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Early Ismi'ïIi Thought on Prophecy According to the Kitab al-lslah • • by Abu l.Iitim al-Rizï (d. ca. 322/934-5)
by

ShinNomoto
Institute of Islamic Stuclies

McGill University, Montréal December 1999

A dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies, McGill University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Islamic Studies

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© SHIN NOMOTO, 1999

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ABSTRACT
Aulhar:
Title of Dissertation:

ShinNomoto
Early IsmaclliThought on Prophecy According to the Kitdb al-1lldlz by Abü I:fatim al-Rizï (d. ca. 322/934-5).

Department:

Institute of Islamic Studies, McGill University. Doetor of Phllosophy

Degree Sought:

This dissertation attempts to elucidate early Ismal:w thought on various aspects of prophecy during the 4th AH./IOth C.E. century in the light of Kittïb
al-l~Ia~

(Book of Correction) by Abu 1:Iitim. al-RiZi (d. ca. 322/934-5), one of the

leading dat:ïs (missionaries) in the Iran of bis day. Al-Illal}. is on one level an early

example of Neoplatonist influence on Ismicili thought, taking the form of a polemic aimed at bis coreligionist, M~ammad al-Nasafï. However, al-l.#ii~ aIso shows a new doctrinal formulation of early Ismal:ili discourse on prophetology, especially concerning the messianic figure of the Qi:)im. In al-li/iil,l. al-Razi discusses the missions of each of the enunciator-prophets
(nu!aqii;') using the terminology of Greek-Hellenistic sciences, thereby implying

that the Qa:)im possesses a rank higher than any other prophet. In addition, whereas he appears to assign the Qa3 im's political role to the leaders of the Ismacilicommunity in the present age, al-Rizï desaibes a newera to be inaugurated
by the figure, constituting a purified version of this world. In this way the figure

of the Qa:lim is depoliticized and spiritualized. It is thus suggested that aI-Razi's thought on prophecy in al-l~la~, while theorizing the place of the Qi:)im in sacred history, represents a response to the crisis in bis own time engendered by the postponement of the Qa:)im's final advent and victory.

i

RÉsUMÉ
Auteur:
Titre de la thèse:

ShinNomoto La pensée ismicïlïe primitive sur la prophétie d'après le Kitab al-Illa~ de Abu l:Iitim al-Ràzï (m. ca. 322/934-5). Institut d'. Études Islamiques Université McGill Docteur en Philosophie

Département:

Grade:

Cette thèse tente d'élucider la pensée ismiÇilïe du IVe A.H./Xe A.D. siècle au sujet des divers aspects de la prophétie; en s'appuyant sur le Kitab al-/#tiJ:& (Livre de Correction) de Abü I:fitim al-Razï (m. ca. 322/934-5) - un des prominent dacis

(missionnaires> de son époque en Iran. D'une part, al-/#tïfl. est un des premiers exemples de l'influence néoplatonidenne sur la pensée ismaÇïne, et ce, sous la forme d'une polémique dirigée à l'encontre de son co-religioniste
M~ad

al-Nasafi. D'autre part,al-/#tïfz. révèle aussi une nouvelle formation doctrinale de la pensée ismiC:we sur la prophétologie, notamment en ce qui concerne la figure messianique du Qi~im. Dans al-llltï~, al-RiZi discute les missions de chacun des prophètes-énondateurs
(nu!aqif')

en utilisant la terminologie des sciences gréco-helléniques; insinuant

ainsi que le Qi~im possède un rang plus élevé que n'importe quel autre prophéte.

En outre, alors qu'ü semble attributuer le rôle politique du Qa~im aux leaders de la communauté îsmlc llïe de son époque, al-Razi décrit une nouvelle ère à être inaugurée par cette figure - une version purifiée de ce monde. Ainsi, la figure du
Qa~im est

dépolitisée et spiritualisée. n est donc suggéré que, tout en théorisant

la place du Qi:lÏli\ dans l'Histoire sacrée, la pensée d' al-lUzï sur la prophétie,

telle qu'exprimée dans al-/#tï/;l, représente une résponse à la crise de son temps engendrée par l'ajournement de la venue et victoire finales du Qa~im.
ü


1978) ).

Preface
Nearly twenty years have passed since 1first became fascinated by the doctrine and history of the Shilj sect known as the Ismilïlis. The first genuinely academic studies that attracted my attention to this subject were Japanese translations of H. Corbin's Histoire de la philosophie islamique (Islam Tetsugalcushi, translated by T. Kuroda and H. Kashiwagi (Tokyo, 1974) ) and B. Lewis' The Assassins: A Radical

Sect in Islam (Ansatsu Kyôdan: Islam no Kageki Ha, translated by K. Katô (Tokyo,

Based on these works and others 1 was able to trace the course of the history of Ismalilism from its birth in the mid-8th century C.E. to the culmination of its

radicalism in the mid-12th century C.E. Starting at first as a small group split from a wing of ShiJism which later developed into the IthnaJasharis (or Twelvers), the members of this ShiJï, Ismi.Jïlï sect" were eventually able to establish their
II

own "Caliphate" in North Africa and, later on, Egypt. From the very initial phase of their founding this state they daimed that their supreme leaders were the sole legitimate imims in a direct line from the household of the Prophet (abl
al-bayt). They thus threatened the very existence of the Abbisid Caliphate and
1

the Sunni establishment it championed. However, in the late Ilth century C.E., i.e., after the heyday of its political power, the FiPmid Ismi.ljlï community was split into two wings: the Musta llis, who inherited the Fi\imid tradition, and the Niziris, who recognized Nizir, the defeated claimant of the office of ïmim, as its legitimate heir. The followers of

the latter branch retreated to the remote mountainous regions of Syria and Iran where an independent movement developed. It was likewise the Niziris who
ili

1Jarï'ah or sacred law. and esoterism. That study traced the outline of alNu'min's doctrine of the imamate. and confirmed that bis theory of the office of • the imamate eoincided substantially with official FiPmid doctrine. dissertation. especially represented by sacred law.E.'ilï jurist-theologian who served the Fi. In real terms.E.mids and is thought to have adhered to the equilibrium. • Of these two currents in Ismi. and the current which laid so much emphasis on the esoteric that the exoteric virtually paled in significance. between exoterism. the latter tendency was characteristic of the Niziri wing.D. 1 chose the topie of the concept of the imàmate according to al-Qi4ï al-Nu'man (d. whether Sunni or Shï'ï.). which abolished the sacred law of Islam. an Ismi. 1 focused particularly on the development of the esoteric tenèency from the 8th century C. which is perhaps most clearly represented in the conflict between the current which tried to balance the exoteric aspect (~a1Jir ) of the religion. the present work.'ilism.. particularly the . For my master's thesis.• voiced one of the most radical and shocking daims ever to come to the notice of Muslims. to the collapse of the Niziri state in Iran (13th eentury C. 974). which by eontrast was based largely on primary sources. which is obligatory in sorne departments at Japanese universities. it was the esoteric inclination which influenced the movement thatI chose ta focus on for my sotsugyô robun or graduation thesis.'ws outlined above is emblematic of the diversity of religious expression at the heart of the Islamic tradition. This study however was based entirelyon seeondary sources.E. while the former describes the policy of equilibrium adopted by the Fipmids. It aIso suggests to us the diversity that existed within early Ismi'ïlism. The history of the Isma. This was the declaration of the Resurrection (al-Qiyimah ) in 1164 C. 1 chose to study Abu iv . As the topic of my Ph. with its esoteric aspect (ba!i11 ).

This is one of the senses in which the diversity of IOth century Ismi.E. seemingly straightforward. 3.'im (the rising one).'ïlism. for II instance. 231-252. among which the following may be cited: 1. Reports of Keio Institute of Cultural and Linguistic Studies 26 (1994): • pp. conclusion necessitated a series of preliminary studies. and who therefore represented a slightly earlier phase of Ismi.'ilism may be said to be reflected in the thought of al-RiZi.tim al-Rizi (d.fi.. a Ilmissioné11'Y'-thinker who is believed to have flourished during the fust half of the 1Dth century C. ''The Prophetie Figure of Jesus in Fi. • including a more "radical" layer opposed to the common idea ranking of the prophets with respect to the Prophet M~mmad and introduced by the nature of the messianic figure of the Qi. 2. guided by the many outstanding scholars mentioned in my acknowledgments. he was.'ili history than that of al-Nu'min's time. Il An Essay on Early Isma'iB View of Dther Religions Based on a Chapter from the Book of the Correction (Kiœ" al-#lilJ ) by AbU I.~d Ismi. he can be said to have manifested a somber" or "conservative" approach as a thinker.• l. Reports of Keio lnstitute of Cultural and Liguistic Studies 24 (1992): pp. Yet even this. 322/934-5)" (in Japanese).tîm al-Ra2ï. On the other hand. In the course of researching and preparing the text of this thesis.. "The Prophets' Encounter with the Angelic Beings according to al-Razi. 1 came across severa! different layers beneath the IIconservative" surface of al-Rizi's thought.mid daim to the imamate.'ilism" (in Japanese). Sorne major studies on al-Rizi hold that he was a propagandist for a dissident Isma'iB group opposed to the Fi..Ii. opposed to the esoteric-inclined antinomianism of bis peers and seems to have been more prudent or even a little r eluctant. an v . 281-313." when it came to introducing II Neoplatonist philosophical concepts into Ismi.

ed. 4.·im" (in Japanese). "Introduction. "The Cosmos and the Prophets: The Prophetology in The Book of Correction by Abü I. extensively revised. 'The Place of Abü ~atim al-Ràzï' s Kitab a1-1~1~ in the History of Isma.fatim al-RaZi" (in Japanese). 1995).'Di • Thought 2: Some Problems in the Study of al-Rizi's Life" (in Japanese). 'Di Thought 1: The Theory of the Prophets and the Qi. 1-34. Mori (Tokyo.). "The Place of Abü l:Ii. • vi . 8. the contents of these studies were. 1994). 223-41. Orient 38 (1995): pp.H./1998C. 231-52. by S.S. 7.Iamelin al-Razi. 322/934-5)" (in Japanese). Kiti. 1377A. 135-54. ed. 271-83. and 8. 6. and a part of chapter 7 §2-1 on paper 1. Reports of Keio Institute of Cultural and Linguistic Studies 29 (1997): pp. of course. 6. a part of chapter 6 §3 on paper 3. Tokyo aune. pp.E. that chapter 4 §4 is based on papers 4. Mohaghegh (Tihran.l:I. in Transcendence and Mystery: the Gedankenwelten ofChina. On being incorporated into the dissertation itself. Kamada and H. however. India and Islam. Minüchelui and M. pp.b a1-1~J~. chapter 5 §4 on paper 2.tim al-RiZi's Kitab a1-1~1~ in the History of Ismi. at Keio University. S. Reports of Keio Institute of Cultural and Linguistic Studies 28 (1996): pp. a paper read at the Annual Meeting of the Mita Society of History (Keio University). 5. It should therefore be noted that the earlier versions of chapter 2 of this work are based on papers 7 and 8 above." in Alû l:Iitim A~ad ibn l. a part of chapter 6 §1 on paper 8.• Early Ismâ'ï1ï Thinker" (in Japanese). "Early Isma'ïli View of Salvation History according to Abü l:Iatim al-Rizi (d.

The second paper is an empirical investigation into the impact that accidents can have on the corporate reputation of business firms. an examination of sudden drops in corporate reputation could reveal the reputational impact that such sudden events have in the network of stakeholders (Freem~ 1984) who surround the firm and are. scandais. a model useful in providing a better understanding of reputational crises is developed. and product failures. through three independent but related papers. From a strategic management perspective. the examination of sudden major losses in corporate reputation is an examination of the loss of what is potentially one of the most important intangible • finn resources.• Abstract This dissertation studies the dynamics behind sudde~ negative shifts in the corporate reputations of business firms. in a sense. a better understanding of the situations where business firms suffer significant reputational losses within relatively short periods of time can contribute to both strategic management and business and society. More • specifically the impact that a number of accident characteristics have on the reputational v . Drawing on the stakeholder and crisis management literatures. a phenomenon that we refer to as a reputational crisis. The first paper of this dissertation consists of a theoretical exploration of the management of reputational crises caused by sudden and unexpected incidents like industrial accidents. This issue is of critical importance because the corporate reputation of a tinn is one of its most valuable but potentially volatile intangible resources. the 'evaluators' of its reputation. Therefore. While. if not the most important intangible resource of the fmn. from a business and society perspective.

and. Finally. • • vi . the raie of stakeholder salience in this decision.• re-evaluations of two particular stakeholder groups. the third paper of the dissertation examines the Brent Spar controversy to investigate two issues of importance in the management of reputational crises: the reasons behind a company's decisions to buffer or bridge when faced with a reputational crisis. is investigated with data drawn from Lexis-Nexis and the America's Most Admired Corporations (AMAC) survey of FORTUNE magazine. industry executives and financial analysts.

for bis keen criticism of the draft of this work in its various stages. Walker and Professor Mahdi Mohaghegh (the vü . 1 would like to express my humble but very deep gratitude ta Professor Hermann Landolt. which lay before me. without which 1 could never have solved the problems encountered while researching and writing this dissertation. each of whom rendered me invaIuable assistance. help and moral support of several people from bath the academic and the non-academic worlds. Dr. Turgay was very supportive in helping me overcome various obstacles. Little.ents As was brief1y alluded to in the preface.Gill University. First of aIl. • 1 am. Üner Turgayand Professor Donald P. for his painstakingly thorough reading. both administrative and academic. aIso deeply grateful to two prominent former members of the teaching staff at the Institute. It is my pleasure and honor to mention their names here and express my gratitude to them for all their assistance. Mc. 1 am aIso most grateful for the invaluable ideas and suggestions he unstintingly offered me. Among the faculty at the Institute of Islamic Studies 1 would like to single out for acknowledgment Professor A. and was director when 1 first came ta McGill. Prof. Little was my first Arabie instructor and history teacher at the Institute. Over the years 1 have come to admire bis uncompromising scholarsbip and to appreciate bis warm personality. this study needed not only time but aIso the guidance. and for his generosity in spending bis precious time discussing with me the problems presented by the • Arabie and Persian texts and my own interpretation of these latter.• A cknowledgm. while Prof. my academic supervisor at the Institute of Islamie Studies. Paul E.

This was excellent preparation for before the aetual drafting of the dissertation. which greatly helped my reading of the text and analysis of the complexity of its contents. he kinclly sent me a copy of the printed edition. and to Mrs.ill. Prof.• latter now with the University of Tehran and Director of the Tehran Branch of the McGill Institute of Islamic Studies). Even after he left the Institute (to its enormous loss!) he generously helped to obtain for me copies of invaluable manuscripts. vüi . Ann Yaxley. her assistant. for their • expert help in resolving the official complications that stood in the way of my submitting this dissertation and in facilitating the reinstatement of my student status at Mct:. 1am deeply grateful for the academic and personal advice of my former supervisor and now vice-president of the University. Let me first of all mention here the names of scholars of Keio University. Walker helped me to develop a more serious study of Isma'ilism during the academic years 1988-90. As my fast supervisor at McGill. whose remarkable generosity in granting me two years' leave of absence (1998-2000) and whose constant encouragement were instrumental in the completion of this • study. my former teacher and the one who introduced me to the field of Islamic studies. Professor Takeshi Yukawa. Also 1 am very much grateful to my senior colleagues at the Institute. Moreover. the director of the Institute of Cultural and Linguistic Studies. 1 would a1so like to extend my gratitude to Mrs. and the deputy director of the same institution. the administrative secretary of the Institute. Tokyo. Dr. 1 would like to thank Professor Sei'ichi Sumi. The support received from individuais and academic institutions outside McGill were aiso crucial to this project. Mohaghegh offered me the precious opportunity to write an introduction ta the first critical edition of Ahii I:fatim al-Rizi's Kita6 a1-1~1~. Professor Yûji Nishiyama. Dawn Richards.

cannot be omitted here. especially in the field of humanities owes a great debt to libraries and their staff for providing the "raw materials" essential to research. Another name.Gill University. Naomitsu Mikami. Fumihiko Hasebe. Satoru Horie and Prof. for their constant academic advice and encouragement to my work. B. Tsutomu Sakamoto. Thanks are also due to Professor Andrew Rippin (University of Calgary) and Dr. Therefore my special and deep gratitude must be expressed with aIl sincerity to the staff of Islamic Studies Library. My deep gratitude aIso extends to Prof. that of Mrs. and who offered unstînting acad. Thomas. Mr. Salwa Ferahian. particularly Mr. my former teacher. Hiroko Endo. 1 would like to thank most sincerely Professor Abbas Hamdani (University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee) for generously allowing me to use precious manuscripts • and other materials essential to my research from bis personal collection. the University of Tübingen Library. and my colleagues at the Faculty of Letters. ix . Prof. Special thanks must also go ta the staff of Keio University Media • Centre. and the University of Tokyo Library. Shigeru Kamada (University of Tokyo). Prof. Prof.~c guidance and moral support.• Prof. Yukio Otsu. Mc. who introduced me to McGill's Institute of Islamic Studies as weIl as to the field of Shi' ah studies. Minoru Shimao. Every person working in academia. Hisatsugu Kitahara and Prof. Todd Lawson for their generous assistance to me in the drafting of my dissertation proposai in the academic year 1991·92. Several other scholars were extremely generous to me in a variety of ways. 1 very much appreciated her constant and sincere efforts in helping me to maintain good communications with Keio University in Tokyo. Adam Gacek. the Secretary of the Institute. Michio Takahashi. Wayne St. Stephen Millier and Mr. Prof. 1 would like aIso to thank Prof. Ms. for their understanding of the necessity of my completing the present work and for offering their constant moral support.

Without this financiaI support. not only my studies and research but even everyday life in Montreal would have been made extremely difficult. S.J. Abdul Muttalib and Mr. devoted proofreading of the draft in its various stages!). Makoto Sugita and Mrs. Omaha). McGill University for its generous offer of the Institute of Islamic Studies Fellowship during the academic year 1989-90. Rizvi Faizer. and the congregation of the 5ign of Theotokos Orthodox x . Mr. Dr.• for searching out and providing the source materials for my research. Patricia Kelly. Melanie Freeman and her family. the • congregation of St. Jeff Burke. Dr. Prof. Dr. Perwaiz Hayat. Stephen Millier (for his sincere frlendship and aIso bis painstaking. 1 would like ta express my deep thanks to Institute of Islamic Studies. It is my great honour to have been a redpient of this prestigious scholarship offered by Canadian government during the academic years 1990-1994. Prof. Yuriko Oshima-Takane (of the same department). Dr. Mohammad Ghoussemi-Zavieh. McGill University)." especially Ms. Khaja Misbahuddin. Professor John Calvert (Creighton University. and ta the World University Service of Canada and the International Council for Canadian Studies for their remarkably generous offer of the "Govemment of Canada Award" which was initially administered by the former in 1990 and then transferred to the latter in the same year. Hyondo Park. Ms. the disciples of "the Landoltian School. Yoshio Takane (Department of Psychology. Roxanne Marcotte. Hiroaki l'ijima an Mrs. Mc. Mr. Professor Teruko TaketoHosotani (Royal Victoria Hospital Laboratory). Minoru Tsunoda. Mr. Paul Ibar~ Japanese Catholic Mission in Montreal (led by Father Toru Asakawa. It is my special pleasure to mention with most sincere gratitude my wonderful • friends in Montreal who supported me morally and academically: Mr. Ritsuko l'ijima. Prof. Chikako Sugita. YahiroHirakawa <Tokyo Institute of Technology). Prof. Dr.). Makiko Hirakawa (Tokyo International University). Ms.

Yuriko Matsumura. 1would like to express my most sincere gratitude to my beloved wife. for their affection. Prof. help. prayers and love 1could not have solved the many problems and overcome the frustrations that 1 met with in the course of writing this dissertation. Japan -my parents. My gratitude aIso extends to my parents-in-Iaw.• Church (1ed by Fr. • • xi . Makiko: for without her patience. John Tkatchuk and 5ister Stephanie Smith). Dr. Last but not least. however inadequate. Mr. Tomiko Watanabe. for their unceasing moral support and enthusiasm for my work. and my brothers in law. My humble gratitude must be expressed to my family in Tokyo.for their finandaI and moral support and love. and my brother Kei Nomomto and bis wife Chizuko Nomoto. It is my hope that this small work will be some recompense. Akinori Watanbe and Mrs. Kojiro Watanabe and Mrs. devotion. Kikuo Nomoto and Yoshie Nomoto.

. compiled and edited by R.• Technical Notes 1. Barry (Washington. Transliteration In the transliteration of Arabie and Persian the present dissertation follows for the most part ALA-Le Romanization Tables: Transliteration Schemes for Non-Roman Scripts. 1<. 1991).

the two are eonneeted by a single hyphen (-). ili) i~ifah is not romanized in the cases of persona! names exeept either when it is indieated in script (as (.• 2) Vowels and diphthongs a l'~- a a• ü ~- i ü .J- '->- ay ·Here we depart from the ALA-Le transliteration scheme. . exeept in the case of verses from the Qur'an.~l>. see pp.J zh • 4) The following exeeptional rules have been observed in transliteration of Persian: i) the letter .J is always represented as w. Translation • Each and every translation of the passages from primary sources (in Arabie or Persian) is ours. as in khinah-ha for L. 2.J - i • . 5) For other rules. 5-13 (on Arabie) and pp.$ or ~) or when it represents a filial relationship of sonship or eonnects an adjective to mu~.J - &W • - u . 3) Letters representing non-Arabie consonants g ch & p . ü) when the affix and the word are connected grammatically but written separately. 145-51 (on Persian) respectively in ALA-Le Romanization Tables. for which we follow xili .

we occasionally modify Arberry's translation of certain words according to the context of the discussion. u ) .. Signs and abbreviations used in the dissertation 1) The following signs are used in the quotations: i) [ ] enclosing a word or a phrase which is either a suggested reconstruction of the text or a supplement to a translation. 4. 1955. However.. indicating a word or a phrase omitted from a translation. umm are not italicized in the dissertation. London. indicating one or more lines are omitted from translation. ili) .. J. • 2) We expIain the signs and abbreviations other than those mentioned above in a footnote when these appear for the first tinte in the main text of the dissertation. Other Remarks The technical terms da 1wa1J and since they appear 50 frequently.. . Oxford.. reprint.. 1998).(.. . 3. ). The Koran Interpreted (originally published in two volumes.• A. • xiv .. Arberry (translator).

zi" in Sources §1-3. The Text vf . Ismi. Introduction §1. Preliminary Remarks on Prophecy and uProphetic Thought": Revelation and Sacred History §2. lili uProphetic Thought" and Abii lJatim al-Rizi §3. Abü ~i.li~ 1 1 2 7 10 17 17 17 22 26 29 • 36 xv .zï §4. 'ili Movement in the Ray Region of North-Western Iran: From a Report by Nqi.tim al-BiBi's Life §1-1.timal-Ri.1-1. Modern Western Studies on al-Ri. The Historlcal Setting: Al-Kizi's Life and Works §1.• Table of Contents Abstract Résumé Preface Acknowledgments Technical Notes Table of Contents i ii üi vii xii xv • Chapter 1.zi and the Beginning of the Ismi. Scope of Study Chapter 2.zï's Works Chapter 3. Identifying uAbii ~i.tim" and UAhii ~i. Al-Ri. Al-Ri.m al-Mulk §1-2. Al-Razi and the Qarmatian Movement §2.

1377 36 36 40 4S 56 56 . Al-Ri.lalJ Keyed to the Hamdani MS. Prophets and Religious Communities in Sacred History Chapter 6.'-l.zian Prophetology and the Doctrine of the Qi.lilI and the Hamdani and Tübingen Manuscripts~ and the Printed Edition §1-1. The Text of aI-l. Ri.~ §1-2. 'ilis on Sacred History and Prophetology §3.1-1. A.• §1.lÜ: Adam and the Qi 'int §4. Prophetology and Sacred History in Islamic Tradition §2. and the Printed Edition (Tihrin.) §2-2.zi on the Qi tint and His Place in Sacred History: Rizian Qi'imology Chapter 5.li~ §1-1. Al-Nasafi and al-Razi on the Procession of and the Nature of the Soul §1-2. tint §1. al-NasaB.I. Cosmology in .E. The Contents of . Various Prophets and Religious Communities in Sacred History §1. Bazian Cosmogonyand Cosmology §1-3.SJ1988 c.. Cosmology and Pmphetology: General Remarks Chapter 4.lill §2-1. Early Ismi. Table of Contents of .1-1. The Prophets and the Cosmic Hierarchies §1. the Tübingen MS. A Description of the Two Manuscripts §1-3. The Idea of "Interval" and al-Rizi's View of Sacred History §4. . The Ismi. 'ili Notion of the Unity of Religions According ta al-Rizi §2.'-I.H.li1J §2. The Two Manuscripts in Comparison with the Printed Edition of .. and al-Sijisti. Bazian Anthropology: The Place of Human Being in xvi 64 70 70 84 95 106 • 123 123 133 140 156 171 171 171 175 181 • . Patterns of the History of the Prophets According to al-Kazi §3. The Framework of Sacred History According to aI-Razi.1-l. Introductory Remarks to the Text of .

Jesus' Contact with the Angelic beings and His Typological Relation to Adam and the Messianic Qi. Ri. with the Highest Angelic Heings in Sacred History §2..i. 'imology Revisited 1 185 215 237 237 248 248 263 270 • Chapter 8.• the Cosmos §2. 'imology Revisited 2 §1. The Encounter with the Angelic Seings in the History of the Prophets §3. The Parousia of the Qi 'int in Sacred History: 285 Qi. and the A.. The Making of the Nu.zj's View of the Mode of the Parousia of the Qi. The Contact with the Angelic Beings and Sacred History: Qi. 'imology §1. Rizian Christology §2-1. Al-Ri. 'im §3.i' (Enunciator-prophets) in their Encounter with the Angelic Beings Chapter 7. Crucifixion and Typology §2-2. Conclusion Bibliography 330 341 • xvii .zian Religio-Politics: Al-Rizi's Attitude to the Current Leadership of the Community? 285 §2.. 'int 305 Chapter 9. Hierarchies and Sacred History: Christology and Qi. The Contact of the Ni'.

that is. speculation on history in the andent Greek or Hellenistic world and India). that is. Therefore. Consider for example . salvation history or sacred history directed toward salvation. of the reve1ation of God's guidance and will to humankind through the prophets or divinely chosen individuals. This type of history can be called Heilsgeschichte .g. number. name1y." touches upon one of the • most pivotai doctrines in religious traditions of this type.. that is. Preliminary Remarks on Prophecy and ITrophetic Thought": Revelation and Sacred History The concept of prophecy. the revelation referred to above. Christianity and Islam. the discourse on prophecy. as well as the concepts of saIvation and of the telos of the progression of the events. etc. However the demarcation between l'sacred history" and "salvation history" is often not dear.1 • Chapter 1 Introduction §1.. In the intellectual history of any monotheistic tradition there are sorne examples of historical theory which include symbolic speculation on time. or more specifically "prophetic thought. organization. prophetic thought" is aIso concerned with the development II of this revealed guidance in the chronological or horizontal dimension. or telos. in history. etc. do not include the concepts • of salvation and the end of lime (see e.e. In the Abrahamic faiths "prophetie thought" is concerned with the vertical dimension of the phenomenon of prophecy. In the monotheistic tradition history follows a linear path towards its goal. is an indispensable e1ement of each of the monotheistic Abrahamic religious traditions represented by Judaism. which is essentially that at the end of time those who have obeyed the Divine guidance will escape the calamity of earthly life and/or eternal damnation. However. lime. a type of history which is ordered by sacred rules or laws conveyed by number.1 It is a concept that contrasts 1 In a strict sense some types of llsaaed history/' i..

1959). but aise between two types of cosmology. in "historical duration" and moving "one way. where history is seen in non-linear terms. by W. that everything "takes place" at a "certain place" and at a "certain time. 102-12. the horizontal dimension of history leading toward salvation. Cosmos and History: The Myth of the Etenral Retum." that is.and end. in the present study.lili-Shi 1 ism likewise features these two dimensions of "prophetic thought. pp. 11-26 (ori8inally published in English as Meaning in History (Chicago. we do not use the sPecific term "salvation history" or Heilsgeschichte but adapt the tenn " sacred history [directed] toward salvation. transI. New York.e.. entitled Weltgeschichte und Heilsgeschehen (Stuttgart. that is. 1-19). 1949): see his "Introduction." and hence repeats its exemplary "archetype. 1961). reprint. that everything is related ta the "beginning of man. one positing an etema1 cosmos and other a cosmos with a beginning -God's creation. pp. Trask (Princeton. AlI of the imims sprang from the ab1 al-IJayt (the people of the household of the Prophet) and represented the sole historical." i. 150-75. M.e." pp. or more simply. is represented in the Shï'j notion of lmi. Eliade. This contrast is depicted.'ilis.. 1954." in Erscheinungsformen und Wesen der Religion (Stuttgart." with its counterpart as applied to "monotheistic revelation. Joachim of Fiore's decision ta base bis theory of three ages of history on the doctrine of the trinity. especially in bis "Einleitung." pp. • . the • office of the imims or legitimate leaders of the Community. 1967). Ismi. Heiler. Eliade contrasts the concept of time as applied to "primordial man. Isma1w speculation on history also has a strong tendency ta include the ideas of salvation and the end of time. Therefore.tim Ismi. authoritative continuation of prophecy. F.2 §2. Lôwith's dassic account of the history of philosophy. and the idea of hierarchy at the same time.2 • sharply with the notion of the past in Greek or Hellenistic thought. in order ta represent the type of historical speculation which is focused on the elements of salvation and the end of history. only that of its cydical and recurrent nature operating within the framework of the etemal cosmos." or simply "sacred history" for the sake ofbrevity. Cf. 2 This represents a contrast not ooly between two notions of history. a periodicity based on the number seven." towards its end.. As will be seen in the chapters below. Also M. in I<. for example.mah. In Greek thought there is no notion of the telas of history.· ili ITrophetic Thought" and Abü al-Ràzi ~i. R. chapters entitled '~ie heilige Zeil" and "Di~ heilige ZahI." i. ~acred history. "cosmogony.e." For Ismi." i.

Eventually all the truths (al-lJaqa 'iq) hidden in sacred laws will be revealed by the Qi'im. E. These two notions are among the oldest elements of Isma'ilism. in order ta avoid confusing them with other common Arabie MusÜln names. We will eonfirm in chapters 4 and 6 below that these notions were rooted in Ismi"ïlism sinee hom the very beginning they are found expressed in the writings of Ismi. Madelung. who is the seventh prophet called the Qi'im. 1978). Jesus (clsa)3 and M~ad. IIAspects of Isma"ili Theology: The Prophetie Chain and the Gad Beyond Being. pp. For our understanding of this view of history. S. pp. "Cosmic Hierarchies in Early Ismi"ili Thought: The View of Abü Ya"qüb al-Sijistini/' Muslim World 66 (1976).'ili thinkers and extemal observers. among others: H. Hodgson in bis The Order of Assassins: The 5truggle of the Early Nizan laDi'ilis Ilgainst the Islamie World (Den Hague.the same two hierarchies which transmit the revelation to human beings. Compare also the still useful accounts by M. . its specifically IsD\i. Kosmologie und Heilslehre der frühen lma 'Diya: Eine Studie %Ur islamischen Gnosis <Wiesbaden. W.. For the concept of the two bierarchies. The details of this scheme will be discussed below in chapter 4. Halm. 16-20. "Aspects of Ismi'ili Theology. Thus. S." in ImJâ'iJj Contributions ta Islamie Culture. though this scheme of history appears cyclical.e. and thereafter in English only." pp.5 The best approach to take in trying to understand the elaborate and yet subtle Isma cïli position on prophecy is ta analyze the thought of a single earlyauthor. 18-37. §2 of the present dissertation.·w character lies in the notion of two hierarchies operating in heaven and on earth respectively. 00. H. An even more representative Ismacïlï tenet regarding the horizontal or chronological dimension of history is the concept of the cycles of the great prophets. 4 As for the vertical dimension. 4 Each great prophet inaugurales bis own cycle and brings a new . Ta this end we have chosen to examine the writings of Abü ijatim ~ad 3 In our study. 1978). in • an effort to understand how this position first emerged and then developed over time. G. those pre-Islamie prophets who may be found in bath the Qur1an and the Bible are first referred to by their Arabie equivalents. for example. 54-55. In each cycle religious teachings are preserved by the prophet's successor and seven ïmims. it has a telos. Moses (Müsi). Walker. Nasr (Tehran. i. Abraham (Ibrahim). 14-15. we owe much to W. which is the parousia of the messianic figure. 54·55. This history has its own final telos or culmination. pp. Noah (N~). Madelung. P. Adam (Adam).3 • divine guidance on earth after the Prophet M~mad. see. pp. 1955). • S That the concept of history of seven cycles is one of the oldest Isma"ili tenets is pointed out in the following studies.IJarj'aIJ or sacred law which replaces the previous one.

1986). see. (Paris.Sherrard with the assistance ofP. "Abü I. H. for example. 3. 313/925 or 323/935). Pines. ''Étude préliminaire. 1978). whose thought is representative of the development of the early !sma'w discourse on prophecy. de Smet. 64-74." Encyclopaedia Iranica hereafter referred ta as Elr. L. Corbin & M. 197-2011 Œnglish transI. 8uddJ Nidli. 125. ca.'ili thinkers who refuted Rhazes' position during the 4th/IOth and 5th/Ilth centuries. R. .4 • b. 322/934-5). With this work al-Rizi became the first in a series of Isma. vol. ~d ibn l. H.7 The record of this dispute is al-Rizi's work A 'ljm al-Nubüwa/J or The 5igns of Prophecy. 34. ''Râzi. vol. 1993). Sherrard: History of Islamie Philosophy (London. Biobibliography of IRDi'ïJj Literature (Malibu.. zakéUiyi al-Rizi (d. Gibb. vol. J. Dictionnaire (Paris. 1998). pp. Mu'in (Tihrin/Paris. <Leiden/Londcn. QuaIJ Jurjiaï 1 M. 6 Basic information on al-Razi's full name. Sbarl}-i Q.fuDad ".piiti . One centered on the challenge posed by Abü Bakr M~ad b. 798-99. M. 1913-1936) )." in NiF-i Khusraw. 128-44. "Abü ijitâm aI-Roizi. Surkh Nishipüri (?). pp. pp. Abû J:fâtim al-. 00. Th. et al. 2d 00. I<. 1960-). "al-Rizi. vol. M. H." Encyclopaedia of Islam. ed.' one of the earliest and most influential Isma'ili authors.Iamdin (d. Abu Bakr Mupmmad b. I<raus and S. 1. 474-77. H. Goodman. A. Halm. pp. H. lite and works can be found in: O. 8. 136-42). J. 1: pp. Zakariyi.Iamdi. 1134-36." in Encyclopédie philosophique universelle. "Abü ijitem Ràzi. 1992). S. (Leiden. 322/933-4?). 1983. '1ntroduetion et esquisse comparative. H. Wensinck. Landolt. 7 For an overview of the career of this famous philosopher-physidan. nI: Les œuvres philosophiques. 1: p. Stern. "al-Razi. Houtsma A. after411/1021 in Sth/llth century). 315. ed. l. Mu'in (lUDin/Paris. 1953). p. S. Yarshater <London.J. pp. E.n al-Rizï (d. 00. thinkers sucb as aamid al-IAn al-I<irmini (d.8 to cite but one. Kramers. et al." Encyclopaedia ofIslam (hereafter refened to as El).fitim al-RaZi. pp. 1955).." in Mubammad b. vol. 36-40.idalJ-'i Püd-i KhrijaIJ Abü al-Hayfbam A. by L. p. ed. the following worles by H. Corbin & M." in Encyclopedia of Arabie Literature. Meisami and P. a leading physician and a non-Ismi'ûï rationalist philosopher who argued against prophecy by severely questioning its validity as a source of knowledge. known as Rhazes in the Latin Middle Ages." El2. Corbin: Histoire de la philosophie islamique. Zakariyi. Abii Bakr Mupmmad b. Two doctrinal disputes in the early history of Isma'ïlism marked the intellectual career of Abü I. 1. new edition (hereaiter referred to as El 2).). vol. Poonawala. Kitab-i Jàmi' al-flikmalaya..üb biJJ M"f-mmad b. • • For an overview of the series of attacks by Ismi'ili authors on Rhazes. Starkey (London and New York. see: P. pp. • The other dispute involved a thinker from within the Ismi'ïli community.fitim al-Râzï. ed.

and W. For a survey of al-Nasafts life and work.5 • M~mmad al-Nasafï. pp. 4th/IOth century). 7. Abü Ya'qüb al-5ijistini (fi. 219-20 <originally published in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and Afriam Studies 23 (1960): pp." chapter in bis Studies in Early &ma'iliftIJ Oerusalem/Leiden. 4Q-43.. 1983).•." Der Islam 37 (1961). the "founder of Isma'i1i philosophy. who supported in his now lost Kitab al-Nrqrah (The Book of Aid ) al-Nasafi's positions on cosmology and other such subjects." A1-1. since their activities were concentrated in the region of IranY Al-Rizi is in fact often counted. 56--90. "a1-Nasali. along with al-Nasafi and another leading thinker. now unfortunately lost. M. see Poonawala. we follow the pagination in his Studies in Early 1mJa 'îlimJJ. Madelung and H. '1Uzt Abû ~âtim al-. "Das Imamat in der frühen ismailitischen Lehre. Al-l. "Abü ~item Rizï. M. philosophy influenced by Neoplatonism. 799. was summarized and commented upon by I. • as a member of this "Persian School.'ïlï thinkers Neoplatonist philosophy in the 4th/IDth century.l~ therefore constitutes one of the oldest swviving records of Isma 'Di Sorne Ismi." p. p. • Cf.· E. Halm.1~ actually sparked another debate within Isma'ïli circles influenced by Neoplatonism. one of the oldest Isma'ilï philosophicaI works. vol. in refening to S."9 that is. Halm. 968. Stem's evaluation of al-Nasafi. 332/943). Madelung. hereafter. U . pp. The latter work aIso contains many quotations from al-Nasafi's Kitab aJ-Mafrfiil or The Book of the Produd. Biobibliography. 101-102. 315. 10 Halm. De Smet. including sorne of the more pertinent statements of al-Nasafj." p. Stem's paPel's on Ismililïsm." p. ~d al-Bazdawi or al-BazdahI. Kosmologie. See ''The Early Ismilili Missionaries in North-West Persia and in Khuri8in and Transoxiana. or Nakhshabi (d.Iatim 9 This is S. where he tends to side with Abü l. "Abü {fitim a1-R~ . anthropology and prophecy are refuted by al-Rizi in bis Kitab al-l. 16. This dispute.li. It was attacked by al-5ijistini. p. idem.f.l0 influenced by Neoplatonism in this century were designated "die persische Schule" or "'the Persian school" by W.34. psychology. and Landolt. pp. Al-Nasafi's views on various subjects such as cosmology.fJ or Book of Correction.Iamid al-Dïn al-Kirminï in his l(jtâb aJ-Riyitj (The Book of Gardens).I: Abu 1-~asan M~d b.

For due ta its nature as a polemieal work defending ISmi. p. 1993). Walker. as an ideal source for bis views on prophecy expressed in Ismi'w terms. lA. 86 and p.m. In addition. Therefore. 1960).in aequiring science of any kind.6 • al-RaZï.'ïlism against attack from outside. &. 97. a1-/~I~ eontains an extensive aceount of the history of the prophets. Tl. However. al-lfl~ ean be expected 12 Al-5ijistinis Kitib al-NUfnA is partially preserved in al-Kinnini's Kitib al-Riyifl in the form of quotation.fJ was written to spark debate within the inte1lectual cirdes of bis own sectarian community. In A'am al-Rizi asserts the necessity of prophecy for attaining knowledge against Rhazes' anti-revelational. Biobibliography. The printed edition of Kimb al·Riyasi is: Al-Kirminï. and the Isma'jus' response to outside challenges. pointing out the need for an authoritative teacher -by which he implies a divine1y-guided leader.63. prophet or imi." we are justified in eonsidering a1-1~1~ .Iy Phüosophical 5hiïsm: The lsmaiIi Neoplatonïsm of AlJù Ya '. Thus. Kitib al·Riyifl• 00. in A 'lam al-Razi may have thought it pointless to present his ideas using Isma'ili terminology which was unfamiliar to non-Isma'ïlis such as Rhazes.üb al-SijisWJi (Cambridge. see: Poonawala. exerting a considerable influence over later generations of scholars.12 With these two polemical works al-Rizï placed himself firmly within the ISmi. 6Q.mir œayrüt. al-Rizi's "prophetie thoughr' as refleeted in A 'lim makes no clear referenee to such Ismi'ûi concepts as the cycles of the seven prophets or to specifieally Isma'ïli terminology (for example. quoting as it does related verses from the Qur-in. his other polemieal work. • the nipq (pl. while admitting the signifieanee of A 'lam as an expression of al-Rizï's "prophetie thought. P. rationalist epistemology. pp. It can aIso safely be said that these same works offer a unique window into early Isma'ûi views on philosophico-doctrinal issues. lJufaqi ') or enunciator-prophet).·ï!i intellectual tradition. E. On Kirab al-Nrqra1J and KiralJ al-Riyisl. sinee a1-/~Ii. • .

4 (1935): pp. ed. 38. Biobibliography . I<raus. idem.Zakariyyâ al-RaD" <Raziana D. 300-334. by and large. 1922). Of al-Rizi' s two polemical works. in spite of its value in illuminating al-Rizi's ideas. Massignon. Orientalia N. For wlùle community itself had preserved them. I<raus edited sections of this work as part of bis 1936 studyof Rhazes. Arnold and R. it had nonetheless assiduously defended them from the eyes of outsiders up to the start of this century as a precaution against persecution. al-Nasafi. since the appearance of the 13 Poonawala (Biobibliography. 37) tites the earliest study on al-Ràzi as being that of L. monographie study of al-l~l~ is a neœssity. S.358-378. For these reasons we suggest that a full-length. . 5. particularly given the dearth of Western studies on al-Razi's thought. pp. was the inaccessibility of original • IsmaCili sources. as we suggested before. A 'lâm al-Nubiiwah was the first to receive attention from Western scholars. ~.5 (1936): pp. Nicholson (Cambridge. and has continued to provide the basis for most textual study of al-Ràzi'5 thought ever since P. • 14 P. Brmune." in A Volume of Oriental Studies presented ta Edward G. 15 See: Poonawala. pp. p." Orientalia N. Aiso d. 14 This tradition however has more to do with Rhazes. "La contribuité du philosophie: traité d'éthique d'AbU Mutwnmad b. 35-36. by T. pp. an understanding of a variety of early Isma. §3.15 Nevertheless. "Extraits du kitâb a1âm a1-nubuwwa d'Abü lJâtim al-Râzî (Raziana m. Modern Western Studies on al-Rau Modern Western scholarship on al-Rizi did not begin to appear until the early 1920s. It aIso offers.7 • to provide much information on al-Râzï's own uprophetic thought. cïli views on phllosophical-doctrinal issues. Early Philosophical Shiism. of which it constitutes the unique surviving record. 329-38.13 The reason for this. ~uisse d'une bibliographie Qarmale." which he regularly contrasts with the views of bis opponent. Walker.

and especially. DéIlDer. Gattes ist der Olczjdent. pp. 21-73). 1987). N. "Philosophie et révélation: traduction annotée de six extraits du Kitâb a1-a'âm al-nubuwwa d'Ablll:1âtim al-Râzi. do not exploit al-l~lilJ as a source for al-Rizi's thoughl17 ln the time since W. H. U. 11 Based on the edition of ~. Bonner: The Empire of the Mahdi: The Rise of the Fatimids <Leiden. The Imà'iIi. Mich. pp.19 • P. pp. 43-65. l'espaœet la genèse du monde selon Ab1 Bakr al-Razi: Présentation et traduction des chapitress 1. et al./Amsterdam. al-A'wüü (TlhJj. 143-50. '''Das Imamat. by M. 106-108. pp.D. Madelung. 1992). pp. Madelung.fJ as a document reflecting the doctrines of the Qarma. F. pp. "'Le temps.b A'lim al-NubiiwahlH (M. • . has received increased attention from scholars such as F. See: F. Talbani: most of these studies. 'Ubayd ('Abd) Allih declared himself for the office of imim and subsequently became the founder of the Fi~d imamate-caliphate. 1989). Ivanow. Religious Trends in &rly lslamie Iran (Albany. 104. "'The Ismaili Background of Firibi's Political PhiJosophy: Abii Hatim al-Razi as a Forerunner of Firil:i:' in Gottes ist der Orient. Shamsuddin Talbani. al-~wi and G. Vroom. pp.-R. pp.Y. 00. 116-22." Der Islam 34 (1959): pp. (Grand Rapids. Brion. idem. 1. Montreal. pp. pp." Bulletin de philosophie médiévale 28 (1986).'m movement around 286/899 after their leader. idem." Revue philosophique de Louvain 87 (1989).18 a number of other scholars have taken it up and examined its significance. 19 F. al-A 'wiIJi. Festsdarift für Abdoljavad Falaturi mm 65. 1977). Daftary (Cambridge. with the exception of Talbani's. pp. 95-96. ed." in his Studies in Early Persian Ismailism. a group which started ta break away from the mainstream of the Ismi. W. Daiber and A. W. 1996)." in Mediaevallsmll'ili History and Thought. 134-62. F. H. 1996). Hahn. 139-64. thesis. Walker has on the other hand traced the earliest development of Ismi'ili l~This task was accomplished by ~. Shamsuddin Talbani have since written analyses of A'Jim within the context of the history of 1stm-4 tlism. McGill University. 1955). ''Fatimiden und Bahraynqarmaten. 2nd 00. pp.n.) on the Unity and Diversity of Religions. for example. 62-66)." in Dialogue and Syncretism: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Ivanow evaluated lütib a1-1~1~ and summarized its contents in an introductory essay. idem. Geburtstag.8 • critical edition of the whole text in 1977. H. however. W. 64-67 Œnglish transI. A. 00. "The Debate about Prophecy in 'Kiti.. "Abii f:litim a1-Razi (lOth century A. S.16 bis thought on both prophecy and philosophy. and A. E. Daftary. UJ:arly Controversy.-R. 1988). H. Daiber. (Bombay." pp.A.: Their History and Doctrines (Cambridge" 1990).an movement.li. Brion. 1991).3-4 du <<kitâb al-a'lâm a1-nubuwwa» d'Abû f:lâtim al-Râzî. Das Reich des Mahdi. a1-~wi and G. H. Tworuschka (Kain. Der Aufstieg der Fatimiden (875-973) (München. 34-88 (English transL : ""TIte Fatimids and the QêlfIIlaIÏs of ~Yn. J. Gort. 87-94. treats al-l. Brion. again based on A 'lim . 87-104. 87-122. idem.

Mohaghegh." 7A Concerning the acquisition of the photocopy of the Ramdani manuscript. M. Hereafter this edition of al-l~l~ will be referred to as the "printed edition" of al-l.9 • Neoplatonism in the text20 H. Early Philosophical 5hiism. one dealing with the symbolism of the Arabie alphabet and its esoteric relation ta the prophets and the other with Moses' eneounter with the angelic beings of the heavenly hierarchy. This has primarily been due ta the lack of a critical edition of the entire text. The text was published as Abii l:Iitim Atunad ibn fJamdin aI-Ran. allowing us to reeonstruct. 00. 21 The edited excerpts on letter symbolism and on Moses are found on pp. M. "Persian Religions. so to speak. S. Minüchihrï and M./1998C. pp. 51-55.E. pp.22 Hence. Stem analyzes a section from a1-1~1il} on Iranian religions and religionists as a source for this topie in the early Islamie period. E.).24 20 Walker. Nomoto (Tihrin. Mohaghegh.23 This new text provides us with a much clearer • pieture of this important work. The present study is a preliminary step in this direction. Stern.fI. S.21 In a posthumously published article. 1983).JâfI or simply the uprinted edition. 1 wouId like to express here my heartfelt thanks to two leading scholars in Ismi 'Di studies: Professor Abbas Ramdani of the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee for generously granting me pennission to use the precious manuscript of al-l. the Gedankenwelt of al-l~l~ as a whole. although these scholars cover various aspects of al-l~i. 225-27 respectively of bis Kosmologie und Hez1s1ehre. 217-18 and pp. KifÜ al-l~la. 1377A. 70-71 of the same worle.fJ was accomplished by 1:1. Montréal. We will base this study on the two manuscripts of al-/~li4 as weil as its printed edition. 30-46.fJ.Ia." 23 The important task of the editing of al-/~Ià. while the analyses of those two excerpts are to he found on pp. they all analyze only parts of the text according ta their own fields of interesl No attempt therefore has yet been made to write a monographie study of al-l~l~ in its entirety. and Or. 60-62 and pp. Walker. for his kind efforts in the reproduction of bis photocopy of the • . P. English introduction by S." in Stlldies in Early lsmâ 'iJjsm (Jerusalem/leiden. my fonner superviser at McGilI University. Mînüehihri and M. Halm edited and analyzed two excerpts from the text. one in the Hamdani Collection in Milwaukee. 22 S. respectively. In chapter 5 of this present study below this article will be referred to as Stern. 1:1. a situation which was only remedied in 1998 with the appearance of just such a publication.fa in his possession. "Abu fJàtim al-Razi on Persian Religion.H. Wisconsin.

10 • and the other in the University of Tübingen. in Ismi'ïlism the heavenlyand earthly hierarchies serve jointIy as an intermediary between God. M.25 §4. the conception of how the revelation was transmitted through the two hierarchieal orders in heaven and on earth. the scope of our study will be wide-ranging. Theoretically. Scope of the Study Ta elucidate Isma'ili "prophetie thought" in al-RiZi's Kirab al-I~I~ . and the third one in the personallibrary of one of the editors of the printed edition. the Hamdani and Tübingen manuscripts are valuable tooIs for the philologica1 study of al-l~lilJ. who is absolutely transcendent manusaipt. Because they present sorne different readings from those contained on the three manuscripts on which the printed edition is based.'ïli thought. This will permit us to clarify the details of al-Rà. but aise analyze bis discussion of the mission of each of the great prophets or Ilu!aqa' up to the Qa 'im himself. that is. in the printed edition of al-l. Dr. llSar-ighàz" (Preface). we will aIso look at the vertical representation of prophetie thought in Isma'ilism. One subjeet to be treated for example is al-Râ.fJ. as we stated earlier.Zi's speculation on the development of sacred history up ta the point of the eschaton . In order to explore this dimension _ of "prophetie thought" we will not only sketch al-Ràzi's scheme of sacred history. to the presentation of "prophetie • thought" within a chronologieal dimension. • 2S These three manuscripts are presently preserved in Iran: two of them in MarkaZi Library University of Tehran.li. . As weil as addressing its horizontal dimension. xiv. Germany.zj's discussion of sacred history using the terminology of Ismi. p. an approach which leads. Mohaghegh. ~asan MinUChihri.

"The Organization of the Fatimid Propaganda.26 Furthermore the Isma'ilï notion of the dichotomy between the labir or exoteric and bi#z! or esoteric aspects of religion27 requires the presence of this hierarchical order on earth." pp. Halm. see A. On the introduction of Greek sciences to Islamic ci vilizatian. Radtke. Xl 2B ''Bà~.'' Elr. "Cosmic Hierarchies. 859-61 and H. 14-28. 3. which represents the third main subject we will address in the present dissertation. Hamdani. 85-114. Ivanow.lâlJ may not deal with all these questions. 18. From the beginning of the 3rd/9th century onward. 1-35. pp. but we will keep them in mind in our analysis of . n. see. vol. "Evolution of the Organizational Structure of the Fipmi Da'wah. • al-Rizj's explanation of how the prophets were related to the two cosmic hierarchies." Elr. • On this doctrinal dichotomy. 861-63. and human beings. In view of the importance of hierarchicalism in Isma'ilism. through which the former should be gradually transmitted to each member of the community in accordance with bis grade of intellectual and spiritual maturity. The text of al-I. "Bi~niya.28 Following this period there emerged the Isma'iu thinkers 26 For an overview of the notion of the two lùerarchies. Full references ta this matter will be given on p. W." Arabian Studies 3 (1976): pp. see R. In addition. 3 of chapter 2 below. we intend to raise the following questions: How do these two hierarchical orders relate to each other in transmitting the divine message? How did the prophets make contact with the hypostases in receiving revelation? How do the ordinary faithful relate to high dignitaries on earth and ta the heavenly hierarchy? AIl these questions are concemed with the problem of how the two hierarchies function in transmitting divine guidance ta human beings in the cosmos. we will ask whether there is any possibility in Rizian thought for interaction between the theme of sacred history and the hierarchical-cosmic and revelational theme." Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 15 (1939): pp. 3.Il • over all His creatures. vol. the . for example. the influence of Greek philosophy became increasingly evident in the history of Islamic thought. pp. Walker.

or the "Persian school.00. pp. pp. 2!1 The terms. (New York/London. ''The Legacy of Greece. M. ) were adopted into the cosmological doctrinal system at the Fipmid court of the 4th lmim-Caliph al-Mu'izz (r. not only among members of the so-ealled ''Persian school" but aIso at the more remote FiPmid court (4th/IDth to the 5th/Ilth centuries). furthermore." in History of[slamic Philosophy. pp. Fakhry. Histoire. Isma 'w cosmology was influenœd by Greek philosophy in general and by Neoplatonism in particular. Peters ''"The Greek and Syriac Background. and it is no coincidence that. pp. and the Orient. their religio-political influence was aiso at its peak.JO What interaction was there. The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a World Civilization. ''Das Imamat. For a general charcterization of the Fi1Ïmid period. During the 4th/l0th to 5th/l1th centuries. '1slamic Humanism in the Fourth/Tenth Century.. Leaman <London/New York. • . 1996). 14-22).l ) or "soul" (na!. pp. De Smet.. H. Y. Shayegal'lr ''"The Transnùssion of Greek Philosophy te the Islamic World. Furthermore. pp. However. Kosmologie und Heilslehre. A Short History of the l. 63-65. induding Neoplatonism. G. 1983). with the backing of their flourishing intellectual activity. to what extent from 10th and llth centuries on the Isma'ïlis were involved in and contributed to the development of Muslim intellectual trends including Neoplatonism in Islamic àvilization still remains an oPen question in the history of Islamic thought. the Ismi'ïlïs are thought to have left sorne traces of their influence particularly on the Muslim Neoplatonist thought of that Period. Hodgson. 2d ed. S. to Ismi IW cosmology at the Fitimid court reached its zenith with f:larrid al-Din al-Kirmini in 5th/l1th century." of the first haIf of the 4th/IDth century.mi 'Bis: Traditions of a Mllslim CommJmity (Edinburgh. 334/953-365/975). D. see F. Nasr and O. Oaftary. Madelung. However. 2 <Chicago. pp. Alexandria." chapter in A History of [slamic Philosophy. leaman. 89-104. and particularly in the thought of al-Razï (as reflected in al-I~l~ ). "intellect" ('a. 40-51. 135-38 and "W. 1974). 30 For an overview of the 4th/l0th century with emphasis on the rise of Shï'ism in general. S. between the concept of sacred history and the newly introduced Neoplatonist cosmology? How did Isma'ïli prophetology in this milieu. 229-44.12 • influenced by N eoplatonism." pp. 1998).29 This age marked the zenith of Ismà'ili intellectual activity. justify itself in view of the sharp contrast in the sense of history or • time between the Abrahamic monotheist and Hellenistic traditions? How was following studies: Corbin. O. pp. 38-47 (English transI. pp. Halm. 1995). 1-36. 86-101. F. La quiétude de l'intellect: Néoplatonisme et gnose ismaélienne dans l'œuvre de Ijamid al-Dm al-1CinzWJi (~/Xf s." in the last-eited work." in the last-eited work. 36-39. 155-61. al-Kirmini denied the classical Neoplatonist characterization of the Soul as the second hypostasis and the intennediary between the Intellect and Nature. The introduction of Greek thought. 72. Part 1. pp. see M. during the 4th/IDth century. whose presence may be one of the earliest examples of the influences of Greek philosophy on Shrj thought. vol.) (Leuven.

fJ? Or. Isma'ïl. Madelung.an movement and a description of its doctrinal differences with the Fi\imid wing are found in the following works: H. pp. w. 1raq. passim.. 1 11 The most formidable advocate of this thesis is W. The Isma'ïli movement in al-Rizi's age (fust half of the 4th/IDth eentury) was in " schism" which most scholars now maintain divided the Fa!ÏJnid and Qarma~an wings in 286/899. especially. Madelung.Nahr. Halm. this in opposition to the Fi. 225-36 Œnglish trans!. a part of historical Syria and Miwari al." pp. it can be said that our question is concemed with the broader problem of how a monotheist tradition can legitimately absorb Greek philosophieal concepts..~d daim that the imimah belonged to 'Ubayd ('Abd) Allah al-Mahdi and bis line. 34-88 (English transI. ~7 and pp. See the works cited in the last note above. "Ismi. pp. M. as the Qâ'im.. For references to his . 91. Das Reich." Studies in Early ImIà 'iJjsm . ~ and pp.33 31 An overview of the Qarma.'im? In our scrutiny of "prophetie thought" in a1-1~1~ we will bear in mind the fact that such questions lie in its religio-political sectarian background. pp. pp.'ïlïs and Ithna' ashaJis (Twelver Shï'is).108).. the historical background of the text of a1-1~1~ needs to be discussed.13 • this sharp contrast mitigated in that age? Upon consideration. l'Fatimiden und Bahraynqarmaten. and therefore constitutes our fourth subject. pp. a grandson of the last Imim recognized by both ISmi. ~). 289-98 Coriginally published in L'Elaboration de l'Islam <Paris?. S. 21-73). In addition to the above questions regarding al-Razi's thought per se.. Ste~.32 Does • this mean that Qarma1Ïan dominance in the movement of that region is reflected in the thought of a1-1~1i. passim. espeda1ly. • 32 The Qarma~an wing was predominant in the Ismi 'ïli movement of the regions of Iran. 1961).31 Al-RàZi is thought to have conducted propaganda in North-West Iran where the Ismi 'ïli movement was dominated by the Qarmatians. the present Gulf area.'ilis and Qarma\ians. The latter strongly advoeated the return of M~ad b. does the text reflect another position distinct from that of the Qarma~ans on Imimah and the advent of the Qi.. This will necessitate a re- examination of the widely accepted thesis that al-RiZi's sectarian background was Qarma~an.

14 • In condueting our research into these four broad subject areas./1984C. 363/974) and Sari'.'ilï doctrines. II. Moreover. 71-176 (reprinted in Face de l'homme.). 41-162. pp. 4th/I0th century). 00. "A. 1983). "Herméneutique spirituelle comparée (1.00. p. needless to say. since the main subject of these two works is the interpretation of the history of the prophets. Ja'far b. Asàs al-Ta 'wil.r al-Nu!2qi' of Jaffar b. • . Sari. 1960).ïr al-Nuraqà' . the study will be divided as follows.f:L34 Another reason is that since these two thinkers. 19 of this chapter above. n. M. Man~ür. pp. hereafter. Printed editions of the two texts are: al-Qi~ al-Nu 'min. Biobibliography. 1995).." in Eranos-Tahrbuch 33 (1964).~ al-Nu'man (d. unlike al-RiZi. see p. M~r aI-Yaman (fi. see the study by H. "Comparative Spiritual Hermeneutics. Ghilib (Bayrüt.'jr wa-Asr. as weIl as offer a detailed table of contents of the texte After this we will make sorne general remarks on works dealing with al-Rizj. we must aIso take into consideration the works of other thinkers who were involved in this debate. 1404A. Timir (Bayrüt. in view of the fact that the doctrinal debate among those Iranian thinkers influenced by Neoplatonism continued well after a1-1~1~'s attack on al-MaP~ül. a subjeet to which al-RaZi devotes many pages in al-I~Ii. 8. Gnose Ismaélienne)._ • Kirmini. we will look carefully at Asü al-Ta 'wfI of al-Qi. but aIso to other Isma'ili works of the Fipmid periode For example. Cox. face de dieu (Paris. 73 respectably. 35-149). 63 and p. pp. Swedenborg. Penn. In presenting the results of our researches as outlined above. we shall refer not only to al-Ràzi's a1-1~1~ . M ~ al-Yaman. Corbin. al-5ijistini and al. Also on Am al-Ta'wU . ~ On the Asa.H. and describe bis works by tracing his influence on later generations. page references will foUow the reprint edition) Œnglish transI. namely.E. by L. were in the service of the Fipmid court and served as exponents of its official Isma. The third chapter will describe the two manuscripts of Kitab al-I~l~ not accounted for in the printed edition and compare them with the latter. Immediately following this introduction a second chapter will sketch al-Rizi's life according to its most widely accepted reconstruction. the anaIysis of their writings will provide us with sorne information on a different wing of the sect. see PoonawaIa. al-Ta'ri of al-Qi4i al-Nu"man and the Sari 'ir aJ-NuJaqi' of Ja'far b." in Swedenborg and Esoteric Islam (West Chester.

1974). the prophets' contact with the angels. University of Chicago." p. pp. 1989). N. Schmitt <London. Die Doxographie des Pseudo-Ammonios: fin Beitrag ZUT neuplatonischen Überlie{erung im Islam (Stuttgart. numerous scholars of Islamic philosophy have studied the debate on the philosophical topies in al-I. Halm." in Pseudo-Aristotle in the Middle Ages: The The%gy and Other Tats. F. 1986). For example. Therefore in chapter 6 we willlimit ourselves to summarizing the main topies relating te philosophical cosmology in the text. and "The UniversaI Soul and the ParticuJar Soul in Ismi'w Neoplatonism. Zimmennann. pp." in Neoplatonism and Islamic Thought..15 • the subjeet matter of aI-l~lilJ within the framework of "prophetie thought. In the two subsequent chapters we will analyze al-Rizi's prophetology. 315.. Additionaily.. The next two chapters will deal with Rizian cosmology and explore its relation to his "prophetie thought. MorewOOge (Albany. Ryan and C. 1992). the members of the celestial hierarchy in Ismi. pp. 00. we will describe how al-Rizi interprets the theme of prophetie history in particular.!<raye. as weil as between the former theme and Neoplatonist cosmology." This will eonclude the introductory part of our present study. F. 196-208. Le.fJ.Y.'ilism. diSSo. or even their contact with God. sacred history directed toward salvation. W. • . Also see: H. "Abü f:{item RiZï. Early Philosophical 5hiism. that is.lill in the context of the introduction of Neoplatonism te Isma'ilism. The fourth chapter will present an overview of the thought of al-Razi on the development of prophecy in its chronological dimension. with a view to elucidating al-Rizi's doctrine. 51-62. see werks by P. namely. Walker such as "Abü Ya'qüb al-Si~stinI and the Development of Early ISmi 'iu Neoplatonism" (Ph. 'The Origins of the So-called The%gy of Aristotle. 149-66. The seventh chapter will investigate the interaction between the theme of sacred history and that of the prophets' contact with the angels." The sixth chapter will outline al-RiZi's Neoplatonisminfluenced cosmology. AIso. P. in the eighth chapter we will revisit al-RaZi's scheme of sacred history by focusing on bis view respecting 35 Thanks to the relatively early publication of the printed edition of al-Riyàfl in 1960.3S and then examine the cosmological strueture of the celestial and earthly hierarchies described in • a1-/~1i. editOO by J. pp. and have introduced and extensively analyzed the philosophical part of the text. The fifth chapter will analyze al-Razï's views on various religious communities and Muslim sects and their successive emergenee in the eourse of history. O. Rudolph. E. B. 24-25. U. most of which is reproduced in al-Riyip.

again. • • . including the two. Thus by reconsidering al-Razï/s thought in the context of broader themes we will he led to evaluate bis place in the history of Isma 'ïlï thought.'ilï "religio-politics" for whic. This will allow us to investigate bis views on contemporary Ismi. the ninth and concluding chapter of the dissertation will assess al-Rizi's "prophetie thought" by. Based on our analysis of a1-1~1~ in the preceding chapters. universal themes of the monotheist religious traditions. vertical and horizontal dimensions of prophecy and the possible influence of Greek philosophical thought on one or both of these two dimensions.16 • its culmination. the parousia of the Qi1im. discussing it with reference te to the above-mentioned broader.lt the parousia of the Qi..1im was an important issue. and then reconsider his sectarian affiliation.

many of which we will discuss in the following. K.zi are certain. as a dit. It is hoped that we will then be in a position to examine sorne of the mainstream theses on al-Rizi's life. Even important details. .J What do we know about the author of ? How did al-Razi. and then on bis extant works in the • second. _ This will help us gain as dear a picture of al-Rizi as contemporary scholarship can provide us with at the moment.17 • Chapter 2 The Historical Setting: AI-Rizrs Life and Works §1. §l-l. live his life and conduct bis intellectual activities in the bistorical context of bis age? In this chapter we will try to throw light on al-Rizi's religious and politicallife in the first section.i. Abü ~itim al-Rizi's Life al-I~li1. Indeed the scardty of Isma Cïli historical sources obliges us to rely on hostile Sunni accounts. such as the year of bis birth and the place of bis death.'ilism.m al-Mulk Few details of the life of al-Râ. Poonawala tites both lsmi'ili and non-Isma'Di sources on al-Rizïs works and Iife. Al-Razi and the Beginning of the Ismi 'ilï Movement in the Ray Region of North-West Iran: From a Report by Ni. 1 His name coupled with • t 1. (Ilcaller' or missionary). in spite of his significant role as an author of texts central to the early history of ISmi. are unknown to us. basing ourse1ves on the primary and secondary sources presently available.

(Tihrin. Si}'U' al-Mulük (Siyü:&t-DùmlJ). Biobibliography. ""Cosmic Hierarchies. and who wrote a • See Poonawala. pp. 189-233. E. 85-114. See his ''The Early Ismi'ili Missionaries. Darke. We follow the 1976 edition's reading of the name of the place in question." "mission. the long-awaited Messianic figure. On various connotations of the term da'wah in Ismi'ilism during the Fipmid period. in Studies in Early lma'ilimJ. revised 00. "The Organization of the Fatirnid Propaganda.18 • his ••"ah is not even mentioned even in Ni~ al-MWk's (d. was at hand. M. 265-67/00. 1-35.buyah in Ray. Les idées religieuses et philosophiques de l'Ismae1isme Fatimide (Tunis. Darke (TilUin." or the organization for "mission"~ activity in Iran during the first half of 4th/lDth century. 191 n.." pp. Walker. Darke: The Book of Government Dr Rules for Kings (London.2 the most detailed report on Isma'm da'wah (the "call. W. da'wah activity in Iran was initiated bya certain !<halaf. 214). Feki. a summary of Nqa. Kosmologie und Heilslehre. we owe very much to S. pp. 3 For the following description of the /nni'ili da'wah in Iran during al-Rizi's era. Hamdani. a man who seems to have played a significant role in articulating the basie teachings of the da'wah with bis knowledge of the Qur'in and the Prophetie traditions. p. pp." : pp. Halm. 1962) . 1976). pp. • S S. 285-87 (hereafter referred to as Nipm al-Mulk: the first pagination refers to that of Darke's 1962 edition and the second to that of bis revised 1976 edition. Aceording to Ni~ al-Mulk. H." chap. P." p.unad. Ivanow. 214-17). 4 Nipm al-Mulk. Stem condudes that this name has survived in the modem fonn of "Fashipüyah" or "'Pashipüyah" up to modem times as the name of a district in the suburb of the present Tehran. S. 283 (English transI. instead of the reading in the 1962 edition "Fashibüyah. 263/p. who was in tum suceeeded by Ghiyath. The following description of al-Razïs works and life is in a sense a re-examination of the accounts conceming al-Razi found in the works cited by Poonawala. M. pp. 1978). 4 A resident of the district of Pashi. 14-28." ." pp. appointed by the leader of the movement at that time. 1 would like to express my deep gratitude ta Professor Hermann Landolt of McGill University for having drawn my attention to the importance of Darke's 1976 edition and for having sent me facsimiles of the pages which contain material relevant to the study of the Hie of al-Razi) (English translation by H. 485/1092) Siyar al-Muliik or Siyiat-lJâmaIJ. A. "The Early Ismi'ili Missionaries. for example: H. H. Stem. ''Evolution of the Organizational Structure.m al-Mulk's aceount may be useful for basic information. M. p. Stem. 67-74. pp. 2 Ni~ al-Mulk." pp. a number of studies have aIready been written. 234-5. 1960).. 36-38.S this Khalaf preached that the advent of the Qa' im.4. "Cairo as the Centre of the Ismi'iU Movement. Nevertheless. Khalaf was succeeded by his son. H. AJ. 00.

pp. E. 216). P. reported as having discussed the possibility of the emergence of a rational soul from a sensuous being. who himself Iater persuaded many people in I<hwisin to joïn the da'wah? After he returned to Ray hom Marw al-Rüd. ~usayn-i 'Ali Marw-i Rüdi. knowledgeable in Arabie poetry and "strange narrative" (~aditb-i gharib ). p." p. "The Early Isma'w Missionaries. 265/p. 214-15). 5t. 194.. Walker. however. pp.. the expected messiah. 263-64/pp.th continued to preach in Ray the imminent advent of • the Mahdi. We adopt the reading of the 1976 edition (p. when the predicted time came with no Mahdi appearing.Iitim's origin was Pashabùyah. to take charge of the da'wah Ni~im al-Mulk reports that the place of Abü l. p. • . p. He was discredited. 264-65/pp. and was forced to flee the city to Marw al-Rüd in Khurisin. 285 (English transI. Halm. the 5th/l0th century). . 215-16). 29-32). See Walker. Ghiyith fled from Ray. p. pp. 195. Stem. a lexicon of religious. 216). p.. Early Philosophical 5hiïsm.lo It can be surmised that at that time the above-mentioned Abü l:Iatim was aise engaged in broadcasting 6 Ni~m al-Mulk. instead of that of the 1962 edition (p. There he succeeded in converting the amir of that city. Das Reich (English transI.6 Ni~ al-Mulk reports that this Ghiyith faeed persecution from the people of Ray provoked by a fatlm named 'Abd Allih al-Za'frini. 1 • Ni~ a1-Mulk. 120-21. 289·90). but no mention is made of the year of bis birth. Ghiyi. See Stern. . Since his faIse prediction led to his being persecuted by the people of the city. theological terms well." p. Early Philosophiazl 5hiism. 284-85 (English transI. called al-Bayin. Abü ~itim al-RaZi.known even among Sunni schoIars (see below pp.19 • dietionary of religious technical terms. Ghiyath apparently appointed a certain Abü~atim. Nipm al-Mulk.8 Most scholars identify this Abü l:Iatîm with the author of al-l~lafJ. pp. Walker identifies this &mir ijusayn-i Ali Marw·i Riidi with a certain al-Marwadhi or aI-Marwarrudhi whom the zaydi heresiographer. pp. 285 Œnglish transI. Daftary. la Ni~im al-Molk. ca. See for exampIe F. H.9 In the meantime. 284).. Abü al~sim al·Busti (fi. 264) "Kitab al-Bayin. 283-84 Œnglish transI." Stem and Walker take this now lost text ta be a predecessor to al-Razi's Kirab al-Tmab.. 265/p. pp. The Ismâ'i1is. "The Early Isma 'ili Missionaries. pp. 50-51.

this Abü Ja'far in tum fell ill with "m e1ancholy" (südi). 286 (English transI." Ni~im al-Mulk. Abii Ja'far-i Kabir.fatim.. AbüJa'far) appointed him as ms substitute. according to Ni~m al-Mulk. 120-21. one of Khalafs grandsons was selected as their leader by the people of the Isma'Di community in Ray. according to N~im al-Mulk. this Abü f:litim did not respect bis right. Halm. or '1<ïnati"?): he (i. The hma'Dis.fatim with the aforementioned Abü I. by Giyith who lacks a tUsbah." pp.fatim. the editor of bath the 1962 and 1976 editions of the text used here. 364). Kaynati (?. which led.. See for example the index of the 1962 edition (p. p. The phrase "nâm-i ü" attached to the former person. The phrase in question can also he interpreted as a different version of the story which refers to one and the same persan but in different reports.. However. 195-98. M." From then onwards this Abü I. After this event. H. 376) and that of the 1976 edition Cp..tim appointed by Abü Ja'far is referred to in conjunction with a particular tJisbah (or adjective?) suggests the possibility that he may have been a different person from the Abü l. is as follows: 'There was a man whose name [was] Abü I. p.th' 5 prediction of the Mahdi's advent under bis leadership.13 Given the 11 And even after Abu la/far recovered bis health. seems to regard them as two different persans. for example: F. What then took place. Are they still one and the same person?1! The fact that the Abü lJi. The name of Abü ijanm Kaynalï (or ''Kinati'') appears only in the 1976 edition but not in the 1962 edition.. to succeed hîm. contrasting it • with the previous Abü lJatim's. although most scholars identify these two as the same individual. H. Stem. p. ll Here we encounter a problem identifying this Abü I.e." is important. 12 13 See. pp. At the lime of bis death he appointed bis son. pp. to the following resuIts: "The leadership (ny:i$at) left the household of Khalaf. Das Reich. 258 (English transI. However. Daftary. Professor Hermann Landolt of McGill University very graciously drew my attention to the important fact that "Abü f:litim" is mentioned with a IJisbah (or adjective?) in this passage in the 1976 edition. 216). Darke. translated in the above quotation as "whose name. • .20 • Ghiyi. 'The Early Istni'ili Missionaries.Iitim appointed. This is because the phrase appears to introduce a different story applying to another person. 265-66/pp.fatîm became increasingly po\verful and eventually "stole" the leadership from AbüJa'far. and S. 289).

. pp. who ruled the city from 308/919 until death in 311/924 and represented the interests of the Siminid dynasty. we must leave the question open for the timebeing. 200-201. p.j. whose family had ruled Azarbiyjin since 279/892. R. p. 217). Frye. vol. 286-87 (English transI. ~ad b. immediately sent di 'is to Tabaristân. Abü I. althaugh "some [af his activity]" (ba '!li) aIso occurred during the time of Mardawïj.. See Stem. Abi aI-Sij.. 217).. According to al-Mulk he even succeeded in converting the amir or governor of Ray. I!fahin. 286 Œnglish transi. Shirüyah. 15 Stem. The Period From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. 198-200. 00. 231. p. ''rhe Early Ismi'm Missionaries. The latter was the founder of the Ziyirid dynasty who in 319/931 won independence 14 Ni~ a1-Mulk." in The Cambridge History of Iran <Cambridge. Asfir b." p. Stero's interpretation as ta the time of Abü l:Iitim's departure for Tabaristin. or simply Abü ~itim. Stem identifies this rebel leader with a strong 1 • GDini chieftain of the time. 2~7/p. Gurgin. 1S There he joined an uprising of the population led by a certain Sayyir(?) ShïlÛyah Wardidwandi against the rule of the zaydi Alid imim. 'The Minor Dynasties of Northem Iran.. 'Ali. Upon taking over the leadership of the da'wah in Ray.17 In jaining the rebellion this Abü l:Iitim seems ta have tried ta exploit the situation for the sake of the da'wah. ''The Early Ismi'w Missionaries. 1975). and N~âm. 1 follow S.. Abi al-Si. M.r(?) Shirüyah.21 • present stage of our research. Azarbiyjin. however. 16 S. 4. occupied Ray and killed the aforementioned governor in 311/924 that Abü l:Iitim left for Tabaristin. p.14 It may have been aiter the troops afYüsufb. • 16 11 See aise Stem." pp. 199-204. in order ta call the people there ta Ismi'ilism. N. p. Ni~iIn al-Mulk states that Abü l:Iitim's activity in Tabaristan flourished during the time of the above-mentioned Sayya.itim Kaynatï /I<ïnati. Ni~im a1-Mulk. "The Early Ismi1m Missionaries. On the numerous occupations of Ray by YiiSuf b. M. preaching that an Imim"(imjmi) wauld U shortly (bi-muddati nazdik) appear. 266/p. see Madelung.

212. p. 294 (abridged English transI. See: W. ~amdin b.fatim. and died in exile. On the year of independence of MardaWij. by E. 267/p.216). Târi1dJ-i raban. p. E. After Abü I. Nqam al-Mulk reports.tim" and IIAhü lJatim al-Ri. 217-18). 319.early 7th/13th century) reported that Mardawij defeated Asfir b. 1 (Tihrin.r b. C.. p. 852/1449) in one of his famous biographical dictionaries. we foUow W. the da'wah activity was taken over by 'Abd al-Malik Kawkabi and a certain Isbiq. ed." p. Identifying IIAbii Sources ~i. tg His career thus ended in a way similar to that of one of his predecessors. He found himself forced to flee from the enraged populace. whether Stern's above-mentioned identification of Sayyir with the GiIinï chieftain Asfir is correct or not. 1905). 267/p." p. Browne: An Abridged Translation of the History of raIJari. Nqim al-Mulk's report does seem to mean that this Abü ~atim conducted his da'wah activity during the transitional period preceding Mardi.. E. G. Bosworth. sorne information can be found in a report made by Ibn l. Ghiyith.). p. wij' 5 coming to power and even for a certain period of time afterwards. 1320A. Iql:al.Iajar al-'Asqalinï (d. Asfi. 287 (English transI. Made1ung. "Mardawï2j. Ibn Isfandiyir (fi. 217). 287 Œnglish trans!.zj" in the As far as concerns the year of Abü l:Iitim's death.'i whom Ibn l. p. p. . (English trans!./1941C.. Shirüyah. Bosworth. 'A.r. Ibn Isfandiyir. • 19 Ni~ al-Mulk. However.22 • in Western Iran from bis former 'Alid master in Tabaristin and from his new master. ~ad al-Warsimi II Nipm al-Mulk. zo Ibid. Madelung and C.tin. vol. late 6th/12th century.Iajar refers to as Atunad b. This report concerns a certain Isma 'Di di.20 • §1-2. 'The Minor Dynasties. Abu ~itim finally lost the trust of the people of Tabaristin because of his own prediction of the advent of the !mim. 218).an (Leiden/London. which eventually proved false. pp.H.E. Shïriiyah in the year 319. Lisin al-Mizan.t8 Thus.

Stem. questions about the validity of the identification of the Siyisat-tJàmah '5 Abü I:fatim (or the Abü I:fatïms." pp.21 The description of this Abü Il (~ IDÛJ du'it a/-Istœ 'iliyah ) and died in 322/934- ~itim" and bis specialized area of scholarship fits in perfectly with the fact that al-Rizi was weIl known as the author of Kitib al-ZinaIJ.Iatim al-Laythï. As for the reading of this IJisbaIJ 1 follow that suggested by Stern in his 'The Early Ismi 'i1ï Missionaries. he became "one of the !sri'fi missionaries" 5. 718/1318) Jimi' al-Tawirïkb and Abü al-Qi. p.S. vol." Stern aiso suggests that "Warsanàn." lhshïd al-Dïn has "Abü l:Iitîm AJ. 2'lOn Kitib al-ruab. 1338A.sim !<i.23 In other words. It explains that Atunad was a well-cultured. l:Iamdin al-Rizi. The msbaIJ given by Ibn f:{ajar is. Mudarrisi (Tihran.) (hereafter referred ta as Kiahini).23 • Abü l. 738/1337-8) Zubdat al-Tawirïkh both mention a da'wah leader by the name of Abü I.ziJdJ. JàtIJj' al-Tawi. ca. who bore the nisbah " al-Rizï.. a variant of "Warsanini. 29-32 in the present chapter below . see p." while Kishini has "Abü J:litim b. (or the Abü ~itims) ofNi~am al-Mulk's account played 21 Ibn f:fajar al-'Asqalini. M. 6 above and pp. n.. LiÀIJ al-MizilJ. n. according ta S.fatim.lJ have not been 1 • the da'wah in the Ray region tends to support the above identification. Dinishpazhüh (Tihrin. 19. Kâshini. 1930/1971). Rashid al-Dm Fa~l Alli.h.'s (d. M.H. M. ca. Dinishpazhüh and M. ZJ See respectively: Rashid al-Oin. 1366A." from which the mshaIJ is derived. 12. ed.l64. Zubdat al-Talritiü. /1988C.literary individual with a knowledge of linguistics.S. 12.H. these two sources suggest that their Abü J:litim al-Razi and the Abü J:latim. if the two references by Ni~ al-Mulk do not pertain to one and the same person) above with Abü entirely put to reste A comparïson with two ather Persian sources which report the beginning of ~itim al-Rizï. ed. the author of al-lfli. is the name of a village in the region of Pashibüyah. a book containing lexicographical and linguistic analysis of religious and theological terms. 22 But several problems remain.shini's (d.unad b.E. However. who knew many ~dïth s. • . 195-96. 'Abdan al-Razi al-Warsanani.T. /1960) (hereafter referred ta as Rashïd al-Oin).l (Bayrüt. For example. T. p.

we find that the al-Fihrisl of Ibn al-Nadïm Cd. that is to say. since both these sources in fact postdate Ni~im al-Mulk. vol. 472 (Abü I:fitim al-RazU). 1: p. and aIso to Abü l:Iatim al-Râzj as the author of al-Zinah and al-Jamjl the only two works of aI-Razï 1 that he cites. this important text is of little help in resolving our problem. 24 These two names are. Besides the problem of the life of al-Razi..e.fitim (or the Abû l=Iatims) in the Siyisat-namaIJ with the author al-Rizï contains much room for further discussion. The Fihrist of Ibn aJ-Nadim (New York. 36.b al-Jamil. As for 16Kiti. despite initial plausibility. 188 (Abü I:fitim al-Warsanam) and p. Tuming our attention ta earlier Arabic sources in an attempt to resolve this issue. and "al-Razi" in that of the Isma1ili authors and their works. ed.àb al-Fibrisr. • Abd al-Qihir b.lili da/wah. 2 <Leipzig. al-Rizï ) (English translation by B. Thus. 'Abd al-l:Iamid (al~hirah. Ibn al-Nadim never explicitly identifies these two figures as one and the same persona • There is another Arabic text. and therefore do not constitute an independent confirmation of it. al-Farq bayn al-Firaq . i. Flügel. since it mentions only an Abü l. Tihir al-Baghdidi. n. G. 468 (Abü ~itim al-Warsanini) and p. 1868).e. mentioned in two different contexts. which falls into the genre of heresiography. Unfortunately. the issue of whether we can identify the Abü I. However. we should note that there are aiso difficulties surrounding the history of the da'wah in North-West Iran. 25 1 .fâtim aI-Warsanini as the leader of the da'wah. p. M." see §2 below. there is a strong chance that they basica1ly follow bis account. "al-Warsanini" in his account of the da'wah movement. 'Abd al-Qahir b. and thus indicate the possibility that they are one and the same person. ed. 385/995 or 388/998) refers ta a certain Abü I. Furthermore. Kil. M. 283. 1970). 30-31..24 • the same raIe in the same context.fitim. 189 (Abü 1:Iitim. nevertheless. Tihir al-Baghdidï's (d. a Ieading raIe in the da'wah of the Ray region. Dodge. vol. n.d. p. i. 429/1037) al-Farq bayn al-Firaq.25 Il Thus.. dealing with the early history of the Ismi. we 2C Ibn al-Nadim.). especially pp..

1I7IlTtyr mystique de l'Islam. La vie de Hallai <Paris. new 00. 1975)1 p. The Passion of al-Rallai.{allij" which makes one think of the great ~üfj. G.fallij). Ibn al-Nadim. vol. M~ur al-I:fallij (d. cites a m~n called "l. vol. S. L. f:farndin al-Ra al-Warsanini. 22. 188 Œnglish trans!.. Ibn al-NadIm. al-Fibrisr. provided by Ni~im al-Mulk differs substantially from those offered by Rashid al-Dm and Kishini. and Tabaristan. 229.27 Interestingly enough. vol. 468). Azarbayji. Z8 This '1. La passion d'al-Hosayn ibn-MansouT al-Hallai. 'ri The list of Kishinî has Khalaf as "Khalaf-i f:{allij.shinï includes in his list the name "Ma~ür al-I. 1: p. pp." in Ibn al-Nacrun. known as Mun' im (or Muna' 'am?).Iusayn b. 1 <Paris. The Fihrist of Ibn al-Nadim . who in tum converted Abü Ja' far-i Matrim and Abü f:fitim b.n. L." which can be translated as "the sucœssor of ~allij. I.fallijj" was tram the "Qad~id family" (Banü al-Qad~). vol.{allij al-Qu~" or "cotton-ginner" as the first di'jto the regions of Ray. new ed. pp. Kashini. 2: p. who was succeeded by Abü I. l.:' before "Abü ~itim ~ad b. vol. For example. does not cite the names of the di'. As for this list of the earliest da 'is.{amdin al-Rizï's" immediate predecessor. 1982). 29 It is possible that this charge led later authors like Ibn al-Nadim and Kishini to insert the name of al-~allij in their lists of the early di 'is . 163-64). 2. See Stern. 11-12. The Life of al-Hallai (Princeton.26 while Ki. M. La passion. Rashid al-Din.uiim a sucœssor of Khalaf. Aiter this son died." p. 1. 309/922). 559-60 Œnglish transi. "The Early Ismi'iIi Missionaries. l Il • 29 According to Massignon.. He was in tum succeeded by his son and a man called MaJ)%üm.28 A charge was made against this I:fallij by the Sunni establishment in Baghdâd that he preached the Qarmalian cause for the awaited Qi!im. 1922). pp. for example. Massignon. Stem points out that there is "great confusion" in the account of Rashid al-Din. Massignon. sorne of the evidence behind the charge against al-I:fallij of being a Qarmalian was forged. Cf. Mason. and was succeeded by bis son.fitim al-Warsanini. 77-80 and La passion de Husayn ibn MamÜl' Hallaj. 1. Ghiyith succeeded him. according to him. Stem also considers this Ja' far-i Maf. a certain Ja'far-i Ma1}tiim. pp. as L. • 26 Rashid al-Din..25 • find that the list of di'. 208 (English translation by H. p. . L. 79-80." This I<halaf appointed Ghiyith as his successor. 521). Rashid al-Din regards I<halaf as if he had been the first chief da'i of I<hurisi.. Flügel Anmerkungen. who wrote at a much earlier time than Kishini. 1. al-Fibrist vol. Massignon remarks. vol. p. pp.üfï al-~allijj to early da'is in Ibn al-Nadim (but he discusses the possiblity ofI<halaf-i f:{allajj's relation ta al-I. Massignon raises doubt on the relation of the great.n.

pp. It seems that Madelung's argument is mainly based on al-Baghdadi's Firaq and the work of an important philosopher-scientist.1iyah. 661-62. 4. 254)." p. Abü ~itim's correspondence with the leader of the Bahrayni Tihir al-Jannibi. 31 I<iahini. 96-102. 662. as weIl as the account of the great Mu'tazilï theologian. 415/1024-5). n. link the above-mentioned prediction of the advent of Mahdi of 316/928 and Abü l. 47f. 1 Q. pp. a few details have yet ta be elucidated. 96: also see p. 22. 32 Madelung. K. pp. 77f. and p..30 Among our original sources we have Abü al-Qisim Kashi. "Abd al-Jabbir. • idem. idem.t DaJa'il aJ-Nu6uwwab.!fahini in Bahrayn in 319/931. 392. Made1ung painfs a picture of al-Rizi as an active leader of the Qarma\ian movement in what is now Western Iran. 442/1050) AI-AdJiir al-Baqiyab 'u al-Quma aJ-Kbi. 69. p.26 • §1-3. al-Razï's da'wah activity was related to the dedaration as the Mahdi of a young l". for instance. Qi~ (Abd al-Jabbir al-Hamadhini (d. ed. See also his "Fatimiden und Bahraynqarmaten. I. "~arma\Ï. 74-79 (English transI. p.{amdin al-Ri. astrologically calcu1ated as the year of conjunction of Saturn and ]upiter. who mentions the name "Abü I:fitim b. Religious Trends. 'A. relying on various sources. also his "Fatimiden und Bahrainqarmaten. p. Talb6. and to the subsequent disappointment among the QarmalÏans when this man proved to be a false Messiah...Religious Trends. According to him. However." EI z. n.Iitim's subsequent disappointment over the faIse Mahdi with ~ w.J2 The connection between al-Ràzi and the Qarma!ian movement that Madelung suggests seems plausible." p. p. that Abü aitim al-Razï "spread the prediction" that the advent of the Mahdi would take place in 316/928. vol. .JI Madelung further argues. "~anna~. Madelung. 97. 45-48). p. Al-Razi and the Qarm~ian Movement How much did al-Rizï truly involve himself in the QarmalÏan movement? w. 78..ni's report of Abü Qarma\Ïans. Uthrnin (Bayrüt. 1970). Can we." pp. Abï al-Rayl}ân aI-lùünï's (d.2i al-Kilibi" among the Qarma\Ïan di 'i s that • condemned Abü Tihir for having yielded his authority to the faise Mahdi. 1 (English transI.

