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Energy - Beyond Oil

Energy - Beyond Oil

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Published by dizzyman2008
Alternative Energy
Beyond Oil
Peak Oil
Alternative Energy
Beyond Oil
Peak Oil

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Published by: dizzyman2008 on Sep 02, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/11/2013

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Peter P. Edwards, Vladimir L. Kuznetsov,
and William I. F. David

Introduction

156

Hydrogen and electricity: energy carriers

157

Hydrogen production

160

Hydrogen storage

162

Asustainable energy future

165

Conclusions

166

Resources and further information

166

Introduction

Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant chemical element in our universe—
it is the power source that fuels the Sun and its oxide forms the oceans that
cover three quarters of our planet. This ubiquitous element could be part
of our urgent quest for a cleaner, greener future. Hydrogen, in association
with fuel cells, is widely considered to be pivotal to our world’s energy
requirements for the twenty-first century and it could potentially redefine the
future global energy economy by replacing a carbon-based fossil fuel energy
economy.Theprincipaldriversbehindthesustainablehydrogenenergyvisionare
therefore:

• the urgent need for a reduction in global carbon dioxide emissions;
• the improvement of urban (local) air quality;
• the abiding concerns about the long-term viability of fossil fuel resources and
the security of our energy supply;

• the creation of a new industrial and technological energy base—a base for
innovation in the science and technology of a hydrogen/fuel cell energy
landscape.

Hydrogen and electricity: energy carriers 157

The ultimate realization of a hydrogen-based economy could confer enormous
environmental and economic benefits, together with enhanced security of energy
supply. However, the transition from a carbon-based (fossil fuel) energy system
to a hydrogen-based economy involves significant scientific, technological, and
socio-economic barriers. These include:

• low-carbon hydrogen production from clean or renewable sources;
• low-cost hydrogen storage;
• low-cost fuel cells;
• large-scale supporting infrastructure, and
• perceived safety problems.

In the present chapter we outline the basis of the growing worldwide interest
in hydrogen energy and examine some of the important issues relating to
the future development of hydrogen as an energy vector. As a ‘snapshot’ of
international activity, we note, for example, that Japan regards the development
and dissemination of fuel cells and hydrogen technologies as essential: the
Ministry of Economy and Industry (METI) has set numerical targets of 5 million
fuel cell vehicles and 10 million kW for the total power generation by stationary
fuel cells by 2020. To meet these targets, METI has allocated an annual budget
of some £150 million over four years.
Our assumption, therefore, is that ultimately a significant proportion of the
world’s future energy needs will be met by hydrogen, and this hydrogen will be
used to power fuel cells.

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