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ACI 318 08 Seismic Requirements L E Garcia|Views: 86|Likes: 3

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Garcia

**Seismic Design Requirements in ACI 318-08
**

By:

**Chapter 1 General Requirements
**

Modifications in

Scope Terminology

**Luis Enrique García
**

President American Concrete Institute – ACI – 2008-2009 Partner Proyectos y Diseños Ltda. Consulting Engineers Professor Universidad de los Andes Bogotá, Colombia

**R1.1.9 – Provisions for earthquake resistance
**

Commentary was expanded to:

Explain changes in terminology used Simplify adoption and interaction of ACI 318-08 with model codes and other documents

**R1.1.9 – Provisions for earthquake resistance
**

In this version of ACI 318 (2008), for the first time, earthquake resistance requirements are defined in function of the Seismic Design Category — SDC required for the structure and not directly associated with the seismic risk zone. The minimum SDC to use is governed by the legally adopted general building code of which ACI 318 forms a part.

4

1

ACI 318-08 - Seismic Requirements -- Luis E. Garcia

**TABLE R1.1.9.1 — CORRELATION BETWEEN SEISMIC-RELATED TERMINOLOGY IN MODEL CODES
**

Code, standard, or resource document and edition ACI 318-08; IBC 2000, 2003; 2006; NFPA 5000, 2003, 2006; ASCE 798, 7-02, 7-05; NEHRP 1997, 2000, 2003 BOCA National Building Code 1993, 1996, 1999; Standard Building Code 1994, 1997, 1999; ASCE 7-93, 7-95; NEHRP 1991, 7 93, 7 95; 1994 Uniform Building Code 1991, 1994, 1997

*SDC

Level of seismic risk or assigned seismic performance or design categories as defined in the Code

**Chapter 2 Notation and Definitions
**

There were important changes in notation of the whole document and all individual Chapter notation was moved to Chapter 2. There are a few new definitions related to Chapter 21. All definitions, old and new, were moved to Chapter 2.

SCD* A, B

SCS C

SCD D, E, F

SPC† A, B

SPC C

SPC D; E

Seismic Zone 0, 1

Seismic Zone 2

Seismic Zone 3, 4

†SPC

= Seismic Design Category as defined in code, standard, or resource document. = Seismic Performance Category as defined in code, standard, or resource document

5

**Chapter 21 Earthquake-resistant structures
**

Chapter 21 was reorganized in function of Seismic Design Categories (SDC) A, B, C, and D, E, and F in incremental order from ordinary to special: A → B → C → D, E, F

**Seismic Design Category and Energy Dissipation Capacity
**

SDC Seismic D i S i i Design Category Denomination (Energy di i ti (E dissipation capacity) Must comply with in ACI 318-08

A B C D, E, F

Chapters 1 to 19 and 22

Ordinary Intermediate Special

Chapters 1 to 19, 22, and 21.2 Chapters 1 to 19, 22, and 21.3 y 21.4 Chapters 1 to 19, 22, And 21.5 to 21.13

2

ACI 318-08 - Seismic Requirements -- Luis E. Garcia

**ACI 318-08 – Chapter 21 Earthquake-resistant structures
**

Content 21.1 – General requirements 21.2 21 2 – Ordinary moment frames B 21.3 – Intermediate moment frames C 21.4 – Intermediate precast structural walls 21.5 – Flexural members of special moment frames 21.6 – Special moment frame members subjected to bending and axial load 21.7 – Joints of special moment frames D 21.8 – Special moment frames constructed using precast concrete 21.9 – Special structural walls and coupling beams E 21.10 – Special structural walls constructed using precast concrete F 21.11 – Structural diaphragms and trusses 21.12 – Foundations 21.13 – Members not designated as part of the seismic-forceresisting system

**21.1 – General requirements
**

Scope

Chapter 21 contains provisions considered to be the minimum requirements for a cast-in-place or precast concrete structure capable of sustaining a series of oscillations into the inelastic range of response without critical deterioration in g strength. Therefore, the objective is to provide energy dissipation capacity in the nonlinear range of response.