The second was when AbU ijitim himself (if he is the same persan as the one under the leadership of Ghiyith33) spread his own prediction of the coming of "an imim" (imam.wij and for a certain time after the latter gained independent power in 319/931. al-Mulk's account.Iitim's use of the appellation lIimim" rather than '~ahdi"? This does not. inNi~im al-Mulk's account no actual evidence exists to prove Abü l. the da'wah of Western Iran spread propaganda predieting the advent of a messianic figure on two separate occasions. necessarily exclude the possibility that he predicted the coming of the Mahdi.m al-Mulk's account can be interpreted to mean that it flourïshed in the transitional period priar to the rule of Mardi. And what about Abü l. That is ta say.Iitim's involvement in the propaganda surrounding Ghiyath's prediction: we can only surmise that he would likely have been engaged in such propaganda under • Ghiyath's leadership. as we leamed above. during the career of Abü ijitim. Bath predictions proved faIse. As for Abü l. in fact. But. • This problem was touched upon above in §1-1 of this chapter above and will be revisited shortly in the present sub-section.) in Tabarist:àn. Ni~a.1im is the seventh imam of the age of the Prophet Mu~ammad according to the teachings of early Ismi'ilism.Iitim's activity in Tabaristin. The Mahdi-Qi. In Ni~im. The first was Ghiyith's announcement of the advent of the Mahdi. the astrologically significant year of 316/928 may or may not have fallen within the period of his activity. whereas the declaration of the Mahdïship of the young Iffahinï and his exposure as a fraud took place in 319/931. 33 .27 • N~m al-Mulk's account of Abü ~itim (or Abü ~itims)? Certain corresponding events might substantiate Madelung's scheme. Let us begin our scrutiny of Madelung's thesis by examining al-Razj's prediction of the advent of the Mahdi.

There remains one more problem. might suggest his identification with the author of Kirab a/-Zinab mentioned above on p. 23. That is to say. But this chronology still seems to fit Made1ung's scheme that Abü ~itim spread the news of the advent of a messianic figure in the year 316/928 but that the aftermath of the exposure of the false ~fahanï Mahdi in the year 319/931 compelled him to abandon his followers in Tabaristin. In other words there remains the possibility that al-Rizi might have been involved in Qarma~an propaganda for the faIse Mahdi. is there any particular connection between this would-be author of al-ZiaalJ and the di fi in Tabaristan except their common kurJya. described as ~itim" well-versed in literature. since we cannot determine exactly when this Abü ~itim started bis da1wah activity in Tabaristi. we need to take into consideration • the possibility that there may really be two "Abü account of Ni~im ~itims" distinguishable in the al-Mulk.e. However. and the UAbü in Tabaristin. the Daylamis) saw that the time which he (Le. This is the problem of the identification of the uAbü ~itim. We cannot however say with any certainty which of these opinions is the most likely." who was Ghiyith's deputy. Abü ~itim) had predicted as the • ~ The depiction of the first Abü ~itim" as a man of literature. an issue which we discussed in the last sub-section. By contrast. Which of these "Abü ijitims" then is the more identifiable with our author al-Razi?W At the moment the following possibilities cannot be entirely excluded: that one of these IIAbü ~itims" can be identified with our author. we still need to solve a different problem before we confirm the possibility of al-RaZi's involvement in Qarm. that they are one and the same person and yet not our author.28 • We cannot provide a decisive answer to this issue.n given the present stage of our research. Abilf:litim"? Il Il .a~anpropaganda. given the present study of our research. that neither of them can be.im al-Mulk writes: "When they (i. or that they refer to a single individual who is the subject of our study. which aIse deals with Arabie poetry. Ni.

00. 1937). they said. p. 118: See also C. 217). 3S Nip. even though bis millennialist. Biobibliography. p. 43. we have corrected Poonawala's Kir. §2. 1 (Leiden. and K. K. pp.36 At the moment there is no al-Mulk. 323).m • 36 Poonawala. p. Which propagandist activity in Ni~im al-Mulk's account relates to the event of the false Mahdi in Bahrayn? Is the account of al-Razi's prediction in Tabaristin different from that of the Qarma~an leadership in Bahrayn? We can only make reasoned guesses as to the answers to these questions because of the paucity of historical sources available at this moment. 267/p.zï' 5 oeuvre.35 This passage suggests that the elapse of the predicted time led to the discrediting of Abü ~itim among bis Daylamï followers. (~li na-Iarad in madbbab. and aise in light of the index of works dted in the text by its editor. there still remain • questions concerning its nature and extent. R. antinomian reign lasted ooly a short period before it was exposed as a fraude Thus Ni~ al-Mulk's account here does not accord with Madelung's conclusion that after the Mahdi proved false. he fled from his followers and hid himself.ab al-Jàmi' li Fiqh to read "Kilib al-Jimj' fi al-Fiqh " after consulting the follwing text: Ml$lmmad b. Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur. Kitâb al-Raj'ah fi al-Radd A.. 287 (English transI. 38-39. p. But the fact is. Brockelmann. They are Kîtab al-Zinab fi al-Ka1imàt al-lslimiyah al.. Al-Razi's Works In his Biobibliography of Isma 'ni Literature.. 1938). But although al-Razi's involvement in the Qarmalian movement seems plausible.. This work is the one Ibn al-Nadim Il Il . ijusayn al-Daylami. 'fuis religion does not have any base.94.29 • Imam's advent had just passed. ). Poonawala cites five books as comprising Abü l:Iatim al-Ra. pp.ita& a/-Jami l fi al-PiqIJ. Supplemnet Bd.". that a Mahdi did not arrive on the scene. manqü1 min Kitib Qari 'id Al MIIIPmrrpd.' A12&iyalJ. Strothmann (Istanbul. 1. Kità& lala a1-1#~. A 'lim al-NubüwalJ.. As for the last work. according to Madelung.lJib al-Raj'ah . BayiQ Madbbab al-Bâpmyab wa-Bu~âni-bi.

refers to. Our investigation of al-I~l~ will be reserved for a separate chapter. p. fascicles 1 and 2 were edited by H. !slamic rituaIs and Arabie poetry./1951C.38 Al-Suyü~ used the text of al-Zinah • as a source for his study of foreign vocabulary in the Qur in.E. MutJammad al-5ijistani who. 829/1427). Kuhf al-~UlJÜIJ 'u "ami al-Kutub wa-al-FunÜIJ.. 138-39.H. see also above p. Ki. 1348A. pp. and ~ajjï Kha]jfah. 38 ijiiji IOWifah incorrectly attributes this work to Abü ~tim Salù b. 189 Œnglish transI. pp.fitim al-Rizi's name.39 In addition. S. 24 in the present chapter. l. citing al-Radd 'ala al-Qavrl bi-al-Raj'ab.. 37 Ibn al-Naclim. 472). 248-312. Here we will therefore concentrate first of all on lütab a/-ZinaIJ and its influence on later generations. Kitab al-Zinah was the best known of all al-Razi's works among non-Ismi'ffi authors. 8-9. AI-5uyüli's works are: al-Mucnnkkùi <Dimashq. 1957-58). 189 Œnglish transI. mentions Abü I. a 1 19th century Ithni'asharï author..37 ather important Sunnï authors who mention al-Zinab are TalaI al-Dm al-Suyü~ (d.H. pp.1362A. 138-39. 2: p.30 • analysis available of the last two works. Possibly because of its more technical than specifically Ismi.). in his al-Fibds" calling it "Kitib aJ-Jimj. 2 Ostanbul. See ijijjî Khalifah. was edited by 'A.Tàmi'• other than that found in Poonawala's Biobibliography.). The three parts of al-Zinah have been published in the following editions." al-Raj'ah and Al-. vol. then diseuss A 'Jam . al-Filuist. AI-Suyù~. al-Simarni'i in his AI-Ohulüw wa-aJ-Firaq al-ohaliyab fi aJ-lfadinIJ aJ-Islamïyah (1972). Fascicle 3.E. vol. 472). and that of the latter ta 5yriac. al-MuravvakJrjJj. al-Irq an. The earliest of the latter to realize its importance was the famous Ibn al-Nadim: we already briefly diseussed bis citation of the work above. vol. pp. 1323..H. 2: p. idem. 1370A. On Ibn al-Nadim's mention of this work. the part on terms of heresiography. 8-9. al-Ilqin fi 'U1üm aJ-Qur'in (al-Qihirah. died in 250 AH. besides al-ZiIJaIJ. known aIso as Kitib Çelebï (d. p. Ibn al-Nadïm. 1. Kitab al-Zinah is a lexicographical work which defines the terms used for the attributes of God and in heresiography. al-Razi ascribed the origin of the former ward to Greek Oughal al-RÜID).).1I and adding the note: "in which there is [the discussion of] jurisprudence and other[s]" (Ji-hi fiqh ln-ghayr dlWika). vol. • idem. an important poiemicai work. ./1943C. 1067/1657). al-Fibris" vol. M~ammad Biqir zayn al-Dïn I<hwinsiri (18111895).'ill nature. p. 39 Al-5uyil1i abridges al-Rizi's explanations of words such as"al-~r:i~" (path) and "alrabbamyüa wa-rabbiyülJ" (rabbis): accarding to al-SuYÜ\i. according to him. al-Hamdini (al-Qihirah. pp.

/197019ne. Walker. and ordered him. Fabruat aI-Kutub wa-al-Rasà'il wa-li-man biya min al-'u/ami' wa-al-a 'immah wa-al·." Actes du XXIe congrès internatioruzl des orientalistes (paris. Arabie linguistics.). al-MaIlfür. one of the earliest quotations of the early • influential I<hunisanian ~üfï theosophical thinker. 323. Radtke. The authenticity of this report is.00. fascicle.). Ismi. al-ZÛJaIJ shows a wide range of influences. 1344A.'D b.Ein Antwortschreiben nach Sara!Js. Drei Schriften des Theosophen von Tirmii. Majdü'. -T. and aJ-ZùJaIJ. may have been involved in the Qarma1Ïan movement.41 According to Idris. 1390-1392A. and transi.42 • In addition to its being weil known among both Ismi. p. is to be found in al-Zinab. pp. containing as it does quotations from sources in such genres as ~wwuf or ~üfism. to teach the di 'is the text one section at a time. such as Idris 'Imid al-Oïn (d. moreover. 5.ïl al-Jazmil 6AfJwil ~-' UIUDi' wa-aI-Sidit <Tihran. pt.. vol. 1183 or 1184/1769-70). MunzaWi (Tihrill. as we saw. 1 (Beirut. p. 315. pp. quoting the latter's definition of the word "Shi'ah. .E. 'UyUrJ aI-Akhbâr wa-FWJIÏlI aI-Afbir (Bayrut. The passage is found in aI-Zinah. 291-94. the authenticity of this episode would have some validity. 1992).Abü l:iitem Rizi. Ein Antwortschreiben nach Rayy." p. B.'ïlï authors. sent his son and eventual successor. 40 "1 Idris 'Imid al-Oin. 1949). 'A. Ghâlib.fJudüd wa-aI-afi.'ilis and non-Ismililis. by B. 167-70.40 Al-ZùJab is aIso mentioned by severa! of al-RâZi's fellow ISIl\i. however. 43 On the variety of authors quoted in al-ZiDa4 see P. the Fà~d capital of the time.HS. and Iran. «Abd al-Rasiil. According ta B.~. al-Qi'im. 00.: Halm. 50. 872/1468) and the compiler of a famous Ismâ'ili bibliography. M. pp. both because of the distance between Mahdiyah. Radtke. 00. 74-75./1966C.. p. 201. 36. known as Majdü' (d. Radtke. Rawf. The possibility of such contacts will be discussed below in chapter 8.43 This ref1ects al-Rizï's extensive knowledge in the fields Khwinsiri.31 • very likely the same work as the above-mentioned Kirab al-Raj'ah fi al-Radd tala A~~ al-Raj'ah. p. . A. Prophetie traditions and Greek philosophy. 2 . below. chapter 6. E.Q Cf. al-l:iakimal·Tinnidhi. Hamdani .. 1. But if a1-RâZi established intelleetual contacts with the thinkers working for the Fi~imid court and developed some pro-~\Îmid tendencies..H. '~inleitung. vol. 1973). Early Philosophica[ 5hiism. a copy of al-ZÜJah part by part. and because of a possible doctrinal conflict between the Fapmids and thinkers like al-Rizï who. the second Fi\imid Caliph.Das Buch vom Leben der Gottesfreunde. §1: aise d.E."Kirab az-ZiDah of Abil fJitim. questionable." in al-I:fakim al-Tirmidhi.

suggesting a common ground for Gnostic thought.". which bas drawn the attention of non-Isma cm Muslim scholars to the text. Shamsuddin Talbani. Abü Bakr al-Razï (Rhazes) on the subject of prophecy and its validity as a source of true knowledge. of leaming. "al-Ran. ZakaIiyi. Pines. Abü Bakr MuJ:1ammad b. Rhazes is quoted and attacked in A 'lâm as a "heretic" (aJ-mullJiJ). al-Ràzï quotes the (al-Qihirah. Goodman. pp. This text was edited and published as: A 'làm aJ-Nu6üwalJ. 16-23." Abr-Nahrain 13 (1973): pp.". pp. N~r (Tihrin.47 Moreover.45 Rejecting the latter's assertions on the basis of the 5hï'i concepts of nubüwaIJ and imàmab.-R." Also cf. 3-28 of the al-~iWi-A'wini edition.6 al-'Dm al-Hibi and the Five Etemals. and English preface by S. Jamim. see: L. 8.." Arabica 8 (1961). 47 This part is found in pp. furthermore. 1958)." Stlldia Islamica 26 (1967): pp. al-RiZi quotes and criticizes Rhazes's philosophical doctrines. This is suggested by G. in bis criticism of Greek philosophy in general. A. the following translation of parts hom A 'Jim on prophecy: F. etc." It is this breadth. for instance. . especially. Dünash b. 5-22. on an anonymous Jewish mystical treatise. Brion. "The Debate about Prophecy. I<raus and S. Vajda. in terms of their respective notions of the cosmogonicai roles of alphabets. 46 In the first part of A 'lam especially. 00. M. Sefer Ye#rih. "Philosophie et révélation. his cosmological-ontological principle of the "five eternals" (al-qudama' • al-khamsalJ ) and bis cosmogonical myth of the faIl of Soul into Matter. with introduction by ~. Zakariyi. given its value as a source for many branches of the re1igious sciences. "Les lettres et les sons de la langue arabe d'après Abii ~itim al-Razi. 113-30. ~ Also there is the possibility that al-Rizi's description in al-ZinaIJ of these issues reflects bis contemporary religious and intellectual milieu common to Muslims and non-Muslims. In this article Vajda compares al-Rin'S view of the Arabie alphabet with the linguistic views expressed in the commentary by a 4th/lDth century philosopher. 4S • 46 For an overview of the debate between the two Râzis. 134-62. Mohaghegh. . ''Razi's Kiti. A 'wiIi. as mentioned above in chapter one. "al-Rizi. 1917). idem. al-~wi and Gh. p. f:f. Abü Bakr Mul}ammad b. A 'lam al-Nubüwab on the other hand is al-Râzi's record of the doctrinal debate between him and the renowned physidan-philosopher." pp. 124-26. al-Rizï argues for the validity of the teachings of prophets and imams as the sole source of true knowledge. E. P.32 • of knowledge of the philology of both Islamic and non-Islamic philology. "Notes on the "Spiritual Physiek" of al-Ran.

73. ''Étude préliminaire... Sbu1)-i Q&1ïda4 pp.50 However." A1-Kïrmini ." ..al-Aqri1 al-DbababïyalJ. Abü Bakr) and al-shaykh Abü ~itim al-Rizï.1I in Al-Kinnàni. Biobiblography. . in the edition just dted above. p. IIIntroduction et esquisse comparative. 88f.à. 128-144. 84f. 49 Al-Kirmini writes that the debate which IItook place between him (Le. ed.idah of Abü al-Haytham al-Jurjinï who may have heen identified as Mu~ammad b. 2-4 and Poonawala. 1341A. A.lJadrati-bi ). 92-96. 'The Debate about Prophecy. which he believes was composee! in the middle of the 3rd/9th century. idem. or rather freely concocted in the name of. pp. pp. 25. there is no mention at all of the name of Abü Hâtim al-Rizi.E. Mul}arnmad b. 5hamsuddin Talbani. Al-Kirmâtû mentions that the debate was held in the presence of Maniawïj himself (li. Nasr./1977C. the leader of the mission <.ni. and the great poet-philosopher. For indentification of those sayings "quoted" byal-Rizi hom Greek philosophers. "Introduction./1923C. 1397A. Rudolph. ecI. N~ir-i • Khusraw (d. Zid al-MuAfirin. A 'Jam shows us how in the 4th/IOth century Greek thought had already been received into the intellectual milieu of Islamic society. philosophers ranging from pre-Socratics to Late He1lenistic Neoplatonism. al-~wi (1UU'in. ~. Corbin.E. 50-52. pp. in the passages attacking Rhazes penned by the latter two Iranian thinkers. M. Sth/llth century). al-~n (Berlin. 116f. O. 137f. idem.). see H." p. This debate is reported also by ~d al-Dîn al-Kïrmini in bis work al-Aqwil al-DIJalJabiyah. between 465/1075 and 498/1104). 114f. pp. ICitib-i Jjmj' al-~ibmatayn.. 51 Nor is 48 These are the characteristics of a genre of Iiterature called doxography. Biobibliography. 36. pp.33 • teachings attributed to.. a polemical work criticizing Abü Bakr al-Rizï's theory of soul and intellect. 77-83. see U. 11-17. 50 See Poonawala. Rudolph identifies the source of those sayings as the anonymous doxographical text Kitab AmürJiyür fi Ani al-Falùüa1J." pp. such as the commentator on the qa. On the polemics of these two thinkers. 2-3. Surkh NishipiiIi (fi.). 48 In this sense. 126. H. Surkh Nishipüri (?). U.49 Just as it had come under attack from Abü I:fatim al-RaZi and al-I<îrmi.. B. 111-12. Abu Bakr al-Rizi's philosophy gave rise to counter-polemics from Isma'ïli critics of later generations as well. pp. See also S. al-AqwiJ al-Zhababiyab. 23-32: in the latter study. 213. 64-73. Die Doxographie.. • 51 Passages critical of Rhazes are to be founel in: Nqi r-i I<husraw.fib al-da 'wall) about prophecy and the rites of revelationallaw (al-lIJalJÜik al-sbar'iya1V.H.H. pp.

asserting its authentiàty and the taw~d or unity of God. extending from p. L 3 to p.137f. 1. 156f. p. 78. al-anbiyi' min bayua al-'ilamiyin bi-al-fa!lSiah) and their priority over the latter (taqQUDu-bum 'alay-JUm). al-A'lwi1 al-Dhahabiyab. 1. 10.'ilis? An analysis of both texts.. while in Jami' al-Hilcmataya he reports that Rhazes held that the revelation to prophets should be ascribed to the whisperings of a demon (diw).ïr-i Khusraw's critiosm of Rhazes. 16. "1 answer") aIl the points al-Razï IIneglected" (alunala) in bis discussion. idem. Thus no notable influence from A 'lcim can he found in either passage. 3. <French transI. 16. 1 to p. In Zàd ~r-i Khusraw attacks Rhazes' rejection of prophecy. "Etude préliminaire. not even when ~ir-i Khusraw turns to the subject of prophecy. de Gastines as Khosraw. in which • al-I<ïrmini quotes al-Razi extensively." p. the al-Aqwâl al-Dhababiyah and Kitib al-Riyi~. H. he mentions that in bis now lost work. 54 Al-I<irmini otes the issues which al-Rizi "neglected" such as singling out of the prophets for their excellence in comparison to the worldly people (ta1dJJ. Al-Kirmàni.53 In addition al-Kirminï states that he intends to "answer" (ujibu. p. Zàd al-MuAruinr p. and on the extent to which al-Kirmini utilized al-Razi's thought to formulate bis philosophical and theological paradigms. whether as source-material or as provider of sorne insights.S2 Thus. Corbin.). 15. Kiûf)-i Jimi' al-(ükmataya. p. 1990). In this text al-KïrmiJü reproduœs from A 'lim the passage from the debate on the neœssity of having a teacher or uguide" in the quest for knowledge. al-Aqril alDhahabiyab. 5ince this problem would take Nifir-i Khusraw. However. might shed light on the issue of al-Razï's place in intellectual history.nï.54 The suggestion that the only direct response to A 'lim is found in al. 14. • . Le Livre réunissant les deux sagesses (KilÜ-e Jimi'a1-Hikmata~ (Paris. he presents his criticism of Rhazes's attack on prophecy. is almost a verbatim version of the text in the printed edition of A '~ from p.34 • any trace of al-Rizï to be detected in their words. 52 Nisir~ 53 The passage from al-~iwi's edition of al-I<irmï. BusWJ al-'U'lW. In the same passage of Jimi' al-HiJcmatayn. by 1. the only noticeable response to al-Razï's A'lâm is to be found in f:lamid al-Din al-!<irmini's al-Aqlril al-Dmbabiya1J. Thus at present it is not fully po~sible to investigate the influence of A 'làllunNa.Kirminï' s al-Aqri1 al-Dhababiyah but not in the anti-Rhazian polemics of other authors raises a question concerning the place of al-Rizï in the history of Ismi'ili thought How much influence did al-Razi exert on later generations of Ismi. . 7. 137f. O.. since these issues are actually discussed in A'IaD4 al-I<irmini may have felt the necessity to elaborate on them further.

3S • us beyond the scope of our present study. it must be reserved for future study. • • .

lj~ al-/~l~ deals with various topics which may roughly be divided into those having a philosophical theme. ehapter 1. discussion of the scheme of sacred history directed toward salvation. .1-1. Onlyabout one-ninth of the text is devoted to philosophical themes per se. Ma~r al-Yaman.li~ in the Hamdani and Tübingen Manuscripts. Cf.fJ is how the author introduces • 1 Two eontemporaneous texts. Introductory Remarks to the Text of al-l. based mainly on the Qur'an. The topics discussed under the heading • of prophecy include: interpretations of the history or narratives of the prophets. The Text of . The discussion on topics relating to prophecy takes the form of conunentary on or interpretation of the Qur'inic verses dealing with the history of the prophets. 1 Another point to be remarked in the text of al-I~Ià. such as psychology and physics. This topie will he revisited by citing some examples below in §2-2 of the present ehapter. 50 that prophecy is the dominant focus of the work. interpret the history of the prophets using a sirnilar format. In addition to these two main themes we might mention the separate issue of the ethics of the administration of the hierarchical organization. p. Asù al-Ta 'ri of a1-<Ji~ al-Nu 'min and Sara'u a]-Nu!&9&' of }a'far b. and those related to the theme of prophecy. and the Printed Edition §l-l. 14 above.36 • The text of Chapter3 The Text of al-lsliih • • §1. and the prophets' encounters with angelic beings.

Without naming its author. 9r. (plural Il. for example.. p.fJ. p.. 49. 164.. 56. 23). which he then refutes in a ~l following those statements.f. we should reserve any judgment on this matter at this stage of our research... 1. • 4 In the text al-Nasafi is referred to ooly as the "author of al-M~ûl " (~i..9.2 In the text. 1. Walker.4.").. al-Rizi dedares bis intention ta begin with "correction of the fault[s] occurring in the book" e'wa-al-ina nabtadi'u fi l~l~ mi waqa la min al-ghaJal fi al-kîti6."). thus indicating the object of his critidsm Cf. 1.. 11/f." ("amm i al-flawl 6 anna.1. .). 3 Cf. As for the identification of such "statements" in other parts.fJib al-~ûl ). However.8 of al-Riyi!l with f. p.1. This constitutes one of the standard formats in the arrangement of the text of al-I~li. 2/p. 52 and p.23r. This problem in al-I<irmini's quotation from al-Razi might be ascribed to the former's "summarization" of the latter and/or sorne alteration attributable to sorne unknown intention on the part of al-I<irmini. 4/p. changes of wording.p. 1. it is to be remarked that when a1-Kirmini quotes al-l. and sorne re-phrasing of al-I. 8/p. aJ-Riyi. By this formula al-RaZi introduces the particular statements of an opponent. whereas in the introduction al-Kirmirü names the author of al-l. 50. 1.37 • the daims of his opponent. and the page nurnber of the printed edition third. Early Phz1osophical 5hiism.fJ . n. 23r. bib) start with the formula lias for the statement on that. Also." See al-Kirmini. that of the Tübingen manuscript second. IOr. 165. in dting from the text of al-l~J~ . 1.4 It should aIso be 2 Hereafter. At the beginning of part two of the text.1. fa.3 we can safely ascribe the above-mentioned "statements" to the Kirab al-M~ül of al-Nasafi (or al-Nakhshabi) on the basis of the following considerations. 171.I~ and that of al-Nu. E. the folio number of the Hamdani manusaipt is referred te first. P. Although neither the name of the opponent nor the title of the work attacked is identified in al-I~liJ). it seems that he is not always very faithful to al-Rizi's text: one encounters the omission of sorne lines.rah as "al-Shaykh Abü ~itim al-Rizi" and "a l-Shaykh Abü Ya1qüb al-SijiZi. IL 14-15/f. mainly because a thorough comparison of these two texts would fall .11) and sorne chapters (sg.. and passim.1. there is indirect evidence as to their source bath inside al-l~liJ) a~d outside it. 26r.. al-I<irmanï in his al-Riyi~ • quotes various passages from al-M~ül which al-RiZï quotes again and refutes in the part on philosophical issues and in his chapter on the prophethood of Adam. 11/f.Ij. AIso hereafter any line referred to in the two MSS or the printed edition is designated by the abbreviation 1... 27. for instance. many sections (sg. 26r.l~ in the corresponding passage in al-Riyi!l Compare.

fqü1 with a1-Nasafi. 58-60 and 64 respectively in the table of contents in the present chapter). 283 and 293-94). in the present dissertation. n. p." (Bib fi q#.). a long segment in part two of the text on the Unarratives of prophets such as David. 66-68. see below pp.~ al-UJhiyi' IlÛn Di 'üd wa-Sulaymjn wa-gbayri-himi). below on pp. sorne sections do not follow the above format of exposition and refutation. and others" ('li. and the story of Solomon. Jonah's being swaUowed in the fish (Q 37: 140-145) . • 7 For example.) (for references to these examples. For further references to citations and quotations of al-M~ül.. Nisir-i Khusraw as an ISIllà'w witness to it (Khri12 al-lüritJ. where "Shaykh al-NajiShi" cited in the latter as the author of al-M~ü1 should be corrected to read "Shaykh al-Nakhshabi.ü1 . Mary's pointing to Jesus in the cradle (Q 19: 29) . Poonawala and Walker. There are certain other features that reinforce the above impression. 1359AH. Early Philosophical Shiism.at A'y'yüb 'alay-hi al-saJim) toward the end of the text (for references to these three portions. al-Khashshib (al-Qihirah. Y. 112 and the same author's Jâmi' aJ-8iJanatayn .lvanow casts some doubt on al-Nasafi's authorsbip of aJ-MafJ. 41-43. see for example. in the present chapter). 169. 89.6 Thus the work itself can be regarded as a sort of "mixture" of not on!y the history of the prophets and philosophical discussion. rather hostile Sunni heresiographer's witness (al-Fuq baya al-Firaq. 5 For identification of the authorship of al-Ma. but also polemies dealing with these two fields. since bis name and the name of the book are not mentioned in al-l. especially. see: the very beginning segment of the text which discusses the moral conduct of the di 'i s./194DC. see rePeated interpretation of Jesus' resembling Adam (Q 3: 59). p. ed. We owe these references to Poonawala. Salomon. p. Identieal topies with commentary on the same Qur'inic verses are repeatedly reintrodueed at several points in the text? This 11oose" arrangement of subjeet matter and its • outside the scope of our present study: this would provide a useful theme of future study of al-I<irmâni. 6 For example." his mshab in Persian fonn). as will be seen in §2 below. 58. we follow the opinion on this matter of present-day mainstream scholarsbip represented by. 59 and 62-63 in the table of contents in the present chapter: and d . but feature instead narrative of history of the prophets which in most cases takes the form of Qur'inic commentary. and a chapter entitled lIon the story of Job -Peaœ upon him!. Al-Baghdidion the other hand provides a non-Ismi'ili. This aspect of the text may give readers the impression that it is somewhat loosely composed rather than coherently and systematically arranged. Studies. p. pp. However.38 • pointed out that al-Nasaf'j's authorship of al-M~ül can be eonfirmed in non-Isma'ïlï as weIl as Ismâ 'ïli sources. see Walker. . for example. the "ant" and the Queen of Sheba (Q 27: 16 and 24 ete. §2-2.lâfJ and al-Riyi~ W. W.E. pp. see. below. Biobibliography. Ivanow.5 However. 171. pp.

We might also consider the possibility that the polemical material and the '1ecture notes" as such may have been combined by the Ismi"His of a later generation or in the course of the transmission of the texte 9 For a discussion of these passages.. and then compare them with the printed edition. 166. As a background to our analysis of the text. Il/p. 291-92.. 1. 6/f. 133v. 8lv. they have wordings oddly different from each other ) and p. 45r. 12/p. 2/f.... 9-10/f. below. Another problem related to the organization of the text is that of the transmission of the text or Us manuscript tradition. 293.6: for the same reason as the previous case) in chapter 8 of the present dissertation.. 24 (on f.fJ. 1.39 • organization in the text may nevertheless provide us with sorne clues to the formation of the text itself. the solution to fuis problem must be left for future research. for example: p. n. this chapter will first describe the two manuscripts of the work in the Hamdani and Tübingen collections. n. which is based on three other manuscripts (See §1-3 below). text-based analysis of the topics in a1-1~1â. 131 v. is that the text lacks bath its beginning and ending. 94. 22 (on f... as weil as certain portions from the body of the texte The text has thus survived only in an incomplete state. 45. 1. the text might have had its origin in a series of '"'lecture notes.. 7 and 132v. see. 17/p. 262.fJ will inevitably be of a somewhat preliminary nature.. It will be seen from our examination that all surviving manuscripts 8 This was suggested to us by Professer Hermann Landolt. . must inevitably have been influenced by its transmission in manuscript forme The problem that we face in this regard. n...9 Consequently our study of a1-1~1â. Il. 5 and f. The formation of the text as we now have it.. as will be seen in the sub-section following the next. Moreover. 1. 1. Il/p.46v. 1 If. . 93f. L 3/p. 1. 1. and pp.. 132v. 161. the defective quality of its transmission is reflected in sorne philological problems which can be observed in severa! passages. 82r. 260: although these two passages discuss the same topie with the same Qur'inic verse. certain • questions having to await the discovery of a complete version of the text or of fragments hitherto unknown. 1. For example. These points mus t be borne in mind when undertaking a thorough.. . 78 in chapter 5 (on f."s However. 10/f. 46r. 1. . 1: the passage has several variants which make it difficult to • determine the correct reading).

1~ have come down to us in an imperfect state. Finally. Iv. . we will present an analytical table of contents of the different versions and offer sorne general remarks on them. 00. in order to base our textual analysis on firm foundations.). lacking in each case (and to a greater or lesser extent) its beginning and end." The folio 1 recto of MS. and is written in clear nukbi script...40 • of a1-1. O. Hamdani of the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee for generously granting me permission to use the precious manuscript of al-Maqilid in bis possession. Poonawala. On the text of Kirab al-Maqilid and its unique manuscript. see 1. 274-83. pp. Again 1 would like to express here my heartfelt thanks ta: Professor A. P. Kimb al-Maqilid (Hamdani MS.Uid" in Essays on Islamie Civilization: Presented to Niyazi Berkes. which will be referred to in the following as MS. sorne of the manuscripts seem to lad< internaI portions of the text. 1976). consists of 169 folios. The first page of the text Cf. with additional reference to the newly published printed edition. A Description of the Two Manuscripts The Hamdani manuscript. lo Each page has 16 lines (without exception) and bears a page number. Ham. serves as the title page for the manuscript: here we find the title given with the name of its author as Kitib a1-Ifl~ li-sayyjdi-ni Abi ijitim al-Rizi. Moreover. K. Little (Leiden.. We will aise attempt to shed light on the formation of the Hamdani and Tübingen MSS. The handwriting of the manuscript appears to resemble that of the unique manuscript of al-Sijistini's • Kiti. Montréal.b al-Maqilid which is aIso preserved in the Hamdani collection in Milwaukee. Wisconsin. Ham.) numbered page "338. §1-2. 169r. my sUPervisor at McGill University.) is numbered page "1" and the last (f. for kindly permitting me to reproduce of bis photocopy of the manuscript. "AI-5ijislini and His Kimb al-Maq. Wis. and Professor Hermann Landolt. Milwaukee. AIso on the title page there is a short note by a former owner which reads as follows: • 10 AI-5ijistini.

.)para.'îlism. i. AI-Ramdani. into the possession of the humblest one. For a survey of the developments of the Musta'lian Ismi'w communities.. This further confirms the ownership by the Hamdani family of the manuscript. • The first few letters of tlùs word are illegible. A." can barely be identified. p. B. As this manuscript lacks an ending . and hence a colophon. 12 This community was split into the Di'üdi and 5ulaymani wings in the late 10th/16th century.~JI . The fact that it was in the possession of a member of the Hamdani family makes it likely that the manuscript is of Indian provenance. see F.-J'! 'JI ~ ( 1.J~~I&. the 11 In fact the date corresponding ta "the year 1328 on Rabi' al-ikhar 17th" is April 29th. 12 This individual may therefore have obtained the manuscript for his family library.1ammad-' Ali (?) al-Hamdini as a second (possessor) without any dispute or conflict [in] the year 1328 on Rabi' al~khar 17th/ [in] the year 1910 on April 26 (sic. F.13 Surat. AIso there is another stamp written in Latin script which reads: '~ohsin T. Tihir b. thanks to the most Exalted and His favor. reprint. 90. 1940. Ankara. This ward can be read as "Nurpara. Ouowid. Sayyidi MuJ. . This community is a branch of the Tayyibi Ismâ'ïus. • There is aiso an octagonal stamp written in Arabic script which is so illegible that only three names ''M~ammad.)l1. ~. 1910.J 'V ~ 'fYA~~~JI~jL:.'' U'Ali" and "Hamdinï. which is prominent in the Di 'üdï community in India. H." a chapter from bis The /stü'üis.. "Musta'lian Isma'ïlism.. 1994).. H.41 • " . 13 .~~U~IJ. Cf. Hicri Tahùrleri Milâdî Tarihe Çeuinne Kilavuzu (Ankara. pp. Daftary.e the heirs of the Fa~d interpretation of Isma. (. T.." This apparently denotes another member of the Hamdani family who was in possession of the manuscript.. R." in a second instance of this stamp appearing on the next to last page.j.lS) Y9~ ("This book has come.") The nisbah of the owner cited in the above quotation indicates that he was a member of the Hamdani family. Unat. 256-323.

iJf\ \ r. written in clear nukJü script... ')L. (f..) is numbered page "2" and the last page (f. Tüb. we consulted: 1. Iv. This is followed by the Arabie numerais .'Ali ibn al-I:fadd Oadd?) al-'Allimah Sayyidi Ibrahimj Sayfi.b al-l~lâ. 167r. K.il.42 • name of the copyist and the date of transcription remain unknown.. "AI-5ijistini and His /üœb aI-MatlàJid. 14 The Tübingen manuscript.J (Al-~~ Tayyib b... He could be the same copyist as the one responsible for MS.15 This stamp appears on the other side of the same leaf. Ir. Mulli Sul~n-lAli donated [this book] ta the cause of the 5upreme Gad).1 ~ 1~ 1~~ ~.. which will hereafter be referred to as MS. The first page of the text (f. consists of 167 folios. there is one fly-leaf preceding the first folio. bib (ilchapter") and juz' (Upart") headings are written. We can interpret this stamp to mean that this manuscript once formed a part of waqE (religious endowment). possibly belonging to the Tayyibi family. Poonawala. p. 38. BURHANPUR" This denotes the possible Indian provenance of the manuscript as well and one of • the institutions which had preserved the manuscript before the University of Tübingen aequired it." In addition.. It would appear that the text is rubricated (we were working with a microfilm reproduction) where the f~l (ilsection"). Each page has 17 lines on average and is numbered. 280. 14 • On the previous ownership of this manuscript before the University of Tübingen acquired it.tJ with accurate vowel marks. Biobibliography.) there is an octagonal-shaped stamp which reads as follows: ~ ~Ua.) 11333. There is also the collection number which reads . MS the title of the work is given as Kifj. For the reading of the colophon. Ham. At the top of fly-leaf recto of Tüb.. ~ ~ Ja.L. although exactly The name of the copyist of the unique manuscript of aJ-Maqilid may be read in the colophon as 'Isi ibn al-Shaykh al-Fi~l Di 'udbhi'i ibn al-Shaykh al-Fi~l IAbd al.y Af (1284). " p. At the top of the title page of the MS. Below the number we can observe an oval-shaped stamp which reads (in Latin script) "MADRASAH-l-HAKIMlYA LffiRARY. Tüb. 15 . see also Poonawala.

Tüb. which reads the same as the above stamp but which lacks the number. The name of the author is mentioned on the first page of the text in conjunction with the title.8Or. ta April 23rd. 86f.. (!) (. 1867 C. The script in MS. 4).J. 10). Hicrî Tanhleri . 1.J~ (f.~. ~. is a model of clarity. the manuscrïpt still has orthographie idiosYncrasies and peculiarities. 79v). Below this note the tiUe of the text is given as Kitàb al-l#afJ without the name of its author. p. 14).. 3 and 12. R. Il. Also.. 2) . ~ (in the margin beside 1. 17 The year 1284 A. we have no information as to the name of the copyist and the date of transcription. F.. 78v. Below this note there is stamp which can be read as: (!) J~(. 11).l. f. i'8r. thus: Kiû& al-l#afJ li-sayyidi-na Abi Ifatim a/-Raz. (f.43 which branch of the family cannot be determined.J (f. 18 Nevertheless. Unat. In most cases the copyist follows the modern orthography of Arabic faithfully.. These many "misspellings" lead us to question the copyjsts' understanding of the background in the subjects discussed in the texte Nevertheless. 16 Below the stamp there is a note in handwriting. 17 Below the title we can see the same octagonal stamp on the left side and the oval-shaped stainp IlMADRASAH-l-HAI<IMIYA UBRARY... 3 and 8).. 13).. 44-45 in the present chapter below. there are several misquotations from the Qur'in: on them.E. • . "'" (M~ammad 'Ali lJasanjï (?) NikyUr (?) ).J (f. f.. 78r. see pp. 7Br. li.E.l.1*'--:. 78v.J (f.~.H.)~ (f. 78r. such as:~~. 1.: ~~. However. The number may denote the • min year when the manuscript came into the possession of the w:aqf. BOr. 5imilar errors abound in MS.".77v.J~ (f. ~."':J~. For this reason. 1. 14). This records the name of another owner of the manuscript. 79r.~. the copyist spells the name Zoroaster (Zardusht> in a quite a variety of ways between f.79v. For example.l.. U. 6).J~ (f. Tüb. . providing as • with a date ante quem for its production.l.S. BOr.Jj (f. There is likewise no colophon on the last page of the MS. 77.Jj... 3 and 7).. where the copyist sPells the name in four different ways. the repeated appearance of the aforementioned W2ilf stamp bearing the number 1284 suggests that this was the hiiri year of its dona tion.. there is a POssibility that the exemplars which they copied from already contained corrupted spellings of the name Zoroaster.JJ (f. > ~ \ . and f." on the right sicle. viz.l. . . Ham. corresponds to the period from May 5th.4.18 As for the orthographie 16 1868 c.:-:.

below.J'11 Cf. Thus. The next point that we will deal with here is how the two copyists respectively quote Qur'inic verses in the manuscripts. our suspicion that the copyist of MS.JlJlfor ~. 20 This term will he discussed in chapter 4.U-I Lo in the verses Q 69: 2-3 is spelled . 16).)20 is spelled ~. This spelling is not • found in MS.). 99v. 1. 156r. 1. This practice is another example of Persian influence. For example. rà marbü~ is occasionally written with 0 -. the technical term ~.g. • etc. 14v.J. 63r.. 3). a fact which tends to confirm.. ~U"'ll is SPelled U"'ll (e.i> Ce.. in MS. who demonstrates a more Persian-influenced background. where the ending of the "fifth chapter" is dec1ared (tamma al-juz' al-juz' is spe11ed ~I (f. Ham. Tüb. 158. Ham. AIso the bamzah ending of the word c ~ is often changed to w:iw. Tüb.: is spelled W (e.. For example. 10). 51r.. u. However. Iv. f..J'11 ('"'four-ness.S. In addition.19 whereas the copyist of MS. f.. ~. Tüb. 17r. ~~I for ~~ 1(f. The omission of bamzah can also he found on the following pages of Tüb. 11). ISr.g. f. while In the MS. is more strict in retaining hamzah in the spelling of fuis and other words. ~ UI is spelled UI (eg. this spelling is not the "rule" in the MS. 3 of MS..g. §4. lOIr. 1... a practice which does not take place very often in MS.J~I. 1.l. f. f.. 2Ov. and is therefore spelled J~ at the outset of each new part Cf. Ham. the interrogative phrase . I58v. f. as though it were the silent hë in Persian. MS: ~ t. . and f.l56r. 1. as seen in the case of ~ I~I (passim in f. one trait which is frequently observed is the replacement • of hamzah with other letters. in f. 13r. 1... had more of an Arab background because of his relatively rigid respect for Arabic orthography than did the copyist of Tüb.. Tüb.. f. 63r. Tüb.. Ham.. 2). and that of ~ I. MS. 10: this is also spelled as UI on the same page 1. 1.I (for example.8). 7). f. since the hamzah is occasionally spelled in accordance with correct orthography.1. L. 19 al-Icbjmis).. This indicates some Persian influence and perhaps a Persian or Indo-Persian copyist.).44 characteristics of MS. we can observe replacement of bamzah with yi in the following instances: ~U> for ~l..5 and passim).. although only in rare instances.

. Ham. . MS..45 MS. 1. In f.. 6.J is spelled . ie. retains the standard spelling in f. Similarly. it is spelled4. Ham.L-Ü.J. 116v. Much can be leamed as weIl from how the two different manuscripts and the printed edition of al-l#~ treat the beginning and ending of the text.5 of MS. '!. 64r. 64r. .. Ham. the text begins abruptly with a quotation from the Qur'in (verses Q 24: 27-29). Another example of mistakes in Qur'i."). Tüb..il-.! from Ji y J-.I.o instead of 4. The Two Manuscripts in Comparison with the Printed Edition • of al-lslah.I. These mistakes in Qur'inic quotation suggest the possibility that neither copyist was in fact a ~aJi? §1-3... of MS.J. The peculiar beginning and the ending of al-l~liQ in its extant form as seen through the Hamdani and Tübingen manuscripts and the printed edition give an incomplete appearance to the text as a whole. Ham. 4 of MS. Tüb. another interrogative • phrase ~JWI L. Ham. The exemplar which the copyist .iL-. can be found in the case of verse Q 53: 13.>=.. drops the word Y. 1. Ham. 63r. the correct spelling is maintained. the copyist writes 4. in verses Q 101: 2-3 is spelled inf. each of the two manuscripts has a different beginning and ending. AIso it should be remarked that the copyist of the manuscript begins the quotation of these verses after leaving the • preceding space (equivalent to five lines) blank. which in turn differs from the opening and closing words of the printed edition.. without the usual humalahand other introductory formulae such as ammi ha 'du (/land now then. where . On f. '. Furthermore.nic citation in MS. 7 of MS. 146v. Another is an example of misquotation of the same verse Q 34: 14 in both two manuscripts. In MS. L S. ~. Iv.:.o of the original. ~JLiJ L" while in f. Quoting verse Q 19: 6 furthermore on f.il-:.

If this is correct...L. 168v. Iv. However. contains a small blank space one and a third lines in length occurring on the second to last page Cf. ). and MS. Ll.J ~I~I '.. al-Nasafï.J .liJ1 ~ ~r: L..a C.J1 ~L. the beginning of the phrase wa-al-qawl" is al-Rizts formula for introducing a new statement by his opponent. MS. The copyist of MS. Ham. ~ ~lS ~I 2l( ] JJJJI 1»' ~ ~ ( ] ~ Ja. ~. cited as fallows: ~LS 4. this suggestion is only conjectural. the two manuscripts may represent independent transmissions.21 After the blank space. which extends from the bottom of the second to last page to the beginning of the last. one with a blank space and the other without one.J ~ l.46 • used may therefore likewise have lacked the beginning and contained the same blank space in its stead. This sentence reads: J- Ï2! ' Re ft aJl ~~I l. there is a list of tapics which may have been the headings far sections in al-Nasafî's work. These different versions of the beginning of the text in MS.nic verses Q 24: 27-29. ail sueh blanks are represented by empty braekets. Tüb.:. 14-15). ll • Each of these two sets of empty brackets represents a blank in the manuscript. This is further confinnation of the possibility that the texts of a1-#1~ were already defective at an early period. resembles MS.. Tüb.ikJ1 ~IJ ~ ..S: ~J ~ LiJa.. ~ J.iJ1 ([His] statement in commenting upon this weak chapter (or field) becomes narrow. suggest the possibility that the exemplars of the two manuscrïpts had different beginnings.y~ll~ 21 Preceding this ineomplete sentence or phrase there are four Prophetie traditions quoted. Hereafter..j1 ~I. however does not leave any blank space preceding the quotation of the Qur1inic verses.J 'JI ~ ~ ~I . • The last line preceding this blank is evidently incomplete. However. in beginning abruptly on f.. again without bumalah. Ham...o .. 22 . by quoting the Qur1â. Towards the ending of the text MS. Ham.". Tüb.

"this cycle. MS (f. y ~ 1I. pp. Ham.. of f..f. however. especially pp. as will be seen in chapter 7. 169r. 13) shows quite clearly that the manuscript is defective at the end..?]: that he resembles the fourth enunciator-prophet.e. (from~ L.""':' ~ J. ) (See f. li. 169v. Abi Tilib. reading: .24") Following this list.J (. His criticism of one of these views. Furthermore. Jesus). fi badba al-bib" can also be translated as "in this subject-matter. J. §2 below. 2S This interruption represents aiso the end of the text in this manuscript. Thus the condition of the ending of MS.. 168v. 1. • It is noteworthy that the ending passage of the text in MS. 56 below. 169r. Tüb.iJ I.u. 15 to the end of the text. al-Ri.And the statement on the commentary on this chapter (or field ?) . there is the possiblity that al-Razi uses 'lle" in this instance to refer to 'Ali b. And [on] what mistakes took place (i.. MS. 1. 148-49. who is 'Ali Zayn al-'Abidin according to the Ismi1ws. but without the ward tamma or any other traditional ending formula. the fifth enunciator-prophet. happened) in this cycle [ ] that he (?)23 resembles the fifth enunciator-prophet (Le. The sentence in MS. 1.. al-Razï discusses extensively the resemblance of Jesus. resembled Jesus because neither of them had a father or a mother.. 14 . Abi Tilib who lived in.. Ham. Ham.. 147-49.. that bis path in terms of this ufour-ness" (a}-arba 'ïyab) is [that of] other stars. are missing from MS. _ ft a JI and ~ from the last sentence preceding the blank line in MS. Thus. . 169r. c.47 ("[ • ] [On] what was (i. 1. thus becomes even more incomplete. to 'Ali b. does however close with 23 This 'lle" is difficult ta identify...JJJI I. 168v. . 7-8). as described above (f.)... f.... mistakes byal-Nasafj) in this chapter. the age of the Prophet. Le. However. is abruptly eut off... needless to say. Tûb. n. Le. the Iast two words ." 24 The phrase " . This tapie will be revisited in chapter 5. Tüb.Zi introduces on the final page sorne of al-Nasafi's views on the fifth enunciator-prophet and bis resemblance to the third imim of this cycle..e.t." • 2S At the end of the text al-Rizi is in the midst of refuting al-Nasafi's idea that the third imàm. 13) is entirelyabsent from the ending of Tüb. And on the mention of the fourth [imim.

If this reading is correct.." p. however. M. which is in India. xiv.).H. a. a. mentioned as '7ehran-Markazi F 1431. andj. aIso the colophons of the three manuscripts reproduced in the note ta 1. assuming that W. it can be said that the text is preserved in an incomplete form in at least these two manuscripts. Mohaghegh. Thus. b. while the b. Biobibliography. See also above. (copied in 1278A. Also it can be noted that they represent a manuscript tradition that had become similarly defective at sorne time previously. 331 of the printed edition: in this reproduced colophon the copyist of MS.H. 1 on p. • Let us next look at the beginning and ending of the text as found in the printed edition. based on our analysis of the beginnings and endings of the Hamdani and Tübingen MSS. p. bis exemplar ended at that point. Cf. and 6087 and 6088 respectively. 28 The 26 This phrase could be also read: ~l. .. giving the impression of a colophon. correspond to the MSS. Ivanowacquired them there." p. microfilms of Indian and Adina MSS" in PoonawaIa. a. it follows that the copyist thought that kidh is feminine. Mohaghegh. 10. 38.hiz.26 We aIse see on the last page that the lines gradually decrease in length as they approach this formula. and j.:. writes that he composed this manuscript in Bürhinpür.. AIse the two MSS.S.H. xiv). uSar-i. In addition.). j. 4 on p. Unfortunately the places where MSS. 25 of the present dissertation. the many differences in ending between the two manuscripts strongly suggests that they represent two different manuscript traditions and that they were copied from different exemplars. Mohaghegh. and b. (copied in 1355A. This suggests that the copyist of MS. copy has it.). "Sar-ighiz. manuscripts lack the bumalah at the beginning of the text. 17 According to Prof. forming as a result the shape of an inverted triangle.27 The a. At the university's Markéuï Ubrary these microfilm MSS. F 1507 . and h.J1 . arenumbered as 1413 and 1507. although the last sentence is evidently incomplete. and h.S:JI f (the book ends).. as is 50 often found in manuscripts. • 28 See the note te l. (The MSS. in photocopy form preserved there are numbered as 6180/1 and 6180/2. lvanow and were later donated in microfilm form to University of Tehran. wanted te show that. the first and second manuscripts seem te have been in the possession of the late W. were composed are not mentioned in the reproduced colophons. 5 of the printed edition.48 • the traditional ending formula: yL:. Tüb.. (co pied in 1313A. The printed edition is based on three manusaipts: a.J. p. the first microfilm number should be corrected to read F 1413 according te M. However we can presume that their provenance was the Indo-Pakistani subcontinent. chapter 1. n.

30 This resembles the beginning of MS. up to 29 30 The printed edition.. 1 on p. the printed edition adopts the following sentence as • the ending of the text.~ ~ J. Ham. This is further proof that the text of aI-I~I~ in extant form lacks both its beginning and ending sections.= ~~I 1. let us examine the core structure of the text of a1-1~1~. On the first page of j.. • For references te this issue. see the synoptic table of contents of the text provided below on pp. but in the printed edition it is included in the form of an "appendix" (zayl )..~ ~ J. p. 34 .. seen above (y~1 l. 15 of MS.. Now. (The statement on the commentary on the chapter becomes narrow. is the on!y manuscript which preserves nearly the same ending as MS. S. ~_ 4. As for the endings of the various versions. show exact correspondence between the ending and beginning of each part (juz') (with an exception in the case of part 1).J) . 32 11 See the note ta 1.49 • printed edition therefore adopts the beginning of the b. 168v. one finds the title given as Kitab Il al-I~I~ 1i-ayyidi-na Abj J:latim aI-Rizi .31 Based on the a. Ham. S6-64 of the present chapter..iA c. See the note te 1.. The printed edition.iJI. 2.JJI I~ ~ Lo ta the end of the text). manusaipt with the bumalah .32 but the j. 31 See the note te 1.iJI. and b. 1. p. the printed edition lacks everything after f. 29 Therefore the printed edition still shows an "incomplete" beginning. and yet the text of the printed edition stilliacks other beginning formulae and abruptly starts with the quotation of Qur1inic verses 24: 27-29. manuscript lacks the last word ~_ 4!..34 Bath the Hamdani and Tübingen MSS. Tüb.33 just as does MS. Tüb.. (from J.a c.. 4 on p.. 5 of the printed edition. 331 of the printed edition.4 on p. 331 of the printed edition. MS. which supports our suggestion that the text of al-I~I~ in extant form lacks a complete beginning.J.... MSS. ).. 331.

J.!. MS. dated September 27. 7-12. In MS.37 The presence of other 35 The blank is two lines long....JMJl.JJ4UI~C~'lI. Ham. . 11/f. .L:. f.~ 4. blank is one line long.. Professor Abbas Hamdani.. the Most Merciful the Most The two blanks before and after lIal-juz'" in MS. Ham.J ~)I ~)I4U1 ~ ] part of the Book of Correction is ended with the help of Gad and the success [granted] by Him. 1. 229 ) (see f. [ Correction [ Compassionate: we ask for His Help.. The sixth part of the Book of Correction.12: yL:. of MS.). Ham. 156r. Tüb.. 115v. 7 which respectively correspond ta the beginning of part 5 in the printed edition).S .). the Most Merciful the Most Compassionate..... find the following in f. suggest that the copyist was uncertain over which part the exemplar indicated. that based on bis reading of the manusaipt.S ~ [ ] ~~I.J 4U1 ~ C~'ll . 8. In the Name of God.( ]36 c. 157v.~'J1 ~L:.JI ~U.. 36 The • 'S1 As for the statement on f. neither manuscript clearly indicates the beginning of a new juz' (part) 5.-J1 cl . il seems Iikely that the copyist left the space vacant.S ~ (. ). in the Name of Gad.-:-.. As for the ending of part 5 and the beginning of part 6..[ ([ ] the [ . the owner. However. as it appears in the printed edition (p.-:-. Il..~. the corresponding passage reads: • . Il.50 • the beginning of part 4.. 1. 157. 1995. 116v.. The [ ) part of the Book of ). reserving it for the numbering of . has confinned to me in a letter.l:S~( ]~~If( ] ]15 .I ~ ~I f ••• ~}I ~)I ~I ~ 'C~~I (The fifth part of the Book of Correction is ended with the help of God and the success [granted) by Him.

that the text lost sorne passages in the course of its transmission. Ham.nic verse 6: 79. is found on the margin in f. Tüb.JI ):U . Of the three manuscripts on • parts.. Tüb. or to fill them with words or phrases that complete the sentences.=. The above examination of the beginnings and the endings of chapters in MS.... In the cases to be discussed below. we should refrain from passing any definitive judgement.J ~I". MS.lJJ ~. without any such note. appears to ignore the blanks in MS. Il) in MS. and the printed edition. 8-9 and 1. (f.) there is only a small blank left. and Tüb. 97r.J ~I ~J ~J. suggests that the copyists of the two manuscripts used different exemplars. perhaps out of uncertainty. Ham. less than half a line long. However. This assertion can be supported by the state of the beginning and ending of the texts of the two manuscripts and of the printed edition as well. which cannot be found in the corresponding passage in MS.J ('1): have turned my face to Him who originated the heavens and the earth"). • The last issue that needs to be addressed is how the blanks in MS. however omits the quotation of Qur1i. MS. and MS.. Tüb. i. Again. 96v. Ham. Ham. on the corresponding page of MS.. Ham. However. The copyist then left the whole of the next page blank except for writing the following note at the beginning and ending of the blank:UJ.. Ham. since the printed edition does not provide us with any variants for the beginnings and endings of the internai portions of the text examined above. Just prior to this there is a quotation from Q 6: 79:~.J •• b. are treated in MS. Thus we cannot exdude the possibility that the different beginnings and endings of sections internaI to the text in MSS. . suggests to us the possibility that the body of the text of al-l~l~ is incomplete as weil. Tüb. The larges~ blank in MS. Tüb.51 • longer blanks (Il. cr ~ 1 ~ J~ r 4 at is noted in the exemplar that a leaf of paper is missing). 1 express my gratitude to Professer Hamdani for bis generous support ta my work.. are limited to these copies alone. Tüb.e.

(f.wJ'I..+i'J ~. The manuscript has: ~I. There are other examples of different treatment of the blanks between MS. 5 on p....:. with the connection of the conjunction "wa" to l'Jj_anna_IJum. Iv....+i'J ~.... . MS. Tüb.ï .ï . ~ f'+Ï ] and because ('Thus. Ham." 31 See the note ta 1. f."). 97r. deserves sorne attention. Tüb.. 40 . MS... and the printed edition.. has exact1y the same note as MS.••• . 15 reads: . Ham. MS.:. has a blank spaœ where MS.J [ ] 391... Tüb.).. • 39 The manuscript has: .. has " wa-.. 192 of the printed edition. has a few passages which supply phrases or words for the blanks found in MS. Ham. f.38 i. Tüb.lLi " ~ ~I 'JI ~ ~).••• . Ham. This is because this phrase.. yet MS..52 • which the printed edition is based. The passage corresponding to this in MS.·. (and because they) in MS.addaqü. 2v.~ I~-.. b.. the passage in MS. For example. ~ f'+Ï (Thus.). Ham. (f. Ham.. manuscript provides a note on the long blank (UJ -. manusaipt lacks the note r and the quotation from Q 6: 79.p ~'J. Il reads as follows: .~ 1~J... Ham.).:.l. In this case the presence of ~'J-.. Thus Tüb. while the i . 1. similar to that of MS." appears to make sense only if "'Wa-~addaqü " does not be10ng ta the text.. the a.i. treats the blank in a way similar ta MS. 96v. they are all believers because they have believed [ • they have had faith in the exoteric teaching...-" t*''J 1~.... they are aIl believers because they have believed and have had failli because they have had faith in the exoteric teaching.

:..42 The next example for filling-in phrase fits the contexte The passage with the blank reads in MS. 1..1 ul ~.. which is nearly the same as that of MS. 1. ••• ~~I . Ibid... 5 of the printed edition. 1.. 11) ~~ ~~ .. As for the above passage... which is coindd~~tally the same as that of MS. Tüb.For they (i. 5).e. ~YI ~ [ ] The above sentence is obviously incomplete. . Ham.4 reads: . '=. Tüb.'-!I 4 {p. The printed edition adopts here the following reading: Il d ~Le-JI ~ ~ . manuscripts.Ja.1 ~I r+'J.~. Tüb... _ '=.. 7).For they associate them to themselves with what they explained to them of the explanation. Ham. gives the sentence a complete meaning. the printed edition adopted the reading of the b. ' (. I. 42 .. (l' . 1v. 8 in p. "Abaoü la-hum" seems grammatically more correct • 41 The note to 1.. the editors cite the reading of the a.41 In addition.e. 2v. 3v.1 ~I r+'J. and j. The corresponding passage in MS.").53 • This fact is further evidence that the latter used an independent exemplar from MS. the novice members of the hierarchy) to themselves [ ] of the explanation). 2v.:.! J'" Thus the filling-in phrase in MS. '=.. wrong-doing di 'j 5 or missionarles) associate them (i. (f. f..J t. 1. f.".. Ham.. 15.ï {p. And yet the editors do not mention whether there is blank in this sentence in any of the three manuscripts. as a variant. 12 as follows: • J'4 .+i~ l'''... .J'~~ltll.

2 on p.43 The next example is of the conflict between MS..? G See the note to 1. Ham." III ~ The sentence would then read as follows: ~L.. a.. f... Ham... 13 on • p. In this case the supplied term in • MS. 14Ov. 2v..e.. 7 of the printed edition. Ham. manuscripts with regard to this passage. but do not mention whether there is a blank found in this sentence in any of the three manuscript examined.' the person who leads the community after the enunciator-prophet) ). 275 of the printed edition. The clause from the sentence in MS. " It is also possible ta read this sentence in the passive voice." The editors note that the phrase. However.when he entrusted ( ] to the QU' (i. ~ L.. f. . finally.." whereas the corresponding clause in MS. a. 1. J! ~O.. Tüb... 1. Tüb. when he entrusted the communities ta the uâs " (?».. 275).. 'fundament. Ham. a.. Tüb. Moreover.1. 46 Ibid.45 The editor aIso states that MS. reads: .. Ham. once again has the same defective reading as MS. Tüb. This means that MS. reads: [ ] ~~ U _. Ham. can we explain MS. ~ 1(from b.~ 1 (from j.46 another evidence of resemblance between this manuscript and MS. 9 and MS. is useful in reconstrueting the meaning of the phrase which is not clear in MS. ~ 1 uJ! ~ 11 ~~ U (". Tüb.12... f.'s treatments of the blanks in MS. This can he translated as: ] was entrusted to the fundament.. ~I u-1! ("..... See the note te 1. ~~ U. -v-'L-.) or . 12. we may note the slight difference between MS. 140v. leaves a blank in the same position. and j. The printed edition replaces . ) with ~~ 1(the "authority" or "mission") which does not appear in any manuscript but is adopted by the editors out of consideration for the contexte Assuming this conjecture to be correct the clause must be read in the passive voice (p. How..54 • than "a bitJü-IJum.s I~~I 4 is missing from MS. and the b. this supplied term may be incorrect.

in terms of the four blanks found in the former. there is still the possibility that the copyist of MS. However. Ham. since we have not examined any of the manuscripts used as the basis of the printed edition. Ham. However this still does not expIain why MS. j. Ham. n. a final verdict on the textual 47 H this is correct. is said to be Burhânpur. j.55 • As we observed when discussing the differences between the two manuscripts in. while MS. located in the same city. Tüb. Tüb. as well as with respect to the beginning and ending.48 whereas MS. Ham. Tüb. In any case. appears to be very similar to the text provided by MS. and MS. 27 of the present chapter. we should abstain from any final judgement. Likewise MS. 4 on p. and the aJjf manuscript represent one group of manuscripts. a. Tüb. there are two points which may be made regarding the three manuscripts on which we are partially informed through the printed edition.kimïyah Madrasah. or that because of the presence of one more page and a note on a missing page in it MS. but have relied on the apparatus criticus to the latter alone. the beginning and ending of the text. Tüb. at the moment since our information is still incomplete. took the liberty of filling in the blanks when they were brief and of ignoring the page-long blank preserved in MS. • 411 See the note te 1.47 But. the provenance of MS. Ham. In relation to the formation of the latter manuscripts. In the second case the two manuscripts would not be totally independent. lacks 50 much of the material preserved towards the end of MS. j. Do these facts suggest that MS. 331 of the printed edition and above p. India. . is a few generations older than MS. Ham. they probably represent different transmissions. has a certain similarity and resemblance to the version provided by MS. as weil as with respect • to their respective beginnings and endings. MS. drive from another? In addition. in terms of their treatment of the passages containing blanks in MS. there could be two other possible explanations: either that the two manuscripts come from two dHferent groups of manuscripts.. 48. Tüb. was once preserved in the l:Ii.

Tüb. 1377 A.. f. Iv.E. Therefore. 23 f./p.. 50 51 In this synopsis "hfl" in the original text is translated as "section" is indicated by the symbol "§" in this dissertation. However. 9r. §2. 23 f.S1 On the statem. Table of Contents of . ff. we follow the sections indicated in the printed edition and MS../p."). she G The text stans abnaptly with the quotation of Q 24: 27-29 ("O Believers."). Ir. the Tübingen MS.t §2-1. . in most cases the argument of al-Nasafl on a certain issue is quoted at the beginning of each section followed by the formula "~a-ammi al-qawl fi aJUJa•••" (liAs for the statement that. • 52 As we pointed out in §1-1 of the present chapter above. lv.. ) was not complete. If. The Contents of al-I. IOr. 23 §. f. If. the second that of the Tübingen MS.9r. Hence. If. Ir. it may provisionally he named "part one.lill Keyed to the Hamdani MS. However. and the third the pagination of the printed edition) The Front Page f. "at the outset of this part indicates that the philosophical discussion had already started in Part 1.S/1998 C.enf2 that when the Soul (al-nai./p. the reference to a "part one" was lost along with an indeterminate portion of the beginning of the text. do not enter houses other than your houses until you first ask leave and salute the people thereof. since "part two" follows this unnamed part..9v. since most of the sections are not indicated in MS.. 5 - • (Part One) on the da 'wall and the ethics of the du 'it 49 PartTwo (al-juz ' al-tbini) Preface to Part Twoso came to need the benefits of the Intellect (aI." The expression" 'alj lJuab mi qadamai al-qawl bi-bï.H./p. If.) (The first number denotes the pagination of the Hamdani MS.li.. presumably.'aq1 ). in tlùs table of contents "the statement" refers here to al-Nasaf'i's argument. Ham.9r.56 • history of al-l#~ must await a fuller study of the work's stemma.f. IOr. and the Printed Edition ITibJan.l-l.

(f./p./p. from its roOts and basis.. in its entirety. 53 5& To this statemental-Rizi adds: "as we have already mentioned" (Ka-maqad dlJahmà)..':1"'. f. 12 r. If.).e.'aql ). I4v. 16r.57 • §. bida al-'ilam bi-afri-1Ji wa min-ajli-1Ji bWD adbi al-'ilam kuUi-bi mitJ rquli-bi wa-uüi-bi. f.6) and MS. 28 §. 26 follow Many directions on this matter until these (i. 1./p. l4v. Al-Rizï's further refutation of al-Nasafï's anthropology.. I2v. whereas the people f. l6r...dah min al.ukiitJ): for these sages Cal-{Jubma to heresy U1. 14v./p.'} within us are parts of the first substance (al-jawbar al-awwal). Al-Ri. f. If. On the statement that the parts {aj%i." (Nqül illlJa al-lJuhar lIuwa tbam.5S of movement (al-!Jarakah ) and rest (al-sukÜlJ). Al-Rizï revisits the issue af the Saul. i. 17r. l4r. 14v. directions) lead them §. Perfection and defection here" (Nu'id dhilu al-ramam wa-al-1wJW wa-al- auqfÜ hahlUJi ). ~':I"'. 32 §. 28 f. Ham. This phrase can be interpreted as referring ta bis previous statement on the same page: "We say that the humankind is the fruit of this world in its entirety. 14v. in MS.. • 55 At the beginning of this section in the text al-RiZi writes: "We are now retuming to the issue of that completion.fJad>.. ./p. If. On the statement that bath the matter and the form (al-~ürah ) are the spirit In consideration of the context. Cf. and al-Razi's refutation.ff. and is the fruit of what the Soul acquires from the Intellect (tlJa. On matter (bayüli ): al-Nasan's argument and al-Razi'S refutation.ff. 12r. §. particularly. On the statement that the human being (basIJar) is the first being formed in the Soul.e./p. If. 33 §. 34 f. 34 §.. . Tüb. 12r. ff. for the humankind) there (occurred] the generation of this world. If. ISr. and that the teaching that the Soul is incomplete being but that She would become complete someday./p. 14v.. instead of the reading.54 • f. llv. 17r.marat lari 'idi-lJi!3al-must:ûi. and [that] for the sake of him(min ajli-lJi./p. 1 ) have many symbols (rumuz htlJïralJ). Al-RaD' 5 remarks on movement (al-fJarakaIJ) and rest (al-. Il r. we have adopted the reading of the printed edition.. f. 37. 15). §.zï's request to readers: that they should carefully consider what he says.. 1.. Her completion or campleteness (tamàm)..

the vegetable (al-namiyalJ) and the sensitive (al-lJissiyah ). l8v. 40v.e. 18v. 37v./p. If. If. 79 §. If.27r. 39v.SI On the statement on the sacred laws and the errors ta be found in this The chapter on the difference between sharPaIl . On the statement regarding what each of the u1ü a/-'azm . 41v. Kitü al-M~ül)./f. On the statement regarding line (al-ldJalf) and square (al-'aqa1J ). the Intellect). 1). 76 §.58 • §.31v. 41r./f. and that Adam did not have a sacred law f. 18v. 82 §./f. 83 §. 4Or. f. 36v. as a commentary on and an allusion to the image of the structure of the world (mitIJaJ rarla-" al-'à/am ). Ham./p. the non-liquid (ghayr aJ-mudlJjbaIJ ).26r. 38v. and on • §. and aJ-Qadar the tâJi (the follower./p. However. 84 Only in this instance in MS. 64 f. the Soulle Al-Nasaii's argument and al-Rizi's refutation. If. 1. [such as] Adam. f. is there mention of a 111811" (f. f. what geometry (al-handuaIJ) makes necessary. 26v.ris (fundament) and the enactment of sacred law ($har' al-$hari'ah ).. On the statement that Noah was endowed with [the right of] installment (iqimaIJ ) of the a. 58 §./p. regard in that book (i.21r./p. was endowed with. $7 ./p./p. because the topie obviously changes. f. f. 'azimah. 21r. Il. On the statement that the first nifÎq (Adam) called [the people] to the doctrine of the unity of God (al-ta1V~d) without any labour (aI-'amaI ). whereas there is no mention of it in MS. 40v. i./p. On the statement that a1-Qa~a' means the sabiq (the preceder.S6 On the statement that the produced beings (marilid) fall into one of the four divisions (adJa 'at aqsim): the liquid bodies (aJ-ajam aJ-mudhiball )./f. we have indieated the start of a new section. 26r. f. The refutation of al-Nasafi's argument that the first nipq did not bring a sacred law and is counted among the u1ù a/-'azm. 18v./f. Tüb.e. f. 56 • Both manuscripts Jack the ward "f3fl" here. (f. 56 §. 45 f... 40 §. On the statement that Adam called [the people] to himself and to those after him from the beginning to the end. If.. Le. 31r./p. 9-10). 37v./p. and the cycle (dawr).

13-18..) prayed ta bis Lord./p. [she was] one of the la~q. and others.49v.bayri-bimà iIi jldJirj-bïm>.)./p. Jjfriq).43: 57 and • 59-61. Il.59 • On the narratives of prophets (qi. 117 (§. followed by further interpretation of the staries of Zachariah. If." However.e. the eopyist of MS./f. grant me from you a good progeny. Tüb./f. followed by further interpretation of Jonah's story in Q 37: 140-146 and 21: 87./p.. The original in both manusaipts reads: "[It] is mentioned in the report of narratives of prophets such as David.53: 6-9./f.. and the apostIe the uü acting on behaH of the apostIe (al-uis al-qj 'im-maqimal-ruü1 ). 51r. f.. etc. 29: 14. followed by interpretation of the verse of the Prophet's llnight journey" Usra' ) (Q 17:1). Starting with the quotation of Q 54: 1 (''l'he hour has approached: the is split. Zachariah (ZakéUiyi.5: 112-119. 50r.33: 6.55 and 59./f. bis parousia. while "'Imrin" refers to the m utimm (completer. f. Salomon. Starting with the quotation of Q 37: 139. 103 §. Starting with the quotatian of Q 3: 38 ("'l'ben.33. Starting with the quo ta tian of Q 62: 2 ("He (Gad) is the One who dispatched to the common people [ignorant of the scripture] an apostle. and others up to the last of them"(Jj 'a li bayin qip. that is. ("And Jonah (Yünus) was one of the dispatched. when the mission of the fundament is disclosed. 57v. i. since he writes the beginning of the passage in larger letters. 13-18 f. f. with which deviee he normally indicates the titles of ehapters. 16-18. seems to regard this section as equivalent to a chapter." whereby he (zachariah) confirmed the completion of bis mission (tamim amri-hi ).). 50v.. followed by further interpretation of the birth of Mary (Maryam) and story of her childhood in Q 3: 36-37.49v. 104 §.. Mary.58 f.~ al-anbiyi' ) such as David. Il. and Jesus in Q 3: 39-49. saying: I{. etc). 88 §.ord. and of other verses such as Q 2: 78-79. ." the "pagans ignorant" meaning here the lawilUq . we infer that this long section is almost equivalent to a chapter for two reasons: the topie is changed from Adam to David and Solomon. 234.48v.l0l §../p." hour here signifying the known time.44r." meaning that he was one of the Ja~9 (lieutenants. Solomon. with whom this section exdusively deals.28. imim) of the age. etc. 19: 4.52-53. sg. Both manuscripts lade the word "bàb." that is to say. !'.56r. Starting with the quotatian of Q 3: 35 ("When the wife of 'Imrin said. which is marked by the splitting of the SI This is not the titIe of a ehapter.53: 6-9. 42v.. al-mbiyà' min Dà'üd • wa-SulaymjD wa-.22-33./p.

If.. f. f. Starting with the quotation of Q 97: 1 ("Indeed We sent it down upon the Night of Power (layla' al-qadr ). and 94: 2-8.." that is to say. 72r. whereas there is no mention of il in MS. 123 §.1Jarj'ah. /f. 63r.70v. 129 Part 3 (aJ-juz' al·t1JjJjt1J) f. 17-18 and 29. 6Ov.. the Prophet). followed by interpretation of another verse on the Prophet. . 15. Starting with the quotation ofQ 33: 45-46 ("Indeed We dispatched you as a witness. 3) or MS. See chapter 6. (f. 1. 108: 1-3 which./p. below. Ham. and as an illuminating lamp. ." which signifies that the Prophet Mu1./p. f. the "stream" (al-jiri )60 was opened to him (i. 62r. f.64v.60 • moon.Iammad was granted five grades (al-mariti" al-ldta". 14).pma h Aise he writes: "in this chapter" (Ii bidba al-bib ). ) ). 145 59 Qnly in this instance in the printed edition is there mention of "t. 11-13./p. and the da/wah activity./p. See f. manusaipt./p./f. and 101: 1-3 related to the issues of the fundament.64r./f. warner. f. and 54: 2.. the Universal Soul). §3. etc. 135 On how _hari'ab. 63r. followed by al-Rizi's interpretation of verses Q 9: 3. 1.63r. S9v. 68: 1-3. good-tiding-bringer. 58r. 61v. the Qi'im. • The jiri ("stream") is the flow of the spiritual substance and guidance from the heavenly hierarchy to the earthly hierarchy. is established: al-Nasafi's argument and al-Razi/s refutation.6 and 8. followed by interpretation of the verses on the Day of Judgement such as Q 52: 30.. followed by his interpretation of verses Q 97: 2-5.81: 1-2. If.37: 102. 61 (a/-~••)./f." the ''Night of Power" meaning the fundament.e. as long as it does not mix with f. 122. 122f9 §. Le.. S) which is based on the &. 1. S8r. Starting with the quotation of Q 94: 1 (''nid We not open your breast (.60r. 59v.1 " (p. Q 48: 29. in his eyes./f. • and the "deaee" the ta1. 6D 61 After this passage the text bas combines a summary statement referring to the first and second IJâpqs. 126 §. 69v. 135 §. (follower.adra-ka) for you?. and '. and caller to God with His permission.58v. are concemed with the installation of the fundament.). Cf. On the statement that one particular nature (aJ-~b' al-wapid) would not emerge in the sensible [domain] another nature./p. Tüb./p. which had gone out (al-im~ (~adara) from him at the time of test ) because of its having been cut off).

86r. 16/p. f.. he saw a star" (Q 6: 76) ). 99v.. Tüb. f. However./p.71r. when the night befell him.91v. 77v.72r. 96v. 97r. 148 On the Zoroastrians. 99r. on f. 99v. Ham. 148 f. on the margin of which the copyist has written as follows: "lt is noted in the original that a piece of paper is missing" (Nubbiha fï al-umm anna-hi .aqalat waraqah). On the statement on Ishmael and Isaac: One of them was a "slaughtered" §. If. and the Iranian religions: Al-Nasafi's argument and al-Rizi's refutation.159 According to al-RiZi. 148.61 • The chapter containing the argument on the third ü./p. was completed for him (Moses).q).99r. 85r.q (Abraham). or degree] of the manifestation of the divine Word. which sacred law theyembraced. 178 §. Ip./p./p. 89r. f. S3r. in the cycle of the fourth -liq (Moses)./p. ff. If. If./p. ff. f. On the statement that those who stayed away from Abraham and devoted themselves to idols corresponds to the account of the people who were transformed into "apes" in verse Q 7: 166... there is neither such a note nor a large blank. If. f. If.78v. of MS. 172 f. The chapter on the statement on Ishmael (!smi 'il) and Isaac USI}i. of MS. On the statement on Mazdak whom Kisri (I<husraw) Anüshirwin killed./p. '. 183 (Folio. [that is. 71v. 92r. If.89r. 71v. ff.. If. 199 The Chapter on al-Nasan's argument on the fourthna~q (Moses) • 1.] what had not been completed for any of the other nutaqi r./p. 82v.78v. and another one was a male sheep (h_h).. 76v. 99v.. (dIJabilJ).) Part 4 (al-juz' al-db./p. 197 f. the Zoroastrians were originally the dissident people §.72r. 167 §.7/f.156 f. consists of a large blank nearly a page in length. f.') f. ff. On the statement on the interpretation (ta'ri ) of the verse on the story of • Abraham ("Then. 199 On the statement on the fourth napq : The [part.99r. .../p.

p. 221 §. l06r. . 211 f. 50-51 of the present chapter above.. 7) corresponding to the beginning of the text of part 5 in the printed edition <p./p. If. (f./p. 122v. f.lllr. 119r.. 115v.•" (Wa-ammi rib. On a quotation: It is said thatJesus had no father and was related to bis • mother.. 115v.l. Jesus and the Qi'im in terms of their missions. See the passages in the two MSS. . 221.". 11Sr. f. just as the seventh was hidden and will then return. 10). 2). and will then retum (ya 'üd).~'11 ~~I (p. 115v. 231 On the statement that the fifth na~q came into union with the Divine Word (al-kalimah) without any intermecliation of the lord of the age (~afi" al-zatlJàJJ). On the refutation of al-Nasafi's statement that the fourth lJapq was granted victory over bis enemies. 121v. If./f.). 231)." cradle signifying the first rank (aW'lnl al-lJudiid ). f.e. which none of them had been ever granted. f.. etc.How do we talk with him who is (still] a boy in the cradle?.' al-IIUlqi' fa-lcina mujaddid al-dJari'ah al-wi. 243 §... . 227 (Part 5 (al-juz' al-kbjm./f. We adopt the reading of the printed edition ". 115v. 116v. he was the renewer of the first sacred law.62 §. 119r. On the statement that the fifth [ni!iq] resembles the seventh (lJa~q) (the Cli)im) because he was hidden (ghiba). On the correspondence between the sacred letters (K-W-N-Y-Q-D-R). On the mission and characteristics of the fourth napq.62 • §. f./f. 11/f./p. f. On the statement that the Messiah (al-Ma~ i./p../p. followed by al-Rizi's interpretation of certain verses on Jesus such as 3: 59 and 21: 104 to mean the resemblance between Adam.l. instead of the reading of the Hamdani and Tübingen MSS. elevated (ruEi'a) to heaven. l11r./p. 231 §. 116r.. On Q 19: 29 e'./p. and the six masters of the saaed laws..229)63 f. If./p. • 63 The beginning of this part is indicated only by the printed edition. 122v. 241 §. S/f. JJ'lf 4&.)./f. I11v. 121v../f.. 237 §. 111v. 116r.:Jf (f. 107r.$) The chapter on al-Nasafi's argument on the fifth na!iq cresus). Jesus) did not compile the Q This section starts with the following statement by al-RiZi: "As for the fourth ajP9. etc. 1. And see pp.

down upon them. O.")./f. which is interpreted ta mean that Jesus asked Him ta send the iii.e.1 p.1 p./p.. On what is said [byal-Nasafi] in bis interpretation of Q 27: 16 (". If. If.63 • Gospel and did not compose any saaed law. (l46r. 149v. Matti. 147r. 13Dv. On the statement on Jesus' prayer to Gad in Q 5: 114 ("./f. • 65 MS.. 126r. 145r. On the statement on the interpretation of the verse (al-iyah ) dealing with the story of the Messiah" in this chapter (bidbâ al-bib )../p. without the intermediacy of the Messiah. takes "the story of the Queen Sheba" as if it were the title of a section.f:Jiqu-hu). 278 On the story of Solomon. 253 §.. . On the statement that the Messiah appeared [to bis disciples) several times f. Q 5: 516-19. If. . On the sun-cult of the queen of Sheba and her subjects in the Qur~c verse 27:24./p. 261 §.0 people! • We have been taught the language of the birds and have been given of everything!"). f. not from the knowledgeable listener (al-mustami 1 " Aetually in this section al-RiZi deaIs with the verses on Jesus. If. Neither MS. 148r. If. 288)65 The chapter on the story of Dhü al-Nün. On what is mentioned in the statement in this chapter (hidba al-bah) that most of the doubt and misdeeds come from the mustajïb (novitiate-hearer) and the mustaœi' (listener)./f. f. 138v./p. 3 of the printed edition. If. f. 147v. 128v. 278. . 13Iv. 292 §./p. 141v. 148r. f./f.).Send down to us a table from heaven.. 146r. after the perishing of bis body. f.. 146v. but abandoned bis work. 8).146r. 128r. Ham. 126r. f. 13lr. and did not endure the trouble of bis people. 292 On the statement on Dhü al-Nün that he was the completer (imam) of the age. 288) treat it in this way./p. 132v. 15) nor the printed edition (p. f./p. 273 §. 249 f. f./p.l. taking refuge with bis lieutenant (Ji. 287 (On the story of the Queen of Sheba (Bilqis). f. l39r. etc. p. Jonah son of Amittai (Yünus b.147v. Tüb. n.. particularly upon one of bis lieutenants. 140r. 258 The chapter on the narrative (qi~~) of Salomon. 286 §./p. If. i. leaving a space the length of two or three words before and after it (f. 149v.

/f. 164v.) On the third mutimm of this cycle (i. 156r. beginning with: liMa fi IJad" al-dawr anna-bu lcina $babiIJ IrhjmÎ$ al-IJUfaqi '''. Part 6 (al-juz' aI-adi.I. others like them occupying their rank. 309 §./p. Tüb. . or Sergius) (f. 153v." while on 1.. 324 §. 152v.M • The editors of the printed edition (p. on which the printed edition is based and bath Hamdani and Tübingen MSS have the reading~". 154v. 157v. and Zachariah. 156v./p.156r. sinœ the other two MS. 153r. la we find "al-juz' (blank) IIJÜJ KifÜ al-r./p. 1541'. we read only "Tamma al-juz'•••./p. 3311acks this passage. 13). f. 'Ali zayn al-'Abidin): Al-Nasafi's argument and al-Razï's refutation. • ( With f.. If.. §2-2. 1. 157v. 312 f. On the statement that Jonah was the master of the age and the completer The chapter on the story of Job (Ayyüb).169r.7.. . f. 311. IMr. AIso the printed edition's ending in p.." The chapter on the statement on Jethro (Shu'ayb). f. Jethro. )./ l56r. If.. 302 f. and on the story of Sergius (SirjiS). and on MS. 156r. spedfying that he was not the completer but the entrustee (m. 14ff. i. ISSv. 155r. 157v. ~~ Oirjis. L 8 and L 10. Lot (Lu~). two main subjects stand out in the text of al-l~l~ : philosophy and prophetology. 1. 309 and 311.l&fJ. On the position (manzilaIJ ) of the entrustee: the cases of Lot. (SirjïS. If. the Tübingen manuscript ends and lacks the following passage found in MS. pp. 311 §.e. 300 f. t. On Jethro. f.ta1Vda~. Ham. In MS. The philosophical discussion f6 This is based on the printed edition. 4) adopt the reading of MS. or George). 169r. Cosmology and Prophetology: General Remarks Based on the table of contents given above./p. However. Ham. 157./f.e. we have temporarilyadopted the latter reading. (imàm) in charge of the da'wah.. f... If./p. If.67 f./p.64 • al-'alim ). a. 303 f.

).. 4/f. • Thus. 1. the divisions of the cosmos (f. 2. 14. As • for the theory of sacred history.f.. Zoroastrians. matter (al-lJayüla ) and form movement (al-~araka1J) and (aI-~üraIJ) and their relation to rest (aI-. that is.82v. 1. Most of these philosophical topies are mainly related to cosmology. 2/pp. 2. 1. starting with the Iranian religions. 26r.har) and his place in the cosmos.I. the human being (6.. the hypostatic or Cosmic. 23-45).. it is dealt with. etc.I. 2Ir. 1. 56-88 and f. 83r. 6/pp. 1.. Through this discussion he endeavors to determine whose sacred law Zoroaster and bis followers originally followed.f.f. 72r... that is. 12. 1..9r. 71v..f.65 • covers the nature of Soul (al-IJaf. and the history or narratives of the prophets (based mainly on the Qur'in). l3/f. the physics of matter and form. This discussion can therefore be said to deal with philosophical cosmology which is elaborated in relation to such issues as the doctrine of soul.f. 1Or. and other Iranian religious leaders and their communities (f. In addition. 1.. 148-167). 26r. 12 /pp. 64v. that is. 7. Universal Sou! in N eoplatonisrn. Adam. 72r. 42v. IO/pp. al-Rizi discusses Zoroaster... The approach towards prophetology in the text seems on the other hand to deal with the theory of saaed history. 1.. 1.. and anthropology. 1. 12. 1. 4. 71v.. 21r. then presents bis own ideas on why and how deviations like Iranian religions emerged in the course of history. in the discussion of the following topies: the mission of the first enunciator-prophet.. the ulü al-'um (the possessors of resolution). 2/f. 44r.ukün). the series of great prophets whose specifie mission in sacred history is debated in the text. 6.f. for example. 1. and the definition of sbari'ahor sacred law and its establishment in the course of history Cf. what missions they aceomplished in the course of history. 63r. the discussion of how the prophets inaugurate the eras. the definition of the ~lJâb aI-adwiror masters of the cycles. namely. 135-148).f. 1.f. 1. ll/f. al-RaZi extends the scope of the discussion ...

f..4/f. For the description of these ideas in detail. and the six bodily parts of a human being who represents the miCI'ocosm {aI-'a/am aI-.. 1. He sees it as corresponding to the spirit-Iike. 13/pp. Another subject belonging to prophetology.1Jari'ah Cf.66 • to other religious communities and to the Muslim sects including his own... in which he attempts to place them within bis framework of sacred history.. . the history or narratives of the 61 See chapter S.I.aglürl Cf. 71r. This passage reveals some influence by the terminology of Greek-Hellenistic physics on a1-1~1àlJ.ü ). §4 below. 14. incorporeal substance which gives life ta the whole body.f..e. the Qi 'ïm. 107v.'ilï theory of prophetology reflected in al-Rizi's view on sacred history. 69v. 103r. 7Ov. . AIso.68 Another matter that is key to his prophetology is revealed in his discussion of the correspondence between the six prophets. 102v. which emerges in the "sensible" domain (a1-~. 12. 16/pp.f. there is another suggestive passage dealing with the issue of "one particular nature" (al-fab 1 al-~d). 1. 204-214). 9. 1. not to mention other ideas of natural philosophy and GreekHel1enistic sciences. see below in chapter 4. 145-47).. how and to what extent? Such an investigation would likely provide clues to understanding what possible relation existed between Greek-Hellenistic science and the Ismi. 1. • 69 The letter Y out of the seven letters is reserved specifically for the seventh enundatorprophet. 72r. this in the midst of the discussion of prophetology and its link to the formation of • . 13/f. 1. provide al-Rizï with bis theory of sacred history? If so. i. 10Br.. pp. the six of the seven sacred letters K-W-N-Y-Q-D-R which symbolize the two highest hypostases of cosmos.69 This argument suggests one of the theoretical bases of prophetology: the naturalphilosophical principle of the correspondence of macrocosm and microcosm. 1. 7. 109-112.f. These passages suggest another problem worth investïgating: Did the principle of correspondence..

