nunan 1988). This element allows time for a silent period and learners meet the target language within different contexts to reinforce acquisition. (Dubin and Oshtain) (Lesson2+5). Certain threads, for example; descriptions, The Olympics and Countries are carried through the three units. Nunan (1988) maintains that too great an emphasis on structural grading can be avoided by preventing the structures from determining the language learners are exposed to. Target structures have been focused on as lexical chunks which are therefore easier for children to recall and produce. In this way, learner needs are met (Part 2 App: 2).The context formed by the content elements allows the students to develop schemata for each learning situation. (Cameron 2001) This brings to the fore the analytical make-up of the course The skills block focuses on Speaking and Reading. Speaking, is of prime importance to both parents and the learners (App: 2). A focus on reading has been included at the teachers discretion. Graves (2000) points out that teachers views influence how and what they teach. The needs analysis shows that reading is not a popular activity; however, this issue has been addressed to improve the learners spelling and recall of lexis. A further objective is to encourage enjoyment of reading.

Teaching Approach
The teaching approach proposed is founded on Principled Eclecticism. Bearing in mind the age of the students, a variety of activities have been implemented. By using different methods a more flexible course is developed. Drawing from different methods in this way will help meet objectives as well as learner needs. (Larsen- Freeman 2000)

Learner Strategy Training


The personalised dictionary increases awareness of the importance of recording new lexis. Together with the All about me book, it provides a meaningful method of noticing the written forms of the target structures and serves as a visual aid. Other activities, such as spelling competitions, and pair/team work are an implicit focus on strategies to help scaffold activities and enhance recall of word forms and vocabulary. (Dubin and Oshtain 1986) This focus on strategies fosters the use of a variety of activities which are

imperative to maintain the students interest and promote recall of lexis and spelling which posed a problem for the learners in the Diagnostic Test. (App:4 Writing)

Materials
Materials chosen reflect the main learner styles within the group. They are child-friendly with the use of visual scaffolding to aid in activating the childrens schemata and appropriate in their cognitive challenge. The stories are from the Oxford Reading Tree Series. Although authentic, the language content is appropriate for language learners of this age. Each story caters for students by making use of high frequency words and repetition. They contribute to the unity of the course by presenting the same characters within the stories (Hedge 2000).

Constraints
There is no access to IT facilities during class time and therefore any interactive activities via internet which could have added to student engagement are unavailable.

PART FOUR
Assessment
Formative assessment is used to assess learners progress throughout a course. The information collected feeds back into the course and is used to adapt activities and methodology where necessary. (Harris and McCann 1984) Formative assessment should be carried out in a way that is familiar to the learners and also take into account their needs and cognitive level. (McKay 2006, Cameron 2001, Hughes1989) No single assessment tool provides all the information needed to monitor learners development of the language (Hughes1989, Harris and McCann 1994, Hedge 2000). The assessment programme proposed is multi-faceted (Hedge 2000) which will give a comprehensive picture of how the learners are progressing and highlight any changes that need to be made. Taking into account the main goals prioritised for this course (See Part 3 pg. 9) the following assessment programme has been developed.

The Assessment Programme


Formative Programme
I. Teacher Assessment of Learners Pupils progress will be monitored through an assessment form to be completed by the teacher. (See App: B10) Over a number of lessons in each unit, pupils will be observed and their progress charted on the form. A separate form will be used for each unit. This will aid in giving a holistic assessment of each learner and provide valuable information on individual needs. This formative procedure promotes reflective teaching as the teacher can adapt activities to the pace of the learners as well as making material more locally relevant. II. Self- Assessment: The students will carry out monthly assessment on their progress by means of a unit specific evaluation form (App: B5) and an overall course evaluation poster (App: B8). The learners will therefore take an active part in their learning. (Cameron 2001) The design of the assessment form is in keeping with the type necessary for this age group. The statements are similar to those that the learners are accustomed to in class and the provision of clear rubrics and visuals aids in supporting the learners. The length of the form is short enough to allow the students to complete it without losing concentration. (Hughes 1989) This type of evaluation empowers learners and fosters a positive atmosphere within the class by focusing on positive aspects of learning. (Cameron 2001, Harris and McCann 1994).