TABLE R21.1.1 — SECTIONS OF CHAPTER 21 TO BE SATISFIED IN TYPICAL APPLICATIONS

**Component resisting earthquake effect, unless otherwise noted
**

Analysis and design requirements Materials Frame members Structural walls and coupling beams Precast structural walls Structural diaphragms and trusses Foundations Frame members not proportioned to resist forces induced by earthquake motions Anclajes

**Seismic Design Category (SDC) A
**

(none)

**Global Energy Dissipation Capacity
**

Force Maximum elastic force demand elastic maximum elastic displacement demand nonlinear Maximum nonlinear displacement demand

B

(21.1.1.4) 21.1.2 None 21.2 None

C

(21.1.1.5) 21.1.2 None 21.3 None 21.4 None None

D

(21.1.1.6) 21.1.2, 21.1.3 21.1.4 21.1.7 21.5, 21.6, 21.7, 21.8 21.9 21.4,† 21.10 21.11 21.12

Fe

Yield strength

Fy

None

None None None

uy

ue

um

Displacement

None

None

21.13

In several earthquake resistance regulations this is defined through parameter R

R =

Fe u = e Fy uy

None

21.1.8

21.1.8

3

ACI 318-08 - Seismic Requirements -- Luis E. Garcia

**Elastic vs. Nonlinear Demand
**

20 10 linear elastic nonlinear

**Current seismic design strategy
**

Given an energy dissipation capacity for the structural material and structural system, defined through an R value depending of the detailing scheme the design horizontal seismic force is obtained from:

u (cm)

0 -10 -20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

time (s)

linear elastic nonlinear

0.8 0.6 0.4 force 0 2 0.2 0 (1/W) -0.2 0 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8

Fy =

Fe R

and the maximum elastic force demand is in turn obtained using Newton’s 2nd Law:

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Fe = m a s s × S a (T , ξ )

time (s)

Acceleration response spectrum from the general building code

What would happen if energy dissipation capacity is not available?

4

ACI 318-08 - Seismic Requirements -- Luis E. Garcia

C.21.1 – General Requirements

Nonstructural wall panel in contact with the structure column

Nonstructural wall panel separated from the structure

h

ACI 318-08 requires (21.1.2) that interaction between structural and nonstructural elements that may a ect t e response du g t e ea t qua e o st uctu a e e e ts t at ay affect the espo se during the earthquake Must be taken into account. Rigid members assumed not to be a part of the seismic-force-resisting system are permitted provided their effect on the response of the system is considered and accommodated in the structural design. Consequences of failure of structural and nonstructural members that are not a part of the seismic-force-resisting system shall be considered.

Compressive strength of concrete fc′ ≥ 21 MPa Specified compressi e strength of light eight compressive lightweight concrete ≤ 35 MPa For computing the amount of confinement reinforcement fyt ≤ 700 MPa (= 100,000 psi = 7000 kgf/cm2) Reinforcing steel must meet ASTM A706. If ASTM A615 is used, it must meet:

The actual yield strength based on mill tests does not exceed fy by more than 125 MPa. The ratio of the actual tensile strength to the actual yield strength is not less than1.25

5

ACI 318-08 - Seismic Requirements -- Luis E. Garcia

σ

stress MPa

Reinforcing steel

actual tensile strength

**21.2 – Ordinary moment frames
**

Corresponds to SDC B Beams must have at least two continuous longitudinal bars along both top and bottom faces. These bars shall be developed at the face of support. c1 c2 Columns having clear height less than or equal to five times the dimension c1 must be designed for shear in accordance with 21.3.3.

(shear requirements for intermediate SDC C)

σu σy

actual yield strength maximum elongation yield elongation failure

E 1

O

εy

strain

ε

ε

max

**21.3 - Intermediate moment frames
**

Requirements for this Section are equivalent to the rest of Chapter 21, but are less strict and have a lesser scope. p Two alternatives are presented for shear design of beams and columns:

**21.3 - Intermediate moment frames
**

Reinforcement details in a frame member y q shall satisfy beam requirements if the factored axial compressive load, Pu , d f d i l i l d does not exceed Ag fc′ 10 . When Pu is greater reinforcing details must meet column requirements. When a slab-column system without beams is part of the seismic-force-resisting system, reinforcement details in any span resisting moments caused by E must satisfy 21.3.6.