I. 2. and a chapter on the narratives of groups of prophets (qif~ al-anbiya' ) such as David (Di. l/f.. .f..f..l. and God'5 answer to this prayer and restoration of Job's family and property (Q 38: 42-43. including not only the greatest ones such as Adam. interpret these episodes from the history of the prophets? What methodology do they apply to their interpretation? In early (4th/I0th œntury) Isma'il interpretation of these narratives one finds that the prophets.. 1. 150v. 303-309). 149r..f. the repentance of the people of Jonah (Q 10: 98). 6fp. 1.67 • prophets based mainlyon the Qur'in. 1ff. 1.f..'üd). 132v.f. 131r.f.. 1S3v.. 8/pp. 130v. 9.. 10/pp. that is.. 1.. 6/f. 15Sr. These are just a fewexamples of episodes from the history of the prophets the meanings of which are interpreted and debated in al-/fl~ How then do al-RàZi and al-Nasafi.f. 12.f... is discussed extensively in the text of a1-I. In early Isma'ilism it .. 42v. 261-62). 1SSr.1. 9.... 1Slr.. 63r.f. 64r. the da'wah of the pre-Islamic age.. 3.. 4.. Moses. Noah.. 8. 1.1. 1. 156r. 4ff. Salomon and "others" (f. L 3/pp.. but aIso relatively minor figures.f.. 21: 84) (f. 16ff. 258-92). 148r. . IS3v. 4. of his disease (Q 38: 41). 152v.. ISSv. These chapters contain interpretations of or commentaries on various Qur'inic stories of the prophets. I53v.I~ There are for instance chapters on the "narrative" (9j~ ) of particular prophets such as Solomon (Sulayman) (f.. 292-303). Jesus and the Prophet MuI}ammad. 1 . generally speaking. 303-307). I33v. 88-131). 1. 1. .. bis embarking to a ship (Q 37: 140) and bis repentance to God from inside the stomach of a huge fish (Q 21: 87 and Q 37: 143) (f. JOb'5 falling ill and bis supplication to God to heal him. 1S7v. 1. 1. 1.f. .f.8. 148r. 149v. .f.1.... 10/pp.. 1. 4/pp.5. 1. 132v. 3 .f. 7. 294-98). 2..44r. . Abraham. 3ff. I32r. Jonah (Yünus) (f. . are regarded as dignitaries belonging to an organization of mission • or convocation.. for example: the sun-cult of the queen of Sheba and her subjects (Q 27: 24) (f. 7 ff. 1. 157r. 7/pp. • 149r. and Job (Ayyüb) (f. 1SSr. 1.

. Corbin in bis '''Herméneutique spirituelle comparée.. are interpreted as the history of the da'wah.68 • was believed that their da'wah organization had been in operation since the beginning of the cosmos and had been administered by each of them in turne Thus the history or narratives of the prophets in the Qur'in. ŒngIish transI. That is. A. "Evolution of the Organizational Structure. These two hierarchies • are the two indispensable constituents of the religious cosmos: they are in fact the religious cosmos itself. 108-62. such as enunciator-prophet and îmim. . the highest ranked members of the earthly hierarchy. Thus the earthly hierarchy always needs its heavenly counterpart. 24-28 . pp. ibid. the earthly hierarchy is administered and guided in the framework of saaed history. p." pp. 91-134. Corbin. we owe very much of our description to the interpretation by H. the earthly hierarchy is not self-sustaining in terms of its reception of divine guidance. 114-19 Œnglish transI. Corbin puts it.7D In this drama each prophet is given a certain rank (fJadd) in the earthly hierarchy. The higher ranks. Histoire. Walker. 134-36 Œnglish transl.l1 However. which is the drarna of saaed history itseH: the main characters or dramatis personae . Hamdani. especiaUy pp. 87f. • n Cf. p. pp. 96-1(0). "Cosmic Hierarchies. 135f." pp. al-RaZi in fact desaibes the contact between the greater and lesser prophets. 89-90). Corbin.." p. are inherited from generation to generation or from era to era within the organization of the da'wah or the earthly hierarchy. being the prophets themselves.72 Considering the principle of the heavenly and earthly hierarchies and the interpretation of the history of the prophets it can be suggested that there is a linkage between prophetology and cosmology in the sphere of sacred history. and the angels who are the members of the 7D On the early Ismi 'w view of the prophets and their history. 90). pp. 71 Cf. It has rather its counterpart in heaven which transmits divine guidance to the prophets. In his interpretation of the history of the prophets in al-l~l~ . as H. especially pp.

51v. 1. 1..f.. 6/p. pp. according to al-Rizi. to the Virgin Mary in verses Q 3: 42~3 inwardly signifies that some members of the heavenly hierarchy visited a certain dignitary to elevate him over bis colleagues of the same ranI< at the dawn of the cycle of Jesus (f.li. 7J . 1. to the heavenly spiritual. 106).. 225-27 respectively. the angel's Annunciation.f. or angelic. This is the third field of our investigation.. 13 As seen from the above two examples. • This passage has already been analyzed and edited by Halm in bis Kosmologie. one might say. Thus the prophet's contactwith the heavenly angelic beings represents. dignitaries. 7 If.fJ through interpretation of the history of the • prophets. an issue of the boundaries separating the areas of prophetology and cosmology or the domain overlapped by these two concepts. over which al-Rizï and al-Nasafï hold a debate on the possibility that this signifies direct recognition on the part of an enunciatorprophet of the second highest member of the heavenly hierarchy: in interpreting the story the two thinkers compare the stars which are said to have been in succession by Abraham. 16. For example.69 • heavenly hierarchy. particularly that of a Neoplatonist variety. it will be seen that there was considerable interaction between the theory of sacred history and of cosmology. Another example is the story of Abraham's denial of the cult of astral bodies (Q 6: 76-78). 70-71 and pp. the relation between prophetology and cosmology is established in aJ-I. 52r. 15. SOV. SIr. 5ince the theme of contact with heavenly or angelic beings is a field that takes in both prophetology and cosmology. 1.

p. . and knows. Il Adam" in U. vol. and the House of 'Imràn above all beings (~a1a &1. Noah." • 3 We should also note another verse. R.~àlamïn)2 / the seed of one another. we are now in a position to examine the Razian view of the prophets. the House of Abraham. • According to Islamic re1ïgious tradition. pp. Arbeny's translation '''aU beings. R. {Q 3: 33-34)3 1 J. Prophetology and Sacred History in Islamic Tradition In the last chapter we briefly discussed the textual history of al-l. 12. Paret. the first man or the "father of humankind" (Abü al-bubar).70 • Chapter4 Rizian Prophetology and the Doctrine of the Qa'im §1.lafJ and surveyed the contents of the texte Having done sa. the Une of prophets began with Gad's . Paret maintains that it is "die Bewohner" (inhabitants). J. 2 As for the meaning of "al·'ilamiiti' in the Qur1àn. 1971). 1. God hears. 176-78. creation of Adam. Pedersen.l In the following Qur1inic verses this continuity of the line of prophets is clearly proclaimed: God chose Adam. This interpretation is close ta A. Der Koran: Kommentar und Konkordllnz (Stuttgart. which is generally interpreted as showing that God expressed His decision to entrust His divine will to Adam on earth: "1 am setting in the earth a viœroy' (Q 2 : 30).

264-66. that îs.. Q 5: 12-19. 11lt. that is. to 4 M. Arabie HistoriClll Thought in the ClassiCJl1 Period (Camb"'dge.. total submission to God's will and commands. 2: 75. Falaturi (London. Ishmael. "Talpif. 00. p. . Jesus and Job. I<ha1idi. Lazaru~Yafeh. vol. 1992). 2. vo!.4 As with the continuity of the line of prophets. vol. 4: 46. and the prophets after hïm. 5 On the idea that divine guidance bas been revealed in history. the content of this divine guidance is regarded as essentially one and the same.IO." Et. Ayoub. the continuity of the line of prophets represented in the above verse was interpreted as extending to the Prophet Mul}ammad. ete. the Prophet Mul}ammad) as We revealed to N oab. H. 85-93. The House of'bJuitJ (Albany. Isaac. the Qur'an..e.Y. though it makes no explicit mention of him. the Qur'il\ seems to proclaim the continuity of prophecy and divine guidance (IJudi ) in the following verses.n. (Q 4: 163-164) Here the continuity of prophecy and divine guidance is extended to the Prophet • Mu1}ammad. A. 5: 41 (against Jews).6 Therefore. On the distortion of the divine message by Christians and Jews." El. Jacob. and We revealed to Abraham. "Ahl al-Kitib. 11-12.l.. Ayoub shows that commentators such as al-Tabari. and Messengers We have not told thee of. N. d. The Qur'an and its lnterpreters .71 • Among the commentators on the Qur'in of later generations. see: A. And We gave to David Psalms. Vajda. 7-16. T. and the Tribes. Fakhr al-Dïn al-Râzï. Falaturi.. M. who received the latest divine message. pp.-M. Le. and Solomon. Der • Koran: Kommentar und Konkordanz. 6 See: G. 5: 78 (against bath Jews and Christians)." in We Believe in One God. pp. Schimmel and A. "Experience of Time and History in Islam. 1994).5 However. pp. Jews and Christians. though it omits the name of Adam: We have revealed to thee (i. Also cf. land Messengers We have aIready told thee ofbefore. Throughout the line of prophets. according to the Qur'i. al-Qurlul:i. 1979). Paret.. Jonab and Aaron. 5: 65. pp. this message has been distorted by the people of scripture (alJl al-kitab). endeavored te include the Prophet M~d and bis family in the line of prophets mentionOO in this verse.

enlitled "Qassical Background" of bis Prophecy Continuous: Aspects of A. the various branches within the Islamic community-the Sunnis.E. which is understood to be the final and most complete or perfect one that humankind has ever received. which is to be in effect until the Day of Judgement. This finality of the prophethood of doctrine emerged gradually in tandem with the formation of Muslim identity during the early phase of the development of Islam? While the dogma of the finality of M~ad's prophethood gradually formed. the following verse can be interpreted as stating the finality and eompleteness of the message which the Prophet M~ad received: ''roday 1 have perfected your religion for you. 1989).fJmadï Religious Thought and Ifs Medieval BacJcground <Berkeley. N oting the existence of ideas in the Qur'in such as the continuity of divine guidance through the prophets' Une.72 • correct these "distortions" God revealed to M~ad His divine Message. culminating in the coming of the Prophet with God's final message. Shi'ïs. On p. and the final and perfect nature of the message revealed to the Prophet M~ad. and how to eonnect the prophetie line up to M~ad with the divine 7 For our understanding of the doctrine of the finality of the prophethood of Mu{1ammad. Furthermore. and 1 have approved Islim for your religion. 49-101. 71 of the same work Friedmann holds that the process of systemalic incorporation of this doctrine into the arlides of faith in theology could have been completed as Jate as the second half of the lOth œntury C. and ~üfis-had to grapple with the problems of the continuity of divine guidance and prophecy after the completion of the Prophet's mission." (Q 5: 5). we are led to conclude that the substance of divine guidance deve10ped as it was revealed to successive prophets. • . But this raises an important question: • How does God guide humankind after His revelation of the final message to the Prophet M~mmad? This question is closely related to the doctrine of the M~ad. pp. Friedmann's excellent study of the development of the Muslim interpretation of the Qur'inîc term "kbâlallJ aJ-aabiyà'" and of the tenets conœming prophecy in part 2. and 1 have completed My blessing upon you. we are greatly indebted to Y.

" Occasional Papers of the School of Abbasid Studies3 (1990). . since we must find an inclusive term representing any monotheist thought on history which contains ideas of salvation and the telos. Corbin's concept unlortunately cannot be adopted. 98-101 (partial transI. The Qur·i. ""Towards a TYPOlogy of Abbasid Universal Chronicles. Radtke. pp. bis concept of hiérohistoire may comprise bath the categories in the strict sense of '''sacred history" and "salvation history. without the p~history "in heaven" Ce. finding its own meaning in its sacred prototype in heaven. This is a tyPe of history which is believed ta result hom "the mode of the perception. R Corbin. Corbin. Histoire. SO-SS Œnglish transI. Christianity and Islam. According to this historical category. The foUowing should also he pointed out conceming this tenninology: in order to represent the esoteric aspect of Shi1i speculation on history. H. H. the development of the prophetie line serves as a further reminder of the idea of _ • See Y. Iudaism and Christianity. and/or in later Islamic intellectual and religious tradition~ This question is suggested by the historical continuity of the three Abrahamic monotheist religions: Judaism. history moves toward its esduIton. notes 1 and 2." Corbin aise maintains that it is "absurd" ta taIk about meaning of history ""without meta-history" that is. pp. idem. 1-18. 98-107 and 128-39 Œnglish transI. which is the salvation granted to the faithful after the F'mal Judgement. Ibid. namely. • 10 B. lo It is well-accepted that the two other Abrahamicmonotheist religions. or any idea similar to it he found in the Qur'in. mine: d. pp. 24-28). AIso. of the supersensible [being). English transI. Corbin contrasts his concept of hiérohistoire with Christian '''historical conscience" which presupposes the manifestation of the Divine in history through the Incarnation."" However. 1992)..73 • guidance that Muslims should continue to receive. exhibit aIl the features of this type of history.8 Refleeting upon the Qur'inic teachings on the continuity of prophecy. pp. according to Corbin. 1 9 For the terminology on consciousness of history. In addition. Histoire. pp. of course. for a Shri perspective on this issue. Corbin proposes the concept of hiérohistoire . part 2 of Prophecy Continuous. 61-68 and 84-93). contains the idea of the Day of Resurrection (yawm al-qiyillJah) or of Judgement. above. in Shï1iau. Weltgeschichte und Weltbeschreibung im mittelalterlichen Islam (Beirut. d.n. we are faced with another question: Can the notion of salvation history or sacred history direeted toward salvation.. Friedmann.. pp." Thus. 1-2. In this chapter we attempt to praye the continuity of a historical conscienœ through three monotheist religious traditions. Therefore.g. Because of its emphasis on the "Perception of the supersensible" and on eschatology. humankind's pre-historical covenant with God).. and "'without eschatology. see chapter 1. history is understood to move gradually toward its goal or telas. pp..." pp. 61~).

Mahler.. an idea which can be found in almost every religious • tradition. ed. 1. "Erlosung.13 Bearing in mind this broader definition of salvation. Eliade et al. let us summarize the Qur1i. the Messiah. temporary calamity of life (which is not essentially the original state of humankind) and the resulting achievement of bliss. But what is meant by "salvation"? The answer to our question of whether or not the idea of sacred history directed toward salvation. p. Religionsgeschichtlich. '1Adam'" in ER. nor its supposed goal. K. vol. I~enœof Time and History in Islam. Fishbane. Falaturi. led by the divine guidance channe1ed through the prophets. 3rd ed." transi. Galling et al. pp. (Tübingen. and still is." If atonement for and redemption from the original sin committed by the first human couple (Adam and Eve (l. S. i. as shawn in Pauline letters such as Romans 7: 13-15. 418-23 and F. salvation can be generally interpreted as deliverance from the earthly." • 13 See N. or simply.. pp. we do not necessarily have to understand the idea of "salvation" in a specifically Christian sense: rather.nic description of the sequence of historical events from the Creation to the End of our world. Sïnce the time of Creation. sacred history. M. A. 266.11 the very existence of this idea as such in the Qur1in is a highly debatable matter. 12 For example. 2. is present in Islam depends on how we define "salvation. I. Smart. 584-86. In these letters." in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart. 12 However. 5 (New York/London. Falaturi holds that there is no sense of linear history. 1986). a guidance that will 11 In the very early phase of its development. vol. "Soteriology: An Overview." ER. Bammel.00. p. etc.74 • history's moving toward a culmination or goal. That is ta say. in (slamic scripture. A. maintaining that the Qur'in has a strong sense of the etemal quality of llsurrender ta God" and "divine guidance'" A. more general way. vol. as the redeemer or atoner for Adam's sin.1 Corinthians 15: 21-22.e. we can interpret it in a broader. See J. Ries. . The. 13. vol. of "salvation" as such. 1987). in The Encyclopedia of Religion (hereafter referred to as ER ). 'lfall.Iawi1) ) is in Christian theology considered to be an indispensable constituent of the idea of salvation. humankind has been.. Ouistian theology connected the idea of the "fall" of humankind from a primordial paradisiacal state ta that of salvation. 27. the figure of Christ is depicted as the "second Adam" and the "new Adam." that is. M.

" This sense of salvation history or saaed history toward salvation is then.16 These issues of the continuation of prophecy and the existence of a sacred history provide us with a frame of reference for understanding early Ismi.'ilï thought on Q 17: 70-71. sincere faith in God. "Toward a Typology. 21: 16-17.·w thought on prophecy and history. 1S Thus the faithful will be rewarded for their endurance in the face of the hardships of daily life. 69: 18-37. since. namely. B. according to Radtke. 56: 88-94.·i1is formed a sect within the Muslim community. since the Ismi. . according to him.75 • continue until the end of our world. will be delivered from damnation. their diligent. 84: 6-15 etc. before undertaking our presentation of early Ismi. However." p. and their fight for God's cause. 30: 7. Radtke. present in Iater historiographical writings by Muslims such as al-Tabari and al-Mas-üdi's. the faithful. and thus will be allowed to enter paradise and live there in eternaI bliss.14 On that day. AIl this can actually be interpreted as deliverance from earthly hardship. or the "fire" of damnation (nir). will be doomed to live in the abode of hell. their persecution by powerful unbelievers for their response to the call of the past prophets. Radtke maintains that there is a sense of salvation history in Islamic saipture. 14 IS • 16 B. meaning those who listened to and observed the teachings of the prophets dispatched from God. 3. It is aIso possible that • the later Muslim view of history henceforth came to indude the idea of sacred history toward salvation. or those who refused God's guidance. etc. forever. Q 19: 66-76. the Day of Judgement (yawm al-QUJ) or Day of Resurrection (ya:wm al_qiyâlJJab). We hope to be able in what follows to clarify the doctrines of the continuity of divine guidance and sacred history toward salvation as it was understood by this sect. this scripture teaches that the creation and humankind have their "beginning and end through and in God. Such a doctrine strongly suggests that the Qurfin does contain its own version of salvation history. whereas non-Believers.

it is worthwhile to locate Ismi. whose teachings were revered as authoritative and are quoted constantly in Fi~d religious works. S. al-Qi4i al-Nu'min's Da'i'im al-I. 1consulted "I(jlib al-i. G. M~d b. the notion of a 1)ujjah ("prooi" or bra~ch M~mmad. 11 19 • For sayings attributed to the imams regarding this doctrine. . 544-45.'ïlism as a common with other 5hi'i groups. Ya1qüb al-Kulaynï. As regards sacred history. Hodgson. but aise because the Ithni'asharis share a common origin with the Ismi. 1955). "~udjdja (in Shi'i Terminology). we need to sketch the early Ithni.'Dis as followers of the Imim Ja'far aI-~i. A." in El 2.lim.diq (d.lujjah" in one of the most authoritative collections of Ithna'ashari ~dir1J.'ashari discussion of the two issues. Moreover. pp. 3.e. or traditions attributed to the Imims. 00.'asharism provides us with a doctrinal reference point for another major Shi'i branch. Shi'ism presents one of the clearest exampIes in Islam of a tradition in which the issues of saaed history toward saIvation and the continuity of prophecy were held to be fundamental. In the foUowing description of the Ithni· ashari doctrine of !. i. 2 vols. Fyzee (ai-Qihirah. It is in of Shi'ism shares features in "evidence of God's will") plays an important role in proving the existence and the continuation of divine guidance on earth}8 This teaching of l. 5hï'is maintain that divine guidance • continues through the line of the Imams belonging to the abl al-bayt or the household of the Prophet. 1451768). A. This is necessary not only because Ithni.Jujjah is unfolded in the a1}idith.17 Thus the doctrines of these two main branches of Shï'ism have certain simiIarities.'ilism within the broader context of Shi'ism before attempting a more specific discussion.JujjaIJ we mainly foUow M. for example. In Ithni'ashari 5hi 'i thought on prophecy. A. vol. even though actual law-establishing prophecy is acknowiedged to have been completed with the Prophet virtue of this doctrine that Ismi. 19 The term I}ujjah is used to 11 See..76 • these subjects. the continuity of prophecy and the question of saaed history toward salvation. by referring ta the fJaditbs attributed to their Imams.

pp. 1. in tenns of their understanding of .22 Each of these descendents was appointed by the nomination (~.) of bis predecessor in keeping with God's will: this means that the Imims were divinely-guided and -appointed leaders of Al-U. Qadarites. on the Shi' i in general.lib who were known as the ah1 al-bayt. 299-307. 1382/1962). pp. inherited by the descendents of Imâm Ali b. p. MutJammad Biqir aI-Bihbüdï & 'Ali Akbar al-Ghaffirj with commentary and Persian transI." p. p. After the Prophet. 1983). and humankind would thus be unable to serve Him. "Ahl al-Bayt. and the Ithni'asharï in particu1ar.n needs a custodian (9ayyim al-Qur'an). K. according to Imâm Ja'far a1-~adiq." in Arabie Literafure to the End of the U""'YYad Period. l." d. This is a definition of the term in general Shi'i context. the Qur'i. The only persan • capable of taking on this raIe after the Prophet was. 1. Goldziher. Howard. For the various definitions of the "ab] al-bayt. zitJdi9) can utilize it in their disputes.n. because of His great transcendence.313f. vol. This role of according to another ~adith . vol. S.314f. A.pdilb. (Cambridge. • 22 Ibid. the Prophet's cousin and son-in-Iaw. 365f.A. see E. .C. See also Hodgson.wmüJ al-Kifi (hereafter referred to as al-Kulayni. 00. pp. 1. ed." Elr. sg.77 • refer ta a persan who represents and demonstrates God's guidance to humankind. A. al-Iafj. al-KjJj). since Murji'ites. 20 But who was to take over this role of ~ujjaIJ after the Prophet M~mmad? A lJadith attributed to lmim Ja'far al-~diq provides an answer to this question. 318-22 ( especially p.afwaIJ mÜJ kba19i-1Ji). van Arendonk. the best of His creatures <. Tritton. ~uijab 1 was. with their commands spelling out what to do and their prohibitions telling of what not to do. and even dualist-heretics (zanadi9. 635. 320) and p. by Mul}ammad Biqir al-I<amara'i (Tihri. His guidance would not be accessible to humankind. vol. vol. were sent to humankind. F. I<ohlberg. Abï Ti. Every age is therefore in such great need of lJujjab that the world could not exist without him: this is why the prophets.21 The saying also implies that he was the lJujjah on earth. Also. 2D AI-Kulayni. Thus. 'Ali b. "Ahl-e Bayt (Ahl al-Bayt). L Beeston et al. p. Abi Tilib. "Shi'i I:fadith. 257-58 and 1. al-JCjfj. 1.. '~u~." El2. 1. the Qur'in cannot alone constitute the lJujjah . 21 Al-Kulayni. that is.. vol. 544. Were it not for such lJuiiab.

15 Ibid. p.e.. Moses. A1so. this teaching attributed to lmi. On the basis of bis interpretation of this verse. 431.. according to 'Ali al-Ri~. "our party") made a contraet with God.2S To sum up.m 'Ali al-Ri~ emphasizes the continuity of prophecy through the line of %1 Ibid. This role of demonstrating divine guidance to humankind was proclaimed in a letter sent by the eighth Imam 'Ali al-Ri~i to one of his companions. This could be intel pteted as "our entranœ ID the paradise. 23 In it the lmim 'Ali al-Ri4a is reported to have written that after the Prophet -the trustee of God (amüJ AIliIJ ) among His creatures.. which is quoted in a tradition.it is the people of the Prophet's household (i.'azm). like the prophets. and will enter the latter's entrance (madkbal): henœ orny this party and the imims constitute the community of Islam Cmillat al-161im).24 In effect the saying attributed to al-Ri~ grants exclusive membership in the Islamic community ta the Imims and • their "shï'ah. p."). In the text the "entrance" is referred ta as ""our entrance" Cmadklalu-aj). U Ibid." Furthermore.. . this same ." or the great prophets (ulii al."m) with which He charged Noah.." However we keep the final intel pletatïon • open to discussion.e. and what We charged Abraham. the Imams. making them the heirs of the "possessors of resolution.. 431f. al-Ri4& proclaims that the verse denotes that Gad transmitted the knowledge of those great prophets ta the imims. p. including 'Ali al-Rip himself) who are bis heirs (waratlJatu-lJu). and this party will reach the watering place (maWJid) of the Imims. 431f..78 • humankind. the imims and their "party' (6bi'atu-na .fJaditIJ quotes Q 42: 13 ("He (i. literally.. which Imam 'Ali al-Ri4a interprets in the same letter as having being addressed to the family of M~mmad (Al MuftammaJJ. and Jesus. that which We revealed ta you. God) has prescribed to you the religion (.

they nevertheless did hear angel's voices in 216 Ibido. and likewise [this] is applied to [other] lmi. There is aIso another ~dit1J attributed te Ja'far al-~diq which confirms that the people of the Shi' ah hold exclusive membership in the Islamic Community: Amïr al-Mu'minin is the gate to God (bah AH~. other than which if someone treads.qlJi-bu 00. 7/ p. we suggest.dïtb indicate that the imims from the abl al-bayt took on the raIe of IJujjah after the Prophet.'ashari doctrines on the Imamate extracted from alli. resPeCtively:" Pa-1IJaIJ pddaqa. and did not have visions of angels in a waking state.hari'ah or sacred law. • Ibid.79 • the imams of the household of the Prophet. and the path ta Him (_abDu-hu). that while they could not receive the . ta the imim 0 0" o ••" .iyimab OmimJa'far}. then.ms one after another0 26 The above can be interpreted as suggesting that salvation will be granted only to the "s hi'ah" of the imams. This notion is confirmed in two ~dit1J s recorded by Imam Ja'far and bis father. Imam M~ad al-Bàqir.fJadilb attributed ta lmim Ta'far al-~diq) and po 360fo {that attributed M~mmad a1-Biqir)o The phrase 1 paraphrased as "the imams will testify against the unbe1ievers but attest to the faith of those who accepted their authorityo is in the following two ladïtls.addaqlJi-buyaw-ma al-. 360 (the . becoming the heirs ta bis prophecyo Some a.27 This means. he will perish." Omim M~d a1-Biqir).fJadïth attributed to the imams aIso imply that they were possessed of prophecy of such a nature. the above Ithni.. Who cannat be reached except through it. dealing with the Day of the Resurrection (yawm al-qiyimah ) or Last Judgemento According to these lIaclitlJs. • the imams will testify against the unbelievers but attest to the faith of those who accepted their authority.. "Pa-man pddaqayawma aJ-qiyiDMb pd. that at the end of our world the imams will take on a salvationaI role for true believers by testifying on their behalfo To sum up. 379. p.

prophecy or the prophetie line was maintained even after the Prophet by the Imims from his household and will continue to be maintained throughout history down to the Day of Resmrection. Watson: Shiism . 251 • H. 30 J. 836-38. Sachedina.28 Receiving divine guidance. Die Schia (Darmstadt 1988). lslamic MessÜlnism: the Idetl of the MiIJuli in Twelver Shi'ism (Albany. l'l<aysinyya. According to this scheme. Thus. 19). A. from the lime of the rise of the I<aysi. specifically Shj'j in inspiration. or return to our world. and his rujü'. Madelung. by Œdinburgh.30 The introduction of these ideas added a sense of culmination ta the Shi'j scheme of history. Madelung. "Al-Mahdi. For thoughts on the connection between millenarian-messianist ideas and the Kaysini movement. the third bib of Kilib aJ-ijujjah (pp. One point which should be noted is the emergence of a doctrine featuring a set of messianist ideas among members of a Shi'j group known as the Kaysilüyah: this movement antidpated that an 'Alid by the name ofM~db.niyah. vol. or sacred history directed toward salvation. the last imim.29 The doctrine. p.. p. or state of being hidden in the unseen dimension of the world. their task was to lead the faithful on the right path.80 • dreams. Halm. For a general overview of the development of the docbine of the Mahdi in Islamic traditions. al-~anafiyah. that is. • featured: a messianic figure or Mahdi ("the rightly guided"). S. his . 329-31). In other words. who is expected by Shi'js and SUIUlis alike to restore justice and eradicate injustice at the end of lime. Thus it is clear that the idea of the sacred history. 1981). the day when the faithful are granted salvation. and help them gain salvation on the Day of Judgement. ideas such as these gained considerably in popularity and were further elaborated by other Shi'j groupS. 4. despite his apparent death in 81/700-701. vol." Et. 25 (English transI. pp. see the following studies: W. 1230-38. is represented in Shi'j sources. see W. pp." Er. descended from the 21 Ibid. A.hay&ah (occultation). who had been the Mahdi of the failed Shi'j rebellion led by al-Mukhtar (66/68567/687) against Umayyad rule. 10. would return as the messianic figure. 1991). p.

A. 41. S. This doctrine distinguishes Shi'is from SunnIl who advocate the continuation of divine guidance by the 'ulamâ' or the leamed in religious sciences after the Prophet. even though Sunnis maintain a belief in the advent of the Mahdi at the end of âme.baybah of the twelfth imim.81 • ah1 al-llayt is believed to be presently in ghaybab. That is to say. Modarressi. yet is expected to return toward the end of time. A. In Ithna'ashrï Shi'ism. Arjomand. H. and will eventually reach its climax with the final triumph of the true religion. see the following studies: A. the Shï'iS) and defeat to the unbelievers. the messianist doctrine respectively the advent of the Mahdi was developed on the basis of the doctrine of the gbaybaIJ of the twelfth Imim. With this concept of the advent of a messianic figure." pp.:u In other words. given the lack of sole leadership after the death of the eleventh Imam (260/874). a unique scheme of 31 That is to say. Islilmic MessiJmism. the Shi'ï scheme of history takes on a sense of the culmination which is to mark at the end of the line of prophetie guidance. Islamic Messianism. Sachedina. the advent of the messianic figure is regarded as the goal of this continued Une of prophecy. 1994). history continues to develop under the direction of divinely appointed leaders. p. A. particularly. which in tum precedes and prepares the stage for its achievement of a telos or its • goal. This particular doctrine developed gradually through the efforts of the first generations of representatives of the Imimï community. ''Imam Absconditus and the Begïnnings of a • . prophets and îmims. A. bringing final victory to the faithful (in this case. the Day of Judgement or the Day of Resurrection.32 Hence. in Shi'ism. Cf. 78-108. as well as through those of the theologians who had to speak up. Shi'ism has the concept of sacred history toward salvation which has its own culmination or telos. Crïsis and Consolidation in the Formative Period of Shi'ite Islam (Princeton. that is. 3 entitled '7he Occultation of the lmamite Mahdi. Sachedina. allowing justice finally to prevail over injustice. The îmal triumph is to be brought by the Mahdi and is meant to help prepare the world for the Final Judgement which willlead the faithful to salvation. chap. In brief. history culminates in the advent of the Mahdi. 32 On the development of the doctrine of the .

in spite of the widespread bellef that the concealment of the seventh Imam was still in force./900 A.h's declaration that he was the lmim. i.·iIï conceptual counterpart. • .82 • sacred history toward salvation. Die 5chia .'ilï standpoint. still believing in the parousia of Mul}ammad b.e. we can point to the beginning in 286/899 of their propaganda on behalf of their leader 'Ubayd ('Abd) Alli. This induced the dissidents known as the Qarmalis or Qarimi~h to split from the main body of the sect.m. ''From lmimiyya ta Ithni·' ashariyya. marked the end of the concealment of the imi. the doctrine of the concealment (. 29-50). whereas the Qarma~ thought differently. one by one. It would therefore be an enormous task to compare those different experiences. and to determine what effect these might have had on their respective doctrines on the concealment of an ïmim. for those loyal to 'Ubayd ('Abd) Allih and his Une. we think.H. Each group developed its own idea of concealment which henceforth resulted in the shaping of its own scheme of Theology of Occultation: Imami 5hi'ism ciral 280-90 A. for example: Halm. even if there is reason to think that the Ismi'iBs originated in the Imimi group which was itself reformulated into the Ithni. The reason why the question remains unresolved lies." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 39 (1976): pp.atrl of the lmi.'asharïyah in 4th/IOth century.. 34-56 (English transI. the Ithni. in the different historical experiences that each Shi'j community underwent after their split in the second half of the 2nd/3rd century. pp. pp. 1-12. E. This event. Also on the process of the formation of Ithni1asharidoctrine on the py6aA and the return of the twelfth im~ see.·ashari Shi'i theology. Isma'il as the awaited Qi lim." Journal of the AmeriCQn Oriental Society 117 (1997): pp.D.· ashaIi Shi'! faithful have steadfastly believed in bis future parousia. the culmination of which is the parousia (1Qhiir) of the hidden twelfth imâm. situations and events. Comparison of the particular Ithna'ashari concept of ghaybaIJ with its Ismi. 521-34. was deve10ped in Ithni. Kohlberg. leaves many avenues open to investigation. • As an example of these historical experiences from the Ismi.m and bis emergence. Ever since.

the Fipmid Imamate-Caliphate could not safeIy manage to avoid dispute over the question of succession to the Imamate. • . Each scheme of sacred history as weIl as each idea of concealment could serve as the subject of a fully detailed monograph. each Isma 'ni sub-sect developed not only its own idea of concealment but aIso its own scheme of sacred history toward salvation as a doctrinal response to their historical experiences. who believed in the imamate of al-Tayyib and bis state of concealment up to our age. Each of these conflicts resulted in schism. The other dispute which arase after the • death of Imam al-Amir brought about a further schism within the Fi~d Isma'ïlis who split into the Tayyibiyah. even within the framework of Ismi'ilism. Even after this event.83 • saaed history toward salvation. and the I. This can be observed in such cases as the conflict between Nizir and al-Musta'lï over the succession to the lmamate of al-Musl:éln?ir bi-Allih (d. the Niziriyah. and the disarray in the Fi. aIso known as the new calling" U or "new propaganda" (al-da 'waIJ al-jal/il/ab) which supported the Imamate of the latter and which later deveIoped the doctrine of his concealment and that of the first few generations of bis descendants.'' namely.fifipyah. 487/1094). However. Out of the dispute between aI-Musta 'li and Nizir there emerged a faction. who sided with the Fi. we must remember that our focus is on that version of sacred history which developed at the time of the FiPmid-Qarma1Îan l'schism. Thus.timid court between the lime of the death of Imam al-Amir (524/1130) and the enthronement of al-~~ (526/1132).pmïd court of the time. in the first half of the 4th/10th century.

" Ef. Halm. each of which is inaugurated by a -~9 (pl. Adam. that is. pp." pp. • 3& On this titIe and its dHference from another title given the messianic. W. a specific hermeneutical 31 The following description of the basic scheme of history owes a great deal to studies such as: H. sg.84 • §2. outer aspect of religion. Early Ismi.34 Each tJi.. eschatological figure known as the ''Mahdi. Corbin. 18-37. the~. '~i'im AI M~d. 256-57: ide~ "a1-Mahdi. the Qi. "Aspects of Ismi'm Theology.'' see: W. and preserve and teach the bi!ÜJi aspect of religion as well as its The ""Pni aspect of the religious teachings is revealed by the ~ihiri aspect. vol. Noah. IJu~'la' According to this scheme there are seven in human history. • abolishing the law in effect in the previous cycle. or inner.. (fundament). 139-41. 'ilis on Sacred History and Prophetology To begin our exposition of the early Isma'Di version of sacred history. ta 'wiJ (esoteric interpretation) of the written words of the scriptural text." pp. .. 1235-1237. Histoire. (will-executor) who founds the teaching of the btifin. esoteric aspect of religion but does not bring law. and the awaited messianic figure. or exoteric. dawr). thus being "sUent" on it. Abraham. pp. Each ntifi'l in his cycle is followed by an ua.33 This scheme basically consists of seven cycles (adrir. chapter 1 entitled "Die Zyklen der sieben Propheten. 4. In the following description of the scheme we follow the mainstream of contemporary scholarship.•lJani'j' ) or sacred law. Kosmologie. the Prophet MuJ:1ammad. IJufaqa') or enunciator-prophet. aise known as a stimit (silent one) or ~i. pp. 131-36 Œnglish trans!. pp.1im or the "rising one. 86-90).1i'l brings a new shari'ah (pl. Daftary. F. let us confirm and further eluddate their "cyclical" scheme of human history. 53-65.. Moses. Madelung. Made1ung. nameIy.. Succeeding the aü. Jesus. The Isma'ili. pp. seven imams maintain the order of religious community." d.

Müaa al-Nawbakhti.i 'i." p. ~qi. 1988). 124-123. Al-Nawbakhti is believed ta have composed bis Firaq before 286/899.ab ) which an be contrasted with . The pattern described above is aIso seen in two Imimi 5hï'j heresiographicaI • works. These texts contain two of the oldest extant accounts of the Ismi. 1931). Heinen. "Étude préliminaire. (the hidden truths or the realities. K. pp. Then at the end of each cycle. pp. while the latter only abolishes the one previous ta him at the same lime as he discloses the NfÜJ. J6 The first and the last tlu~a' constitute two exceptions to the pattern described above. basing himself on al-Nawbakhtï's work.e. 'Di Theology. or esoteric aspect of ail the laws preceding him." in Approaches to the History of the Interpretation of the Qur'ü . see. pp. ed. "Aspects of Ismi. divine guidance is transmitted and renewed on earth. Cl. Walker. pp.. pp. and the imimS. for example." pp. 'The Notion of ta 'ri in Abü Ya'qüb al-5ijistini's Book of Sources. chapter 12 entitled "Interpretation and its Institution. H. This issue will be discussed in the next section below. 65-73. Müsi al-Nawbakh6's Fira. H. al-S1Jj çaIJ and Sa'd b. 50. There also seems ta be a sense of culmination of human history. ~S. sg.tammad a1-~asan b. the Qi1im who discloses inner meanings. does not have any previous law ta abolish.31 3S On the la 'ri . Ritter Qstanbul.85 • method. • :r1 The descriptions of early Ismi'ilism by these two authors are to be found in: Abü MlJbammad al-I:fasan b. the advent of a messianic figure. which is the function of the ua. 'Abd Allah al-Qummi's Kitib Maqâ1it wa-al-Firaq.-J. 'Abd Allih wrote his Maqilàt.3S In the bipn of the religion there lie its ~. (Tehran. Firaq al-Shi'aIJ (hereafter referred to as al-Nawbakhti>. Adam. . i. Madelung. while Sa'd b. since the former. by M. 1.. being also the first human being. Within this scheme we can recognize the element of continuation of prophecy or divine guidance. 57-64 (French transI. Poonawala. A." in bis Early Philosophical 5hiism . idem. before 292/905. Mashkür: Les sectes shiites. Abü MuJ. although they are reports from outside the sect. the seventh in the series of the imims is installed as the nafÎq of the next cycle. Histoire . the inner realties (laqà 'iq) of all the laws that were held in the past.bari'ab. Corbin.36 The rest of this section will be dedicated to outlining the characterlstics of this scheme of early ISmi'w sacred history. 199-222." Hamdard Islamicus 2 (1979). Rippin (Oxford.'Di doctrines for which provenance is clearly known. A. ~37 . "Ismi'ili ta'wiJ of the Qur'in. In this manner. 00. that is.

1 Abd AIJih al-Ash'ari al-Qummi. p. 62 <French transI. see the bibliography by H. 8D-86. one of the basic Ismi. 'Ali b. p. al-l.Iusayn.1im" the one who had been dispatched (yub'atIJu) by God with the apostleship (ri. pp. b. and Mul}ammad b. Jesus. p.ilah) and a new sacred law (sbari'ah jadidah). 188. 'Ali. p. ed. Sa' d b. "possessors of resolution" or great prophets. Ja'far. 38 Furthermore. and an apostle (ruül). the counting of 'Ali among the great prophets with resolution al-'azm ) and the notion of a new. although they nlake no clear mention of the seven cycles. Sa'd b. The last of these was believed to be still living and still Imâm as weIl as the "Mahdi-Qi.40 These accounts clearly suggest the idea of a series of seven great prophets. Sa'd b. Kosmologk. including.-J. Mashkür (Tïhrin. AIso of importance in this scheme is the Ismi'm doctrine of~. 88). Ismi 'il.b MatliJa' wa-al-Pirq (hereafter referred te as Sa Id b. pp. when compared with later sources written by Isma'iJj authors. 18. Ki. This doctrine held that there are seven u1ü al-1azm.41 However. Halm in bis Kosmologie . al-l:Iusayn. 'Ali.' im" (al-Imam al-Mahdi al-Qi 'im).. p. M~ad. or designation 1980). for example.who believed in the imamate of M~ad b.bati'ah given to the Qi' im. these accounts can be seen to contain certain mistakes or distortions. M~ad. Abraham. p. 1Abd Allih. 84. 62 <French transI. Sa ad b. p. Isma'il b. Ismi'i. pp. Moses.ansakhu) the law of the Prophet M~ad. Abi Tilib. and Mul}ammad b.. M~mmad al-~asan. these being Noah. 1963). 'Abd Allah.86 • Al-Nawbakh6 and Sa'd b..'Di tenets. 88). 'Abd Allih reported on the doctrine of the prophets held by the Qarimitah or Qarma~ans. M. 31 (u1ü AI-Nawbakhti. 1 Abd Allah). p. 61-62 (French transi..39 On the figure of MU\1ammad b. 83-91). pp. 84. la'far b. Ja'far. . with • which he was to abolish (Jr. 39 AI-Nawbakhti. p. • 40 AI-Nawbalchti. 83-84. 41 See Halm. according to these two authors. a Abd Allah. 87). our two authors report that the Qarmatians meant by the title "the Qi. the Qarma\ians believed that only seven Imims came after the Prophet M~mmad: 'Ali b. On these two texlS. Isma'il b.

1979). p." Journal of the Amerian Oriental Society 106 (1986): pp. 1997). "The Shi'ite and Khirijite Contribution to Pre-Ash'arite Kalim. Why does the series of the "possessors of resolution" (ulü a]-'azm) or the great prophets begin with Noah and not with Adam? What is Adam's position in human history? This 42 Al-Nawbakh6.'. N. 47-48: 1 follow the reading and translation of M. S. Sa'd b. n. On Imàmi or Ithnà'ashri notion of IJada'. lsmi. Why then did the Qarmapans resort to a notion which their opponents on the issue of the lmimah actually utilized? It may be suggested that this report reflects confusion or polemical tendency on the part of al-Nawbakhti and Sa'd b.. pp. 84. This argument which both authors ascribe to the Qarma. Ayoub. theologians utilized ta explain the succession of the Ithni'asluis' seventh Imim. see D. and will be revisited below in greater depth in the fifth and sixth chapters of this study. see: M. -J. On the Ismi'i1i rejection of the notion of the "ada J. 1 in his translation). 'Abd Allah. which is beIieved to have taken place after the premature death of Imam Ja'far's eldest son.(A. 623-32. Morewedge (Albany. d. 62 (French transI. I. Goldziher. • . or whether it can be interrupted during the lifetime of an incumbent. W. 'Abd Allah.Y. a doctrine referred to by both al-Nawbakhti and Sa'd b.ans is similar to the notion of bada' (Cad's changing of His own will) which sorne Imini. r\::. One of them is the question of whether the tenure of prophethood or imamate is lifelong. At any rate. pp.'i1. 251-52. (Saint-Nicolas.87 • and transmission of authority. a question which should he investigated in sorne future study.~ ID the lmimah. which is the starting point of divine guidance through prophecy. Mashkiir. Musa al·Ka. ""A lm.. vol. 88. Ul pensée phJl0s0phique et théologique de Sba1uv1âlJi (m. p. 850-51. This termination of the apostleship of the Prophet during bis lifetime is interpreted as the precedent for God's change of dedsion in terms of the imimah of Ja'far and Ismi 'il. '~adi. 'Abd Allàh." fI2. and later Ithni'ashri." in Islamie Philosophiazl Theology.. t· The accounts of al-Nawbakhti and Sa'd b. pp. 'Abd Allâh raise another issue. This issue is crucial to al-Razi's interpretation of the history of the prophets. Tritton). Steigerwald. 1. "Divine Preordination and Human Hope: A Study of the Concept of Bada' in lmimi Shi'i Tradition. 120-39. p. ed. According to it the apostleship was supposed to have been removed (in'la~'at ) from the Prophet and passed on to 1 Ali on the day of the latter's designation by the former at the pond of Ghadir I<humm. pp. 42 This reported doctrine raises several issues. these ideas on the series of seven prophets and the transmission of prophetie authority show that the reported • doctrines do contain the idea of the continuation of prophecy up through the . PQ.548/1153). P. Madelung.

which are defined as the sum of that which God enjoined upon bis servants. it is implied.. The following quotation from the "oral traditions on the Qa' im" (akhbar al-Qi '. p. 84. Ils meaning is. In his quotation of this passage Sa1d b. of our two !mimi reporters of Ismi. This is because we have the evidence of al-l. In other words. and of that which bis prophets established as • p. in this world (al-. We will retum later to a more detailed discussion of the mission of Adam and its relation to the Qi 1 im. no forbidden matter. p. itself that Adam's position in human history and bis mission as -liq were a point of dispute in the Ismâ 'ili community of the 4th/lOth centurya dispute in which not only al-Rizï and al-Nasa!i partidpated.88 • problem cannot be explained away by presumed misunderstanding on the part. as we will see below in this chapter.fJjdm wa-jami' mi klJuliqa li al-durJyi ). 63 (French transI.m ) illustrates this. and it is this that will lead to the restoration of the "paradise of Adam. that is. 'Abd Allah bath report that: .. Al-Nawbakhtï and Sard b. 43 • In the above passage M~ad b. Isma'il the paradise of Adam (jannat Adam).God -He is blessed and exalted!. and of the sum of what was created. Sa 'd b. in whose paradise there was. the salvational function of the Qi'im is to release everything forbidden to humankind." This issue of the relation between the beginning and the end of the human history was introduced ta the debate over the mission of Adam. G A1-Nawbakh~ ..b~a1J li-l-mu. The reports of al-Nawbakhti and Sa'd b. 1 Abd Allah.'ili sources. the releasing of the forbidden things. 'Abd Allah reproduces al-Nawbakhtï's text word for ward.granted Mul}ammad b.q. but also al-Sijistini and al-I<îrmini at a later date..l. Isma'il's. role in human history (IIreleasing") is somehow related to Adam. 'Abd Allâh also contain dichotomous descriptions of the 1abir and biPn.. 88). according to them. the Qi'im's.

his salvational function is to release everything forbidden according ta the 1aJUri aspect of religion. pp. Within these parables are inner meanings in which salvation (najar ) is to be found. sg. Some of those issues will be revisited later in our study. this Ilreleasing of the forbidden" is always a matter for debate and is. ." pp. SaId b.. See Madelung. risâlah ). 18-37. From the oldest accounts of Isma'Di doctrine written by outsiders. Kiràb 81-R.213. pp.mqa' ).lah touch on many of the essential issues with which later Isma'Dis had continuously to grapple. Biobibliography" p. IAbd Allah. The Scripture and . 63-64 <French transi.. 1 have consulted Madelung and Halm. 85. p.1JfIJ. For basic infonnation on these two texts.. 51-61. 00. 1952). Based on the above analytical description.'ilis. Kâmil ijusayn in Collectanea vol. On the dating of these two texts.l <Leiden. there are destruction CbaJak ) and calamity (.pmid period. we now turn to two anonymous texts from within the community: Kitab al-Kabf. R. or the external aspect of religion. The editions we use in this study are: ICitab al-Kubl (hereafter referred to as Kimb al-Kubl). Kosmologie . it can be said that.utJlJah are coined parables (amrIW ma Fiibab).44 H we compare this passage on the ~-6ifÏn dichotomy with the Qa'im's mission mentioned above. 73 {onKitib • al-KuM and p. which consists of six independent treatises (nui 'il. ed. M. 45 Specifically we will investigate how these texts present the concepts of the continuation of divine guidance through prophecy and the advent of the Qi 'im as the culmination ofhistory. Hahn. 169. despite their mistakes or possible distortions.. 189. cAbd • AI. However. 'I()as Imamat. pp. pp. 89-90). the accounts of al-Nawbakh6 and Sa 'd b.lJd wa-81Hidiyab (hereafter referred to as Ki. of course. somehow related to the eschatological discussion conceming the function of the Qi' im and the time of bis advent. among later generations of Isma.Ii'mil ) of the 1abir. Many parts of these two texts date back to the Pre-Fi. 1948}. Strothmann (London.89 • custom respectively. ~ 45 AI-Nawbakhti. 34 (on KilÜ al-R. whereas in the practice Ci. see Poonawala. and Kitib al-Rushd wa-al-Hidayah.b al-RaAd ).

p.. 'ïm. 41 Ibid. or end. In this passage the famous verse Q 61: 6 ("(1 am indeed the Messenger. by presenting the idea of the nafiq . • 49 Ibid.qa'. 198-99. •Ali... martabaIJ (sg. .48 This Mahdi is the seventh tJi#q (sabi 1 al-nu!&qa? and the • "tenth" (al-'ühir ) after the Prophet. the seven a"". . or will-executor. M~ad announced the coming of the Mahdi. and the seven completer-imams (al-sab'aIJ al-a 'immaIJ al-lIJutimmiitJ ). who is the last imim as weIl as the last aàpq.... yi'."i. Kilib al-Rœhd tell us that just as Moses predicted the coming of the 'Messiah" (al-MasiJ}).". He suggests that verse Q 48: 8 ('We dispatched you as a witness. pp. the work does clearly indicate that the last letter. whose name shall be ~ad") is quoted as Qur'inic evidence for Jesus' prediction of the coming of the Prophet. the twenty eight letters of the Arabie alphabet symbolize the seven nu. and the seven imams. the "two grades" (yakhtimu al-rutbatayu). and just as the latter announced in bis turn the coming of the Prophet M~mmad. l giving good tidings of a Messenger who shall come after me. 198..47 In addition. and warner (sbüidan wa-mubarhshiran wa-nadhiran)") denotes that the apostle brings the good tidings of ~a1Jjr al-talJzi1 or the exterior meaning 46 KitâIJ d-RuslJ4 p.iya'. or imam. 47 Ibid. denotes the Mahdi.49 Thus. Jesus. of maritib ). who is ta seal.e. 199.46 Although it is not explicit as to which letter aetually corresponds to which -#9. The author of Kitab al-Rushd descrïbes the roles of the apostle and the wa#.s announcement of the next tJà#fl to come. good-tiding-bringer. the "grade of the apostleship" and the "grade of the will-executorship" (ru"'at al-ririJaIJ wa-rutbal al-vri~yab ). that is.90 • According ta Kitab al-Rœhd. who is described as a sort of complet~r of this line of guidance. the seven ranks of the religion (maritib al-düJ al-sab') found in every age. this text shows the continuation of divine guidance and the line of the prophets up to the Qi. i.

the other anonymous text. The author tells us besides that the tnJ!i brings the good tidings of what the apostle hid from the eyes of the believers." also called atimmi'. 15.fJ al-busJmi" Il (winds of good tiding) which is based on verse Q 7: 57 ("He is the One Who dispatches the winds as good tiding (bw1Jri ) in the presence of His Mercy") already quoted." this consists of the eight 1)ujaj or "proofs. S2lbid. M~ammad the Apostle of Gad). since 52 there are "six completers" between every ni~q and the next of the six nu~qi '.. Kitab al-Ku1Jf. As for the number IIten" added ta "thirty nights.50 With regard ta the number of the imams in a cycle. 54. or the knowledge of esoteric interpretation. p. referring to the phrase riyi. between "Atunad" and "M~mad" (who appears ta be the Mahdi in this context) in addition to these latter two figures themselves. that is.qit Rabbi-hi) was completed during forty nights (uba 'inah laylataIJ ). After these forty leaders the "appointed time" is fulfilled: 50 Ibid.e.•." • the anonymous author of the treatise interprets it as the number of the "completers" (atimmi r." p. that is.'anb): here the "throne" means the knowledge ('ilm ) which is interpretation (ta 'ri). sg. IDUfimm. Kitü aI-Kubl. l'Das Imamat . 104. p. These lJujaj or atimmi' are referred to as the "carriers of the throne" (~alat al. • 51 ln another treatise (the 6th) of the same text there is a phrase connecting "imim" and llmutimm": 'Iimim mulimm li-. offers us in its first treatise an interpretation of verse Q 7: 142 on God's contract with Moses ("And We made a promise during thirty nights (tbalit1JüJa laylatan» and completed them with ten [more nights]. O. . 'ilm al-ta 'wil. or completer of a cycle of religious affairs. Madelung."). Thus the appointed time of his Lord [for Moses] (m.bari'ab bi-aI-ra'ri " (an imim completing the sacred law with his interprelation)...91 • of revelation. pp. 164-65. an imamS1) extending from Adam to ~ad (i. Paying particular attention to the phrase "thirty nights.

p. 16 sc O. remains. in these "houses" the sacred laws (_hui 'i 1 ) must be proclaimed. and the things entrusted (wadi. .55 This situation makes it difficult to identify the second and leaves the question open to further discussion. see Madelung. Isma'il. 55 For this problem." this problem should he examined in the light of Kitab al-Rushd's mention of the Mahdi as the "tenth" one coming after the Prophet.'i' ). '1)as Imamat.. must be made visible or made clear with miracles (mu 'jizit). 'Ali. and the seven • Imams. right up to the parousïa of the "na. Halm.. And the problem of the number of atimmj' or imims. particularly pp. 5înce the eight imims in addition to "~ad" and 'M~ad"make up "ten." p. a word borrowed from verse Q 24: 36. 28. 316-18 beIow. that it is not seven but eight. According to the anonymous author of this treatise. This means that these "houses" are the "houses which announce the sacred laws in every age and 53 Kilàb aJ-Kubl.osmologie. 54.#qs and refers ta their respective fields of operation as "buJlÜt" (houses [of Gad])." This passage raises another issue: does this other ''M~ad'' refer to Mul}ammad b. confirms the names of the 1Ja. i. §3." The fifth treatise of Kirab al-Kasbf.56 "M~ad. • 56 We will revisit the problem of numbering in these two passages hom al-RudJd and al-Kasbtin chapter 8.54 But there is no mention of the name of any lmim here. by which is apparently meant the religious knowledge or teaching.92 • this l'appointed time" is thus the parousia of the I l-liq of the naliqs" al-lJufatli 1 ).53 (~ür -liq According ta the passage desaibed above. Y. the line of divine1y-guided leaders was continuously developed from Adam to ~d or M~ad. the awaited Qi-'im of the Qarmapans and Pre-Fapmid Ismi'iJjs? This would seem plausible. then ta another Muttammad.q of the lJi1Ïqs. and there seems to be no strong argument to be made against this idea. p.e. namely.

93

time" (al-buyiit al-lIJu'azzinÜlJ (sic) bi-al-.bari 'j' li lr.ull'a,r wa-zamjn). These "houseS'

are furthermore the

lJu~'la'

who enunciate the revelation (tanzü ) and sacred
M~ad

laws. The IJUfa'là' here are Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus,

(aIso ca1Ied Atamad), and a seventh referred to as Mul}ammad al-Mahdi.57 The above passage makes apparent not only the names of the lJufa'la or
1

enunciator-prophets, but also the continuation of divine guidance through prophecy, that is, the announcement of sacred law. Nevertheless it fails ta articulate the role of the Mahdi or Qi.'im., who could be misunderstood as being no different from other lJufa'li '. In addition, in the passages from al-RU81Jd and al-Kubf described above, the role of the Qi.'im is not very clearly spelled out. Therefore we will discuss other passages from these two texts, in which the anonymous authors describe the role of the Qi'im and bis place in sacred history.

In Kjeib a]-Rushd severa! passages mention the seventh ni!i'l and bis parousia.
In these passages the author develops the idea of ,"ab;' or "m aking-sevenfold,"

by which he implies that sorne .üra1J. of the Qur'in, especially those bearing numbers which are multiples of seven, denote the seven imams and the seventh
lJà!i'l.S8 One remarkable passage states that .ü,-aIJ 112 (.urab a1-~ on the laW'flid. or absolute unity of God), which is the seventh chapter after .ürab 105 of

the Qur'ân, means that the perfection of the unity of God has been called the moment of the parousia of the seventh

napq (mi 'liJa kamiJ al-lalV~d waqt

~u1Jûr

.abi' al-lJu~qa' ). The author is saying, in other words, that this denotes the

completion of the seven completers (tamam al-.ab 'at al-muÛmmioa ) in terms of number -that is, seven- and aIso that this denotes the seventh nafÏq in terms of

57 51

/Ci,." al-Kubf, p. 104•
See, for example, /Cita" d-R.bd, pp. 192-98

94

the perfection of both tawfüd and the faith. 59 Thus, the parousia of the seventh

lJalif, i.e., the Qi.1im, is regarded as a culmination of the development of re1igious
knowledge in saaed history. Two passages from the Kitab al-Kubf treat of the same theme. In the 5th treatise of this text, the author writes: ...The Religion of God (trm AHiIJ ) -He is Mighty and Glorious!- continues (muua,il ) from Adam in the hands of the
lJa~, (al-na';, al-sibi' a/- mahdi).60
lJu~9a'

and imims until God

perfects His Religion and His Order (~lJu) with the seventh rightly-guided

This passage declares the continuation of divine guidance, or the "Religion of God" and the perfection to be brought by God with the seventh _#'1.61

Another passage from this same treatise, defines the seventh lJiliq as follows: "the master of parousia, of unveiling of the hidden, and of the seal of the ages, times, and eras: whoever knows [him], bis pÜgrimage will be perfected and his [religiousl affair completed"
(~a.fU" al-~ubür wa-wlJf al-mutÜT wa-kbàtim al-a 'far
!aji~bu

wa-al-azm;naIJ wa-a/-dubür alladbi t.rUUJ 'arafa[-bu] bmaJa

wa-tamma amru-

hU).62 The phrase "seal of the ages, times, and eras" shows that the seventh

lJa,;q

is regarded as the "summum" of human history and the culmination of the development of sacred history. The latter half of this passage, "whoever knows

59
fia

Ibid., p. 196.
Kiràb aJ-Kuhf, p. 109.

61 Following this passage, the author of the treatise states that the sacred laws (al-sbari 'i? were completed with the Prophet M~d's dJarj'a1J , and that the Prophet was the "lord of manifesting of the authority" (,~" iPJü a1~aar ). Ibid., pp. 109-110. Dy this, we can say, the anonymous author of the Sth treatise meant that the Perfection of religion would he accomplished by the Qi 'im, whereas the sbui. 'i' had been completed by the Prophet Mut-ammad.

Qlbid., p. 114.

95

[him -referring ta the seventh -fi9] ...," is related to the salvational function of

the Qi.1im, and also ta the issue of membership in the true Community. The statement that anyone who reeognizes the authority of the Qa 'im will perfeet his
IJajj and complete bis religious obligations implies that anyone who fails to know

the messianic figure fails ta fulfill bis religious obligations. We will retum to the issue of membership in the true Community in the next chapter.

§3. The Framework of Sacred History According to al-Ri.zi, al-Nasafi and al-Sijisti.ni: Adam and the Qi.'im
In this section we will address the RiZian notion of prophetology. To begin

with we will consider the issue of Adam, the fust man and therefore IIfather" of humankind. The prophethood of Adam is virtually the sole issue within this topic debated among al-Nasafj, al-Razi, and al-5ijistini, as issue which l;Iamid al-Din al-Kirmini revisits in bis Kitab aJ-Riyi!l.63 In the debate in al-Rjyi~one can see furthermore that the topic of the prophethood of Adam is discussed in relation to the missions of the Qi.'im. This suggests, as pointed out above, that the roles of these two prophetic figures in sacred history require theoretical clarification, since Ismacilïs believed from very early on that Adam was the inaugurator of history and the Qi'im its termïnator. In other words, in early Ismi.'ilism discussion of the respective missions of Adam and the Qi'im resulted in the development of a framework of sacred history How did Adam start history? And how will the

I:famid al-JAn al-Kirmini, chapter 9 (al-bàb al-füi 1 (Bayrüt, 1960), pp. 176-212.
Q

)

in Kitab al-Riyi!l, 00. 'A. Timir

96

Qi.J im take history to its end, or telos? Already in the debate between al-NasaD

and al-Rizi on Adam we can recognize the doctrinal debate on the relation of Adam to the Qi.Jim.
In
a1-I~I~ the

debate unfolds in a long chapter entitled "l'he Chapter on the

Difference of the Sacred Law, Resolution and Cycle" (Bib aI-farq a/-shari'aIJ waa/-'azimaIJ wa-al-dawr) (f. 27r., 1. 3 -64r., 1. 7 If. 26v.,I. Il -63r., 1. 4/pp. 57-131). As

the title of the chapter indicates, the relation of $1:JarjlaIJ to the prophethood of Adam forms the core subject of the debate. In the beginning of the chapter al-Râzi presents the definition of $barilaIJ :

Know - May God have mercy upon you! -: Sacred law consists of the rules of the religion which the enunciator-prophets Peace be upon them! composed with their external expressions. And they called the people to it

(i.e. sacred law) through the rules, ordinances, and the external duties with order and prohibition (l'lam al-nu~a'

~lIJa-ka Allah - alUJa

al-$bari'aIJ biya mi allafa-hu alfi#-billJ wa-da 'au al-12Ü

'alay-bim al-ali.m min TU$iim aI-dï12

bj-~ab.ir

Hay-ha mirJ al-afllcjm wa-al-$urJaI1" wa-al-fari 'i!l al-,ahiraIJ 65 bi-al-amr wa-al-nahy).

(f. 27r., IL 3-5 If. 26v.,1l. 12-15/p. 57)

Furthermore, al-Razi provides us with another definition of shari'ah: it is "the fundamentals of the religion (~ü1 al-gm )," i.e., the extemal rules of the faith. The debate therefore deals with the issues of whether he brought the sacred lawor
.hari'aIJ (defined above) and whether Adam can be treated as other nUfaqa' who

taught .hari'aIJ to humankind. Another issue at stake is that of the differences

" We foUow the reading of the printed edition, p. 57, 1. 8, and of MS. Tüb. f. 26v., 1. 14, .;,\-JI, instead of that of MS. Ham. f. 27r.,I. S,.;-JI.

Following p. 57, L 8 of the printed edition, we adopted the grammatically correct spelling,,.10. The spelling in the Hamdani and Tübingen MSS i~ll;.
fiS

97

among the lJu~'la '. At the end of the previous chapter al-Rizi had already pointed out certain "errors" (ghalaE) in al-Nasafi's understanding of the issue of the sacred laws
(.1Jani 'i' ), such as bis statements that the first nalÏq had no .btui'ab; that the ul;;;
al- 'azm or the possessors of resolution are seven; and that the first and seventh

nap'ls belong ta the latter group Cf. 26r., 1. 12- f. 27r, 1. 2/f. 26r., 1. 6-

V.,

1. Il/p.

56-57). The term ulü aJ-'azm is found in verse Q 46:35: "50 be patient just as the "possessors of resolution" (ulü al-'um) among the apostles were patient." This verse can be interpreted as referring to the existence of a distinguished dass among the apostles.
In the context of the prophetological debate on Adam between al-Nasafi and
al-Razi, another verse, Q 20: 115, deserves attention: it reads, 'We made a contract

with Adam before, but he forgot, and We find in

mm no resolution ('azm).,,66
Il

This verse can be interpreted to show that Adam is differentiated from other prophets because of his lack of "resolution." This notion of 'azm" becomes a focal point of aI-Razi's refutation of al-NasaIi and aIso of one of the major issues in the later debate reported in al-Kirmini's al-Riyafl, as we shall see below. With regard to Adam and whether or not he possessed "'azm ," we find tha t
al-RiZi uses the word "'azimah " in discussing the function of the "masters of

resolutions"

(a,~b

al-'aza'im ). It is this phrase which al-Razï uses to refer to the
V.,

"ul;;; al-'azm" (f. 28v.,I. 2-

1. 8/f. 27v., 1. 10- f. 28r., 1. 14/pp. 59-60). Al-Rizi

holds that the meaning of l''azimah'' is: "...derived from lIal-'azm ." The 'azm is the decisive matter (al-amr al-~tm),67 "tying fast"
66

~am), and

ll

cutting off' (qat)

The verses mentioning the word "'azrD" in the Qurlin are indexed in: M. F. 'Abd al-Biqi, AJ-Mu'iam al-Mufabri.li-AJfàl al-Qur'ü al-Karim (al-Qihirah, 1406A.H./1986C.E.), p. 461.

Conceming this wor~1 and the preœding word in the text, the printed edition (p. 59,1. 1) and MS. Ham. Cf. 28r.,I. 3) have,..=J-1 ~'ll, whereas MS. Tüb. (f. 27v., 1. 10) has ~I "..'lL In
(;J

98

(f. 28r.,IL2-3/f.27v.,Il.lO-11/p.59). The "masters ofresolutions" (~~b al-'aza'im),

al-Rizi continues, are so called because the sense of the root word'azm clearly designates their function, namely, that of renewing the sacred laws, and abolishing the rules of the prophets (an6iyi' ) who had preceded them. In the process they "eut off" (9aJa'O ) the people from those mIes, and "tied fast"
~ü)

to them

what they had brought of a similar nature, thus abandoning the rules of the past (f. 28r., 1. 15 -V., 1. 2/f. 28r., IL 4-9/p. 59). The prophets who practice those functions have all the characteristic of
II l

azm ," i.e. "cutting off" and "tying fast."

This is, we can assume, al-Rizi's definition of u1ü al-'um.. Next, al-Rizi relates bis definition of the ulü al-'azm. to the discussion of the character of Adam in the following passage which summarizes bis view of Adam, the U/Ü al-'azm, and the scheme of sacred history:

As for the masters of the sacred laws

(~.fJib

al-sbari'i'), they were six (sillat

anfar) in number, since every one of them prescribed the rules of the religion

(af'tâm al-din ) and its ordinances (sUlJalJu-hu ) as an indicator by which the

people are guided to that within which their salvation (najitu-hum ) lies. The first of them was Adam -Peace be upon him!-: he was the first enunciatorprophet and the first master of the sacred laws, since he was the first one to prescribe the rules of the religion exoterically and esoterically (1Ü1Ïran
"i~nan).
ln-

And the last of them was MuI}ammad -May God bless him and bis

household!-, since after him there will be no enunciator-prophet to prescribe ordinances, inducing the people to [observe] them. And the masters of the resolutions were five, of whom the first is Noah -Peace be upon him!- since he abolished the law of bis predecessor, Adam, "cut off' the people from it, and "tied them fast" to what he brought. (f. 29r., Il. 4-10/f. 28v., Il. lO-16/pp.60-61)

This is to say, according to al-RiZi. that Adam was the l'first enunciator-prophet
the original, could this have been r-L1 ",.1, which is in the more grammatically correct form?

99

and the first master of the sacred law," whereas the first of the "masters of resolutions" (a,,fJab al-'ua 'Un) or u1 U al-'azm was not he but Noah, since he abolished the law of bis predecessor, Adam. Thus it would seem that, according to al-Rizi, since there had not been any law before Adam, he did not fulfill the funetion of Il,azm " (f. 29r., Il. 10-14/f. 28v., 1. 15- f. 29r., 1. 2/p. 61). This is why al-Rizï includes Adam among the "masters of sacred laws" but not among the "masters of resolutions" or "possessors of resolution," who are Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Mul}ammad. Furthermore, according to al-Rizï, the Prophet M ~ d was the last naP9 to compose .hari'aIJ : this sacred law williast up to the Day of Resmrection (al-Qiyimah) (f. 29r., 1. 2v.l. 3ff. 28v., 1. 7· f.29r., 1. 7fpp. 60-61), that is, until the end of the cosmos. 68 In this argumentation we can see the first step in al·Râzï's refutation of al-Nasafi's

view of Adam, and his notion of the development of sacred laws through the series of the prophets.
In addition to bis saying that Adam did not bring any sacred law, al·Nasafi

held that he led the people of his age to the teaching of the unity of God (eawfJid), which can be achieved without labour (dÜDa al-'amaI). However, according ta
alooRizi. this idea cannot be confirmed by any means since the knowledge of the
unity of God cannot be grasped without the labours (al-a'maI), rules (al-ru8um ),

and instructions (a}-i.1Jarit ), which are brought by the enunciator-prophets (f.

38v., IL 12· 16/f. 37v., Il.8- 12/p. 79).
In another passage as well al·Rizï emphasizes that in Adam's cycle sacred law

was already indispensable to religion. He states that since Adam's cycle was the
68 As authority for bis argument regarding the five ''holders of resolution," al-RiZi quotes the foUowing tradition asaibed to llnim Ja1far al-~diq: 'lfie Oa1far) said: 'The masters of the progeny of Adam (.adat wvld AcItm) are five. Around them the band miU (a1-~a) revolves: They are the holders of the resolution (ulü al-'azm) among the apostles, [namely,] Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and MutJammad'" (f.29r., 1. 15- v., 1. I/f. 29r., Il. 3-6/p. 61).

32r. 1. 9ff. Therefore if there is no extemal teaching there will be no inner teaching. there is neither esoteric interpretation (ta'wil ). However. basis of] sacred law. 2ff. 31v...." al-Rizï compares the first of them. As for the six days for '1abour. 1. This is because: the mission is established on [the (~ ). al-Rizi differentiates Adam and the Qâ'im from other prophets and represents them as holders of unique positions in sacred history in the course of a discussion where he compares the series of prophets and their saaed laws to the days of the week.100 • longest one (alwal al-adwar ).ab'aIJ) is laid down in every sacred law. or external rules Crœüm p1Jjra1J ) (f. the people of bis age could not have dispensed with labour. 1.a~I) of bath MS. 32r. requires a symbol (matbal). 32r. 67. 63-64).1. 14.. considering the context of the passage. ta the first-lif.9fp.. the institution of the seven days of the week (al-ayyim al-. (f. subjugation U.. I.1.f. there will be no esoteric interpretation. since: .. AIso every sacred law stipulates that there is labour ('amaI ) during six days. 1).abat ). 31v. Although those six prophets follow the path of '1abour" and "stipulation" The printed edition reads i~u.3) and MS. inner teaching requires external teaching the inner meaning (ma 'ni) (~). 1 on p.ti'6id)"g nor external rules.If there is neither labour. and also of the three manusaipts on which the printed edition is based (on the readings in these 69 • manusaipts for the word in question. subjugation U.67) • In addition to the argument on the sacred law of the first cycle.. According to al-Razi. the esoteric interpretation requires revelation (tanp1 ).ti'6id).. IL 4.8-14 ff. 66). 30r.:-I (p. 30v. I. If there is no sacred law. 1. If there is no revelation. 1. 14. Tüb.9). 1. .7fpp. nor true mission (da'lnIJ ~9ifa1J).. 9-1.. and the other five days to the five members of the U/Ü al-'azm. we adopt the reading (. Il.31r.. 13 -v.. Saturday (al-. there will be no mission.. 67 of the printed edition). nor inner teaching (bilin ). 12fp. (J. 31r. (f. and that the seventh day is a feast day ('id) (f. Ham. 31v. see the editors' note to 1.

(f. 14 and the printed edition.. And the last [lJa~q] will not compose any sacred law. al-Rizï represents the first and seventh enunciator-prophets as possessing unique positions. Il. the first of them does not share with the other five the funetions of abolition (al-lJasü) of a predecessor's sacred law and its renewal (al-lajdid ). but found in f. the seventh na1Ïq. 70 . Ham. • Friday (al-jum . is compared to the last (al-iIrbir ). 30v. but will not have to do 50]. 1.. but he did not have to do sol. p. it (Le. 3Ir. This is just as the first possesses alone the beginning. rather Friday is unique in the name of feast (bi-ism al-'iJ). since theyand their cycles do not follow the pattern of the • This word is missing from MS. That is.101 • (tanim ). And at its (Le. 3Ir. iL 1-15/pp. 64) In the passage quoted above the first and last nipqs are differentiated fram the others because of the unique positions of these two in sacred history. which he would have had to abrogate [. other days). which find correspondences among the seven days of week. 1. just as the first is unique in the name of the beginning ("i-Âm al-i"tidi').... the seventh cycle's) end the authority will retum to the way it was when it began. 31r. I3-16/p.im) is a unique one in the name of the seventh cycle (bi-ism al-dawr al-$i"i'). Thus. That is. Friday (al-jum'ah ). 63-64). 50 the first nariq has a unique position differentiating him. as may be seen in the following passage: And no sacred law preceded the first [napq]. 6.. 13. The seventh day. 64.. 1.. Il. 14. from the others. who does not compose new sacred law but abolishes bis predecessor's law (f. 1.e.~70 is not counted with them (i. 30v.1. each of the ulü al-'azm follows the same path of abolition and renewal of bis predecessor's sacred law. In other words those two nipqs and their cycles are regarded by al-Rizi as exceptions ta the development of sacred history.. I/f. Friday and the Qi. 1-15/f. which he would have had to abrogate [. 30v. f.v.

was granted the l'paradise of Adam" (jarmat Adam) in which an the forbidden things were liberated. Daftary and H. • 7J Sorne scholars such as F. and labours (al-a 'màl ) of which sacred law is thought to consist. that the Qi1im and • Adam resemble each other because of their lack of a sacred law. just as it did in that of Adam. . a polemical work attacking al-Rizi. referred to above. According to him.. from obeying the antagoniste Likewise he presents a negative view of the external rules (al-aw~ü' ). the Qarma~ans believed that the Qi. 236. In bis Kitâb al-N~rah or Book of Aid.72 In other words a lawless. Al-Nasafi's insistence on the lawless state of Adam's cycle leads one to assume that he embraced the same interpretation of sacred history as the Qarmapans did (according to al-Nawbakhti and Sa'd b. 88)."n In this sense the beginning and ending eras resemble each other. 63 (French transI. Sa Id b. Halm assume that al-Nasafï held this idea. The /smà'üis. According to these sources. Madelung. I02f. p.73 Supporting al-Nasafï in the controversy. instructions (al-isharit ). These two authors suggest that the Qarmalians at the end of the 3rd/9th century held to this particu1ar interpretation. 84. 121 and also cf. pp. al-Sijistini too makes the statement that Adam and the Qi1im resemble each other because neither of them brought a sacred law." n AI-Nawbakhti. 'Abd Allih. 87-89 of the present chapter. p. See: Daftary. namely. p. Halm. 'Abd Allah. See also above. Let us here remind ourselves of the reports of the Imimi authors al-Nawbakhti and Sa'd b. p. antinomian state prevails over the world in the cycle of the Qi lim. Kosmologie .102 • "possessors of resolution. 7t Cf. 'Abd Allih). He holds that sacred law has the function of maintaining the religious order by prohibiting the people from neglecting the hierarchy.1im. p. al-5ijistini presents bis own view of sacred law. "Aspects of Ismilili Theology. p.

and nor will they be 50 in the cycle of the Qa1im in spite of the abolition of the sacred laws.füd.1 im.'im.6. Adam did the same for bis 74 AI-Sijistani. Wisconsin). Professar Abbas Hamdani (University of Wisconsin.OO.103 • these hinder people from recognition of real tawlüd. it is conceivable that Adam called people to tavrf:üd without instructions (bi-ghayr j$hitit). and to Dr. al-Riyà!l. . 'Arif Tamir (Bayrüt. Montreal. nullifying the recognition of (al~avrl taw~d and pushing people to deny the divine attributes bi-al-ta'fil)? However.zï's position thus: Does the author of this discourse (~i. p. p. 74 Basing himself on this view of $1Jarj'ab. 198. 190. Milwaukee).lJiralJ mutubabihah) among them? Or else.a'W~d" is found in the Hamdani MS of al-Riyàfl (Milwaukee. 294. al-5ijistini refutes al-Ri. 7S This word 1#a1-r. lib bat al-Nubürit. 198. [ would like to express my gratitude te the possessor of the manuscript. That is. the German translation by Halm of this passage in his I<osmologie . p. obscure sacred law ($1Jarî'aIJ #. Cf. who kindly reduplicated his photocopy of the manuscript and sent it to me.ilI University. quoted in I:famid al-Dn a1-Kirmini. His is equivalent ta saying that he did not bring any sacred law.1. since humans were not ignorant of the ravr. 180. Kirab al-Ntql3h. KiIâIJ a1-Riyà~ p. 76 77 AI-Sijistani.1. Kitàb al-N~rab. quoted in al-I<irmini..e. p. Paul E.Tl This mission is aIso compared ta that of the Qj.fib hidba al-maqilah. Walker.7S whereas there was no outer. and coined the parables for this in bis own word. 102. does he say that the Qi1im will engage in the abolition of the representational sacred laws (raf' aI-$b:ui'j' al-mumathtbilaIJ). 76 • In this passage al-5ijistini clearly sides with the aforementioned view of al-Nasafï that Adam called the people ta rawlJjd without any labour (dütJa al-'amaI ) being required. al-Razi) say that the people in the great cycle (al-dawr al-'apm) did not recognize tavr!Jjd. p. i.6. but is lacking from the printOO edition of Tamir. al-5ijistini implies in the above passage that just as without any legal instruction the people will be led ta the recognition of ta W'fJid in the age of the Qi. my former supervisar at Md:. 1960). • AI-5ijistizü. who generously permittOO me to use it.

you will return" (f. 78). we have confirmed that there was a tendency among sorne early Isma1ï1is. God) started you. But what was the original state of religion? How are the states of pre-history and post-history related to the sacred history of our world? How would the religious matter return to its original state 18 For the interpretation of this passage. • 19 This passage is preœded by the following account. the phrase "what it emerged from" (ma min-hu bada ) apparently refers ta the primordial. Furthermore. repose.4/p. 38r.. This idea of seven cycles is compared by al-Rau to the idea of the six days of creation (ldJalq ) and the seventh day with lIno creation" (li IdJalq ). as we saw above. . If this assumption is correct. 6. 38v. p.104 • people in bis age?8 Now here. On this issue of the beginning and the ending of the history. al-Ri. 78). This teaching. Il. "in the seventh • cycle the [religiousl affair would return to "what it emerged from" (ya 'üd fi al-dawr al-sibi' al-amr jJj mi min-hu bada). al-Rizi may be implying that religion at the end of time would return to its original state."79 In the sentence quoted above. He argues for instance that there had not been any sacred law before the first napq and that neither would there be any law after the seventh (f. does not appear to apply ta al-Ràzi." wbich consists in praeticing the extemal aspect of the saaed laws (iqamat ~ al-sbali 'i'). history will return ta the primordial. we follow Halm in bis Kosmologie. 2/f. al-Ràzi presents other statements on sacred history.v. original state of amr. that the telos of sacred history is a return to its beginning.. 14.e. lawless state of its beginning. however.8/f. In this passage al-Razi points out that the lawless state is a characteristic common to both pre-history and post-history. but that there is no 11abour" in the seventh cycle.. AlI the lJufaqi' agreed that there is '1abour. IL 11. quoting Qur'inic verse 7: 29: ''Just as He (i. 1. during the six cycles. or religious matter.15/p.zi states.e. 2. such as al-5ijistini and the Qarma1ians (according to the reports of Imimï heresiographers) ta believe that at its close. namely. 37v.. li. 1.. i.37r. 102.

ID/pp. 3lr.1im to Friday. primordial. and lawless state. l. 1. Le.V.f. Thus. 100-101 of the present chapter.. Moreover. cannot be fully understood from the chapter on Adam in a1-I~la.. 13. For these reasons al-Rizj's view of the mission of the Qi. 14. • 80 See above on pp.fJ we can again refer to the passage mentioned earlier in which al-Razj implies that the mission of the Qa'im embodies the telos or • culmination of history. statem. Thus. who is the master of the final cycle.fJ for further dues to al-Razj's view of the culmination of sacred history . For this reason we need to investigate other chapters of al-l~là. As to this point in al-l~là. do not seem to be compatible with bis ideas already discussed above on the existence of law in Adam's cycle and of the first and last cycles as two exceptions to the pattern of prophetie history.'im..fJ.80 However. 30v. 63-64). a teaching which argues for the return of history to its original. Al-Râzi implicitly compares the Qi. the seventh day of the week and a feast-day. we are forced to acknowledge that some ambiguity is entailed in these two passages. while each of the other rJi#qs is given a day of the week corresponding to him Cf. 1. 10ff. and of on religious matter's return ta its original state. 30r.. Al-Razï'.ents on the lawless state of pre-history and post-history. 'Abd Allah. this tells us very little of substance about the mission and characteristics of the Qi'im. there is the possibility that these statements show sorne "vestige" of old Qarma9an doctrine in al-Rizi's thought. This is because the former two statements resemble the teaching on history of al-Sijistini and the Qarmatians reported by al-Nawbakhtï and Sa'd b. there is a lack of consistency between bis statements Cexamined above) on the end and beginning of sacred history. . 1.105 • in the seventh cycle? Al-Razi does not give any details on these issues.

99v. •). 199. In this chapter the idea of correspondence or sympathy between several beings in the cosmos and between them and human beings is strongly emphasized.fJ. al-Razi does not deal with the actual story of Moses in the Qur'in or the Oid Testament. 1986).. 55-105. in the chapter entitled 'lOfhe Chapter of [al-Nasafi's] Statement on the Fourth Enunciator-Prophet" (Bib al-Qawl fi Ribi f al-Nu~qi' ) (f.f. • construction (the phrase is: min ~ubüral-b1imab mà lam ~rimma li-a. The Feather of Simurgh: The Licit Magic of the Arts in Medieval Islam (New York.zian Qi 'imology There is a long discussion of the mission of the Qi.aad min-bum•. 'im in aJ-/~li. Moses... because this sentence would not make sense.. Some scholars point out that this idea of correspondence or sympathy was influential in pre-modern • on classical and medieval Islamic thought. (f. An Introduction to Islamie Cosmological Doctrines. M. S.4) and MS. Bürgel. 99r. S2 For the interpretation of the term blima4 see Madelung. pp. C. 81 At the beginning of this chapter al-Rizi quotes the following statement of al-Nasafi: ." pp.(f.82 was perfected for him.-. 1978).1. 14) have it. i. This cornes in the context of the debate conceming the rank of the fourth lJi#q. "Cosmogonyand Cosmology. 7/pp. 1.zi on the Qi 'im and His Place in Sacred History: Ri.. revised 00.. Nasr. 199-228). .. or degreeJ of the manifestation of the [divine] Word (~hür al-kalimah ).. The foUowing studies locus espeda1ly on the theory of correspondence between the macrocosm (al-'jJam aJ-. Tüb.f. 74-108. 10) lacks ~ hefore this phrase pmiir al-blimab. Al-Ri.. given the ~. H." chapter 2 in Ibll 'Âr.. 14. 99r. Also it should he remarked that MS. 9. 1987). 1988). "Metaphysical Foundations. <London. 1. the [part.abï~ Theory of the Perfect Man and its Place in the History of lslamie Thought (Tokyo.As for the fourth enundator-prophet. 1.f. whereas both the printed edition (p. Ham.1.1. 11Sv.e. 116r. pp. pp. Sympathyand Analogy" in Arabie Thought and Islamic Societies (London. otherwise. 1. This ~ is necessary. the enunciator-prophets). 322-26. Nevertheless. r. "Microcosm and Macrocosm in Islamic Thought.. [that is.. 99v. 10 If.106 • §4. Takeshita. chapter 2. 2: Relations of Creation.] what was not perfected for any of them (Le. since he 81 See 'Aziz al-'Azmeh.a6mr) and microcosm (al-'i/am al-bbÜ'): J. 66-74.

al-Rizï aise recognizes the significant role pIayed by certain units. 00.1ill authors found evidence of this perfection in the world of nature. B. K. "A Treatise on Number Theory from a Tenth Century Arabie Source." chapter in A History of Islamic Philosophy. (f. seasons. Goldstein. Moses.rah in the 4th/lOth century. C. In this natural-philosophical theory. the latter's statement clearly means that he saw the fowth napq as having the perfection of the number four. humours. vol. See Madelung. Yano (Leiden. 129-60.l1957CE. . Theories of natural philosophy contemporary with our two • Ismi. S... I/f. Kitib l. 128. 14 (Arabie text>/p. than for any other enunciator-prophets by virtue of his "rank of four-ness. Al-Razï explains al-Nasafi's position in the above as being that the manifestation of the divine 'Word" was more perfected for the fourth na#q .f}ritJ al-~afâ' (m).. The Abbreuiation of the Introduction to Astrology: Together with the MedieuaI LAtin Translation of Abelard of Bath. DiwaId. Arabische Philosophie und Wissenschften der En. 51-54. 15 (English transI.H. and whose identity has not yet been satisfactorily established. Brunette. 3: pp. directions are comprised of this number. but he does not deal with its natural-philosophical background. we can point to the IkhWin al-$afi" a sodety of intellectuals who flourished in Ba. and transI. For the sun. die Lehre lJon Seele und Intelle1ct <Wiesbaden. "N~Pythagoreanism and the Popularization of Philosophieal Sciences. the significance of the number four is emphasized. 178-98. 128. symbolism of numbers. 1: pp. Yamamoto and M. p. Sun. This is because the IIfourth one" is the most perfected of the ranks (atamm al-lJudüd). since many beings in the world of nature such as elements. Venus. 83 If we accept al-Ri. • N Madelung bas already drawn attention ta aI-Razi'S numerological argument regarding the fourth -fi". Cf.•." Centaurus 10 (1964): pp. 1975).).. 1378A. 163-81. II. 1994) p.Jadd al-uba 'ïyab ) with the support of time (bi-musa 'adat al-zamjo).). 1. vol. is the most perfect and most luminous of the celestial bodies (atamm al-rJujÜDJ wa-anwaru-œ ). pp.V. 14. R.zi's quotation as being faithful to al-Nasafi's original. 99r. See the following text: Rua'il I1dJwiD a1-~i' (Bayrüt. that is. 99v.107 • gained the rank of four-ness (J. each of which is comprised of four members in the formation of 83 A typical arrangement of these celestial bodies in Islamic astrology is: Satum. Mars. M. n. As an example of the emphasis of this number in medieval Islamic thought.13/p.~kJopiidie. which is located in the fourth sphere (al-talait al-ribi'). shares. Fakhry. 84 Basing himself on these theories. 1. 9. '1)as Imamat. See: Abü Ma'shar." p. Jupiter. 199). Moon. Mercury. the fourth planet in the cosmology of his day." a rank which the sun. 60.

