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Quantitative Techniques in Management

Module 1: Quiz

Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. The mean of a sample a. is always smaller than the mean of the population b. is always equal to the mean of the population c. is computed by summing the data values and dividing the sum by (n - 1) d. is computed by summing all the data values and dividing the sum by the number of items 2. is an example of a a. sample statistic b. mode c. population parameter d. population variance

____ ____

3. On a street, the houses are numbered from 300 to 450. The house numbers are examples of a. neither quantitative nor qualitative data b. quantitative data c. qualitative data d. both quantitative and qualitative data 4. The coefficient of correlation ranges between a. 1 and 100 b. 0 and 1 c. -1 and +1 d. minus infinity and plus infinity 5. A histogram is said to be skewed to the left if it has a a. longer tail to the right b. shorter tail to the left c. longer tail to the left 6. Which of the following is a measure of dispersion? a. quartiles b. interquartile range c. percentiles d. shorter tail to the right

____ ____ ____ ____

d. all of the above are measures of dispersion

7. Statistical inference a. refers to the process of drawing inferences about the sample based on the characteristics of the population b. is the process of drawing inferences about the population based on the information taken from the sample c. is the same as a census d. is the same as descriptive statistics 8. A numerical value used as a summary measure for a sample, such as sample mean, is known as a a. population parameter b. sample parameter c. sample statistic d. population mean 9. The variance of a sample of 81 observations equals 64. The standard deviation of the sample equals a. 8 b. 9 c. 6561 d. 4096

____ ____

____ 10. Given the following information: Standard deviation = 8 Coefficient of variation = 64% The mean would then be a. 8 b. 1.25 c. 0.64 d. 12.5

____ 11. If the coefficient of variation is 40% and the mean is 70, then the variance is a. 784 b. 2800 c. 28 d. 1.75 ____ 12. The variance of a sample of 169 observations equals 576. The standard deviation of the sample equals a. 13 b. 28,461 c. 24 d. 576 ____ 13. The process of analyzing sample data in order to draw conclusions about the characteristics of a population is called a. descriptive statistics b. data summarization c. statistical inference d. data analysis ____ 14. The median is a measure of a. absolute dispersion b. relative location c. central location d. relative dispersion c. is the same as the 75th

____ 15. The first quartile a. is the same as the 50th percentile b. is the same as the 25th percentile percentile d. contains at least one third of the data elements ____ 16. Arithmetic operations are inappropriate for a. the nominal scale b. both the ratio and interval scales

c. the ratio scale d. interval scale

d. the interval scale

____ 17. The ordinal scale of measurement has the properties of the a. ratio scale b. ratio and interval scales c. nominal scale

____ 18. The sum of frequencies for all classes will always equal a. 1 b. a value between 0 and 1 c. the number of elements in a data set ____ 19. The numerical value of the standard deviation can never be a. smaller than the variance b. negative c. larger than the variance

d. the number of classes

d. zero

____ 20. A numerical measure of linear association between two variables is the a. variance b. correlation coefficient c. coefficient of variation d. standard deviation ____ 21. The 75th percentile is referred to as the a. second quartile b. fourth quartile c. first quartile d. third quartile

____ 22. The height of a building, measured in feet, is an example of a. qualitative data b. quantitative data c. feet data d. either qualitative or quantitative data ____ 23. A cumulative relative frequency distribution shows a. the percentage of data items with values less than or equal to the lower limit of each class b. the percentage of data items with values less than or equal to the upper limit of each class c. the proportion of data items with values less than or equal to the upper limit of each class d. the proportion of data items with values less than or equal to the lower limit of each class ____ 24. The interquartile range is used as a measure of variability to overcome what difficulty of the range? a. the range is difficult to compute b. the sum of the range variances is zero c. the range is influenced too much by extreme values d. the range is negative ____ 25. If the variance of a data set is correctly computed with the formula using n - 1 in the denominator, which of the following is true? a. the data set is from a census b. the data set could be either a sample or a population c. the data set is a sample d. the data set is a population ____ 26. The value of the sum of the deviations from the mean, i.e., must always be c. less than

a. zero b. either positive or negative depending on whether the mean is negative or positive the zero d. negative