Obtain design shear forces as function of nominal end moments as done for special elements, or use twice the shear from analysis This is analysis. equivalent to using the following load combinations: U = 1.2D + 1.0L + (1.0E)x2.0 U = 0.9D + (1.0E)x2.0

6

ACI 318-08 - Seismic Requirements -- Luis E. Garcia

**21.3 - Intermediate moment frames
**

For beams: Moment strength must comply with: g py

− Mn − Mn

**21.3 - Intermediate moment frames
**

For beams: At both ends of the beam, hoops shall be provided over lengths not less than 2h measured from the face of the supporting member toward midspan. The first hoop shall be located not more than 50 mm from the face of the supporting member. Spacing of hoops shall not exceed the smallest of d/4, 8db of the smaller longitudinal bar, 24db of hoop, or 300 mm. Stirrups shall be spaced not more than d/2 throughout the length of the beam.

1 Mn ≥ ⋅ ( Mn )max .face 5

+ Mn ≥

1 − Mn 3

2h

@d/2

2h

**21.3 - Intermediate moment frames
**

For columns At both ends of the column, hoops shall be provided at spacing so over a length 0 measured from the joint face. Spacing so shall not exceed the smallest of 1/2 of the smallest cross-sectional dimension of the column, 8db of the smallest longitudinal bar enclosed, 24db of the hoop bar, or 300 mm. Outside this length spacing must be the one defined in Chapters 7 and 11. 11 Length 0 shall not be less than the largest of the maximum crosssectional dimension of the column;, 1/6 of the clear span of the column, or 450 mm.

**21.3 - Intermediate moment frames
**

Two-way slabs without beams (slab-column frames) Reinforcement provided to resist Mslab shall be placed within th column strip. ithi the l ti Not less than 50% of the reinforcement in the column strip at supports shall be placed within the effective slab width defined by lines drawn parallel to the span at 1.5 slab depths from the column face . Continuous bottom reinforcement in the column strip shall be not less than 33% of the top reinforcement at the th support in the column strip. t i th l ti Not less than 25% of the top reinforcement at the support in the column strip shall be continuous throughout the span.

7

ACI 318-08 - Seismic Requirements -- Luis E. Garcia

21.3 - Intermediate moment frames

**21.3 - Intermediate moment frames
**

Two-way slabs without beams (slab-column frames)

At the critical sections for punching shear, shear caused by factored gravity loads shall not exceed, 0.4φVc where Vc must be calculated as defined in Chapter 11 for prestressed and non prestressed slabs. This requirement may be waived if the slab complies with 21.13.6

**21.4 — Intermediate precast structural walls
**

Requirements of 21.4 apply to intermediate precast structural walls forming part of the t t t l ll f i t f th seismic-force resisting systems. In connections between wall panels, or between wall panels and the foundation, yielding must be restricted to steel elements or reinforcement.. Elements of the connection that are not designed to yield must develop at least 1.5Sy.

**21.5 — Flexural members of special moment frames
**

Axial f A i l force Pu must not exceed 0 10fc′ Ag t t d 0.10 Clear span of element n must be larger than 4d Ratio bw/h > 0.3 Width bw must comply with:

bw > 250 mm

larger than the width of the supporting element plus 3h/4 at each side

8

ACI 318-08 - Seismic Requirements -- Luis E. Garcia

21.5 — Flexural members of special moment frames

**21.5 — Flexural members of special moment frames
**

Longitudinal reinforcement

Steel ratio for negative and positive reinforcement must not be less than:

ρ≥

but:

fc′ 4 ⋅ fy

≥

1.4 fy

ρ ≤ 0.025

At least two bars continuous top and bottom.