15/f.e.86 This statement reflects his knowiedge of Greek-Hellenistic science by exploiting its theory that the coalescing of four elements Ieads to the formation of a new being. that is. Ismi..V. 85 • The following passage is missing from MS. ~I • ~ (••• with their coalescing a form would emerge. and like the completion of 16 the light of the sun by virtue of the four-ness). lO2r. 69v. Each of these groups consists of three nu~qa'.. In a further counter-argument to al-Nasafi.. 100v. In his criticism of al-Nasafi's particular assertion regarding the fourth na!iq.J.-f. The mission of the fourth na!iq is explained as follows: This thesis is also found in a passage in the previous part of al-J. 102v./f. 1. lOOr.. 200).). i. 3/pp.Ia.'ili doctrine of the superiority of the seventh na!iq to • explanations based on natural philosophy or science.. 5r l.. Tüb. . al-Razï cites the formation of a new form (~iiralJ ) after the coalescing of the four elements (al-ummabat al-ar6a t)85 (f. 1. which are "the first in enunciation" (al-aWlValiyiJn 6i-aI-nu~q) and "the last" (aI-ikhirün).. 4-S/p. 203-204). We will revisit this thesis in the next chapter below.103v. li. or to what he understands to be al-Nasafï's thesis. in spite of his recognition of the significance of the number four. which were in turn renewed by those of the second group (f. 70v. Therefore.zi takes exception to ai-Nasafi's thesis. 3..:. 8-10/f. al-Ri.. 1. Il. f. 7Ov. i~ ~ ~~~ ~. As an example of this roIe. so to speak. l. This argument suggests that al-Rizi preferred the more common and oider. 100v.J--:II J. al-Rizi hoids that the truly superior one is the seventh nalÏq . that the number four applies directly to the ranks of the enundator-prophets. al-Razï redefines the missions of the six lJupaqa 1 by dividing them into two groups...$'J .f1 (f.108 • existent beings in the world of nature. the Qa'im. However. 71 v. 1.-f. 4. The nulaqi 1 of the first group brought new sacred laws. virtually three "pairs" of sacred laws have existed in the course of sacred history.

f.204-207). al-Rizi resorts to the symbolism of the seven sacred letters K-W-N-Y-Q-D-R (read Küni-Qadar). 1. "Das Imamat. the fifth m!iq renewed the sacred law of the second. the number of perfection.. 88 Ho\vever it is not this fourth na#q but the Qi.. 186.When the fourth naliq appeared. Just as ffl We follow the reading of the printed edition ~I (p. IL 12-13 If. Thus." p.. 204. chapter entitled "Küni und Qadar" from his Kosmologie. whereas MS. e.-I (f. 1. Halm here does not hazard a guess as to al-RâZi's intention in his argument on the symbolism of letiers... 1. M. pp. We will revisit this cosmological scheme and the two hypostases of lrüIIi and qadarin greater detail below in chapter 6. l04v. regulation) [of the sacred law] by increases which he established (f. espedally p. i. 53-66. Stem in bis posthumously published article entitled "The Earliest Cosmological Doctrines of Ismi'ilism" in Studies in Early !mJi'ïlism. 16. 'ilï cosmology: these two are respectively the female and male principles of the formation of our cosmos. 16/pp.. which was edited and analyzed by S.e.89 These letters represent the two hypostases. 1.f. 12). the first Dàpq ).. II. 90 This cosmological scheme is preserved in Abü 'ISi al-Murshid's (fi.'im who is the true possessor of the quality of the number four. ID3v. 10Sr.. lÜ2v. 103r. 13-16/f. see also Halm..l.' ulwiya1J aI-sab'aIJ) (f. 206). However. Madelung. 1. 4th/IDth century) untitled treatise. According to aI-Razi.90 In al-Rizi's argument it is implied that each of the sacred letters corresponds to a particular enunciator-prophet (f. while the sixth did the same to that of the third. the fourth œ#q renewed the sacred law of the first.e. p. 3-29. has . 1. 12). 1.. 4. l04v. l/p. 102v.. Also d. and ensured it (i.V. To prove the above point. 61f. the Kiini (imperative of the verb kana ('lJ3e!") in the female singular) and the Qadar ("determination") • in the scheme which is thought to belong to the earliest notions of Ismi. IL S-9/p. 88 19 On this argument by al-RiZi on the symbolism regarding the letters. he repeated the sacred law of the first one (i. pp. carried ouF that regulation (t/hàUta al-rum). 204). 103v. Ham. 128... 8/f.109 • . aIso called the "seven upper letters" (al-~urüf al. 16. • . 102v.. Wa.

and the fourth 1 letter. so that he has the • 91 Therefore. the above-mentioned second group of tJu~qi' "emerges" from the first group. pp. al-Razi implies. Commonly Known as Tapwwr. The cycle of the unveiling" lI • (dawr al-kasbf) follows the dawr al-satr or the cycle of concealment. al-l. 205).. ibid. 7-9/p.v. In ISmi1ïlism the hshf or unveiling" lI means the "unveiling" of the hidden truths (al-!Jaqâ 'iq ) of all the sacred laws. Surkh Nishipiiri (?).e. 104r. 672/1274). p.. Nafir al-Din al-Tüsi (d. Early Philosophical Shiism. 104r. This is the task which is actualized by the Qi'im. into English by S. IL 6-13 If. 12. ed. 667 /1268). see. 1. However. al-RiZi gives one letter of KWNY ta each the first group. who aIso possesses a unique mission of kubf or "unveiling" (f. for example. .. pp.. p.Risà1aIJ al-Mabda' wa-a}Ma 'id. Mutwnmad b.91 50 that the inner truths The above unique relation between the seventh nâpq. SbM." al-sau in this passage. that the Qi. it cannot be assumed that he did not see it as having a raie in this connection. 194). the Qi. and one letter of QDR to each of the second group (f. H.. 1.D. 1. 206-207). is left without any ni#q corresponding to it..". M ~ d ibn al-Walïd (d. Il. in which the sacred laws regulate the religious order of the world remain concealed. pp. 10Sr. 1. 103v.Iusayn b. ~ denotes. 14. 1-3/f. Walker. i.. and transI. In the case of the Yemani TayytDis. 139-140. although al-Rizi does not mention the da. This pair of concepts was preserved and re-interpreted by the Ismi lïl~ in post-Fi~imid period. 99f. Kosmalogie. Corbin in Trilogie ismaélienne (Tehran/Paris. 106. dissertation. the fourth of the seven letters. Badakhchani in his "The Paradise of Submission: A Critical Edition and Study of Ravneh-i Tullm.lim. and transI. 103r.'im emerges as a fourth (ribi nU~'li 1 }" l ) in a series after "three pairs [of (al-azrij al-thalithab ). pp. : Halm. 1961). 104v.. see. 4/pp. im. On da"" aJ-wbl and da. 205 and f. al-Wlû. IL 2-7/p. see al-5ijistini. seeing as it is paired with the concept of da. the Qi. For the case of Nizan Ismi1ilis who split from the Fipmid da"wah.rit by KhWijeh Na~ al-Din-i TilSi (1201-1275)" <Ph. Y (yi " which is also the fourth letter. ed. I/f. RaW'!*at aJ-Tulim. J. 104r. Also cf. for example. 1989)... into French by H.f." al-nu.. University of Oxford. according to al-Rizï. in the due course of this process the last letter of KWNY.. 359-60 (English transI. 181-83. pp. thus proving to hold a unique position among those seven. p. tJi~q of Following this principle.fJ-i Qalidab.110 • the second three letters QDR generate from the first four letters KWNY. 181-83).~ is ta be related to the seventh napq. 'Ali b. 121-23 (French transI. Because of this.

3-10/f.f. O. ed. Il. for example.V.. pp. Adam is related to the right foot. 1995).f.. 1. 1.. Abraham to the beUy. and by whom the sacred laws were • completed (yatammu) and perfected (yakmalu ). Il. Society.Il." in The Jews of Medieval Islam: Community. itself a microcosm (al-'ilam al-~ag1Jjr ) containing within itself all the parts of the cosmos (jami' ajza' aJ-'âlam). 6~icrocosm and Macrocosm in 1s1amic Thought. Just as this "substance" gives life to the human body. through his esoteric interpretation (ta 'vn1) the Qi.. 211-12). 1..') which provides every part and organ of a human body with lllife" (~yit). 3-17/pp.1. Ivry. 106v. 210).. M~ad ta the head (f. The Prophet M~ad is aIso described as a figure who incorporated aIl the religious teachings. Noah to the left foot. Il. 74-108. On this idea in the more general context of Islamic thought.111 • listage of four-ness" (martabat al-arba'ïyah ) (f.. 2. 1. In addition. l06v. 5. 3/p. 106r. 108v. 8-14/f. cf. A. IIIsmi'ili Theology and Maimonides' philosophy. 213-14). 8-14/p. 16. 106r. 107v. Frank (Leiden. 1. 107r.." chapter 2 in Ibn 6Anbï'S Theory ofthe Perfect Man. an aH-inclusive microcosm (f. and Identity. lim reveals the 9Z This idea of al-Rizi is reminiscent of the concept of the Prophet as an ali-inclusive 66perfect man" in the history of Islamic thought. 108r.. 107r. Jesus to the right hand.92 What part of the body then is the Qi1im and/or bis mission compared to? Al-Rizi situates the Qi'im in the human body in the course of bis argument by comparing him and his mission to the spirit-like "seventh substance" or the "substance as the seventh one" (al-jawbar al-sib. al-Ràzi tries to relate each prophet and bis mission to each part of the body of a human being. 13/f. since bis name written in Arabic script symbolically represents the form of a human being. 211).lim a IItrue" fourth na~q (f. 1. see Takeshita. • . Proceedings of an International Conference held by the Institute of Jewish Studies... 1.. 271·99. 10Sv. 14- V. For the appearance of this idea in ISmi 'ïlism. His mission of sealing "the three [pairs of] sacred laws" (al-shara 'i' al-thalitIJ ) brought by three pairs of nu~qa' also makes the Qj. pp. 6ff. 9/pp. These six bodily parts (al-ab'i!l al-sirtab) thus denote the six lJuraqi'. University College London 1992. Moses to the left hand.

. while being a grasper of them (masik la-hi ). l09r. 107r. AIso. 2ff. pp. the masters of three [pairs] of sacred Iaws... 244-248 below. .V. while he carries them in this world in potentia.Il. That is to say.'im possesses the "final point of the esoteric interpretation" (lJibayat al-ta'wiJ). 106r. 5-11/f.. 12. Il. l07r. l.uq~àt). IL 9-17/p.f.fUb dawr al-wh!) (f. Al-Rizi aise holds that the Qi. 212). 106v. 11lv. This is because: just as the ether (al-atlur) encircles (mu.. 1. We will revisit this passage with its translation below in chapter 8. 1121. as seen above. 111r. 321-22. 2fp.) the three elements. Il. and the final point of esoteric interpretation (nibiyat al-ta 'wi1) [belongs] to him.. 9-13/f.. 1. S-13/f. pp. which bestows new life to the religion.93 The Qi'im is thus to lead humankind into a new phase of sacred history... 215-16). It may be for this reason that the Qi'im is called the l'master of the cycle of unveiling" (~a." II namely. (f. Il 12-17/p. The culmination of the ta'wü accomplished with the Qâ'im is described aIso in • the following passage in terms of the concept of "ether" (al-athir ): And bis metaphor in terms of four-ness with the enunciator-prophets is that of the ether with the elements (al-us. and through him there will emerge their forms (?Uhür ~uwari­ mm) in the simple world. his potentiality (al-q üwalJ ) being in the esoteric interpretation (al-ta'vn1). 14. 10Bv. This can be interpreted as meaning his role of "unveiling" (wh!) all the hidden meanings of the previous sacred laws.112 • inner meanings of aIl three pairs of sacred Iaws. al-Razï implies. for the development of the function of Ia'ri from age ta age. Il.!ü. 1. see chapter 7. the esoteric interpretation of scriptural texts and sacred law reaches its culmination with the Qâ'im. provides the religion with new "life" (f. likewise the master of the seventh cycle encircles the six. in which there is found the basis of the sacred laws (qjrim al-sbari 'j'). which. 8-14/p.. 221) • 93 The text implies that the function of Ia'ri develops from its potential state ta its full actualization.. 212 and f..

the first elaboration of this concept is found in the works of Aristotle. reprint. pointing out its possible etymological relation to the Persian word "ital' (fire). London. W." In philosophical contexts "ether" is usually related to the notion of the higher. 287-303 and 304-309. for example: P. She then suggests that this identification might have had an Iranian origin. 118 and p. If we follow the suggestion of Diwald. 1942-1943). On this important concept of the prime. "Quinta essentia. 110." We will discuss al-Râzi's possible utilization of the concept of the "fifth element" in chapter S. 152f. in fact. Arabische Philosophie und Wissenschaft. Jjbir ibn ~ayyâtJ: Contribution cl l'histoire des idées scientifiques dans l'Islam (Cairo. on the later developments of this concept including its rejection. R. 1171-1263. as the "fourth one.. 1987). there arises the possibility that al-Razi's peculiar interchangeable usage of the ether and fire might have originated in a non-Greek-HeUenistic milieu.. Also. F. 190. vol.1im. Sorabji Othaca. Aristotle's System of the Physical World: A Comparison with his Predecessors (Ithaca. ed. see. Diwald. particularly the interchangeable use of "ether" and fue." the Qi'im plays bis role of esoteric interpretation up to its final point (nibàyah ) after the three pairs of sacred laws have been revealed. 2. 163-66 below." in Paulys Retzlencyclopiidie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Moraux.'s role of ta'ri to the effect of "ether. vol. fifth element. Diwald. Mittelhaus. apparently using the terms "ether" and "fire" interchangeably.95 94 This element was regarded as more complete and is often called the "fUth element. 95 Interestingly enough. 1962.Y. S. I<roll and I<. 1963). according to her. Diwald reports that the IkhWin al-~a' identified the ether with the fire. 1--40. The Physical World of Late Antiquity (London. 122-32.. 47 (Stuttgart. pp. see. prime element which is distinguished from the other four elements. 152-57. ibid. 1430-32. pp. N. In addition. N. the Stoics regarded the ether as the celestial fire. pp.113 • The above passage compares the Qi. "John Philoponus. seems to differ from their original signification in Aristotelian tradition. pp. 1982). Ahura Mazdi. Wissowa. On the acceptance of this concept in the Islamic milieu. see." although their usage.Y. cols. which is also the name of the son of the god of light. I<raus. In this argument we can recognize another example of al-Rizi's use of technical terms from Greek-Hellenistic science. Solmsen." in Philoponus and the Rejection of Aristotelian Science. al-RiZi holds that just as "ether" or "'fire" can fuse with the other three elements (al-us!uqussit aJ-thalithah). Sambursky. and of which the superlunar celestial bodies (spheres and stars) consist. for example: P. 1960). such • as "ether" and "elements. Sorabji. 50 ta'ri is applicable to any of the three pairs of sacred laws in unveiling the inner meaning hidden within them. pp. G. pp. 24-26. pp. Thus. 00. for example: S. p. • . S. especially.94 However. R.

..96 The passage thus raises the question of the ranking among the enundator-prophets. however. his potentiality. Il. 4-6/p. This is particularly evident in the phrase " ." al-Rizî offers a more elaborate account of the mission of the ~ 1 im. we see that while the Prophet Mul}ammad is regarded by al-RiZi as the culmination of the development of sacred history through the . including the Prophet Mul}ammad. In bis further discussion of the "fourth one. 220) In this statement as weIl as in his previous arguments.just as the ether encircles the three elements ..q] became • the completion of action and perfection of it without [that of] knowledge (dÜlJa al_film ). lllr..' namely. §2 below. likewise the master of the seventh cycle encircles the 'six. since he is the completion of knowledge and action..hari'i'..1im is defined as the inaugurator who leads humankind to a higher stage.through him there will emerge their forms (PJbür. See the last phrases of the quoted passage: he carries them in this world in potentia. al-5ijistini writes a remarkable . the Qi'im's position of leadership among them in both this world and the world after the eschaton. which can be related to the issue of ranking: And the seventh [lJa~CJ] becomes lia fourth one" ta them (Le... the Qi.'amal wa-lGunilu-hu). (f. the masters of three [pairs] of sacred laws. The Qa1im seems to be given an even greater range of attributes than the Prophet Mul)ammad: he is "the completion of knowledge and action.... 1-3/f.97 Does this mean.... Illv. the second phrase MaY imply that the full execution of the Qi'im's raie of ta'wil is actualized in this world in a higher state of the cosmos (the l'simple world").".. the above passage also suggests that bis position might be more inclusive and even higher than those of the other six enundatorprophets. and the perfection of it (tamim al_film wa-al. . three pairs of nUlaqa '). We will discuss in fuller detail the eschatological meaning of the Qi'im and his relation to other dimensions of the cosmos in chapter 8.114 • In relation to the Qi... and the perfection of it." In addition. 96 I# • • • • tf1 Regarding the attribution of the Qi'im by al-Razi. apparently. Il. just as the sixth [na.1im's raIe. ".uwari-bim) in the simple world. that The same passage also implies.

occurs at the time of birth.98 He argues that we can find lldisparity" (tafiwut ) or lldifference" U1chtilif) in every sort of being in our cosmos. . the QuraQi 1 in this context. resulting in the Prophet Mul}ammad being ranked the highest.·im corresponds to this seventh stage. p.t .m lalay-hi al-salim).Sijistini maintains that the ultimate end of everything that has been brought by the messengers is the Qi. in that he represents a new spiritual phase. he himself is the best of the messengers Ucbayr al-rusuJ). 4143. al-5ijistui writes that because the community of the Prophet is the best among humankind. Early PhilosophiCllI 5hiism . with or without this endeavor (gbayr dM al~~t1).d> whereas that "byaction" is accessible to anyone. According to bim. • 100 Quoting the Qur'in 3: 110 ('~ou are the best community which has been brought forth in humankind"). al-SijistiDi aIso implies that the da'wah of the Qi'im is ranked higher and is more spiritual than that of the apostles: there is the possiblity that he would not be far from al-Ràzi in estimation of the mission of the Qi'im. which is thatof the apostles (da 'wat al-rusul).." see Walker." pp. On this concept of "disparity. a spiritual stage. i. the da'wah of the Qi'im and the Qi'im himseIf are not visible to anybody. 98 99 AI-SijisliJû. Therefore. al-5ijiswu holds that the da'wah of the Qa'im is a "da'wah by knowledge" (da'walJ 'i1miyah) unlike that "byaction" ('amaliyab). 1 am most grateful ta Professor Hermann Landolt for providing me with the infonnation on this important passage by al-5ijistini. Ghilib (Bayrüt. 1980). See the edition of M.115 • the Qi'im is ranked higher than the Prophet Mu\1ammad? Regarding this issue of the ranking of the prophets in general. after which a seventh. when there is no trace of him in the state as such. With this argument. 50 that bath a believer (mu'lIIÏIl ) and a hypocrite (mUDiliq) can partidpate in the latter.'im (nj1Jiyat al-ku1l min al-rusul ili al-<Ji '. new) creature" lI (al-1dJa1q al-ühar). and of the Qi.. He presumes that there are questions on the advent of the Qi'im. al-Sijistini gives us cIues for further consideration.99 Thus al-Sijisti. and how one can know him in occultation.. aIso called another (i. it can be suggested. such as where this Qi 'im is. p. 1°O But al. Ith".·im in particular. Because of this principle every sort of being is hierarchized and every member given its own rank. the da'wah "by knowledge" is open only to one possessed of endeavor (dhü al"9a. entitled "On the Recognition of the Resurrection" (Fi Ma 'rUat al-Qiyimah ). pp.ni aIso finds lldisparity" among the prophets. 41-42. Ith". The • Qi. Replying te these presumed questions.e. when compared to passage in chapter 9 of bis Kitü al-Urikhû. He compares the line of prophets to the six stages of development of the human body in the womb. AI-5ijistini. 109.e. 82f.

f.I. & partially tr. Thus al-RaZi abstains trom drawing an analogy between the formation of the human body in the womb which both al-Nasafï and al-5ijistini utiIize.ûrab). 00. time (zamin).. most notably. al-ou!&qi? who is compared to the "head. 1•• 15.. Walker of al-Yazà"i'. into French by H.uküo). 10Sv. the six parts of the human body. the six IJUlaqi' and their six cycles. 103 As for the six physical categories. E. E. For not only do they both make an analogy with the human body. 216 of the printed edition. "Introduction" to the printOO edition of aJ-I. 1. The phrase "another creature" UebaIq is derived from the Qur'in 23: 14. 1961).barï'at . 1.") A further reference to the ranking of the Qi'im is again provided by al-5ijistini. 16 If.. pp. Then. movement (~ab). pp. hereafter referred ta as French transI.116 • bis predecessors. IIb"i" pp.tJWD . . ikbar) 102 It is also to be reminded that al-Ràzï refers to al-Nasafis interpretation of the formation of the human body depicted in the Qur'in 23: 12. 50 history enters the new phase of "opening' (k. Al-Sijistini. IIp. where he discusses the perfect nature of the number six. P. & notes by H. 216f. and. while reserving the '1>est" position and the culmination of the development of the sacred laws for the Prophet M~mmad. especially p. Nomoto. (Here let us remind ourse1ves of al-Rizi's comparison of his position to the 'llead.101 They aIso regard the Qi. l09v. l09r. though leaving its detailed interpretation to future discussion which is not found in al-#I. See WaIker. in this section (called. IlOt.uhf) with the completion of the sacred law of the Prophet M\$lDUl1ad (&iI. rest (. 168." p.f. pp. the six directions in nature. while using the image of the human body to explain the enunciator-prophets and their sacred laws.. fonn (. and space CmaürJ).) Œnglish translation and commentary by P." To this remark al-RiZi only repeats bis idea that the second group of the three lJuraqâ' confirmed the sacred laws brought by the mst group. (f. he quotes al-Nasafi's saying that just as the human body emerges into the outer worId from the womb head first. 12.). Initially we ascribed this saying ta al-RUj (5.I&fJ. 102-107.. 1S-19). The WeI/springs of Wzsdom: A Study of Abü Ya 'qü" al-Siji. Here we can recognize certain similarities between al-5ijistini and al-Rizi's arguments. p. a yan"ü' or "fountain"). Walker was the first scholar to point out the importance of this passage by al-5ijistini in terms of his understanding of the development of human history towards a spiritual stage.'im as an embodiment of the ultimate goal of sacred history.l02 In the 34th section of Kitab al-Yanàbi l . 365. the six days of the creation of the cosmos.adi. al-5ijistini cites matter &mddah ). Kiti" al-Yani"i'. al-5ijistini cites other examples in which this number plays a significant roIe: the six ontologicai categories of our cosmos. like the other sections in this work. 79-S1 (French tr.WJi's Kitib al-Yanibi' including a complete English Translation with Commentary and Notes on the Arabie Text • . "Eternal Cosmos. But al-RiZi himself suggests that the meaning of this verse can al50 be related to the formation of the da'wah organization under the leadership of the tlipq. 103 In this section • 101 Al-5ijistini. Corbin in Trilogie ismaélienne (Teheran/Paris. 1~9. We follow the editors' asaiption of the saying in question to al-Nasafi in the note to 1. Corbin.

'im as the head which is related to and sustains all. Ni!ir-i I<husraw provides us with a diagram consisting of concentric cirdes epitomizing the discussion of the 34th section of • al-Yanabi l . 1 must thank most sincerely Professor Hermann Landolt for drawing my attention to this passage • 105 The circle figure in question is found in Nifir-i Khusraw. the most important part of the body. pp. al-SijisWû enumerates six movements {tarakat-hà} in the cosmos: generation (ka. al·Yanibi'. hereafter referred ta as French transi." There is an implied correspondence lI between the head. pp. one individual. ed. 106.81. and a seventh being <wtum) after those six is the substance of rational soul (jawJar. i. 1949). Once again. 103). 155. lot AI. O. Each of these six movements finds its counterpart in the human body.". much of which is a paraphrased Persian translation of al. Kubf al-MalJiüb. 98·99. pp. 181 and Corbin. Walker.fJarakat-i mfs} combines all these movements. French transI. Le dévoilement des choses œchées: recherches de philosophie ismaélienne {Paris. 29-30 {French translation by H. which is extant only in the form of a Persian translation today. increase(alzüni ). a1·I<hashshab. the six directions. 1994). Corbin. whereas other nUJaqa " (Salt Lake City.. The later poet-philosopher N~ir-i Khusraw provides us with other dues to our investigation.. p.' im. Corbin (Tehran/Paris. Acknowledging the correspondence between the six nUfa'la'. . AI-5ijistiDi. which is the sustainer (dÙ'alJdaIJ) of the six: this function of the substance. p.'im is regarded here as the ultimate goal of sacred history because of bis relation to the fulfillment of da'wah. can be compared to that of the movement of the Soul. In his work Kbrin al-IkJnrin. 79 Œnglish transI. Furthermore. His rank in history is compared to a central point from which aIl directions depart. That is ta say. pp. and the six parts of the human body. pp. a diagram which is lacking in extant manuscripts of al_Yamibi l • 10S What is remarkable about this diagram is that the Qa'im is placed in the central cirde accompanied by the Sabbath (al-$abt) and essence (/a}7l ). we suggest. decrease(bmi }. he ranks the Qi. 198B}.117 • al-SijistiDi refers ta the Qi'im and relates him. corruption([uâJ). Aiso the movement of the Soul in the cosmos bas a being corresponding ta it in the human body. p. In the cosmos the movement of the Soul {. AI·Sijistini unfolds the theory of correspondence also in his other work. a1-Sijistini maintains that each of those six movements in the cosmos corresponds ta each of the six directions in nature. In this work.). 219. Kubf al-MaNiib. p. Trilogie ismaélienne. bodily being (jism ) has six Iimits (ash lJadd) . The Wellsprings. alteration (isti~at )..e. 00. H. 98. 99.). p.Sijistini. the Qj.).i Dais-i JJâliq). transference ÛlJûqiJ). t04 Therefore. KJJ1vân al-Ilcbwin. 18Q. to the fulfillment of the mission of all the nU~'la '. and the Qi. Y.Yanabi l. hereafter referred to as English bansl. n. 63-64.

pp.l07 For example. 181. Landolt.E. 103-104). vol. pp. N~ir-i Khusraw attempts to grasp the rank of the Qi' im in the context of the correspondence between the lJutaqi "s religious duties. "fasting' (riizab>." in Essays on Islamic Civilization Presented to Niyazi Berkes . pp. Da'a 'im aJ-/dim. a}-Yanibi". 107 Nqir-i Khusraw. 'Waliyah. and because of this the center tirde had the '1tead" as the bodily part corresponding to the Qi. since al·Sijistini confers higher estimation upon head than other bodily parts./1977C. 3-120 (English translation: A. "almsgiving" <zaD'). and the six physical categories. 316-23. "AI-Qi~ al-Nu'màn and Ismacili Jurisprudence.'im is given a more central. Fyzee. p. 15: pp. signifying love and devotion to the imâm. A..118 • including the Prophet M~mmad. 260-73. pp. are placed in the circle closest to the center. Gh. vol.'im. and the stages in the formation of the human body. On the Ismi lm notion of the seven pillars of religious duties including walayab . See Walker.. 80 (English transI. D. E. "An Ismi'üï Theory of Walayah in the Da 'a 'im aJ-l. 1976). the Qilim's central rank could be confirmed.l: pp. On waliJ'll' (lnlayab) in the broad context of Islamic thought. Waj/ri DÜJ . 25~57. ed. position or rank in the series of IJuraqi' than any other. 00. A. and to "wa1iyat " ("wa1ip1J " in • Arabie. which have their own place: each member of a group corresponds te a ü#q and is placed within a concentric circle. the Qi.-R. K." in Medieval/. see H. The Book ofFaith (Bombay. seven days of the week. 257.ma 'Hi History and Thought. The Wellspring." ER. 106 In another text. "worship" (tJaIIJàz). AIse cf. pp. 106 P." but both the "seventh" being and the " seven th" substance exert a decisive influence on the state of the human body. which completes the previous six stages of the formation of the human body.). Wajb-i Dm. • 101 Nqir-i Khusraw cites the other six duties as "ablution" (~. the Qi. 99/French transI. p.10a This seventh being is not exactly the same as al-Rizi's "seventh substance.H. the organs of the human body. 117-44. P. A Iwalli (Tihrin 1398A. If this is correct.lim of Qi~i al-Nu lmin. the planets. Nanji. In this figure. see al-Qi4i al·Nu lmin.). 99. " spirit" (rüp ). Walker assumes that the original figure had another concentric drde showing the six parts of the human body. and recognition of his authority) which completes the six other religious duties. 64-65. 245-46. AI-Sijistini.1im corresponds to the seventh (baftum) being. "pilgrimage" <flaii) and "holy wal" (jibaJ). Little (Leiden. A. Poonawala. 1974) ). 1. the six directions. . Mention is aIse made of the six days of the week. if not higher. Waj1J-i DÎnr p.

ai-Rizi and the other two authors tried to comprehend and schematize the ranks and missions of enunciatorprophets including the Qat im. even if not more highly esteemed than the Prophet M~ammad.'im (what we caU Qâ'imology)? In other words. together with al-Nasafî.119 • either in the completion of the bodys formation or as a life-bestowing function. where it may be seen in their comparison of the formation of the human body to the development of sacred history. his opponent. we may be tempted to presume that al-Razi. Cili • text influenced by Neoplatonism. who introduced the theory of correspondence between the two worlds of nature and religion into the doctrine on the (Ja'im? Bearing in mind that a1-I~li!r is one of the oldest extant examples of an Ismi.fJ are aiso found in contemporary and Iater texts. This analogy either explains the Qi. the entire theology surrounding the Qi. But who started this theorization of the doctrine on the Qi.' im among Ismi cm thinkers. Using these motifs. Our analysis of these texts shows that some motifs or "topoi" of the doctrines of the Qi. more inclusive figure than other enunciatorprophets. Examination of a1-1~li!r and some contemporaneous texts (as weIl as others dating from up to one and a half centuries later) shows a common tendency to rank the Qa'im as a more central. . or implies bis advent and mission as the next phase of human history. The utilization of the motifs examined above can be interpreted as an example of a new tendency to theorize in the discourse on the messianic figure of the Qâ. The same motif is even common ta the three above-mentioned authors. indeed.'im.'im in al-l~lâ.'im as a culmination of the development of history. introduced the theory of correspondence. These • motifs are based on the idea of correspondence between the existent beings in the world of nature (such as parts of the human body) and those in the worid of religion (such as the prophets).

The critical edition of the text of ICirab al-'Alim.). p. and Kitab al-'Alîm wa-aJ-Ghulim.bd wa-aJ-Hidâyah . • . al-Nasafi.4th/IOth century. what we call Qi'imology. M. These two sentiments seemingly swayed the Ismi. 45 of the present chapter. and especi. • In addition. Certainly there are differences between the doctrine on the Qi'im or Mahdi found in certain anonymous texts such as Kit:ib al-Kashf. 32-35 on the Mahdïs conquest of Makkah and Madinah. 1403A. ed. In al-Razi's time (the first half of the 4th/10th century) there was among the Isma'ilis. underground religious group into a movement encompassing influential religio-political powers such as 109 For references te the critical editions of Kaabf and Rusbd. 103 in which the age of the Qi'im is called "the seal of the ages" (k1J. in the period when they grew from a clandestine.itam aI-azmiub ). 89 n. Nifir-i Khusraw./1983C. 28-30.E. and with bis adverit God's religion will be perfected. Kitâb al-R. and their forerunner.109 and the theorized doctrine of the Qi'im or Qi 'imology of al-Razï. is: Kitab al-'AIim 'tVa-al-Obulam. al-5ijistini.. the historica1 background of al-Razi should he taken into consideration with regard ta Qi·imology.'im. and the doctrine on the Qa' im in partiClÙar. a strong sentiment of millennialist-messianist expectation with regard to the advent of the Qi. that is.H. see above on p.ally among the Qarma~an dissidents.120 • derived partially from related Greek-Hellenistic sciences. pp. that is. GhiIib in Arba' Kutub 1ja4l9üùyab (Bayriit.. 110 See ICigb al-Kuhf. We consulted the interpretation and German translation of the first passage by Halm in bis Kosmologie . into prophetology in general. 109. For example. 13-75. . on the completion of God's religion with the Ol'im. and p. and a corresponding feeling of betrayal when expectations were disappointed. aIl of which are thought to have been composed at least in part during the pre-Filimid period. 110 What is obviously lacking here is ·the theorized doctrine of the Qâ'im found in al-Razï and other later authors. pp.'ffis several times from the late 3rd/9th century to the first half of the mid. Kitâb al-Kuhf desaibes the eschatological role of the Qi' im or Mahdi as follows: he will conquer Makkah and Madinah with the support of the Archangel Gabriel Oabri'il) at the end of time. pp.

for example. Stem. 87-89. [slamie Messianism. Das Reich. and then after the second advent. However he pays Iittle attention to the type of theorized doctrine reganiing the Qi 'im that contains philosophical and sclentific elements. 2-3. 144-64). Madelung. Aiso d.121 • the Fi1imid caliphate and the Qarma9an state in Bahrayn.D. in the way in which sorne of the di. pp.fJ . Daftary.148-62 and pp. pp. pp. M. See Madelung.. S. This can be observed. using texts such as al-RiriJah al-Mudhbibah. AIso. The lsma'üis. the differentiation of the states of the Qi'im after the first advent. 221 and G. 32-143). S. vol. that is. Daley.140). pp. there are two facts which invalidate this assumption. 1U If we consider this possibility with regard to a1-I~l~. we can suggest at least one possible explanation: that the sentiment of unfulfilled expectation brought about speculation on the rank. The Hope of the Early Church: A Handbook of Patristie Eschatology (Cambridge.lll On the basis of the above discussion.1i." ER. another possibility arises: that the theorized doctrine on the Qâ'im and its context. 159-176 and pp. "Jesus. 5. Halm. 247-64).: 'The Fatimids and the Qarma\Ïs of ~ayn"). 1991). chapters 1 and 2 {pp. i. attributed to al-Qi4i al-Nu'min. chapters 2 and 3 (pp. One is that speculation on the correspondence of the existent beings 111 On early Ismi'ili millenialism and its historical milieu as discussed here.: chapters 1 and 2(pp.e. and position of the Qi' im in sacred history among Isma 'Di intellectuals. 1961). • . 112 This suggestion is close to Madelung's thesis on a]-1. This question is difficult ta answer at the moment.. • initiated the theorization of the doctrine of the Qi'im. along with al-Nasafi. O'ColIins. 113 This could be compared with the situation of the elaboration of ChristologicaI and eschatologicaI speculation in the first centuries A."chapter in bis 5tudies in Early lsmi 'ilism. 8. pp. pp. R. See: B. the prophetology of al-I~lâp. 15-28. Sachedina. see. 289-98 (originally published in L'élaboration de l'islam (paris. "Fatimiden and Bahraynqarmaten" (English transi." pp. 222-36 (English transI. because of the scarcity of texts surviving from the time prior to these two thinkers.}. and a part of chapter 4 (pp. ''Ismi'ilis and ~ans. espedally its introduction (pp. ''Das Imamat. in that he also points to a sort of theorization of the doctrine of the Qi'im. after Many disappointments with messianic expectation. mission. lis behaved before the dedaration of the daim to the imimah by their leader in Salamïyah and the failure of the young qfahim's mahdïship. 99-108). for example: F. and in how they reacted after these events. l13 Let us retum to our fust question of whether al-Razi. in concealment. are al-Rizi's response ta bis contemporary religio-political situation. 15-132}. 1-38).

" in Ibn 'Ar.abï'5 Theory of the Perfect Man. Walker points out that in aJ-ZiIJaIJ . lU See Kitib aJ-Kubf. for example. and imâmS. See aise KitifJ al-Rœhd.'. and p. the twenty eight letters of the alphabet. speculation on numbers. • l1(i P. this passage would prove that al-Razi asaibed the theory of microcosm and macrocosm found above in aJ-I. pp. pp. 74-108. Though the two partial editions of the text of al-Zinab do not include it. p. with the "real fourth -#9. 51.'im. 115 See above pp. chapter 2 '~icrocosm and Macrocosm in Islamic Thought.a1-Razi refers to the philosophers' theory of man as a microcosm. pp. ns The other counter-evidence is that speculation on the macrocosm-microcosm correspondence. For an overview of this theory. 197-201 (several statements on the correspondence between alphabets. and their relation to the prophets 114 al-Rizi himself depends on the symbolism of the letters in his argument on the identification of the Qi. Early Phüosophical 5hiism. . was rooted in the religious and intellectual traditions of the Middle East since pre-Islamic times. 48-49 on the correspondence of alphabets. nu~i. 108-110 of the present chapter. 78 on the comparison of man-woman relations te superior-inferior relations in the da'wah hierarchy. 93 of the present chapter. see Takeshita. prophets. as for the introduction into Ismi. which are closely related to the idea of correspondence. also d. E.l~ te andent Greek philosophers. and imims): on this passage. its partial description above on p. Walker. we still cannot deny the possibility that it may have been a novelty which al-Razï • himself introduced. as seen in al-Razi's depiction of the cosmic figure of the Prophet Mul}ammad." as seen above.122 • in our cosmos can be found in texts that are thought to have been written at least partIy in the pre-Fitimid period. 1l6 However.'ili prophetology and discussion on the Qi'ïm of Greek-Hellenistic philosophical and scientific e1ements.

The Ismi. a phenomenon most commonly seen in those compositions which take the form of the heresiography." in Grundrip der Arabischen Philologie (Wiesbaden. pp. 00. 245-47." El 2. Waardenburg. the doctrines of various Muslim sects were frequently recorded in this literature. Ca. 245-75. 'Iii Notion of the Unity of Religions According ta al-Razi At the initial stage in its history..Jr. Madelung. One can usually detect in such works the heresiographer's own religious identity. vol. 15-52. 1979). (Malibu. "Hàresiographie. especially those of IIthe people of the book" (ahl • al-kitâb). 1: pp." pp. "Muhammad's Understanding of himself: The Koranic Data. H..123 • Chapter 5 Various Prophets and Religious Communities in Sacred History §1. Vryonis. as cultural activities in Muslim-dominated areas began to reach a stage of maturation. W. "Muhammad's .. Also cf. "Ah! al-Kitib. 264-66. "World Religions. G. 270 n. the Islamic religious tradition started to take a keen interest in other religions. ''World Religions as Seen in the Ught of Islam. 2. Literaturwissenschaft. Gatje. 00.l Later on. A. Cachia Œdinburgh. T. particu1arly as of the 3rd/8th century." in Islam's Understanding of Itself. 3 Cf. 00. ''World Religions. vol. Hovannisian and S. pp. R.. knowledge of other religions began to be integrated by Muslim intellectuals into their works.1. 245. J.2 In addition. 3 For an overview of this issue. Waardenburg. 1987). see the following studies: G. Welch. Welch. 374-78. A.. 1983). 1 • 2 See Waardenburg. Vajda.. pp.. which is reflected in the way in which he presents the characteristics of other faiths and sects. T." pp. Welch and P." in Islam: Past Influence and Present Challenge.

entitIed Bi" al-Sba}1àn IDÛJ KiIÜ al-Sbajanb in An lsmaili Heresiography: The Bi" al-Sba}1jll' {rom Abü Tammim'5 Kitib al-Shajarah (Leiden.cultural context. above. "Abü ~itimal-Rizi . Abü Tammi.4 It is hoped that any answers arrived at will enable us to further define Rizi's viewof Ismi'Di identity. In this work P. "An Isma'ili Version of the Heresiography of the Seventy-Two Erring Sects." However. O\\tn One of those concepts which provide al. Walker provides an example of an Ismi'ilï view of how dissension arase within the Islamic community. Walker recently edited and published with thorough introduction a chapter on various Muslim sects from the /(j'ib aJ-Sbajarab by Abû Tammim. 6 AIso in the Qur1an the unity of religions depends on the notion of Abraham as ~t." pp. "The Debate about Prophecy.47-50.m and bis Ki. the present chapter aims at investigating and eluddating the Razian view of various prophets. Walker. E.. Madelung and P. idem." al-Sbajarah: A New Ismaili Treatise from TenthCentury Khurasan.. W." Journal of the American Oriental Society 114 (1994): pp. on the Unityand Oiversity. pp." in Mediaevallsma'. and Muslim sects. 30. the one from which Judaism and Christianity had deviated. 343-52.1i History and Thought .Rizï with a theoretical framework for understanding confessional communities other than bis own is bis idea of the unity of religions.Shamsuddin Talbani.... i. 6 . 161-77. C With regard to the issue of "'Ismà'w heresiography" of the Fatimid age. a purely monotheist figure transcendent over the differences between Judaism and Christianity (Q 2:135 and Understanding. E. the investigation of the Ismi'ili view of faiths other than Islam is not within the scope of Walker's study. a 4th/l0th century di 'i." The concept of the tafuïlor "distortion" of the scriptural texts committed by the people of the book is related to this idea. Il Il • 5 We are indebted for having our attention drawn to this issue ta the following studies: Daiber.. which should emerge from bis evaluation of other confessional groups within the context of ms scheme of sacred history. Sorne Qur1inic passages on the history of the prophets for instance • suggest that M~ammad followed the genuine old religion. §1." pp.5 This notion has its roots in the very origins of the Islamic community.124 • Given this religio. E. and tries to search for the sources of the text and te sort out the new information on sorne "sects. See chapter 4. trying in particular ta determine what theories or ideas al-Rizi imparted into the Isma'Uï scheme of sacred history.. religions.e.. 87-104. 1998). See aise P..

9 . pp. etc.JiJât) forged by fabrica tors (al-mubtadi ' ÜD ) among the Zoroastrians and Manicheans with the contents of the revealed scriptures (al-kutub 1 For the Qur'ànic references ta Abraham and the concept of Il!JaDif. these differences and contradictions can be found between the statements of Moses. This religion îs.'' we are indebted to R. cf. 3:64-67. "l.7 These verses suggest that the Prophet and bis eommunity are the restorers of the religion of Abraham. etc." FJ2. • In this passage al-Rizï cites the contradiction between Moses' depiction of God as the Omnipotent and more anthropomorphic depiction of Him in the Torah. 6:161.3. not only the religion revealed to the Prophet. cf. A'am.f.Ianif. 10:105 and 30:30). 8 See. and Mani. 16:123. 3:68 and 22:78).102-104.8 According to Rhazes. We have aIready seen that al-Rizi had earlier expressed bis concept of the unity of all the religions in A 'lam al-Nubüwah. In addressing these issues this chapter will first focus on al-Rizi's discussion of the Qur 'inie history of the prophets.125 • 140. that is. p. Bell and W. the one and only religion that God has continuously revealed to humankind. bis other polentie directed at Abü • Bakr M~ammad b. Mu~ammad. p. Montgomery Watt. 1970). 98:5).9 In response to this statement. but aIso the same revelation which had been given to other prophets (Q 4:163. zakariyi al-Razi or Rhazes. and l71f. the latter held that there are mutual differences and contradictions between the doctrines of religions. 69f. 16:120. Ibid.. 4:125. whether Jesus died on the cross. the Qur'in states. 3:95. 16. vol. and among their followers on such issues as: whether Gad can have a son. for example. pp. Introduction to the Qur'an (Edinburgh. The Prophet and Muslims are therefore commanded in the Qur'in to embrace and hold fast to the religion of Abraham (Q 2:135. 22:78. Montgomery Watt. 69-71. al-Razi criticizes Rhazes for mixing the "absurdities" (al-mu. 165-66. Jesus. Zoroaster. As a part of his attack on the idea of prophecy. and test his ideas by analyzing a chapter from al-I~lâl) on Iranian religions. and on cosmology and cosmogony. cf.

evaluating the former as more authentic than the latter. p. Ibid." p.. that is. Why then do the three Abrahamic monotheist religions still seem to contradict each other? First of aU.. al-Rizi states. p.72. the accounts from the Torah. which contain in themselves both clear (ri~j~ ) and obscure (mustagbliqab ) meanings. in spite of their essential agreement. Ibid.ilâf).126 • al-IIJUtlZalaIJ) and the traditions of the prophets (ithir al-anbjya' ).10 That is. p.13 Thus al-Razi concludes: "The goal of aIl the holders of the sacred laws (~~i" al-sbani'j' ajma 'ina) is to found the true religion (a]-din al-~aqïqi ) in which there is neither division (tafarruq ) nor difference (ikht. and the Qur'in taken by Rhazes to be mutually contradictory are. 10 11 Ibid. Ibid. p. Shamsuddin Talbani. 109. 7Of. al-Rizi clearly distinguishes Abrahamic monotheist religions from Iranian monotheism. 119. Cf. with which the salvation of humankind in the hereafter is made possible. p. 72. Between their inner meanings (talJiqu~. "coined parables" (amtlW ma!frübab). lOS: also cf. 12 AIso the sacred laws conveyed by the prophets are consistent in • their inner meanings. "The Debate about Prophecy. p.14 The unity of the religions thus exists at the level of their inner meanings.l1 there is no actual difference (ikhtilâf) or contradiction According to al-Ràzi. the Gospel (al-min). the differences and contradictions appear in the outlook. Ibid. 71. in fact. although their expressions differ from each other in terms of coining parables (flarb al-amthiJ). How then does the unity of religions actually manifest itself? Al-Razi delineates the common message of all monotheist religions as follows: As for the prophets (al-anbiyi') --Peace be upon them!--. the outward expressions (alfi1) of the accounts in the scriptures. 12 • 13 14 .

etc. since He is the Creator of all the beings ex nihilo (li min $hay'). Al-Rizï interprets these differences as a 15 Ibid. this world..127 • their meanings (ma 'w-hi) are in agreement [with each other] (muualiqab). i.fJiJ). that He is Eternal (Qadim).. p. with Whom there is no [other] Etemal Being.e.. rituais (manûik ).16 However. Shamsuddin Talbani. which is meant for effort and work. 'i~ wa-al-suaan alla ri fi u. And they agreed that He dispatched the prophets (al-nabiyün) as bringers of good-tidings (mubuœ1Jirün) and warners (mundhirüIJ ). almsgiving. 156. nor in the doctrine of the unity of God (taW'~d Allih) -He is mighty and glorious! They agreed [on the following]: that God -mention of Him is glorious!. other than whom there is no god. and that the people will be judged according to their attention to religious duties such as worship. that He has never come to the end and will never do so. 'Îr al-fari. In this passage al-Ri. the prophets differed from each other on sorne details affecting the enforcement of their sacred laws (fi warJl al-$hari. the teachings of every prophet essentially agree on the doctrine of the unity of God and on the prophets' role in conveying His message to humankind. 16 . fasting. and they (i. and there is no creator other than Him. the prophets) did not differ [from each other] in the fundamentals of religion (~ü1 al-düJ).15 Thus. and the hereafter which is for reward and punishment. chose them from His creatures.is one god (ilü 1ri. Cf." p. 119. the regulations as ta the aimsgivings (~udiid al-zakarit ).ül al-dia ). "The Debate about Prophecy. the appointed times for fasts (mariqit al-#y:im).. such as the times of worship and frequency of kneeling (aW'qit al-~it wa-'adad rah 'iti-ha). despite the common ground underlying their tenets. and purified them in order to make them reach the [stage of] messengership (a/-ri$jJaIJ ).e.'i'). Al-Razi • gives further examples of this the common message: that they are the two abodes (darin).zï adds "other duties and traditions which are among the fundamentals of religion" (s. sacrifices (qaribin ). • Ibid. and other practical regulations (ghayr dhilika min al-furii / ).

''learning'' (muta laJ1jm). according to al-Râzi. Al-Râzi also points out that one will go astray if one daims to hold the knowledge of the beginning and end of the cosmos without the success-blessing (lawtiq) from a "prophet assisted with inspiration from Gad" (abi mu'ayyad bi-wafJy tDÜJ AlliJJ). Otherwise.18 Al-RaD does bis best to explain how these changes should be understood. 157. Here we have another Ismà'Di technical term "mu'ayyad. which teaches that these latter are hierarchized according to their qualities. 17 One example of such a test was the introduction of a new direction for worship (qiblah).fJullu) obscure points in the teachings of the prophets in order to understand them: fuis someone • is a teacher. a "learning" person might easily misunderstand the prophetie teachings and take them to be mutually contradictory. and the humble. may seem outrageous to those who cannot understand the intentions behind them. 17 18 • 19 Ibid. p.128 • kind of "test" (jmti~). 72. Because of this principle. pp.. These changes. p.. the erring and the haughty should be distinguished from the obedient. these differences were introduced through the 50 prophets in order to test the people.20 This principle aiso provides a theoretical framework ta the doctrine of the duty of obedience ta the Ibid. 156-58. is based on the Isma IDi principle of "disparity" (ta/iwut ) among human beings. that the disobedient. the correctly-guided. That is. wbich advocates for the necessity of an authoritative guide. uellte" (kb~~) or "common" ('âllm). A "learning" (muta 'a/Hm) person needs someone who can uanalyze" (ya." which is passive participle of uayyada" and means divinely "assisted" or llsupported" in the context of prophetolgy. Although each and every prophet ordered bis people to engage in worship.19 This idea. one who is "Iearned" ('iJim). and Jesus who changed its direction to the east (al-muhriq). human beings are categorized as either ''leamed'' ('ilim). Le. 20 Ibid . Ibid. it was Moses who introduced the qiblab of Jerusalem.

l. l.f. 33v.'azm and the prophethood of Adam. every "possessor" has te face the anger directed at him by the followers of the sacred law of bis predecessor. 16. 15ff. tends to construct bis arguments using general. 5..22 In his discussion. Thus the Prophet Mul. 33r.f...'azm and the prophethood of Adam. 3Or. 13ff. 36v. 1. The anger of the people at the introduction of a new law is. 1. 1. 1. 34v. Moreover.'azm ' s two roles of abolition (nulcb) and renewal (tajdid) or alteration (tabdü) of his predecessor's sacred law (f. As we saw above in A 'lam .. 2fpp. al-Rizi implies. (f.V. 64 in al-l$latJ. _ 15ff. closely related to this situation: "50 be patient just as the possessors of resolution were patient" (Q 46:35).f.I. 34r. 33v. 71-72)... Il. (f. 1. 9-14/f. Il. 69-76).129 • prophets and ïmims.. less-specifically Ismâ'ili terms compared with his approach in al-l~lj~ AIso in a1-1~l~. since its "abolition" and "renewal" or Ilalteration" will seem intolerable to them (kabura 'alay-bim). • 22 See chapter 4 above on the discussion of u1ü al. f. . l.. the "possessors of • resolution" have fulfilled these two raies bestowed upon them. 1. 37v..34r. 13..f. al-Rizi dedares Noah to have been the first of the ulü al-'azm. 1. 70-71). al-Razi. ever since Noah. 15. 8-14/p... 5. This is a sort of pattern they must follow. 33v.. he presents the idea of the unity of religions in the context of bis discussion of the ulii al. 16. 17fpp.21 This discussion is further developed in the debate on the ulü al. since he was the first man ta exercise both the roles of abolition and alteration of the sacred law of his predecessor. 13fpp. 35r. According to al-Razi. 1.f.. The following Qur'inïc verse is. the two functions of each of the u1ü al-'azm are mentioned as "abolition" (1IU1dù and "renewal" (taidie/) of his predecessor's sacred law. 31r. while relying on a few Isma'ili concepts.tammad faced the anger of the people of the scripture (ahl al-kitib) over his abolition of their outmoded sacred laws. 34r. according to 21 In f.

72).. 35r. and by their lack of recognition of the realities (ma 'diat al-~qâ'i'l). in the printed edition. (f.130 • al-Razi. • U At the suggestion of Professor Hermann Landolt of McGill University. these people do not understand the inner aspect of religion but only adhere ta its outer forme This process of change of old sacred laws. 2) and MS. the meanings of the sacred laws (ma lini-bi) are ZJ o.23 They are the ones that God has guided to the true knowledge (al-lilm leads al-Rizï to conclude: a1-~a'li9i).I. ~. 2.2. the "pure religion") there is neither division nor difference (li tafarruq fi-hi wa-li ikhû1if). 1. have the reading." pp.. al-Razi adds. as weil as aU three of the manusaipts on which the printed edition is based. 73. recognition.zï' s clearest statement on the unity of religions in a1-1~Ji.. Thus the people who do not take offense at these changes and are obedient to the nU!-a'la' can be described as IIpeople of knowledge. 3Sr. 1. although the lJu!a9i' differ from each other over the exterior of sacred laws and in the abolition and alteration which they introduced (fi mi sannü-bu24 min al-nuldJ wa-al-tadbil). Il. Tûb. 71.{1.qücl). is equivalent to the meaning of the "test" (imli~) which is imposed byGod on humankind in order to distinguish the obedient from the disobedient. 2/pp. 36r. 34r. and the pure religion" (abl aJ.'üm wa-al-ma lri/ab wa-al-din al-k1Jali~) (f. 1-3/f. . Shamsuddin Talbani.. The reading in aIl five MSS. 16. (f. This is al-Râ. 1. see the editors' note ln p.V. For the reading in the three latter MSS. (f.-:-i ("while theyascribed it..... al-Rizi adds. 1.. 117-22. 73. 4). 73). 2:. does not make much sense in this contexte This suggests that this particular phrase in this text may have already been conupt at a relatively early phase of the manuscript's transmission.. Bath MS. 1.5/p. 36r. caused by their persistent devotion to the externals of sacred law (p. He aiso offers the explanation that al! the nU!aqâ' invited humankind to one religion (din w.1Jir al-sbari'aIJ) without true recognition of it (bi-li ma'riiati-bi)."). 1. This • Therefore they recognize that the IIpure religion" is one: in it (Le. 15/f.f. Ham.. Moreover.. In other words. 35r. 3.~ l. 1. Il. we follow the reading of the printed edition on p.~ t. 34v. "The Debate about Prophecy.

Our analysis has yielded sorne of the common ideas linking the two texts under discussion.15/p. 36r. 3-9/p. the idea of the unity of religions is elaborated byal-Razï as follows: "[.. 75) • Although al-Ri. that the end of that [interpretation] in its entirety and its result (ma. and that the differences . Il. that these messages and sacred laws • unanimously confess the doctrine of the unity of God.oneness (walldinïyatu- hu).. God shall gather us together. (f. That is to say.uwar al-rü~yab) is [establishedl with the esoteric interpretation of the exoteric aspect of the sacred law (ta 'wü 1ihir al-slJari 'i' )..] and onto Him is the result (al-m~ïr )" (Q 42: 15). 35r." it is clear that for him the end result of the esoteric interpretation (also called the "unveiling" (ktubf) ) of all the sacred laws shows their unanimous confession of the unity of God.2ï does not explain the meaning of "these subtle beings. 12. [AIso these sacred laws indicate:] that the reality of the manifestation of the "spiritual forms" (?Ubür al-.there is no debate between us and you.. that the agreement in the messages of the prophets and the sacred laws indicates an invitation to one true religion. These are: that religions and sacred laws appear to differ from and contradict each other only in their outward appearance (~1Jir).iru-hu) are the unveiling of IIthese subtle beings" (mM 'an badhihi al-la~ 'if) which point to the unity of the Creator (taW'~d al-Biri') -He is glorious and mighty! Cf..afaqah). 36r. aIl the sacred laws (jamï' al-sbar:i 'i' ) indicate His -He is glorious and mighty!. although the expressions of the nU!aqi' (a1fi~lJum) are different from each other (mukbtalifah). Il. Thus.131 • in agreement with each other (mutt. II. Thus far we have analyzed the passages from both texts on the concept of unity of the religions.. that in their inner meanings (ma'jlJi-bi) they are in agreement with each other. 37r. iL 11-13/f. 73). 3-9/f.

both texts not only discuss the unity of religions but also use the same ideas to elaborate on this concept. at the very Ieast in order to defend the possibility of recognizing the agreement of the various messages of the prophets.lâfJ in the same contexte This is the concept of the necessity for an ïmim.132 • between the sacred laws and the changes introduced by the prophets are imposed upon the people as a lites t" to distinguish the obedient from the disobedient. This suggests that ~l-Rizï applied exactly the same argument to the two debates in different contexts. • Mohaghegh. al-Razi's opponent was Rhazes. but not explicitly mentioned in al-I. The lack of expücit mention of imamah in this context in al-I. i. except for the lack of mention of the doctrine of imimab in al-I." . 5-22. ''Notes on the "Spiritual Physick" of al-Razï. and aiso that the concept of the unity of religions is one of the central ideas in his doctrine of prophecy. the doctrine of itDÜlJah. idem. Mohaghegh. however. an outspoken critic of prophecy. there is a concept which is dealt with in the discussion on the unity of religions in A '/am. 26 However. and of the 5hi'i bellef in its continuation in the Imamate. Besides these common ideas.e. 16-23. "Notes on the "Spiritual Physick"." Abr-Nahrain 13 (1973): pp. ''RàZi's ICitib al-'Dm al-Ilihiand the Five Etemals. idem. For both these Ismi'w-Shpj thinkers the necessity of an Imâm for ensuring the certainty of knowledge and the duty to obey him made up a crucial part of their common doctrinal ground. "RàZi's Ki~b al-'Dm al-Ilibi.lafJ can be explained as due to the fact that al-Ri~'s focus in this text was on al-Nasafi." Shtdia Islamica 26 (1967): pp. In the case of A '/am .2S Therefore al-Rizi was forced to argue • the necessity for an imam in his A '/am . 2S 26 Cf.lip. his co-religionist.

As seen in the last section." which are further developed in the history of the prophets in al-I~la!J. al-Razi states that the differences between the sacred laws and the changes introduced by the prophets were a trial imposed upon the people as a "test" in order to distinguish the disobedient from the obedient. This scenario is but one motif in the interpretation of the meanings of the Qur'inic • passages on the history of the prophets in al-l~l~. alteration and renewal of the oid sacred laws familiar to them.133 • §2. thus causing then ta disobey the prophets. These "sub-motifs" are as follows: i) The people's refusaI to submit to the divinely-guided leaders because of their insistence on old or ~jJJirï teachings. pl. a~did) who spreads faise teachings among the people of the da'wah. ü) The prophets' voluntary relegation of authority to their successors. This motif can be divided into certain variations or "sub-motifs. most people would prove disobedient ta the newly arrived prophets and reject their abolition. iü) The "antagonist" (~idd. According to ai-Razi. with few exceptions. Thus. both Jews and Christians: neither group in fact showed a willingness to accept the sacred law of the prophet sent to abolish their own sacred law. when Jesus abolished Jewish precepts and nullified the . In his presentation of the concept of the unity of religions. al-RiZi identifies both as • embodiments of his negative tendency to reject new prophets and their messages. Sorne examples of sub-motif i) can in fact be seen in the case of the people of the book. Patterns in the History of the Prophets According to al-Razi In addition to and in connection with the concept of the unity of religions there are severa! other ideas that al-Razi offers in justification of his interpretation of the history of the prophets found in the Qur'in.

ISOr.. 9 /f. and departed from them (f. 34v. 148r. according to al-Rizi. just because a certain mutimm (or imam) relinquishes his • authority to bis successor. Le. 72-73).. 152v. this was offensive to the Jews who despised those changes. 35r. Imim. In such instances. 292). 149v. 13.. 17- f. • according to hîm. Also. 1.v. i. 1. Il. 1. 9/f.. This idea is presented in refutation of al-Nasafï's point that Jonah was a mmim m . al-Rizi explains that the highest dignitaries.f. IS0r.. could not grasp the inner truths of these sacred laws but instead clung to the superfidal features that distinguished them (f.. 1. 1-10/f.Rizi holds that sometimes the mission of a niP9 or a mutimm was completed before he departed this world. of his age. the na#qs and murimm s never fall from their ranks because they already know the miserable consequences of sum a faIl !rom the heavenly realm (al-maJaküt) (f. 1.. Al-NasaD aIso daimed that the latter abandoned his duty. 293 and f. In reply to al. ~13/p. 1..134 • Sabbath (al-sabat).. 148v. this does not mean a degradation in rank but the .. LI. 13/p. but feU from this rank to that of a li. 148r.... 1. l/f.e.302). The people of bath religious communities. 10. lost patience with his people. 2/pp. In spite of the people's disobedience manifested in sorne of the cases mentioned above.fJiq. 16/f. 1. Il... 154r. 1. v. a few of the prophets voluntarily submitted their authority to the mission (amr) of the new prophets. 1 3.. even though he himself remained alive Cf. 1. 153r... these innovations were aIso offensive to them. 16/pp.. 1. 292-93). . 301. lS -v. 1. Al. 149v. 4/pp.v.. a divinely guided leader would have voluntarily renounced and submitted bis authority to his successor.I. 1.. 1. 35r. al-Razi implies.f..Nasafï's remarks on Jonah..9.. And when the Prophet M~ad abolished sorne aspects of both Jewish and Christian laws and changed the direction of worship from Jerusalem (Bayt alMaqdis) to the standpoint of Abraham (Maqâm Ibrihim).

. this is excellence (fa!lüah ) and increase in grade after the completion of the • [religious] task (ba'd tamim al-amr)..135 • completion of bis mission before bis death.27 • 'ZI These concepts of "elevation" or "excellence" and "increase" in grade are not defined in the text.V. 6/f. Rather...e.sg. But this does not constitute demotion from the grade of the imamate [for the previous mutimm J." since it would have thrown the succession of the prophets and their classification in the hierarchy into disarray.16/pp.. Jacob (Ya'qiib). 12.R izi. verse Q 12: 100 from the story of Joseph: And as God -His remembrance is glorious~- said: "He (Joseph) helped his parents (Jacob and bis wife) c1imb up to the throne. 301-302) In short.V. thus gaining "excellence (fa!lùah) and increase in grade.9/f. it would have been quite impossible. 154r. after overcoming which he is rewarded with "elevation" (rif'aIJ) and "increase in his grade" (ziyidah fi darajati-bl' (f. the highest dignitary after the imam) submit ta him... we might assume that al-Rizi means "elevation in virtue" when he refers to "elevation" or "excellence" and "inaease" in grade. jal1i~ . the "completer" of bis age. 148r." This is to say that the completer (al-mutimm ) and bis "gate" (bâbu-hu. 13/pp.. 1. Therefore. This submission of his authority is. Il... s) and the lieutenants are all benefactors and beneficiaries and from them come the misdeeds and the demotion. al. 301-302).. and they threw themselves down to him.. in prostration. di '. recognize in him the rank of completeness (!Jadd al-wnüzüyalJ ) and gained the [spiritual] stream through his intermediation. for Jacob and bis wiEe and Jonah to be actually "elevated" to higher rank such as "fundament" or "enundatorprophethood.. One example of this is. 2. Le. As for doubt..Razi holds. this cornes from one who lectures (al-mumJÎ') and one who attends (al-mustami'). since the "wings" (al-ajtJi~a1J. given this scheme. his "bib" surrendered their authority to their son Joseph.. 2. according to al. 1. and from the knowledgeable one (al-'jJjm) and the apprentice (al-muta la1Jjm).. 1. i.. We ask God for protection from failure (al-kbidhlin). a kind of "tesr' put to him.. Le. IL 9. 153r.I... However. and ms wife. Le. (f. lS4v.

al-Rizi adds the "antagonists of the fundament in this cycle" (a~did al-uas in hidba al-dawr) ta the list of those rebellious and tyrannical figures (f. 1. 1. H. lS0r. aceording to al-Razi. al-Rizi names in al-l~l~ severa! well-known arch-enemies of Moses in the Qur'in such as Pharaoh. they refused to submit their authority ta their successors. Korah (Qiriin). 3/f. This "fundament" is none other than 'Ali b. . each of whom was . the "Pharaoh" of Abraham (Fir1awn Ibrihim)28. 4/p. the lawi. 10 . See f.136 • However it is also stated in the above quotation that some dignitaries such as lari!ü9 or '1ieutenants:' who are ranked below imams. Abi Tilib. clung to their offices. Haman (Hi. As examples of such "antagonists" in the past. This word 11 antagonist" is a key term in the Ismi. Moreover.. However. although conferred the kingship by Gad. the following are aIso cited: the unnamed individual who occupied the throne of Solomon for a while. 148v. and then beeame arrogant and tyrannical.. This too falls within the definition of the first sub-motif.f. 149r.. while at the same time straying into the third sub-motif dted above.. I/f. 16/pp.f.'ili interpretation of the Qur'anic and Biblieal history of the prophets. 97v.1i~ al-Rizï quotes the same verse and declares the persan in question to be an "antagonisr' who claimed the authority for mission. which is that of the "antagonist. that is. 6V." These were aIl.man). 193-94. 1. 293)... and Samaritan (al-Simïri). may be liable to punishment apparently because of their disobedience to the order to submit their authority. • head of his regional sector. Judas (Yahüd) !seariot. 98r. 14f. Finally. the " an taganists. In anather passage of a1-r. 1.. 97v. Halm points out that the concept of the "antagonists" aIready has an important role in the thought regarding the • 21 Al-Rizi does not spedfy the narne of the "Pharaoh of Abraham." However. 3. 1. 98r. 1.l.. this could mean the persan referred to in verse Q 2: 258 who became tyrannical.lUq (lieutenants)." or the opponent of the authenticda'wa1J which represents the true message of religion. and in spite of bis having disputed with Abraham over the subject of God. 1. the people's refusai to submit to divinely-guided leaders.

Le. Simon (Sham1ün). See bis Kosma/agie. p. as already seen above. Kosmolagie. 27. it refers nevertheless to arch-enemies of the prophets. 30. We consulted the list of antagonists" compiled by Halm based on the same passage: Halm omits the "enemies" of Noah and Jesus cited in the passage. There is a1-/~li.fl. p. Jesus had the Israelite priests (a. Likewise the people of Jesus disobeyed their leader. 32-34. Kana'in). Abraham had Nimrod (al-Nimrüd b. In both cases the succession was hindered br 2t Hahn.were put to the test and failed when they turned away from the Commander of the Believers (Amir aJ-Mu'minin) in order to follow the first and second caliphs. Moses had Korah.30 Likewise in connection with the subject of antagonists the next passage from KjQb al-Kasbl maintains that both the communities of Moses and Jesus were put to a test during the absence of their master-mi#9s. Abi Tilib's succession to the divinely-guided leadership of the Prophet. According to the author. namely. that is. and chose to follow Haylas (?). sorne of whose names can be found also in al·/~li. Noah the "people [drowned] in the deluge" (~pib a1-~iifàtJ). 'Ali b.abir Bani lm. its anonymous author holds that every prophet had bis "enemy' ('adûw).137 • history of prophets in Kimb al-Kuhf.!J : in another point of comparison between K"b! and both texts the history of the prophets functions as a reference to a particular past event dose to the present age. 29 In the first treatise of al-Kuhf. 27f.f. Hishim and Abü Lahab. Abü Bakr and 'Umar. Abü Jahl b. 'il). and the Prophet Mutwnmad had two Qurayshis. Thus the people of Moses betrayed Aaron <Hirün) by following Samaritan (al-Simirj). Adam had Cain (QihU).ib a]4Cub{. Even IIthis community" (badJUbi aI-ummah ) -here the author is referring to Muslims • as a whole. pp. . sorne parts of which date back to the pre-Fa~d era. Even though the term lIt/id({' or "antagonist" does not in fact appear in the pages of al-Kashl. lI • 30 Kir.

e. This rebellious disciple is apparently Judas Iscariot.31 The history of the prophets is similarly put to use in the works of two other Ismi.e. i. This means.138 • "antagonists. 5/pp. i. in general. Ja'far b.. that God would punish those who violated His rules and played the hypocrite even after He had sent down the "table. he rejected the fundament appointed by • Jesus.. 5 -f. it was one of Jesus' disciples who rebelled against him by handing him over to murder (ulama-hu li-l~atl). §2-1. Le. 270-73). Ja'far al-Yaman and al-Qi. according to ai-Razi... 137v.·w thinkers who were nearly al-Râzi's contemporaries. Abi Talib (f. 'Ali b. below. This cornes in his interpretation of verse Q 5: 115. Moreover. 137v. He then points out that a similar rebellion took place in "this cycle" (hadba al-dawr): an unnamed "antagonist" (!Üdd) followed the path of Judas in rebelling against the &. wherein we are informed that Gad toid Jesus that He would punish the disbelievers after He sent down the "table" (al-mà'idah) which bis disciples had requested. al-Rizi holds. We can cite another example in al-#l~ of this use of the history of the prophets .. 139r.." This suggests the possibility that ai-Rizi sometimes draws on the events of the distant past to explain or serve as models for more recent phenomena. 1. 1. These "antagonists" were 'Abd al-"'uzzà. l. • The issue of the crucifixion of Jesus will be further discussed in sorne detail in chapter 7. Actually.~ï al-Man~ür al-Nu'man. "two antagonists" (tjiddan) who expressed their envy of him when he reached the rank of prophethood (a]-nu"üwab). 31 . the blessing of appointment of the fundament (ub ). both of whom devated their careers ta Man~ür formulating official doctrine for the Fi~d imamate-caliphate.. and of stories of the "antagonists" in particular. 1. for understanding the events of the latest cycle.rÜ of his age. 14 -f. held that the Prophet Muttammad confronted "two Pharaohs" (Fir'awnin)." that is. 13ff. 138v.

Sari 'ir wa-Asnir). Der Koran: Kommentar und Konkordanz" p. al-Qi.36 Al-Nu'min then returns to his interpretation of what lay behind the strife over the succession to the Prophet's 32 Ja'far b. MaIlfÜr aIso compared 'Ali to Abel (Hibïl) and Abü Bakr to Cain. served as a prototype for the quarrel over the succession to the Prophet M~ad.43f. Al-Qi4i al-Nu'màn. Poonawala. or fundament of the esoteric teaching. According to aI-Nu'min. p. p. which describe the quarrel between Cain and Abel. Am. p. M.34 In bis Am al-Ta 'wil. Paret. 82 (hereafter this text will be referred to as Ja'far b. on the occasion of a prophet's appointment of a certain person as his aas. Ghilib (Bayrüt. Ghilib. M~. The OOitor of the text. p. M. Hisham. see R.ir. MS. Asis al-Ta'wil. omits from bis edition certain names. we consulted the following manuscript: Ja'far b. 3t Ja'far b. Sari 'ir wa-AS'tir aJ-Nu!-Zqâ'. Sari'ir wa-Asm-. 45.). 1404A. A_). such as Sunnis. On the identification of 'Abd al-UZZi with Abii Lahab in süralJ 111 of the Qur'in. Yaman. For identification of these two names. 36 AI-Nu'min. 360. Mal\!Ür al-Yaman. 00. 528. 3S And quoting verses Q 5: 27-30. University of Tübingen.iris a "verbatim" reproduction of Sari 'ir al-Nu~qâ'. 33 Ja'far b. another title of the asÜ). Sari 'irwa-Asr. . MallfÜr b. pp.33 thus likening the strife between 'Ali and bis supporters over the succession to the leadership of the Community to the quarrel between Cain and Abel.139 • (identical to the Abü Lahab mentioned above) and AbüJahl b. sorne of bis lJujaj (sg. 72. Biobibliography. 44. lJujjab) will inevitably turn jealous and be envious of that future successor. p. 358-60 (hereafter this text will be referred to as • 3S al-Nu'man. Asrâr al-Nu!-&9â. This comparison suggests to us that the conflict between the two sons of Adam which led to fratricide.H'/1984C.32 Ja'far b. Mélnfür'. Accoding to Poonawala this Asr. Mallfiir.4i al-Nu'miI\ likewise discusses the same conflict over the succession to the leadership of the Community. possibly in order to avoid disturbing certain groups. p. al-Nu'man implies that a similar situation befell those two brothers after Abel was appointed as Adam's executor (~i . E. just as Iblis became jealous • of Adam and was followed by many of bis fellow-angels.

Al-Nu'min cites the examples of enemies of prophets such as ThIis.38 This term "fatrah " is projeeted back to the pre-Fi~mid period of the second half 'SI Ibid. al-Walid to kill'Alï b. p. 361f." Die Welt des Orients 8 (1975): p. 37 The above descriptive analysis of some passages on the "antagonist" from four early texts confirms that the Isma. pp. Das Reich. (English transI. This is the concept of fatrah (pl. the mi~nah or civil war took place after a similar situation. we aiso consulted the following studies: Halm. dose to the present time. W. 98. • §3. On the idea of farrab. espedally that of an imim. However. Cain and Samarïtan. this attempt ended in failure. al-Nu'min reports. Madelung. pp. idem. Kosmologie." pp. 378-80>. 104-106. ordered Khilid b.fJ which should be introduced. Abi Tilib.. H Halm. 335f. In the Community of the Prophet. 32-34. who is left unnamed in al-Nu'min's text. while in the past.140 • leadership of the Community. Halm's definition of this term as: "eine Zeit ohne politische Macht des Imam" (an age laclcing the political power of an ïrnim). a people's jealousy of its prophet's successor would evolve into sympathy for his enemy. an absence of divinely guided religious authority. : pp.zi's View of Sacred History ln addition to the sub-motifs of the history of the prophets analyzed above. In the course of the mi"nab the first "antagonist" (al-!lidd aJ-awwalzg). In many historical instances (such as in the case of the community of Moses). "Zur Oatierung des ismi 'ilitischen 'Buches der Zwischenzeiten und der zehn Konjunktionen' (Kitib al-fatarit wal-qirânat al-'aiara) HS Tübingen Ma VI 297. ''Cas Imamat." Le.'ilïs of the 4th/IDth century referred to and utilized the history of prophets ta explain certain events which. • 38 We fol1ow H. The Idea of l'Interval" and al-Ri. . there is another important idea in a1-1~1a. fatarit ) in the sense of "interval" or "interregnum.

mah by their leader. 192f. he believed that such lCubf. pp. 74. 42f. 42 la 'yïd. Kosmologie. Algeria. Œnglish transI. al-5ijistini explains in his Ithbàt that the fatrah is the period during which human souls cannot receive spiritual "assistance" or "support" (al-ta 'yitl) from higher celestial beings. Al-SijistiDi. AIso.. and the imims of the CUITent cycle. within the framework • of their concept of sacred history. 118f. presumably. the early Isma!i1is deve10ped the notion of fatrah and incorporated it into their doctrine. 47f. As for discuss it again below in detail in chapter 6. the idea of fatrah was expressed in various ways. It. 40 Their imim. particularly. p. Eastern Arabia.: p. 39 40 41 Halm.41 In arder ta explain this long underground phase of the movement. However. §2. there is no persan suitable to receive the ta 'yid. Das Reich.) and Daftary.98. Also see Halm. with the start of the systematization of Isma'ilism in the 4th/IOth century. Thus. such as the Prophet." p. "Zur Datierung. . Cf.hbal.42 By the above statement al-5ijistini implies that. p. The I. since it is desaibed in the third treatise of Kitâb aI-Kuhf as the l'interval which stands between a certain enundator-prophet and another. 53.ma 'üü. Even after the consolidation of their power in the Islamic Middle East. this declaration resulted in a schism between the dissidents from the main we will • group who followed 'Ubayd ('Abd) AIlih. during the period of fa trab.141 • of the 3rd/9th century. and Sind. still needed a theological justification for the absence of their divinely-guided leaders. their îmims. had in fact stayed hidden before the declaration of the imi. Ismi'fis. p. For example. the Ismâ 'Di movement had remained underground. bath Fi~d and Qarmalian. the au .39 Before the da'wah emerged fully in the 260s/870s in 1riq and spread within the next two decades to other places such as Yemen. p. Halm. 'Abd Allah or 'Ubayd Allih.. This "assistance" is the revelatory and inspiring guidance conferred upon the highest earthly dignitaries. 190.

327. 1.165v. 9-13/f. . lI • Only MS. Il. Tüb. In this tradition. Tüb. 45 46 O. janiIJ. 44 As for the issue of when the fatrah normally takes place. while the printed edition (p. each of whose reigns is around one hundred years in length. 5-6/p.. Il..ll. although remaining open to the possiblity of another reading. to which he replies that there was no imàm then since it was an "interval. i. 1. Although our own discussion of the concept focuses more on its place in al-Rizi's thought on sacred history.during that same period there was a "proof of Gad" (IJujjat Allah) among the entrustees (fi al-mustawda 'in). Moreover. 1. According to him.142 periods of "interval" had taken place over the course of many cycles (al-advnir) • up to bis own time. ''Das Imamat/' p. 327). 104." Imim Ja'far adds therein as weIl that. the appointed proteetors" or "entrustees") (f. 166v. J L Here we foUow the reading of the printed edition and MS... 13-14/f.43 Al-Ràzï explains that the fatraIJ is so-called only because there is no completer (mutimm) during it (f. Cf.~apa. the "interval" sometimes occurs in the middle of a cycle (wua! al-dawr) (f.r" p.. sg. 12) and MS. 164v. we are still indebted ro Madelung's analysis. 335. 326). 164v.~ In support of bis statement (quoted above) on the definition of the "interval. Therefore. Madelung.. a AI-Sijistini. each cycle lasts 1. the imim is asked who the imi. 104-106. IL 1-5/p... 166v. 17) have ~. al-Razi holds that every cycle ends in a fatrah. Therefore it is a period marked by the absence of an imim..." pp. which was then transmitted to the "appointed deputies" (fi al-mustakb1ûm)46 (f. 8). during which the "lieutenants" (al-/a~9) and the "wings" (ajniJ:œh . n. 166r." • al-Rizi cites a tradition attributed ta Imim Ja'far al-~idiq. has the reading ~..m of the tinte of the Prophet had been before he was summoned. 44 In bis article on the reIigio-politicaI issue of imjmab Madelung extensively discusses al-Râzi's notion of farrah. 162v.iI ... Ilhll. "Das Imamat. 192.500 years and is governed by seven imâms. Ham. 1 (a1-m. . See Madelung. di 'is) take over the authority of the imam.e. Il. during the rest of the cycle there occur periods of fatrah.

. Madelung. a chief li. we cannot exclude the possibility that the notion of the two categories of leadership may have had one of its roots in al-Rizi's notion of m.. The Alleged Founder of lsmailism (Bombay. lo-16/f.lid by al-I<ha~b b. 336 (English transI. 1 49 Cf.wcla'. 136r.. lalri. Ha1m. 136v. "'Das Imamat.. are set up to maintain the affair of the da'wah. 41 In the late Fi\imid period. The ImJi'ili. ft is difficult to establish the relation between al-RiZi's notion of m • • and the notion of the two categories of the leadership at the present time. 13/f. David was chosen from amidst the lalri!Jiq ta become an arbitrator (l'abm) among them: he is thus called an "appointed deputy" in the da 'wah (musta1dJ1al fi al-da 'wall) (f. 533/1138).. In al-Rizi's case even though.. Ivanow.fUq during the absence of the imim (or fatrah).. pp. Daftary. w. 7/pp.lUq. he is not a1ways identified with the chief li. 327). namely. p. Das Reich. as will be seen shortly.lUq) with regard to the age of fatrah or l'interval. sa ta speak. 164v. as may be seen in the 6th/12th century text Gayat al-Mari.f." p. 7r. He was aise a lâ. 1. IO-IS. 8.'' David and Solomon are described as lâfaiqs of the age as such. These two positions. 1946). 1. the m. "primus inter pares. • With this expression H. 114-16.fUqs should take charge of the affairs of the da'wah and thus become.. 54-56. idem. 7v... al-~asan al-Hamdini (d. These examples of David and Solomon show how each achieved the status of. 50 . Let us first discuss the term Jalûq (pl.f.: W. 169-74. an idea conceming the imimah started ta develop that there are two categories of leadership: mlUtaqarr and mlDtawda' imams.üd or chain of transmission for this tradition. 1. Ismaili Tradition ccmceming the Rise of the Fatimids <Bombay /Calcatta. Halm describes the position and function of the chief lLfUq reigning in the fatrah.. Il. l. However. 130v. 7. 258-68)./p. 1. 104.143 • 5-8/f. p.49 Salomon succeeded David by taking over the "successor-ship" (khilafab). 379). 14. pp. . Also cf. therefore according to al-RiZï."sa The text thus conveys the moral that the people of the da (wah C Al-Ràzi does not quote any i. Il. l/p.tawda' is entrusted with doctrinal " properties" (wa!Ü'û). 16).. pp. F.f. so to speak. 1942).. 131r..fU9 but gained the ability to • arbitrate between his fellow la~q after the mission of David was accomplished (f.47 The term mustawda' or "entrustee" in this tradition plays an important role in al-Rizi's notion of fatra1L 48 This may be seen in the way he develops the idea that one of li.. 165r. a legitimate and absolute one and a guardian who is " en trusted" with the affair of the da'wah but who is not an 'Alid.

ID-15/p.f. 1. 168v. 2/p. and zachariah were only lawilU'l and IIJlUlawda'Ütl (f... 16.V. and the discourse on Sergius" (Bab al-Qa"1 fi Shu'ay" wa-L~.I. 167r. that they were the guarantors (Ilmani' ) of the "entrusted properties'" which were the "remainders" (baqâya) of the enunciator-prophets. Lot. Although .. The argument respeeting the 1IJ"lawda' (entrustee) is to be found mainly in the section entitled the "Chapter on [al-Nasafi'sJ statement on Jethro (Shu'ayb). that they were the holders of that remainder. IL 13-15/f. the completers and the "entrustees" in every "interval".. and previous entrustees.1. 157v. 315).fJi" lI aJ-wadi 'i' ). 311-31). l. the people who resemble these two and what is like their rank.. The "entrustees" were thus the caretakers of the "entrusted properties" left by • the enundator.f. al-RàZi explains the function and role of a IIJlUtawda' or "entrustee" as follows: . 164r. 12 . 1.f. 322f). 162r.. he maintains that Jethro.. 9/f.. 13/f. 165r. S/f.144 • should abey the chief 1~'l during the time of the imim's absence. and that Sergius was neither a mutimm nor a lalûQ (f. 8/pp. Hence we explained the nature of the entrustees" (al-muslawda 'ün ) in bygone ages.. ID.prophets.. 164v.. 156r.I. 327). and operate against the corruption of the da'wah during the concealment of the imim.. IL 5-7/pp. wa-man kitJa min uh"W-bimi wa-fï mirlJ1l1Janzilati-hi wa-dlürSarjis) (f. the completers. 13. Interpreting the phrase "men of a remainder" (u/ü baqiyab). Lot ~). In this chapter al-Rizi refutes al-Nasafï's statement that each of the figures mentioned here was a m utimm of his cycle. Il.. 1. 1. 160r. who are said to • have forbidden "corruption on earth" in Q Il: 116.. 158v. 166r.50 [the phrase] "men of a remainder" (ulü "aqiyah) means the holders of the "entrusted properties" (~. prohibiting the faithless and the unjust from corrupting the da 'wah at the time of the concealment of the completer of the age in the period of the "interval".1. just as we commented..l.(f.f. 1.. 163v. That is to say...

V. 12. • 160r. Zachariah too was a mustawda in the age of fatrah prior ta the 1 coming of Jesus. 1... 3-7 If.. disobedient people in the "interval" at the end of the second cycle. 317-18 and f. 14. S-10/p.. 10. 162v. Thus he offered a refuge ta Moses from the corrupted members of the da 'wah (who constituted the majority) led by an antagonist (f. According to hîm. When Abraham then appeared. Il.. Al-Rizi quotes and interprets the Qur'inic story of Jethro as a typical example of Iientrustee" -ship in operation. Lot submitted the uentrusted properties" ta him (f..f..f. 156v... we need look no further than Lot... 312). Jethro stood against Pharaoh. 1. For an example of the tradition as such. 3-11/p. 116r. 163r. 1. 323). 161v. 159v... 14. Il. 11/f. 1SSv. l.f. 157r.51 • 51 According ta al-Razi. who. 162v. it can be assumed that the "remains" ànd "properties" referred to in the above include the imâmab and leadership in general belonging to the divine1y-guided leaders. since he succeeded in being appointed guardian over Mary (aJ-tüaltul bi-Mazyam) prior ta other la wi. as a IItrusted entrustee" (mustawda t ma'mün). 164r. 2-15 If. 117r.. 320). 1S7r.145 • left unexplained. Al-Rizï also states that ]ethro was an entrustee in the time of the absence of imim.l.. 1. 116r.fJiq (f.. I/f. 12-f.. where people .. 161r. Il. ISSv. 1. 1. IL 3-7If. 156v.q of the coming cycle during the absence of the mutimm of Abraham (f.." that is.f. 1. 1.: this is a part of the tradition (al-SUlUJah ) which had been observed in the previous cycles (f. IIp. this is what is meant by the episode in Q 3: 44. 231). stood against the corrupted. In another passage al-Rizï holds that in the lIinterval" he trod the "path of appointed deputies" (sabil al-mustakblûUJ). l/f.1. 5/pp. 16. 1. a rebellious Ij~q who illegitimate1y ruled the da'wah and coveted the rank of the at the end of the age na.V. 7/p. 312). Moses. 1/p. 8. He was entrusted with the "remains of the completers and their "entrusted properties" in order to submit them ta the master of authority (~b al-amr )..l. Il. 1.