Summative Assessment Programme


Summative assessment is often implemented at the end of a course in the form of achievement tests which may not be prepared by the teacher. The purpose therefore is to assess the effectiveness of the teaching and may not relate to what has been taught. Results are often used for checking standards and overall student grades. Hence, results rarely feed back into the course or benefit the learners. (Hedge 2000) The summative assessment proposed will be spread over the trimester in continuous form to evaluate the accomplishment of the course objectives. The administration of the tasks over the 3 units prevents a feeling of apprehension for the learners and allows for the use of valuable information in the form of beneficial backwash. Thus the data is not lost at the end of term when the course finishes. (Harris and McCann) I. Structured Assessment tasks The tasks consist of 2 integrative speaking tests and 2 discrete item activities administered in the last lessons of units 2 and 3. This combination will help to balance the integrative speaking tests with a more direct element, providing validity and reliability to the assessment programme. (Hughes 1989)

The indirect tests provide multiple fresh starts thus students who may not be good test takers have various opportunities to perform better. (Hughes 1989). Test 1(App: B7) has face validity as it contains structures and vocabulary that learners have already seen ( Unit 1 Lesson. 5). The students can see that they are being tested on what has been presented in the class. Content validity is also high as it strives to test what it sets out to i.e. reading and recall of the written form of vocabulary (Goal 1). According to Cameron (2001: 220), assessment activities should provide a helpful model of language use. The test does this by the provision of an example written text. The use of discrete item tests provides an element of practicality and this type of test can be incorporated into lessons with minimum fuss. (Hughes 1989). Parents required a more traditional form of assessment and felt that Portfolio Assessment was not a valid option for their children. (App: 2). Combining different methods may allow them to appreciate alternative assessment types. II. Direct Speaking Tests Integrative Speaking Tasks will be incorporated into the course. The first test mirrors the diagnostic speaking test carried out in Part 2. (App: B2) The test will be carried out within class time. Individual students will be asked to come out to the teachers desk and will take the test as their peers are finishing their dictionaries, surveys etc. Test administration should not pose a problem as each test is designed to take between 3-4 minutes. (Goal 3) The second test (App.B/C.Plan Less:24) will take the form of a peer activity in which the learners interact with their partners in comparing two different pictures. The teacher will focus on individual pairs while the other students are working on their posters. The use of open ended speaking tasks helps in determining how the learners will communicate in more authentic situations. (McKay 2006) The learners will be assessed using an analytical scale which provides a subjective mark on their performance.

III. Portfolio The students, together with the teacher, will compile a dossier of work which they feel demonstrates the effort and progress they have made. This may include the book made by students, their personalised dictionary (Goal 2), illustrations, self- assessment forms etc. This aspect of the summative programme fosters a dynamic element in the course in which the interaction between the learners and teacher develops a two-way dynamic assessment process (Feurestein cited in Williams and Burden 1997) .

Course Evaluation
I. Student Evaluation Included in the Assessment Programme is a student questionnaire (App: B4) to be completed on different activity types. This provides valuable data on tasks the children feel are most useful and what aspects of the course they are not happy with. II. Teacher Evaluation The teacher will complete a monthly unit assessment form (App: B9). Reflection on the course on a monthly basis will help in defining the effectiveness of the course as well as highlight any changes which need to be made for its future use.

Constraints
As there is no formal examination to be taken at the end of the course it may be difficult, for learners and the main stakeholders, their parents, to visualise what they are working towards. However, with the incorporation of continuous assessment for summative purposes the learners will see their developing knowledge of the target language.

PART FIVE
Application of Course Principles
In Part one I mentioned several important aspects in the teaching of Young Learners aged 8-13. The first of these was the need to avoid teaching to the test. Secondly, maintaining student motivation through the use of richer content and meaningful activities and lastly, but no less important, was the provision of support in helping young learners gain a better knowledge of the target language. The course proposal attempts to implement these principles through the inclusion of theme based units supplemented by authentic stories. This focus on content as well as providing more meaningful vocabulary provides a framework for work on grammatical structures without recurring to traditional transmission methods of teaching. The activities in the course are made up of an eclectic mix of learning centred activities which allow each student to bring to the class his or her own learner style.

The Benefits of the Course Proposal


The benefits to the learners are a more rewarding language learning experience in which they will learn to make the language their own. An attempt has been made to give students a sense of agency by allowing them to take decisions on certain aspects of the syllabus. The stakeholders will also gain an insight into what may be for them an alternative system of evaluation which permits those learners previously disadvantaged to achieve a degree of success.