**21.5 — Flexural members of special moment frames
**

Longitudinal reinforcement

Moment strength at each section must be at least:

− Mn − Mn

**21.5 — Flexural members of special moment frames
**

Longitudinal reinforcement

Lap splices are permitted if hoops are provided throughout the splice length. Maximum hoop spacing must not exceed d/4 or 100 mm. No lap splices are permitted in joints or within 2h of column face or where inelastic action is expected. t d

Mn ≥ 0.25 ⋅ ( Mn )max .face

+ − Mn ≥ 0.5Mn

9

ACI 318-08 - Seismic Requirements -- Luis E. Garcia

**21.5 — Flexural members of special moment frames
**

Hoops must be provided:

**21.5 — Flexural members of special moment frames
**

Shear design:

ΔV Δ e

50 mm

s ≤d/2

50 mm

− M pr

n

+ pr − + M pr n

+ M pr

ΔVe =

2h confinement zones 2h

(M )

izq .

(

)

der .

ΔVe =

(M )

− pr

izq .

+ + M pr n

(

)

der .

Mpr computed using fypr = 1.25 fy and φ = 1.0

(Vu)vert. left

**21.5 — Flexural members of special moment frames
**

Pu1 Wu Pu2

(Vu)ver. right

**21.6 — Special moment frame members subjected to bending and axial load
**

General

(Vu)ver. left + ΔVe (Vu)ver. left- ΔVe

Vu(x)

1

1 ⎡( V ) + V − P ⎤ ⎢ u ver.izq. ( u ) ver.der. ∑ u ⎥ n ⎣ ⎦

x

(Vu)vert. right - ΔVe

shear envelope

Axial force greater than 0.10 ⋅ fc′ ⋅ Ag The least section dimension that passes through the centroid must be greater than th h th t id tb t th

(Vu)ver. right+ ΔVe

For design, Vc = 0 if ΔVe is more than 50% of required shear strength, or axial force is less than 0.05f’cAg

300 mm. Ratio b/h > 0.4

10

ACI 318-08 - Seismic Requirements -- Luis E. Garcia

**21.6 — Special moment frame members subjected to bending and axial load
**

Column flexural strength must comply with:

**21.6 — Special moment frame members subjected to bending and axial load
**

Transverse reinforcement in confining zones must comply g py with: Spiral columns: f′

ρ s = 0.12 ⋅

c

∑ Mnc ≥ 1.2∑ Mnb

Mnc Mnb Mnb Mnb Mnc Mnc Mnc Mnb Mnc Mnc

(b)

fyt

Columns with hoops:

Ash =

Mnb Mnc Mnb Mnc

(c)

**0.3 ⋅ s ⋅ bc ⋅ fc′ ⎡⎛ Ag ⎞ ⎤ ⋅ ⎢⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ fyt ⎢⎝ Ach ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
**

0.09 ⋅ s ⋅ bc ⋅ fc′ fyt

(a)

Mnb Mnc Mnc

Mnb

Ash =

**21.6 — Special moment frame members subjected to bending and axial load
**

hx ≤ 350 mm

**21.6 — Special moment frame members subjected to bending and axial load
**

Shear design

Mpr

arriba

hx hx

hx

hx b

**joint transverse reinforcement as i f t required by 21.7
**

0

50 mm

⎧b / 4 ⎪ s ≤ ⎨6d b long. ⎪s ⎩ 0

Ve =

(M )

pr

+ M pr hn

(

)

abajo

hc

confinement zones

lap splices in central zone

⎧ 350-h ⎛ 350 hx ⎞ ⎪100 + ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎪ ⎝ ⎠ s0 = ⎨ ≤ 150 mm ⎪ ⎪ ≥ 100 mm ⎩

0

⎧h ⎪ ≤ ⎨ hn 6 ⎪ 450 mm ⎩

0

⎧6d b long . s≤⎨ ⎩150 mm 50 mm

Mpr corresponds to the maximum moment strength for the axial load range on the element (1.25fy and φ=1). Ve cannot be less than the one obtained from analysis. For design Vc = 0 if Ve is more than 50% of the required shear or the axial force is less than 0.05f’cAg

hn

Ve

joint transverse reinforcement as required by 21.7

Mpr

11

ACI 318-08 - Seismic Requirements -- Luis E. Garcia

**21.7 — Joints of special moment frames
**

General requirements

When computing shear strength within the joint in special frames all longitudinal reinforcement must be presumed to be stressed at 1.25fy. Longitudinal reinforcement terminating at a joint must be extended to the far face of the column confined core and anchored in tension. When th beam l Wh the b longitudinal reinforcement passes it di l i f t through the joint , the column dimension parallel to the reinforcement cannot be less than 20db largest longitudinal bar, for normal weight concrete and 26db for lightweight concrete.