____ 27. The scale of measurement that is used to rank order the observation for a variable is called the a. nominal scale b. interval scale c. ratio scale d. ordinal scale ____ 28. If several frequency distributions are constructed from the same data set, the distribution with the widest class width will have the a. same number of classes as the other distributions since all are constructed from the same data b. most classes c. fewest classes ____ 29. The most frequently occurring value of a data set is called the a. mode b. mean c. range d. median ____ 30. The descriptive measure of dispersion that is based on the concept of a deviation about the mean is a. the standard deviation b. the range c. the interquartile range d. the absolute value of the range ____ 31. The coefficient of variation is a. the mean divided by the standard deviation b. the standard deviation divided by the mean times 100 c. the same as the variance d. the square of the standard deviation ____ 32. The 50th percentile is the a. mean b. mode c. median d. third quartile

____ 33. Which of the following is not a measure of central location? a. mean b. variance c. mode d. median ____ 34. Which of the following provides a measure of central location for the data? a. variance b. mean c. standard deviation d. range ____ 35. The weight of a candy bar in ounces is an example of a. quantitative data b. either qualitative or quantitative data c. weight data d. qualitative data

____ 36. The hourly wages of a sample of 130 system analysts are given below. mean = 60 mode = 73 median = 74 range = 20 variance = 324

The coefficient of variation equals a. 5.4% b. 0.30% c. 30% d. 54% ____ 37. The standard deviation of a sample of 100 observations equals 64. The variance of the sample equals a. 8 b. 6400 c. 4,096 d. 10 ____ 38. How many scales of measurement exist? a. 3 b. 2 c. 1 d. 4 ____ 39. For ease of data entry into a university database, 1 denotes that the student is an undergraduate and 2 indicates that the student is a graduate student. In this case data are a. quantitative b. qualitative c. neither qualitative nor quantitative d. either qualitative or quantitative ____ 40. Census refers to a. an experimental study to collect data on a sample b. a survey to collect data on a sample c. an experimental study to collect data on the entire population d. a survey to collect data on the entire population ____ 41. A numerical measure of linear association between two variables is the a. covariance b. variance c. standard deviation d. coefficient of variation

____ 42. The Department of Transportation of a city has noted that on the average there are 17 accidents per day. The average number of accidents is an example of a. statistical inference b. a sample c. descriptive statistics d. a population ____ 43. In computing the mean of a sample, the value of xi is divided by a. n b. n - 2 c. n + 1 d. n - 1 ____ 44. The sample size a. can be larger than the population size b. is always equal to the size of the population smaller than the population size d. can be larger or smaller than the population size c. is always

____ 45. The average age in a sample of 190 students at City College is 22. As a result of this sample, it can be concluded that the average age of all the students at City College a. could be larger, smaller, or equal to 22 b. must be less than 22, since the sample is only a part of the population c. must be more than 22, since the population is always larger than the sample d. could not be 22 ____ 46. Since a sample is a subset of the population, the sample mean a. is always smaller than the mean of the population b. can be larger, smaller, or equal to the mean of the population c. must be equal to the mean of the population d. is always larger than the mean of the population ____ 47. The heights (in inches) of 25 individuals were recorded and the following statistics were calculated mean = 70 mode = 73 median = 74 range = 20 variance = 784

The coefficient of variation equals a. 40% b. 0.4% c. 11.2% d. 1120% ____ 48. During a cold winter, the temperature stayed below zero for ten days (ranging from -20 to -5). The variance of the temperatures of the ten-day period a. must be at least zero b. is negative since all the numbers are negative c. cannot be computed since all the numbers are negative d. can be either negative or positive ____ 49. The percent frequency of a class is computed by a. multiplying the relative frequency by 100 b. dividing the relative frequency by 100 relative frequency by 10 d. adding 100 to the relative frequency ____ 50. A graphical presentation of the relationship between two variables is a. an ogive b. either an ogive or a histogram, depending on the type of data diagram c. multiplying the