Limitations
The course is designed to make language learning a more holistic experience. However, should the stakeholders feel that the students progress would be better evaluated by means of formal certification, exam focussed activities would need to be implemented in the course as no provision for the practice of exam techniques is made. The learners would therefore be at a disadvantage compared to students more accustomed to practising for exams.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Cameron, L 2001. Teaching English to Young Learners. Cambridge University Press.

Dornyei, Z. 2001. Motivational Strategies in the Language Classroom. Cambridge University Press.

Dubin, F and E, Oshtain. 1986. Course Design. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press

Garton, S. Copland, F. Burns, A. 2011. Investigating Global Practices in Teaching English to Young Learners. British Council/Aston University.

Graves, K 2000. Designing Language Courses. Heinle

Graves, K .1996 . Teachers as Course Developers. Cambridge University Press

Halliwell, S. 1993. Teaching English in the Primary Classroom. London. Longman

Hedge. T. 2000. Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom. Oxford University Press

Hughes, A 2003 . Testing for Language Teachers. 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press.

Hutchison T, and Waters, A .1987. English for Specific Purposes. Cambridge University Press

Ioannou- Georgiou, S and Pavlou, P. 2003. Assessing Young Learners. Oxford University Press.

Johnson, K and Johnson, H. 2006. Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Linguistics. Blackwell Publishing.

Katz, L. 1997. Child Development Knowledge and Teachers of Young Children. ERIC Clearing House on Elementary and Early Childhood Education

Larsen- Freeman, D. 2000. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Oxford University Press

Lightbown, P and Spada, N. 2006. How Languages Are Learned. 3rd Edition. Oxford University Press

Long, M 2005. Second Language Needs Analysis. Cambridge University Press.

McKay, P 2006. Assessing Young Language Learners. Cambridge University Press.

Munby, J. 1978. Communicative Syllabus Design. Cambridge University Press

Nunan, D. 1988. Syllabus Design. Oxford University Press

Nunan, D. 2003. Task-Based Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press

Read, C. 2007. 500 Activities for the Primary Classroom. Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

Richards, J. 1990. The Language Teaching Matrix. Cambridge University Press.

Rixon, S. Assessment of Young Language Learners. Keeping Track without Turning Them Off. Pearson Longman. Retrieved from Internet 31/07/2011

Shabban, K. 2001. The Assessment of Young Language Learners. English Teaching Forum. Volume 43, English Teaching Forum. Accessed September 2011.

Tomlinson, B .ed.,1998. Materials Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press

Vale, D with Feunteun, A. 1995. Teaching Children English. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.

Williams, M and Burden, R 1997. Psychology for Language Teachers. Cambridge University Press

Wood, D. 1988. How Children Think and Learn. Blackwell Publishing

Woodward, T.2001. Planning Lessons and Course. Cambridge University Press

Yalden, J. 1987. Principles of Course Design for Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press.

APPENDIX ONE: COURSE PROPOSAL FOR 1ST TRIMESTER (24 HOURS)


KEY: T= Teacher, SS= Students

Pink Objectives refer to Goal 1 (Richer Input) Green Objectives refer to Goal 2 (Learning Strategies) Blue Objectives refer to Goal 3 (Speaking and Reading Skills)

Identifies lessons which build on previous lesson content

21

UNIT ONE ALL ABOUT ME (WEEKS 1-4) REF. OBJECTIVES


Main OBJ 1A

TO LESSON CONTENT

MATERIALS

LESSON
1. 1. Aim:

SS will read SEMI-AUTHENTIC profile of child with basic information: AGE/ NAME/ NATIONALITY/ LIKES+DISLIKES (5-10m) ELICITATION OF QUESTION FORMS (5m) DRILL PRONUNCIATION OF QUESTIONS IN CHUNKS:CHANT(10m) PROFILE CARDS FOR ROLE-PLAY FIND OUT WHO YOUR PARTNER IS (10m) MAKE + START MINI BOOK TO RECORD INFORMATION ALL ABOUT ME( 15M)

PROFILE +PHOTOGRAPH PROFILE CARDS CHARACTER

1.To read simple text: (Profile) including target lexis Sub. Aims: Notice questions forms in chunks and reproduce in controlled activity.