**21.7 — Joints of special moment frames
**

plane to evaluate shear Vu

**Computation of the shear demand on the joint: Ve-col M
**

pr-c column

′ Ts′ = 1.25fy As

Cc = Ts = 1.25fy As

′ ′ Cc = Ts′ = 1.25fy As

Ts = 1.25fy As

Mpr-c

Beam in both sides:

′ Vu = 1.25fy ( As + As )viga − (Ve )col

beam

Ve-col

Beam in one side: ⎧1.25fy ( As )viga − (Ve )col ⎪ ⎪ Vu ≥ ⎨ ⎪ ′ ⎪1.25fy ( As )viga − (Ve )col ⎩

**21.7 — Joints of special moment frames
**

Shear strength

Joints confined in all four faces

**21.7 — Joints of special moment frames
**

Definition of Aj

φ ⋅ Vn = φ ⋅ 1.70 ⋅ fc′ ⋅ A j

Joints confined in three faces or in opposite faces

h bw bw h Aj

φ ⋅ Vn = φ ⋅ 1.25 ⋅ fc′ ⋅ A j

Other joints

φ ⋅ Vn = φ ⋅ 1.00 ⋅ fc′ ⋅ A j

bw

x

Aj

⎧ bw + 2 x ≤⎨ ⎩ bw + h

12

ACI 318-08 - Seismic Requirements -- Luis E. Garcia

**21.7 — Joints of special moment frames
**

Development for hooks embedded in the confined core

critical section dh

**21.8 — Special moment frames constructed using precast concrete
**

The requirements of 21.8 apply for special q pp y p moment frames built using precast concrete forming part of the seismic-forceresistant system. The detailing provisions in 21.8.2 and 21.8.3 are intended to produce frames that respond to design displacements esse t a y e o o t c special o e t essentially like monolithic spec a moment frames. The provisions of 21.8.4 indicate that when not satisfying 21.8.2 or 21.8.3 they must satisfy the requirements of ACI 374.1

dh

=

fy ⋅ d b 5.4 fc′

db

**21.8 — Special moment frames constructed using precast concrete
**

Special precast moment frames with ductile connections must comply with all ti t l ith ll requirements for special cast-in-place frames and Vn should not be less than 2Ve. Special precast moment frames with strong connections are intended to experience flexural yielding outside the connections connections. These requirements are applicable independently of any of these two situations.

**21.9 — Special structural walls and coupling beams
**

Terminology

h

hw

w

Vu

13

ACI 318-08 - Seismic Requirements -- Luis E. Garcia

**21.9 — Special structural walls and coupling beams – General requirements
**

Cover

**21.9 — Special structural walls and coupling beams
**

Flexure design

Design for flexure and flexure and axial load for structural walls must be performed using the requirements of Chapter 10.

20 mm

**Maximum reinforcement spacing
**

s

s s s

h

s ≤ 3h s ≤ 450 mm

s s

Concrete and developed longitudinal reinforcement within effective flange widths boundary elements, widths, elements and the wall web shall be considered effective. The effects of openings shall be considered.

**21.9 - Special structural walls and coupling beams
**

Flexure design

Unless a more detailed analysis is performed, effective flange widths of flanged sections ( I, L, C or T) may be supposed to extend from the face of the web a distance equal to the smaller of: (a) 1/2 the distance to an adjacent wall web, and (b) 25 percent of the total wall height.