" El2. v. 3.52. p. Fahd points out that ntinah 's meaning is accompanied by the sense of the divine aid rendered ta the prophets and the beIievers in battle. the inner .. threw lot into the river to settle a dispute over the right to norture Mary. since he trod the path of appointed deputies. Fahd. 10: 24-27 in the Hebrew Bible.f. Mean the "completers" and the "lari. according te al-Rizi. Der KOTan: KommentaT und Kon1wrdanz." whom he identifies with Samuel Oshmü'ïl).32S-26). Also.f... who was to preserve the "entrusted properties" (al-wadâ'. 11/f. Also cl. which contained the sakïnah or "divine presence.. Thus the people came ta IItrust in" ($akanü ) Saul54 (f. 11. Il. 1.v. T.fUq) before David. I/f. Saul. T.'). This . 164r.52 According to al-Ri. al-Razï holds that Samuel ordered the Israelites to obey Saul." as the sign of bis kingship.888E. but we need further examples before declaring this to be so. 1. 9. 163r.fJiq" respectively. musta1Vda 1 was regarded as another title for clüef lâfJiq? This may be the case.146 • In the case of Zachariah." This means that Samuel was a leading li. vol. and to have referred to the Ark of the Covenant" Il (al-tâbüt). • that is." and the 1I1a~q"53 (f.. 1 Sam. Saul (Ti1üt).!Uq (if not chief la. 1.. 8. In Q 2: 248 a IIprophet" is said to have notified the Israelites of the coming of their new king.. he appears ta have been both mœta vrda 1 and chief Ij. 1.zi. as the l~q lion whom the axis of the da'wah (madir al-da'waIJ) depended before David.akinah corresponds to "dlkbiDJi " (the "inhabitation" of the divinity) in Hebrew. 1. the "clan of Moses" (Al Müaa) and the "clan of Aaron" (AI Hirün) who leave a "remainder" in verse Q 2: 248. p. 17. cl. 52 On this event. 165r.V. One important point in this interpretation is that al-Rizi regards the abovementioned "prophet. 165r." Recalling that David was II called an appointed deputy" and that other "entrustees. 53 ~ The fact that the Israelites "trusted" in (akuü ) Saul is. One such is provided by al-Râzi in bis interpretation of the verse Q 2: 248. 1. this IIArk of the Covenant" means the entrustee" lI (aI-lIJwtawda'). the IIremainder" (ba9ïyalJ ) of the "completers.1." such as Shu'ayb and lI Lot were also la~9. 3/pp. "Sakinah.. • According to ai-RaD.fJi9 . 163r. Paret. the question arises whether the term.

at least sometimes.147 • 9/p. while the 1~9 was a more permanent one except in the case of "chief liJJiqs. 11." such as David and Solomon. We will comment on this in the chapter on the discourse devoted ta the third completer (bib dbikr thiJith alatbnmà'). stand firm (istaqama). One thing at least is certain: the role of mUSlalVda 1 was genuinely a temporary emergency position on the one hand.. This is because David was a lieutenant. .v. as we have already mentioned. 2-9/ f. He may have maintained that. particularly as it affected the affairs of the community. around whom the authority revolves. 1. for with Him are the power and the strength. And when the lieutenants. And something similar to this (i.325). 164v. just as was the case with the event of "divine presence" (amr aJ-sakinab ) in the days of Saul which fell in the midst of [the reign of] the saaed law (a 'W'Ual al-s1wi'aIJ) in the age of David. by referring to an event in this cycle. 326) • meaning of saJcinah in Q 2: 248. 1. Il. the awliyi' are victorious.. This may also point to a difference in the position of the mUllawda 1 from that of the lilU'lThe following quotation from al-Rizï sheds more light on his understanding of the nature of fatrah . the saldnah trust bestowed on Saul in this context) has already happened in this cycle ('lad jari fi bidha al-dawr) in the midst of [the reign of] the saered law. l/p. 166r. although there were sorne truly faithful people in the past. the mœtawda 1 was not a 1~9. The hypocrites are [neverthelessl victorious because of the weakness of the authority of the entrustees (fla 'f amr aJ-mU$lawda 'ÜJ) during the absence of the completers (gbaybat a/-atimmi '). This episode in al-Ri. if God wills. as we have stated above.. The passage starts with a short commentary on the verse Q Il: 116 which explains that.zi's interpretation suggests the following possibility. not a completer. only a few ever gained salvation: That is to say: a few of the people of the convocation (ahl al-da 'wah) are saved • in the "interval" (li al-fatrab).e. Cf.

his sakinah. ed. he discusses the third imim of this cycle.rawda 'a-hu) bis llpeople" (abl~bu) and "party" blJi'&'~hu) (p.ldlis 'Imid al-Din al~rashi holds that lmim al-f:lusayn b. i.'. just as in the age of David {which falls within the cycle of Moses and the reign of bis sacred law). in a later passage. al-Razi holds that this crisis was te be overcome by the right actions of the la ~9. a ID_farda'. the third muûmm or imim would have still needed a guardian.'ashati scheme). 147). 4 (Bayrut. 'Ali Zayn al-'Àhidïn (the fourth imam according to the It:hni.. the authenticity of this passage must also he questioned. The event in question is implied above to have occurred in the time of the third imam or "completer" according to Ismâ'iu reckoning.e. 1973) ). 3-13: only in MS. See also verses Q 2: 249-51. and entrusted ta him 'Ali Zayn al-'Abidin (p. Al-Razis statement on the third imam is in refutation of al-Nasafj's remark that the third imim did not receive bis education (rarbiyab) from bis father or bis mother. W. Hence this passage may suggest a difference in nature between the la~q and the mIBtawda'ün . since the contents of the last page and the part of the second-to-Iast page which only MS. which would result in the emergence and subsequent victory of the awüyi. the later 8th/15th century Ismi'w thïnker. the prevalence of the "hypocrites" over the "entrustees. which al-Rizi quotes (as mentioned above on pp. because of the abrupt ending of the text. entrusted to him Ci. Moreover. a lieutenant acted as an "entrustee" {f. Il.. Furthermore. 94).e. in bis voluminous work of history ('UyürJ a/-Akbbir wa-E'uaÛIJ al-Atbir. 56 As he announces with regard to the IIthird completer" or third imim mentioned above. remarkably. Unfortunately. al-Razï's argument in support of bis statement is lacking. the victory of the &W'Hyi' which occurred in the age of David is thought to refer to the latters defeat of Goliath (Ja1üt) and bis troops. According to mm. In the Qur'in this story follows verse Q 2: 248. But.e. Conceming the third imim or mUfimm. as seen in chapter 3 above. ' Ali appointed M ~ d b. Presumablyal-Nasafi presupposes the deaths of both the father and mother of the third imim at Karbala. it could he sunnised that al-Rizi would hold that the da'wah needed the usual existence of an "entrustee" during the presence of the third mutimm to overcome the situation caused by al-fJusayn's "martyrdom" at Karbali in 61/680." However. Madelung already pointed out that the guardian at that • . M.") l'something similar" to Saul's installation as "entrustee" and his winning the obedience of a few faithful. al-Rizi mentions the crisis of the da'wah. «Ali Zayn al-'Abidin.ss there had oCCWTed within the cycle of al-Rizj's day (qad jari li IJadha al-da. retains are very fragmentary.S6 The above quotation therefore suggests that al-Rizi utilized the 55 Since Saul is mentioned together with David. In his analysis of this very issue in al-Râzïs al-l.148 • In this passage. even though there existed a lDutimm alter the death of the second imim. Ghilib. These aceounts can be related to al-Razts statement on the guardian at the time of 'AII Zayn al-'Abidi. Ham. i.. al-fJanafiyah. vol. although this event is not • fully discussed. as a "sbield" (saran and "proof" (lJujjab) for 'Ali zayn al-'Ahidin ( p. 202). That is.}. 146-47 of this chapter). bis half brother. that is. i.li~. 169r. Ham.. al-f:I usayn.

" fiT. Fyzee.58 It would be stretching a point to assume.. A. the events of bis own era or cycle. pp. This is because another series of imims would not be able to get underway as long as the sole legitimate imâm at the time.e. Histoire. "Waliyah. Madelung. 26-28. 53-55. Let us then grapple with each of these two issues in turne As far as the word awliyi' is concerned. for example. Corbin. Madelung. "Das Imamat. Yet. Madelung does not cite textual reference on which he relies for bis statement.' can refer to either true believers or unbelievers. as weIl as al-Ran's utilization of history. 342. al-f:lanafiyah. 00. A. In the above quatation there is one word. passim (cf. AIso the sentence reading time was seen as being M~mmad b. We need in fact to examine the meaning attributed to titis term in a1-1~1~. however. pp. On the Ismi'ïlï-Shi'i understanding of the termawliyi' AJJjb as refening ta the imims hom the abl al-6ayt. A. al-ijosayn. but not the emergence of a series of ïmims. 105. 74-75 and p. 4345 and pp. the term aW'Hyi. The Book ofFaith ).ms. 1. the unbelievers are aW'liyi. i. Landolt. A. 1 (al-Qihirah. according to another verse (Q 8: 73). p. 105-107 Œnglish trans!. there is a verse (Q 8: 72) which states that the true believers are awüyi' or "friends" one to another. the era awaiting the coming of the next nafiq as a divinely-guided leader (or the hidden completer in the case of this cycle). the third one. • 51 See. left unexplained. 319-22. 1380/1951). pp.' of God as the • imims of the people of the household (ahl al-bayt ). Thus.149 • history of the prophets in arder to explain past events that were close ta the present. vol. al-awüyi'. in the Qur'anic context. For the life of and the traditions concerning cAli Zayn al-'Abidin. pp..' or Ilfriends" to one another as weIl. i. who fight for the cause of God.57 There are as weIl several references in Shï'ism to the awliyi. English transI." pp.: A. . that the above quotation in al-/fl~ refers in any way to the ïmi. 57 Aiso d. see W. This is because the emergence of the awliyi' is mentioned there as an event occurring in the lIinterval. vol. in order to understand better bis view of his own cycle. A. namely. n.. aIready existed on earth." p. see al-Qi\fi al-Nu'man" "I<itib al-Waliyah" in Da'j'im al-Islam. "'AU b. ~). However.. Fyzee.e. 849f.e." i.

(f. In addition to the above passage.e.. and through their sacred laws.. conduct the da'wah (convocation or missionary work). rules (al-rusüm). and the auspicious people (aI-su 'a di. based upon the . and • indications (al-is1Jinit) [derivingl from the enunciator-prophets through their traditions (bi-ithiri-bim). 1. which they prescribe. which they compose in order that they (Le.." In this passage al-Rizi refutes al-Nasafi's statement that Adam called the people of his age to the teaching of divine unity without imposing any prescribed labour.w hen the lieutenants. 50 they (Le. namely. 13. the members of the Isma'ïlï da'wah under the direction of the lieutenants.. 38v. The awliyi. l/f.ilJiri teachings of those laws. the awliyi' become vietorious" can be interpreted as implying that the latter are to be differentiated from the former. IL 10-13/p. and aIso as the people who. giving the reason as follows: This is because the knowledge of the divine unity ('ùm al-taw!üJ) is not attained except by means of the [prescribedl actions (al-a 'mâl )..150 • " . the second highest leaders after the imam.v. 37v. 1. there is another in which al-RiZi seems to refer to the awliyi' in the sense of "faithful believers. which is dose to the above-mentioned." This suggests that the awliyi' are those who constitute the hierarchy of the da'wah and participate in its activity. although it is • not clear from the text whether they can be thought to include all the believers of . 79) Here the awliyi' are depicted as the future recipients of the sacred laws of the previous enunciator-prophets.. the enunciatorprophets') sacred laws and traditions. the awliyi') will organize the da/wah upon the ~rof their (i. and attract "auspicious people... stand firm. ' ) willlisten ta it (the da'wah)...' can thus likely be identified with the faithful believers. more general Qur'anic sense. the sacred laws) become indicators and witnesses for the awHyi' who will come to exist after them...

59 Let us cite another example of al-Rizi's treatment of the term awliJ'i.. IL 9-11/f. 24/p. 2r. 1. who constitute the entire da'wah in this context.." which apparently means other regions of the da'wah under different leadership. What God chose for you. Here we might look upon the deviators as a group of antagonists militating against the awüyi'. 2/p.. According to al-Rizi. 1. Al-Rizi then recommends to bis readers that they not enter another da'wah until they recognize the rank (~add) of each of its members as we11 as its leadership (f.' : this is al-Razj's interpretation at Q 24: 27 in the beginning of a1-1~1iJ. For this reason we can presume that they are the members of the da'wah. refers to the "da'wah of others.f. entering the da 'wah under the different leadership) and the utilization of what God presaibed with His awliyi " is better for you and better-guarded (~waa . al-Rizi holds. or the di'. l. can be identified with "His awliyà' " who are the people for whom Gad prescribed the rules of the true religion..] the haIt of it (Le. 1. They are deviators of a sort against the awliyi' who are the practitioners of the authentic teachings inherited !rom the previous prophets.f. Il. 2v. more secure) for your religion. Thus there rises a possibility that al-Razi aise juxtaposes the awliyi' as the faithful believers with the antagonistic deviators. Iv.9/f.5). 59 Following this passage al-RiZi also contrasts the "auspidous people" with the unfavorable people who persist in the exoteric teachings. The phrase "houses other than yours" in the verse.J in its present form.. 6) In the above quotation the addressees ("you"). [namely. 2r. 1. • Then he writes as follows: "That is better for you. and who show arrogance and opposition to God's awJiyi'. those being addressed in this verse are the "entire hierarchy of the true da'wah" (lWfat lJudiid abJ al-da 'wall al-fJaqiqiya1J ): in other words #lthey are aU believers in reality' (fa-hum kuI1u-hum mu'minün tali al-fJaqi '1q). 2r.151 • the da'wah... (f. its leaders. s of lower ranks. • . 1. perhaps you will remember" (Q 24: 27). Iv. which instructs the "believers" on how one should act when visiting one's neighbours.

. In the following passage al-Rizi cites other examples of the awliyi' as follows. the da'wah members) (aktlJara ranks (~ayyiqa a1-~i11i a1-~udiJJ) [on the one hand]. 17. Following the mention of David's status. However. al-Rizï juxtaposes David as the more effective li. 16) In the above passage. according to him. he had only a few followers as described • Q) In the text this phrase can be translated literally: "by virtue of the effectiveness of the da 'wah and its limitedness.. l. since each of the awliyi' is assigned his own status in accordance with his "faithfulness" and inner sincerity but not with his effectiveness in running the da'wah. al-RiZi maintains. this does not "demote" Urie! from the status of lifUq -ship. This is because the awHy'i'Peace be upon them! . 1." . and yet David was ~udüdan) more effective in the da'wah [affairs] <awu'a da 'watan) and had a more copious [followingl among the ranks (i.. Sr.e. while Urie! was limited in terms [of his followingl among the [on the other].fûq with a greater number of followers in the da'wah and Uriel as the less effective one with the less numerous following.(. That is [however] not what demotes him from the grade of the lieutenants. 6/p. 7v. his effectiveness in the da'wah affair was '1imited" (~iqa al-amr 'alay-hi fi al-da 'wah) (that is. one ofhis fellow-la~q. Although Noah was a tJiEiq. 7v.ijûq). 1. al-Rizi turns his attention to Uriel who was.do not attain this status by virtue of their greater or lesser effectiveness in the da'wah [affair]. lI./f.152 • There is another passage which features the word awHp'.f. (f.and describes bis role as follows: Urie! was aIso of the rank of lieutenant (~dd al-law. this one coming after the explanation of the deputy-Ieadership of David.60 but [also] because their grades (darajatu-IJum ) are [decided] by God in accordance with their pious faithfulness and the purity of their intentions ('ali ~$i" ildJJ~i-bim wa-~aIà' nIyiti-him) and • in the light of what God sees of their conscience.

e. Using the history of the prophets to explain the recent past is. was able to attract a hundred thousand or more followers. Sari 'iT wa-Asr. This confirms what we conclude regarding the previous passages on the awllyâ'. 263. Isma'il for him. 7v.. though only a li. MansÜl'.. Il.~ aI-Nu'min. Br.ir. aIso characteristic of the writings of other Isma'w thinkers such as Ja'far b. The rule of the appointment of the awllyi' to their positions can thus be applied to both the ranks of -lit and lafû9.153 • in Q Il: 40) for a long time. bis da'wah perfeeted.ür writes as follows: And the "teacher" (al-mu 'allim ) travelled on his (an imim's) arder ta the Maghrib at the moment of the perfection and the time of the parousia ('inda waqt al-kamil wa-awin l n 'd a1-~uhür ). as mentioned in Q 37: 147-48 (f. MélIl4ür and • al-Qi. This work consisted in both cases of seeking for and acquiring an "abode of emigration" (dar bijrah ). ButJonah.fû9 . Ja'far b. as has already been mentioned. i. This also suggests that the group includes various ranks of divinely-guided leaders (such as Noah) as well as various non-divinely-guided ones as implied in the above quotation (Iltheir grades ... 16-17). For example.61 Then.ammad b. p. Maz. 6-17/pp. in a passage fromJa'far b. that the word awllya' means the entire da'wah or all the believers.. And [indeed] when his authority was strengthened. Isma'il. we are told that Lot did the same work for Abraham as did the da 'j s of MuI}ammad b. and [at the time of] the fulfillment of the promise of the Apostle of God of "the sun's rising from the West of it" (tamam Ruül AlIiIJ bi-Julü 1 al-mams mitJ maghribi-bà). MatlfÜr. after describing the spread of the da'wah after MuI]. 7-16/f. and his sign (ayatu-bu) made • 61 Ja'far b.."). Il. . giving the impression that the category of awllyi' consists of those occupying any rank in the da'wah.

p.r . Similarly al-Qi~ al-NU'min divides the followers of the da'wah among the Berbers into those who migrated to the abode of their da'ï . made a trip to the abode of bis "antagonist" (dir !Üddi-hi ). pp. abJa1ca1Jum). M~ür is telling us here that a di. 23. 6S Al-Nu'min. [That is." Abraham abolished the sacred law of bis father with bis own sacred law. Ivanow in bis IsmaiIi Tradition concerning the Rise of the Fatimids . just as Lot did with Abraham. there is a strong possibility that in this passage Ja'far b. Sui. 399. p. 1. Also d. 263. • . Halm's interpretation of this passage in bis Das Reich . 1972). Nagel. pp. 100 and 103 (English transI.'i (called the "teacher") was clispatched to the Maghrib where he prepared the way for the imim's coming to power. rather than 'Ali's succession to the leadership of the Community. 263.154 • apparent. he prepared the ground for 'Ubayd ('Abd) Alli. Kitàb I/ti~ al-Da'wab. Man. The depiction of the activity of "teacher" in this passage parallels to a certain degree that of Abü Abd Allah al-Shi'i: by converting Berber tribesmen and waging jihad 1 against Sunni powers and other opponents. 1975).nïr al-Nu!alla' has just "ilay_bi " for "mawàH-bi" on p. 53). he corresponded with bis lords (IDa rili-bj )62 regarding [bis plan] to trave1 to hïm. '.-a-A. 16 of the printed edition.IV..ür utilizes the history of the prophets in order to explain the much • more recent past or perhaps even bis own time. Cf. We follow H. 9 of the manuscript version. pp. 95-97. and destroyed them (sic. ed F. and others who stayed in their home villages. referred ta as "supporters" (al-an. 56-57 Œnglish transI. 62 63 Ja'far b... Mél1lfÜr.65 Thus al-Nu'min applies the model of the Prophet's age The Tübingen manuscript of Jt.64 Thus. Halm. 103 and 107).ar). Engüsh translation of this passage by W. 1. See p. Dashrawi (Dachraoui) (lunis. T.h's accession.described as "emigrants" (al-muhijirUn).63 Ja'far b. Das Reich . 303. p.) when he (Lot) left the home of bis father and prepared for himself the "abode of emigration. " He actually built the "abode of emigration" Cdir aj·bijnJJ). pp. p. Friihe lsmailiya und Fatimiden im Licht der Riftlar I/ti~ ad-Da'wa (Bonn.

which was an event almost contemporary withhim.I." • 67 We will revisit the issue of al-RiZi's possible discussion of bis recent past in chapter 8 §1 below.!J which can help us discern al-Razi's intentions in utilizing and referring ta the history of the prophets..e. This is his • (aforementioned) refutation of al-Nasafi's contention that sorne prophets such as David. 3-12/p.h and bis household. N amely..\imid Imamate-Caliphate. Salomon. 11V. he regarded them as holding instead the post of chief di 'j. Lot. " o.155 • (and ultimately of saaed history) to clarify ta bis explanation of the foundation of the Fi.. . "Waliyah. 133r. al-Razi makes no explicit reference in a1-I~làfJ to near contemporary events in the development of the Ismi'm movement. 132v. As we saw above.mah of Vbayd Alli. Landolt. The incompleteness of the text thus forces us to limit our investigation to possible allusions to current events in al-Rizi's own thought. According to al-Razi. and zachariah were IIcompleters/' i. since he might have discussed more directIy the events of bis day in the part that is now lost to us.66 Compared with these two authors who served the Fi\imid Imamate-Caliphate. and insisted 1.67 There is at least one feature in al-I~li. This at least can be said of the surviving text of al-I~J~. 3/f. Il. Does his argument have any implications for the debate that went on in his own era? The dispute over the Queen of Sheba and her subjects may provide us with a possible key for resolving fuis question. imams. 1~'l. he may have emphasized the role of chief di 'j in bis discussion of the leadership of the da'wah in the very midst of an ongoing schism within the Isma 'ïli community over the legitimacy of the imi. these subjects refused ta recognize the authority of the then current chief instead on following the absent imam (f. Jethro.

The above parallelism suggests to us that. zachariah. §4. This could be the reason whyal-Rizi asserts that the figures of the previous cycles such as Jethro. The issue of al-Razi's view of bis own • day will be revisited in the next section and in chapter 8 §1 and §2 as weIl." that is. by ms statement.fUq in ms own era. al-Rizi touches as weil on other religious • In chapter 8 §1 below.156 • 262).Jilïs who still awaited the paTOUSÛl of the Qa1im or the hidden seventh imim. Prophets and Religious Communities in Sacred History The discussion in this section will focus on the chapter on Iranian religions from al-l. dissident Ismi. Here the history of the prophets functions as a llmirror' of the events of the immediate past in RiZian prophetology. al-Razï may have been implying that the people of the da'wah had chosen ta obey a chief li.l~. though. 61 . etc.nud. Rather than concentrating exclusively therein on Zoroaster and other Iranian religionists. that is. This discussion will shed light on the issue from a different angle.. at least in the eyes of the non-Fi. during the absence of the imim of his age. just as the people of the age of Solomon did. the age of Solomon described in al-I~l~. The discussion of the issue will take place in the context of how al-Rizi formulates the scheme of sacred history. Lot. were not imams. we will revisit this passage and another on the story of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. there were parallels between the two "ages. What made them parallel was the fact that both ages lacked an imâm. below.68 As far as the imimah was concerned. and al-Ran's own era.

157 • communities such as Jews and Christians and some Muslim seets as welle The chapter in question was in fact already introduced into Western academic discussion by the late S. 6/pp. and Muslim. religious communities.f. 116-22. 22 above. The chapter in question is found in the third part and is entitled "The chapter on the saying [of al-Nasafïl on the third enunctator-prophet (Abraham)" ("bab al-qawl fi tbalith al-lJufaqi' " f. 71v. 1. It is in this latter material. the third ni#q or enunciator-prophet According to al-Râzi. 1.. Religiolls Trends. n. in arder ta avoid duplicating Stern's textual description and analysis.. M..70 Al-Razi begins his discussion by refuting al-Nasafï's opinion that Zoroastrians are the followers of the shari'ah of Abraham (Ibrahim). 9. p. 72r. . 95-100. pp. shed some light on the question • of how al-Rizï perceived his own Ismi'ili religious identity. however. 11. i. this paper follows only the outline of the former's argument. 148-67). 2ff. which pravides a brief introduction to the text of al-1#i. See also: Ivanow. 1. This approach will. see chapter 1. 3...69 yet makes only brief reference to al-Razi's treatment of various non-Islamic religions and religious groups or "sects" within Islam. we will investigate in the remainder of this section al-Ran's evaluation in the said chapter of non-Islamic religions such as Zoroastrianism and of certain groups within Islam." For a full reference ta this article..e. that we might expect to find some of al-Rizi's typically Isma 'm views on these subjects.f. we hope. • 70 Since the details of a1-Razi's views on !ranian religions have already been discussed by Stem. sects which fail outside the scope of Stem's account. "Persian Religion. We will summarize the contents of this chapter below. finally. Stern in a posthumously-published article where he analyzes in some depth al-Razi's reports on Iranian religions.lJ. ''Early Controversy in Ismailism/' pp. and. Zoroastrians have no precepts which are in accordance with certain of Abraham' 5 such as circumcision Ckhitan) or the 69 Stem. By taking into account certain of al-Rizi's positions on various prophets. on the _ Isma'iU intellectual basis for al-Rizi's argument regarding various religions. Madelung. 83r. 82v. 1.

150). ibid. 149-50). 73r. Guidi [-M.. 6-15v. According to Madelung al-Nasafï evaluated the leaders of Iranian religions as either one of the disciples of Abraham (Zoroaster) or one of those of Jesus (Mani. Parthian and SasanÜln Periods.. especially p.8/f. al-RiZi maintains that one of these lieutenants was Zoroaster. 421. 38-40. al. Bosworth. whose authentic religious precepts were altered and distorted by those who came after • him (f. al-Razi continues. 159}. Thus al. E. 3 (2). 76v. Il.e the fourth nafiq. 1-3/p. The Se1eucid. According to a tradition from the "forefathers" (al-salai).f. 3 (2)..Rizi asserts bis own view of Zoroastrians and their place in sacred history. al-RâZi holds.Rizi implies that those precepts did not come down from Abraham (f. "Mazdak. Cf. who lived in the period of Moses (Müsi). 10/f. 9-16/f.. 6-14/f. Il. 78v.Razi aIso holds that all doctrinal idiosyncrasies of that kind are novel deviations (hi. pp." compared with al-Nasafïs ranking. "Development of Religious Thought. Madelung. 00.158 • taboo against consanguineous marriage (f.. see for example: C. 6. 75r. Fittik or Fitik." in The Cambridge History of Iran (Cambridge.." El 2.a~. Again concerning the issue of dualism in Iran . ibid. i. vol. pp. up to his own day.. Yarshater. 1983). An example of this could be seen in sorne cases of dualism advocated by the founders of Iranian religions such as Mani and Mazdak Cf._ pp. 1"11/p. 74v. M. 39. "Mazdakism. 12 7J Cf. ReIigious Trends. "id'ab) caused by the antagonists (afldid. 1. pp. Madelung points out that in al-RiZi"s argument the rank of Zoroaster and other founders of Iranian or dualist religions is "distinctly degraded. "Persian Religion. W. 1. Stem.. Mazdak and Marcion)." pp. sg. Yarshater. vol. 39." El 2... IL 3-5/p. 4. Il.. However. 97-100.. flidJJ (f. "Mâni b. Al.. in the whole of al-l. 6. although we do find it as al-Rizi's own statement ta this effect.72 Again.73 Such deviations from the original.. Colpe. 78r. 73r. 71v. 72v.. S. 36-37. 153). On these figures. C. true teaching of a shari'ah. Il. 156)./p. 1. 991-1024. vol. we could not find a quotation from al-Nasafi identifying any of those figures as disciples of Jesus.. Il.f. pp. had taken place many times in several different religious communities.74 In 71 Cf." in CJmbridge History of Iran.. Marony). E. 1. 7lr. sg. 2/pp. vol. p. 819~. based on the same tradition. p. • .11 As the next step in bis refutation of al-Nasafi. In the same passage al-RiZi daims that these religious leaders taught the transmigration of the soul (falJÜuü).8-11 If. 73v. 949-53. the precepts which Zoroastrians follow came from the la~9 or lieutenants..I. Il. Il. E. 12. 72r..

J.f. Christians. • since they originated as a dualist deviation from the latter." in The Cambridge History of Iran vol. al-RiZi tums bis attention te other non-Islamic religious communities and Muslim "sects" or groups. H. 78v. ed. After discussing Iranian religions. 1. the Sibi'ans should.9i 'if al-Tuu:il wa-'Uyüa al-Aqi"'. 1. 77v. which he cites as follows: the Murji'ah we should point out Stem's high estimation of al-Razi's report on another important religionist and rebelleader in Iran. and ed A. 80r. 157-58). pp. For the Sabi'ans. pp. see the following studies: C.. the Jews." pp. 78r. 1-12. 548/1153). This leaves three religious communities. R~mer & A. Madelung." El 2. 1. which al-Rizi implies. BihifaJid (fi." El . al-Rizï cites four such religious communities. pp. 33-36. According to Stem. 13. Il. 130. "al-~abi'a. McAuliffe.75 and in that of Bardesanes (l)aySin or Ibn J. At this point we begin our own analysis. W. 79v. a Gnostic baptist sect which he identified as a deviation from Christianity (f. IL 12-16/pp. Stem. vol." Muslim World 74 (1984): pp. Mardoniten und Kantaer. "Sects and Heretics. 16/pp. pp.. see: A. S. 538/1144) also counts them as a Christian sect in his commentary on Qur'an 22:17. 79r. B. be induded within the Christian community in its broader sense (f. D. L 8/f. pp. 210-24. '~ersian Religion. 95-106. 6/pp. With regard to the ~i'ans. Abel. vol. Amoretti. the Mu'tazili theologian al-zamakhshari (d. n.l • WLjülJ al-Ta'wil (Beirut.. Moth <Leiden.V. ''The Identification of the Sabi'un. see his al-Ku_baE ~&II ~.: B.. "Abü -(si al-Warriq über die Bardasaniten.>aysan in Arabie). which he declares that "God mentioned" in the Qur'in. First of aIl. 1981). 12.i.f. 76v. al-RiZi maintains. 1. Buck. 43-44. 162-63)." in Studien zur Geschichte und Kultur des Vorderen Orients: Festschrift für Berthold Spuler %Ur siebzigsten Geburtstag. the infonnation provided byal-al-RiZï regarding Bihifalid is the earliest that we possess. T. Carra de Vaux. S. 4.bi'ans. This is made dear. Zoroastrians and ~i. Religious Trends. 481-519.. ibid.). Welch<London. 21-22. "Da}liniyyah. 14. 1. the translation of al-zamakhshari's passage in H.. 1720086... Of these.f. 3: p. 4. Cf. 2/f. can be related to three Muslim. l. R. 1. 1976). in a Prophetie tradition. the 2nd/7th century). 1. AIso d. 77v.d. 7S Cf.. p. Gatje. 1. according ta al-Rizi. 78r. Madelung. and coincides with the reports of Ibn al-Nadim (d. vol.e. 159-60). since we will discuss the part of the text which Stern did not treat. 15. groups or "sects" on the basis of certain doctrinal similarities. The Qur'an and its Exegesis: Selected Texts uith Classical and Modern Muslim Interpretations.. • ..f. 1110-18. "Exegetical Identification of the $ibi'iin." Muslim World 72 (1982): pp. a Christian heresiarch with Gnostie tendencies76 (f. pp.159 • addition al-Razi dtes another dualist outlook in the case of the ~bi'an eommunity.. 28. 77v. 1/f. transi. 76 On Bardasanes. 385/995 or 388/998) and al-Shahrastâni (d.

Christians recognize both Moses and Jesus. BOr.1 (Paris. also d.I.f..f.bi'ans a second time when drawing a parallel between them and the "Mariqah" (the Khawirij)78 which he adds to the three Muslim groups or "sects. 17. the Murji'ah. Zoroastrians and ~ibi'ans) according to al-RaZi. whereas the Mwji1ah recognize only the Prophet Muhammad.. Concordmrce et indices de la tradition musulmane. I/pp.. that whereas Jews recognize only Moses... the Rifi4ah and Christians are related since they eachrecognize both figures in their respectiye cases. 197-98 and pp. Monnot. BIv. BOv. 1. <Leiden. the Prophet and Amïr al-Mu'lDÛJin. 124. D. 2. 163. 201-202 (French translation of the text. and 370). 1. The four religious communities ijews. Therefore while the Murji'ah and Jews are related to each other because • each recognizes only the first of two prophets or asisan.. the Rifi~ah recognize the authority of both. for instance. Allah Badrin.. • .17 The doctrinal similarities between non-Islamic communities and Muslim groups may be seen in the question of which prophetie figures these religious communities and Muslim groups recognize. Livre des religions et des sectes. 1936-1988) vol. Al-ZimIJ . Kirab .rin or MO l'fundaments'' who appear as the religious leaders ranked highest in each cycle or era (dawr) according to early ISmâ'iJis of the Fapmid period. Gimaret and G. 79v. BOr. Wensinck et al.fJaba1J) and "the following generation" (alTabi'ÜtJ).. 1910). Le. BOv. 'Ali b. vol. A. Abi Tilib. 163-65). al-MilaJ . J. only one of the a. f. the Rafi4ah to Christiansj and the Qadmyah to Zoroastrians (f. pp.. 1986). S. ed. We can see. so did the Miriqah desert from 'Ali' 5 camp. p. make up the "reproachable religions" (aJ-millah al-madbmiimab). Il. Le. pp.f. d. 318. the Rifi~ah. and the Miriqah on the authority of the "companions [of the Prophet]" (aI-p. Likewise. 1. transI. 81v. vol. 1.366. 2-3/f. Fascide 3. p. p.aJ-Nilal . 1.. the Qadariyah. Al-Rizï mentions the ~i.209." Just as the ~ibi' ans' origin may be traced to their defection from Jesus' community. ed. 2/p. 3. For the identification of the "Miriqah" with the I<hawarij. F. Christians.l (al-Qihirah. 18.. In al-Tuab al-RâZi quotes a sunHar ~dirb" but enumerates the five sects as the Shi'ah. see al-Shahrastini..160 • correspond to Jews in the Islamic Community. since they TI For this badillJ . M. 16/f.

165). we tentatively follow the reading of the printed edition. e.. Blv. 1.. f.. 82r. those belonging to the fifth group.. 15-16/p.. 4-S/f. That is. 16/f.. Whereas the first four groups are called the "reproachable sects" (al-firaq aJ. Il. _ . _ .. 2. Il. BIr.I J-l Cp.. 3-4/p. Il.(f. 81v.1..1 J-I in the previous passage Cf... whereas the other four "reproachable groups" recognize either only the Prophet & M~mmad or both him and Ali b.. 1. 3/f. 17. namely. 81v. 1.. whereas the people of the fifth community of Islam recognize him (i. 1. 82r.. 1/pp... the fifth one is called the "people of the pure religion" (ahl al-QUl al-kbali~). there is a fifth Muslim sect in addition to the four aIready mentioned... whom he calls the "'praiseworthy community" (al-millah aJ-maf'awïdah) because of their recognition of the prophethood of Muttammad. we find the people of the fifth community (a1J1 al-miIlaIJ aJ-kbimisah ). V. 1.. al. 165). The printed edition • .and do not acknowledge him or recognize bis rank (~dda-hu) and position (manzilata-hu). and recognize all the prophets [who came before him] and aIl sacred laws. It is very difficult to determine the correct reading of the phrase. the Prophet) and bis prophethood. 2-3/f.R izï' 5 evaluation of the five religious communities: The four religious communities of the cycles of the two enunciator-prophets (i. L 3/p.. 166.161 • do not accept the prophethood of Muhammad (f. called the "people of reality" (ah/ al-laQiqah). The passage quoted below summarizes al. . . from which all • the religions branched. J. 82r.79 recognize not only the authority of both as divinely " 5ince the group which can be identified with the Ismalilïs is called. because there are too many different readings provided by the manuscripts. 1..mad1Jmünah) (f. Il. 1).e. 1. Il. 165) Corresponding to the fifth religious community. 163-65). 14ff. Abi Tilib.... Blv. 165). SIr. Above and beyond these four communities. 5-10/p. Moses and Jesus) deny the cycle of M~ad -May God grant him and his family His grace!.. BIr. the Muslims. the IIpeople of reality" (ahl al-!Jaqiqah) and the "Believers" (al- mu'IDÛJÜIJ) (f. moreover.RaZi holds. Bar.

e. thereby inaugurating the next cycle.a11 Jal (f. the 6'Mubirakiyah" (II1·Tmab. In due course we will revisit the issue of al-Rizi's view of his contemporary era. 4J~1 ~I and But Ms. Tüb. the above statement conceming the recognition of the Qi. 287-89).j has4i. and even to distinguish his own group from others as being the genuine Shï'is. at present we can only suggest the possibility. It would appear that. among whom he includes the '1sma'wyah" and their sub-66sect".. Blv. However.. or whose advent had only been partially actualized. has ~14i. . he never refers to it explicitly with the name used by the lsmi'iUs of the Fipmid period in referring to themselves.. 12).ammad. See the editors' note te 1. bas ~I-.-1. Il. Furthermore.a. see A. whereas MS. &. These facts suggest that al-Rizï attempted to exclude sorne Shi'i groups from bis ideal vision of Shi'ism. MuJ]. In addition we should remind ourselves that a1though al-Rizi esteems the fifth group more highly than any other Muslim group.fJib al-dawr al-al.). al-Rizï also implies that in his own time the ideal Muslim group awaited the Qi' im. In aJ-ZiIJab al-Rizi endeavors to explain etymologically the appellations of sorne Shi'i groups (altla" tinuI al-Shi'ah ). 1 on p.fJadd. Ham. while MS... both the fifth community and the fifth Muslim group are conferred a much higher evaluation than the others. 82r. for the imimah . in making the above statement. Le. although they recognized both the Prophet M~ad and 'Ali. In ms explanation al-RiZi reports the assertion by the 6'Ismi'iliyah" of the legitimacy of Ismâ'il b. the Ismi'ilis.'im • suggests that al-Rizï most likel y meant by the fifth group of people. 11. objective style in describing the Shï'i llsects. Moreover.162 • guided leaders. 165-66)." there is the plssibility that in 50 doing he is covertly attacking non·Isma'ili Imami groups. literally '1imit") and position (mazuilah ) of the master of the coming cycle (~a. Thus al-Razi's entire argument may have pointed in theoretical terms to the situation of the ideal Muslims of his time.l1 J. 166. On this tenn. has4j"... Besides. namely. i. b. the llrightly guiding mission" (~·c1&'waIJ al-bidiyab). Although in aJ-Tmab he sticks to an impersonal. we should also note that al-Razï classifies the Rafi~ah as one of the reproachable groups. Thus. pp.. MS.BO seems to adopt that of MS.. his own community.l. who had not yet appeared. IL 8-l2/f. Ia'far and his son. B2r. the Commander of the Believers. the Qâ'im or the awaited Messiah (f. Blv.. but aIso the rank (.9-10). Hamdani.. • . lO-15/pp.A11 Jal (f. whom he esteems more highly than any other group of Muslims.

al-Râzj aIso outlines the following • argument on the fifth religious community and the fifth Muslim group: It has already been transmitted from one of the ancestors that he (the Prophet Mul}ammad?) said: "the religions are five: one [of them] belongs to God. 163f. bas 1. The people of the reality (a1Jl al-ltaqiqab) comprehend those sects (yajma 'u-IJa)85: they (i. 167. while MS.".. 15): ~.84 Then.. and with the termination of its (Le. 1. 166. 82v. 93. . four [of theml belong to Satan. p.83 it is with the elements of which there are two coarse ones (itlmaean katbifatàn ) and two others that are subtle (iclJnati.1 Cf. 82v." Thus. Ham. the image of the four religious communities (midJjJ al-milaJ al-arba') is like the four e1ements (al-fIIDlDa1Jat alarba '). just as [onlyl with the coalescing of the four elements (bi-ijma' ulla 'at al-ummahit) does the [newl form. MS. Therefore. 1. the fifth religious community's) mission ('inda inqi~i 1 • amri-bi) the form of the subtle world (~iht al-'ilam a1-1a~f) will emerge. " One can interpret the "two coarse [elements]" as being water and earth." See Daftary. L 7. since the presence of this phrase would paralIei the next sentence. the "Evolution of the Organizational Structure.. Moreover. 1. See f.-+'.that they are apparent <1ilUr)." p. 86. 81E.. . 82r. Likewise this is the image of the four religious sects in this Community.. 14) and that of MS.L MS.. ~ (with a • (with the total of them) Cf. sOr. Daftary suggests a shorter fonn "al-da 'wab..v.The Isma'ilis. 2). BOv.82 and with the two others that they are hidden (khafiya). ~ (p. to them no saipture bas ever appeared which cantains sbari'a1J.. al-Razi continues. as We follow the reading of the printed edition. 1.163 Toward the end of the chapter in question. 8..4). while they were hidden to Magis and ~bi'ans.".. Tüb.7 Ip. Ham. Tüb. 82v. L 11). 82 13 Also al-Rizi maintains that the scriptures appeared evidently to bath Jews and Christians. 1. (f. Il There is a possibility that the phrase "amru-bum" Oheir affair) is missing. We foUow the reading of the printed edition (p. 1. the fifth religious community is likewise the completion of the religious communities (tamam al-mi1al). ~ gatheringof them) (f.16). lacks. f. has . and the "two subtle [elements]" as being fire and wind. 81v.e.f... (a1~ürab) appear that is a fifth being (al-Icbjmiab).nlapfadn ). just as it is the case with two of the religious communities 50 (amr tnHlatayn)81 -they are the people of Book.

spiritual one.. that is. 6/pp. With the termination of the Muslim mission in sacred history. This may however be a later interpolation. the completion of whose mission (amr ) can be interpreted as bringing forth the actualization of the "form of the subtle world. 1. namely. the form of the subtle world and the fifth group) will emerge in actu (bi-al-fj'l) at the time of the completion of the mission of the awliyi' ('inda tamim amr al-aW'liyi') ." Le. 166-67) Just as the form (. 82v. as he reaches the end of the chapter on Iranian religions.Peace of God upon them and His mercy [as well][ (f..e. the Muslims. using terms such as "four elements.. 1. the religion gradually developed from a coarse state to a more subtle. and it (i.164 • people of the reality) are the fifth group which is the form of the subtle world in potentia (6i-al-qüwaIJ ). we may notice that he utilizes the language of physics. in his efforts to explain the emergence of the fifth group which he calls the "people of the reality." and in potentin (bi-al-qüwah) and in actu (1Ji-al-fi'l).. the Isma'ili da'wah as the community of the true. 1. faithful believers. angel(s).f. the ariyi' are referred ta with the following invocation of Divine blessing: "Teace of Cod upon them and His mercy [as welI]" (Salàm A1WJ "day-bim l n niIIID. 9. sacred history 16 As seen in the previous section. • with the termination of the Prophet's cycle. 1. or imim(s). Indeed. the fifth religious community. because none of any of the groups of the divinely-guided leaders really fits the context. namely..86 That is to say. and after the fifth Muslim religious group. In other words.hu). the I1people of the reality" had emerged. alay-bi <-l al-salam. • .'". emerged as the uperfection of the religious communities" (ramam al-milal) after the coming into being of the four communities. The Ismi"ili da'wah is also called the aW'liyi'. that is. presumably. 83r.V.. 13 ... after the avrliya' finish their work. the form of the subtle world (al-'alam _ al-lafil) started to make its appearance. 2/82r.iiraIJ) of any composite being in the world of nature appears as a fifth entity only with the coalescing (jjma') of the four elements (uba' al-grnmab:it). which resembles the expression used for prophet{s).

" pp. i. for example: P. Moraux. 118 and p. Sambursky. particularly. The whole concept of a "fifth being" in the form of a fifth re1igious community and a fifth Muslim group community.Ji. Jabir i6a {layyàtJ: Contribution à l'histoire des idées scientifiqutS dans l'Islam (Cairo. and especially bis references to a fifth element. 138. pp. Sorabji. ." in Paulys Realenqclopiidie derclassischen Altertumswissensdraft. reminds us of the Greek-Hellenistic physical notion of the fifth element (quinta essentia or pémptë ousia). G. 122-23.e. !<raDs. pp. as seen above in the previous chapter. See pp. "quinta essentia. Bd. The Physical World . The Physical World . for example.165 • would enter into the new. W.89 We thus confirm that the flfth being emerges with convergence of four elements but is a ri On this important concept of the fifth element. AIso." is of higher quality than the other four. This fifth element. On the acceptance of this concept in the Islamic milieu. However. also called "ether. pp. DiwaId. Kroll and K. p. on the later developments of this concept induding its rejection. 24-26. for exampIe: S. "John PhiIoPOnus. the Ia'ri.m al-Rizï mentions a "fifth body" (jism khimi$ ) as one of the cosmological prindples according to Aristotle. Thus. Wissowa. 47 (Stuttgart. pp. pp. 190. since the fUth element should be by nature different from other elements in Aristotelian tradition. P. Sambursky. cols. 122-32. 00. MittelhaUS. 1963). 2. of that of its ending. 110. the idea of the emergence of the fifth being due to the convergence of the four elements still remains to he explained.88 it is very possible that he utilizes the concept of the fifth element as • a background to bis argument concerning the emergence of the fifth community and the ftfth group.. see. Arabisdte Philosophie und WissensduJft. 1942-1943). 1430-32. 19 Cf. 1-40. 91-91 of chapter 4 of the present dissertation. the meaning of the awfip' becomes important for understanding of the Razian view of sacred history and. more spiritual phase. R. Â'Jim. especiaIly. Here it should be recaIIed that al-Razi regards in al-I. '~).87 Sïnce in A'Jj. vol. • • AI-Rizi. see. AI-Rizi called this "fifth body" as "ether" (. 152-57.fa the ether a1most as the tire and aIso compares its function to the raIe of the Qi'im. 1171-1263. see. it is of this that the celestial bodies (stars and spheres) are made..aJ-athïr ) and the "most exalted matter" (al-'Ulqir al.

. • . p. we mainly c:onsulted L Siorvanes.f. 65r.. 1. cannat appear in the sensible domain (al-!JuÂ$ ) (f. 63r.. Matter. can appear by itself in the sensible domaine But each nature.v. 7. According to al-Ri2i. 71v.f. On Proclus's idea.. Space and Motion: Theories in Antiquity and Their Sequel (London.. 69v. 70r. 9/f. 69v. 1231-56. he could have learned of Proclus's idea of higher being made up of four elements. 107).. 107-109. 1. 1996). a particular "nature" (al-tab 1 al-wilUd).1. not just a new composite being coming after the four elements. 2. Upon the mixture of one particular nature with another there emerges an element: the four elements (aJ-UIlUDabat aJ-arba 'ah. 14. 15. with fire being predominant. Since al-RiZi highlyesteems Produs as one of "andent sage-philosophers" (al-talüilaIJ aJ-~uIcatrJj' al-qudama' ) who used symbolic language (A 'lâm. 1. R. This remains ta be verified." al-Rizi aiso holds that 10 One possible source for the origin of RiZi's idea of a llfifth being" is Proclus's concept of œlestial bodies being made of the four elements. 70v. Moraux.. 64v. • 135-36). 1. e. 145). 17/pp.g. which can be either heat. In this discussion al-Rizï aims at refuting al-Nasafi's thesis that unless it mixes with another. pp. humidity or coldness. 1. Il. 90 Another argument utilizing the terms of physics can be found in an earlier discussion in the same part of al-lfl~ (part 3). This we have to take as one of the starting points in our search for the origin or sources for Rizian physics or the Rizian utilization of physics.f. 72r. dryness.. sic) in fact emerge in this way (f. 145-47). 7. is essentially a being that is composite (mwatbb ) and mixed (mumtazijah) with other natures. B-12/f.. each of the four natures (al-faba 'i' aJ-arba 'ah). pp. "quinta essentia. Sorabji. 232-41. 3/p. higher being.Proclus: Neo-Platonic Philosophy and Science (New Haven and lDndon.f.. 1. f. 13/pp. In addition ta explaining the emergence of "nature. even a supralunar. That is ta say.166 • more subtle. 1987). 1. celestial being as weil as the famous "vehide" of soul moving it ta a higher world can be made of the four elements. however.." cols. See also: P. In saying this Produs attacks the Aristotelian notion of the ether or fifth element which is different from the four elements by nature. al-RaZi continues. Behind al-Nasafi's statement there lies bis idea that there emerges a sacred law between the two enundator-prophets: here he compares the two enundator-prophets to two natures and the sacred law to the sensibility of one particular nature (see. 70v. 4/f. 1. 1.

I. 144).shari'ah and da 'wah. i. 15-16/f. the da'wah. and each enunciator-prophet and bis "fundament" (a. 1/f. Il. pl.167 • each product (mawlid . 3/f. we consulted the foIIowing studies by P.." pp. the hidden birth (al-wilidaIJ al-mwtajannah) in them (i. E. 15.sü) (f. By "four members" here. 3-7/p. 91 1 • We will revisit the issue of l1>irth" in the worId of religion or in sacred history in chapters 7 and 8.. "Cosmic Hierarchies. although left unexplained by al-Rizi. 24-28 and Early Philosophical 5hiism. that is. 1. 92 . 146-47).. IL 7-8/p. 146). such as dJ:ui'ah .. 70r. every being formed in the world of nature. al-Rizi turns bis attention to religion: ''Except with the coalesdng of the four members all together" (iDi bi-ijtimi' al-u6a'ab kulli-bà ). For the roles of these Ilfour membersll of the hierarchies.e.. emerges with the gathering of all four natures (f. 70v. IL 8-13/pp.. 13. 146).. 71r. 69r. which results in the formation of a new . Il. Il. 1. al-RâZi means the 1üir and the "afin of the sacred laws. 92 This is because the adjective "hidden" implies the existence of the inner phase or 6alin which is to be revealed through some outer aspect. which results in the birth of a child (f. al-Rizi suggests that this type of "birth" means a further stage or new development coming after the establishment of the sacred law and the da'wah. 70v.V. the emergence of a new order of the religion. 6-15/p. 71r. however. sacred laws) does not appear" (f.. 1.. In describing the birth as "hidden" (mœtajannab).. In another passage al-Rizi points out that the emergence of the sacred law • and the missionary hierarchy. to the union of male and female. results from the conjunction of the two highest hypostases in heaven with their counterparts on earth. pp. 71r. 70v. After declaring this prindple to hold in the physical realm of the cosmos. mawilid).f.e.. after the latter is made public. Walker on al-5ijistini.. 70r. IL 4-12/f. 18-19.91 The "hidden birth" in question. He aIso compares this conjunction. could refer to emergence of a new order of the religion or a new development in that order.

82-85. consequently. human beings can be divided into these two groups. pp. Thus. the world of four elements) can be divided into two groups. and Bihifarid. 93 According to him. for example. whereas other dualist religionists. the four religious communities and the four Muslim " sec ts." In brief.168 • Examining the expression '1tidden birth. the same principle or law operates in the realms of both religion and nature. Mazdak. Examining these arguments. but also. another gnosticist Christian heresiarch. al-SijistanI explains the reason for this religious deviation: AlI existent beings in the world of composition (laJam al-tarJgo.94 By the same token. 5îmilar ideas can be recognized not only in al-Razi's Kitab a1-I~âJ:1 . were the people who strayed from the teachings of Abraham. aligning himself with al-Nasafi on this issue. in works by other Isma'ili • thinkers. he posits that the emergence of a new being or coming of a new situation results from the coalescing of four members of a particular group. pp. we can infer that this idea of the coalescing of four members and the emergence of a new being has for al-Razi the status of an intellectual framework providing the theoretical basis for his own argument on various religions which move toward new phases in sacred history. 83-84. we would suggest. Marcion." we can see in the above statement a notion which al-Rizi has expressed elsewhere in the arguments we dealt with before. Ithbàt al-Nubü'àt. sorne founders of those Iranian religions such as Zoroaster. and Mani deviated from those of Jesus. whether this be in the domain of religion or that of nature. te . Bardesanes. Ibid. On the one • 93 AI-5ijistini. That is. those in a "s tate of goodness" (~âl al-plâJ:1) and those in a "state of wickedness" (~aJ al-fuaJ). An example of one such work by another thinker is the argument of Abü Ya'qüb al-Sijistànï on dualist religions induding sorne Iranian faiths.

pp. al-Kirmàni holds.. ra. 124-25• 91 AI-Kirmini. of humankind: whenever knowledge ( 'ilm) is in actuality. 9S To sum up this argument. see chapter 4. Madelung already mentions this argument in al-Riyid .98 This manifestation of knowledge will culminate in the advent of the awaited messiah. 96 Al-Kirmiri. Another example is presented by ijamid al-Dm al-Kirmini in bis Kili. i. belong.91 As an example of titis prindple. including Iranian faiths. above.169 • hand." pp. 95 Ibid. . al-5ijistini implies. p. among those in the "state of goodness" there are the apostles (ruul.. who lead others to salvation. al-Riyi. sg. ''Das Imamat. Al-Kirmilli's argument suggests that the principle in question operates also in the realm of religion in general. 197-98. §3. ignorance (jabl) is in potentiality. • each of which appears alternately. On this debate. while on the other hand among those in the IIstate of wickedness" there are the "fabricators" (mukhtui 'ÜlJ). a1-RiZi." al-Riyitf6: Any being possessing a given quality moves from a state of potentiality ("i-al-qüw:ûJ) to that of aetuality (bi-al-fi'J). • 97 W. and vice versa. to whom.iil). This prindple operates also in the realm. this is an excerpt from al-Kirmâri'S attempt te reconcile the proposititons of al-Nasafi. Actua11y. 195-98. and in sacred history in particular. However. and a1-Sijistini in their debate on the prophethood of Adam.. pp. The process of movement of knowledge from potentiality to actuality was. Madelung. from actuality to potentiality. such as coldness and heat. although he does sucœed in placing it in the context of the development of the doctrines of imimah and the Qi'im. the founders of dualist religions. al-Kirmani dtes some pairs of states of opposite qualities. dryness and humidity. etc. the same prindple of states of goodness and wickedness operates in the reaIms of both nature and religion: the realm of the latter develops in sacr~d history. begun by Adam. he does not try to investigate an intellectual basis behind the argument. aJ-Riyi!#. 84. whereas a being which has a quality contrary to the former mayes in the reverse direction.e.

as weil as the passages quoted above from bis two coreligionists. p.'w philosophy. Early Philosophical Shiism. for al-SijistanL is analogy. P. 99 According to this pattern. Dr. 69. . Walker has already pointed out similarities in al-Sijistani's cosmology: "Cosmology. our study demonstrates that the analogical pattern of thinking exerted a strong influence • on Ismi." Walker. Our analysis of al-Razj's text on various religions shows clearly that he relies for the most part on the device of analogy as the pattern for bis arguments. al-Râzi's argument regarding various religions and Muslim groups.zl ta establish bis own ideal image of a religious community and a Muslim religious group." p. By examining al-Rizi's text and selected passages from other Ismâ'ïlï thinkers. since the same principle or '1aws" operate in several realms of the cosmos. are based on an intellectual idea that the same principle underlies the realms of religion and nature. a phenomenon that occurs in one realm will have its counterparts in the others. • 99 For this pattern of thought.. 27. E. This idea aIso led al-Ri. AIse see his "Cosmie Hierarchies.. In other words.170 • To conclude. the same principle operates in the realm of nature and in sacred history.

171

Chapter6 The Prophets and the Cosmic Hierarchies
§1. Cosmology in al-l,la.fJ
§1-1. Al-Nasa& and al-Rizi on the Procession of and Nature of the Sou!.

Al-Rizi's cosmology in al-I,Ji,fJ can be reconstrueted by scrutinizing bis debate

with al-Nasafi on philosophical topics. This debate, recorded more or less intact_
in the extant portion of al-l~J~ , begins with a quotation from al-Nasafi's exposition in al-MaMü1 of his thesis on the Universal Soul, that is, the cosmic hypostasis just

below that of the Universal Intellect.1 This is also the beginning of al-Rizi's exposition of his cosmology in a1-#li~. After discussing the nature of the Soul, al-Razi deals with the topics of the formation of the cosmos, her role in it, and her relation to individual human souls. This assignment of the topic of Soul to the beginning of his discussion of philosophical issues reflects the importance of the Universal Soul in the cosmogonical and cosmological visions of both al-Nasafi and al-Razi. This arrangement aIso suggests that the Plotinian notion of the Soul as being responsible for the creation and organization of the cosmos2 had a
1 On the Soul as the hypostasis and the Soul as the Cosmic Being, see H. Blumenthal, "Soul, World Soul, and Individual Sou! in Plotinus," in Le NéopÙltonisme, 00. P. Hadot (Paris, 1971), pp. 55-63.

2

Cf. J. Rist, Plotinus: The Raad ta Reality (Cambridge, 1967): pp. 112-29.

172

major influence on Ismi.'ili cosmology in the 4th/IDth century. Al-Nasafi's argument quoted in
al-l~li1) maintains

that, since the Soul is not

perfect Cghayr fjmmah)/ she strives after the benefits of the Intellect (fari'id
al-'aql) in order to become perfecto Seeking these benefits, the Soul cornes into a

state of unrest

(j~#rib), from

which movement (.fJarakah) emerges. However,

when she gains those benefits such as "nourishment" (ghidhi') from the Intellect, she caIrns down, finally coming to rest (.,UkÜrJ ): movement and rest are the two "traces" bom of the Soul (athaniIJ mutawalJidin min al-nais) by means of the power acquired from the Intellect (";-al~üwa1J al-mœtafidah min al-'aql) (f. 9v., Il. 9-14/f.
lOr., IL I l...16/pp. 23-24).

Against al-Nasafi's thesis that the nature of the Soul (nais) is not perfect,
al-Ri.zi maintains:

The Soul is perfect in her essence

(tàmmab fi dhiti-hi ),

since she (the Soul)

proceeded (in". 'atha)4 in a perfect state (timman) from the first Intellect (al- 'aql al...aW'W'a1, i.e., the Univers al Intellect). This is because it is perfect procession (in"i '4th tïmm ) from the perfect, for the first Intellect is the complete (or perfect)
(al-ramm). (f. 9v., 1. 16- f. IOr., 1. 3/f. IOr., l. 1· V., 1. 4/p. 24)
3 In al-l,lç al-RaZi seems to use interchangeably the adjectives rimm and 1dmiJ in the sense of perfect, and the nouns f&mim and hmàJ in that of perfectness. Therefore, in this section, each of the two adjectives and each of the two nouns will be respectively translated "perfeet" and llperfectness," when they appear alone in the text. But, when they appear in pairs, làtDm and ümil are translated "complete" and "perfect/' and camam and katzJjJ as "completeness" and "perfectness," respectively.
C This verb "jnba'atba" and its verbal noun "inbi'itIJ" respectively can be translated as "to emanate" and l'emanation'' in the context of the emergence of the Soul from the Intellect. However, on the meaning of this verb P. E. Walker writes: l'... it conveys the idea of the eruption of a living, moving thing from something solid and quiescent as water might spring from sorne mountain source:' Thus he suggests "procession" as the translation of inbi'àth. P. E. Walkerl 'The Ismaili Vocabulary of Creation," Studia Islamica 40 (1974): p. 82f. See also bis Early Phl1osophical Shiism , e. g., p. 82f. Ba 'atha, the root verb of inbi'itb, has the meanings of ''bestowing life,1I "resurrecting," and "reviving": these correspond more c10sely to the idea Walker suggests for i1Jbi'itIJ than Ilemanation" which denotes a static, abstract process. Therefore in our present work we follow Walker's translation of "inba 'aria" and 'lilJbi'i2h.
1I

173

His point is that, since the Sou! proceeded from the perfect being, i.e., the Universal

Intellect, she is aIso perfecto However, al-Rizi continues, the Soul is in need of perfection in her actual state (Jill al-nais). For while the Soul may have been perfect when she proceeded from the Intellect "with time" (ma&a al-zamin),s her actual state became imperfect "through time" (bi-zamjn) (f. IOv., 1. 16- f. llr., 1.

3.ff. llr., Il. l5-l7/p. 26). In short, al-RaD asserts that the Soul is perfect in her
essence, though she is imperfect in actuality, i.e., through time. There is no time preceding the origination (li zamin qabla al-ibdi 1 ) which is God's volitional act of creation according to early Ismi.1w philosophical terminology;6 thereafter, the origination (al-ibdà ') and the Intellect are one and the same being ( ~d). Thus both the Intellect and time are aIso one and the same being (f. lOr., Il. 3-8/f. IOv.,

Il. 4-9fp. 24).1

The above argument shows that al-Rizi's concept of time plays a key role in consolidating bis assertion of the perfectness of the Soule Nevertheless, al-Rizï has no use for the Plotinian idea of the origin of time, i.e., that the Soul starts to move because of her desire for domination, independence, and possession, and
5 P. E. Walker describes this event of the procession of the Soul and time as follows: "Soul and Time, then, proceed simultaneously trom Intellect aceording to him (i.e. al·Rizï: noted by Nomoto)." ''EtemaI Cosmos and the Womb of History: Time in Early Ismaili Thought," Internationallournal of Middle &stern Studies 9 (1978): p.361.
6 We follow P. E. Walker in our translation of this technical tenn. See bis Early Philosophical 5hiism, p. 53 and also bis "The Ismaili Vocabulary of Creation," p.82f. Also d. H. Corbin, Trilogie ismaélienne, p. 20, n. 20 (a note to bis French transI. of al·Sijistin's al-Y_hi? This term is not exclusively Ismi·ili. Al-Kindi (d. 260/873) reportedly mentions the "movement of the ibdj'" in eontrast to that of the "eoming to be": J. L. I<raemer holds that the ibdà' in Abü Sulayman al-Sijistini's (d. ca. 985) commentary on al·I<indi "signifies the constitution of entities without the effort of an agent (fi'1 ) or craftsman C,am' )." And I<raemer maintains that this term means "primordial innovation" and "absolute creation" in the eontext of "Arabie philosophie texts." Aise tbis tenn appears in the lexts introducing Greek-Hellenistic sciences compiled in the 3rd/8th eentury, such as Pseudo-Ammonius and Kalam fï M~!I a]·Kbayr (Uber de Causis). See J. L. I<raemer, Philosophy in the Renaissance of Islam: A6ü SulaymjzJ al-Siji$ti.tJi and his Circle CLeiden, 1986), pp. 196-97.

For our description of al·RiZi's theory of time we owe a great debt to: P. E. Walker, Early Philosophical 5hiism, p. 53.
7

174

that this movement of hers is what produced time. 8 As for movement
(~ab )

and rest (.utüa ), al-Ri2Ï defines them as "two

traces (i.e., the effects of the two following hypostases) united with the first being (i.e. the Universal Intellect) and the second being (i.e. the Universal Soul)" (athanin
mut~din

bi-al-awwal wa-al-thiIJi). According to al-Rizi, in the Intellect these

"two traces" still remain in a state of potentiality (bi-al-qüwa1J ) Cf. llr., Il. 9-14/f. llv., Il. 6-11/pp. 26-27). But through the procession (inbi'jth ) of the Soul from the Intellect the "two traces" enter into a state of actuality (bi-al-fj'l ) within the Soule One of these IItwo traces" is movement, which is higher in ranI< than the other "trace," that is, rest9 (f.llr., 1. 16- V., 1. 4ff. Ilv., IL 13-17fp. 27). Furthermore, movement is defined in detail as the first being's bestowing
(ifidab ) of al! existent beings (al-aysiyit kul1u-ba ) upon the second being, and also

as the first being's encompassment of aIl of them (i.1Jûmâlu-lJu 'alay-lJj ), while rest is the second being's receiving of these existent beings from the fust. 10 Here we encounter another technical term, aysiyit. This is derived from ays. coined from the word Lays , which is in turn a manufactured infinitive form of the verb of negation, laysa. These two words, ays and lays, respectively denote opposing categories, being and non-being in the ontology of early Neoplatonism-inclined
1 For Plotinus' concept of time and its relation ta the Soul, see A. M. Armstrong, ''From the Intellect ta Matter: The Retum to the One," chapter 16 of part DI, "Plotinus," in The Cambridge History of Later Grea and Early Medieval Philosophy, ed. AR. Armstrong (Cambridge, 1967), p. 251-52. For the concept of time in al-Rau and other Neoplatenist-influenced Ismi'ilï thinkers, see P. E. Walker, ·'Etemal Cosmos," pp. 355-66, and idem, Early Philosophical 5hiism, p. 53. Also cf. F. Zïmmennann, "The Origins of the So-called Theology...," pp. 202 and 208; W. Madelung, "Cosmogony and Cosmology VI. In ISOli'ilism," Elr, vo1.6: p. 323.
9 After reiterating the union of movement and rest with the Intellect and the Soul, al-Razi compares this superiority-inferiority of the former two te that of the latter two hypostases. Al-Rizi also holds that while one of these "two traces" is the essence of the procession (d.' al-ÜJbi'ith), another trace is that of the proceeding (dIW al-lDwlJa'itlJ). See f. 1Ir., L 15- r., 1. 4 If. 1Iv., Il. 13-17/p. 27.
10

We follow P. E. Walker's interpretation. See his Early Philosophical 5hiism, p. 54.

175

Isma'ilïsm. 11 Al-Razï aIso compares the above-mentioned bestowing-receiving relationship of the two hypostases, the first and second beings, to God's act of writing with the "pen" (al-qalam) on the "tabler' (al-laW'~), both of which are significant symbols in traditional Muslim cosmology.12 The moving of the "pen" on the "tablet" causes movement, while the latter's receiving of the former's movement is rest (f. Ilv., IL 4-l4/f. Ilv.,1. 16- f. I2r.,I. lO/pp. 27-28). What is remarkable about the above debate on the origin and nature of movement and rest is the fact that the phrase "two traces" is used differently by al-Nasafi and al-Rizi, as we saw above. Moreover, while no other important mention of the term "trace" can be found in the quotations from al-Nasafi's
al-Ma.fJ1ü1 , it plays an important role in al-Rizi's theory of the Soul and human

soul, as we will see below.

§1-2. Ri.zian Cosmogony and Cosmology

How then did the process of cosmogony get underway according to al-Razï's cosmogony? According to bis scheme, as the Creator (aI-Sâri') Gad originated
(abda 'a) all the "existent beings" (al-aysiyit1ml1a-ba ) at one time (daf'atan ) (f. lOr.,

Il. 8-9/f. 10v., 1. 9/pp. 24-25). God or the Creator is thus called the Originator
(al-Mubdi 1
)

(for example see f. 16r., 1. 13 and 1. l5/f. I6v., Il. 17 and 9-l0/p. 36).

11 See: al-5ijistini, al-YatJÜ;', pp. 37-40 (English transI., pp. 65-67 and d. the translator's commentary on this passage on pp. 121, 128 and 149); idem, Kirab aJ-Maqi1id, p. 103f. For the interpretation of &}7and 1&}7, we owe much ta P. E. Walker, Early PhilosophicalShiism, pp. 83-85.

12 Both the "pen" and "tablet" are mentioned in the Qur'in (qdam in Q 68: 1 and law,fJ in (particularly) Q 85: 22). Their appearance in this context conferred on them a significant status in traditional Muslim cosmology, that is, as the two first beings created by God. See: C. L Huart[A. GrohmannJ, '~a)aJ1\" Er, vol. 4, p. 471; A. J. Wensinck- [Co E. Bosworth], "LawJ.1," d, vol. S, p.698.

176

Al-Râzï also discusses who the Creator is: He is the One to Whom no attribute
(~üah) can be attached.

In other words, Gad is beyond any definition. Consequently,

No attribute (,ifah) can ever belong to the Originator (al-Mubdi') -He is glorious
and exalted!- And we do not desaibe Him [even] as the perfectness" (tamam) or the "perfeet" One (Wnm). (f. 16r.,Il. 15-16/f. 16v., IL 9-10/p. 36)
II

The attributes perfectness" and "perleet," along with their eounter-attributes,
II

"imperfectness"

(auq~ia)

and lIimperfeet" (aiqq), al-Ri2i maintains, can only be

said, necessarily, of an existent being. Therefore, these attributes can never apply to the "Giver of being" (mu'aJ'YÏs aI-ays), i.e. God (f. 10r., 1. 12- V., 1. 6/f. lOv.,l. 12f. 11r., 1. 5/p. 25). Furthermore, al-Razi holds: ''We do not say either that He (i.e.,

God) is perfeet, that He is perfectness [itself], that He is not perfectness [itself],

nor that He is not perfect" (fa-li naqülu13 ilUJa-lJu tamm, wa-li ilUJa-lJu tamim, wa-li
ilJtJa-Hu li tamam, wa-li inna-hu li tamm) (f. 16r., 1. 1636).
V.,

1. l/f. 16v., Il. ID-Il/p.

Al-Ri.zï's view of God may be regarded as encompassing the via negativa or negative theology. This is a type of diseourse which attempts to state what Gad is by stating what He is not, namely, by stripping Him of all His attributes. His opponent, al-Nasafl, seems to favour the same method or approach to recognizing God. 14 He rejects the attribution of any form, simple (basil) or composite (munUdcab),
We foUow the reading of the printed edition..,;1 ~ ~ (p. 36,1. 10). MS. Ham. bas J.,i;.i ..,;1 (f. 16r., L 16), while MS. Tüb. has ~I J.,..i.;.i (f. 16v., 1. 10). If we adopt the reading of MS. Ham., we may need te insert the supplementary word faWfl& (ll above") in between ~I and rU of the first statement in f. 16r., 1. 16 in order to maintain the meaning of the argument of double negation. This is the suggestion of Professor Hermann landolt of McGill University, Montréal.
13

14 Unfortunately in al-I,I&fJ al-Rizi does not provide us with enough material to reconstruct al-Nasafl's view of God and cosmogony. Therefore in order to do 50 we cannat help but rely on the quotations from al-Ma.fqü1 by al-Kirmini in his Ki&ib al-Riyi~, particularly, its chapter 10, pp. 213-30. Also d. P. E. Walker, Early Philosophical 5hiism, p. 57.

177

to His essence (IJulriJl:&W-bU).15 The via negativa approach finds another strong advocate in al-5ijistini, who shares with his opponent al-Razi a specific method in negating God's attributes, which P. E. Walker calls "double negation.,,16 For just

as al-Rizï states that he would not say that God is not "perfect," al-5ijistini maintains
that God can neither be described (là ma~üI) nor not-described (là là maw,üf) in attempting to avoid anthropomorphism and abstract elimination of every attribute of GOd. 11 Having defined God as best he can by means of the via negativa, al-Ri.zi goes on to say that it was God who originated the Intellect as a being possessed of "p erfectness" (al-tamim). Therefore the Intellect is called the l'first originated" being (al-mubda al-awwaJ). However, since God originated all existent beings, the
1

Universal Intellect, namely, the first originated being, is the summation of the existent beings (majma 1 al-aysiyit ). Al-RaZi specifies that the Universal Intellect

was brought into being by God's "0rder" (amr): the first originated being always
IS Al-Nasa6 furthermore advocates denying Him the attnbutes of "thing" and "no-thing." This is because bath are created beings. This statement is based on his views on cosmogony: According to him, God is the Originator of thing and no-thing (al-sbay' wa-al-la-dJay'), whether "rational" ('qli), "estimative" (waIuDi), "thinking" (fùcn1 or "speaking" (mmpqi). AIso he holds that He origjnated the things trom no-thing (/i-.bay?, that is, that He perfonned creatio ex nihilo. AI-Nasafi, al-Ma.fqü1, quoted by al-Kirmini in his al-Riyj!l, p. 214f and p. 217.

P. E. Walker is the first one te have pointed out that this method is shared by these two thinkers. P. E. Walker, Eilrly Philosophiazl Shiism, p. 53.
16 17 Al-Sijistinï, Kifàb a/-MqaIid, p. 74. For more references to al-Sijistini's method of double negation, see bis Kubf a/-Ma.lJiüb, p. S, whkh refers to God as subject neither to any "division" (qimaat> nor to any '·division" of non-division (qimJa,-i aa-flismat) (French transI., p. 34). See also the partial English translation by H. Landolt in An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia, vol. 2, eds. S. H. Nasr and M. Amin-Razavi (Oxford, forthcoming), p. 13 (in manuscript) (hereafter referred to as English transi., when it is available): 1 would like to express my deep gratitude to Prof. Hermann Landolt for his generous offering of a copy of his forthcoming work and pennission to us for its use for our dissertation); Kitib al- Yaaibi', p. 13 (English transI., p. 48/see aIse French transi. p. 25 and p. 31f, n.54), which refers to Him as ·'not indicated" (Ja mœbar 'aJay-bi) and as "not not indicated" (la li mœbü 'alay-1JI1. For the interpretation of al-Sijistini's double negation we foUow P. E. Walker, Early Philosophical Shiism, pp. 72-82. Also d.: H. Corbin, Histoire, pp. 122-27 (English transI., pp. 80-87); S. Kamada, "The First Being: Intellect as the Link between God's Command and Creation according to AbU Ya'qüb al-5ijistini," The Memoirs ofthe Institute of Oriental Culture (University of Tokyo) 106 (1988): pp. 4-6

19 From the Intellect." p.. 54-56. 22-24 (The 5th yu6ü' (section): On [the proposition] that the first Intellect is a first originated being (Pi Uda aJ-'Â91 aJ-aYnVal awwal mu6da' ) ). 6-14/pp. This form or nature is the substance of the middle world (aJ_rjJam al-ana. the Soul made visible (aPtara) the form (~iJrah) that is nature (Jabjrah). Il. which are themseives 18 Al-5ijistini. but not by God Himself.. out of the matter (hayülà). The third consists of the four elements (al-ummabat al-arba r ). Al-Sijistini aIso holds that the Intellect was created by the Divine Order "Be!" as the first originated being. This Order is also called the Word of the Creator (lraUmat al-Biri ') which is expressed in the imperative ''Be!'' (Kun O. Walker. 20 21 We follow Halm's interpretation in bis "Abü ~item Rizï. 13r. 18 In early Ismicw cosmogony influenced by Neoplatonism. The first type consists of movement (~raka1J) and rest (sukûn). pp. "Aspect of Ismi 'ili Theology. 315.riJam ) by which al-RâZi implies minerais. 11-16/p.. caused by the SOul. aiso called imaginative beings (walJmiyât ). In addition • there is the substance of the lower world which is aise called the elements . 19 See W. coldness and dryness. heat.). the Soul proceeded as a perfect being in the manner seen above. 30). moisture. God transcends every one of his creatures.. p.20 Beneath the spheres there are the composite beings of the world and its (Le. French transI." p. farly Philosophical Shiism. especially p. Ll. the world's) products (maw:i. E. 24 Œnglish transI. Le. although aIl the existent beings were originated by God's Order of Creation. P. Walker. 21 The second is constituted of the four natures (al-afrid al-arba 'ah). lOv.. 54. (ummabât). E.. . • These are presumably the four elements: according to P. Al-Râzi aIso enumerates the types of matter of which our cosmos is composed. 56f. their "manifestation" was gradually actualized by the Intellect and other hypostases. IL 5-13/f. 13r. also referred to as the spheres (al-al1ak)..178 • needs the unity bestowed by this Order to gain benefit from it (f. Thus. 4246). plants and animais (f.lïdu-bu) (muraldœbàt al. Madelung.YatJibi~ pp. Next. al-Rizi sees these elements as generating from the spheres.24-25).. pp. iL 1-6/f. IOr. al.

if except human beings.1.. the produced beings in this cosmos (maW'ilid al-'âlam) can be categorized according to four divisions (uba 'at aq_im): liquid bodies (al-aj_im al-mudhibab). bis vegetable part to the liquid bodies. and other types of material body such as calcifiable (mutabJlis). 18v. Al-Ri. 18r. if human beings are • included among them.. then these beings may be categorized according to three substances. but have change (. IL 10-14/p. crushable (mutafatlit).. al.. 1/pp. Al-Razi counters that the existent beings in the cosmos are.iyab).5 /f. etc. The third substance is comprised of the bodies of the .." The first substance. 1._ti~) and transition (intiqil) in their various states... 7/f. 16. three compositions and three divisions (f. 17v. indudes al-Nasafi's categories of liquid and non-liquid. to be categorized into four substances (uba 'at jawihir). vegetable (alnamiya1J). according to al-Rizi. 1. According to him.Il.I.9/f.. 40) (al-~yarin) bodies (f. 39).f.. It is also this soul which makes this substance excel the fust. Leaving the "four compositions" and "four divisions" undefined.. bis rational part (al-na#q) ta sensitive or animal l8v... That is: the body (al-jimJ) of a human being is the counterpart to non-liquid bodies. 5. Il. 18r. 8-13/p. l8v. non-liquid (ghayr al-mudbabah). The second substance includes various genera such as trees and other plants and is united with the vegetable soul (al-nais al-nimiyab) by • virtue of which their parts can increase.Razi explains the "four substances. sensitive (al-~. According to the latter.. These bodies have neither the faculty of growth nor that of increase. 40-41). 1.zï aIso debates al-Nasafi how the existent beings in titis cosmos are to be categorized. 10. bis sensitive part ta vegetable bodies..f. Il. Each of these divisions has its counterpart among the four stages (arba' maritib) by which every human being is conditioned.179 • composed of the four natures (f. 19r. 18v. four compositions (uba 'at tarüJo) and four divisions (uba 'at aqsim)..

59. 16. 10/pp.180 • various animaIs united with the vegetable soul and the sensible and animal soul (al-tJafs a1-~. . pwity and sacredness (ma ldin al-IJÜT wa-al-rahirah wa-al-quds).. 19r. according to al-Razï.I. these worlds') parts or aU of them are produced from the two [beingsl. this substance excels the other two. called the ~lin ("two roots. 3)/p. Another notable aspect of the cosmological vision of al-Râzi is his emphasis on the distance between our world and the Universal Intellect and the Universal Soul.V.53 and p. li..f. pp.. al-Razi implies. 30) This.ïyah al-babimiyah).. Rather. • 22 On the afliIJ or the l'two roots" as the technical term for the pairing of the Intellect and the Soul.. the two highest hypostases. The rational soul makes the fourth substance superior ta all other substances Cf... 9. 6-9/f.). 1. 17-18.. 1. 18v.f. 13r. 21r. the two [beingsl are higher and nobler than that (Le.. Walker. being the origin of the parts and substances of our "worlds").22 Al-Rizï elaborates this distance as follows: Nothing of the parts of these worlds (shay' min al-ajzi' hidbihi al-'awilim) and • their substances (jarihir) are of the substance of the two "roots" (the two highest hypostases) united with the Word of the Creator (jawilUr al-mu~dayn bi-kalimat al-ban ') al-~layn -He is glorious and mighty! It cannot be said that anything of their (i. (f. see: Halm. 41-45). 1. Kosmologie. according to al-Razi. Le. 49. 13r. 13/f. it is united with the rational soul (al-nais al-IJa#qah ) in addition to the aforementioned three souls. p. 95-96. p. 21r. by virtue of the latter of which. EIlrly Philosophical 5hiism. "Cosmic Hierarchies.. idem. the substance of this world are dark turbidity which is generated from matter and form (kudrah ~mâtJiyah mutawallidah min al-bayüli wa-al-fürah). human beings. 1.e..1. As for the last or fourth substance. whereas the two highest hypostases were aeated as the mines of light." pp. 1. Le. is due to the fact that.

.. It is aiso called the "fruit (thamarah) of the benefits (fan 'id)" that the Soul acquired from the Intellect (f. do al-Rizi and al-Nasafï respectively describe the place of human being in this cosmos? Al-Nasafï for bis part holds that human being (al-bashar) is the first being formed within the Soul (awwa1 m~wwar fi al-nais). where the place of the human being in the • cosmos is discussed. This al-Razï attempts to refute.23) (f. Walker identifies this llfirst substance" more specifically with the Universal Soul. 32). al-Rizi maintains that the human being is the fruit of the cosmos (thamarat al-'ilam).. 14r.e. then. IL lO-12/f. 59.181 • i.e. the Universal Intellect and Univers al Soul are implied by the "rust substance. IL 3-S/p. i. The above emphasis on the distance between the two highest hypostases and our world is presented by al-Razi as a sort of a prolegomenon to bis refutation of al-Nasafi's thesis on the parts of the human being in general and on the human rational soul (al-nais al-naEïqa1J) in particular. 16v. 14v. 33). 14v.. In keeping with bis own anthropology al-Nasafï asserts that the parts of human being are parts of the "first substance" (al-jawhar al-awwa1J and that this substance is united with the Divine Word (al- blimah) (because of this union the ~1i.rsa al-badba al-'ilam al-murakkab ) (f. Here the nature of the rational soul becomes one of the focal points. 11-13/f. p. 4-S/p. 14v. 11. as will be seen below. IL 15-16/p. Rizian Anthropology: The Place of Human Being in the Cosmos How. 13r.. §1-3. 1. 13r. 3D). ... li..n. the "two bases" of our composite world (u. li. 5-6/f. In his refutation of al-Nasafi. E.. Thus the course of the debate moves on to the next issue. See bis Early Phüosophical 5hiism.. cosmic anthropology. It was for the human being (min aili-hi) that • ZJ P.

is doser to Proclus in terms of bis overall doctrine of soul. 13. 184-85). 149-66. pp. E. ID-16/f. 54 and 59. al-Ri. revised edition (Oxford.zi holds that the rational soul is a trace (atbar) of the higher world (f. With regard to the rational soul. and 00. . Walker's ïnterpretation. S-l3/pp. Il. whose doctrine of soul asserts that a small part of every human soul remains in the world of intellect. AI-Nasafi attempts to connect the fate of the Soul with that of the human being. Then al-Ri. 3/f. This difference is reflected in their divergence of opinion concerning the doctrine of soul... a recent study suggests that • al-Nasafi follows the lead of Plotinus. the rational soul is part (juz') of the higher. 55. Walker bas already drawn attention to this. with the convergence of which the form of the human being is completed (f. in that he holds that the entirety of every human soul descends into this world..33). E." pp. This is clear from his statement that with the human 24 We fol1ow P. 14r.32-33). Il. R. Universal Soul.. E.99-100 and ''1be Universal Soul and the Particular Soul. Al-Rizi. 1963). See bis Early Philosophical Shiism. there is a clear difference of opinion between al-Râzi and al-Nasafi.. transI. however. see bis The Elements of Theology.. never descending to the level of this world. prop. sensitive (~"iyah). pp. 211 (pp. 14v. Citing convincing textual evidence. According to al-Nasafi. ISr.24 In contrast to this. 309-10). 1.v. 1. See ibid. l4v. Il. and rational (nafÎqah).2S Differences between the two thinkers over the doctrine of Soul aIso lead them ta follow two different directions in explaining eschatology or the fate of the cosmos and humankind.zi once again enumerates sorne stages in the cosmogonical process from matter (al-bayiili) up to the emergence of the form of the human being (~ürat al-buhar) "ready for receiving" three souls (aJ-an/u$ al-tIJalith): vegetable (tJimiyalJ).182 • the cosmos was created and exists in its entirety from lIits roots and basis" (~ülu-1Ju wa-uiS'u-hu). Dodds. and Dodds' commentary on it (pp. For Proclus' doctrine of the soul. 3-9/p. • 2S P.

ISr. Al-Rizï does not extend the . 17. 9-11/pp. Il.21r. 14v.'ilam). 1. al-Razi holds that the human being is called the "microcosm" (al-'ilam al-~aghirl because he synthesizes aIl the parts of the world (jimi' li-jami' ajza'i-hi) (f. 1. Of course.. ISr. 14v.f. 44-45). 4-5 and Il. presumably. 20v. 4/p. 1. 34). Il. 7-8/f. Al-Rizï holds that the human being is larger than this world itself in terms of nobleness (Ii al-sharaf). 20v. 2/f. Moreover. Although al-Razi emphasizes the unique role of the human being.9. which implies that she does not need perfection Cf. 21r. 20v. IL 8-11/f. according to al-Razï.... 8-11/f. 14.. 44). 1. the Soul will also become perfect (f. 1. Therefore. because of its unity with the "'trace'·' of the upper world (by which his rational soul seems to be implied) (f. 1. Il. al-Razï maintains that the human being will be perfected (yakmalu ) at the end of the affair of this cosmos (intiJJi' amr hidba al.. 13/f. 1. al-Ri. with the completion of human being. 33-34). 16. ISr. In bis refutation of al-Nasafï's eschatoIogy.. 11.zi does not accept this statement as valide This is because in bis view there is no defidency (tJuq~in) clinging to the Soul by virtue of her procession as a perfect being. Il.. 1. its termination will coindde with their perfection (kamàl al-bubarl • (f. 1. al-Nasafï's statement is based on bis theory of the closeness of human soul to the Universal Soul. and the Universal Soul in particular. l/p. 15r. • ID/pp.183 • being the Soul will emerge from state of potentiality (lladd al-qüwah ) into one actuality (al-fi'l). It is aIso because.. Thus al-Razi offers another challenge to al-Nasafi's theory of the human soul's being part of the Universal Soul. He aIso states that since this cosmos was created for the sake of human beings.. 10-12 and 1. 20v. For him the human being in the cosmos has attained such high status therein that one can speak of a sort of "anthopocentrism" in bis thought. Il.f. this emphasis does not lead him to link bis fate to that of the upper... 7-9/p.f.. 33). This is..f.. ISr. intelligible world in general. 17.V.

We say: Every existent being (kuIl ays min aysïyit ) of this composite world (lJâdba al-'ilam al-muraltbb ) will be perfected and completed only at the time of the perfection of the human being (Jwnâl al-basbar). 5/f... 1.. And at this [time] (i. 35-36). for he writes: . and no deficiency (a1-nuq~in ) adheres to the Soul: rather. 16r.. 35. 16r. 16r. we say: the effect of the Soul (tmf'ül al-nafs ) will be perfected • at the time of the perfection of the human being. was formedl through the second being (i.e the Soul) in actu through time after [the origination of] time (bi-zaman ba 'dazamàn). L 17). 6/pp. the Intellect) in potentia and [then. 1.V.. • 26 Considering the context we translate thus #l'ioda-hi" in the text (f. the deficiency adheres to the effect of the Soul. (f. for as we said (ka-mi qulni ). intelligible world like al-Nasafi did.e." the "cosmos" (al-'i/am ) in the abave passage can be thought ta refer to the cosmos which represents a composite of matter and form. 16/p. as we said.e.e. Since the dause explaining the reason for the perfection of the cosmos refers ta the cosmos formed "through time after time. of the perfection of the human being~6 there will be perfection of the cosmos (al-'ilam ) with its contents (bi-ma 6-hi ). This is because she (i. . Thus... since it (i.184 • human being's eschatological role into the upper. 14. the Soul).e. which is every existent being of this composite. al-Razi restricts the extent of the eschatological role which the human being plays in this world. 1. Quite the contrary.. 1. Rather. proceeded in complete and perfect state (timmatan kamilatan) from the completion and the perfection (al-tamim wa-al-kamil ) together with time (ma 'a al-zaman). the cosmos) [proceeded] from the first being (i.worid . lI. There is also a possibility that this phrase can be translated as "with ail the existent beings" by interpreting ha as referring back to a plural noun. 4-12/f. 16r. And we do not say that the Soul would be perfected at the time of the perfection of the human being. every existent being of this composite world will be perfected only at the time of the perfection of the human being.

al-Murshid. hierarchism. God.185 • As far as we have been able ta discover to this point.Caliph al-Mu 'izz. the difference between the two thinkers over the doctrine of saul. . a da '.zj's thought §2. and His mediators.27 And if we follow the hypothesis of S. which explains the graduaI order of the formation of the cosmos and the transmission of religious knowledge by certain dignitaries to common be1ievers. so to speak. the angels. In the first theoretical domain this revelational relation develops along the vertical dimension linking heaven and earth. since the eschaton is the final goal of human history. The above fact reminds us of the Islamic theme of the revelational relation between prophets. M. and secondly." in Studies in Early Ismiitilism. • 27 See al-Nawbakhti. Stem's translation of a1-Nawbakhti's passage on hierarchical order in bis ·'Ismi'i~ in Firaq al-Shi'ah. and Sa 'id al-Qumml Cf. M. i. toward which God guides human beings by means of His messages to the prophets (for whom the angels play the role of a mediator). 51.'ilism. p. that of eschatology. results in a split between two religio-philosophical theories: first.e. the theory of the human being's relation to the higher. spiritual world and such hypostases as the universal Intellect and Sou!. Stern that the treatise on cosmogony of Abü '1. of the lime of the lmim. S. The Encounter with the Angelic Beings in the History of the Prophets It should be recalled that there is another early element surviving in ISmi. These issues • provide a starting point for an inquiry into how philosophy is related to revelational doctrine or prophecy in more general terms in al-Râ.. while in the second theoretical domain it develops along the horizontal or chronological dimension.