MINI BOOK MATERIAL

OBJ 3B

(SS will be requested to bring photograph of family for next class)

OBJ 2C 2. 2. Aim: Main OBJ 1B LISTEN TO RECORDING: IDENTIFY TOPIC. (3-5m) FOCUS ON TARGET LEXIS (5m) OBJ 1D 2ND LISTENTING: RAISE HAND ON HEARING TARGET LEXIS (5m) T DESCRIBES OWN FAMILY PHOTO WITH: THIS ISMY .. (5m) OBJ 3E SUBSTITUTION DRILL: THIS IS MY(5m) 1 STUDENT VOLUNTEERS TO PRACTISE/DEMONSTRATE (5m) OBJ 3C SS CHOOSE PARTNER AND TELL FRIENDS ABOUT OWN PHOTO.(10 m) ADD INFO + HANDDRAWN PICS TO MINI BOOK: GUIDED WRITING (FOLLOWING EXAMPLE) (15m) !!! (See lesson 5) Family Photos/ Cut outs of families from mags. Recording of child describing family photo.

3. To practise focused listening for specific information. 4. To practises writing short phrases about family. This is my..

5. Sub. Aims:
To transfer spoken info to written

22

UNIT ONE ALL ABOUT ME (WEEKS 1-4)


form. 3. Main Aim: To raise awareness of letter writing conventions and simple linking device: and Sub. Aim: To practise spelling and increase motivation. OBJ 3A WARMER: RUN + IDENTIFY WORDS/PHRASES FROM L 1+2 PINNED UP ROUND CLASSROOM. E.G. This is my ., My name is Im ..(20m) READING: SHORT LETTER FROM FRIEND DESCRIBING SELF AND PIC OF FAMILY. (5-8m) FOCUS ON FORMAT: Dear ., Write soon/love (5-8m) JOINING SIMPLE SENTENCES. My name is.. and Im 8 years old. (10m) SHOW AND READ MINI BOOK TO A FRIEND.(10m) !!! (See Lesson 4) Letter from friend

OBJ 1A

Flash cards phrases/words

with

OBJ 1E

4. Main Aim: To personalise vocabulary and structures. Sub. Aim: To recall lexis and phrases from previous 4 lessons

OBJ 3A

GROUP SPELLING BEE: FAMILY LEXIS.(15m) RE- READ LETTER FROM FRIEND- QUESTION TIME(10m) WRITE UP LETTER DESCRIBING SELF AND FAMILY (WITHOUT SIGNING) GUIDED WRITING- (15m) ADDITION OF ANY INTERESTING WORDS OR PHRASES TO UNIT SECTION OF STUDENT DICTIONARY (10m)

Envelopes /Stamps. CARD AND PAPER TO MAKE dictionary. (Students letters will be sent to friends within the class and on receiving, students will try to guess who the sender is).

OBJ 2A

(ADDRESSES WILL BE ADDED SECRETLY AND LETTERS POSTED BY TEACHER.)

!!! (See Lesson 3)

23

UNIT ONE ALL ABOUT ME (WEEKS 1-4)

LESSON
5. Main Aim: To give physical descriptions of family members using is+adj and has got Sub.
To motivate enjoyment in reading and writing

REF. OBJECTIVES

TO LESSON CONTENT

MATERIALS

SS LISTEN TO RECORDING FROM L. 2. AND IDENTIFY FAMILY MEMBERS. (5-7m) T MIMES ADJECTIVES E.G. TALL/SHORT/THIN/ - TO BE (5m) VISUALS ARE SHOWN TO TEACH LONG/SHORT BLUE/BROWN EYES ETC. HAS GOT (10m) HAIR,

RECORDING FROM L. 2

VISUALS OF FAMILY.

Aim:

OBJ 3C

SS WRITE SHORT DESCRIPTIONS OF THEMSELVES IN BOOK FOLLOWING MODEL (10-15m) READ TO PARTNER WHO GUESSES WHO IS WHO. (10m)

!!! (See Lesson 2)

6.

Main Aim: To present and practise question form: Pres. Simple To ask/answer questions about family members. Sub. Aim: To cater to
diff. MI/Learner Styles within the lesson

SS MATCH JOB PICS TO WRITTEN FORM IN GROUPS (5-8m) SS CATEGORISE JOBS SEDENTARY/PHYSICAL. (5m) T + SS MIME JOBS (10m) FOCUS ON PRONUNCIATION OF QUESTION FORM AND ANSWER. WHAT DOES YOUR ..DO? SHE/HE IS A ..(15m) SS DO SURVEY OF CLASSMATES- FAMILY JOBS. (CLASS MINGLE) (20m)