**21.9 - Special structural walls and coupling beams
**

21.9.2 21 9 2 – Reinforcement The distributed web reinforcement ratios, ρt and ρ , for structural walls shall not be less than 0.0025, except that if Vu does not exceed 0.083A cv λ fc′ (MPa) = 0.27A cv λ fc′ (kgf/cm2), ρt and ρ , may be reduced to the values given in14.3. Separation of reinforcement must not exceed 450 mm

14

ACI 318-08 - Seismic Requirements -- Luis E. Garcia

**Minimum steel ratio
**

14.3.2 – Minimum steel ratio of vertical reinforcement ρ computed over gross section is:

**Difference between wall and column
**

14.3.6 — Vertical reinforcement need not be enclosed by lateral ties if vertical reinforcement area is not greater than 0.01 times gross concrete area, or where vertical reinforcement is not required as compression reinforcement.

0.0012 0 0012

for f deformed bars not larger than Nº 5 ( / ) ó 16M f º (5/8”) (16 mm), with fy not less than 420 MPa. with diameter not

**0.0015 for other deformed bars. 0.0012 for welded wire reinforcement
**

larger than16 mm.

14.3.3 - Minimum ratio of horizontal reinforcement area to gross concrete area, ρt:

0.0020

for deformed bars not larger than Nº 5 (5/8”) ó 16M (16 mm), with fy not less than 420 MPa. with diameter not

**0.0025 for other deformed bars. 0.0020 for welded wire reinforcement
**

larger than16 mm.

21.9 - Special structural walls and coupling beams At least two curtains of reinforcement l tt t i f i f t must be used in a wall if Vu exceeds

0.17λ A cv fc′ (MPa) = 0.53λ A cv fc′

**21.9 - Special structural walls and coupling beams
**

Nominal shear st e gt must not exceed: o a s ea strength ust ot e ceed

**Vn = Acv ⎡α c λ fc′ + ρ n fy ⎤ ⎣ ⎦
**

where αc is:

αc

0.25 0.17

(kgf/cm2)

hw

0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

w

15

ACI 318-08 - Seismic Requirements -- Luis E. Garcia

**Wall boundary elements
**

Boundary elements must be placed at edges and around openings when inelastic response is expected. expected ACI 318-08 gives two alternatives to define if boundary elements are needed: 1) Section 21.9.6.2 presents a displacementbased procedure. Boundary elements are needed or not depending on the compressive strain at the edge of wall caused by the seismic lateral deflection, or 2) Section 21.9.6.3 requires boundary elements when the compressive stress at the edge of wall caused by the seismic forces exceeds a threshold value.

**Displacement-based boundary element procedure in ACI 318 (21.9.6.2)
**

This procedure is based on the compressive strain demand at edges of wall when the wall is deformed under the maximum expected lateral displacement caused by the design earthquake ground motion. Section 21.9.6.2 is based on the assumption that inelastic response of the wall is dominated by flexural action at a critical, yielding section. The wall should be proportioned so that the critical section occurs at the base of the wall and is applicable only to walls continuous from base to top of the structure.

Displacement-based boundary element procedure in ACI 318 (21.9.6.2) The wall should have a single critical section under flexure and axial load at the base of the wall. The zones of the wall in compression must be provided with specially reinforced boundary elements when the depth of the neutral axis at nominal strength, c, is greater than: w δu and c≥ ≥ 0.007 ⎛ δu ⎞ hw 600 ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ hw ⎠

**Nonlinear response of a wall
**

P

δ

θ p

p length

Plastification

Wall section

0 Mu My Mcr

Moment

φu

φ y φcr Curvature

0

16

ACI 318-08 - Seismic Requirements -- Luis E. Garcia

**Nonlinear response of wall
**

Using Moment-area theorems it is possible to show that the lateral deflection caused by curvature up to yield (green zone) is:

b

**Nonlinear wall deflection
**

Curvature at yield w Deflection at yield Nonlinear curvature Nonlinear deflection

δy

(δu−δy)

hw

**and the additional deflection caused by nonlinear rotation (orange zone) is:
**

p

θp (φu − φy)

**Total lateral deflection is then:
**

φ (φu− φy) φu φy

a

**The total deflection is:
**

p

φy

We can solve for the ultimate curvature demand and obtain:

**Moment-curvature diagram for wall section
**

M Mn

**What happens at section?
**

εcu φu

Ultimate curvature demand

At level of displacement demand At level of nominal strength

Strain

εc = 0.003 c φy εc < 0.003 cy

εs > εy

φn

Mcr φ φu

0

φcr

φy

φn

εs = εy At level of yield in tension of h extreme reinforcement

w

17

ACI 318-08 - Seismic Requirements -- Luis E. Garcia

Equation (21-8) deduction

The rotation at the plastic hinge when the displacement demand (δu) takes place is:

Equation (21-8) deduction

The concrete strain at the extreme fiber in compression at ultimate is:

With a plastic hinge length equal to half the wall horizontal length:

We can then obtain the strain at ultimate for the displacement demand: and

Then the curvature at the wall base when the displacement demand occurs is:

The value of

c for a ultimate strain of εcu = 0.003 is:

Equation (21-8) deduction

If a 600 value parameter is used instead of 666 in last equation and it is solved for cu a value of cu = 0.0033 is obtained, which in turn leads to the following equation:

ε

ε

**Need for boundary elements in displacement-based procedure
**

If equation (21-8) indicates that the value of c is exceeded this is a symptom that exceeded, strains greater than εcu = 0.0033 must be expected and the need to confine the edge of the wall is warranted in order to prevent spalling of the concrete there. In that case ACI 318 prescribes the same type and amount of confining transverse reinforcement that for columns.

If the maximum strain at the extreme compression fiber exceeds

**εcu = 0.0033 then the value of c obtained from last equation
**

exceeded would be exceeded. Thus the form ACI 318 presents it:

If c is greater than the value obtained boundary elements must be placed along the length where it is exceeded and a little more.

18

ACI 318-08 - Seismic Requirements -- Luis E. Garcia

**Boundary elements displacement-base procedure
**

Mn

Displacement-based boundary element procedure in ACI 318 (21.9.6.32 Boundary elements must be placed from the critical section up for a distance not less than the larger of w o Mu/(4Vu). The evaluation is performed for the wall when subjected to the nonlinear horizontal design displacements corresponding to the design earthquake. The value of δu corresponds to the nonlinear roof horizontal displacement.

εs

εcu

0.003

c

Region where boundary elements must be provided

**Stress-based boundary element procedure in ACI 318 (21.9.6.3)
**

Boundary elements must be provided at edges and around openings of walls when the maximum p g stress at the extreme fiber in compression caused by factored loads that include seismic effects exceeds 0.2 fc′ unless that whole wall is confined as a column.

**Stress-based boundary element procedure in ACI 318 (21 9 6 3) (21.9.6.3)
**

Ptu = Pu − Ag ( Mu ≤0 − 300 mm )

Pu Mu

Pcu = Pu + 2 ( Mu − 300 mm )

w

w

fcu =

Pu M u ⋅ w + > 0.2 ⋅ fc′ Ag Iw ⋅ 2

The boundary elements can be discontinued when the compression stress is less than 0.15 fc′

This procedure had been part of ACI 318 since the 1971 version. version In the 1999 version of 318 a modification was introduced in which the need to resist all flexural forces from seismic effects with just the boundary elements was suppressed.

19

ACI 318-08 - Seismic Requirements -- Luis E. Garcia

**Old (pre-1999) procedure
**

Boundary elements resisting all flexural i ti ll fl l effect that include seismic forces

Pu Mu

w

**21.9 - Special structural walls and coupling beams
**

Boundary elements – Both procedures

When boundary elements are needed (under any of the two procedures) these boundary elements must extend horizontally from the maximum compression fiber a distance equal to the greater of : c-0.1 w or c/2. In section with flanges the boundary element must include the effective flange width and must extend at least 300 mm into the web. Transverse reinforcement must be that required for column, but there is no need to comply with equation 21-3. py q Special transverse reinforcement in the boundary element must extend into the foundation element supporting the wall. Wall horizontal transverse reinforcement must be anchored into the confined boundary element core.

heb

P Ptu = u − Ag (

Mu ≤0 w − h eb )

Pcu =

Pu + 2 (

w

Mu − heb )

φ ⋅ Ptn = φ ⋅ A st ⋅ f y

φ ⋅ P0n = φ ⋅ [0.85 ⋅ fc′ ⋅ (A g − Ast ) + A st ⋅ f y ] φ ⋅ Pn(max) ≤ 0.80 ⋅ φ ⋅ P0n

**21.9 - Special structural walls and coupling beams
**

In ACI 318-08, there are modifications in the requirements for coupling beams in walls.