" especially. Through these two highest hypostases. I. Dodds' commentary on Proclus. See. pp. spiritual beings or angels had already been elaborated before the introduction of Neoplatonist e1ements into Ismi. Sheldon-Williams.186 • contains elements of Ismi lïIï cosmology from before the phase when the influence of philosophy was fe1t. the Pseudo-Dionysius developed N eoplatonist theory regarding the hierardùcal orders both on earth and in heaven. E. and determined their respective fates. these two movements have a certain inte1lectual affinity with each other. 18-21 Œnglish transI. Thus it is like1y that Neoplatonist cosmology must have been partially incorporated 28 The text was edited and analyzed by S." in The Cambridge History ofUlter Greek and Early Medieval Philosophy. pp. M. God gradually brought forth all beings. See also Halm. espedally by Procius in the 5th centuryC. pp. The Elements of Theology. for example. 'The Earliest Cosmological Doctrines. • 294-96.28 we can state with some confidence that the concept of a hierarchy of heavenly. 457-72.'ili thought. pp.'ilism. 31 . 'The Pseudo-Dionysius. 75-80. pp. the process of the formation of the cosmos began with God's creation of the küai." in Studies in Early Ismiiciüsm.30 After ProcIus. 31 5ince both Isma IDism and Neoplatonism favour heavily the concept of a hierarchical cosmos. spiritual and material. 7-9 (Arabie text)/pp.E.29 In Neoplatonist philosophy the concept of a hierarchical cosmos flied with gods. angelic beings. There are two series of spiritual beings following these two hypostases: the seven cherubim (sab 'at kariibiyalJ ) created by the küni . AIso at God's order this kiiDi created the qadar (lldetermination") as its (or her) vizier (wazü) and helper (mu'm). Kosmologie. and semi-deities was developed after Plotinus. and commentary). the female imperative of the command KUIJ !" Il ("Be!"). 29 See S. Stem in bis 'The Earliest Cosmological Doctrines of Ismi. 30 See. 3-29. R. P. According ta al-Murshid. for example. and the twelve spiritual beings (al-ithni 'ahan al-~iniyah) created by the qadar upon • the order of the küni . Stem.

. spiritual hierarchy. "Die oberen Fünf. and are respective1y likened to three archangels: Gabriel Q"abri'il). E. 69. 33 For example.. Hamdani. 14-28. p." pp. Halm. 72. Ja'far b. In his Sari 'ir wa-ASN. '~volution of the Organizational Structure. 43-46.e. and were comprised of the (universal) Intellect (Iaql ). M. and 32 Our description of these hypostases and dignitaries is based on the following studies: H. after the Ismi'Dis began coming into contact Neoplatonism. and Serafiel (Isnifû). the introductory chapter from Sari'ir wa-Asrir.34 The members of the terrestrial hierarchy are called the corporeal ranks" Il (aI-~udiid al-jismàniyah ). Ma~ apparently adopts Neoplatonist terminology in the description of the heavenly hierarchy. Before dealing with the above-mentioned problem. P. p.32 The members of the heavenly hierarchy were called the "spiritual ranks" (al-~udüd al-~ya1J ). MallfÜr al-Yaman. the a$is (fundament) or ~i (executor) who founds the esoteric teaching of religion.). There arises therefore the issue of how. Ghilib (Bayrüt. Among them. 19. the (universal) Soul CrJafs ) bath of which are obviously Neoplatonist terms . Michael (Mïki. pp." pp. employing the terminology of al-Râzi's time applied to members of those two orders. i.'ïl).a. 1980). Also cf. 67-74. we should first present an account of the heavenly and terres trial hierarchies. Walker. and ldJayaJ from Kitjb al-Iftilcbar. See again Sari 'ir wa-Asr. p. ed. see: al-5ijistini. 18-26 (espedally p.ir. The last three beings are spiritual faculties • granted to divinely-guided leaders. faq. Halm.33 Al-5ijistani also calls these five spiritual beings the "upper five" {al-ldJamah al-ulwiyab ). "opening" (fa~ ). the leaders. Kosmalogie. the element common to these two movements. pp.187 • into the system of Ismi cm doctrine through the channel of hierarchism. "fortune" (jadd ). pp. who are granted the three spiritual or angelic faculties described above. are also called the mu'ayyadiin or the "divinely supported. the chapter on the recognition of jadd." chapter in bis Kosmologie . 24f. "Cosmic Hierarchies." They consist of the nifiq (enunciator-prophet). A. Ja'far b. and "imagination" (lcbayil). 3& • Halm. Kosma/agie.'w theory of the relation of the prophets to the higher. its cosmology could have exerted an influence on or left a "trace" in the Ismi. 85-114.

the chapter on the recognition of jadd.bï and Ibn Sini. 46-68 and R. and are given the role of transmitting divine guidance to the prophets. La quiétude de l'intellect. Al-Farabi on the Perfect State: Abü Na. Zur arabisch-lateinischen Proklo&-Rezeption/' in Orientalische Kultur und Europiiische MittelaIter. p. O. ''Engel und Intelligenzen. pp. but also points out the possible interaction between Christian intellectual activity and its Muslim counterpart on this issue: K. by W. 172-87. To return to the question of how Neoplatonist philosophy may have come to leave its influence on the Ismi'ili scheme of prophetology as 35 For example. transI. in the works of 4th/IOth century Ismi. 36 See for example.188 • the imim or lDutimm (/lcompleter") who maintains the religious order after the departure of the first two figures. 385. A. • . Walzer." This is because. Trask <Princeton.r al-Firi6i's Mabidi' Ar. de Smet.35 It should aIso be recalled that the active intellect (al-'aql al-fa "i/)." The members of this spiritual heavenly hierarchy are called in the present study the "angelic beings. Below these two there are twelve la~q (sg. Allgaier. 1985). Zimmermann and 1. as explained above. p. Corbin. Avicenna and the Visionary Recitals.34i Thus. 43-46. pp.. pp." and the du 'at or "missionaries. which energizes • the human intellect into a state of actuality. fa4J. pp." each of whom exercises jurisdiction over a jazirah or /lsector. we can safely say that it is appropriate for us to apply the term "angelic beings" to those spiritual beings with whom only the prophets can communicate for the purpose of receiving divine guidance.ï AM al-Madina al-Fiflila (Oxford. 1985). 373f. 363ff. if not in fact identified with the angels depicted in the traditional sense. see again aI-5ijistini. The latter two are thought to have the function of esoteric interpretation (ta'wil) of scripture. enabling them to reveal the inner aspect of the religion. to the angel of revelation. Craemer-Ruegenberg (Berlin/New York. l~q) or '1ieutenants. H. they are likened to the angels. is compared by both al-Fari. and ldJayil from Kitjb al-UtildW'. 1960>. especially in the context of Islamic thought within a milieu influenced by GreekHellenistic sciences. See also the following article which not only discusses the comparison of the intellects to the ange1s in medieval Christian Neoplatonist tradition. 00. Also cf.'Di thinkers influenced by Neoplatonism.

al-Qi~ al-Nu'min comments on the hierarchical order. Kirab Pan 'i!l wa-~udüd(Ramdani Collection MS. Whether influenced by Neoplatonism or not. 106. then from mm to the will-executor.pmid period as weIl.. then to the da 'iS.. the following must first be reemphasized. and then to the believers (al-QJU 'llJÜJün): in the meantime the tlU~qa' and the a 'immah acquire religious knowledge from God. n. 19. Wis. in bis elaboration of the concept of the graduai transmission of this knowledge. then ta the 1. Milwaukee. this idea was further articulated by the major thinkers of the sect. from la'far b.37 Likewise. "Evolution of Organizational Structure.rises [far above] Cirta!a 'a} the hierarchy (al-ltuducl).). 89. We consulted the original Arabie of this passage. focusing on its necessity for the transmission of religious knowledge to believers on earth. In the second half of the 4th/lOth century. 37 • Hamdani." p. p. As one example.189 • developed by al-RàZi. though it is not so clearly articulated and systematic as in later works.38 In texts from the pre-Fi. 39. the members of the earthly hierarchy) might through it come to His [esoteric] • knowledge and convey His order and prohibition to the human being through its intermediation ("i-w~itaU-ha ). the idea of the transmission of religious AI-Nu'min. quoted in the same article.. p. MélIl!Ür.Jujaj. Ismâ'ill hierarchism is founded upon the idea that various forms of guidance from the spiritual and celestial realm are transmitted to the human being along specific channels. 5. Ja'far b. that re1igious knowledge gradually descends to the enunciator-prophet. He established it for His creatures below Him in order that they (i. Am al-Ta'wiJ. according to Professor Abbas Hamdani.e. 38 . writing as follows: He (God) -He is mighty and glorious!. Ma~ür al-Yaman holds. p. then to the imàms.

.41 Also.unanu-hu ) which they practice.. in his interpretation of Q 30: 50. • 41 42 . those who occupy the highest positions in the hierarchy aIter the imam. in reference to verse Q 15: 22. life). 205: also see p. 40 Ibid. according to the author. 207.hd wa-al-Hidi. Again. the "drizzle" (al-wadq) in verse Q 30: 48 refers to the knowledge of esoteric interpretation ('Dm al-ta 'wü ) which falls from the da 'i s and the IIgates" (al-abrib).. p.. one of the oldest extant texts. al-alnrib and al-lJujaj suggests that the life-bestowing knowledge is 39 Kitib al-Rusbd.40 In bis interpretation of verse Q 7: 57. 205-206. death) to that of knowledge (i.e. Ibid. the motif of knowledge as life (~yit aI-'ilm or '1ife of knowledge" in the text) is cited with reference to the 1..yah. p.Jujaj. In Kitab al-R. the author of al-Rushd compares "water" to the knowledge of religion (or "the sole true religion") ('ilm al-din).ujaj). and the proofs" (maqamat al-rusul II wa-al-a~iyi' wa-al- a'immah wa-aJ-!. Ibid. i. pp.39 Then.190 • knowledge through a hierarchy is expounded.. by which • human beings tise from a state of ignorance (Le. p. the hierarchical religious order is described thus: The ordinances of God are [the order of] the ranks of the apostles. 203.e. aIso the hierarchs. the willexecutors. 203. and the duties [set upl by God and His customs (fari'i~ Allih wa-.42 The mention of certain terms in these passages in al-RU$bd such as al-du'it. the imims.. whose conduct of the mission (al-da 'wah) raises those people who respond to it from the death of ignorance to the life of knowledge. the terms IIheaven" (al-sami 1 ) and IIwater" (al-ma' ) induded therein are interpreted respectively as "apostle" and "knowledge" (al-'ÜlD ).

43 4& AI-NU'min. or "water. • the possessor of the authority (wali al-amr) whom the "(right] path" indicates." can aIso be found in IUtab al-Kubf.. Ibid. ll . and then from hint to the believers. Am.44 This would mean that knowledge is transmitted from the lJiP'l to the samit (the silent. The anonymous author of the first treatise of the text maintains that the "water" in verse Q 67: 30 means the descendants of Amie al-Mu'minin 1 Ali b. The motif of life-bestowing knowledge.n aIso uses the symbolism of water as knowledge. just as the plants are made to grow by rain from heaven. J(jt. many parts of which date back to the pre-Filimid era. although there is not 50 much emphasis there on hierarchical order. i. 43. just as heaven pours rain down upon the earth. in the second half of the 4th/l0th century. Later. it appears as if religious knowledge or guidance was seen as being transmitted directIy from God to the earthly hierarchy..e. the high dâ'. According tO al-Nu'man. the asas). verse Q 72: 16 ("And if they are sincere on the [rightl path. ranked next to them.191 • transmitted through the hierarchy according to the author of the text. since he transmits the knowledge that enables believers to live. p.ib aJ-Kub/. 'im coming from the clan of MUJ:Jammad. God will be generous to them with knowledge. by whose knowledge the world is resusdtated. 24. p. Thus al-Nu/min compares the ni~'l or imam of the age to heaven. This passage discusses the interpretation of verse Q 51: 20 ("And on earth there are the signs to the believes"): the "earth in this verse means the ~uiialJ of naliq or imim of the age. p. 45 In the passages described above. • ~ In addition al-Nu'mân that the believers grow by knowledge. Actually the transmission of this guidance cannot bypass the celestial spiritual This passage is followed by another one in which the Ilspring water'1 (al-ma' al-ma 'in) means the Qi. al-Qi~ al-Nu'mi.39f.. that is. Le. We would water you with abundant water") means that if the people are sincere with respect to the lliP'l or imam.43 In other words the world gains lllife" from the knowledge of the imams. Abi Tilib.

110-11. E. p. and not sense data. 98f. respectively. 190. See Walker. This statement appears to conflict with the last remark by al-Sijistini mentioned above. pp. Itbbit. the ta 'yid is indispensable to gaining the perception of the unseen and to establishing the revelatory law. 192f. 125-26) 41 AI-5ijistini. through the Universal Intellect and the Universal Soul. pp.192 • hierarchy. since the latter has a specific function in the transmission of knowledge or guidance. causing him in turn to seek after intelligibles. However. 32.48 The reconciliation of these two statements is a difficult task to accomplish within the scope of the present dissertation. Thus. yet it leads us to the following question: Which rank is the lowest in the earthly hierarchy that can still gain access to the ta'yid? In ather words: What is the furthest rank that the ta 'yid " AI-5ijistini.û and the that is. which may be translated as either the "support. a1-Yani6i~ p. the ta'yid is bestowed upon the highest • dignitaries such as the nip9. Ilbbit. p. According to P. 141 above. according to _ al-Sijistini.. pp. al-5ijistiDi points out in this passage that the ta 'yid reaches other members of the hierarchy beyond the tJi~q and uâs. pp. and the imams of this age. f. the ta 'yid affects the llJu'ayyad (the divinely-supported) in helping him to discover various beings without the aid of the senses. as far as only tbis passage is concerned. 95f. 184 n. Al-5ijistani furthermore implies that the mu'ayyad is led to perceive the realities of the "sciences of the unseen" (lJaqa 'iq min 'ulÜlZJ al-gbayb).arly Philosophical Shiism. At this point he cornes into conjundion with the ta 'yid. Œnglish transI. • 48 The statement on the ra 'yid which mentions only the tJi~q and uùis found in Al-5ijistini.. Walker. he cornes ta be able to subjugate the people and establish a "basic law" (lJâmÜS' &fli) in his era. al-bui~ ) through the preceder (al-sa6i. French transI. This is called ta 'yid.46 In short.47 However he also states that the ta'yid cornes to the nap9 and asü from the simple world (al-'jJam follower (al-~)." According to al-Sijistirü. 118. the "ü. As stated in the previous chapter. See also chapter 5. . such an idea is not founel." "assistance" or "inspiration.

the cammentator compares each of these categories of supematural beings. Le." 00. He points out that there are two modes to the human soul's reception of the benefit of the Universal Intellect and the Universal Soul (ifi.idab. such as the nalÏq.so According to the commentator.1ammad b. pp. a chapter fram MutJ. Sth/l1th century). Fairy. and human beings as well.ammad b. B. . that the ta 'yid is accessible only to the highest members of the hierarchy in a certain age. 38f. whereas the other is the "reception of the instruction and the training. and Il human being.:. In his interpretation of a bayt which indicates the necessary existence of angel" (firishtab ). œus or pl. ta 'yid and ta 'Iim. provides us with a definitive explanation of the ultimate range of the ta 'yid.a1-riyidab alladlJam bi-mma ~yitu-lJa wa- bulügIJu-hi Da iq~a maritibÎ-1Jj. any being that can both receive knawledge from above and transmit it ta others below him through ta'yid can be called an ange!. Qa.. Hirji in TalJqiqât-i lsJami 7 (t 992): p. "demon" (dïw). and imams..!lit al. whereas the members below them in the hierarchy can obtain access to this religious guidance only through ta'lim (instruction) and riyiflah (training). and Demon).. ais. The first of these is the IIreception of ta 'yid " (qulüb al-ta 'yid ). • Regarding these two important terms. a passage from the commentary on the Q~ida1J of AbU al-Haytham-i Jwjioi. attributed to MuJ. we can say.." (On Angel. "fairy" (pari ). through both of which their life and their attainment of the furthest rani< are [established]" (qubül al-ta 'lim wa. ta a certain rank in the hierarchy. The prophets (paygambaritJ ).'aq1 al-ku11ï VIa-aJ-nais aJ-ku11i). ). of 49 AI-5ijislini.49 This passage implies. SbufJ-. 26-35. Surkh Nishipüri (?). will-executors (~iyiD.193 • is able to reach in the earthly hierarchy? Al-Sijistini does however provides a possible clue regarding the extent of the ta'yid's reach. Surkh Nishapüri (fi. Il • 50 Dar Firisbtah wa-Pazj wa-D. "al-Risilah al-Bihirah.

This issue of ta 'yid and the range of its effeetiveness in respect to the earthly hierarchy is closely connected with another significant question: How do the Ismi'ûiS (and al-Razi in particular) explain the relation of the prophets and other members of the earthly hierarchy to the eelestial spiritual hierarchy within the framework of sacred history? Or.1JtagirJ) • He who can receive knowledge through ta 'yid but can transmit it only through ta'lim is. .Sl In short.194 • .. to put it another way: How do those ranks below the prophets and imims receive guidance from the eelestial hierarchy? In order to answer this question we will analyze passages from on the prophets' encounter with the angelic beings." or "flow"). the above argument of the commentator on the Qa. the IarilJiq (lieutenants) or the highest ranking members of the hierarchy next to the imim of the age. may be compared to those people who faU completely outside the sacred hierarchy. They benefit from ta 'yid in reeeiving knowledge.. 35.f:Uq. a "fairy": this title may be attributed to the "proofs" (lJujjatan ). Even though it is not stated. In his explanation of the prophets' contact with the angelic beings. The final category is the rebellious diw who. ). we can say. And he who both receives and transmits knowledge only through la 'lim is a human being (idami).. This word is used by 51 Ibid... but are able to rely only on ta 'Hm or instruction in transmitting it to the ranks below them. we can safely say that this 11luman being" corresponds to the members of the hierarchy at ranks below that of the IaW'ilJiq.e. i. on the other hand.fJ that touch • introduees a specifie word: aI-jin (llstream. and imams are capable of this and may thus be called "angels" (firi.idaIJ suggests that the zone separating those who are capable of bestowing la 'yid and those who are • not allowed to exercise that function oecupied by the Ialri. al-Razi al-I~Ii. p.

The term middah is used to denote the spiritual benefit that the members of the da1wah actually receive through the hierarchy. ail four of which are compiled and edited by R. from which the tenn jüi is derived. the angelic spiritual beings send down to the earthly hierarchy this jan. Al-Rizï explains the meaning in these verses of the strange guests of Abraham (!layf Jbrihim ) who visited him on the way to the people of Lot to wam them of the impending Divine punishment. However.. the sum of which al-Razi counts as ten. This benefit is called also barahIJ (blessing). since that is the meaning of the "ten days" which constitute a part of the . that is. or IIspiritual stream. Oam.U.. i. not in that of nouns as in the case of al-R&Zi.jan.lJ . ail the examples Clam cites are in the form of adjectives. and jan. 53 • 5& The identification of the two . according to al-Rizi. Al-Rizï's interpretation of verses Q 51: 24-28 presents us with an example of • interaction between prophet. middah (literally.tba.y.ala) with these two angelic 52 There is the possibility that it is al-Razi who introduced this word as a religious technical term into the literature on prophecy. The Universal Intellect is always called al-âlJiq and the Universal Soul is al-tali in the discussion of the history of the prophets in al-I.195 • al-Razï in his discussion of this theme 50 frequently that it can be thought of as a technical term.function in al-Rizi's description of the contact of the members of the earthly hierarchy with their celestial spiritual counterparts. Supplement 8 (1990): pp. angelic beings whom he describes as the "two khayils/' and who may presumably be identified with the jadd and the ldJayil. M~d b. These "guests" were." which flows out of the two highest hypostases.S2 According to al-Rizï.S4 Then. angelic beings. Oam mentions that the root oRY. as will be seen below. is used te signify the metaphor of Ustream" denoting fay!lUflux" or "emanation" in three short treatises by a later Tayyibi author 'Ali b. maddah . with these two angelic beings does not conflict with the number of the hypostases of the celestial and earthly hierarchies. al-Walid and in a work by a 19th œntury anonymous author. Strothmann in Gnosistat der lsmailiten (Gëttinge~ 1943)." Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenliindischen Gesellschaft. "Zum Problem der Deutung der Emanation in islamischer Philosophie und Gnosis. "substance").53 In the same context there is another frequently used term. and ta'yid . J..Ji. 23446.e. the sibiq or upreceder" and the tali or "folIower. We will investigate how these terms . Abraham came into conjunction (itra. J.

f. the Intellect and the Sou! (f. 2/p. 180). 13. In the course of rus dispute with an antagonist (as event aIso related in this verse). Ham. 17· f. 1.. al-Razi holds that "God" here means the ti1ï . ~ ~. lI. 1-5/f.. Furthermore. 119. IIp. 98r. 4). 1. 90r.9 If. 9ar.f. 15. 1.v. That is.. ~ ~. instead of that of MS.. prescribed in verse Q 2: 234: the latfJ. 1. aI-Razi explains in greater detail bis conception of ho\V' the prophet's contact with the angelic beings took place. .l. and through their intermediation acquired the jan from the "two roots" (al-~lin ). 1. 1..55 In telling this story. in the same verse ( "God raises the sun from the east 50 raise it from the west!" ). 1. S6v. 98r. Tüb. we adopt the reading of the printed edition and of MS. See f. 97v. Il. In bis interpretation of Q 2: 258. installs (man yuqïmu-hu ) in bis office.1. Le. 1. 314). Abraham declares that he came into conjunction with the talï who spiritually supports (yu'ayyidu ) anyone that it. 97v. Il.57r. but deprives a corrupt person of the "substance" or mâddah until he eventually dies Cf. 8.V. 6-10/f. (f. Il. 1... • 13/pp.v.1. the talï. 7-12 If. whereas "the east" indicates the mutimm and uthe west" the lif. the seven mutimms. interpreting another statement of Abraham. l/p. 58r. 194).f. upon consideration of the context of the passage than the latter. 4/p. 159r. 14. [Abraham toid his antagonist:] waiting period imposed on a woman who wants ta marry after a previous divorce. 98r. 97v. Abraham identifies the taU as his Lord. Al-Rizi summarizes this argument as follows: That is ta say: The tilïsupports (yu'ayyidu) the mudmm 50 that the jân rises from him [shiningl upon the lilJiq: Therefore. 157v...Uq or lieutenant (f. l/f. '~e who bestows life and gives death" (Q 2: 258) means that the tilï bestows life upon humankind through the jan.196 • beings. 90r... the verb from which the term ta'yid is derived as a verbal noun) the hierarchy. Cf.. 193-94... and the "twokbayils"... 1.. i. 4. 98r.. by means of whom Gad spiritually supports (ayyada. 15. 9). aIso f.e. 158r. Il. 1. • 55 Here.

Rizi for his part mentions "rus (i.. In the above passage a person supported by the tili (or God Himself?). al. a • mu'a.. jârï... Do these sentences suggest that the limit to the reach of the ta 'yïd and that of the jan. ta the rank of the fJujjatan.. then make that (Le." which is equivalent ta that of the lawilJiq.. 120). two forms of the spiritual benefit derived from the extends to the rank of lieutenant (~dd aJ-l~q)? ~lÜJ.197 • if you are a [spirituallyl supported one (mu/ayyad) with regard to this as you daim. the emergence of the jan) appear in the rank of lieutenants (fladd aI-Iawi. or that Gad does so through the raI.bestowing "spiritual stream" from the tili) appear even at the level of the rank of lieutenant. In trying to answer this Q~. . can thus make the jârï (the life. 58v.56 This passage suggests that al-Rizi saw the ta 'yid as being capable of reaching the Iari. As for the ta 'yid.. such as the respective natures of the ta 'yïd.. Il. Il. nor does he present any definitive explanation of its extent.dah U question.e.8/p.. 1. i. 13 If.fJiq. 9Sv.e.»'ad. This issue is also related ta the question of • which ranks can have direct access to the spiritual benefit that proceeds from the 56 The entire passage is translated and analyzed below on pp. 194) The passages described above that comment on verse Q 2: 258 pl'ovide us with information on severa! other matters as weIl. who is in this case a mutimm (or ïmi. and middah. 223-24 of this chapter. it should be recalled that the commentator on the Haytham limits the influence of the ta 'yid of Abü al. In bis discussion of 'Ali's initiation to the office of &s". or yu 'ayyidu ) one of the earthly hierarchs. It is just maintained that the tjJ.fUq) into whom the jiridescends so that we know that you are trustworthy in your daim! (f. is assigned by God the task of spiritually supporting (anada.. al-Razi does not elaborate very clearly how he conceives of it. 'A!i's) lari.. 57v.m). . S-S/f.fJiq" as the ones "[spirituallyl supported with the blessing" (al-mu'ayyadün bi-aI-bazabb) (f. 98r. 2-4/p. 7.. Il.

his death." al-RiZi offers the following explanation of middah : Il And sustain us" (Q 5: 114). As for the jiri. Jesus' disciples) were waiting and longing for. 13-14/f.~ al-Nu' man's writings in general. IL 4-7ff.e. 13Sv.zï further elaborates upon the relation between the jan and the middah . what s treams" (yajn1 from the preceder (al-sabiq) is the most predous and the highest of that which can be gained by both the members of the upper spiritual and lower corporeal hierarchies (al-lJudüd al-'ulwïyab wa-al-sufliyah ) below it • (i. Il. spiritual hierarchy. 137r... This life-bestowing function of the jiri and the middah is unmistakably similar to that of l"knowledge" ('i/m) described in the passages of aJ-Kubf. because it nourishes them as water nourishes plants. and al-Qi. 6-7/p. 270) . and is related to the life-bestowing function of the tali. the sabiq). 137v..e... this radiates from the tali. 14-17/p. in which Jesus is depicted as praying ta God for the IItable. al-Rushd. And II l'YOU are the best of sustainers" (Q 5: 114). He interprets the IItable" (al-mi'idah ) which Jesus asked God to send down in response to the request of bis disciples (Q 5: 112-15) as follows: Il ••• Thus the IItable" means the middah from the "spiritual stream" (min al-jan ) which they • (i. Il." since if sorneone is deprived of it. in that it also gives life to believers and is cornpared to water. is the inevitable result. The miclclah is likewise related to l1ife. That is: Open [the substance] to us! This is because that [which Jesus asked God for] is IInourishment" (gbidha') for their (i. Al-Ri. In bis interpretation of verse Q 5: 114.. at least in a spiritual sense. Il." Cf. 137v. That is to say. The IIspiritual stream" here can be interpreted as the medium of transmission of the middah to earth. Jesus' and bis disciples') souls and "aliment" ( or IIsustenance.e... 270). In this passage the middah descends through thejiri down to the people. (f." rizq ) for them..198 • upper.

p. the very early Isma'ili text which we referred to earlier. 1." rizq ) • supplied ta divorced women during the lactation of their children (Q 2: 233)58 signifies the sustenance of a believer with knowledge" (middat a/-mu'min biII al-'Hm). This nourishment" may be interpreted as: either a II metaphor for knowledge and guidance transmitted through the celestial and earthly hierarchies. the imperfect verb form of the jan) from the II preceder. Maddah. it seems clear that early Ismâ'iU thinkers saw the maddah as a soul-feeding sustenance or spiritual nourishment.57 Then." This content. with which their da 'is are supported" (alladJJiyumuddu bi-hi al·du 'à. 3ff. 117v. 165. he will also lose its II spiritual sustenance. the "aliment" (or "alimony. the maddaIJ is compared to nourishment" (gbidhâ' ) and sustenance" (rjzq) for souls.). on the benefit gained through the jiriis al·Rizï's interpretation of the food which Gad prepared for Mary in the verse Q 3: 37. 201·202 of the present chapter. is the most precious benefit from the sabiq or Universal Intellect Thus we can interpret the maddaIJ as spiritual "sustenance" or the content of the s tream..li. 1. middah . maddah. Il. II II again." Therefore if one loses the jiri . 233f: this passage will be revisited belowon pp.199 • In addition to having this life-bestowing function (as seen above). as a technical term meaning the spiritual sustenance afforded the members of the earthly hierarchy. may date back to the pre-Fa\ÏtnÏd age since it appears already in Kitab al-Kasbf. This is the sustenance that divorced women are entitled ta receive from their former husbands during the presoibed two year period of lactation. which we can ate from aJ·r.fJ. SI • 59 And this phrase is followed bya relative dause: ".which is suggested by the phrase what 'streams' (yajd. 117r. or spiritual. . Kiti6 al-Kubf.. supematural energy flowing down from the upper !il Another example. See f.S9 Based on the above-mentioned passages from al-I~l~ and al-Kub/... the passage impUes that the maddah is the content of jâri . According to the author of this text. ~ v. This "food" is the "allobnent" (~1) from the jàri. 2-14fp..

préétemelle" in a note to his translation of RiaJat al-Mu".fJ. Trilogie Ismaélienne.. On the position of Solomon.fU9 of the age. force. (186)-(187). Il II Q Cf.200 • hierarchy to its earthly counterpart. Al-Qi. he nevertheless had acquired the authority to hand down the benefit of this "spiritual stream" to anyone who wanted to receive it. see above in chapter S. énergie surnaturelle. it is neœssary for us to investigate whether Corbin's interpretation is applicable to the usage of the tenn in early texts in the period from 3th/9th c. pp. It is not very clear whether this "prophethood" means Qape. p. Asü al-Ta''friL p. there still remains the possibility that the holder of this prophethood" could indicate any persan holding the highest rank in his age which could mean aa!Ïq. 159-60. However. 5. 265-67).f.) in the text.60 If the content of the jan is the soul-sustaining middah. 1.63 60 The latter interpretation we suggest here is similar to H..' wa-al-Ma'adby al-~usayn b.tJanunad b. 1. Mu.fti9 and should only therefore have been able to receive barakah from the completer of the age. 289-90. pp." Thus. See Corbin. l. 170-71. 61 Al-Qi~ aI-Nulmin. As the chief la.~ al-Nu'min. Corbin's definition of middah. 70.. 134r.).-ship" (au. 'Ali b.. S. even though Salomon held • only the rank of li. he was unique in playing this role that no one had ever filled before him (f. • 61 p. al-Walid (fi. 7th/13th c. 136r.61 This means that a prophet is a sort of "relay-point" in the transmission of the maddah between the celestial spiritual hierarchy and its earthly counterpart. He translates this term as "sève divine. 52. writing at a later date. and the index of this term in pp. pp. That is to say. 1. to 4th/IOth century.62 Al-Razï for bis part interprets the wind that God subjugates for Solomon in verse Q 38: 36 as the jin or spiritual"stream. 134v. 15/p.143.. See below in chapter 8. 12. uù or ïrnim. It seems that both or either of these two possibilities can be applied to the interpretation of the term used in a1-1~1i. 136r./f. ibid. then al-Rizi appears to suggest that the members of the hierarchy below the imâm can gain it through hierarchs such as the latter or those superior to him. ..f. main tains that it is the privilege of the ones holding the office of "prophethood" (al-nubiiwah ) to receive the middah without the intermediation of any other lower earthly rank (lJadd sufhî.

mir. Man~r. AIso in another passage Ja1far b. "Ja'far b. which is an allotment (~~) from the "spiritual stream" (al-jiri ) through the kbayiJ of the completer of the age.65 Here the middah can be interpreted to be the content of the "stream. p. '5 Ibid. God allowed Solomon to receive the spiritual allotment from the jan or "spiritual stream" which he implies to he the "wind. Al-Ri. Ibid. p.. 197.Zï.. According to Ja1far b. even though he was then absent. Manfiir implies that the "'spiritual • stream" takes the role of an intermediary transmitting "inspiration" and "revelation" to the prophets." and to distribute the allotment to his lieutenants: thus Solomon gained the unique grade that no one had he1d before him. but not from Zachariah.201 • It is remarkable furthermore that the 4th/l0th century Ismi.zi interprets this story as meaning that Mary obtained "that food" (dhj1j1ca al-rizq). one of the la riltiq as weil as the mother of Jesus in this context she was given food from none other than God Himself while she remained alone in her room (Q 3: 37)." which is close to the usage of the term by al-Ri. 24.. Mall!Ür there holds thatthe "statement (al-qawl )••• [which is] called inspiration and revelation (~y wa-tuJZil)" cornes from the "power of the Ward" (qùwar al-hlimab ) through the conjunetion of the "stream" (bi-rri. According to him the "two hands" which created Adam mean maddab and ta'yid which were intermediated through the jan or "stream. In one passage he interprets Adam's creation as being a tale of the initiation of a candidate for the ni#q-ship.fJiq of the age (f. 22. her superior and the chief là..1ilï thinker Ja1far b. M~ür seems to use the word jirï in a technical sense. . p. • "Ja1far b. Sarâ'ir wa-A. M~iir.64 In addition the following two cases show thatJalfar b.aJ al-jiri). Mélllfür should interpret Solomon's subjugation of the wind in Q 38: 36 in a way similar to al-Rizi.66 One of the other examples that al-Rizï cites as a source of spiritual benefit is that of Mary.

the klJayàl of the œP9 transmits the "spiritual stream" to his BU (f. 17. p. 1. 11-13/p. Sari'ir wa-Amïr. but he declined il: Thus David was appointed as deputy. rather. the kbayil contacts the di 'is through the intermediation of the divinely-guided • leaders..i1 of Samuel (Shamü'il) appeared ta Luqmàn. al-an6iyâ . 128v. as suggested in other passages. Ma~ür also reports the appearance of the klJayil in his role as mediator with the higher dignitaries ta certain biblical figures. 95v. the latter can gain access to the kbayil only through the mUlimm of the age (f.. .V. 63r. 7-14/pp. Il. For more on the POssibility of the appearance of the kbayilas a "mental image. 12.I.müiyab). since Salomon 61 This idea is also apparent in another example from al-I.254). 1. 207-208 of the present chapter.. 150r.f.V.62r. . 117r. 129). 16.ruling over the corporeal hierarchy (al-al-~udüd al-ji.. The implication here is that Mary did not receive any benefit from the jiri on her own but had to be initiated into it through the imâm of the age. 1." see below in pp. Le. but only through the intermediation of the mutimm of the age. I/f. or imam) and the two highest hypostases. ua. For example. 96v.. Abi Tilib appeared (la1dJâyala) as a mental image ta bis successor. .. 189. . 11.. 14-15/f. .imims and lieutenants (f. 12. Il. as an angelic being who mediates between the clivinely-guided leader of the age (aipq.V.f.. ManpUr. 233-34). 1. a legendary pre-Islamic 'Arab sage who appears in the Qur'an (31: 12-13 and 16-19).. L 6/f..129r. 128v. especially on pp. 191). 4/f. Thus al-Rizi holds that the l~q can gain access to the jan through one angelic being. Tacfar b. 1.J~ : the "khayiJ of the absent completer" contacted Abraham.202 • 117r.. In another passage a1-RàZi hoIds that 'Ali b..68 The exception to this rule may have been Solomon. There is a still further possibility: the appearance of the Icbayil of the hidden mutimm may he related to the appearance of the deceased divinely-guided leader as a "mental image" which is another meaning of ldJayj1.. In another passage al-Razï holds that the kbayil never proceeds from the tâli directIy to the lâ. and middah to the members of the hierarchy below him.61 The khayiil.. This is because.. 118r.. moreover. In the Muslim tradition of 9i...233-34). L 1. 128v. 1. 3. prior ta the latter's elevation ta the 1Ji!i~ship (f.. 117r.fJiq . the la~q can obtain their allotments from the jâri through the intermediation of the kbayàl of the mutimm (f. AIso. The meaning of this passage on the future prophet's initiation to the Ailiq-ship will he discussed in §3 of the present chapter. announdng ta him bis installation as king. 2-11/p. 149v. the khayil .96r. 151r. it is believed • . after the death of Saul the lcbay. barakah. 243-44 of chapter 7.. 217-32 below. 295).f. as al-Razi emphasizes..effectively a "king".. 117v.f. 1. in spite of bis being absent.. 3/f.f. 1. 14/p. Il.. 5/p.a.. Il. This passage wiU be translated and discussed again below in p. transmits the jüi. 10. 1/pp. L 8/f. Jacfar b. 68 For example.

in early Ismi'ili hierarchical theory? This is another issue which warrants further study. p. Numbers 22-25. vol. • . 206f. that is. the jan . See B. Le. Wilson <San Francisco.e.203 • is described as having had full access to the jan and his control of the "wind. intermediated through Aaron's kbayil . the ra'yid. Stillman]. all the passages examined and other early Ismi'ili texts on the jari." EI-. imim). To sum up. the seduction of Israeli men by the women of their enemies. translation from German edited by R. Could this "spirir' eould be equivalent ta middab. A. the last point in the hierarchy having access to the jâri through the ta 'yid of the tali (ilthe rank of lieutenants (~dd al-lawi. 5: pp. K. warned his son of the crisis of the troops of Joshua (Yüshi' b. The Valentinians maintained that there are two churches: one in heaven and the other on earth. according to the text of al-l~li. al-Nün). However. al-Razj's interpretation of the tale of Q 27: 18 regarding Solomon and the ant proves the exception ta this ruIe. "Lutanan. 812. we find a parallel between the ecclesiology of the Valentinian Gnostics and early Ismàlilism in that there is a close connection between the œlestial and earthly hierarehies. 179f. Heller . baralcah and maddaIJ. the "ants" in the verse are that Luqman Uved in the age of David.[N. i. The church in heaven is a primordial form of its counterpart on earth. According to him. Rudolph calls this "spirit" the "immortal seed of Ughl" See K. 69 Moreover.fJ. according to al-Razi and other early Ismi'lli thinkers. ta 'yid. and to an angelic being through the above from al-l~li1J lIJUtillUD. Rudolph. However." that îs. This could be a Muslim variation of a story in the Hebrew Bible. according to al-Rizi. MeL. 1987). show us that the l'wo celestial and earthly hierarchies are closely connected to each other through the transmission of knowledge or guidance from a higher to a lower leve1.. Also constituting a form of spiritual support. • We have seen so far that.fUq) onto whom the jâri descends"). We can aise confirm that the office of the lifUq was. Ibid. (Il It is still difficult to detennine whether this fonn of hierarchism has its equivalent in any other intellectual movement in Islam during the same era (4th/1Dth œntury). in the 2nd ta 3rd centuries. 811-13. especially p. the members of the earthly da'wah are sa dependent on knowledge or guidance in terms of their spiritual lives that its absence would cause their spiritual death... the lowest rank to have access to the ltbayil is that of the mutimm (completer. Gnosis: the Nature and History of Gnosticism. p. Also the "spirir' is "poured" from the heavenly church upon its earthly counterpart.

the man compared to an ant) through bis ldJayil . It is thus that he perceived that authority had come into [the hands of] Salomon. and then they would be demoted from their positions. the authority) had ended up with him. This means that to one member of the bierarchy (ha 'd al-~udüd ). 2-11/ p. enter your dwelling-places.f.. A low-ranked liant" who warned his fellows of the marching of Solomon's troops is. Il ' ••• lest Solomon and his hosts crush you. (i. i. He ordered them (Le.. because he had seen the kbayil. Il. 45v.204 • the licensees and the listener-novices (al-ma'd1JÜIJ wa-al-mwtajïbÜlJ) of Solomon's time (f. 44r. Salomon. because Solomon had gained the ultimate authority)..e. 1. and taught them: he had seen through bis kbayil (bi-lcbayiIi-hi) what appeared to [the mirror of the soul of] that rank (i. 92) Here al-Rizï points out that it is the ldJayil which allowed the low-ranked liant" to recognize Solomon's authority over the entire da'wah.44-v.f. al-RaZi hoIds.e..... 1.' " (Q 27: 18)..92). 46r. He • wamed them that if they did not wait for bis arder. because it (Le. 17. ... laughing at its words. "But he smiled.. Il. IIp.. 1.. being unaware!' " (Q 27: l8)." (Q 27: 18).. 44-v. Il ' ••• being unaware!' " (Q 27: 18). 1. It is said that this ant was building a wall. as the text • implies. Therefore... 45v.. as follows: " . 9. This is ta say that these dignitaries were not aware of what this [man or liant"] was aware of.. This is to say that he (Solomon) showed that [matter] to the lieutenants. the kbayil appeared to [the mitror of] bis soul (w-aya la-bu)." (Q 27: 19). (f..an ant said. 8-9/f.. one of those who correctly recognized Salomon' 5 authority or leadership over the entire da'wah. bis reproach and destruction would befell them from bis part. bis fellow licensees and listener-novices) to keep away from the da'wah until the authority of Solomon was renewed to them...e.. Il 1 Ants. 2/f. the liant" knew of his duty to obey the new legitimate leader.

" The #ant" then urged his fellow licensees and listener-novices to "keep away from the da'wah" until the new order of Solomon reached them. This passage can be interpreted as meaning that Salomon. 45r.. The text reads as follows: ". but rather the lesser spiritual beings which belong to a series of angelic beings distinct than that of the five hypostases.thus he took over the [task of] allobnent • of the barakah among bis felIow lieutenants (qi. 91). There al-Rizï ïnterprets Solomon's arder to the "wind" (al-ri~ ) as effectively constituting an order issued to the kbayàl s (al-kbayilit). 1. 1.. instead of through the concealed imàm of the age.f. according to the examples dted in al-l~lilJ and works by other authors... As we saw above.mat al-barakah bayn al-la~q). is allowed to distribute the barakah through the 1chayiliL These kbayilit subjugated by Salomon could not be one of the five spiritual hypostases. the latter of .'ili literature dating from the 4th/10th century. 3/p. however: How could the khayil approach a low-ranked ma 'dhün or mustajib? Ooes this episode mean that the khayil of the five spiritual. while the lchayi1s (al-ldJaJlilit ) carried out bis order (bi-amri-bi )" (f. Thus the possibility arises that one of these lesser spiritual beings could have appeared ta the liant" through the intermediation of Salomon. 17. angelic beings appears directly to the low-ranked "ant"? The "ant" is after all tao low-ranked (ma 'd1JÜIJ or mœtajïlJ ) to receive the kbayil. Angelic beings distinct from the five hypostases are found also in Ismi. 44r. al-Murshid there are two series of spiritual. The key ta the above questions may lie in another passage on Solomon which comes prior to the one quoted above. angelic beings: the seven • "cherubim" (karü"iyab) and the twelve "spiritual beings" (rü~yab ). The question is. in the cosmology of Abü 'Isi..205 • which even sorne dignitaries "were not aware of. as a unique l~q. IL 8-10/f. 43v.

p. moreover."n The angels. and the lcbayâl. '~ala"ikah. attributed to al-Qi4ï al- Nu'min.i1ab al-MudlJbibah (The Treatise Eliminating [Doubts])." O. bis most ~âbiri. 2Sf. Munkar and Nakir. 91-100. the faq.71 mentions series of twelve spiritual beings. AIso see O." p. Stem. pp. 163 of this chapter. 53f.i. Serafiel Osr. 7J al-TUJab. There is a chapter specifically dedicated to the discussion of the angels in al-Ri2. Halm. M. Bryer. Biobibliography. 160-70: the particular passage on the "cherubim" and the "spiritual beings" is found on p. 16 (Arabie text)/p.rluJi. pp. Studies in Early lsmà~ilism. See H. while the stars (seven planets in the heavens?) are the "looks" (~ri.). Poonawala questions the authentidty of al-Nu'min's authorshipof this work. I<. pp. 74 • ./1956C. where they are referred to however "Drü6iyütJ" and "~yab." attached in S. Macdonald and W. the Ri. sorne of whose names are familiar ta mainstream Muslim tradition. (commentary). In this chapter al-Rizi discusses the etymology of the ward "angels" (al-mali. vol. . xx. Stero's Writings of Ismi. 1375A. "places" (manazi1) of the twelve "spiritual beings. ''TIte Earliest Cosmological Doctrines.H.:70 Moreover. "Preface: An Analysis of Samuel M. vol.73 However. known as "spiritual beings" and IIcherubim" are found aIso in al-Rizï's al-Zinah. al-Mudbbi6a1J. nmir in KhamsaIJ Rasà'il1smi. Kosmologie. 50. .ifil). K. 6. p. 216-19. O. the series of the riiPanïyah already includes the jadd. al-Mudbbi6ah. the twelve signs of the zodiac (al-6urûj al-." Pseudo(?) al-Nu 1 n.'üiya1J (Salamiyah. 'ilcah ) and also their severa! types. Stem reportedly had sorne doubt on al-Nu1man's authorship of this work. "the Earliest Cosmological Doctrines. 72 Pseudo(?) al-Qa~ al-Nu'min.hir) serving as a "model" (matbal) for these "cherubim". and 78. 53f. and Mubashshir and Bashïr (the last two of whom are added in Imimi tradition). In al-MudbbibaIJ each of the seven "chembim" dwells in one of the seven heavens (al-amaril ). B. 2 Madelung. the former are the angels of mercy (mali 'ibc al-rafunaIJ) while the latter are the angels ofpunishment (mali'iht al-'adhib). "Bib al-Mali'ikah" ("Chapter of the Angels"). There are sorne subtle differences between the two texts. PoonawaJa. again including the three ange1ic beings and seven "cherubim. Stem. 28.206 • which nevertheless include the jadd. there still remain some problems in identifying these angelic beings with the "ldJayilat " and the ant's khayâl. 67. non-Ismi'ili wode according to al-RaZi." El. pp. AIso S. See 1. 71 Edited by 'A. whereas the twelve "spiritual beings" • are said ta be related to the twelve signs of the zodiac (al-burüj al-itlmi 'uhara 70 f4: Stem. such as Gabriel Qabra1ïl). and the kbayiJ. Second. 2. pp.'ubara) are the '100ks" (~wilJjr) and mi.'i1ism.E. R. First. in bath al-Murshid's treatise and al-MudbhibaIJ attributed to ai-Nu'mân the seven "cherubim" are seen as related ta one of the seven heavens (al-samant). the faq." p. 1. Michael (Miki'il).

Also see H. Stem. (commentary).217f. "MaJi. "The Earliest Cosmological Doctrines. and last "part of them are with animais and dogs <ma'a lani' wa-kilib). non-eorporeal . In the same al-Zinab. As we have seen. From this Qur'inîc verse. HaIm. pp.'ikah. . See Macdonald and Madelung. one of which remains with the angels (ma la al-mali 'ikah)." not as an angelic being. p.ah. In AbU lisa al-Murshid's treatise the ''heavens'' are made an "indicator' (da/il) to the cherubim. Al-RiZi. Another possible explanation therefore is that the liant" receives the "kbayiJ . fascicle 2." These "heavens" could be the seven planets.." • Therefore we can only with difficulty connect al-Rizi's discussion of the jinn in al-ZÜJah to his Ismâ'ïU angelology" in general. the demarcation of the angels from the jinnbath being supematural. Kosmologie. whereas the twelve zodiacs are an "indicalor" to the "spiritual beings. given the SUnni nature of al-Zïn.is not very clear in mainstream Islamic tradition. 91-100 Another "parr' of them fly in the air. p." p. 16 (Arabie text)/p. al-Zinab. or to Il his view on the kbayil in particular. it must be admitted that this exposition of the relation of the jinn and the angels fits in more with mainstream. 176f. angelology or "demonology." quoting Q 1 18: 50 which mentions Iblïs after the angels and yet counts him among the jinn?6 Thus it is possible that these supematural beings are somehow equivalent to the ldJayilit in al-Rizi's thought. each of the two explanations of Solomon's kbayil appearing to the liant" is problematic.207 • thus we are left having to explain how these angelic beings related to celestial bodies could have been subjugated by Solomon and made to appear ta a low-ranked da1wah member. 2Sf. but as an "image" or "vision" appearing in his soul: this is closer to the more common meaning of the word and 78. particularly Sunni. 171." p. al-Rizï quotes a tradition attributed to Imam Ja'far al-~idiq that the jinn are divided into three Ilparts" or categories (tlJalithat ajza ').7S AIso in the same text al-Razi mentions that the Arabs caU the angels (al-mali 'ikah) "jinn. 15 U • 16 Ibid. However.

The verb "taklJayala" used here bas the meaning of the dim or shadowy appearance of something or the appearance of • . 62r." in Encyclopedia of Arabie Literature. 1000. Tai al-'Arœ am JariJJjr al-Qimüs (al-Kuwayt. Also see: E. 437f. W." However. vol. Lane. it is conceivable that through this IImental image" the liant" recognized the event of Solomon's installation as highest leader of the da'wah. Il. 1970). de Biberstein Kazimirsk~ Dictionnaire arabe-français. Murta~i al-Zabidi. 1096. Likewise. 1 (Bayrüt. technical sense. the demarcation of the khay:il as l'mental image" and the angelic being kbayil as appearing in the image of a certain human figure is not always very dear. vol. 79 Also. 1: p..208 • than to its specifie. A. 2: p.. Abi Tilib's "mental image" ta bis successor imimS and lieutenants (f.. the khayiJ came her over (~araqa-hi). 4/f. the ant) through his khayil.. none at least which would support our interpretation. 53v. Arabic-English Lexicon (London/Edinburgh. 835f. vol. Khayyit and N. LiÜIJ al-'AnlIJ aJ-M. MirashIi. 1960) vol. 78 Ibn M~. Arabic-English Lexicon. (volume and page references are to reprint edition)." In the case of the liant" its IlJebayil" could be a sort of a mental image.. 243-44 of chapter 7 80 For example. 1984). de Biberstein Kazimirski.f. vol 1: p..then the Itbayil appeared [Iike an image] ta her (taldJayala la-bu) in his form" (f. Cambridge.e. Tai aJ. n. vol. 439. (Paris. Dictionnaire arabe-français" vol. W. 14: p. through this newly-gained "mental image. Cf." Solomon became aware of the liant" '5 recognition of him. 53r. 1: p. 14. See also: E.. 1.. s. 1. 14-15/f. there are hardly any other examples of references to the appearance of the khayil as a IImental image" • unrelated to angelic being in have seen 50 aJ-I~l~ or in the other contemporaneous texts we far. 1: p. A. l/pp. 932. 1965). 657f. 129)." vol. 1: pp. while al-RiZi depicts the coming of the "Spirit" or Gabriel ta Mary in Q 19: 17 as " . p." he interprets his appearance in the form of a man to her in the next verse as ". 1.. LjSÜJ al-'Anab al-M~" reviewed and completed by Y.80 71 Ibn Man~.f. More~ "KJu. 1966. reprint. 54r. 79 The only other example is the appearance of 'Ali b. This could be the meaning underlying that section of the passage quoted above which reads ''he (i. 19: pp. 110-11).78 Based on this suggestion. 1. 221. 16. Lane. See above in p. vol. 202. 11-13/p.44H... Salomon) had seen through his khay:il (bi-khayili-bJ1 what appeared to the mirror of [the soul of] that rank (Le...yâl. 1094. 797." since the meaning of the word used here II IItartiyi " (or tari'a ) denotes the appearance of something like an lIimage" or even the appearance of something in a mirror. 11. 67 of the present chapter and belowon p. 63r.'Anis. 52v.. nouvelle édition. Murta~al-Zabidi.

40 and Q 38: 36-38. below. the "spiritual stream" or the khayiJit. Alibhai in his "Abü Yatqüb al-5ijistini and Kitab Sullam al-Najj. p. which is dose to another verb taldJayyala ("to imagine" IIto appear"). while it seems ta appear more as an image of a liman" in that of the next verse. Because of this uniqueness. to ms fellow lieutenants. As we saw earlier. It can thus be suggested that. • Solomon's uniqueness and consequently that of his kbayiJ are also discussed by al-Sijistani: he relates the Qur'iI\ic story of Solomon ta the unique position of the messianic Qa'im in sacred history. the ldJayal could appear as an imaginary being to human beings. The relation of the interpretation of SoIomon's Qur'inic tale to the discussion on the Qi'im will be revisited in chapter 8. in his interpretation of Solomon's story al-RàZi emphasizes his uniqueness in the history of the prophets.authorized for propagation of the sorne image.209 • Though it avoids some of the problems associated with the "angelic being" or "supernatural being. the khayaJ intermediated by Solomon might have performed sorne exceptional acts such as appearing to a low-ranked da'wah member: this however is no more than speculation. Thus each of the above possible identifications of Solomon's "kbayâl" or IIk1Jayilit" presents us with difficulties. A. : A Study in Islamic Neoplatonism" (Ph. §1. In other words the lcbay. by M." that is. 78f..ni. .il appears as a "concrete angelic being" in the interpretation of Q 19: 17. The only explanation may lie in the peculiar nature of the kbay:il in this instance. showing how hard it is to find a theory which fully explains the peculiar nature of the k1Jayil at the present stage of our research." this interpretation has its own problems. 78-83. SuUam al-Najj" ed. The uniqueness of Solomon consists in his exceptional right of distribution of the allotment from the "wind. we confirm. 82 Al-5ijistant ibid. the "wind" subjugated by God for Solomon is the Jebayil which blows to the lieutenants at the latters command. 50 could this happen te the "an r' of Salomon? Il Al-5ijisbini. as its name indicates.82 In the case of the Qi'im the khayàl flows to his lieutenants and aIso to uthose whom Gad -Glory to Him!.81 According to al-Sijisti. • 1983). Here al-5ijistiri quotes and interprets Q 27: 15. D. Harvard University. pp. dissertation.

however. For instance. 202-209 (in the case of al-Rizi: Solomon and even the "anr'?) and on pp.. For the time being. 209-210 (in the case of al-Sijistàni: Salomon and bis fellow lieutenants) in the present chapter. However.210 • [true] sciences and the realities among the people of the world in the days of his (the Qi.. specifically by divinely-guided leaders. .'im's) concealment. let us proceed ta describe and analyze the passages in which • various Isma'ïlï authors discuss the possibility of access to the angelic celestial beings. the people below these latter in the da'wah hierarchy.-nashr al-'uliim wa-al-~i'iq baJ'D ab1 al-'aJam aY. p.. This application of the theme of deprivation is aiso related to other motifs in the history of the prophets already analyzed in the previous chapter.83 The above expression "those whom God..e. These motifs include. including the kbayal. or almost only in the context of Solomon's story.Yjm 6uybaû-bi. respectively. authorized. angelic being) is mentioned very exœptionally. just as was seen in the case of al-Rizi.. the above-mentioned deprivation of the jan or middah (spiritual"sustenance") in the stary of Abraham's dispute is applied ta the interpretation of the histary of the prophets. i.. since the lieutenants are the highest ranked after the imam. and bearing this problem in mind. as we have seen in a couple of cases 50 far. for example. 84 The earthly hierarchy's contact with the celestial.. This problem is one that needs to be addressed in a future study. in the works of al-5ijistini a lower-ranked person's accessibility to the khayiJ (a celestial. SU. 83 • N However access to the last hypostasis is still open to the lieutenants. angelic beings is further discussed by al-Râzi in the context of the history of the prophets." could be interpreted as denoting all those than the lieutenants.iIJ subÜIJa-1Ju b. the completion by certain prophets of their The original of the passage reads as follows: mu waJduala-lJum AU. Ibid. See above on pp.. Thus it can be suggested that al-5ijistinï too may have conceived of the possibility of the khayiJ's appearance to a low-ranking da'wah member.

'.I.f. 137r..85 thus putting his obedience to the test (yam~na) by cutting off His barakah (f. Il. 1. and was thus forced ta join the ranks of the dead (. In so doing. passed on the rank of completeness (. 135v. 136v. 144r. USUS. See f. 7-1S/pp. L 12..SB to their successor. Il. Joseph. Il. who spiritually supports the earthly hierarchy (al-~udijd aj-. al-Rizi presents one of the ways in which a prophet should behave at the time of the completion of bis mission.. etc.1. 1.iirah 103 al-flutJi. 3-12/p.f. 136v.uf1ïyab.f1add altamimiyah) 1 which we can think of as grade which only the nu~qa'. 268-69).86 an action that usually leads to death. 284 Even the Prophet MutJammad himself was suspended from receiving the revelation (aI-~y) for 40 days before . literally "the lower ranks").. 1-13/f. 268). 4/f. as the mutimm of the age and bis bib. trl Aise cf.. As for the prophets' completion of their missions. respectively.284. 1. as seen above. 144r. 4-14/f. 12 -V. Abraham was put to just such a test through deprivation of the jan (jlJqj~ ç al-jan).211 • missions before their death and their subsequent submission of their authority.. of muÛlDm) can attain. and atimmi' (pl. 145v.. • 4/p. 88 It can he presumed that this lJadd aJ-WZJimiyah is interchangeable in meaning with the grade (al-martabah) called aJ-WDàmïyab which is exclusively given only to the lJuJaqi. 1... 1. 10. usus. 14Sr. al-Rizî explains the theme of deprivation of the jan or maddah in bis interpretation of verse Q 39: 42 (IlGod takes the souls at the lime of their death.V.. Il. .. 136r. which concerns the story of Joseph and Jacob. the as In this passage aI-Razi points out again that Gad entrusted responsibili ty for the "spiritual stream" (amr al-jin" to the tà1ï. f. Jacob and bis wife. 14. (the dawn) was revealed: this was a test God gave him."). 7/p.f1ab al-barakab). S/f. and . followed by the rebellion of the antagonists against the legitimate heirs of that authority.87 In a passage discussing verse Q 12: 100.f1add • al-mawti) (f. God therefore deprives a person whose mission is completed of jari. 136r. The meaning of souls" in this II verse refers to the allotments [made] to the possessors of the blessing" Il (!Ju~ ~. 86 In this test God watches te see whether the prophet obediently submits te bis authority ornot.

148r.. especially n.. 1. see f. In al-Rizi's interpretation they actually asked for "what flows into him at the rank of enunciation" (ma yajri ilay-hi bi-l. Jacob. 84r.. Al-Râzi cites the case of the disobedient people in the age of Moses who asked him to show them God Himself (Q 4: 153). Joseph. 139r. 274-76). The deprivation of middah also functions as a punishment meted out to the disobedient. 14-16/p.. 6 -84r. the legitimate successor of the ni. Il. This can he interpreted that al-Rizi believes Joshua ta have been the uis (or the fundament> of Moses. 154v.I.90 and instead dose to follow an antagonist as their leader. 2-3/f. which is one of the modes that relate the alilnmà'. 134-35 above. The above passages on Abraham. because of its common three consonant root common to tamimi'yah • The case of the submission of their authority by Jacob and bis wiEe to their son.. il. Il. Thus. 301-302). Moses) appointed him to the uis-ship (al-uüïyah). in another passage al-RâZi explains that after he handed the Torah to Joshua (Yüshi· b.f. In retum for this submission they were. 14.212 • two of them continued to receive the jâri through their successor. 140r.. 1. in asking for a nipl{s privilege.aadd al-nu!q). p. 9-13/pp. l. Il. However. they refused to recognize the authority of the &Sis. which is thought to be the guidance specifically granted to an enunciator-prophet. 127r.. 127v. Joseph. and Moses thus confirm that sorne of the motifs of the history of the prophets are connected to the theme of the deprivation of jan or middab. was already mentioned in the last chapter. 6. • which consisted in the deprivation of middalL. Moses asked the Israelites to bear witness to rum.fiq Moses. 3/f. p. 243. elevated in terms of virtue89 (f. 4/pp. 141r. 5/pp. 1. particu1arly those who are actively antagonistic. one might say. 141r. 83v.lilL .f. Nün). 2-6/f.. identified by al-Razi as the "thunderbolt" (al-~a 'a'lah ) which bit them according to verse Q 4: 153 (f. According to al-Rizi. 168-69. 1. 252. li. 10. We will revisit the issue of ua$ -ship of Moses in chapter 7. a sort of counter-ua$ whom the dissidents supported. 89 90 ln this passage the name of the uis of Moses is not given. In this context this ~add or martabah seems to he related more to the mutimm (completer) or imim. As for the antagonist.. his name is not mentioned in • al-l. this event means: "he (i.e.. See f. 2-15/f. This rebellious deed led to their incurring a punishment. On al-tamamiyab..

. 137v. [quoted] until the end of the story [of the "table"]. In interpreting this • verse.213 • members of the earthly da'wah to the celestial spiritual hierarchy.. Le.270) .. illustrated by the above-mentioned case of the dissidents in the age of Moses.. and promised that he would appoint the a$i$ among them so that they would gain [once again access to] the "spiritual stream" through him. • . Il.al-middah lan-hum )." (f. is thy Lord able to send down on us a Table out of heaven?' He said. 1.e. They (i. a temporary. al-Razi discusses aIso the issue of the installation of the asis. This is only because they were put to a test (mumta. '0 Jesus son of Mary. This installation must not be questioned. 14.fJaniin ) by being deprived of the [spiritual] sustenance (bi-inqi!2.. role-player in sacred history. We can see for example that the installation of a legitimate asü. 136v. which is. if you are believers' " (Q 5: 112)." they asked him to carry out for them what he had promised. needless ta say. they prayed to God to send down the "table"). 1 when the Messiah intended to install his "as. Let us here revisit al-Razi's interpretation of verse Q 5: 112 where Jesus is said to have prayed to God to send down the "table" (al-ma 'idah). This suggests that sorne modes of the encounter between members of the da 1wa1J and the upper hierarchy have a role to play in the course of sacred history. an indispensable constituent of the scheme of sacred history. yet key. provides us with a clue for further investigation into how sacred history is formulated. 137r. otherwise one would be deprived of the jan or middah.. the disciples) asked him for this (Le.f. 1 4/p. the installation of the asas (iqimat al-aü). He explains _ the situation in which Jesus and his disciples found themselves as follows: "And when the Apostle said. Thus. 5-12/f. when their "test" was prolonged because of the deprivation of the "spiritual stream.so that the [spiritual] "sustenance" would return ta them and they would be sustained with the "stream.. This is the punishment for refusing to recognize the master of the age succeeding the ni#q. This issue. 'Fear you God.

ni#q. through whom they would be able to obtain middah or spiritual sustenance (which is the meaning of the "table").f. 137v. 138v..72). it is nevertheless how one reacts to the installation of the legitimate asas that determines which mode of contact with the higher spiritual hierarchy a person or persons will be able to attain. 4. 5ince they rememberedJesus' promise ta appoint his asa.. Similarly. if these are pursued indirectly through higher dignitaries. 1. who plays the key role in sacred history after the higher angelic beings. f. 1. Whether one recognizes or rejects this key figure. the da'wah members' relation with the one playing the key-raIe and their reaction ta crucial moments in sacred history seem ta determine the mode of their contact with the higher spiritual hierarchy.. 14/pp. 12.. This is to say that the presence of the uas. 137r.. 4ff.270.I. is indispensable ta the members of the earthly da'wah in obtaining the jirï or middah from the • In the above examples of the installation of the uas it may be observed how sorne modes of contact with the higher spiritual hierarchy do play a raIe in the evolution of sacred history.r. Jesus' disciples.214 • In short. they implored him ta fulfill his promise (see aIso f. 137v.. Thus..." did so because they had been deprived of middah. • . This can be related to the above-mentioned motif of punishment. The above interpretation presupposes that only the legitimate asü can guarantee the delivery of middah and of allotments from the jiri to the members of the da'wah after the death or disappearance of a certainna#q. who asked for the lltable. 1. are incorporated into the scheme of sacred history. we can safely say that the modes of contact with the angelic beings.

and ïmam. uà$. However. are influenced by the higher spiritual beings. Citing other appellations of the two highest hypostases. the lJâll9 and the uà$. called the ~Iân or two IIroots as seen above. ta 'Iim. al-5ijistini holds that these twO exert their power over the "relations of existent beings" (al-ifà~ât al-aysiyah ). respectively. particularly ll with the two highest ones. 174f. • 92 This expression "relations of existent beings" seems ta denote the hierarchical relations of earthly creatures... of the present chapter above. In our discussion so far we have seen the close connection between the enunciator-prophets and the highest hypostases in terms of relations between the two hierarchies. and riyiflaIJ. As seen in the aforementioned passage from al-Sijistini. access to ta 'yiel from those two hypostases is limited on earth to the highest dignitaries of the hierarchy. only the first of which apparently cornes directly from these two highest celestial hypostases. Le. The Making of the (Enunciator-prophets) in Their Encounter with the Angelic Beings The last section was devoted mainly to an analytical description of how the members of the earthly hierarchy.. including the nâ~q. the nâ~9. 192 of the present chapter above. see p. . through ta 'yid. with the earthly hierarchs. the Universal Intellect and Universal • Soula Furthermore. al~a~a 1 ("divine fate") and al-'laelar ("divine decree").• §3. the discussion in this section will focus mainly on the nUEaqâ"s contact with the angelic beings in arder to elucidate the structure of the communication between the two hierarchies in greater detail.. i. 91 Al-5ijistâni goes on to speak of the relation of the two celestial hypostases. the Universal Intellect Nu.e. Le..' 215 and the Universal Soul shower their benefit on human souls in three modes.92 the highest of which (j~âbat al-lJàli'liyah is the "goal of the enundatar-ship and of the fundament-ship" 91 See p. On the meaning of the term ays or aysiyàt in a faction of early Isma"iUs influenced by Neoplatonism.

That is to say. Il.. 129. pp. spiritual and material..95 The lali in this interpretation 93 Al.. mean the œ~qs act of reveiationai legisiation.: pp.I. 56v. f. French transi. For instance. al-Rizi mentions that the hypostases in heaven and the dignitaries on earth form pairs which parallel each other in terms of their positions in their respective reaIms (f. the ~Iin and uüin are described as symbolicaIly representing the four words of the first half of the .58r. also cf.$ are called the uüan (two bases).Sijistini. 90-94 (English transI. the esoteric meaning of which is the 'Word of Gad" (kalimat ADm).94 In short. whereas in the case of the ~Iin the Intellect represents all the existent beings in the cosmos. We can aIso find in ~Iàn and al-I~I~ a passage wbich implies a close Unk between the the asuin expressed in terms similar ta those found in al-Sijistani's texte For example. we believe."). AIso.hahidah (confession of the faith) Ui iIiJJa HIa ADiJJ).93 Furthermore in other passages al-Sijistini implies that the napq and ui. 63r. and the Sou! their composition and order. the nipq represents the actual words and the orders based on revelation and the asü their esoteric interpretation. 17. French transI.. aJ·Utikbü. whereas the asâsan represent the • religious order on earth.: pp. the Divine Word of Creation. p.Y:uJibi'. 119). i. 40. This could. 30th yaabü' "On the Meaning of the Confession of the Faith" (Fi ma"ni al-shahidah) fromal-Yanàbi'. he maintains that "the Lord" in this verse means the tàJi . we adopt the reading of MS. 94 Al-Sijistini. for the as&sin. representing two corporeal counterparts in the earthly hierarchy.216 • wa-al-uasiyah ). in bis interpretation of Q 73: 9 ("The Lord of the east and the west.: pp.. 1. 91-93 and commentary on it. 118-24. Il.. 9S • In consideration of the context of the passage in question. . pp. while the "eas t" and "wes t" are the asisan. 62r. in Kim" al.e. 6-8/p.. pp.uJbii' liOn the Meaning of the Word of the Creator" (Fi mala al-KaIimah Ii-l-Mubdi l ) from the same text.. 6-10/f. The sacred Iaw brought by this act becomes aiso object of the uài interpretation. 70-73 (English transi. the ~Iin denote the arder of the entire cosmos. 4/p. pp. See aise 39th y. 185-89. 57r.. 92-96). 8-10/f.f. 175-77. 11. 107-109 and commentary on it: pp.

ya. Tüb. 1. al-Rizi seems inclined ta exdude one of the &flan or one of the uüan from his discussion.. and atimmi' (completers) can hold. IL 2-15/f. Il. 1.. . 66v.. there are sorne passages describing the contact between the ni. 83v. due to his ultimate rejection of the cult of astral bodies (Q 6: 76. 138-39)." in f.11/pp.. 1.. and second..ala bi-aJ-~layn) and reached "completeness" (baJagha aJ- tamimïyah) (f....78) Abraham came into conjunction with the two ~lan (itra. Besides the nafÏq' s contact with the ~lan there are two other issues to remark upon in the above passages on Abraham: first.pq and the ~Jan.e. 96 However.6. 195-96 of this present chapter above. who took human form as his "guests.97 Also. 66v. 4/pp. the na#q 's acquisition of the "spiritual stream" from the ~ljn. the khayil and the jadd.. Il. The aforementioned interpretation of the verses touching on the "guests of Abraham" (in Q 51: 24-28) is one of those passages: Abraham is said to have gained access to the jàri from the ~lin through the intermediation of the khayil and jadd. IL 7-16/f.. 84r. IL 4-12/f. Il.. This ucompleteness" is the privileged "grade" (aJ-manzilalJ ) which only dignitaries such as the nu~qa'. 6Sv. The first issue can be related to the early Ismi'ili idea of the gradual formation of enunciator-prophethood or nà1iq-ship in a future prophet..217 • is the "ti.. (f. 1. 6 -84r.69).. in this passage and others where he mentions the relation of the highest spiritual hypostases with the earthly hierarchy. uaJ-asi.. 96r.96 In addition. 65v. instead of that of MS. 97r. ual-ari. It is only on achieving this grade that • these dignitaries can come into conjunction with the ~lin and profit from the result of this occurrence (f.ft. a process developed through encounters with the angelic beings of the higher spiritual Ham.. 3/p. 168.. f. 97 • See pp.$. the asùâlJ)" (al-t2li al-murabbi la-huma)... 1..1ï who instructs the two (i. 191).. 96v.1." in f... œus . through the intermediation of the two lesser angelic beings.. I. bis or any future prophet's attainment of a certain rank in the hierarchy before or at the time of conjunctïon with the ~lin.

the arder of God al-Nu'min applies the idea of the graduaI formation of prophethood through encounter with angelic beings or their influence ta his interpretation of verses Q 28: 29-30. until he became worthy of the position of enunciator-prophet (maqàm finaIly conjoined with him. Thus. His heip (tawfiqu-bu ) and His inspiration (ilhamu-hu ). 112-14. Asis al-Ta'vril. 113. which deal with Moses' contact with "fire" (nir) burning on a mountain (~ür). it is related to another problem. pp. lOt AI-Nu'màn.218 • hierarchy.e. p. it becomes problematic whether the contact with the ~lan is accomplished directIy or indirectly through an intermediation. pp. i. pp. • tao Ibid.. In other words. al-Qi~ al-lJi~q).98 As for the second issue. 1-6 of the Hebrew Bible. 1 which touches on the case of Abraham as one example of the formation of • prophethood. Feki in his Les idées religieuses et philosophiques de l'ismaélisme fatimide. In the fifth treatise of this text there is presented a pre-Fi!imid Isma ilï tradition ascribed ta a leader of the sect ealled IIthe sage" (al-frakim ). 223-27. which in tum corresponds ta the ''bwning bush" in Exodus 3. 98 99 Kitàb al-Kubf. This is one of the focal points of dispute between al-Nasafi and al-Rizi. The episode of Moses' encounter with "tire" is . Gad elevated Abraham grade by grade (darajab ba 'da darajab ) by means of the ta 'yid and by His guidance (hidiyatu-hu ). this This idea was a1ready pointed out by H. especially. and will therefore be discussed in greater detaillater in this section. 190-92.99 Aceording to the text. lol According to al-Nu'min. that of the accessibility of the highest spiritual beings of the celestial hierarchy.. IOO Among later thinkers. The idea of the graduaI development of the prophetie faeulty in a future prophet through encounter with the angelie beings can be found aIready elaborated in Kitab al-Kashf.

pp. sa that in the end he became a tJi~q of the next cycle.219 • Qur1inic story reveals that the rank of the ta. Corbin. 290-96. ed. AI-NU'min. 331. Sari'ir wz-Asr. Nomoto. 102 103 Ja'far b. Mal'\fÜr. 104 In found in the verses Q 20: 9-13 as weIl.ür. Mori ITokyo. 103 There are aiso the passages in which al-Nu'man interprets the tales concerning Jesus found in the QurJin and other sources.ïr.. the verse Q 19: 52. AI-Nu'mân. 163. in the interpretation of AI-Nu'min's contemporary. A_. possibly even the Gospels. 191. Al-Nu'min aise emphasizes the nature of gTadual formation of a being as a general rule. 125--43). India and Islam.l02 In brief the "fire" in verse Q 28: 29 denotes the rank of enundator-prophet. Also cf. al-riSaJa/J). p. For the cross references of the Qur'inic verses and the passages from the Hebrew Bible. S. Moses in the verse) says "1 fee! the light of divine support in myself. H. Ja'far b. we consulted Paret. that is. Kamada and H. al-Nu'mi. 10. 1994).n's interpretation of Q 28: 29-30 cited above shows that the story of Moses' encounter with "fire" represents his initiation into the office of • enunciator-prophethood.. Likewise..'yid of prophethood (lJadd ta 'yid al-lJubüwab ) came into conjunction with Moses. chapter 5 from Aas. an Early Ismi W Thinker" (in JaPallese) in Transcendence and Mystery: the Gedankenwelten of China. p. p. Der Koran: Kommentar. That is to say: The metaphor for the "fire" [in verse Q 28: 29] (matbal aJ-lJÜ) is that for the rank of enunciator-prophet (~dd al-lJj~q) [which cornes] from the light of divine support (nür al-ta 'J'id): he (Le.& I • . p. ''The Prophets' Encounter with the Angelic Beings according to al-Rizï." pp. pp. ''The Prophetie Figure of Jesus in Fà~mid Ismi lilism" (in Japanese). the messengership itself (nai. idem. Ja'far b. Thus. the same story signifies that Moses was filled with knowiedge of the apparently absent imim of his age and with the ta. 151-62 (English transI. Reports of Keio Institute of Cultural and Linguistic Studies 24 (1992): pp. "Herméneutique spirituelle comparée. 242f. Also d. Mal'\!Ür quotes only the verse Q 28: 29. while the mountain on the other hand represents the position of enunciator-prophet. 299-314.." The metaphor for the mountain is that for the grade of enunciator-prophet. by S. 'yid. Man.

AAr. Early Philosophical 5hiism. rather. to whom al-Nu'II\in refers as the imim of that age. according to al-Nu'man. Al5ijistini hoids that prophethood (al-nubùwah) does not suddenly come into • conjunction with just any prophet.: H. he emphasizes the jadd'5 alighting (wuqü' al-jade/) on the napq as a privilege which is granted to a lOS AI-Nu'min. AI-Nu'man tries to connect this episode to a tradition reporting that a "white dove" 106 (fJam. p.10S That is to say. Am. 100. significant change (al-. p. it was reported to John the Baptist. p. On this passage cf. AI-5ijistini. p. 10'1 • 108 This sort of specification of ange1ic being(s) is difficult to find in al-Nu'man's text. 106 In other words John became aware that. who is more systematic in presenting ms thought. Luke 3: 22. Ibid. . ItlJWt. the prophet must first experience . 307. it is not indicated which of the "beings at the upper ranks" played the decisive role in the formation of the prophethood of these two IJàPqs. that the "beings at the upper spiritual ranks" had come into conjunction with Jesus. Jesus had reached the rank at which he could receive inspiration. John 1: 32. 190-92 and pp. p. E. P. This tradition is presumably taken from the accounts of the baptism of Jesus and the subsequent visit of the Holy Spirit in the four Gospels: Matthew 3: 16. even though he was still in the state of instruction (lJaIat al-tarbiyab ). John the Baptist recognized that revelational inspiration (al-wafly) had been handed down to Jesus. Feki. al-Nu'min presents the story that Mary saw in Jesus the power of divine support (qùwat al-ta 'yid). we must consider sorne passages by al-5ijistini. Receiving this report. through bis conjunction with higher beings.105 Furthermore. in the passages on Moses and Jesus discussed above. 299-314. On the issue of the graduaI formation of prophethood.107 In addition. al-5ijistini seems to hold that there is a specifie angelic hypostasis which plays a decisive role in the formation of prophethood by virtue of its coming into contact with a future prophet. 224. 119.sti-!Wah ) in his spiritual status until he reaches the rank of enunciator-prophethood (~dd al-napqiyah ).imab lJayfli? flew down and entered into union with him. pp.. Walker. For example. Mark 1: 10.Les idées religieuses et phz1osophiques. 30S.220 • explaining the formation of Jesus' prophethood.

it seems to be suggested in the text of al-5ijistini that the jadd is the indispensable and decisive faculty which qualifies a nâpq to occupy this rank.. the three angelic beings play an intermediary role between the aflitl and the asâsitl. 68-69. while at the same time describing the development of the role of nâpq as a process lasting throughout bis entire life span. using the term "three fortunes" (al-A 'âdât a/-tbalâthah) consisting of: 1) the alighting of jadd [on him] at the time of bis birth ( WU9ü' d-jadd 'inda al-milâd). Le. it is his vehicle (markab) into the divine realm (maIaküt).221 • prophet at bis birth ('inda al-milâd). Kosmologie. it helps him in compiling revelation (ta 'lU laozjli-bi) in the form of a clear instruction consisting of speech and written words (literally. since above these three angelic beings there exist the two highest spiritual hypostases exerting their influence upon the napq and the asâs. . This gives tise to another question. fa~ (the faculty of esoteric interpretation) and 1dJay:il (imagination of the future of the community). however. p. 42-43. See also Halm. 45• 109 110 • Ibid. become a lord (rabb) of the people of his age. a prophet). The jadd ' s role as such is more clearly represented in al-5ijistini's description of its multifaceted nature: it is the "fortune" (al-bakht) which makes a "pure soul" (nais zakiyah. pp. 2) the gift of intellect and leadership at the [attainment of] maturity (hibat aJ-'aqi wa-a/-$iyâsah 'jnda al-bulü. 1s there any A1-5ijistini describes the grades of deveIopment of the career of the IIcomplete1y fortunate one" (al-mu'üd al-Iimm ). that is. and the nU!aqa' in the formation of prophethood and in revelation... the aflin.109 Thus.110 This is to say. AI-5ijistini. Kim" aJ-lftilcbN. pp.h). as we have already seen in the case of Abraham gaining the "spiritual stream" from the aflÜJ through the intermediation of the jaddand ldJayil. many of the ni#q '5 attributes are provided to him by virtue of the presence of the jadd. according to al-Razi. i. although a prophet is granted two other faculties. In this interrelationship. 3) the success of the testamentary commandment at the time of his death (rawtiq aJ-W'afiyah 'ÜJda al-ma rit).e. the niP9. we must ask ourselves what the interrelationship is between the three angelic beings. "voices and letters") (talqin mubâyin 'an al~rit • wa-al-!Uuijf'). Therefore.

. "luminous lamp" to iuj~ Interpreting the same verses. 350.. He cites the same ranks as al-Ran's. • . a "bringer of good II tidings" (mubumbir). 14. the five grades of the hierarchy by Gad.. 4-14/f..222 • ather connection between the ~lilJ and the uüilJ. l. one of its most typical expressions can be found in bis interpretation of the Qur'inic verses 33: 45-46.111 The issue of the decisive role of angelic beings in the formation of prophethood is aIso discussed by al-Rizi in the context of his interpretation of a well-known Qur'inic verse on the Prophet M~ammad. 123). Le. Am. 17: l. AI-Nu'min. These verses declare that God dispatched the Prophet M~ad as a "witness" (sbahiJ). l.quq (lieutenant). . The meaning of these verses is. a cal1er" (di 1. in which he replaces mufimm with asu. "caller" (da 'i) to lilUq. mutimm. which has been oft-quoted and interpreted in various genres of lU Following this passage. l. As for al-Razï's discussion of the idea of graduai formation or elevation toward the attainment of ni!iq-ship. The "witness" corresponds to aapq. p. In the remainder of this section we will attempt to shed light on these issues and on the relation between the earthly and celestial hierarchies through an analysis of al-Razï's interpretation of the stories of the prophets. S8v.f. 59r." The five grades with which the Prophet was graced were the ranks of ma'dhÜll (licensee). "good-tiding bringer" to ua." another appellation for da Ij). 60r. and nap'l (f.). a "wamer" Cnadhir). lI. but the correspondence he presents is different from al-Rans. This is the verse on bis "night joumey" (isri' ). besides the intermediation of the three angelic beings? This question is closely related to the one which we already raised conceming the prophets' accessibility to the two highest spiritual hypostases without the intermediation of anyone else.. and a "bright lamp" • (sirij munir). 9/p. that the Prophet had bestowed upon him. according ta al-Razï. "wamer" Caadbirl to mutimm. aI-Razi presents the correspondence between each title of the Prophet and each hierarchical rank.. He then writes: 'Therefore he was elevated from one grade to another (min martabah iJi martabah) . janall ("wing. also al-Nu'min tries to find correspondences between the five tities of the Prophet and the five ranks of the earthly hierarchy.

9: pp. who carried His servant by night from the Holy Mosque to the Further Mosque" (Q 17: 1). conceming that which is between the lJa!iq and none but he was aware of the reality of bis rank in relation to these two. 120) In the passage quoted above it is the sibiq. And he rode Buriq. he was elevated from the conjunetion with the tali to the conjunctïon with the sabiq (the preceder. Mi'raj. l12 The following is al·Ra. Here we ate the following studies: G. the relevant passages from E/lrly Islamic Mysticism: Sufi. Marquet. "L'ascension spirituelle chez quelques auteurs ismaïliens. including Y. i. • [The expression] "the precincts of which We have blessed" (Q 17:1) means the DÛ and his la ~q spiritually supported with the blessing. the Universal Intellect) and gained the rank of the enunciation (martabat furthest of the hierarchy the ~lan: (aq~i aI-f:JudüJ>. Poetic and Theological Writings. BOwering. 58v. In addition. a1·nu~) which is the "By night. transI. the articles from Le voyage initiatique en terre d'Islam: ascensions célestes et itinéraires spirihlels. that is. ed. 1." ER.v. the Prophet ascended from the conjunction through the khayil of the tàli to the conjunction with the übiq through the jadd.. he came into conjunction with the jadd from the side of what shone (baraqa) upon him through the kbayil of the tali (bi-khayil al-taJj).. IL 5-13 / f. A. "In one night") was a thing hidden. M.e. thus ascending to heaven. the jadd joined him with the sabiq (bi-al-sibiq) until he rose to the f:Jadd of enundation.. edited with introduction by M." pp.. after rus conjunction with H. 117-32. 57r. the text seems to imply that this conjunction entails another conjunction. A.223 • Islamic intellectual and religious literature. Sells (New York. tt2 The scholarly references to the tradition of the Prophet's linight joumey" are nearly innumerable. 1996).I. with the jadct That is.mad. Le. to attain the rank of enundator-ship through elevation from the conjunetion with the t:ili. "from the holy mosque to the further mosque" (Q 17: 1). That is. Amir-Moezzi (Louvain/Paris. That is to say. 16. (f. That is to say. vol.e.." that is to say: it (i. 552-56.. 1996). • .zi's interpretation of the verse: "Glory to Him. Qur'ù. 8/p. IiMi~ràj. Briefly stated. the Universal Intellect.. which allowed the Prophet M~am. And then he mounted the ladder (al-mi'râI1.

After night fell. On this passage by al-Sijistini. Marquet.224 • this passage on the llnight journey' shows that the conjunction of the Prophet M~mmad with the sibiq and the jadd elevated him to the rank of nipq -ship according to al-Ran's interpretation. Kosmologie. the latter suggests that those two hypostases played a decisive role in the Prophet's attainment of the rank of na#q-ship. AI-5ijistini. such as the a. 70-71 (the analysis of the text). 117-20. believing at first that it was his Lord. God showed Abraham the Urealm of the heavens and the earth" (malaküt al-samawit wa-al-art!) (Q 6: 75). The original story of Abraham's denial of the cult of astral bodies in the Qur'ân develops as follows. Halm. cf. • 114 See aIse p. 115 . And yet he holds that he was elevated to that highest eartlùy rank from the rank of the imamate (~dd al-imûDiyab). 217 of the present chapter above. In Halm. 225-27 (Arabie text). This is the problem we raised earlier regarding the ability of the prophets to have access to the highest hypostases." pp. neither his text nor bis analysis covers al-Rizi's own interpretation of Abraham's story written in reply ta al-Nasaiï's one. p. In our attempt to understand the above interpretation of the "night journey" verse the question still remains as to whether this insistence on conjunction with the highest angelic hypostases is applicable to other prophets in the thought of al-Razi or that of other Ismi1ili thïnkers. "L'ascension spirituelle. Abraham saw a star. One due to solving the problem is provided by the aforementioned polemic over Abraham's denial of the cult of the astral bodies (Q 6: 75-78).lin. but when it set on the horizon he did 113 Also al-5ijistini interprets this verse of llnight joumey' as the Prophet's attainment of the rank of the nafjq-ship (~dd aJ-nifjqiyab). Ithbat. pp. Y.113 Thus. pp. 44.114 and • al-Ran's discussion of another Qur'inic verse 7: 143 dealing with Moses' encounter with God on Mount 5inai Although this polentic has already been edited and analyzed by H.us This part will be discussed and analyzed in our present study in order to present an overall picture of al-Rizi's concept of the prophets' contact with the angelic beings.