VISUALS OF JOBS

OBJ 2C

FLASHCARDS: WRITTEN FORM JOBS

OBJ 3B OBJ 3A

PHOTOCOPY SURVEY TABLE

OF

24

UNIT ONE ALL ABOUT ME (WEEKS 1-4) REF. OBJECTIVES TO LESSON CONTENT MATERIALS

LESSON 7.
Main Aim: To present can to talk about abilities. To present like+ ing to talk about hobbies. Sub. Aim: To practise writing skills: transfer info and put into sentence form

HOBBIES: T DEMONSTRATES JUGGLING AND TELLS CLASS WHICH HOBBIES/ACTIVITIES I CAN JUGGLE, PAINT ETC. (5m) T DRAWS A MIND MAP ON BOARD(5m) SS BRAINSTORM HOBBIES/ACTIVITIES THEY HAVE/CAN DODRAW OWN MIND MAP POSTER. (10-15m) GUIDED WRITING- THINGS I CAN DO/ THINGS I LIKE DOING (15m) TRANSFER INFO TO MINI BOOK- ALL ABOUT ME (10m)

*MIND MAP

OBJ 2C/

OBJ 3A/3C

8. Main Aim: To evaluate course so far. SS evaluate performance Sub. Aim: possible activities. discuss future

OBJ 1E OBJ 2E

REVIEW AND EDIT BOOK (10m) READING CIRCLE: READ STORY TO PEERS (20m) COMPLETION OF CAN DO STATEMENTS (10m)

CAN DO FORM

25

UNIT TWO:THE OLYMPICS (WEEKS 5-9) REF-TO OBJECTIVES LESSON CONTENT MATERIALS

LESSON 9. Main Aim: To


present new topic. To listen to story for enjoyment. To organising content. practise story

VISUALS USED TO ANTICATE/PREDICT STORY CONTENT: FLOPPY AT THE OLYMPICS (10m) SS LISTEN TO STORY (10m) SS ORDER VISUAL EVENTS IN STORY (5-8m) SS JOIN SENTENCE HALVES (10-15m) KWL CHART-SS FILL IN WHAT THEY KNOW ABOUT THE OLYMPICS

VISUALS FOR STORY

OBJ 1B OBJ 3C OBJ 2A

PHOTOCOPY OF MIXED UP PHRASES. *CUT OUT PHRASES FROM STORY TO JOIN KWL CHARTS PICS OF SPORTS PERSONALITIES.

Sub. Aims: To practise joining simple sentences.

ADD NEW WORDS TO DICTIONARY SS ARE SHOWN PICS OF FAMOUS SPANISH SPORTS PERSONALITIES AND TRY TO GUESS THE SPORT. (5m) T ELICITS OTHER SPORTS. (5m) FOCUS ON STRENGTHS NEEDED TO PRACTISE SPORT: E.G. YOU NEED STRONG ARMS TO PLAY TENNIS ,Rafa Nadal has got strong arms ec. (10-15m) SS ADD POST ITS /LABELS WITH PHRASES EG. LONG LEGS TO PICS. (10m) VISUALS ARE PUT UP ON WALL SS DRAW PIC OF THEMSELVES AND ADD LABELS/PHRASES

10. Main Aim: To


talk about sports and strengths required. To present need to talk about physical qualities Sub. Aim: To review body lexis/has got/ To present adjectives e.g. long/strong/ big/

SMALL POST-IT NOTES

OBJ 3D

REF-TO

LESSON CONTENT

MATERIALS

26

UNIT TWO:THE OLYMPICS (WEEKS 5-9) LESSON OBJECTIVES

11. Main Aim: To OBJ 1A/ 2C


practise writing descriptions of people using has got/ to be +adjectives

SS READ DESCRIPTION OF FAMOUS SPORTS PERSON AND UNDERLINE KEY PHRASES. E.g. He has got strong arms, He is tall. (20m) SS WRITE A PROFILE DESCRIBING SPORTS PESONALITY. (10m) SS EXCHANGE WITH PARTNER AND GUESS WHO (10m) SS GUESS DIFFERENT ITEMS HIDDEN IN BAG (15m) SS DIVIDE FOOD ITEMS INTO HEALTHY/UNHEALTHY (5m) DISCUSSION ON WHAT TYPES OF FOOD SPORTS PEOPLE EAT. Nadal eats bananas because they give him energy We eat vegetables because they give us vitamins (10m) T SHOWS PYRAMIDE CHART OF HEALTHY EATING HABITS SS LIST ALL FOOD EATEN THAT DAY: NUMBER AND CLASSIFY ACCORDING TO CHART. (10m) SS WRITE SENTENCES WITH BECAUSE (10m)

READING TEXT ON SPORTS PERSONALITY

OBJ 3A OBJ 1A

12.

