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2012
About Author:

Facebook: www.facebook.com/groups/josh.lrt
Email: rtcoolman@live.com [Mr. Josh]
Contact No: +6018-397 6808 [Mr. Josh]



By : Josh, LRT

2012 LRT Documents Copyrighted. All rights reserved. Page 1 of 7

Chapter 4 Work, Energy and Power
4.1 Work
Work is defined as force applied along a distance.
The unit of work is or or

.
Work done by a force is equal to the product of the force and the displacement in the direction
of the force.

Work done by constant force,






Where, is the angle between F and s.
Work done by variable forces


** Notes:
1. A graph of Force agains Displacement, the area is the work done.
2. It must be consider the only distance given depends on the question.
3. Energy is transferred
4. Movement has to occur and must be in same direction
5. The angle are in the range of

Work Done

0

To find the work done varies from to
is:
Shaded area under the ( ) graph.






By : Josh, LRT

2012 LRT Documents Copyrighted. All rights reserved. Page 2 of 7

Condition where Work Done on an object is zero
i. While pushing a wall


ii. Force exerted perpendicular to displacement



Mathematically Proven for WORK

When
1. Force and displacement are rightward.



2. Force left, displacement right




3. Force up, displacement right









9





As you are pushing the wall. Since, there is
no displacement made, so .



As waiter are carry the dishes. Since, there
the distance from a point to end is .

By : Josh, LRT

2012 LRT Documents Copyrighted. All rights reserved. Page 3 of 7

QUESTION:








The figure above shows a block X of mass m moving up a plane inclined at an angle to the
horizontal, whereas block Y of mass M is attached to block X with a non-elastic string over a pulley
and falls through a vertical height h. If the frictional force acting ott block X is F, then the heat
generated to overcome the friction is
A. B.

C. D.








By : Josh, LRT

2012 LRT Documents Copyrighted. All rights reserved. Page 4 of 7

4.2 Energy

Spring,
o There is compression and extension.

SPRING COMPRESSED


SPRING EXTENDED
o Whether the spring is compressed or extended, the relationship of spring changes can be
expressed as below:

Mechanical
Energy
Spring Potential Kinetic
Original Spring

By : Josh, LRT

2012 LRT Documents Copyrighted. All rights reserved. Page 5 of 7

According to Hooke's law,

Due to the force, F that applied on spring will not be constant! So, at first which is the early
stage easy and later stage harder.


A graph of F against x is plotted, the area under the graph is represent the work done by the spring.
The equation is



Potential Energy,
It is the energy due to its relative position or physical condition of a body.




Potential
Energy
ELASTIC GRAVITATIONAL

By : Josh, LRT

2012 LRT Documents Copyrighted. All rights reserved. Page 6 of 7

Elastic Potential Energy The energy stored in the spring when its extension is x.

0

[]



Gravitational Potential Energy




Kinetic Energy,
Kinetic energy of a body can be define as the amount of work it can do in coming to rest or the
energy which possesses solely because it is moving.
Lets derive an expression by using the situation below,
Block M is stationary before any forces were applied. After a few seconds, one idiot pushes the
block and its move with a velocity v and travel for a distance s. Given that .




0

[]



GPE of an object is the energy it possesses by virtual of
its position in a gravitational field or can be defined as the
amount of work that was done on it to give it that energy.

0






By : Josh, LRT

2012 LRT Documents Copyrighted. All rights reserved. Page 7 of 7

Principle of Conservation of Energy
It stated that energy cannot be created or destroy. What happened in our daily life is the energy
transformed into another types of energy. The energy given or provided will be always constant
unless it had been transformed.

Conservation of Mechanical Energy
In a system, in which the only force acting are associated with potential energy, the sum of the
kinetic & potential energy is constant.

ADVICES:
For this chapter, the lesson notes will be short. What you guys need to do is:

1. Derive all the expression into a valid equation.
2. Solve problems on this chapter.
3. Do not memorize the situation but understand it.