70..117 However. Following the pattern of his polemic against al-Nasafi. However.1. l. and. AI-Razi refers ta the Soul using a masculine pronoun. That is to say. From that point onwards he consistently confessed rus belief in the unity of God (Q 6: 78). • 183-84). . ibid. After he recovered. when he saw the /lsun/" he recognized the rank of the Preceder (fJadd al-sibiq). To begin with" al-Rizi maintains in his refutation that Abraham had already • n6 117 o. al-Riozï begins by introducing his opponent's interpretation of the story of Abraham's denial of the cult of astral bodies as follows (f. The next astral body. Halm. but it too set (6: 77). he became aware that it is impossible to believe that a /lbeing which ends at another above it" (mut:anihin ni fawqi-hi) possesses the Divinity (al-ilaJüyab). and grandeur (/a~amata-bu).116 According to al-Nasafi. 8V. In the original story of Moses (Q 7: 143)/ he implored God on Mount Sinai ta show Himself. the sun" symbolized II II the Universal Intellect. 5ïnce this "star" set. the preceder or the Univers al Intellect.. this too set.225 • not believe 50 any longer (6: 76). Moses repented his arrogance in trying to see God. Replying to Moses.f. Finally. 91v. 92r. p. the "moon/" was the Universal Soul (al-nafs) by itself (bi-hüwïyaû-bi): Abraham saw its light (niira-hu). 1.. Finally. that is. 15. 11ff. impressed by its splendor. Unable to bear such a glorious vision. and believed that this was bis Lord. Moses fell to the ground unconscious. came to believe it was his Lord. the /Istar. 92r. he saw the sun. Next he saw the moon.." which Abraham first thought was the Creator (aJ-mubdi'). was the jadd. thus finding it glorious and confirming the se rvitude" (al-'ubüdiyab). Gad ordered him to turn his eyes to the mountain where He would appear. beauty (baha 'a-hu). the I Imoon" aIso set over the horizon: this meant that the Soul had reached its limit (padda-hu). 4fpp.. 1.

holding: For this (Le.v. pp. 118 . 92v. Allard. Vajda. the human beings) will not attain in this world (fi hi. 93r.possible even for prophets to grasp the vision of the Universal Intellect and the Universal Soul in their essences in this world. 15. Rather.Jam).dhi. 92r.. 5-7/p. di.. dissertation. Even the relatively lower ranked people such as the "wings. 5. G. University of Califomia.. 92v. 2-S/f. 59-89. 31-54. 1. al-Ri. 93r.." I. They will not recognize its (the Universal Soul's) light and beauty only with recognition and knowledge in its essence (bi-hüwïyati-hi). 1/p. Il. 11-13ff. 92r. al-Rizi quotes and interprets verse Q 7: 143. see the following studies: M. pp.. which has been often analyzed and utilized for the discussion of whether the vision of God is possible or not.184-85). 1979). (f.. 1970). and licensees (al-ma'dhünün) know that the authority of every rank ends (mutanihin) at its limit and that no creature can gain the Uvision of God" (ru'yat Allah) (f.226 • reached the rank at which he could be aware of the ranks of the jadd and the ~lan by the time that the story of Abraham's denial took place..D. I.1.e shi'isme imâmite (Paris. it is m1. It cannot possibly be believed that they will attain the vision of the "two roots" Cru'yat a1-~Jayn) • in their essences in this world.e problème des attributs divins dans la doctrine d'al-Airad et de ses premiers grands disciples (Beirut. 1.93r.. who instructs not only Moses and other nuraQi' • On the various interpretations of this verse in the context of debate over the possiblity of the beatific vision of God in the hereafter since the 3rd/9th century. al-Ràzi maintains that the '~ord" of Moses in this verse is the Follower (al-fjJj).f. 185) That is. 13.zï also rejects al-Nasafi's statement that Abraham saw the "beauty" and IIgrandeur" of the Universal Soul.Çis. pp. 1. "The Origins and Development of the Controversy over RuYab in Medieval Islam and its Relations to Contemporary Visual Theory" (Ph. 264--69. K. (f." Le. 1965). Il.v. A. n8 To begin with. 3/pp. "Le problème de la vision de dieu (ru'J'3> d'après quelques iilites duodédmains. the Universal Soul) is a degree (manzilah) which they (Le.. Il. 184). Tuft.. Los Angeles. al-'j.. 1. I. In an attempt to base the denial of the vision of the two highest hypostases on scriptural authority. 8/f.

imams). Il.227 • but also some of hierarchs ranked below the lJu~qi " such as the USU$ (fundaments) and the aÛmma' (completers. 185-86). 47. IL 6-14/f. it is nevertheless delivered by the rali through the intermediaries. Al-Yaaabi p. French transi. p. it is the ra/i which is entrusted (al-mutawalli) with bestowing spiritual benefit upon them (ifâdatu-hum) from itself and the $ibiq through such intermediaries (a1-risi~t) as the jadd and the khayil (f. .. 23-24).t20 ~add of imamab ta that of enunciator-ness Then. Then. is the "mountain" (al-jabal) in verse Q 7: 143. In addition.. i. Al-Ri.2i continues bis interpretation of the verse as follows: Il And when bis Lord revealed Himself to the mountain. Il (English transI. though ail of them receive spiritual guidance from the ~laa. He made it crumble ta 119 Also. Le. since he interprets the arder of the ''Lord'' as being to look attentively at the state of the tili by way of the jadd.119 In his interpretation of the tale of Moses in verse Q 7: 143 al-Razi indicates that even -!iqs like Moses cannot contact the ~lin except through those intermediaries.. Also according te al-5ijistini a Qiliq is always in either the state of asœnt to the rank of the liJi through which he gains bis allotment from the Divine Word (.fJç~bu min al-blimah ). ta which the ''Lord'' (that is. according to al-Razi. 2-12/pp. or that of descent for bestowing the benefit upon (üid~ the people below him. In other words the -fÏq is always between the two states of receiving benefit from the Iâli and delivering it to the members of earthly da'wah. the spiritual benefit is channelled through the taJi to the nipq. the tali) ordered Moses to turn bis eyes? We can safely say that he holds that the mountain is the jadd. al-5ijistini writes that the taJï • carried the Prophet up from the (napqiyah). just as the t4l1i plays a crucial role in bestowing the ta'yid on the napq. For example. • 120 AI-5ijistini.. l . al-Razi writes in the same passage. IlhA'. what. in his interpretation of verse Q 17:1. to other da'wah members. the jadd and the ldJayil. The dose relation between the tali and ni#q is mentioned and described also by al-5ijistini...e. and from him. 93r. 43. and on the earthly hierarchy.zi implies. 93v. p. al-Ri. pp.

Il!2iabr. see al-Bukhiri. according to al-Razï. That is to say. saying that the severest of it (ashaddu-hu) affected him as though it were the sound of a bell ringing. immediately after referring to "another being. 2.tdith. p. p. 429 and J. This being was "what came to him from the tali through the khayiI.. " . 186). A. On these two . 199. The quotation of another famous .. when he saw the matter of the jadd and recognized that he could not acquire what the jaddcould not (f. even the jadd could not sustain direct vision of the tjJj. 1. p. 00. 1. I<rehl CLeiden. vol.th. 3/p.'' El 2. 93v.l21 Al-Ri.fJadith immediately follows this: the second lJadith is transmitted from 'A'ishah reporting the coming of revelation on a day which was severely cold.228 • dust" (Q 7: 143).. it broke into fragments and could not sustain in that [situation]. 93v.fJaditls. which is described using a superlative form: ubaddu-bu 'alayya e'the severest of it for 121 The quotation by al-Rizi of this .f.. In the first of these the Prophet describes how revelation (al-wa. Ibn ~anbal. Therefore. 2-5/f. vol. For.f. ed.dim.lJ. Il." Al-Razï also mentions another being from the sibiq through the jadd" (ilchar bi-al-jadd min Il al-sibiq)." he tries to turn readers' attention to the revelation depicted in the first p. al-Razi quotes two famous ~diths as authoritative evidence of his understanding of the roles of the intermediaries. 2(Bayrüt. Also cf. vol.). L. vol.d. 4.fJadith is identical with the version recorded by al-Bukhari.i'il. 1862}. p. al-. 363. . J.. ibid. In addition to verse Q 7: 143. . Wensinck et al. 107. 94r. n. J.l: p.!Jy) came to him.. Pedersen. Wensinck et al.121 In another ~dith al-Rizï quotes the reports that the appearance of the • youth called Di~yah al-Kalbi coindded with one of the Archangel Gabriel's visits to the Prophet M~ad. also d. vol.and Moses fell down swooning" (Q 7: 143). Musnad. 3. ed. see: al-Bukhiri. Concordance et indices de la tradition musulmane. On this fp. Presumably al-Rizï relates this other being to the revelation reported in the first !Jaditb.zi deals first with the angelic being depicted in the second padith. let alone a IJâpq like Moses. the mountain) in its own way [of manifestation]... 17. when (the Follower (al-dü ) appeared to it (Le. Concordance et indices. A. 1- • 122 On this ~ad.

but that this contact is mediated through the lower angelic beings. 1.. 17. God Himself describes about his ascent by stages (irtiqa 'u-hu fi al-maràtib ) in the following verses Cf. 94r.. angelic beings. 189. 95r. "he (Abraham) was qualified [by GodJ for the stage of enunciation (mu'abIJal li-marra"ar al. 189).. 187-88).. In short. L 3/f. 14.. 94r. 16/pp.f. 3-9/p."IIftl).lI. 2-11/p. 1. See f.f. al-Rizï seems ta interpret these !Jaditbs as telling us that the Prophet could come into contact with the two highest spiritual hypostases. 94v." Furthermore al-Razi interprets the urealm of the heavens and earth" CmaJa1cür a/-. according to al-Razi.. 6ff. Thus al-RiZi appears ta confirm the prophets' limited access to or recognition of the highest hypostases.1. 95v. 95r.amanr wa-al-ari) God showed Abraham (Q 6: 75): The "realm" means the jirior spiritual"stream. a doctrine which forms an important part of bis thought on the office of prophet in terms of the latter's contact with the higher." whereas the "heavens and earth" are the lJu~à' and the usus (fundaments). 95v. 1. which results from the sabiq or the Universal Intellect coming into contact with the Prophet through the jadd (f. 1. . the Intellect and the Soul. al-Razi hoIds that when the "night" fell (Q 6: 76). 94v. • After analyzing al-Razi's rejection of the possibility of unmediated contact with and recognition of the two highest hypostases. he was already predetennined ta become a œ#q in future. Abraham reached the domain of the "true mission" (al-da 'wa1J al-~aqïqïyah ). we should briefly consider his own interpretation of the story of Abraham's rejection of the cult of astral bodies. The "star" (Q 6: 76) means the da 'i who became Abraham' s first instructor • 123 Al-Ràzï also maintains. 1. These accounts of al-RaZi seem to mean that when Abraham was initiated into the da'wah. 1. the hierarchy of the true religion..f.. What is meant here by "severest" is that the revelation is of the '1tighest grade" (aria 1 al-darajat )..l23 Thus. 14. First.V..229 • me"). 16. 93v. Il. the khayil and jadd. 13/ f. that is.. and that was precedent [to bis actual installation to it) in God's knowledge <Daa dlalih "biqan fi 'ilm ADiIJ).

. 2-11/p... 1. 95v. 1 (pl. by which al-Razi means that he was elevated to the highest categary af the members of the earthly hierarchy. 95v. the khayil foretold ta Abraham that he would be the tla#9 of the next age after the fatrab. 4/f. 215. The "moon" (Q 6: m is the lJi#q of the age whom Abraham obeyed as his Lord and instructor. 12ff.. 1. 1.. presumably. even the "sun" set. lJipq-ship in this context. 96r. and atimmi. 217 of the present chapter above. 189-90). when the "maan" ar nalÏ9 "set.f. Thereafter Abraham gained the support from the ~lanl2S and reached "completeness" (tamimiyab). 2/p. This can be interpreted as signifying the termination of the authority of the imim of the age (ami" mutimm al-zamin). 209 and p.~bu-hu).1.v. as seen above in the last section. 95r. the latter was no longer capable of answering any of Abraham's questions (f. the kbayil showed him the (~add al-tamimiyah) IJU~9i. However.124 In brief. because it had already entered the age of the fatrah or "interval" (f. 15. As for the "sun" mentianed in verse Q 6: 78. meaning that the religious knowledge of the di li "sank" (. /l ..V.. 1. 190). 1. However. the "star" set. 5. In the next stage. after Abraham had finished assimilating the knowledge of the dj. 12. II..staghraqa). This is the reason why he was initially Abraham's "Lord" (. cf. 96r. Al-Razi writes that Abraham " came into junction with the ~làn I l (ir~a bi-al-~lan>• • 125 126 On the "completeness (tamjmïyab)..li." hypocrisy appeared in the da/wah. He devotes in fact an entire passage ta explaining that the rising of the sun is the visit of the kbayil of the mutimm absent in that time (khayil al-mutimm al-gm 'ib) ta Abraham because he was deemed suitable far the "awaited" • matter (mu'ahhal Jj-l-amr rank of completeness al-munt2~ar). 1. 126 12' See p. IL 6-14/f. p. (f. In addition. That is to say. 1. 96v. 96r. of mutimm) could presumably hold.230 • (mura"bi-bi). 12· f. 191) which only the usus. 95r. 5/pp.'.zï states that it refers ta the then absent mutimm.. al-Ra.

97r. there is one which is concemed with the problem of whether each human soul is either a "part" (juz') of the Universal Soul (al-Nasafï's view) or just a "trace" (athar) of that second highest hypostasis (al-Rizi's view). Thus in terros of rus doctrine of soul al-Nasafi follows the line of Plotinus." pp. 149~. "The Universal Soul and Particular Soul. 1. closer ta Produs in maintaining that human soul. who asserts that a part of the human soul remains in the intellectual world. 1/f... he reads the Qur'inic story of Abraham's denial of the cult of astral bodies as an exemplary tale of bis progress from his initiation into the da'wah hierarchy and gradual recognition of the higher hierarchical ranks ta bis final attainment of "completeness" or the rank of nipq-ship. 96v.f. the two different views on human soul were originally found in the Neoplatonism of late antiquity. in its entirety. who discusses at length in one of bis articles the nature of human soul and its relation to the higher intelligible world according ta the participants in the debate recorded in I:famid al-Dm al-Kirmini's al_Riyi!l-l27 Walker points out that among the issues debated in al-Riyi~. 1. Thus. 1. Early Philosophical . 96r. This is based on P. As we saw in the first section of the present chapter. 11. 182 of the present chapter.. Paul E. ta conclude. whereas al-Rizï is. A possible solution is • offered by Dr. He eventually dedared to the followers of the antagonist (a1-~idJ) of his age his final break from them: this is the meaning of Abraham's cutting his ties with the polytheists (Q 6: 78) (f. 128 Walker also suggests • 127 128 P. 191-92).231 • At that stage all suspicion (al-irtiyib) and doubt (al-rayb) disappeared from bis heart. descends into our world. E. 9/pp.. 4V. 1. This difference has triggered a debate on the interpretation of the story. See above p. Walker. Walker. however. E. The above two interpretations offered by al-Rizi and al-Nasafï of the same Qur'inic story leads us ta the question of what led them ta adopt opposing views on the recognition of or contact with the two highest hypostases. Walker.

. 2. the complete light. f. 7. al-Rizi posits his own view that humankind is the "fruit of this world" (thamuat bâdlâ aJ-'iJam): Because of mm.. while dwelling in the sensible or corporeal world. we suggest that these problems involving • the human sou!' 5 relation to the intelligible world are aise related to our present issue of the prophets' contact with the angelic beings. This is because the substance of this world consists of the coarse matter (al-bayü1j) and fonn (al-~ürab). 180-81 of the present chapter above. 1. E. 33. he seriously undercuts the epistemological basis of al-Nasafi's kind of Neoplatonism. 149-66. 5-16/f.l~.bi)." p. 130 Discussing his cosmogony and cosmology.f. 99-100 and 'The Universal Sou! and the Particular Soul.f. This is especially true of 5hiism. 29-33 and pp.. 55..232 • that the issue of the difference between the two views is related to the epistemological question of whether it is possible for human soul. whereas God created the Intellect and Soul as the "mine of the complete nobility. 9/p. 'The Universal Soul and the Particular Sou!. even the most excellent part of the material world. or whether the relation between the two worlds should be emphasized because of the human soul's being a part of the Universal Soul (al-Nasafi's view). 129 P. pp. this world exists in its bases and foundations.I." pp. 1. • 131 AI-Nasafï regards the human being as the first being fonned in the Universal Soul (awwal mrqaW"WU' li al-ml. 14v. 14v. ''TIte Uni versai Sou! and the Particular Soul. Walker writes: "Because al-Rizi would deny that man knows about the intelligible world precisely because he is part of it. 1. in the background to this debate. to recognize the intelligible and spiritual world to which the Universal Soul belongs.." P. . 1.l29 Furthermore. Walker.. P. 14v.. See al-/~lâlJ. 5/f. E. 12v. and . there is the cosmological problem of whether the distance between the intelligible world and the corporeal world should be emphasized because of the former' s transcendence (ai-Ran's view). Thus. 15/pp. 13r. Walker. 14v. Also d. 131 With regard to the issue of prophecy.f.amm wa-al-nÜT a/-ramm wa-al-tJibayab fi lmJ1i. the national soul (al-ais al-oifiqab) of humankind cannat be part of the substance of the two mots. 153. f.lan al-mu'~ddab bi-kalimat al-Ban'). 1.. the ultimate of ail of them" (ma 'di" al-dJanf aJ-r. Against this anthropological view which emphasizes the human being's c10seness to the Universal Soul.): thus he is the "fruit of the benefits gained from the Intellect" (tbamarzt al-iari'ïd al-musaEidah mi" al-'a91). 155-56." pp. 15. E.. al-Razi maintains that no part (juz') of this world can be a part of the substance of the "two roots" in union with the Word or Logos of the Creator (al-a. 15r. Il. See al-l.130 This cosmological problem is also related to the anthropologicai issue of how human being can relate to the intelligible and spiritual world in the entire cosmos.

to recognize directIy the two highest hypostases of the intelligible world. where the discussion is precisely concerned with the Universal Sou! as well as the Universal Intellect. since their souls are part of the Universal Intellect. even prophets • These are the five spiritual and celestial ranks. nor to be aware of the spiritual sources (a1-a 'yin al-rü~amyah ) which are the parts (ajzi' ) of the Universal Soul. In opposition to this view.. With regard to the nUJaqi ' s recognition of the intelligible world and the higher hypostases.132 the (revelational] statement (al-"ayilJ ) and the light ta hand down to their successors.However. were aware of the spiritual ranks. Concerning this focal point of the discussion. the prophets -Peace be upon them!. 124. al-5ijistini. 132 133 Al-5ijistini.. and gained. the counterparts of which are the five corporeal and earthly ranks. and (that] they eye-witnessed the angels.have maintained that they saw the upper noble world (al-'à/am a1-'u1wi al-sharïf ). al-Nasafï holds that those lJu!aqi' can recognize those highest hypostases more directIy. IGri& al-Riyifl. IGra& al-N~ quoted in al-Kirmini. they would be able neither to understand what is revealed to them. Therefore. if human souls were not part of the Universal Soul.l33 To sum up. al-Rizï maintains that even lJu!aqa' like Abraham and Moses can gain only a sort of indirect recognition of the two highest hypostases through intermediaries of the lower angelic beings.. from the ~1jl1 (two roots) and three IIbranches" (al-furo 1 al-tha1athah) which are above them (Le. whether it was possible for Abraham. Le. because human souls are merely IItraces" of the Universal Soul. p. sicling with al-Nasafï's view.233 • the debate on the Qur'inîc story of the denial of the cult of astral bodies... the prophets). a naliq. . writes in his follows: a1-N~rah as • . if their pure souls (anfusu-hum al-zakiya1J) were the IItraces" of the Universal Soul (athar min al-nais al-kulHya1J).

'ubü') titled "On that what is in the humankind is bis parts and substance &am the Universal Soul" (Fi anna ma fi al-buhar ajzi'u-hu wa-jawharu-hu min al-Data al-ku11iyah) from al-Yuüi'. including the rational souls' (aJ-anfU$ al-lJa~qab) status as part of the Universal Soul.. l35 According to hîm. the 18th "fountain" CJ. 160. human beings intend in fact to understand and to recognize even the highest hypostasis. prophecy (al-nubüwah). imimab.234 • would not be able to recognize the angelic beings as well as the spiritual intelligtble world. ibid. is founded in order that the bases of the religion may be established. pp. 46-47 Œnglish transi. l36 Al-Sijistini further argues that while a "trace" would net be expected to even want to understand its agent or trace-giver (mu'atbthiru-hu). 67-68). commentary on this passage by P. pp. so must the • human soul be a part of the Univers al sOul. These bases include the unity of Gad (a1-ta'W~cI). etc. commentary on this passage by P. human soul is a Part of the Universal Soul. p. Walker in his translation of The Wellspring of Wisdom..: pp. the Universal Soul. Thus. French transI. the hierarchical order of the cosmos. the sacred laws (al-s/Jari 'i '). al-sijistirü develops the anthropological and epistemological argument by using the logic of analogy to prove bis thesis on the human soul. which is the cause of the Follower. French transI. the Preceder or the Universal Intellect. This in turn would make it impossible for them te receive reve1ation. Cf. In this passage al-5ijistini also enumerates the reward (al-tbarib) and the punishment (al-'iqib).: p. • t36 That is to say. Since with his partial sou! (bi-nafsi-hi al-juz'iya1J) a human being follows the Univers al Soul in composition and in making of useful abjects such as handicrafts. 72-73. Walker in his The Wellspring of Wisdom. ibid. E.l34 Furthermore. AI-Sijistini. 134 135 Al-5ijistini. 125. a partial being foUows its whole in activity. p. p. just as the Soul utilizes her pure skill of composition and formation in her world and exerts the natural powers in creating beings in this world. the revelation (al-t. 46 (English transI. the human being forms and composes some useful things such as handicrafts using his skill. 67). 159-61. Thus. according to al-Sijistini. O. This allows him to reject the thesis of that "persan" (apparently al-Râzï) Al-Sijistini. p. . E.anzil).. 72. pp. Le.

46-47 (French transI. i. Ithbil. "The Universal Soul and the Particular Soul. E. this idea is the basis of the epistemology of al-5ijislini as weil as Neoplatonism in generaI a10ng Plotinian Unes. See P. E. al-Yaaibi'. However. l38 The next argument is anthropological. epistemological. one soul may be purer (azkj ) than another. pp. as may be seen in every sort of being in the cosmos. there is no disparity (taliwut) in any "trace" of the existent beings in this world. l37 This argument is.235 • that the human soul is merely a Utrace" of the Universal Soul. human soul must be rather part of the Universal SOul. Walker has a1ready pointed out that because of the existence of the '1ight of the higher world" in the partial soul of human being. l40 The arguments of al-5ijisfi. ." and "its beauty" and "value. as we saw 137 Al-5ijistini." pp. on which the rank of prophet and the entire structure of the missionary organization are based. E. 139 140 Al-5ijistini. 32. • See a1-5ijistiDi. Walker of the person criticized in this passage. 165 n." see also chapter 4. On a1-5ijistini's concept of "disparity. 46 Œnglish transI. 41-43. al-5ijistini concludes. French transI. pp. 159. Thus. but aIso to the issue concerning prophecy in early Ismi. 67).e. spiritual world as the basis for his discussion. 138 P. Here it is implied that al-Rizi's thesis of the human individual soul's being a "trace" of the Universal Soul contradicts the hierarchical nature of • the human race. pp.. so to speak. The Wellspring of Wisdom. there is also a disparity in the state of human SOuls. 72.: p. this apparently allows for the prophets. 158. The issue is. 68. is equally shared by all individuals. pp. English transI. We follow the identification by P." According to him. 139 For example. 115-16. Just as the "trace" or "effeet" of the sun. each of whom has a "pure soul" (n2f$ za1üyab) accorcling to al-5ijistini. al-Yaaabî~ p.: p. Walker. above. p. See P. he can recognize the "other world. 72-73). p. and close to the above quotation from a1-N~rab in the sense that al-Sijistini takes a human being's ability to recognize the intelligible.'ïlism.ni examined above support our suggestion that the debate between al-Rizi and al-Nasafi on how the nature of human soul can be related not only to other philosophical fields of cosmology and epistemology. the sunlight. E. \Valker.

i. one of determining the modes of the prophets' contact with and recognition of the higher intelligible world and its inhabitants.236 • above.. the angelic beings. • • .e.

to the higher spiritual hierarchy in sacred history.sü of this cycle). and the Qi1im (as weIl as 'Ali. namely. a lJa!iq inaugurates a newera or cycle.237 • Chapter 7 Hierarchies and Sacred History: Christology and Qi.fJ strongly suggests. lJâ!i9'"ship. especiaIly. that is. We will also pay attention to particular prophetie figures. Jesus. This question cornes down to how the vertical aspect of prophecy relates to its horizontal or time-bound aspect. which advances sacred history. Adam. The "compilation" of a new sacred law itself is aIso caused by the prophets' contact with the upper angelic beings in the course of receiving divine revelation. the "compilation" (ta 'Iii) of a new sacred law. Il imology §1. Ta deal with this question we will analyze the relationship of the enunciatorprophet and bis partner or uü. After fuis step we will analyze how they • come into contact with the higher spiritual hierarchy in the arena of sacred history. The Contact of the Na'i. After reaching this stage a newly installed lJa!lq supposedly • acquires the functions of bis office and puts them into practice. the a. Through these functions. We may DOW raise the question of how the enunciator-prophet's contact with the heavenly spiritual hierarchy is related to sacred history. . whose mutual resemblance the text of aJ-/flâ. through contact with the angelic beings. ta the highest earthly rank. and the A••• with the Highest Angelic Beings in Sacred History In the previous chapter we described and analyzed how a given dignitary gradually ascends.

and [with respect] to him the preceder was in the position of male (bi-manzilat al-dbakar) by reason of its raIe in bestowing benefits upon him.. 65r. p.V. Al-Rizi compares the conjunctîon Utti~ } of the highest earthly dignitary with the celestial hypostasis to the "pairing" (izdirij) of a male (dhakar) and a female (WltlJi). L 6. To it he (Le. the shari'aIJ is formed by the conjunction of the nâtiq with the preceder and the subsequent "pairing" of these two figures.iIi-hi bi-al-$ibiq wa-izdiriji-hi bi-lu'.I. 1. 63r. In attempting to consolidate bis argument regarding the first lJi~q. "wiladaIJ.7If... 3-7If. 136) For al-RaZi therefore. This man-woman or maIe-fernale metaphor has already briefly been mentioned in chapter 5. when he came into conjunction with the preceder.7. L 9 If. like a man and a wornan. it is hoped. 1. each play a role in giving birth.. al-Razi maintains that the da 'wah is established through 1 This argument by al-RàZi cornes in the course of his refutation of al-Nasafi's daim that two enundator-prophets.238 • This approach will.. that is. In addition ta the appearance of the sacred law through the pairing of the preceder and the lJi~q. 7Or.f. Il.." According to al-Nasaf~ this was the case with the first sacred Iaw which was barn to the couple of Adam and Noah See a1-I~Iâ{J.. 4. shed light on the question of whether their specifie yet similar roles in sacred history are related to their "modes" of conjunctïon with the spiritual hierarchy. .. • 2 The male-and-female relationship is also represented as one between superior (al-fà!liJ) and inferior (aI-ma!lfül). That is: • Thus the first $hari'ah is a being born of the first nipq (murawallidah min al-nà#q al-aW'Wal) at the time of his conjunction with the preceder and his pairing with it ('inda itti. the first na#q ) was in the position of a female (bi-manzilat al-unt1Jj) because of bis receiving of its (the preceder's) benefits.V.1 al-Razï applies this metaphor to bis explanation of the establishment of the first saaed law (aI-$bari'ab al-üli). he paired with it.. in terms of their respective roles (f. 167above.. 135-36.. f. L 17/pp. 2. 1. 64v. 65r.2 (f. 1.V. or between benefactor (mulïd) and beneficiary (mustafïJ). 13/pp. 144-45). because. 69r. li. lO-14/p. 63v.

while the spiritual forms (al-~uwar al- riijJiniya1J) were born (tawalladat) in the cycle of these two. ~IitJ serves as an "impetus" to There are still other passages which allow us to analyze the pairing or conjunctîon of the ua. with the ~lan in regard to sacred history.risàIJ (the lJipq and uü ) are key to the development of the religious order in sacred history: The birth (al-wilidab) is [Le.. Le. Le.239 • the pairing of the tjJj or follower.1Jarrab and the da'wah. until the cycle was • 3 See chapter S. 3/f.3 This we interpreted ta mean either the establishment of a new re1igious order or • new development of it. In other words.. 8-13/pp. the sacred law) and the establishment (jqimah) of the da'wah. Il. Although the "hidden birth" remains unexplained in the text. whose establishment marks the renewal of the order of the religion in each new cycle.. 69r. and the uü.. 1.. 144). In chapter 5 above we examined the meaning of "birth" in the reference to the "hidden birth" in sacred laws in a passage from al-I~Ii. the . in this case a male. In its account of Adam and bis uü. the passage shows that the a.. there is a passage discussing the cycle of Adam which suggests the possibility that the llhidden birth" has the meaning of new development. Il. are the results of this "p airing" or conjunetion of the uüan. 15V. Il. IJj~q and uü. pp. we can suggest that this " p airing" or conjunction of the uüitJ with the the advancement of sacred history. Through the two of them a birth manifested itself with the composition (Ia'lii) of the lWr (Le. a female (f. the U1$an> rendered bis companion the sacred law and the da'wah were established. since they were [like] man and woman. 1. 14647). with the 8fliIJ. With the help that each of the two (the lJi#9 and his "1$. 166-68 above.abiq and the till. 70r. the . 71r.fJ (f. 70v. that is.. 8-9/f. takes place] on! y between man and woman like the pairing of the first napq with his asü (jzdirij al-nipq al-awwal bi-asisi-bi).. Thus. lo-12/p. .

i. See f. we will revisit the issue of '''irth. S8v. 144). II .e. 1/f. 5. 135-36). 11. granted by the khayil of the tili."' Let us examine further examples of the relation between the ni~q and the asis • and its connection to the theme of contact with the higher spiritual hierarchy and the course of sacred history. pp. §3.l. of human souls to be given life in the religious teaching of the da'wah. 15.. The birth or emergence of these spiritual forms again suggests new development within the religious order. Below in chapter 8. Il. chapter 6.he came into conjunction with the jadd from the side of what shone ("araqa) uPQn him though the kbayàl of the raI. 70r. One of the examples cited in al-Razi's discussion on the relation of napq and "as is his interpretation of the Qur'inic tale of the unight joumey.. al-Rizi maintains that the animal actually represents a certain illuminating experience or illuminating knowledge. This is the manifestation of the '1lirth" which is followed by another birth.. (f. 6-10/p." the legendary animal which cames the Prophet to Jerusalem and to heaven. 69r. which is compared to "Buriq. we believe. IL 4-7If." which we briefly examined in the last chapter. This experience brought the Prophet into conjunction with the angelic being.5 In his interpretation of the tale. denote to a certain form. 1. Il.. 65r." given to the legendary horse that bore the Prophet on this joumey. pointing to the fact that the verb ""mqa" (to shine) is the root of the name "Buriq. Comparing the partnership of the uüan of the first cycle to the pairing of man and woman.7/pp. al-RâZi holds that as a result of the collaboration between the lJipq and the uü.. 63v..'' and the "spiritual form" as weIl.. that of the "spiritual forms" which." The phrase w hat shone ("araqa) uPQn him" can be thought to indicate the illuminative experience.. 322-25.f.. 64v.. 6 Here the "hidden birth" takes on an eschatological meaning. the jadd. • fi The passage is as follows: ". the religious order comprised of the sacred law and the da'wah was established (see aIso f. 4 5 See above.240 • completed.

275-77 of the present chapter. 1. that is. 16. after interpreting verses Q 53: 16-17 as a description of the consolidation of the Prophet's nipq-sbip.. 11. 57r. 59r. 10/p. S7v. 120).. the latter representing bis"û •Ali. and the "garden of retreat" (jannat al-ma'wâ) (Q 53: 15) with the Qi'im (f. 11-f. ''Le Mi'rij et la vision de Dieu dans les premières spéculations théologiques en Islam. Il/p...e. 5-l6/f. In al-Rizis interpretation the verses Q 53: 6-9 describe the Prophet's attainment of the rank of enunciation (nu~). .59r. Il. al-Razi writes as follows: 10-11 If. l-15/f. at that particular rank. whereas it is usually identified with the Archangel Gabriel or even Gad hïmself.. 1. 5/p. p.. van Ess. associating the divine tree. Besides. pp. i. 11.f. 27-56. and which are often associated with the unight joumey" of verse Q 17: 1... to the rank of enundation by conjunction with the . 1. 121). For the mainstream-Sunni interpretations of verses Q 53: 1-18. i.ûnb 53 in detail below on pp.I.." in Le vayage initiatiqlle en terre d'Islam.i's interpretation of sorne of these verses from. 120: the translation of this passage can he found above in chapter 6.abif though the jadd. although it confines itself ta the early phase of the history of Islamic thought: J.. 57v. the Qi'im (martabat ~~" daWT al-adwir ).. 57v. 7 Thus al-Riou relates the abject desaibed in these verses to the Prophet himself. • • We will revisit al-Riz. IIp. "$idrat al-mungbj" (Q 53: 14) with the nâpq-ship. 58v. 1. 223. Thus the Prophet initiated 'Ali into the illuminating experience that he had undergone in bis conjunction with the angelic beings. S8r. al-Razï interprets other paradisiac visions of the Prophet in this set of verses.e. 121. 1. the lJi~q-ship. 58r. the Prophet M~adled "Buraq" to the Rock of Jerusalem (~akht Bayt aI-Maqdis). li. the foUowing detailed and informative study may be consulted. 1-7If.7 In this state. Al-Rizi also discusses verses Q 53: 6-15.8 Then. according to aI-Razi. See f.241 • After ascending to heaven..V. 1. he recognized the grade • of the master of the cycle of cycles. This experience aIso stands for 'AJj's conjunction with the ltbayil of the tali (f. which are said to describe the Prophet's visions of Gabriel or God Himself and of paradise.

5 on p. • 9 Just before this verse the printed edition includes the word IIf~l " (p... 54v.5). Il. p. 10 On the meaning of this verse. That is ta say. . (f.. 2-7If. uThe hour has approached: the moon is split" (Q 54: 1). 60. Der Koran: KommentaT•••. as well as the Prophet's • ascent to the ni#q-ship. 1.rü's disdosure to his lieutenants about what he was supported with (mufi~atal-asis la~qa­ hu 6i-ma U}Yida bi-hi).1. 59 above. 13v. [That isl because he is the greatest in the hierarchy (dbar al-~udüd). 1. in particular. and that of the Prophet's asâs ... 1. See aise chapter 3.242 • "He aIready saw the greatest of the signs of bis Lord" (Q 53: 18).'im. 1. As seen above. l. 14). Pare t. Therefore the breaching of it [takes place] at the time of the approaching of the hour as we made rit] clear. It is especially in f. in a series of passages interpreting the night journey and other related verses. Ham (f. 64r. 122 of the printed edition. Tüb.. 463..God bless him and his household!. 59v. 5ee the editor's note to 1. 122.r would emerge. Abi Tâlib.zï discusses the raIe of the uü and the Qi'im.f. which is apparently based only on the a. However there is no mention of it in MS. in consideration of the continuity of the topie on eschatology before and after the quotation of verse Q 54: 1. at the time of his parousia ('ÛJda 1ÜJüri-bi ). d. 59v. al-Ri. 1. 1. al-Razi deals with verse Q 54: l. and MS. Ham. t/p. 122) Thus.is the a. the matter of the ui. in the course of sacred history.. In addition. 3) or MS. manusoipt. p. 7 If. n. 9 Thus "the hour" (aJ-sa'ab ) indicates the known time (aJ-wqt al-ma'liim). And the breaching of it in the age of the Messenger of God . al-Râzi places special emphasis on the significance of the office of the asu in general. 16. On the problem of whether to retain IIf~l . S8r. This suggests that according to al-Razi'S interpretation the "approach of the hour" means that the mission of the uis would become clear at the time of the parousia of the Qi. S3v. (f. S8r. which is the breaching of the moon ün:r1Ji'&9 81llamar).10 Thus the eschatological meaning of this verse suggests that the phrase '1ùs parousia (or appearance)" indicates the apocalyptic parousia of the Qil im." we follow MS. Tüb. 'Ali b. which reports on the already obvious sîgns of the coming time of the eschaton..

IL 6-11/p..I.. 6Ov. 61v.. he ('Ali) appears [as an image] (yataklJayalu ) ta the lieutenants and the completers. 1. especially in relation te the da'wah: the Bas is compared to the mother of the believers of the da'wah. Al-Rizi moreover implies. 60v. the aS'ù takes on some of the responsibilities of the position of nâ#9 (a1-9i'im-m~am al-na#q).9 should appoint the ua. Il.59r. 117-18.. 5-81 f. 3/p. 7/pp...f. In addition.al-Rizï interprets the "Night of Power" (laylaL a1~adr) in the verses from Q 97 as representing the "aras /' by whom he implies the ua. and takes over the distribution of blessing (9imJat al-bardah ) among them and the arrangement of their ranks (tarti" lJudüdi-bim ). of our age. in arder that the latter might establish the da'wah and manifest the work of esoteric interpretation (ta'WJ1) (f. 'Ali b. 126-27)... Then in the following passage.11 Then.... 1. "Peaœ it is. 63r.(. 56r. and the nariq te their father. .V.243 • 13. 11.. 61r. 112-31.. 'Ali b. Abï Talib. 12/t. .. 4. the asis • distributes barakaIJ to the members of the da'wah organizatïon and sets their religious affairs in order. 63r..)•. 1. That is. L15.V. 1. 129). 1. till the rising of dawn" (Q 97: 5). once he has finished laying down the rules of the sacred law. 1. 9.. Al-Razi mentions the duties of the Bis in the following statement on the tasks of the -#9 : the na'.f." that the charaeteristics of the office are discussed aIso in relation ta the Qi'im.57r. at the instructions of the tili (or the Universal Soul).. 62r. is depicted as the one who will guide bis followers to a state of peace until the parousia of the Qi1im: "In it the angels and the Spirit" (Q 97: 4).. 17. since he is supported by both the "stream" (al-jàri ) of the celestial angelic hierarchy and the liJJïr of the sacred law of the nip9 (f. IL a-13/f. that after the nip9 departs from fuis world. Il/pp. 62r. 1. That is. while he treats the story of the "night joumey. l. in connection with the office of uu. 1.V.f. 124). See f.. as concerns him (Aas • 11 The partnership of Bas and lJà~q is expressed as resembling that of parents. Abi Tilib (f. 14/f.4/pp..

244 • 'Ali) and bis da'wah.. 12 Thus..s of our cycle to the Qi1im.1im in bis mission in sacred history. Il. Le.. and the Qi'im in actu on the other (f.Till the rising of dawn" (Q 97: 5). 129-30) 1. (f. Il. 50 leading them through the ages. S4v. the mission of the asis of our cycle plays a salvational role with the approach of the time of the parousia of • the Qi1im. one who stands in the place of the preceder (al-qi'im maqàm al-sibiq) from which there bursts out all the blessing (al-baralcab kuIlu-hi). the Qi'im. That is. [That is. even after his death. makes it a harbinger of the Qi'im? In other words. 1. " . 1. bis successors. 63r. the function as such may • 12 See also the appearance of the kbayâl ta the lIanr' of Solomon above in chapter 6.V. why is it regarded as such an institution? If they have any common function which reaches the state of its actualization or completion in the hands of the Qi'im.. Le. 3/pp. suggest that al-Rizi regarded it as a sort of ''harbinger'' of the Qi. the asas is in potentia on the one hand. 11. in this world). This willlead them to the "etemal peace" (al-. 203-209. .a1ünah aJ-aIJadiyab) in the other (fi al-ukbni). particularly that of 'Ali. al-Razi holds.. until the da'wah is completed with the disclosure of the matter (bi-inldshif al-amr) at the time of the parousia of the master of the cycle of cycles ('inda ~uhür ~~b davrr al-adrir).. 55v. Thus the passages examined 50 far toucbing on the office of asü-ship. This is further evidence of the close relation of the asi. 2-7/p. those who take refuge with him are saved from doubts and uncertainties at the beginning (fi al-wa. 1 Ali seems. pp.] the V. 1. 14Sff. 8-13ff. 114). As may be seen from the abo'!e. That is to say.. What aspect then of the office of asâs-ship. to appear as a sort of mental image ta the completers. and his lieutenants. AIso in another passage al-Rizi states that the asis is an image (mit1JjJ) of the last mutimm (completer). 62r... and especially 'Ali's tenure of it..

60r.1im. • 14 It seems that al-Rizi identifies the uis of the fourth nipq with the Biblical Joshua.). 127: aiso cf. pp.. Saba'. constitutes the asi. Milal wa-al-N~. l.. the 6th treatise of Kira" aJ-Kubf naines Aaron <Hirün} as the imirn alter Moses (IGfÜ aJ-lCubfp. Illv. the asi. On this identification. 112. 509f. of the fourth aifÏf? Ooes al-Ri7J evaluate the leadership of Joshua as having been more successful than Aaron's? This peculiar naming of Joshua as ua. see E." ERr vol.. 2/p. the nature of the number four. vol. that is. 1.f. while the lst treatise of the same text treats Joshua .. 2/f.. 59r. 12. 289). 147r. n.. the nature of leadership as a religious duty after the death of the prophet. pp.. On the Biblical ]oshua. 2-4/p. 8-10/f. had asserted the same thing of Joshua as he maintained about 1Al b.. Il. role • as harbinger of the Qi. and particularly 'Ali's.f. p.. 1.. which represents perfectness. p. II.. 168). As seen in chapter 4 above. Il. 14.. "Joshua. This suggests that the function of the esoteric interpretation is fulfilled by the asâs and the Qi. 1981). This is one of the main functions assigned to the uis (f. 8. 'Abd AlIih b. Thus we can point to the possibility that the esoteric interpretation is the function which. might show his penetrating knowledge of Judaism or bis persona! relations with the Jews. Cf. See al-Nawbakhti. 2-3/f. 62r..r -ship's. 1 The idea of the esoteric interpretation (ta'ri ) of scriptural texts may provide us with a solution to the above questions. the reportedly Jewish convert. 60v. 1. 118. As another example in Ismàlilism of this issue. 12-14/f. Il. 365-67 (French transI.V. 148r. 17.221). it is reported that when still a Jew. 106-110. In keeping with the same scheme.lim together but reaches its end or completion with the latter. the leader of the twelve Israelite bibes who is believed to have succeeded Moses and conquered Canaan according to scripture and tradition. and bis possession of the divine substance.r of the fourth nj~q 14 is seen as a sort of harbinger of the Qi.. 90. I/f. 13-14/p. Greenstein. and earliest Shi1i extremist (ghiJi) of the lst/7th century. 16. p.. see above in chapter 6. 1.f. 2/p. this function of esoteric interpretation reaches its ultimate state or final point (nibayat aI-ta'wü) with the Qa1im (f. H. 53v. at least partially. 1. (French transI. Interestingly. 55r.13 is said by al-Razï to be related to the function of esoteric interpretation (ta 'ri). 146v. 19f. I12r. and is thought to have lived in the 13th century B. In the passage on "four-ness" (aJ-arba 'iyah) which is quoted beIow.. 123 and f. 33-42. 1. f.245 • point ta Ali as the only candidate for this role. p. Ab! Tàlib after bis conversion to Islam. 1. 16-17/p.CE.) and al-Shahras~ni. f. lllr. 212. that leaders irnmortality... pp. vol. 1. Halm. But why does al-RiZi think him to be the ua. see above chapter 4. . 36f. Il. 54v.. Die islamische Gnosis (München/Zürich. Il.'im: 13 For this argument on "four-ness" and the fourth aapq. p.

the power of the IIfour-ness" (bi-~add ta 'Ml (qüwat al-ta'wïI) is manifested in the uis of the fourth (n. in the development of the religious order. Le. Therefore.in actu "). 15 16 At this stage in al-I. Il..'im in calling him the master of the mM.246 • As for the allotment (~1 ) of IIfour-ness" to the fourth enunciator-prophet. Il.. the ta'wjJ's) would occur in the seventh cycle. 14: aIse d.. 321-22. 114v. This may Mean that the am of the fourth cycle was just one of the persans in charge of the function of ra'ri in the hierarchy. the true holder of the perfectness represented by the number four. Kosmologie..1. it (li is manifested in his &Sas in potentia (bi-al-qûwab ) . f. 115r. Another passage refers to the full actualization of the ta'wiJ possessed by the Qi.. This is just because he was one of the ranks of the esoteric interpretation (min pudüd al-ta 'vril)." in the same passage suggests that the "unveiling" or lrubfis the ultimate point..I~ the relation between the mb! and esoteric interpretation is not made very clear. the seventh nipq.. And the manifestation of the grade of "four- ness" was in him in potentin. This kasM is the new role to be filled by the Qi 1 im. This appears in him in potentia. That al-RiZï mentions the llfinal point" of the ra'ri held by the Qi'im and his title. 212).. • . Thus despite the fact that the function of the fourth lJi~9. the unveiling of the inner realities hidden in previous sacred laws (f. that is. Iff. the full actualization of the esoteric interpretation. 308-311 and pp. ta 'wil appears in the uas of the the Qi'im is the one that achieves full actualization or its zenith • (ilthe ultimate of al-ta'wil. ..15 the manifestation of which (i. 28 and 3I).( .e. is really the fourth in actu. and he is the ultimate of the ta'wjJ and of the realities (nihiyat al-ta'vriJ wa-a/-!Jaqi 'iq) in actu. 7-13/pp.) .f. For the Qi'im. 11... 16 This view of the ta'wi1's actualization suggests that the uis of the fourth nipq as Moses' tJuijaIJ (Kitab al-Kuhfp.e. not manifestly in actu ?uhüran bi-aI-fjtI). See below in chapter 8.i~9] with the rank of the al-arba 'ïyah). l07r. HaIm. 10. 106v.. IlSr. 226-27). pp. not emerging out in actu Cf.. and because the seventh [. the "master of unveUing. pp.pq] is the fourth in actu. i. 9-13/f. since the seventh [lJiPt ] is the fourth in actu .. 12-17/p.

il.e. 1.247 • is the harbinger of the Q&'im also by virtue of bis function in manifesting the ta 'vril.. 'Ali) is the indicator for it (Le.. However. 115r.'' that is.. And this verse is recited as " .e. Il.. he is the "s ign" with which he (the Qi'im) is shown. the time)." 'Ali becomes • the "indicator" ta and "s ign" of the eschatological ''Hour.226-27). i. l. (f.f. This is to say that it (i. 7V' I 1. In bis discussion of 'Ali's holding the office of "ü... And these two [words (i..knowledge of the Hour (" (Q 43: 61) and "and a sign" (wa-la-'aJam) [as weIl]. 6-10/f.e. This is because since he ('Ali) is '1<nowledge" of it (the Hour). 125r.. This implies that 'Ali supersedes even the fourth tUas in terms of harbinger-ship to the Qi'im. 125r.. 'Ali) is the master of the esoteric interpretation (~" al-ta 'vn1 ) the ultimate of which Cnihayatu-hu. of this cycle is not referred to in this specific passage as a harbinger. 10.'im17: 17 Concerning the concept of "hour" a metaphor for the Qi'im. 10ff. "knowledge" and "sign")] share a single meaning.. 247-48) What this means is that. al-Rizï quotes an eschatological Qur'inic verse. There is another passage which shows more clearly the harbinger-ship of Ali 1 respecting the Qâ'im in the function of esoteric interpretation.. the Qi. 5-10fpp.. aIthough the asa. since the knowledge is a "sign" ('alimab): with it (knowledge) a thing is shown." while he (Le. 6/pp. as the "master of esoteric interpretation. "knowledge" by which 'Ali is meant) is the indicator for the '~our" (al-dalil 'ali al-si 'ab). And he (i. Q 43: 61 and apparently interprets the ''Hour'' (al-sa 'ah ) of the eschaton in it to be the Qi'im: • And His saying is: "It is knowledge of the Hour" (Q 43: 61). see also below in chapter .. 1. Abï Tâlib would not be superseded by the fourth ua.. al-Râzi feels obliged ta insist that 'Ali b. 115r. 114v.e. the ultimate of esoteric interpretation) belongs to the "Hour. This is because 'Ali is the "seaI of the fundaments" (kbàtam al-œus) (f. in terms of rank.

" This is.125v.f.ship. in the last two passages quoted. anticipates the Qi'im. Abi Tilib in particular. 248-49). 314-16. Ri. with respect to the Qi'im. "remember" (yataclbakhrüaa). the IICommander of the believers. .. li. that IAli is the "master of the esoteric interpretation" (~" al-ra'ri).." is the "master of esoteric interpretation.248 • the latter has the ultimate function or final point of the esoteric interpretation. Typology is a hermeneutic methodology in Christian theology which attempts to discover the 8. 1217/pp.ras in general.zian Christology • §2-1. Actually al-RiZi strongly emphasizes their relation through harbinger-ship to the extent that it is often difficult to distinguish the two figures from each other. Comparing this scheme to Christian theological terminology.. who will achieve the ultimate fulfillment of the function of ta ' W . 125v. lai far means here that the "remembrance. §2. furthennore. L 12. when he discusses the Qi. 1/f. 19 • We will discuss this tendency in detaü below in chapter 8. Thus we can say that. especially 'AJj's ua. . 11 Al-Rizï seems to confirm. because it is through the interpretation that the people are IIreminded" of (yudbatbru).. pp.e. and of 'Ali b. 18 In a sense the office of uas. basing himself on a tradition attributed ta Ja Ifar aI-~idiq that the "remembrance" (al-dlJikr) in Q 38: 1 means the "Commander of the believers" (Amu al-mu'IIJÜJÜJ). 19 §2. Crucifixion and Typology We have just seen how al-Rizi interpreted the concept of harbingership with respect ta the Qi'im. we can say that there is a IItypological" relation between the divinely-guided leaders in each faith which is manifested in their functions. 126r. See f. al-Rizi argues in favour of the harbingership of the a. According to al-Rizi.." i.'im's eschatological role. recognize and know the signposts of their religion (ma'ilim trmi-bim).

249

IItypes" anticipating the Messiah among the personages and events in the Oid Testament or the Hebrew Bible.20
In what might be referred to as a kind of IIIsma 'ilï Christology," al-5ijistani

discusses in bis Kitab al-Yanabï' the typological relation between Jesus and the

Qi.' im. In one of the two sections in this work devoted to the symbolism of the
Cr055,21 he explain5 that Jesus himself admits that bis role was to make public the mission of the Qi. 'im, as may be seen from the following extract

Jesus -May peace be upon hïm!- gave his community to know that the master of the Resurrection (~& al-qiyamah) is the one of whom he is the sign (alladbi
hUW2

'aJamat".hu). For, [Jesus continued,] when he (Le., the master of the

Resurrection) unveils the structural realities of the sacred laws which are composed of the realities (Pa'la 'ill abtJiyah al-$hari 'i' al-mabniyab bj-!Jalli 'i'l), the people will know them (Le., the realities) and will not deny them, just as

when all the people see a crucified one

(m~Jüb), they

will recognize him and

understand his form, although most of them would have been ignorant of him before that. Because of this meaning, his (i.e., the Qi'im's) day is called the "day of baring" (yawm al-kasbf), just as He said: "Upon the day when the leg shall be bared (Yawmyubbsfu tan saq ), and they shall be summoned to bow themselves ..." (Q 68: 42). Thus, the crucified one on the wood became an unveiled one (ma1ts1Jüf), although he was concealed before it (Le., the
20 In their interpretation of the office of the uû al-5ijistinï and al-Ràzi attempt to find paradigms and signs of the coming and of the deeds of the u.rus (pl. of uis). This logic amounts to typology, a henneneutical methodology as such. Therefore in our present study we adopt the adjective "typological" ta describe a certain henneneutical tendency among the Ismi'IDs to find in the past some personages and events anticipating the expected divinely-guided leader. For an overview of typology in Christian theology, see, e.g. : J. R. Oarbyshire, ''Typology,'' in Encyc10paedia of Religion and Ethics, ed. J. Hastings (New York, 1955), vol. 9, pp. 500-504; L. Goppelt, Typos: The Typologicallnterpretation of the Old Testament in the New, transI. by O. H. Nawdig (Grand Rapids, Mich., 1982); H. Müller, ''Type, Pattern," The New International Didionary ofNew Testament Theology, ed. and transI. by C. Brown, et al. (Grand Rapid, Mich./Exeter, Davon, 1978-1986), vol. 3, pp.

90~907.

AI-5ijistini, the 31st and 32nd "sources" from Kitab &1- Yanâbi, pp. 73-76 (English transI.: pp. 93-95; French transI.: pp. 97-102). Here we will analyze the 31st section.
21

250

crucifixion).22

That is to say, by being crucified on the wooden staves, Jesus made himself known to the people of his time. It was this deed which anticipated the mission of the Qi.'im to expose or unvei1 (hs1JJ) the truths hidden in the previous sacred laws to the entire human race. Thus, in this section, al-5ijistini explains that there is a strong resemblance between Jesus and the Qi.'im in their prophetie missions, which can be called typological.23 Moreover, in another work he states that the Messiah
(al-mas~), Jesus,

is the

"sign of the resurrection" (njshÜJ-i l2$takbïz). This is because Jesus taught ms disciples the knowledge (al-film) and the wisdom (al-frikma b) which will be manifested with the '1ord of the resurrection" (klJuda wand-i qiyimat).24 This means

that Jesus' deed of unveiling the hidden knowledge heralded the same deed to be fulfilled by the Qi'im, which is another evidenee of Jesus' harbinger-ship with respect to the latter.

Though differing in same respects from al-5ijistini, al-RiZi too sees a typological relation between Jesus and 'Ali, as weIl as between Jesus, the Qi1im, and Adam. We have already drawn attention to the resemblance between the Qi.'im and

Ibid., pp. 73-74 (English transI.: p. 93-94; we follow in part the wording in P. E. Walker's translation of the passage. Cf. aise French transI.: p. 97).
22 ZI The 32nd section of the text discusses the symbolic correspondences between the parts of the cross, the high ranks in the heavenly and earthly hierarchies, and the words, letters, and syllables composing the .balJjdab. In his argument al-5jistini attempts to establish a correspondence in esoteric meaning between the Christian symbol of the Cross and the Islamic formula of the confession of faith. Ibid., pp. 75-76 (English transI.: pp. 94-95; French transI.: pp. 100-102). O. aise Nomoto, ''The Prophetie Figure of Jesus," pp. 299-301.

:u AI-5ijistini, Kubf aJ-M~iüb, p. 80 (French transI., p. 113/English transI., p. 50 (in
manusaipt) ).

251

Adam in the debate between al-Razï and al-Sijistioi over the prophethood of Adam.2S Here the chapter from al-l,l8lJ on Jesus entitled 'lOfhe Chapter on [alNasafï's] Statement on the fifth Enunciator-prophet" (Bib al-QawJ fï Kbimi. alNU!&4â' 'alay-bi al-Salim, f. 115v.,

1. 11- f. 131r., ,. 7/f. 116r.,I. 7- f. 130v., ,. 7/pp.

231-58) is desaibed and analyzed in full.
As for the typological relation of Jesus to the Qa'im, al-Razi develops his own

argument for it in response to al-Nasafi's daim that Jesus resembles the Qi.'im, since the latter hid himself and yet is expected to retum one day, just as the former hid himself, asœnded into heaven, and yet will return (f. Illv., Il. 2-3/f. 122v., Il. 2-3/p. 243).26 In other words al-Nasafï asserts the typological relation between Jesus' absence (gbaybalJ), ascent to heaven and return, and the Qi.'im's absence and bis expected retum. This al-Râzi denies, holding thatlesus' ,baybaIJ

is not the same as the Qa'im's. In his refutation of al-Nasan's statement, first of aIl, al-RaD pays attention to the controversial issue of Jesus' death on the cross, which was followed by bis temporary absence from the world until bis Resurrection, according to Christians.
As is already well known, the Qur'inïc verses 4: 157-158 have been interpreted as

a denial of Jesus' crucifixion by Muslim exegetes who themselves maintain that a substitute died on the cross in his plaœ.21 Focusing on a phrase from verse Q 4: 157 'We killed the Messiah" (/JUJâ 9atalni al-MasifJ), al-Razi points out the
25 216

See pp. 86-89 and the entire section 3 of chapter 4 above.

This typological idea put forward by al-Nasa6 was already briefly discussed above in chapter 4, p. 102.
ri On the history of the classical Muslim exegesis of these verses, especially the tradition of the death of Jesus' substitute on the cross, see: T. lawson, l'The Crudfixion of Jesus in the Qur'i.n and the Qur'.nie Commentaries: An Historical Survey," in The Bulletin of Henry Marty Institute of IsIamic 5tudies 10-2 (1991): pp. 34-62 (pt 1); 10-3 (1991): pp. 6-40 (pt. 2). Also d. M. Ayoub, l'Towards an Islamie Christology U: The Death of Jesus, Reality or Delusion," Muslim World 70-2 (t980): pp. 91-121.

252

contradiction inherent in this matter between the Qur'in which denies it, and Jews and Christians, both of whom affirm it as a historical fact (f. 122v., Il. 6-15/f. 122v., IL 6-15/p. 243). The remarkable thing about al-Rizi's interpretation in al-l,l~ of verse Q 4: 157
is his own denial of the death of Jesus on the cross, especially when, as has

already been pointed out, the Isma-ms are generally inclined to acœpt the historidty of the crucifixion of Jesu$ and bis death as a result. 28 Al-5ijistiDi for one seems to acœpt the fact of the crucifixion by interpreting the crucified man as a harbinger of the Qi. 'im, as seen above.
In Ji'lim al-RaD too argues on behalf of the historicity of Jesus' crucifixion,

replying in t:his case to Rhazes who points out the mutual contradiction between Jews, Christians, and the Qur'in on this issue. 29 It seems that Rhazes cites this

contradiction as an example of the invalidity of knowledge based on prophecy.30 Relying on unnamed authorities
(llsome

scholars"

ba'~ a/-'ulama '),

al-Razï quotes

Qur'inic verses such as Q 2: 154 and 3: 169-170, as well as 4: 158, which teach that the martyrs must not be taken as dead but as still alive with God, since they were lifted up to heaven. Then he quotes the same authorities, according to whom these verses teach that Jesus was not killed in a real sense (tala
al-~a9ïqa1J)

but raised up to heaven. Al-Râzi in fact takes the trouble to show how the Qur lin and the Gospels are consistent in many instances, as may be seen from the following passage: An example of this in the Evangel (al-Injil) is [to be foundl in the Gospel of
This was already pointed out by L. Massignon in bis ''Le Christ dans les évangiles selon Gha7ü," Revue des études islamiques 9 (1932): pp. 523-536, especially pp. 533-36.
28

3

Al-Rizï, Â'làm, p. 168-70.

30 Cf.

Nomoto, '''!be Prophetie Figure of Jesus," pp. 282~.

253

John (Bushra y~): The Messiah died in the body (bi-al-juaJ), whereas he
is alive in the spirit (bi-a1-~. Sa they thought that he who died in the body

was delivered from sin. And in the Gospel of Luke {Buslui. Lüqi.) [it is said]: 1 say to you, oh my dear friends (aw'liya ';), do not fear those who kill the body, but cannot do more than that. ...(...) ... And in the Gospel of Matthew {Bushri.

Mata) [it is said): Do not fear those who kill the body but are not able to kill the
soul, and do fear the one who can [both] destroy the soul and cast the body into the fire [of hell].31

Al-Rizï maintains that these passages from the

GosF~s

are consistent with the

Qur'i.n in terms of their inner meaning, since both the scriptures attest that Jesus could not be killed in the full sense, that is, in both body and soule The argument over the crucifixion of Jesus in fact assumes that if Jesus was killed, it was his

body that perished, not his soule However, in al-I,l~, al-Rizï comments on verse Q 4: 157 as follows:

'We killed the Messiah" (Q 4: 157) [quotation up to the end of] the verse
(al-iya1J). What God said by Himself (Ji ,ifati-hi) in this verse is different from

what the people of the two scriptures (ahl al-kitibayn, i.e. Jews and Christians) rely in regard to the exoteric meaning of the revelation (fi ~ al-tanzil). For God -He is mighty and glorious!- said that the Jews did not kill him; and that He put someone like hint (_1Jababu-hu) [as a substitute] for him whom He pointed to. Thus, they killed the man who resembled him. The Jews have confirmed that they killed and crucified him (i.e. Jesus). AIso, the Evangel

{al-InJl} has given an account similar ta that [of the Jews] and [stated] that they
took him down from the cross and buried hint. And the Jews and the Christians
31

a1-~Wiand G.-R.

Al-Ri~ Â'limr p. 169. According to the editors of the printed edition of the text (~. AI wiDi), the two passages which a1-Razi thus quotes from the Gospels correspond

respectively ta John 6: 50-63, Lub 12: 4 and Mathew 10: 28. See the index of the printed edition, p.348. However, the saying of Jesus in John 6: 50-63 does not correspond to al-Rizi's quotation. Moreover, al-RiZï's quotation from Luke actuaUy corresponds to Luke 12: 4-5.

254

are agreed on the fact that he was killed, and that he was not absent from the world in any external sense (Ii al-lüir 'f2 except in bis departure (iDj li lDu!*iyi-IJi) from the world due ta bis having been killed (6i-al-qatl). And in the Qur'in it is said that he was lifted up to heaven (ru/i'. iJa al-ami '): His ascension to heaven is not like the absence of the seventh [lJâIiq], and also bis mission had been completed before bis departure from the world. However, bis (i.e., the seventh's) mission was not completed in bis absence. Rather, the convocation
(al-.''''') in his name (i.e. the Qa'im's name) [williast] up to the time of bis

parousia. (f. I22v., Il. 6-I6/f. I22v., IL 6-17/p. 243)

In the above discussion al-RaD appears to adopt the tradition al mainstream-Sunni

interpretation of the crucifixion that someone who resembled Jesus was crucified and slain as a substitute for him.33 This clearly contradicts al-R,azï's argument on the same subject in A '/am. In dealing with this problem, we can suggest two

possible interpretations: 1) Pondering upon hermeneutical phrases such as #lin the exoteric meaning..." and l'in an external sense" in the above quotation,34 one can suggest that in
al-I,li.fl al-Rizi had it also in mind to resolve the contradiction between the three

communities over the inner meaning of the three scriptures;

Whereas both MS. Ham. (f. 122v., L 12) and MS. Tüb. (f. 122v., L 13) have~l) ~, the printed edition has ~~I ..... ~ ~ (p. 243, 1. 13) (fj ,abir al-UlU', ""in the extema1 aspect of the matter"). The printed edition's reading appears ta be based on the editors' judgement on the basis of the context, because no manuscript has this reading: rather, ail three of the manuscripts on which the printed edition is based have the reading ~1Ji, ~ according to the editors' note ta p. 143, ,. 13. Considering the various contexts and overall states of the manusaipts, we adopt the less e1aborate reading "",lWl ~ (6 al-PbiD.
32

T. Lawson calls the type of traditions, on which the mainstream interpretation of the verse Q 4: 157 is based, ·'substitute legend!' Lawson, ·The Crucifixion of Jesus," part 1., p. 46.
33

3& Al-Rizï also holds that the contents of the Qur'in are "'truth·, and ""correctness" which are the "parable which Cod coined Cmarbal !laraIJ.-lJu AUiI»!' According to him. the PeOple of knowledge (abl al-'ilm) know the esoteric interpretation of this parable. AI-Ràzi, A 'am, p. 168.

255

2) One can also surmise that in al-l,l~ al-Rizï dared to contradict bis own argument
in  'liai in order to refute al-Nasafi's typological argument.

With regard to the first interpretation, we cannot find in a1-1~1~ any attempt at "reconciling" the three communities through the esoteric interpretation of the crucifixion or other passages from their scriptures, none at least that resembles the reconci1iation which al-Razi advocated at Â'am. Thus since this suggestion is conjectural, it must still remain a conjecture. However, the possibility of this being 50 should still be kept open. What then of the second possible interpretation? As far as it is concerned, it can be pointed out that in the course of bis refutation of al-Nasafi, al-Rizi emphasizes the continuation of the da'wah in the name of the Qa'im. This is because, according to him, the mission of the Qa' im has yet not been completed, whereas Jesus'

mission came to an end during bis own lifetime. This sense of continuation of the da 'wah " under the name of the Qi.1im" can be related to bis bellef in the advent of the Qa' im as not being imminent, but postponed to sorne future date. This problem raises the further religio-political question of whether al-Rizï was involved in the Qarmapan movement, a matter which we raised in chapter 2.
In addition, there is another point to remark which must be given consideration.

This involves the possible relation between al-Nasafi's statements on Jesus and the Qi.1im and Christian messianisme The essential Christian creed of Jesus' death, resurrection, and second coming has, ever sinœ, stirred expectations among believers of the imminent advent of Christ. These expectations resulted in the emergence of a number of millennialist-messianist rellgio-political movements in history, and not just in the Christian experience. By the same token Qarmapan

entailed antinomianism, as observed in various Judeo-Christian millennialist-

Hahn. Thus we can ooly assume that such a statement was made. the text of al-I.Jj. the future advent of a Messiah. given the context and the existence of al-Sijistini's famous discussion on the symbolism of the cross. p. aI-Rizi had to reconcile the counter-crucifixion position represented 3S Cf. of the crucifixion of Jesus could be because he considered il a crucial building block of al-Nasafï's typological argument which would lead to a millennialist daim for the imminent advent of the Qi. we should reserve our conclusions in explanation of al-Rizi' s deniaI of the historicity of the crucifixion. Did al-Razï find a tendency to antinomian millennialism similar to Christian messianism in al-Nasan's typological argument on Jesus and the Qa' im~ H the answer to the above question is yes. as weil as in bis other arguments on Jesus which we are going to analyze. above in chapter 4 of the present dissertation. In A'1àm al-Razï had to refute Rhazes' assertion that the differences of opinion over the aucifixion separating Muslïms. But.:Ii Antinomianism as a by-product of the messianist idea in Christianity. Kosmologie . 121f.37 Let us now return to our question (which still remains unsolved) concerning al-Razi's denial of the crucifixion. Halm does not explore the reasons for rejection within each of al-Nasafi's arguments for this reaction. 36 H. Thus. and in al-SijistiDi's interpretation of the symbolism of the O'oss. Why did he not maintain consistency between • A'lim and al-l. However. • .fJ itself does not record al-Nasafi's own statement supporting the historidty of Jesus' crucifixion. to refute Rhazes.·im. that is.la.ljfJ the same spirit of reconciliation that he did in A'lim demands same attempt at explanation. Halm points out that these doctrines may not have been very popular: that they were rejected by many can be seen from al-Razï's refutation. Halm finds traces of Christian influence in this typological argument of al-Nasal.fJ on this topic? The fact that he did not demonstrate in al-l.256 • messianist movements. to avoid specu1ating on the text. raises another question. ri Interestingly. it might be hypothesized that al-Razi's denial. at least in a . and Jews and Christians were still further evidence of the self-contradiction inherent in the revealed religions.aIJüi sense.

3!l Of course. al-Rizi's denial of the crucifixion of Jesus in al-l.. Rhazes. Nomoto. 'im but apparently not to maintain any consistency with bis own A 'lim ." pp. since it is re1ated to other important issues such as the characteristics of al-Rizi's thought and our evaluation ofhim as a thinker.li. 'Ali b. thus adopting an ad hominem approach.l~ are consistent in their arguments on the unity of the inner meanings of religions and on the antagonists of the prophets.e. In bis interpretation al-Râzï 31 Cf.fa is to refute al-Nasafï's typological argument on Jesus and the Qi. thus presenting bis own interpretation as a counter-argument to al-Nasafi. §1 and §2 above. If titis was the case. i. 38 It is aIso possible that al-Rizi's priority in al-l. Retuming to the topie of the interpretation of the crucifixion. This led him to assert the consistency between. but did not think it necessary to maintain any consistency with his refutation of another opponent.257 • by the Qur'in. the bodily death of martyrs and their souls' being raised to heaven. there is the possibility that.4O The issue will be revisited in the conclusion. we find that al-Razï relates the controversial verses Q 4: 157 and 158 to the ••ü of the cycle of the Prophet Mutaammad. Abi Tilib. because he was writing a polemical work (a1-1. . as seen in ehapter 5. and that he tailored bis views to meet bis opponent's argument. and the pro-crucifixion one represented by the Gospels.ltijJ could suggest that he was responding • to a polemic. ""The Prophetie Figure of Jesus.1~) al-RaZi concentrated on refuting bis opponent al-NasaD. al-Rizi does not always contradict himself between the two texts or within a given text. there is the possiblity that this prindple of the priority of refutation is applied to A 'lâm.39 In other words. as the Qur'il\ teaches. • 4Of{owever. a martyr whose body could be slain but whose soul could asœnd to and üve in heaven. so to speak. since A'lim and al·l. 283-90. This reconciliation could allow for the crucifixion of the body of Jesus.

3-/p. Il. • 42 Bath the Hamdani MS (f.. 123r. Thus...ü-ship. we adopt the more grammatically correct reading 'J4MI': the printed edition also adopts this reading (p. 123r. by comparing it analogically to the Prophet M~ad and bis . • al-..244).. Il. 244. 9/f..Il. 12 and 13) and the Tübingen MS (f.f. Il..pts to represent the idea of the resemblance of Jesus to 'Ali.3-15/p. 123r. I24r.) and purity (al-ldarab).. the famous phrase in verse Q 4: 157.. considering the context and standard grammatical usage. Il.. 'Ali came to hold the 41 Ta support bis argument. 16..fIa. referred to in verse Q 4: 158.. al-Razi adds.41 He holds that the "".... . Al-Razï implies that this deed of the antagonists resembles that of the Jews who did not recognize the mission of Jesus and even went 50 far as to bide it from other people (f. This man..hubbilJa la-hum). That is.. who resembled the legitimate holder of this office because of bis daim to it. 2/p.V.. a1-Razï quotes a Prophetie . 245). Thus. 2/f.uHba).... is the Messiah of "this cycle" (al-Mui1J fi adba . 1. that is. 24445). after the Prophet. 3-10/f. the Prophet elevated 'Ali to the . 3-15/f. 123r. . was ''killed and crucified" (qutila wa-. 123r. l.l~. Il. the anointed (al-matmiilJ) (f. i. Al-Razi also interprets the raïsing of Jesus by God to His right hand." cAli.e.vn:\ since 'Ali Il was "the one anointed" (al-lIJtUMiilJ) with sanctity (al~u. 1. 123v. He likewise maintains that the '1ews" (al-Yahiicl). 12.. 124r. Il and 12) have i~LWL However.42 "Al-MaSitl" means. I23r. 15.ü from the community.. who is left unidentified in al-l..only a likeness of that was shown to them" (wa-lÜÜJ .. 10 and Il)..258 • attem.v.ll... . is interpreted as follows: the one • made to resemble Jesus in this verse means the usurper of the status of the . 123v. the Christians would not have said [anythingl about the Messiah" Cf. " .fIl which is interpreted as an allusion ID those who over-revered •Ali in the same wayas Christians did Jesus: '1f a group of my eommunity had not said [anythingl about you. are the antagonists who "concealed" the rank and position of the ..f.. 9/pp.. . 244). 'Ali. . 123r. 12... 1. was degraded from bis rank because of bis rebellious deed (f.. 123r..ship. the people described in verses such as Q 4: 157 as persecutors of Jesus and bis disciples. just as God elevated Jesus to His right hand.

this is discussed with regard to the G Al-Râzi also quotes a tradition predicting that Jesus would lead the faithful in worship behind the Mahdi at his ptlrousill.e. he will bless him with the status of the ultimate (al-aibayalJ) and the lord of the unveiling . the Qi'im).. we would renûnd ourselves that al-Rizi suggested that there is a similarity between the u:ü-ship of Ali in particular.. when he cornes down to earth. And he will tell him: For you 1 performed the worship.. the Qa'im (lJatta ~ür~b al-lDubf) ( f.. 124r.43 Here.e. "Das Imamat. 171-72. 16. but abstains from any comment upon it. the Mahdï-Qi 'im).'im in terms of their taking 1 on the raie of la 'ri or esoteric interpretation.. pp." p.I.. That is (ay).l~can read as foUows: (. this shows. a typological chain. so to speak. as they mast definitely are in al-Nasafi's scheme. which establishes the typological relation between these two divinely-guided figures. this does not mean that they are not connected typologically in al-l~l~. and the Qi. this would mean that he emphasizes the eschatological raies that Jesus and the Qi 'im are ta play. 124r. and worship behind him.e. the da'wah is connected to him (i.e. The passage in question &om al-l. he will descend from the heaven. See Madelung.4). shed more light not only on Jesus himself but aIsa on bis possible relation to ather praphets.45 Before we discuss al-Razï's own argument on the resemblance between Jesus and the Qa'im. Madelung mentions this passage by al-Rizî.. the Messiah's retum ta earth. at that time.) 50 he ('AU) is in heaven until the lime ta which there is a '1imit" (pdJ). 3/p..6 al-llabf.e. 14. 124v. As for Jesus' relation ta other prophets. while he is the highest of the entire da'wah until the parousia of the master of the unveiling (.. A.. the merging of the eschatalogical raie of Jesus with that of the Mahdi in Ithni-'ashaJi tradition. precede him (i.. 1.Ü-Ship up ta the parousüz of the Qi'im.V." i. 4ff. e· ~ If al-Nasafi has in mind the Christian messianist doctrine as we suggested above. i. While this chain does not link Jesus and the Qa'im directly. W. and the Qâ'im are connected by. IAli.. . we hope. 1. 14. e inc1uding the Qa'îm.259 e highest rank of the hierarchy lIuntil the parousia of the Lord of the unveiling. according ta A. we will describe and analyze his views on Jesus and the issues concerning hïm. as seen above. 124r. Cf." Thus in al-RiZi's eyes Jesus. Also see pp. at that time. Sff. 246) As for the tradition of Jesus' leading of the faithful's worship behind the Mahdi. 243-48 of this chapter above. This will. i.. by merging it with his description of 'Ali's holding of the . 1.V. 1. That is. 16. lOS.. .. Sachedina. .1.V.V.. the da'wah is conducted in his name).. . See hislslamic Messianism. Thus.

. 2ff. Il.f. al-SijistiDi follows the lead of al-Nasal regarding Jesus's sacred law. and that when Jesus propagated knowledge and wisdom.1. p.. Il. when the Torah was put together by the Jews after the death of Moses. 249)... the fragments of the text of the Qur1ân were collected and compiled into book form after the death of the Prophet.. 1. even if it appears that the compilation of the Gospels 6ft ln Kubf al-MaNü'. 126r. Al-Nasaû maintains that Jesus did not compile the Gospel.hi-yj ~). 1.260 • controversial issue of the sacred law of the first IJi#q. Jesus then followed the sacred law of Moses and never deviated from it46 (f. 126r. 1..·. AI-SijistiDi maintains that the "image" of Adam (iii. 79 (French transI. A similar process occurred within the Jewish community. and that he trod the path of the first nafiq.. In this way. Jesus furtbennore always granted bis disciples spiritual benefits CruJ. al-Rizi implicitly confirms that. 113/English transJ. . they may be collected by the people of a community after the death of a naliq.. 16. 250-52). 126r. 14. 1. With regards to the issue of compilation of the scriptures (kutub. Presenting these historical facts of the compilation of the revealed texts. Kubf a/-MaMüf). the fragments of the Gospels were compiled by Jesus' disciples after he left this world (f. pp. however. 126r. al-RaD reiterates bis own view on the first napq: The path of the first napq involves the composition of sacred law (ta 'Hf al-.f. 126v. For example.V. 127v. 12fpp.. • . and is re1ated to Moses's law because he followed il. 49-50 (in manusaipt) ).. according to al-Nasafi. that the latter was able ta gain access te the IItree" (diraklJat ) wbich the former was prohibited ta approach. 11-14ff.). . 127v. that he did not compose any sacred law.9-12fp.250). 1.. Likewise. Il. Could this indicate that just as Adam taught bis people the tawf. he points out that there is another means of composing or compiling • them: that îs. p.barï'aIJ) (f. he did not change the sacred law of Moses exœpt repladng Saturday with Sunday as the feast day. Jesus is related to Adam by virtue of his not having brought any sacred law. Adam) appeared in Jesus.. 126r.lidwithout dJuï'ab... Jesus taught bis disciples the spiritual matters without imposing them a new aIJarj'aIJ ? A1-5ijisliDi. At the beginning of bis refutation of al-Nasafï's statement quoted above. Il. 13-15fp. 1ff.

iiI1{p. The formation of the several "Gospels" (al. 11Sv.. L 5)• 49 The passage which al-Razi quotes from the Evangel (al-In.. 1.. (f. 15/pp. 1. ... Ham. 128r. 128r. the participation of 50 great a number of the companions 100 to the emergenœ of a variety of methods of recitation (.49 According to al-Razi. One example of this which he cites refers to that of the changes to the Sabbath which provoked the Jews into persecuting him (f. 118r. 235). 127v.. (f... 9/p. 14-15/p. 7) give instead ~I~L Considering the context. 41 236.. Tüb. 8/pp.. Il.. 1.261 • was not accomplished by Jesus himseH. . L 4. brought a new law.V.235--36). 127v. 13. Il.. al-Rizi describes the position of John in sacred history by quoting a passage from the Gospel: John declares to the Jews that he himself is neither prophet nor Messiah but the "voiee which shouts in the desert" (al-. .m&di fï al-qafr)48 and tells them to pave the way of the Lord (IiSabbi1ü . 116r. . 3-4/f.f.1) may be translated as ... taking a view opposite to aI-Nasafi's on this important figure at the dawn of Jesus' prophetie eareer.. .n9 al-Rab" !") (f. This composition means the transformation of the revelation into human language.awt alladbi yr. 13/f. 118v. 1. Aeeording to al-Nasafï.. 2. 118r... 118v.. 127v. 14/ f.mji1) resulted from a similar proœss (f.. John the Baptist was the imam before Jesus was elevated to the IJilÏq-ship (f. this does not mean that the original text in fragmentary form was not "composed" by him. I.. 126v. al-Rizi holds that Jesus abolished the sacred law of Moses and IIrenewed sacred law. 118v.252-53).. 126v.. IL 1-7/f." that is.f. 17) and MS.. Al-Razï also discusses the raIe of John the Baptist. IL 11-17/pp. 1. 118v. . 50 what was this unique grade? In the course of his explanation of this unique grade. 250-52). bath MS.f. we adopt the reading of the printed edition ...n'id. 231). • For the Iast word of this phrase. In bis refutation of this view aI-Razi holds that John the Baptist gained a unique grade "which no one had ever • attained" (mtbaIJ lam yanal-œ afaacl) (f. 41 Moreover.. John the Baptist meant by this declaration Q Al-Rizi also contnbutes ta the textual criticism of the Qur'in by suggesting that in the course of the compilation. 6/f.

23S. j. 23S of the printed edition. the position) in potentia .. thus omitting the following al·manzilah which is suitable to be paired with the technical term ldJayil .." Then the Jews were dispatchOO to him from Jerusalem (1. IIp. note to 1. which is quoted in the printed 00. IL 4-7If. Explaining the verse Q 19: 7 which notified Zachariah of the coming birth of a boy. not hiding [anythingl. among the people of knowledge (abl al-'ilm. IL 11-17/pp. 1. Ori-Salim) in order to ask him: "Who are you?" Then. (f. a. nor the mutimm.babÜJ bi·bab al-abi '.. l.. [but] declaring: "1 am not the Messiah. seem to conjecture that the text uses the ward lcbayâl in its specific Ismi'iu technical sense ("imagination" as an angelic being). dated July 28." Uohn said:) "I am for the testimony (li-J-sbabadah). Thus John [the Baptist] gained it (Le. (f... but alludes nevertheless to bis privileged position... 235) • follows: Just as it is written of his character in the Evangel where he says: "He is a man God dispatehed. p. Zachariah) was made to know that John would attain a grade which no one had attained before him: that is ta say. • The editors of the printed 00. zachariah and bis fellow di 'is) as the foreshadowing of the position (bi-khayil al-manzüah)50 which the gate ta the seventh (bib a/-$abi ' ) will gain before the unveiling (qabla al-wh!). 1. 2 on p. (f. he affinned.0. 15. Upon a suggestion made to us by Professer Hermann Landolt of McGill University. not at aIl! They said: Then." Here. and .. IS of the previous page: "Qi"at Yaflyi wa·jma-llu . 235." They said: "Then. instead of just J~l. "foreshadowing. see the note to 1. &. 11. Ham. 5) and Tüb. b. who are you?" He said: '1 am the voice which shouts in the deserts. 17. 235. IIBr.. b.. while the gate ta the seventh will gain it in actu as one who manifests it (mu~ la-bi). i. Pave the path of the Lord!". in order that they testify for the light (li-l·oiir). I18r. a.e. 118r." They said: "Then you are Elijah Miyi)?" He said: '1 am not he. 1. l.V.v. 6/f..262 • that he was neither the awaited enunciator-prophet (al-napq al-mWJta~ar).. Landolt (bis facsimile message ta us. 235-36) This passage seems to correspond to John 1. (f. It8r." .e. 50 On this phrase.. al-RaZi describes this position as follows: 50 he (i.:Jr J~ ... 1-7If. 1." Aiso the passage in the next line(s) "fa-yaIaJu. n8v. we follow all the five manuscripts.. 1. whose name was John (Yiihanni).. 1999). reading it as 4J. the position recognized for him. IIBr. nor his lieutenant.1Jj YalJy:i bi·al~üW2IJ wa-yanilu·1Ja bàb al~bi' bo-alqüwab.1JabiIJ (one resembling 5... according to Prof.) which is similar to our interpretation of the phrase... who are you?" He said: "1 am not a prophet. we do not adopt here the Isma'ili technical sense of kbayil in the translation of this particu1ar phrase. 2 of the printed edition. l/p. On the reading offered by MSS. L 16).t on p. . Our interpretation can be supported by the note found in the margin of MS. 118v. bi-kbayil al-manzjJab is "understood to mean" ." (f. llar. 6-7 and 19-23 with sorne alterations. 3) suggests that John was the figure "foreshadowing" the "gate to the seventh.

since each of them has bis own forerunner.S2 But why does Jesus have this quality as weIl as the Qi'im? This issue is precisely • concemed with another issue. and the "seventh" to his son. Madelung. Le. What other resemblances.263 • In addition. 119r. whether there is any "typological" view of Jesus and the Qi. Il. who is a much later authority (9th/15th century). IL 1D-1S/f.zï ascribes it to their holding of the '1ast-ness" (al-akhiriyah) (f.'im. . 236). 121v. 121v. do these two divinely-guided figures share? When pointing out the resemblance between them. 12-16/f.. ibid. 241-42) which presumably has an eschatological connotation because of its being related to the seventh nipq .. just as the fifth napq resembles the seventh (f. then. Madelung. in what sense does Jesus contain the "last-ness" within himself and share it with the Qi'im? To answer this we must first investigate al-Razi's version of IItypological" Christology. Il. tint An the beginning of bis chapter on the fifth napq." p. al-Ri. on the other.zï states that this position means that John the Baptist resembles the "gate" to the seventh. • 52 W. 106. in al-Razi's Christology. 118v. Madelungthinlcs thatthis "gate ta the seventh" refers to the first Fà~imid lmim-Caliph 'Ubayd ('Abd) Allih a1-Mahcl on the one hand.'im. Jesus' Contact with the Angelic Beings and His Typological Relation to Adam and the Messianic Qi. In other words. besides having forerunners. Abii a1-Qisim al-Qi. the Qa ' im. al-Rizi quotes al-Nasafi's 51 W. This is only one of many of possibilities. §2-2.. Thus. since Madelung cites only 'Idris 'lmid al-Dïn as bis source. ''Das Imamat.51 al-Razî confirms that there is a sort of resemblance between Jesus and the Qi'im. 3-8/p.. Madelung has already pointed to the eschatological meaning of this renn. al-Ri. Il 11-16/p. while stillleaving the nature of the position and grade not fully elucidated and keeping the "gate" to the seventh unidentified..

30 and f. AI-5ijistini.• See f. temporarily translated as 'Ward. 32 (cf. 12-14/f.. In al-Ràzi's quotation. 14r. Early Philosophical Shiism.5-13/f. al-M*ü1 quoted in al-I<irmüü." in the above quotatian is reminiscent of the divine command of creation.u.. Because of this he came into union with the Soul (al-nais) without any intermediation. 323.S5 There is besides no refutation offered 53 This passage reads in Arabie as foUows: Wa-ammiÏ itta. (f. 124-26. 115v. 74. 6-9/f. this kalimah should be taken as having a more traditional.8-10.rrph llJÜJ gbayr taw. al-Rizï. Cf. Kitàb al-Matlilid. De Smet. Il..l~ f. 13r. 3/p. pp. aJ-Riyi!l.. lOr. 55 On the Qur'inic meaning and Sunni Muslim interpretation of the kalima h and its . Madelung." p. 13r. aJ-l. Il.. 54 But.I.53 • The kalimab.264 • view on Jesus' contact with the angelic beings. 24-25).f. 6-14/pp. f. 121. mainstream Muslim meaning.. Walker.V. as we will see below... p. the "Ward of God" (kalimat Allah). 16.. 10v.hraran•. before Jesus reached the napq-ship). in the cosmology of early ISIIli'ili thinkers such as al-Nasafi. Il. 14v. 116r. al-IJUlaqà' qabla-hu ia-uürulisa bu.12-14/f.u~ ~b al-ZiUlWJ li-aaaa Y~üaa aJ-imàm al-qa"l li alUJa kbi. IL 4-5/p. see. In the Qur'inic sense (for example. pp. for example. iL 8-10/p. La quiéhlde de l'intellect.lada bi-al-bl.. Thus he was suddenly taken away. 231).fJada) with the 'Word" (al-kalimah) without any intermediary on the part of the master of the era (min gbayr ta WU$U~ fjfJib al-zamin).115v... in this context of the discussion of Jesus. al-Nasan is said ta have stated the following with regard to Jesus' contact with upper spiritual beings: The fifth lJifiq came into union (itta. The refutation of this view results in the development of al-Rizi's own typological discussion of Christology. Il. p. 1. In Ismi'ilism. 11-13/f. II.mi.. al-Nasa'. 116r.1l. since John the Baptist was the imim before him (i. in Q 3: 45 and 4: 171) it can be thought of as being in sorne sense connected with the kalimah which can mean both the principle of creation and the Word revealed from God to the prophets induding Jesus himself. "Cosmogony and • Cosmology VI. 72-82.1l. SI On the early Ismi'ilï notion of the hljmab..e.

vol.I. as did Abraham and Moses?56 In discussing these issues.f. 155-56 in chapter 5 above. or the a. see pp.. 2d ed. Gardet. 4. p. imim) at the time of the dawn of Jesus' prophetie career. 143-45 and p.265 • by al-Rizï of the concept of Jesus' union with the "Word." This suggests that al-Nasafi uses the 'Word" in a more general sense. O." EI2. 1.. How then did Jesus come into union or conjunction with the Sou! and the Intellect. 122v. Anawati. 1 1I • On al-Rizi's argument as to the mode of these two prophets' contact with the higher beings. 151v. 83. 1. 122r. This is in spite of the fact that there was no earthly dignitary available to perform this task. 23 to chapter 3. which is his typological analogy between Jesus and two other prophetie figures. .1. 24043). 3. §3. i. C. such as a mutimm (completer. (Paris. Adam and the Qi. l. 13-14/f. see above chapter 6. Der Chrishls der Muslime (Kain. 122v. 16... 14. we consulted: G..S7 connection to Jesus. However. as seen above. 2. 19-21 and pp.. 122v. G.f. Al-Rizi states thatJesus came into conjunction with the ~lin (f. Introduction à la théologie musulmane. even though each possessed a position unique ta himself. The ~lia are. the two highest hypostases in Neoplatonist cosmology. [Si. in his discussion in the chapter on Jesus. 231 and f.. Al-Nasafi and al-Razi are agreed that Jesus must have come into conjunction with the Soul or the ~lin (bath the Sou! and the Intellect) without the intermediation of any other earthly dignitary (f. 24143). 2/f.' im. 121v. Anawati and L. 233-37.. 1.f. the Universal Intellect and the Saul. al-Razi • reveals the central theme of bis Christology. p.lin? Did he require the intermediation of the lower angelic beings. l/pp. Schumann. he begins ms refutation with an attack on al-Nasafi's viewon the positions of the leading figures at the dawn of Jesus' era such as Zachariah and John the Baptist. 1. 3. 120v. pp.. Even Zachariah and John the Baptist did not hold the rank of the imamah. 121v. 1988). 116r. 38.. I/pp. l. al-Razi chooses not to attack al-Nasafï's statement on Jesus' union with the Soule Rather. C./f. il. as seen before.e. 1970). n. 120r. interestingly.l. ID/p.f. 56 SI On Zachariah.