Main Aim: To review food vocabulary and to provide context for talking about healthy eating. To practise use of because in sentences. Sub. Aim: To introduce new lexis: vitamins, energy, good for+ noun

OBJ 3B

REALIA: Mixed fruit/veg and packets of crisps, chocolate bars, packets of sweets etc. POSTER: PYRAMIDE FOOD CHART.

OBJ 3A

LESSON

REF. OBJECTIVES

TO LESSON CONTENT

MATERIALS

27

UNIT TWO:THE OLYMPICS (WEEKS 5-9) 13.


Main Aim: To review/recall vocabulary from previous lesson. Sub. Aim: To raise awareness of learning strategies To practise freer speaking in context of L. Strategies

OBJ 2A OBJ 3A OBJ 3A OBJ 1E

ADD VOCABULARY FROM PREVIOUS LESSON TO DICTIONARY (10m) CLASS DISCUSSION: PURPOSE OF RECORDING OF NEW VOCABULARY.(15m) INFO GAP: COMPLETE DICTIONARY. (10m) DICTIONARY ON AND

SS DICTIONARIES QUESTIONNAIRE FORMS. STORYBOOK/VIDEO: TORTOISE AND HARE OLYMPIC MEDALS WORKSHEET TO EVALUATE THE HARE AND TORTOISE.

QUESTIONNAIRE

PEERS

VIDEO/STORY: TORTOISE AND THE HARE- WATCH/LISTEN FOR ENJOYMENT. (15m) PARTICIPATING IS WINNING : SS THINK OF VIDEO FROM PREVIOUS CLASS AND EVALUATE THE HARE AND TORTOISES PERFORMANCE. (15m) SS COMPLETE PERFORMANCE WORKSHEET. SS PARTICIPATE IN MINI CLASS OLYMPICS IN PLAYGROUND: SPORTS E.G RACE, HIGH JUMP AND SHOT PUT. (30m)

14. Main Aim: To introduce


the idea of competing vs. participating- team spirit Sub. Aim: To familiarise SS with lexis: medals/winner/1st, 2nd, 3rd etc/competitors/competition/ Team/Gold, Silver, Bronze

OBJ 1A

VISUAL: OLYMPIC MEDAL WINNERS

15.

Main Aim: To personalise and develop lexis from previous lesson. Sub. Aim: To promote rapport/team spirit in class Summ. Assesssment: Indirect Test: Body vocab and written description (Appendix )

OBJ 3D/ OBJ 1D

SS MAKE GOLD MEDALS FOR PEERS (15m) ADD ENCOURAGING PHRASES: YOURE THE BEST/WELL DONE/ YOURE N 1!!/ YOURE A WINNER/ (10m) SUMMATIVE INDIRECT TEST 1 (30m)

POSTER TAGS

NAME

28

UNIT TWO:THE OLYMPICS (WEEKS 5-9)

LESSON 16.
Main Aim: To make SS aware of what they have learned. Sub. Aim:

REF. OBJECTIVES

TO LESSON CONTENT

MATERIALS

SUMMATIVE SPEAKING TEST 1 SS COLOUR PICS FROM STORY: FLOPPY AT THE OLYMPICS AND ORDER.

COPIES OF PICS FROM STORY.

Summ.Assessment: Speaking: SS will reply to questions about a picture. Appendix #

STORYBOOK: FLOPPY AT THE OLYMPICS.

29

UNIT THREE: COUNTRIES (WEEKS 10 - 14)

LESSON REF. TO OBJECTIVES

LESSON CONTENT

MATERIALS

17.Main Aim: To introduce


SS to topic through use of visuals. To introduce weather lexis and phrases, Whats the weather like in ..? Sub. Aim: To compare countries and introduce peripheral but To present seasons.

SS WILL BE SHOWN FLAGS FROM COUNTIRES AND ASKED TO IDENTIFY. (5m) GREECEORIGIN OF OLYMPICS/LONDON OLYMPICS 2012 WEATHER SYMBOLS SHOWN AND SS ASKED TO ADD TO MAPS. (15m) LOOK,SAY AND WRITE ACTIVITY IN SS DICTIONARY (10m) GROUP SPELLING BEE OF WEATHER WORDS (15m)

FLAGS OF GREECE AND ENGLAND

WEATHER SYMBOLS AND BLOWN UP MAPS

OBJ 2B/2C

18. Main Aim: To practise


listening for specific info: weather Sub. Aims: To introduce new structure in chunk: Lets go to Its open/closed.