Coupling beams

20

ACI 318-08 - Seismic Requirements -- Luis E. Garcia

**21.10 — Special structural walls constructed using precast concrete
**

Scope— These requirements apply to special structural walls constructed using precast t t l ll t t d i t concrete forming part of the seismic-forceresisting system. Special structural walls constructed using precast concrete shall satisfy all requirements of special cast-in-place structural walls plus those of section 21.10. Special structural walls constructed using precast concrete and unbonded posttensioning tendons and not satisfying the requirements of 21.10.2 are permitted provided they satisfy the requirements of ACI ITG-5.1.

21.11 — Structural diaphragms and trusses

**21.11 — Structural diaphragms and trusses
**

This section contains:

prescribed horizontal forces

floor diaphragm

Requirements for slabs-on-grade , floor and roof slabs when they are part of the seismic-force-resisting system must comply with this section. Minimum thickness for diaphragms are given. Gives minimum reinforcement for diaphragms. Indicates shear strength for these elements Defines when boundary elements must be used in diaphragms. Includes requirements for construction joints within the diaphragm.

21

ACI 318-08 - Seismic Requirements -- Luis E. Garcia

21.12 — Foundations

This section contains:

21.12.1 — Scope - Foundations resisting earthquake induced forces or transferring earthquake-induced i d df f i h k i d d forces between structure and ground. 21.12.2 — Footings, foundation mats, and pile caps – Gives requirements for the anchoring of reinforcement in vertical elements of the seismic-force-resisting system to these foundation elements. 21.12.3 — Grade beams and slabs-on-ground – Sets minimum dimension s and minimum reinforcement for u d e so a d u e o ce e t o these elements, 21.12.4 — Piles, piers, and caissons – Indicates the type of effects to take into account in design and the minimum reinforcement allowable for these elements.

**21.13 — Members not designated as part of the seismic-force-resisting system
**

This section is a response to the extended practice by structural designers of designating arbitrarily some of the structural elements as being parte of the seismic-forceresisting system and part not. Northridge Earthquake affecting the City of Los Angeles in 1994 pointed out great deficiencies in this practice. In ACI 318-95 this section was totally revised and it was updated in 1999, 2002, 2005 , and now in 2008. In essence it is a call to the designer to check the deformation levels that so called “non participating” elements are subjected and the minimum reinforcement they should comply with.

**21.13 — Members not designated as part of the seismic-force-resisting system
**

This Section contains two procedures to check nonp participating elements that are not part of the seismicforce-resisting system: • When the forces induced by the design displacement combined with the gravity forces do not exceed the design strength of the elements, this section indicates the minimum reinforcement to use. If the strength is exceeded the sections of Chapter 21 that are mandatory for these elements are indicated.

**21.13 — Members not designated as part of the seismic-force-resisting system
**

This section includes new requirements for slabcolumn frames that are not part of the seismicforce-resisting system. Slab-column frames have shown repeatedly their vulnerability under seismic demands. This vulnerability is specially associated with the punching shear strength of the slab-column joint. The new procedure in ACI 318-08 (Section 21.13.6) indicates when shear reinforcement must be provided in the slab-column joint as a function of the story drift.

•

22

ACI 318-08 - Seismic Requirements -- Luis E. Garcia

21.13 — Members not designated as part of the seismic-force-resisting system Story drift cannot exceed the larger of:

21.13 — Members not designated as part of the seismic-force-resisting system

**0.005 or Vug ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 0.035 − 0.05 ⎟ φVc ⎠ ⎝
**

where Vug is the factored gravity punching shear demand and Vc is the punching shear strength.

The End

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Analysis of shear wall subjected to lateral load

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