c. a histogram

d. a scatter

____ 51. The total number of data items with a value less than the upper limit for the class is given by the a. cumulative frequency distribution b. frequency distribution c. relative frequency distribution d. cumulative relative frequency distribution ____ 52. The sum of deviations of the individual data elements from their mean is a. always equal to zero b. sometimes greater than and sometimes less than zero, depending on the data elements c. always less than zero d. always greater than zero ____ 53. The difference between the largest and the smallest data values is the a. coefficient of variation b. range c. variance d. interquartile range ____ 54. The sum of the relative frequencies for all classes will always equal

a. the sample size

b. any value larger than one

c. one

d. the number of classes

____ 55. Qualitative data can be graphically represented by using a(n) a. frequency polygon b. ogive c. bar graph d. histogram ____ 56. The interquartile range is a. the difference between the largest and smallest values b. the 50th percentile the third quartile and the first quartile d. another name for the variance ____ 57. The coefficient of correlation a. can be larger than 1 b. is the same as the coefficient of determination be larger than 1 c. the difference between

c. cannot be negative

d. cannot

____ 58. The summaries of data, which may be tabular, graphical, or numerical, are referred to as a. statistical inference b. inferential statistics c. report generation d. descriptive statistics ____ 59. The scale of measurement that has an inherent zero value defined is the a. nominal scale b. interval scale c. ratio scale d. ordinal scale ____ 60. Which of the following is not a measure of dispersion? a. the 50th percentile b. the interquartile range c. the range d. the standard deviation

____ 61. In a sample of 800 students in a university, 240, or 30%, are Business majors. The 30% is an example of a. descriptive statistics b. a population c. statistical inference d. a sample ____ 62. A population is a. the selection of a random sample b. the collection of all items of interest in a particular study the same size as the sample d. the same as a sample ____ 63. A frequency distribution is a tabular summary of data showing the a. percentage of items in several classes b. relative percentage of items in several classes items in several classes d. number of items in several classes c. always

c. fraction of

____ 64. Data collected at the same, or approximately the same, point in time are a. crossectional data b. approximate data c. time series data d. approximate time series data ____ 65. In a questionnaire, respondents are asked to mark their gender as male or female. Gender is an example of the a. nominal scale b. interval scale c. ratio scale d. ordinal scale ____ 66. The collection of all elements of interest in a particular study is a. the population b. statistical inference c. the sampling d. descriptive statistics ____ 67. In a five number summary, which of the following is not used for data summarization? a. the mean b. the smallest value c. the largest value d. the 25th percentile ____ 68. The measure of dispersion that is influenced most by extreme values is a. the variance b. the standard deviation c. the range d. the interquartile range ____ 69. Income is an example of a variable that uses the a. nominal scale b. interval scale c. ratio scale d. ordinal scale

____ 70. The relative frequency of a class is computed by a. dividing the sample size by the frequency of the class b. dividing the midpoint of the class by the sample size c. dividing the frequency of the class by the sample size d. dividing the frequency of the class by the midpoint ____ 71. A survey to collect data on the entire population is a. a census b. an inference c. a sample d. a population

____ 72. The median of a sample will always equal the a. mean b. mode c. 50th percentile d. all of the above answers are correct ____ 73. The value which has half of the observations above it and half the observations below it is called the a. range b. mean c. mode d. median ____ 74. The ratio scale of measurement has the properties of a. only the ordinal scale b. the interval scale c. the rank scale ____ 75. A histogram is a. the history of data elements relative frequency distribution relative frequency distribution d. only the nominal scale

b. the same as a pie chart c. a graphical presentation of a frequency or d. a graphical method of presenting a cumulative frequency or a cumulative

**Module 1 Quiz Answer Section
**

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: D C C C C B B C A D A C C C B A C C B B D B C C C A D C A A B C B B A C C D B D A PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75.

ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS:

C A C A B A A A D A A B C C C D D C A A B D A A A A C C C A C D B C

PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS:

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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