SS LISTEN TO WEATHER REPORT AND ADD SYMBOLS TO MAP (10m) SS READ SHORT ARTICLE: THINGS YOU CAN VISIT IN LONDON (15m) FOCUS ON USEFUL PHRASES: LETS GO TO .. /ITS OPEN/CLOSED (10m) SS DO INFO GAP ON WHICH ACTIVITES ARE OPEN/CLOSED (15m)

MAPS AND WEATHER SYMBOLS.

OBJ 1A OBJ 3B

PHOTOCOPY: LONDON.

THINGS

TO

SEE

IN

(Sample Lesson Material Appendix)

UNIT THREE: COUNTRIES (WEEKS 10 - 14) 19. Main Aim: To practise OBJ 1B
picture descriptions orally and in written form. Sub. Aim: To develop use of I can see, This is Its +weather word.

OBJ 3B

SS LISTEN TO STORY: A DAY IN LONDON. (10m) SS CHOOSE VISUALS OF MONUMENTS IN LONDON AND DESCRIBE PIC TO PARTNER. (10m) SS WRITE A DESCRIPTION OF PIC IN NOTEBOOK(Collaborative writing with partner) (15m) SS WHO HAVE VISITED LONDON MAY BRING PHOTOS TO NEXT CLASS TO SHOW PEERS LISTENING/DICTATION ANIMALS (5m) T ELICITS KIND OF ANIMALS THAT LIVE IN ENGLISH COUNTRYSIDE/FOREST(10m) SS COMPARE TWO PHOTOGRAPHSCITY OF LONDON/ NATURAL LANDSCAPE AND SAY WHAT IS DIFFERENT. (15m) SPOT THE ANIMALS AND LABEL.(5m) ADD NEW LEXIS AND PHRASES TO DICTIONARY(10m)

STORYBOOK: A DAY IN LONDON

VISUALS OF MONUMENTS/MUSEUMS (From Storybook)

LONDON

OBJ 3C

20. Main Aim: To talk OBJ 3B


about differences: elicit vocabulary related to countryside: To present lexis: Forest/stream/trees/bushes There is/are Sub. Aim: To develop use of but when talking about differences. Peripheral: Prepositions of place: in/on/under

TWO LARGE VISUALS CITY/COUNTRY SCAPES.

OF

BUILDING WORK IN LONDON

OBJ 2C

PICS OF TYPICAL UK ANIMALS: HEDGEHOG, SQUIRREL, BADGER, etc

21. Main Aim: To activate

TPR ACTIVITY: A WALK THROUGH THE

STORY BOOK: ROBIN HOOD.

UNIT THREE: COUNTRIES (WEEKS 10 - 14)


schemata for forest lexis and recall of lexis from previous lesson Sub. Aim: To promote use of visual imagery in helping predict text content. To improve awareness of sequencing in stories. FOREST (10m)

PRE-READING/LISTENING PRESENTATION OF CHARACTERS FROM ROBIN HOOD STORY. (8m) SS RECEIVE VISUALS FROM STORY AND PREDICT ORDER IN WHICH ACTION OCCURS. (10m) SS LISTEN TO STORY AND REORDER VISUALS IN CORRECT ORDER.(5m) VOLUNTEER SS TO RETELL STORY WITH AID OF VISUALS (15m)

VISUALS FROM STORY

OBJ 1B

OBJ 3B

22. Main Aim: To develop


use of because to join phrases. To present question form Why+ present simple. Sub. Aims: To revise What doesdo? to talk about activities.

OBJ 3A

SS CATEGORISE GOOD CHARACTERS IN STORY. (10m)

/BAD

PHOTOCOPY OF POSSIBLE OBJECTS

REVISION OF STRUCUTRE: WHAT DOES . DO? (15m) LIFE IN THE FOREST: SS CHOOSE 5 ESSENTIAL OBJECTS TO SURVIVE IN THE FOREST. (10m)

UNIT THREE: COUNTRIES (WEEKS 10 - 14) 23. Main Aim: To revise


and develop need . use of OBJ 3B OBJ 3A

SS REVISE OBJECTS FOR FOREST AND

GIVE REASONS WHY YOU NEED THE OBJECTS.

