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Energy - Beyond Oil

Energy - Beyond Oil

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Published by dizzyman2008
Alternative Energy
Beyond Oil
Peak Oil
Alternative Energy
Beyond Oil
Peak Oil

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Published by: dizzyman2008 on Sep 02, 2012
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10/11/2013

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Fig. 3.2 shows the 24 countries that had established installations for geothermal
electrical power generation in 2005. Typically, the high-temperature geothermal
industry uses geothermal fluids from the ground at 200◦C to 280◦C from wells
1,500 to 2,500metres deep. This type of resource is only found in regions with
active volcanism and tectonic events on major plate and fault boundaries. The
highest grade of geothermal energy is dry steam; it only occurs in rare and
geographically limited locations where the in situ fluids can exist as steam (for
example, the Geysers, California and Larderello, Italy) and can be fed directly
to turbines. More commonly, however, the fluids are held in the rock as hot,
pressurized liquids that can convert spontaneously to steam at the surface to
driveturbines. Inlowertemperaturesystemsandsystemswithdifficultchemistry
conditions, the geothermal fluids are fed to heat exchangers where a secondary
circuitheatsaclosed,cleanfluidthatisusedtopoweraturbineorrotaryexpander.
These latter systems will become more important as the use of lower temperature
resources is increased (DiPippo, 2005).

USA
2544 MWe

Iceland

Location of Geothermal Power Sites, 2005

TOTALS Installed 2000: 7,974 MWe, and 2004: 8,912 MWe (Generated 56,798 GWh/y)

© Tony Bachelor, 2005

Guadeloupe
15 MWe

Kenya
127 MWe

Indonesia
797 MWe

Australia
0.2 MWe

Ethiopia
7 MWe

Azores
16 MWe

202 MWe

Germany
0.2 MWe

Austria
1 MWe

Turkey
20 MWe

Russia
79 MWe

Japan
535 Mwe
Thailand
0.3 MWe

Philippines
1931 MWe

Papua
New Guinea
6 MWe

New Zealand
435 MWe

China
29 MWe

Italy
790 MWe

Mexico
953 MWe

Guatemala
33 MWe

EI Salvador
151 MWe

Nicaragua
77 MWe

Costa Rica
163 MWe

Figure3.2 Map showing location of the principal regions of high-temperature geothermal power
production. Note that MWe denotes Mega watts of electricity as distinct from MW

t (Mega watts of

heat energy).

Hot dry rock or enhanced geothermal systems39

10000

9000

8000

7000

6000

MW

e installed capacity

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
1970

1975

1980

1990

1985

1995

2000

Rate of Increase from 1980: 203 MWe/year

2005

2010

Year

Figure 3.3 Growth in installed capacity of electricity generation from geothermal energy.

In2004, thereportedinstalledgenerationcapacitywas8,912MWe, generating
56,798GWh of electricity per annum—an average availability of 72%. Fig. 3.3
shows the sustained growth rate in installed capacity of 203MWe year, a steady
capital expenditure of close to $1 billion per annum.
The overall fraction of geothermal power generation compared to the world
total power generation is currently 0.4% and the goal of the geothermal
community is to raise that fraction to 1% by 2010. However, the apparently
smallglobalfractionmasksthelocalimportanceofgeothermalpowerproduction.
Fig. 3.4 shows the importance of indigenous geothermal power to certain
developing countries; it is worth noting that geothermal power is economically
competitive with hydropower (for example, Central America and New Zealand)
under the right circumstances.
A detailed worldwide assessment of the state of geothermal electricity
production,reviewedfollowingthe2005WorldGeothermalCongressisavailable
(Bertani, 2005).

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