To use because to form complex sentences. Sub. Aim: SUMMATIVE INDIRECT TEST 2. TIME ALLOWED 10 MINS. Appendix: B12

SS WRITE OBJECTS AND REASONS IN NOTEBOOK SUMMATIVE INDIRECT TEST 2.

24. Main Aim: To review and present lexis and structures used throughout unit. Sub. Aim: To record structure and lexis in fun and memorable way.

OBJ 3D/2C SS MAKE GROUP POSTERS FROM CUT UPS OF VISUALS FROM MAIN LESSONS IN UNIT 3. E.G. LONDON/ ROBIN HOOD/ COUNTRYSIDE ETC. EACH GROUP PRESENTS EXPLAINS POSTER. AND

POSTER PAPER EXTRA COPIES OF VISUALS FROM UNIT 3. SS DICTIONARIES

Summ. Speaking

Assessment:

OBJ 3B

Information Gap: SS will be given two pictures. and asked to compare and say differences. Appendix: B13

Teaching Young Learners 8-13 Years

APPENDIX 2
PARENT QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS 5 TOPICS
1. Popular culture: songs, festivals, holidays etc

3 ASSESSMENT
3. With a global trimester mark

50%

20%

30%
2. Themes: The Family, Sports etc. ( ) 4. With a mark for reading, writing, speaking and listening every trimester 5. Through self evaluation

40%

20%

40%
3. The same unit topics as school course book ( ) 4. Only grammatical structures etc.

30% 30% 20%

30% 20%

20% 30% 20%

6. Through Portfolio work

METHODS
1. Working in groups or pairs 2. Studying a text book 3. Using communicative activities

50% 0% 0% 0%

6.Official Exams: YLE Starters

40%

7. Would you like your child to have NO: homework?

80%

50%
4.Reproducing language modelled by the teacher/CD etc

20%

30%

30% VIS 40% 20% 9.Learner Style 40% AUD 30% KIN 10%

SKILLS
1. Reading 2. Speaking 3. Grammatical level 4. Pronunciation 5. Writing

100% 30% 40% 40% 30% 30% 20%

OUTSIDE CLASS
1. Watch TV and read in English 2. Practice English with his/her friends

20% 40%

30% 20%

Teaching Young Learners 8-13 Years


3. Maintain a conversation in English 4. Play interactive games on the internet

90%

10% 40%

ASSESSMENT
1. With a mark for a written exam 2.With a mark for an oral exam

10% 20% 30%

Teaching Young Learners 8-13 Years

APPENDIX 3
NEEDS ANALYSIS #1 JUNIOR 2 2011

= I want to practise this in English Class.

=I dont want to practise this in English Class ACTIVITY


WRITING

75% 91%

SPEAKING

LISTENING

100% 33% 91% 66% 91% 50%

READING

WORKING WITH A PARTNER

WORKING IN GROUPS

LISTENING TO

STORIES SINGING

36

Teaching Young Learners 8-13 Years

APPENDIX 4
Results of Diagnostic Test
LISTENING Range in percentage WRITING READING Global

53%-100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 93% 100% 93% 86% 86% 53%

26%-100% 100% 53% 60% 60% 46% 53% 40% 40% 33% 46% 26%

33%-100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 88% 55% 77% 88% 33% 100%

53%-100% 100% 84% 84% 84% 79% 76% 66% 66% 61% 58% 53%

PUPIL A PUPIL B PUPIL C PUPIL D PUPIL E PUPIL F PUPIL G PUPIL H PUPIL I PUPIL J PUPIL K

37

Teaching Young Learners 8-13 Years

APPENDIX 5
Results of Direct Speaking Test:

N of Students Comprehension of questions

A lot of help Some help A little help

5 3 3

Response

Unarticulated 1 word + 1 word

0 9 2

Pronunciation

Difficult to understand Sometimes difficult Can be understood

2 5 4

38

Teaching Young Learners 8-13 Years

APPENDIX 6
Multiple Intelligence Survey results/ Hands-up Topic Survey

INTELLIGENCE VISUAL NATURALIST KINEASTHETIC LOGICAL INTERPERSONAL EXISTENTIAL

PERCENTAGE 91% 75% 66% 50% 41% 33%

Hands- up Topic Survey Results

TOPIC COUNTRIES ANIMALS SPORTS PEOPLE I ADMIRE LIVING IN THE CITY MY VILLAGE ABOUT ME

N STUDENTS 6 11 9 11 2 2 11

39