At such a low rank it is inconœivable that anyone should receive ta 'yid directiy from the upper hierarchy. 121v.. 1. In other words the typologic~ relation of Jesus. that is. 3-S/p.. On the similarity of Jesus ta Adam from the standpoint of this typological relation. Il. 3-9/p. Interpreting the verse telling of the still infant Jesus' dedaration of his prophethood from the cradle (Q 19: 30).58 In short. al-Rizi maintains that a little child in cradle means a mf#tajib C'1istener-novice"). • Al-Rizï goes on to point out that this mode of conjunction with the two highest hypostases and subsequent acquisition of the na#q-ship are found not only in the prophetie career of Jesus. not as it (i. is as Adam's image" (Q 3: 59). that is. This explains how he attained the rank of napq -ship. Adam. al-Rizi writes: . and the Qi.e. his image (mitbâlu-hu) in acquiring the rank of enundation (fi marta6at al-nu19) is the image of the beginning of the creature (Le.Jadd aJ-imim3b). in God's sight. (f. Il. but aiso in those of Adam and the Qa'im.. 239). 16.ftDinjyüJ).. the first human being. the lowest member of the hierarchy.tajib..'im lies in this mode of conjunction and acquisition of niJiq-ship. according to al-Rizï. 121v.I. since the "stream" (al-jan) came into conjunction with him CIesus) from the II ~lin through the kbayil of the tàli . 'lOfruly. Adam) ("ad' al-kIJalq ). That is ta say.. iL 3-10/f.. al-Rion points out that Jesus was still regarded as occupying a lower rank when he was elevated into conjunction with the ~lilJ... 12Or. 241). when he was elevated to prophethood (f. the stream") came into the conjunctïon with any other of the • SI This is the argument he affers in refutation of al-Nasatl's statement that Jesus had already reached the rank of inwn (J. Jesus must have been elevated ta conjunction with the ~lin without any intermediation from earthly beings (min ghayr wisi~t min al-j.V. .. Therefore. thinking that he was still a m . 3/f. because of the fact that there was no higher dignitary and the fact that he was not himself of a high rank. the people had doubted the speaking ability of the infant Jesus. 12Ov.. the image of Jesus.266 • Moreover.

since there had not been any completer before him. who were initiated by their then superior earthly dignitaries. Then. According ta this argument the prophets can gain on!y indirect recognition of and conjunction with the two highest hypostases. Jesus' mode of elevation ta the mipq-ship had Adam as its only forerunner.267 • lJUraqa' through the kbayiJ of the completers (aJ-atimmi '). in a true conjWlction in actu (itti~àlan !Jaqi'liyan bi-al-[i '1) with the a~làlJ.Ràzi maintains consistency with his argument on the story of the contact of Abraham and Moses with the upper hierarchy. just as the fifth enunciator"prophet came into union . th. (or "completer") from a previous era who could have initiated him. And likewise [itl is the path of the beginning of the creature. That is. In this argument al.is conjunction was not intermediated through any imam but through the kbayil. Jesus came into conjunctïon with the highest hypostases. since he is the master of • unveiling (~b al-wb!). 7-12/f.And likewise the seventh came into UIÙon with the ~lan . 52v. al-Razi attempts to establish the typological resemblance between Jesus and the Qi. 4-10/p. which resulted in bis elevation to the lJa~q-ship. 'Be. That is: He rose to the rank of the 110) ~làn through the intermediation of the ldJayil of the tàJi ! (f.. '7hen said He onto him. li. but through the ldJayil. the khayil ) appeared to him. as the fust human being. since. Thus it (i.. 53v. and this through lower angelic beings such as the jadd and the kbayiJ. II. However. This is in contrast to what happened in case of other nU!aqa '-in-waiting.' im in the following passage: .' and he was" (Q 3: 59). • Another matter to remark upon in the passage quoted above is thatJesus is not described as to having come into direct conjunction with the ~lan.e.... he had no imam.

121v. 122r. Cf. And he (Le. 50 We shaH bring it back again-a promise binding on Us").. L 14) and the printed edition (p.268 • with it (i." a concept which needs further explanation. Ham. the same mode of conjunction with the upper spiritual beings. 9. considering the context. 121v. This is almost an expected consequence.1.as We originated the first creation.e. although the former held it only in potentia on the one hand. the typological relation between Jesus and the Qi lim is extended to Adam. 241-42) ~lan is like his (i. Cf. 1. 1. 13. 14). 122r.tJ. 121v. In Ku1Jf al-Mataiiib he holds: The meaning of the genealogy in the descent of Jesus from heaven onto earth is that Adam's . since we have seen how al-Ri.?'f9 in subtle potentiality Cbi-al-qüwa1J al-lapfaIJ). 1...." This means that Jesus and the Qi 'im share the same mode of conjunction with the highes t hypostases. 122r. 13.f. 122r. 1. • 60 AI-SijistiDi expresses a similar idea to the typological relation of al-Razi. Jesus) was also made to resemble the first nâ#q.f. 121 V. 9/pp. (f... J. 241. 9. 1. 9ff. MS. • Following this passage.. Thus. 1/pp. we suggest that the phrase refers to the a. However. that is. had already appeared in Jesus in potentia.. (bi-al-qüwab ) and would appear aise in the last aa#q (f.Zï holds that Jesus and Adam shared the same mode of elevation to the nifiq-ship.60 This similarity between 59 all have ~ MS. as we have already commented. Basing bis reasoning on the Qurlinic verse 21: 104 (". because the path of the first napq in the union with the 1 If.liIJ as if it were 4.e. the Qalim's) path without any intermediation. In the passage quoted above Jesus heralds the Qilim in terms of the latter's conjunetion with the ~lin and bis "position of last-ness.. 1. al-Razi maintains that the "similar thing" ta Adam (shibb Adam). L 13) C'with it" or "with him"). 121v.. l. 241-42). Another characteristic they share is '1ast-ness. not with unveiling (Iradt)..f. 121v. Tüb. the fifth became an "image" (mithaJ ) for the seventh in terms of the position of "last-ness" (fi manzüat al-âldJirïyah ).f. with the ~1i. while the latter will do 50 in full actuality on the other hand.

disciples). it can be suggested that the linkage of Neoplatonist cosmology with the idea of the development of sacred history is. Jesus is not only. And the meaning of the desœnt of Jesus from heaven was that the knowledge and the wisdom Jesus made visible become visible to the master of the resurrection.269 • Adam and Jesus can be interpreted as the "similar" element in their conjunctions. 49f.'im in sacred history. but also the IIrecapitulator" who re-captures and represents the nature of Adam in a later era.. nulaibiz). at least recognized in the thought of al-Rizi.. Adam) was prohibited. Also. 113/English transI. which denotes the Neoplatonist Intellect and Soul. . p. p.------+ the Qi. Namely. since this is mentioned in the same eontext as Jesus' conjunetion with.han-.. while propagating the knowledge and the wisdom (gustariDitJaa. al-5ijistani thought that the esoteric or salvational '~nowledge" and "wisdom" was manifested from Adam to Jesus and would be fully actualized in the persan of the Qi'im. in terms of the mode of conjunction with the angelic beings.e. Jesus) gave of the tree from which he (i. This relation of typological referenee between the three nU!aqâ' can be depicted as follows: Adam ~ --------.i 'ilm 1r:l-~t) which was practiced among bis friends (Le. anything which the Messiah made public te the disciples from the knowledge and the wisdom.e.. p.. Jesus did not alter the sacred law of Moses except for the Sabbath which he changed to Sunday.. Focusing on the figure of Jesus. since this argument is presented in connection with the term ~làn ..'im Thus. the typological • chain eonneets these three prophetie figures in the framework of sacred history.. that knowledge beIongs ta the master of the resurrection (khudâband-i ruraJtlüz). p.. "image" (mirbiJ-i Adam) becomes visible in (the person of] Jesus. (French transI. since he (i. though not very much elaborated. {p. {p. For. 80 {French transI. we can describe the typological relation of the three IJufaqi' in the mode of conjunction as follows. 79f.Jesus--. the "foreshadower" who heralds the role of the Qi... 50 (in manuscript) }} • That is to say. 113/English transI. the higher beings. (in manuscript) » And subsequently al-5ijistiDi states: God gave an account of the Messiah (Masitù that he is a sign of the resurrection <. 50 ta speak.

241).14ff. al.e. • As already seen in the last section (and as we will see again later). 13." apparently eonstitutes the Qi'im's raIe in sacred history. Al-Razi seems to suggest that. The kasbf .'s conjunction with the ~laa (equivalent to the Intellect and the Soul in N eoplatonist terminology) in full actuality (itti~ilan paqiqiyan bi-al-fi'/) is related to his role in sacred history: " . the ulü al-'azm . since he is the master of unveiling (~b 121v.270 • §3..62 • Thus the last quoted passage can be interpreted to imply that the Qi." Cf. the Qi'im can come into fully actualized conjunction with the ~lin . "unveiling.61 Their attitude towards the sacred law and their mode of conjunction with the highest hypostases are what makes them exceptional in the framework of sacred history.the seventh came into union with the a~/in in a true conjunction al-wh! ) .'im in sacred history. Q . since he does not bring any new sacred law but "unveils" the hidden meanings of aIl the sacred laws... The Contact with the Angelic Beings and Sacred History: Qi' imology Revisited 1 The typological chain through the mode of conjunction which we have just discussed should aIso be examined with regard ta the issue of the roles of Adam and the Qi. pp.1I. 61 See above coopter 4. because of his role ("sinee he is the master of unveiling"). 1~101..Rizi holds that neither Adam nor the Qi' im follows the pattern of the other five nU~'li " i.. in actu with the ~lin. in proceeding with the abolition and renewal of sacred law. In his discussion of this issue. 121v. Jesus aIse shares with Adam and the Qi'im the mode of the conjunction with the angelic beings at least te sorne extent. as seen above in chapter 4. IL 13.'im.... Because of this they and their eras form the exceptions in sacred history.14fp.

13f. we can inter that the roles of the prophets in sacred history determine the extent of the actualization of the conjunction with the highest hypostases.1. • This statement can be interpreted to mean thatJesus' harbinger-ship of the Qi'im. I22r. achieved a similar conjunction.271 • Jesus. According to him. not with the unveiling") (f. and Adam. but only in " subtle potentiality" (bi-al-tliiwab al-lapfah ) because he was not given the task of 1r. These are: What does al. on the other hand...'im in terms of the actualization of the conjunction. Sorne of these questions are related to the issue of the development of sacred history. the "last-ness" is the cause ( fillah ) of the "union" (itû~d ) of JesU5 with the ~lan in the absence of any earthly intermediation (f. 241-42).13.f. IL 14-I5/f. even though this "1ast-ness" is still in a state of potentiality.. his being the herald of the last na#q in sacred history.n in actu. This means that the roles of Jesus and the Qi.1. l4-15/p. I2lv. 9ff. The two different roles assigned to them result in subtly different ways of actualization of the conjunction..ub! (li bi-al-kulJf. 1. Il.. 1. In the passage in question aI-Rizi also uses the expression manzüat al-ühiriyah (the position of '1ast-ness") to describe the typological relation between Jesus and the Qi. There remain a few questions on the relation of the mode of the conjunction with the highest hypostases in the cases of Jesus. having considered the issue of the "last-ness" and the above-mentioned role of bsbf to this point... 12lv. that îs.Rizï mean by the "true" conjunction with the ~lin i11 actu or the fully aetualized conjunctîon? Does al-Rizï think that Adam came into • conjunction with the ~li. 121v.'im in sacred history determine their modes of conjunction with the highest hypostases. 121v. was represented in his still potential conjunction with the ~lin. as the Qi'im would do at the end of sacred history? Does the specifie mode of the conjunctïon with the highest hypostases . " . the Qi' im. 122r.. Now. 241).. 9/pp.

97r. &1 • . §3. the text states that Jesus came into in conjunction with the influence of the ~lin through the kbayil of the talï. Let us examine these questions one by one. which is what occurred in the case of Jesus when he was elevated to the na#q-ship: this mode is a type that remains in potentiality. II. 1.V.ll0). and this for the purpose of refuting al·Nasafi's insistence on the possibility of direct recognition of the two highest hypostases. 91 V.. For most of the prophets. 11.. We an compare this to the case of the Prophet Muf. Adam. 1. first of all. To answer the question on the conjunction in actu with the highest hypostases. 11.lim and the Prophet M~ad. though indirectly. 5-13 If. The other occurs only through the lower angelic beings.. L16.. but since he ascended to the conjunction with the a6i" through the jadd. which we discussed in chapter 4 above. 1. 1'> f. 7-12/f. 8/p.f.. 120). 4-10/p. This particular mode of conjunction may be identified as the fully actualized conjunction which is to occur to the This mode of indirect conjunction is reported in the case of Abraham (f.. 52v. This would mean that he experienced indirect conjunction through the lower angelic beings. This is to be distinguished from direct conjunction with the two highest hypostases. 92r.272 • exclusively held by Jesus. 222-24. L 9/pp. pp. 58v. 2/f. ln the case of the Prophet there is no report of the name of bis intennediary or initiator (f. 1. 57r. we need. Briefly stated. there are two modes of indirect conjunction. an indirect conjunction supposedly occurred through the intermediation of both earthly dignitaries and lower angelic beings. which would occur at a level far above that of the lower angelic beings and earthly dignitaries. 53v.. which is the Soul (f. to examine the nature of the conjunction in potentin..63 As seen above. 183-92). See above in chapter 6. but without the intervention of dignitaries of the earthly • hierarchy. The more common of the two is an indirect conjunction through the intermediation of both the lower angelic beings and earthly dignitaries at the time of ascent to the na#q-ship. and the Qâ1im mean that they are ranked higher than other nU!qi' ? The last question is concemed with the issue of the respective ranks of the Qi. See chapter 6.. he reached the higher hypostasis. 8. 96v.lal1\mad. the Intellect.

which is • itself similar to that found in the report on Qarma~ian doctrine by al-Nawbakhti and Sa'd b. See aIso above pp. 198: Also cf. al. 78). since both ages are without laws. whether it was in potentia or in am. Adam's conjunctian should be interpreted to have occurred in potentia. As for the question of the conjunction of Adam with the ~lân. 1. Adam's conjunction should be interpreted as in actu. This means that the period of pre-history. ICiDb al·Ncqrah quoted in al·I<irmini. al-Rizi held that. p. Logically. resembles the post-history which is to be inaugurated by the Qi. there would be no sacred law after that of the Qi'im (f.in reference to which al. 6S Moreover.Rizi does not specify which state of conjunction it represented. Sa1d b. This could mean that with the Qi. directly descending from the &flan . if the resemblance between Adam and the Qi.'im . It is possible then that. 1. i.. p. 190 of the same text .64 Al-5ijistini maintains that the Qi'im is the restorer of pure recognition of the tawlüd (or the unity of Gad) ta which Adam invited the people of bis age without teaching any sacred law. whose end was marked by the coming of Adam. 14.'im cornes into conjunction with the jiri or ta 'yid. just as was the case before the coming of Adam.Jim. 'Abd Allah where itis discussed as the Qi'im's re-gaining the "paradise of Adam" (jannat Adam ). 1Abd Allih.Razï quotes the Qur'anic verse 21: 104 (liAs We started the first of creation... 84.'im. due to the similarity between the eras of Adam and the 61 Al-Nawbakhti. however.e.is emphasized. The emphasis placed on the resemblance between Adam and the Qi'im reminds one of the view of al-5ijistini on the prophethood of Adam. 87--89 and 101-104 in chapter 4... 7If.63 (French transI. But if instead the resemblance between Adam and Jesus (not the Qi.'im) is emphasized. 3/p. p.273 • Qi. p. • 65 Al-Sijistini..V. 88). 11V.I. 1. p.. We will retum it as promise ta us") ... 3Br. Kitab al-Riyi!l.. as we saw above in chapter 4. 37r.

This sort of parallelism or analogical thinking was quite common amongst al-Rizi's contemporaries. 1. we still have • to keep this question open.1. 15/f. and the Qi'im mean that they are ranked higher than other l1uraQi '? According to al-Razi the prindple of disparity or the difference of superiority (a1-tafi~ul ) can be found within the same rank (~adJ) of a certain divinely-guided leadership.'im with respect ta their modes of conjunction with the angelic beings. For a reference. and nif. since these is no textual evidence which supports this possibility.f. Jesus. 255-56).. 129r. Does the mode of conjunction exclusively conferred upon Adam. Therefore.. Let us now examine the question of the relation between the ranks of the prophets and their modes of conjunction. 67 Of the other ranks al-Razi states that among the lari. 13.. 1. 1." KWNYQDR.iq-ship (f. this would not necessarily result in the exact coïncidence of the two prophets in terms of their mode of the conjunction with the highest angelic beings.f. 17/pp. 1. Thus.. 13. I30r. In our discussion the subtle difference between them in terms of their conjunction was related to their roles in sacred history.f:ùq Oieutenants). 129r. both Ismi'ili and non-Isma Di. 106. completer-ship or imimah. 81 above. 256}. 4/f.274 • Qi'im.v. e. lieutenant-ship. 129v. p. However..67 This doctrine • fi6 This way of thinking may be related to certain other ideas such as sympathy and correspondence between existent beings in pre-modern natural philosophy. 1.. As for the difference of superiority among the nu~qi " it corresponds to the symbolic "seven upper letters. 129v. there is disparity . al-Rizi sawa correspondence between their modes of conjunction with the upper angelic beings. 8. n. 1.g. there is the possibility that al-Razï presupposed a firm connection between the similarity of the modes of the conjunction of the two prophets and the similarity of their two eras.66 I Also. we have just seen al-Rizi's discussion of the case of Jesus and the Qi.1.. 130r.. 17V. see chapter 4. 6/p. each of which is respectively represented by one of them (f.

. pp. 1.4. n.lim. qualities which he does not mention in connection with the Prophet (f. 10/f. Jesus and the Qi. p. fil However. 16." Journal of the American Oriental Society 114 (1994): pp.. Il/pp. 1-15/f. al-Razi had ta abstain from making any clear statement on this matter. lllv.. 1. 240-41. 13.'im~ Is the Prophet to be induded among the other nUfatlà or not? This is. if there is a disparity between Adam.. l29r. the question of the ranking of the Prophet M~ad and the Qi. p. .f. a very sensitive issue and one that potentially violates a significant tenet of Islam.f. 1. 102v. Part 2 of Prophecy Continuous. See f. most important prophet was still questioned by non-mainstream Muslim thinkers such as Ibn al-Rawandi and Abü Bakr al-Razi was as late as the 3rd/9th to 4th/l0th centuries. l. p. It would seem that al-RaZi'S interpretation of the first few verses from sürah 53 (f. 16/pp. and other nUfaqa'l what then is the relation between the Prophet and the Qi. lllr.'im needs to be raised again. 57v. 1.f. Friedmann. the Universal Intellect. whereas among the completers.. O. 255-56. as already confirmed. L 8.. that the Prophet M~mmad is the khâtam al-anbiya' (the seal or the last of the prophets). 9/p.. pp. the idea of the Prophet M~ad as the final. that is.. 112-18 above.69 Therefore. Il. l.. l03v.f. 186. 121) on the Prophet's vision.V. in the present chapter above . this vision is related to the sa"iq.. 1 im' s attributes as being the completion (tamàm ) and perfection (kamil) of • knowledge (al-'ilm).. 109 and in chapter 6. and S. 11. On the "seven upper letters" and their cosmological meaning. there is no difference of grading within the same cycle.e. 1. 204-207 and f. 241. This disparity between the completers corresponds to that between their respective napqs.275 • would suggest the possibility that the specifie mode of conjunction granted to those three nUfatla 1 refleets their being ranked higher than others. 163-85. "The Blinding Emerald: Ibn al-RawandI's Kira" al-Zumurrud. 1 needless to say. O. see above in chapter 4. as seen below in the next quotation. 104v. Il. l30r.. Il.7D hoIds the key to solving the problem in the same cycle. Stroumsa. 220). 10Sr.. i. 7.. 4-6/p. a See chapter 4. In relation to the disparity prevailing among the nUfaqà " then. although disparity exists between the completers in a certain cycle and their counterparts in another.. 5Br. espedally. 1. one the one hand. which is usually related ta the Archange! Gabriel. That is. 8/f. 129v. 1. whereas he refers to the Qi. 1-3/f. • 70 In al-RiZi's interpretation. 59r.

" This is his becoming aware of the grade of the master of the cycle of the cycles (~~& dawr al-adwàr ). or nearer. ." (Q 53: 9).. the vision) remained [strong] through the power of the preceder (bi-qüwat aI-nbiq)... ...] as for IItwo bows.. two hancifuls): that is. the subsequent interpretation of Q 53: 9 shows • that there is no intermediary between him and the divine ward.f. Thus he Ilstood poised" in the grade of the enunciation (martbat al-IJU~ )..e. " . the kaIimah . 1 s (i.e... And it is said [that those two are] like two qa&~abs • (Le." (Q 53: 7) That is." clearly shows that the Prophet gained a higher rank in relation to the sâbiq than any of bis fellow nuraqa '." (Q 53: 8). [he is] in the ultimate I l •• • point of the ranks of the corporeal beings (fi gayat ~udüd al-jismanIyüJ) and the highest of them in terms of grade. 57v.. the exegetes) said: [that is. the preceders) direction through the intermediation of the jadd. there is no one between him and the divine word (al-kalimah) except the ~làn...e. In the first half of the passage al-RaZi also depicts the Prophet M~ad's attainment of the rani< of the na!i~ship with the following subtle description: " ... 2/p... the ~lan. it (i. the above mentioned highest rank of the corporeal beings). " . They (i.very strong. he stood poised.. the length of two forearms).. (f.. However. he "drew 1 near" to the sa&iq 50 much sa that no one among bis fellows (*d min aqrini-bi) had reached it (Le.two bows' -length away." [these] two are like two dhiri. or nearer. l-S/f. That is... 58r.. 11.. This seems to suggest that .e. Al-Rizi also holds that the Prophet contacted the "spiritual stream" of the sabiq through the jadd.276 • of ranking these two prophetie figures in bis thought." (Q 53: 6) That is. l. Il ••• then drew near and suspended hung.. being on the higher horizon. li. Thus the spiritual stream (al-jiri) "suspended hung" from its (i. 59r. l.. except the two highest spiritual hypostases. 121) In the above quotation the clause "....no one among bis fellows had reached it before him.

" according to al-Rizï. at least. im ("the master of the cycle of the cycles") as being doser to the bHmah.jdrat al-muntalJa ) (Q 53: 14) and • "the garden of Refuge" (jannat al-ma'ri ) (Q 53: 15) to the rank of enundation (fradd aJ-IJU~ ) and the Qi'im. shows that the Prophet himself recognized the grade of the Qi.'im is the "final point of knowledge" (nihayat al-'jJm ) (f.. It thus seems that these symbols and the roles assigned to the Prophet and the Qi.or nearer. Does this also mean that the Qi. a wider place.'im. the expression ".. The Prophet reached the former goal.'im has more proximity to the kalimah because of his fully actualized conjunction with the ~lilJ ? In the second half of the passage al-RaD compares the two paradisical visions of the Prophet. that is. al-RiZi writes in this passage as follows: . some of other prophets such as Moses since the latter needed the intermediation of the jadd. did the Prophet have a more direct conjunetion than Adam according to al-Rizi? In bis interpretation of Q 53: 10 C'Indeed he saw him another time") al-RâZi holds that Gabriel or the "spiritual stream" of the sâftiq (?) taught ta the Prophet what was forbidden ta Adam and those who were ranked below him (f.idrab " is located. respectively. whereas the Qi. S8r. al-Rizi presents an idea which defends the superiority of the Prophet ta ather lJu~a' with the plausible exception of the Qi'iJn. Il.. Does this mean that MuJ.. to that of the Prophet M~ad.71 However. and "knowledge.'im confirm the latter's superiority to the former: bath the "garden of retreat. IL ID-15/f. This implies the superiority of the rank of the Qi.. 121). 59r. 5-9/p." the place where the "..72 71 Furthermore. Il.jdrah of the ultimate end" (. 58r.1ammad gained further access to the ~IâIJ than Adam? If the answer ta this question is yes. the ". 9-10/f.277 • the Prophet had a more direct conjunction with the &flan than. 3-4/p." denote the figure who cornes after and is higher than the Prophet. in spite of this possible direct conjunction of the Prophet with the ~IÜJ. 11. 59r. 121). this aIso being the "final point of the practice" (lJibiyat al-lamaI ). • 12 Commenting on Q 53: 15 ("nigh which is the Garden of Refuge").

278 • In addition.'iU eschatologieal "Qi'imology" and the doctrine of the Prophet M~mmad as the bringer of the final revelation. who is here aIso regarded as the next stage after the ending of the "work. (f. we cannot ignore the elevation in aJ-l~l~ of the Qi. both of them radical. p. Thus his rank is the "final point" in the work (al-lJihjyah li al-'amaI) the ending of which (inqi!là'u-hu) [cornes up] to the conjunetion with the master of the requital (~" aJ-mujàzit).'s conjunetïon in actu consists in direct conjunctîon with the ~lin. that is. • 13 Another interpretation could be that Adam's mode of conjunction in achl is the same as the Qi 'im's. SOf.. In addition. It seems that al-RaD himself could not solve the problem of the balance between. are possible with regard to this issue in al-Rizi's prophetie doctrine: 1) that the ~'im. so to speak. . In theory the Qi.. On the Qi'im as the judge on the day of the Resurrection." the "final point" of which is the. II-IS/f. see al-5ijislini. and the "garden of the refuge" means the master of the cycle of the cycles.That is. But al-Rizi would never have stated this in explicit terms. which is unique to him to the exclusion of aIl other enunciator-prophets.'im might supersede all other enunciator-prophets including the Prophet M~ad. However. at least in the eyes of al-RaZi. 71 in the presentchapter. At the moment neither of these two interpretations ean be rejected..S9r. Thus the IIddrah of the ultimate end" means the rank of the na~q. he is connected to the master of the cycle of the cycles. Perhaps he merely set aside this question altogether.12l) The "master of the requital" in this passage means the Qi'im as the judge. 275. we have aIso suggested • that two interpretations. Il. higher even than the Prophet M~ammad himself. and 2) that the Qi' im should be regarded as the highest ranked na#9. ~-UtikJJjr.. 58r. Prophet.'im to the level of "spirit" to the entire body. in view of what we stated on p. n. Ismi. 6-10/p. whereas [another] one is the "final poinr' of the knowledge. as the life-giver of all sacred laws. 50 far we have suggested that the notion of modes of conjunetion with the upper angelie beings was a constituent element in the early ISmi'ïli scheme of sacred history. Il. These two are two "final poin~': this is the "final point" of the practice. 73 It is time to turn our attention from al-Razi to some suggestive passages found . this could he less plausible.

in kneading clay and breathing life into it.r. San'ir wa-A. these dignitaries were the angels in the Qur'in who originally refused to recognize Adam. the inner meaning of Adam's birth without parents.e.. In this process of initiation. i. M~ür al-Yaman and al-Qi.fJiniyah). Ibid.. 29.unàni-bi llWlamAllib). 22-24 and 27-30. Ma~ holds that this imim was the representative of Gad to the people ofhis age (al-4lti'im li-abl z.ifUq or lieutenant playing the role of an initiator or spiritual parent. 22f. MaI\?Ül compares the actions of Jesus and God. 15: 29.76 This process was not carried out by any l. These passages had been written by Ja'iar b. two thinkers closely associated with the Fi. p. According to Ja'far b. • 76 Ibid. parents in this scheme representing of course the lieutenants. M~ür. Man~ür implies. ManfÜr. Ja'far b. p. M~ür means the imam of his age).nud court. the Adam depicted in these verses was initiated by God (by whom Ja 'far b.15 from the mustajilrship to a rank even higher than that of other dignitaries. to the process of initiating hierarchy members into higher ranks. 7S In another passage Ja 1 far b.. God (the imam of his age) kneaded" the "clay" (by • which is meant the mustajïb (Adam) ). As we see in this interpretation of Adam's birth.. pp. 1 '" Ibid. with His two hands (His spiritual substance (middatu-IJu) and "support" (ta 'yidu-hu ) ) and led him to a spiritual "birth" (al-wilidah al-rü. Interpreting certain Qur'inic verses on Adam and Jesus (Q 3: 49 and 59.279 • in the writings of other thinkers on the mode of particular prophets' conjunction with the angelic beings and its meaning in sacred history. Mal'\!ùr does not . Ja1far b. 38: 72). Ja far b.ir. but by the imam of the age himself.4ï al-Nu'mân.74 According to this interpretation. This is. These lieutenants play the role of initiators in the elevation of the members of the hierarchy: their role is compared to parentage in the initiation as spiritual rebirth 11 74 Ialfar b.

Manheim in Cyclical Time and IS7naili Gnosis (London. il 71 Ja 'far b. Ja'far b. 23. the image of Jesus. Then he made it a living "bird" which here stands for the person initiated into the rank of di 'i muflaq (authorized missionary). Their means of conjunction with the spiritual support from the Intellect (al-'aql) and the Sou! (al-nais) is [establishedl only with the three intermediaries mentioned in the Scripture (al-Kieab ): they are the three ranks mentioned in the Scripture which constitute the spiritual. the nipq of the next age is promoted.. Halm. may occasionally elevate law-ranked members of the hierarchy ta a higher rank by bypassing the spiritual parentage of lieutenants.'s age. the meaning of verse Q 3: 59..Jesus. 84. 40.280 • Likewise.." an ad which is interpreted as 'Hm al-ta 'ri (the knowledge of esoteric interpretation). in God's sight. 108-109. 1983).. the fifth nip9 .78 This is. p. Kosmologie .at Adam». still remains a question.ür contends that a napq and an imam. as weIl as • describe Adam as the first human being on earth but as a young man living in one of the cycles preœding the seven main ones.s5 and pp. Man~r. Ma~ür implies. 21.I-A61Zr. For the notion of "greater cycle. pp. which stresses the resemblance of Jesus to Adam ('l9fruly. pp. In this way. pp." transI." see H. R. 27-53 (chapter "the Story of Adam (qi. Sari'ir 1r. p. See also ibid. incorporealized ranks (al-~udüd al-rü~yah al-ghayr-mutajassimah). Ibid. nor did the spiritual substances (al-maridd ) come into conjunction with them from the corporeal creatures (al-kIJalqah al-juadiniyah). Jalfar b. . They had neither fathers nor mothers in terms of spiritual rank (a1-~add aI-rii~ini). Ja1far b. Thus. just as with the imim of Adam. the first earthly human being? The origin of later Tayyibï speculation regarding Adam. Corbin. or Adamology. Man. M~ also holds as foUows: Adam was the "head" of this "greater cycle" <ra'6 _dba al·kawn and there had been severa! "greater cycles" (Û1VÜ') before him when the spiritual beings were existent. Does this statement mean that he had a notion similar to that of later Tayyibis (the heirs of Fa~mid Ismi'ilism in Yaman) who believed that the primordial spiritual Adam. who was designated as a candidate for nj~q-ship of the next age. "Cyclical Time in Mazdaism and Ismailism. the fallen higher angelic hypostasis of the original creation is the prototype of the earthly Adam. as is implied in the next passage: And indeed all the enunciator-prophets (jami ' al-nu~qi ') did not take the spiritual • support (al-ta 'yi(/) from human form (~ürah buhariyah).. is as Adam' 5 image"). "kneaded" the "clay" Cmustajib ) with the "water. who are compared to Gad. Cf.

l and al-naf$. on the contrary. Ja'far b. who. and the Qi'im. Miki. Did Ja'far b. and khayil . Man. not through any earthly dignitaries e'they had neither father nor mother in terms of spiritual rank.ür then also try by means of this argument to mitigate the typological argument of al-RiZi or al-Nasafi.ür implies in the above passage that "aIl the gained spiritual support and "sustenance" from the ~lan . but aIso all others can receive "sustenance" from the ~lâlJ although indirectly. and labra'il.. the lack of mention of the 79 Ibid.110 In addition to the lack of spiritual parentage on the part of the lieutenants. the passage quoted above shows us how the IJu~qa ' come into conjunction with the • ~lin through the intermediation of the three lower angelic beings. al-'a. p.281 • being not self-apparent (Ji. elevated other dà 'iS.'jl. while they are in the rank of personification (Ii !Jadd al-tasbkbi~). and are known among those who possess the sight. faq.. Most IJu~'la'" importantly. who are named Isrifil. namely. with regard to refusal [of seeing them] except to that who unveils bis sight and from whom the dust goes way. the typological relation between Jesus and Adam is difficult to locate in the interpretation of Ja lfar b. 24.. . In other words not only particular IJUfa'li' such as Adam.. muw&"tbkbayab). Man. Ma~r. which could be interpreted as "radical" in terms of the ranking of the prophets? Certainly. Jesus.ür. a link between the theme of sacred history and Neoplatonist cosmology (at least terminologically speaking) appears ta be established in the case of la 'far b. but through the three angelic beings.. 79 In the above quotation we find two Neoplatonist or Greek philosophical terms."). Man. he does not apply the same rule to Jesus. • 80 However. since whereas he holds that Adam was elevated to higher rank. . In view of this fact and in view as weIl of the mention of the resemblance of Adam to Jesus. These [three ranks or intermediariesl are the jadd.

the forbidden tree of paradise is the metaphor (matbal) for the IIr ank of the Qi'im of the time" (fJadd Qi'im al-zamàn). MaIlfür may have noticed the hidden radicalism in the possible interaction of the theme of sacred history with.. or chief lieutenant respectively. • 12 S3 Ibid. Am al-Ta'wil. Adam and Eve were deprived of the la 'yid (ar the spiritual support). however.. Al-Qi~ al-Nu'min.282 • Qi.82 Tempted by Satan. Furthermore. p. 27.1im may be interpreted as signifying that Ja'far b..Nasafï's al-Map~ül. These points suggest the possibility that Ja'far b.~ al-Nu'mân's Asa. Because of their disobedience. MéUlfür' wanted to exclude him from bis own argument. According to al-Nu'man. they faced the caarseness of their awn naturaI form (kamalat a1-~ürah al-1a6ilyah). Satan had toid them that if they ate from the tree.. left without the protection of God's Ward. where he aIso discusses the contact with angelic beings in the context of the story of • Adam. p. Here. aJ-'a91 and al-nais are allegorically interpreted as the imim of the age and his pujjab.83 Il Ibid.'amaI) and attain the subtle rank of the spiritual angeis (lladd aI-mali'ikaIJ al-rillJiniyïn al-lapt). . they wauld leave behind them the rank of the labour (padd al. 65f. Adam and Eve ate the fruit of the tree. let us turn our attention to a passage in al-Qi. that of the prophets' contact with the angelic beings: yet at the moment we cannot prove whether he had or had not scrutinized al-Rizi's a1-1~1i.81 This personification of al-'aql and al-nafs can be interpreted as an attempt at eliminating the possibility of the prophets' conjunction with the two highest spiritual hypostases. This is the meaning of their shameful realization of their nakedness. Consequently.fJ and/or al. p.. The Qi1im is aIso called the master of the resurrection (~6 al-qiyimab ). 62.

there is no mention of the Qi1im's raIe in its eventual restoration. Ibid. as In describing the prophetic mode of contact with the angelic beings. The name of the one who 10st paradise is mentioned but there is no specifie mention of its restorer who is presumably. al-Nu'man implies. al-Nu'min explains why the Prophet M~ad aIso said that he received the revelation (al-wapy) from the upper hierarchy and transmitted it ta the lower. 70. Therefore since then.86 Al-Nu 'mân may have wanted ta avoid giving this impression.. pp.. Thus.283 • One of Adams punishments was. Above aIl this is because the idea of the Qi1im as the restorer of Adam's paradise easily reminds us of the millennialist messianism of the Qarma~ans which we saw above in chapter 4.8S • In the passage from al-Nu'min's work described above on Adam's 10ss of paradise. 16 See • above chapter 4. according to al-Nu'man. the faU of Adam.e.. God did not deprive him completely of the spiritual sustenance. the foundation of the two hierarchies on earth and in heaven respectably is described as the aftermath of a devastating event. but without employing any Neoplatonist terminology. in sacred history. al-Nu 'min maintains that the title of prophet is allowed only to those who can come into conjunetion with the higher substance (al-maddaIJ al-'u1wiyah). 52. earthly hierarchy. i. p. 87-89. Ibid. the spiritual sustenance started to descend to Adam through the upper spiritual hierarchy (al-~udüd al-~yah al-'u/wiy:Jh ). However. p. vaguely implied in the symbol of the tree.. degradation from the rank of esoteric interpretation without veil (~dd al-ta 'ri bi-la !Jjjâb). And also. and from him through the lower hierarchy (al-~udûdaI-suf1i}Ü ) to other human beings. there is possibility that emphasis on the restoring role of the Qitim would give him a higher mode of knowledge "without a veil" .84 As seen 50 far. . although ms "rank" is mentioned there as the abject symbolized by the forbidden tree.

which even the Prophet could not enjoy. Man. without any intermediation of hierarchy. Besides. • .~i .al-Nu'min.284 • or.ur and al-ÇQ.erges out from interaction between the theme of sacred history and that of contact with the angelic beings. As seen in our analysis of the two passages from Ja'far b. Thus we have just gained another problem to investigate. in both arguments of al-Rizi and Ja 'far b. the adaptation of Neoplatonist terminology itself seems to be less important than the radicalism shown in ranking the prophets. MaIlfür we can detect interaction between Neoplatonist terminology and the notion of sacred history. However. and 2) the prophets' roles in sacred history. This should be verified in future research. We can further suggest that the • interaction of the two doctrinal themes of prophetie thought could have become a challenge to ISIDa 'ili thinkers. one of the logically possible consequences of the interaction of the two doctrinal themes of prophetie thought: 1) the prophets' conjunction with angelic beings. 50 to speak. they may have wanted to avoid the "radicalism" which logically em.

Ri. that is.. • As the first step in our attempt to tackle the above questions we will investigate .e. and the significance of that mode in relation to sacred history.285 • Chapter8 The Parousia of the Qa'im in Sacred History: Qa'imology Revisited 2 §1. In order to shed further light on this issue we must answer the following questions: How will the Qi'im actually manifest himself in the stage of sacred history? When will his parousia take place? What will be the state of the da'wah prior to bis parousia? Yet even before searching for the answers to these questions. Thus the Qi'im has been so far depicted in terms of the vertical dimension of the cosmos (i. we have not yet fully dealt with the issue of the parousia (appearance) of the Qi'im in sacred history. cosmology and hierarchy) and in terms of the interaction of this dimension with another. sacred history).. we need to attempt to place the Qi'im within the framework of sacred history by focusing on al-Ri. the horizontal dimension (Le. while it was in the chapter previous to this one that we • discussed the mode of bis contact with the upper spiritual hierarchy.zian Religio-Politics: AI-Ran's Attitude to the Current Leadership of the Community? It was above in chapter 4 that we analyzed the ranking of the Qi'im and its cosmological justification.Zi's Isma'ili eschatology. However.

because of '1tis lineage.'îli movement af his day. we have relied mainly on Walker. Early Philosophical 5hiism. and one which featured a strong inclination towards messianist-millennialism.. Walker. Ibid. It might be recalled that we dealt in chapter 2 with the issue of whether al-RaZi was ever involved in the Qarma~an movement. 187. n.51. • 3 Al-5ijistini. one of the most influential groups in the ISmi. 4 . deputies) to refer to the leaders in the post-seventh-imâm period. n. al-Sijist2ni maintains. 1 They are aIso called "rightly-guided righteous deputies" (al-kbuJati' al-rülJidiin al-mahdiyün) who dispatch the da 'is to various regions of the world.3 The seven khulafa' therefore appear in succession. In titis chapter. shed some light on the issue of how he tried to situate bis own historical environment within bis framework of sacred history.Jal! to certain religio-political movements of bis age. 1 2 Al-Sijisti~ aI-lfûJdJjr.1im has a partner (zawj) who can share what he possesses. it is hoped. Yet ta understand al-RiZi's case properly. bis dose relation and his kinship" For our interpretation of al-Sijistini's discussion of contemporary religio-politics. i. p. al-SijistiIlï uses the word khulafi' (sg. aI-lftildJir. Ilbbil. it would be helpful ta discuss his younger colleague (and bis opponent) al-Sijistani's attitude ta the contemparary • religia-political power structure. kbaüfah . In the context of his discussion of Ismi'ili leadership. the Qi. Also cf. p.2 These khulafa' were appointed by the Qi1im himself /lafter [he entered] the state of concealment" (ba 'da al-ghaybah). 161. p. 127. Early PhilosophicaI 5hiism. especially with regard to the parousia of the Qa1im.e.286 • in this section al-Rizi's reaction in al-l. bath Ismi'ïli (notably the Fi\ÙIÛds) and non-Ismi'ili (including the Sunni religious establishment of his day).. This investigation will. therefore we will focus instead on his reaction to other re1igia-political mavements. AI-5ijistini. 4 In addition. p. the 4th/IOth century.

al-Ifrikbir. J . and refers to the "sun of the Maghrib" (shams al-Maghrib).7 Thus it can be suggested that al-5ijistani recognized the limited authority of the Fitimid ImamCaliphs and their 'Alid descent. there remains a person "from bis loins" (min ~ulbi-1Ji ) who "stands {or acts) in bis place" <J':aqümu badala-hu). n. p. p. Furthermore al-5ijistini has left us some passages which can be interpreted as referring to a particular leader possessed of religio-political power. On these interpretations we follow Walker in ms Early PhilasophiCllI 5hiism . On the fourth of the klJulafi if we take into consideration three hidden imims whom various Fa~mid IsDlà"W versions of the genealogy of the imims Worm. though he leaves him unnamed. 9.' ). Kiti. Also cf. p. 81 (on the 'Isun of Maghrib").b al-lftikhir. J 6 Al-5ijistini. aJ-MaqiJïd. And the "sun of Maghrib" can be interpreted to he the Fitimids who ascended to political power in Maghrib.fJimU-hU). p. 140. in expressing his intention ta compose this book.ni the kbalïfah should be of l.9 In using the term. n. p. p. n. Il (in manuscript) ). al-lfûldJjr.Iusayni 'Alid descente Furthermore. Sullam al-Najaf. Ali b. 67. 51 and p.fJiub. 7 See: al-5ijistini. he refers to the fourth ldJalifah as the person responsible for "conquering the cities" (ifti~ al-mudun ). . 30f..Iusayni line departs this world. Al-5ijistini implies that this is similar to the relation between the Prophet and his W'a1i or will-executor. in the polemics on the ïmamaIJ . 162. p. • 8 Al-5ijistini. "Ubayd (" Abd) Allih al-Mahdi. p."s AIso. in the introduction to another of his works. and p. Abi Tilib. idem.. The last phrase of our quotation ("with the goodness of my obedience to him and the goodness of his mercy upon me") can he interpreted as an the expression of his strong sense of loyalty to the waJï of bis age. 3 (French transI.287 • (nuabu-hu wa-taribatu-hu wa-ra. Kubf aJ-Ma. In the introduction to Kashf al-M~jüb al-5ijistini makes eulogistic mention of the "waIi of God on earth of the [organization of] convocation • (wali-yi Khudi.5 Also. p. Walker. 192.6 These passages suggest that according to al-5ijisti. Early Philasophical Shiism. 53. 84 (on the fourtll of the ldJu1afi. he writes "with the blessing of the wali of God on His earth" (bi-bankal wa1i AHâb fi ar!li-bi). 166. 162-63. 32. even if not their daim to be imams. 188. whenever an imim from the l. p./English transI. n. the fourth one could correspond the first Fi1imid lmim-eaIiph.y dar zamin-i da twal). waJi Ca "friend" or "close one") al-5ijistani apparently s Al-5ijistini.

74r. 72 of chapter 8 "On the Recognition of the lmimah")..f. Aise see Daftary.f.'U and his reasons for choosing to recognize the latter. • 13 AI-Sijista~ aJ-UtiJcbjr (MS. pp. 179.nud camp. such as al-Amin (named as 'Thn Zubaydahal-fisiq (the 9 Al-Sijisti~ al-Utikbàr.. according to mainstream scholarship. Tübingen). 14 Ibid.amriJa-kum wa-qatala rijala-kum ).fJid) or to buy books of Greek philosophy. I#Das Imamat. f.12 He caUs them the "thieves who confiscated your (Le. al-Mu' izz.13 As proof of their unfitness for the . see Madelung. 74r.72v. la Professor Hermann Landolt of McGill University suggested in conversation with us that the wali to whom al-5ijistiri felt a strong sense of loyalty may have been the fourth Falimid Irnim-ealiph.72v. n On al-Mu'izz's reversai of al-Mahdis denial of the status of the Qa 'im of MUJ. etc.1ammad b. f.. . f. 19-20.m-Caliph alMUlizz's doctrinal reform concerning the imamab." pp. 73r. al-5ijistini's opponents') properties and killed your people" (al-darilJjqaJladlûis~afi. 14 Sorne of them in fact he mentions by name. 12 The denundation of the 1 Abbisids is omitted by the editor trom the printed edition of al-Utikbàr "out of concem for the unity of the Islamic order' (p. Ismi. The Isma 'ilis. This reformed doctrine recognized M ~ d b. was a response and concession to Imi.288 • here means the highest leader of the da'wah of his age who is nevertheless not . of aJ-Utilcbù from the University of Tübingen.mjmah he mentions sorne of • their more impious deeds such as: indulgence in drinking wine. We examined the MS. exhausting a great deal of money to build just one edifice/palace (al-bayt al-wi. 86-101. the lmaIIl himself•10 Al-5ijistini's recognition of the limited authority of the Fatimids. . and introduced the idea of a repetition of the series of seven imims before bis parousia. ignorance of the Qur'in. p. aI-5ijistini denounces the 1Abbisid caliphs as faIse imams.. Isma lil as the Qa'im in the hope of winning dissident Ismacilis over to the Fa. ll In addition.

He asks [Gad] to subject 1S Ibid..sect. In a heresiographical section of aJ-Ziaah.. In this work.. Al-Rizï in fact presents two different versions of the interpretation of the same story. pp. 131r. 200 above..zj's interpretation Solomon was not a completer or an imam but • a la. 7 fpp. al-Muqtadir. As for al-RiZi. 297-99. 1S 1 Turning now to al-Rizi's response to the religio-political movements of his daYI we find that it is not as clearly articulated as in the case of al-5ijistinï. although in both he discusses the leadership of the community by mentioning the wali. Al-Rizï. 258-68).f. and yet at the same time one ranked higher than his fellow lieutenants: thus he was able to arbitrate among them (f. the apex of the Sunni establishment. which provides us with dues to bis position on this tapie. as Il shown in the above discussion of al-5ijistaIli. Solomon was appointed as the distributor of spiritual allotment from the jan (referred ta as the "wind" on Q 38: 35-36) ta his fellow lieutenants.fl is concemed. he describes the doctrines of three Shi'i sects which can be related to the 'Abbisid movement: the 'AbbiSiyah. 7. 136v. however. he does not appear to have made any explicit reference to the 'Abbâsid Caliphate.17 as follows: Thus the wind means the IIspiritual stream" (al-jan). on the other hand. he conœntrates on describing their theories regarding the succession of the imims sub-sect by sub. and the Rawandiyah. see chapter 2. l. Before analyzing those two interpretations of the story. but does not touch on the issue of the manipulation of authentic doctrines: this reflects the lexicographical nature of al-Zinab. pp. p. fascicle 3.. al-Zinab.16 Hence. Ta resolve the problem we must once again tum ta bis interpretation of the Qur1inic story of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba (Q 27: 20-30). 130v. 1. the Rizimiyah. etc. chapter 6. In al-R. in the text of al-l. f. al-Ma mÜ1l.li. although he was a lieutenant. see above in chapter 5. 1. 1. p.289 • hypocrite)" in the text).i. al-Qihir.let us consider al-Rizi's view respecting the position of Solomon on the issue of the leadership of the da'wah. 13ff. • •6 On the position of Solomon. 8. On the nature of the text of aJ-ZifJab. 29-32 above: the references to aJ-ZinaIJ are found in the footnotes to these pages. 136r." one of the key Ismi 'ïli concepts .tJiq (lieutenant) dwing the concealment of the imam of the age. 143. 11 See .

the lieutenants used to gain their allotment through the intermediation of the completer of the time.. sinœ the blessing (a/-bankaIJ ) was a "subjugated" (privilegel te the completers: Thus (coming] from them it becomes the substance to the lieutenants Cmâdda' al-/aw:ifJiq). 8.. they granted bim their obedience. and give me a kingdom. 1. except for the minor point that he does not employ the term jari. Man~ür b. God would not have mentioned that.. the tiJi) set free for • bim bis allotment and (the delivery of] of that of bis lieutenants into bis hands.. 1. whereas they are entrusted with distributing it among the lieutenants. (Le. 134v. although a lieutenant.e. That is to say. 15. This position [of controlling the sp iritual stream"] had not belonged to any lieutenant before Solomon. if he was present among them. Ma~ür states in the above passage that.e.: ("Sc We subjeeted to him the wind. since it was usually the province of the completer (imam).. Ma~ùr. And it made an exception for him out of grace with its word: ·~tow or withhold without reckoning" (Q 38: 39)... Thus whenever he supported them (a". 13Sv. forgive me.v. That is.. Cf. That is te say that when the Iàli was asked. Salomon was granted the task of an ïmim. the ljJj ) does not grant this status to any of the lieutenants. God would not have (specificallyl mentioned that... 265-66) This task of the distribution thus made his position unique. And if he had been completer. it (i.ada-1Jum ) with their allobnents (". 1. "'My Lord. the lieutenants) II preceded him with it. it gave him its grace.. 4/ f. which made bis position unique. who served the Fipmids. 18 t8 The idea is weIl represented in the following passage hom Ja 'far b. consisting in the distribution of spiritual allotment to his fellow lieutenants... in the position).f.'" (Q 38: 35). C. 197. Sarâ'iI' wa-Amir. p. (... 1. al-Yaman.. 14/ pp.-lJrqiqi-1Iim). .. This is because the blessing (al-barakah) is subjugated (musa1dJkharah) ta the completers in every age and at their command it streams.) ... For Ja/far b. offers a similar interpretation of Solomon's control of the "wind" and his privileged position. and no one among them (Le."(Q 38: 36» That is to say that it (i.)...290 • to him the "spiritual stream" in order that the lieutenants who lived in his age would not receive their allotment from it through his intermediation during the concealment of the completer of his time. • Ja'far b. And if he were a completer. 134r...

89-91. 137-39. ~uriifi-lJi. 3/p. 20 But if 50.. 16. including the Fapmïds. Supplement. he examined his '1etters" (f.. 7-10/f. That is. M~s life. 45r. Madelung. since they were nearly contemporary with each other. which seems to he common to these two thinkers.1. '~a~üral-Yaman. However. Through them he sa\V that the hib in whom his trust Jay was late ta [coming tol mm. the issue of similarity between the two thinkers needs to be investigated in light of al-RiZi's attitude to the religio-political powers of his day. f.f.291 • In addition. the event took place during the concealment of the imam t9 See chapter 6. 236-37. 2t ~ganizationalStructure. IIEvolution of the pp.1. 132r. "Ei. On the appellation of the "early Yamani school. occurred aiter the age of the seven imams (f. the angeJs). in his interpretation of Q 27: 20 on the absence of the 'lloepoe.a'far b." El. • Let us now discuss al-Rizi's two interpretations of the story of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. both of whom were loyal to the Fi~ds. This is ta say that the hoepoe. on which the hoepoe reports to Solomon. Any similarity. 2/f. 2D On la 'far b. see H. 1.21 It is difficult to fully establish this possibility at the current stage of research." al-RaZi implies that the reign of the Queen in Sheba. 131v." El. could suggest al-RaZi' s possible linkage to the Fipmids.22 In other words. M~ür al-Yaman. 15. Hamdani. 260). Z! The following is al-Ràzi's interpretation of the passage: • "And he reviewéd the birds. Ma~ür? This is conceivable..V. Man. see W. lI.. pp. §2. Halm. above. who influenced whom? There is the possibility that al-Râzi might have been influenced by the "early Yamani school" which is thought to have been represented by ]a'far and his father. 9-12/p.19 Was there any influence or influenced relation between al-RiZi and Ja'far b.. First of ail. 93: aiso d. after aIl. . On Man!Ül' al-Yaman. we should remind ourselves of the use of the term jiri." 2 pp. 44v. 6. 'How is it with me. 1.." see 'A. 302/914). vol. that 1 do not see the hoepoe?'" (Q 27: 20). 46r. then he said.ür al-Yaman Cd. 1.

1. 1. 93 of the printed edition. 'I have comprehended that which thou hast not comprehended.J~ is doser to the original one.fJudüd a]-aûmmi 'al-ab'ab ).. 131v. saying: . L 3). The interpretation of the report of the hoepoe on the "Queen of Sheba" is as follows: " . 260)... p.] he (the hoepoe) informed him (Solomon) that he saw that one of the dignitaries had believed (that he had acquired) for himself a great rank (martabah 'apmah ).! found her and her people prostrating to the sun.J~ for . perceived the water (al-ma' ) beneath the earth at the depth of seven adluv '• That is... 45. 10) but ~~ in MS.. (Q 27: 22). 1. 3) conflicts oddly with that in another passage which aIse discusses the sarne topie. the position of the "hoepoe" with the quotation of the same verse Q 27: 20.IJ":II ~J.. Lassner.... 10/f.J~ on L 7 in p. 132v. 97. 46r.J. up to His words: " . Cf. namely. n/p. the first one has instead tJ~ in MSS a and b (see the editor5' note to p. 48 and p. Tûb.. Demonizing the Queen of Sheba: Bmmdaries of Gender and Culture in Postbiblical JudaisJn and Medieval Islam (Chicago... I/f.. the commentators in general) say. On the Muslim tradition that it is the "hoepoe"'s role to find water below the ground. whixh explains his use of the masculine pronoun. the dignitary in question) was one of the lieutenants in Sheba at the top (?farq) of the :.And said. (f. see J..a great throne" (/arsh 'a#m)" 111 (Q 27: 23).. the antagonist inclted them ta adhere ta the 1ihir and embellished it with the innovations (al-bida ') which he presaibed to them. apart from God" (Q 27: 24). the "'hoepoe") was [in that position] for a while Cmali) with the declaration of the ranks of the seven completers (.. 23 . that is.is manifested. he (i. 46r.) and in MS.:lJ~1 ~I~J ~~'-! '+.292 • and the "interval" or fatrab. ( corresponding to f.e. and with which he turned they (i.ibir.. Thus the similarity between the two passages in terms of the context and the same reading shared by many manuscripts suggest that our reading . The "hoepoe" was Solomon's bab (the "gate"). Ham. not the bi#n of the lieutenant within which the divinity of the "Satan has embellished their deeds to them" (Q 27: 24). ~ibir of the mutimm. they were [only] observing (yuqimiina) [the belief in] the Creator (nihiyat al-Biri') -He is glorious and exalted!. " . with the dedaration of the ranks of the seven completers")... . 1 • • ln al-RaZi's interpretation of the history of the prophets the Queen of Sheba is described as a dissident lieutenant in the time of Solomon. 7 in the printed ed. the Queen of Sheba23 ). That is. 1993). Moreover. bis assistant chief di 'j holding some of the authority of the past seven completers or imims (". 1. [That is. Here we read .("for a while through the dedaration") (in f.45r. This is to say that they (the members of the hierarchy in Sheba) were agreed on obedience to him (i.. while the second phrase shows no variation between the printed edition and the two manuscripts. but he (i.. 1. With this reading the phrase in the printed edition ~I.> ~~ y.e. 93. That is.e.e.

Ham.V. 132v.. "50 that they prostrate not themselves to God.] the master of the great da/wah al-'apmah). Il/p. this lieutenant. 93-94) (~~b al-da'wafJ • In the above passage.by opening to the people of the da'wah the true knowledge (al-'ilm al-!Jaqiqi) which flows between the ranks. 17/p.1. the IIQueen of Sheba" is interpreted as referring to a dissident l~q (lieutenant) in Saba' in Yaman. 1. (f. theyare practising (. according to al-Rizï. the Lord of the Mighty Throne" (Q 27: 26).45r. although these two passages interpret the same verse Q 27: 25 which reports the disbelief of the Queen of Sheba and her subjects in God...-aqÜDürJaf4 obedience to the one who stood in the place of God (man qama maqam Allah)..1. 24 • 2S We can think of this as an allusion to Si1rat al-lkb/j. "God: there is no god but He. the waJj standing in the place of God (al-qi'im matlim Allah). 1. i.v. aIso claimed for himself a "great grade" ("great throne" in Q 27: 23) and accepted the people's obedience. 133v.UI UI ("so that they did not practice") in another passage Cf. 6/pp. [that is... 1. 1. This reading ~ e'they practice") on f.. and neither do MSS. the one who sincerely practices the unification of the Creator -He is glorious and exalted!.2S " . That is to say. 46v.. 94. However the printed edition does not indicate any variant te either passage. 1. 2/f. This "great grade" can be interpreted as meaning the supreme leadership of the da'wah. although this situation suggests us to sunnise that there might have occurred sorne corruption of the text at sorne early point in its transmission. 14. the Lord of the Mighty Throne" (Q 27: 26).e. 45r.8. and Tüb.. which are gathered in the Word of sincere unification (kalimat a1-ikhl~)... and he '1>rings forth" the hidden things and secrets from the knowledge which the completers and the lieutenants kept secret.fJiq (Olleen of 5heba). L 6/f. 12/f.. That is. (Siirab 112).6).5 seems oddly in conflict with l. the heavenly and earthly hierarchies).. 46r.293 • them away from pursuit of the realities (Ealab aJ-~qi 'iq). The story is thus represented as a conflict between an authorized chief li. Dominating the da'wah of his (or her) region. 1.fUq (Salomon) and a dissident li. who brings farth what is hidden in the heavens and earth" (Q 27: 25). upper and lower (al-~udüd al-'ulwiym wa-al-$ul1iyab. 262.. . 1. al-RiZi holds. Therefore we cannot make any philological attempt to reconcile the two possibly different readings with precision.

78-108. 72r. pp. 82v. 2/f. It is because the passages in question can be interpreted as meaning that this group and "Salomon" believed in the same imim's authority. In the text the Queen and her people obey the mutimm. As bis deputy. given their continued bellef in the parousia of the concealed imim. 1. It should be noted that the figure is revered by both Solomon and the Queen of Sheba and her people. and Solomon in the context of al-RiZi's own age? The hidden mutimm or imam in his age was • Mu\lammad b." pp. 3 entitled 'The Occultation of the ImamiteMahdi.. al-Rà." he was once in charge of the function of making public the "hidden things" and "secrets" which had been preserved by the lieutenants and imams ("he 'brings forth' the hidden things and secrets from the knowledge. However.zi does not imply that the vrali is of 'Alid descente We will return to this issue later.I. 148-67). Kohlberg. more systematized doctrines. see a chapter in the third part. pp. 159-60 above. according to their later. L 6/pp.26 As the " one who stood in the place of God. Solomon is implied to be the "waJi standing in the place of God" who is now in charge of the function of teaching the "true knowledge" to the people of the da'wah.294 • In the above quotation another figure is mentioned: he is the mutimm who was in a state of concealment..." Bulletin of the School of Orienatal and Afrian Studies 39 (1976). 71v. And also see chapter 5. 11.f.I. This loyalty te the hidden imim was typical of the attitude held by QarmalÏan Ismi. 3.ugm) of the twelfth imim to his "greater occultation" (ghzybab kubri). E. see. "From lmimiyya to ItImi.f. This is similar to al-Sijistini's notion of the " waH" as the highest leader of the da'wah who is not the imim himself. 71 .-'ashariyya. and the chief lieutenant is presumably his deputy.. • See above on pp.'ilis regarding the issue of the imimab . 27 Who then are the Queen of Sheba and her subjects. 521-34 and Sachedina. entitled "Chapter on the saying [of al-Nasafi) on the third enundator-prophet (Abraham)" ("bab alllzW'llitbilitIJ al-tJutaqa'" f. for example. On al-RiZi's criticism of other Shi'i factions. who would 26 This point makes it less likely that the Queen of Sheba and her subjects may have been identified with the still nascent Ithni'ashari faction of Shi'ism: in the first half of 4th/10th century they were in the transitional period of the "lesser occultation" (gbaybah . chap. This suggests that the QarmalÏans are implied in the people of the Queen of Sheba and their leader.. For the overview of the development of the doctrine of the two periods of occultation. 83r. Isma'il. particularly. [stamic Messianism. 287-88 in the present chapter. the mutimm."). unlike al-5ijistini..

. Hence. p. 158v. We are deeply grateful to Professor Hermann Landolt of McGill University for the suggestion of this interpretation of the " p. 313-14. this would give us a key to the meaning of the Il ~i.. 231. 1. l. However.. the "1ibir" means the external. namely. 164r. 14. 312 of a1-1fl~. 156v.. lI. 157r.. Il. 3-7If. 31 .Ismi'il: this is contrasted with the "bi#n of the lieutenant.'îm..f... the Pharaoh. 1. and in contrast to al-Sijistani's notion of khalifah • (deputy). 156v. l/p. Madelung. 5/p. 110. 1/f. S-10/p. Madelung. 15. 2S If the identification of the Queen and her people is correct." p. • This was already pointed out by W.. But he did not ote any reference. Madelung. with the historical figure of Muttammad b. 29 Our above identification of the dissident Queen and her people provides a due to the identity of Solomon as welle He may stand for a Fipmid Imam-Calîph of al-RaZï's time. 323).bir of the mmimm . 116r.fJiq in the passage. 'Ubayd ('Abd) Allah. 286-87 in the present chapter.1. 16V.V. 117r. perhaps either 'Ubayd ('Abd) Allah al-Mahdi or Abü al-Qisim al-Qi. but no more than this in view of 28 Madelung already suggested that al-Râzi may have identified another antagonist. 31. Later Madelung suggests Abu Tihir al-Jannibi of the Bahrayni Qanna~ians as a possible candidate for the reproached li.bir of the mutûnm " which remains unexplained in the texte 5înce it is implied in the text that this represents what they believe. 12." which means the inner spirituality of the legitimate leader.30 the chief lieutenant or the person appointed as deputy (aJ-mustakhlaf ) is not depicted as being of 'Alid-descen~l (see. with the first Fipmid Imim-<:aliph. 3-10/f. The passage on question is found in f.f. 13-15/f.. for example. 106. Madelung. f. IL S-7/pp. 116r. or physical identification of the current holder of the highest leadership.. 1.295 • have been Abü Tâhir al-Jannibi. ISSv. 11/f. : f. 157r.. as weIl as the Qi'im. painting out al-Rizïs possible connection to them." p.... 99. 160r. Il. and f. 12. 7/p. ''Das Imamat. this would mean that al-Rizi may have recognized the leadership of the Fi~imids as chief lieutenants. lI. the deputy of the hidden mutimm. 158v.. 162v. in al-l~l~. in the Queen herself. "Das Imamat. 1.f. 1." 29 30 See above on pp. 1.I.1. Religious Trends.

al-Rizi's critique of al-Nasafj in could therefore he interpreted as a challenge made te the latter's leadership in the intellectual arena. the problem of the identification of Salomon must be left open. and Stem. See Madelung. 287-96 (English transI. Halm has suggested that al-Ràzi considered himself one of the lieutenants of the da'wah. and we must tum aur eyes ta the second interpretatian of the story of Salomon and the Queen of Sheba. gjven al-Rizi's critical stance towards the Qarma~ movement of the second haU of 4th/lOth century. 218-24).fJ 50. however. or as one of the leaders who are ta appear in the last phase of history according ta al-I~l~. 378-79). al-RiZï quotes and refutes al-Nasafï' 5 32 Halm also holds that al-RâZi means by the IIdeputy'" the nlimid Caliph. See: Ni~âm al-Mulk.. we can suggest another candidate for the legitimate chief lieutenantship. transI. H." pp. pp. pp. pp.296 • their lack of (Alid qualifications..35 Upon consideration of these points. 96." On this point we have a slightly different opinion from mm. on the strength of the evidence in al-I~l~33 If al-I~i.. Madelung does not provide any reference for this daim. 268-75/pp. t • 35 Al-Rizi's daim for the leadership of the da'wah was already pointed out by W. 335-36 Œnglish. pp. He furthermore maintains that al-Rizi daimed IIsuperior authority among the QélI11'lali dà'ÏS.fJ discusses the leadership of the da'wah by citing examples from the biblical past may indicate that al-Rizrs intellectual challenge to al-Nasan was for the overall religio-politicalleadership of the da'wah of that time. "Early Isma'w Missionaries. transI. or at least in its intellectual activity. 335-36 (English. . 378-79). pp. Das Reich. the fact that al-I~Ji. However. See. we cannat exclude the possibility that al-Rizi may have portrayed himself in the figure of • Salomon. pp. 34 Furthermore. He was in charge of conversion of the dignitaries at Siminid court of bis time. Prior te presenting his second interpretation. 216-26. Halm. Das Reich. p. Madelung. al-Nasatl was aIse one of the leading figures in the religio-politics of the da'wah in the region of Khurisin and M&wara al-Nahr. For the moment. Halm. Given that al-Rizï may have taken a certain leading role in the da 'wah movement. there arises the possibility that he might have seen himself as fulfilling the raIe of the deputy leadership. Religious Trends. 33 ~ We should note: while an important intellectual.32 However.

calling it " .." (Q 27: 24)." by whom he seems to imply any of the Queen of Sheba and her people. Also we can say. 2-4/p. the sun-cult of the queen and her subjects represents their bellef in the oneness of the sà"iq (the Universal Intellect) (al-~dàrJiyahli-l-dbiq). then holds that if someone confesses be1ief in IIthe one" (al-rilJiJj. ..." Walker. This attack rnight have been directed against non-Ismi 'iu philosophers such as al-Firibi. he states that "nobody. Early Philosophical Shiism.. According to him.V. 261). not that of the Creator (f. 132v. i. He furthermore reproaches the dualism of those who are ignorant of the real meaning of the words of the "sage" (&1-~. "apart from" bis deputy (dürJa 1dJaljfati-hi) whom God installed in His position (matlama-nu). 10/f... apart from God" consisted in their clinging to that (the authority of the concealed completer) and their abandonment of the obedience to the deputy standing in His position upon the order of God (al-kha1ïfaIJ al-qa'im maqima-nu bi-amr ADah )38 ••• (f. al-Rizi presents his own interpretation.. 38 . Il. Here al-Nasan interprets the story in the context of the doctrinal dispute of bis day and apparently in refutation of the philosophically-inclined element among his fellow Ismi. 71 Besides... the "sun" signifies the completer who was concealed in that age (amr al-mutimm al-gm 'ib li dhilika al-I~r). n.. 132v.. Plato?). • Upon the suggestion of Professer Hennann Landolt of McGill University. 189. 132r.4. Walker bas already drawn attention to this attitude.e.As for the "sun" here in His words " . 9-12/f.. both at the same time.. We do not have to necessarily presuppose that the attack of these two thinkers must have been directed only against their coreligionists. which is the second one he offers on the story.'ïlïs. an ambiguous position that rejects and accepts philosophy..297 • interpretation of Q 27: 24 (on the sun-cult of the Queen of Sheba and her subjects). lI.... • Thus their prostration to the "sun. 12. 132v. E.'ulwiyab). 189.lin and "remaining upper ranks" (sa'iI' ~-lJudüd &1. P.f.prostrating to the sun. Il. he means that he believes in the One who creates (al-'N':ijJid al-kba1i41) (f. 3/p.. could achieve the recognition of the . they reject it on the other. since while they utilize philosophical knowledge for effective argumentation on the one band. 133r. 132r.. p. 36 Their attitude to philosophy is noteworthy. ... 1. apart from God. Il. This means that they were clinging to the authority of the completer who was concealed. 1. 133r.37 The following is the passage which contains the second interpretation: . 11-15/f.36 Countering this. 261). we supplement ldWUah with the definite article a/-.

l." In light of the above analysis it may be suggested that the identification in the • second interpretation of the dramatis personae is the same as that found in the first one.f. 1f this discussion is put in the context of al-RâZi's contemporary religio-politics.. whom they were supposed to follow and obey.262) In this interpretation al-Râzi returns the topie to the eontext of religio-polities. At the present stage of our research. or some non- • With regard to our conclusion. That is to say.. 7v. AIN al-Qâsim al-Qi. 16) which we analyzed in chapter S. who would his son Salomon be. 39 Il . Qarma~ans. By this. 17. David. Uriel. whom al-RaZi depicts as the legitimate leader? One possible answer could be: if David is meant to stand for 'Ubayd PAbd) Allih al-Mahdi.298 • 3-7/p.39 The Queen of Sheba and her subjects whom al-Rizi attacks are the Fi\imid. the "primus inter pares among the la~t but the successfulleader of the da'wah would be a Fa~mid Imim-ealïph." and their disobedienee ta the legitimate leader. 7v. 151-52 above. Solomon. had a greater number of followers in the da'wah than Uriel. this answer still remains a hypothetical one. L 6/p.'im. but one which cannot be excluded altogether. The gist of this passage seems to be almost the same as that found in the first interpretation of the story seen earlier. David. let us remind ourselves of al-RâZi's discussion of the position of David and Urie! (f. p. Thus Solomon could represent a Fi~d Imim-Calîph.. Al-RiZi points out that even though the "appointed deputy" (mustUb1at). "dissident" Ismi'ilï group and their leader. Sr. Then we can raise another question: If David is a Fi1imid lmim-ealiph. Il. the possibility that al-RiZi may have regarded himself as Solomon must be taken into consideration when interpreting this passage. As in the first interpretation. as we earlier suggested. while the sincere l&fUt. especially as he eonsidered it to be then authentie and legitimate. the latter held the same rank of l~t as the former. because of his inner sincerity to Gad. but also. would he al-RiZï himself. then Salomon would refer to his son and successor. al-RaZi implies insufficient bellef in the leadership of the da'wah. 1~/f. the passage refers to a group (the Queen of Sheba and her people) of believers who cling ta the "authority of the completer who was concealed. this leader is ealled "his deputy whom God installed in His position" and "the deputy standing in His position upon the order of God.

98-99.l. especially. Thus another possibility is raised: Al-Rizi may have distanced himself from the • two main camps of the Isma'ilï movement in the first half of the 4th/ IOth century (the period when he wrote a1-I~li. Halm. pp. the text itself may reflect his disillusionrnent with the Qarma~an messianist-millennialist movement. Madelung and H. On the problem of this viewpoint.299 • The two interpretations from al-l.ür on al-Rizi and or vice versa.im al-Mulk's account of"Abii l:Iitim" as a genuine report on al-Razj's activity. its§ 1-3. This suggests that al-Rizi may have been doser to the Fa~d camp than the Qarma~an camp. He instead may have argued on behalf of an ideal or authentic group which he saw lacking in the Ismi'iu movement of bis age. Our picture of al-Razi' s seetarian affiliation is in this sense different from the influential one proposed by W. However.fl regarding Solomon and the Queen of Sheba which we have discussed 50 far strongly suggest that al-RaZi did not recognize the legitimacy of the Qarma\ian leadership. so far as we can tell to this point. However.fJ ) and adopted an independent stance. Man. it is entirely possible that al-RaZi may have sought to keep a channel open to make future approaches to the 40 Al-RiZi's aitical attitude towards the Qarmapans may however suggest the possibility that al-I.li. This is due to the two points we discussed earlier: there still remains the possibility that al-Ri. &cause of this.40 His attack on the Qarma\ians however does not constitute sufficient evidence in itself that he was fully involved in the Fitimid political daim for the imamah. Religious Trends. for he neither recognizes nor even alludes to the possible 'Alid descent of the chief lieutenant. see aiso chapter 2 above. Madelung. this conclusion is based on full acceptance of Ni. This is one of the conclusions Madelung arrives at on the basis of bis research on al-Rizi's life and al-l. which portrays al-Rizi as having been deeply involved in the Qarma\ian movement. Indeed he does not show signs of full involvement in any camp within the Isma'ili movement. in view of his attack on the Qarma~ans and the possible influence of Jalfar b. • .l&lJ was written ailer the disaster of the false Mahdi in Bahrayn.Zi may have regarded himself as the chief lieutenant.

. we can assume that this community should be led by the chief lieutenant and kept free of the influence of the antagonist.the form of the subtle world in potentia (bi-al-qüwab ). just as a "fifth" form emerges after the convergence of the four elements..' ('jnda tamjm &1m' al-awUyi' ). 167). pp. 162-64 above. that is.300 • Fâ~ds conceming the leadership of the da'wah.'ilis. "will emerge in actu (bi-al-titJ ) at the time of the completion of the affair of the awliyj. the Isma. This group is ".." and this form. it does not mean that al-Râzï fully recognized their legitimate leadership. There we saw how... In other words. as al-5ijistini does. Thus it can be assumed that their mission (the lIaffair of the awlip''') was highly eschatological. As we discussed in chapter 5. 83r. . • 42 See chapter 5. Cl However. This is because al-RaZi did not regard the leader as an 'Alid. IL 1-2/82v. the authentic group represents the fifth one after the four Muslim sects emerge. Le. the IIform of the subtle world" "will emerge in actu. At the time of the "completion" of their mission." This means the actualization of the new spiritual dimension of the cosmos in the arena of sacred history.41 How then would this supposedly authentic group have been led by the chief lieutenant toward the eschaton? What role would the members of this group play? The answer to these questions seems ta lie in the passage we analyzed in chapter 5. the fifth group. which presents an analogy between the emergence of the form of a new being and that of the truly authentic Muslim group.. even if this was the case.42 On the basis of the first two passages quoted in fuis section. the term awliyi in the passage in question 1 • signifies the community or the authentic da'wah. IL 5-6/p. history itself would enter a new phase which is probably the cycle of unveiling (dawr al-kuhf).." (f. Thus the passage presents the scenario of graduai movement towards the parousia of the Qi.1im.

. Furthermore. Il••• . 10/f. 9.. 1. 225f. the "means of truth" (sabab al-!Jaqq) leads (yaqüdu) its people to the truth. 1.. 1. • " Upon the suggestion of Professor Hermann Landolt of Mc:.." (zabaJ> from "what profits man" (mi yanfa'u al-nüa) as weIl as God's metaphor for the separation of falsehood from truth (f. 2-4/p. while the "means of falsehood" means the "doubts" (al-dJukük) and "suspicions" (a]-slJubabâi) in the sacred laws. 114r.. And [at that time] their true means (asbibu-hum al-~iqiyah) will appear.&ab aJ-!a'l'l) will lead (yaqüdu ) its people to the truth. 114r..I. Al-RiZi implies the connection of this metaphor to the separation of the IIpeople of falsehood" (ahl al-biEil ) from the "people of truth" (ahl aJ-~aqq). 15.1. Thus as for the awüyi'. 10/f." we believe.V. 1. 114v.. 226). This is because in the context of the passage it seems that this sentence follows the meaning of the passage preceding it in the text: Thus the means of the truth (... Thus. while the "means of falsehood" (.lJ. according to him.)..43 Thus these two "means. 114r.. Il. 15ff. 12/pp. are seen as leading the two groups respectively to salvation and damnation.~b al-ri'Uit fi aJ-Jibir). 224-26). Il.301 Al-Rizï himself discusses this possible eschatological role of the awliyi' in a passage from al-l~li. and they will come into conjunction with those means. 113r. 113v. 114r. 1. 9f. 7/p. • He presents this as a consequence of his interpretation of II verse Q 13: 17 which tells of the separation of the impurities called S cum. 114v.Cill University. those means bring &3 We can presume that in this context the "means of truth" may be the la 'ri and the '1œowledge of realities" ('ilm aJ-~i'i.f.. 16. 114r. 1. ) which al-R&Zi holds "what profits man" in the verse means. which are found among the people possessed of the leadership in the exoteric doctrine (? . • The above IImeans of truth" aIso leads a group called the IIpeople of the true conjunction" as follows: It will lead (yaqiidu)44 the people of the true conjunction (abl a1-ilrj~i1 aJ-~atliqi) who came into conjuncti':ln in potentin (bi-al-qiiwah) with the a wliyi' in this world. and the means of the falsehood (A&ab al-bafil) willlead its people to the falsehood" (f. 225).. 114v.1.f. 113v.. we read ~~ ("ta lead") for ~ CIta say") in the text (f. 1. 8/p.Iaba6 al-bipl) leads its people to falsehood (f. their conjunction will be in actu at that time..5-7 If.

whereas he who has no contact (~Ia1J) in reality will remain in darkness and pain (f. 14- V... while presumably others gain damnation. This. or that thy Lord should come") (f.. That is to . It can be reconstructed through the descriptions in the text of the acts of the leaders of the community. Consequently. In the above quotation the IIpeople of true conjunction" are presumably sorne people inferior to the awüyi'. Thus. 125r. The coming of the angels means the lIuncovering of the noble people's • authority" (inkisbai amr al-aujabi ') and the lIend of [aIl] remembrance of the antagonists" (ÛJqi~1 dlJi1u al-a!ldicl) toward the parousia of the Qi.302 • them out of darkness and pain. 2/pp. we can surmise that it would be completed with a sense of victory. With those means and conjunctions (al-itti~jJit) there will be their (i. we believe. Il. as will be seen below. 3/f. nothing else. They are. . l. 1. 125r. is not specified and remains unexplained in the text except in the above case. 11. lo-15/f.. 114v. 226).'im. • The mission of the community (the lIaffaïr of the awliyà"") to be fulfilled toward the eschaton." Al-Rizi then presents bis own interpretation of this phrase. 8-12/p. "potential believers" or IIpotential da'wah members" in this world.. this means IIdeath. these people will further gain a means of salvation (litheir true means"). the angels to come to them": according to the "people of exegesis" (ahl al-tafsir). 1.. al-Rizi mentions an ordinary interpretation of the phrase from the verse " . but at the eschatological moment they will fully joïn the awÜyi'... First of aIl. theyall reach salvation. 14V. the awHyi '5) salvation (najitu-IJum).e.. so to speak. 114r. means that the awüyi' would mediate a means of salvation ta the new believers (the "people of true means"). through joining the awliyi'.. however. 248). Moreover. The awüyi"s mission can be explained to sorne extent in al-RiZï's comments on the eschatological verse Q 6: 158 (1I••• the angels to come to them.

. the eradication of them by the group specifically called "noble people. in his two hands. the mission of the awliyi'. Ivanow. p. 7-9/f. toward the eschnton. 4-5/f.223). al-Razi holds that this verse means the emergence (or manifestation) of the noble one" II (~ür 4S W. I. 4-6/p. This passage suggests that the noble people" are the group who would lead the affair of the da'wah. "EarIr conb'oversy" in bis Studies. Therefore. 62v.'im's concealment these II noble people" carry out the work of the da'wah for him (f. Thus these two passages would explain.45 (f.. 2/f. and the [expression] IIproclamation" means the noble one standing in his place (al-najib al-qa '. 62v.li. unto mankind on the day of the Greater Pilgrimage")." In another passage al-Rizi hoIds that during the Qi.. 112v. According ta al-Rizi: • In a sense the [expression] "Greater Pilgrimage" means the seventh completer. is assigned to the leaders of the da'wah as community. 128. There is another passage to take into consideration. at least partially. 61r. and their affair will be disclosed to the people of the "two plateaus" (al-lJajdan). which is the interpretation of verse Q 9: 3 (liA proclamation." He thinks that a1-Rizï means the Arabs by this expression. al-Rizi presents another interpretation of Q 9: 3 where he explains that the "Greater Pilgrimage" means the lJà~q.. the da'wah as community.m maqama-hu). the antagonists' death. • 46 Prior to this quoted passage.303 • say. we can say.128)46 Furthermore.1. 17. or a part of it.V. immunity from the antagonists (al-bani' min al-a!ldid) will appear. the mission of the eschatological fight and the final victory. See f. That is. and the "proclamation" the uû. II 1/p.. according to al-RâZi.. the lesser pilgrimage the muâmm or completer.. 2/p. 1. Il. 61v. 113r. Ivanow interprets the expression "people of the two plateaus" in al-I.fl as the "people of the two Nejds. al-RaZi continues. that is. li.. from God and His messenger. interpreting Q 81: 18 ('13y the dawn sighing"). 116. 1. Il.

. these nan-/Alid.. • Whatever their identity. Il. assigned to the community. One thing is however certain. and this is that al-RaZi regards neither them nar the "noble one" as being of Alid descent -like the lieutenants but unlike the 1 "deputies" of al-5ijisti. like the twelve lieutenants. the pre-parousia and pre-eschaton leadership of the da/wah: before his parousia the da/wah should be guided by the chief lieutenant and the "noble people.129). could be seen as political. This image of the leader. Under bis direction the influence of the antagonists will be repelled. involving as it does the subjugation of the antagonists and remaining their influence from the da'wah. This role. the "noble one" acting for the last completer. This leader. If this is the case. IL 2-3/p.ni. could be identified with the chief lieutenant.fim. Yet because the "noble people" as a group have not been fully identified. The text does not provide a clear answer to this problem.304 • al-naji6 ) on the "day of the well-known time" (yawm al-waqt al-ma 'liim ) (f. the parousia of the Qi 1 im would have been seen as imminent according to this eschatological scenario. whether the chief lieutenant or the "noble one. or whether they appear as a group." this "noble one" is apparently the leader of the da'wah who is to appear prior to the parousia of the Qâ. the leaders who are not of 'Alid descente Al-Rizï thus emphasizes the role of the da'wah and its leadership prior to the parousia of the Qi'im.ni. like the • IIdeputies" of al-Sijisti.." corresponds to al-Rizi's idea of. there is the possibility that this "noble one" refers to al-RiZi himself. anonymous leaders guide the da'wah . so to speak." i. nar can any be suggested as this stage in our research. And just as IISolomon" may have stood for al-Rizi himself. Here the issue of the leadership is raised again. there is some question as to whether they appear successively one by one.e. 62r. just as with the identification of Salomon in the last section. Chosen from among the "noble people. 63r. such as Solomon. 34ff.

the month ofRama~) is the month of the fasting.zi's View of the Mode of the Parousia of the Qi. al-RaZi would have been able to specify them as the Fapmids. Il. This is al-Rizi's image of the ideal da'wah and Us leadership. It relates the Qur'inic symbol of the "night of power" (laylat al-qadr). this is to say] that bis da'wah is to be established upon the concealment (al-kitmin): it (i. 62r. 8-13/f. and holds that the latter would have the "three grades" (tbalitb manitib). 63r.129: This was already mentioned above in chapter 7. al-Rizi's view of the ideal da'wah and its leadership had the flexibility to respond to bath the possible future victory of the Fi. p. First of aU. In what follows we will deal with how.. the "Night of Power") takes place in the month of Rama~in..II.47 to the Qi1im. Al-Ri. the Qi. whereas it (i. moreover.. as follows: And it (i. At least in theory. That is.'im's full parousia .e. by which al-Rizi implies the tlSis 'Ali b. according to al-Rizi.e.1im would manifest himself. should the occasion have presented itself. . §2.305 • toward the parousia of the Qi'im. Abi Tilib.. the rank of the tlSis (!Jadd al-uas) is concealed (maktùm ) except from [the eyes of] the truth-explorers ('an al-mu.. In leaving them unidentified.e. 24344.'im 50 far the discussion has focused on al-Rizi's view of the situation of the • da'wah and its leaders in this cycle prior to the parousia of the Qa1im.fJa9qiqin). 6-11/p. [Also.\imids or other unknown quantities among the Ismi'ilïs. let us introduce a passage in which al-RaZi points out to us that there is a gradual"evolution" toward the Qi. his da'wah) is to be • 47 See f.

but can be expected to manifest himself again in bis parousia. 63v. up to the Qa'im as follows: .. . And what shall teach thee what is the Night of Power? The • ..e.e.rin and the seven campleters ('ühir al-uisaJ'D 'Wa-a1-admmj' al-sa&'aIJ) with the rank of the tenth (fJadd al-'ùhirl. the same grade as that of other campleters (illike the ranks of athers similar ta it"). which is the third of ms ranks (thi1ith ~udüdi-hi). The second is the rank of bis concealment (fJadd ghaybati-hi). 1/f. Therefore it is through them that he repeated three grades..'" p.Jadd al-'ümr ).48 At the same time he is called the "tenth (in the sequence] of the asisin and the seven completers ('übir al-asasaJ'D 'Wa-al-atiœma' al-sa" 'ah ) with the rank of the tenth (1.n].. had a1ready appeared as the possessor of IIcompleteness.306 • manifested during the last ten days [of Ramap. l.said: "Indeed We sent it down on the Night of Power. 62v. The third is [ta emerge] at the time of his parousia. 'Alï b. 64r..1l. 104. The passage in question was first brought to the attention of scholars by Madelung bis "'Cas Imamat.1I i. 8-14/p. al-RaZi explains the development of the da'wah irom the uas of this cycle. • From this he proceeded into that of concealment. Immediately following the above passage on the three ranks of the Qi'im. 10..e. as the last completer (jk1Jjr al-atimmi ') of this cycle.f. 1. Abï Tà1ib.. 130) In this passage al-RiZi implies that the Qi' im. the three ranks?) he repeated three grades.. since he is the possessor of the three grades (d1Jü thaJath matâti"). (f." a designation which we will discuss in greater detail below. This is to say that his rank ('AIi's rank) is manifested at the time of manifestation of the last completer: he is the tenth [in the sequence] of the asi. Thus He -He is mighty and glorious!.Therefore through them (i. the seventh completer) (mitbla !Judüd sa 'ir lJU~ari '-lu1.. The first of them is the rank of completeness (fJadd al-tamimiya1J ) like the ranks of others similar te him (i.

.'im. or the "Qa'im-ship. 4/pp.. L 1) and of the printed edition (p. 130-31). .307 • Night of Power is better than a thousand months" (Q 97: 1-3). 1. 14. Tüb. 64. rim which represent the development of the office and person of the Qi.. L 4) ~.f. in addition to the above-mentioned three grades. Thus the place of the u ù in potentia is his place in acfu. • 50 On the development of the function of esoteric interpretation. . in secret (. IL 1-7If. akbir aJ-atimmà'). Moreover. Ham. as seen in the last chapter. 17)~. 130.. Thus the '~ight of Power" in potentia (bi-al-qüwa1J) means the asis. pp.fJib Power") in actu (bi-al-titI ) means the master of the cycle of the cycles dawr al-adwir). and saying aIso: ''fhe Catterer! What is the Clatterer? and what shall teach thee what is the Oatterer?" (Q 101: 1-3). In quoting the verse on the '~ight of Power" at the beginning of the above passage. aI-Rizi implies that the three references to the 'Night of Power" correspond • to the three grades of the Qi.'im.5O Thus the esoteric interpretation is aIso regarded as an integral part of the Qi. 62v.since they are respectively mentioned as (bi-al-qüwalJ)"('Ali) and the '~ight of Power ~e "Night of Power in potentin in actu (bi-al-tit/)" (the Qi'im). 1.has pointed to bis three grades saying: "The Indubitable! What is the Indubitable? And what will teach you what is the Indubitable?" (Q 69: 1-3).'im.irraa) and will become manifest49 in public (jabran) in the presence of the last completer (ta/à na'. This is because the da'wah is established in the name of the ua. instead of that of MS. while [the "Night of (~â. the symbol of the "Night of Power" is connected to the typological relation of 'Ali and the Qi. 243-248 above. This relation is based on their common function of esoteric interpretation or ta 'wil. 63r. although this is not explidtly mentioned in the texte 49 In view of the context we adopt the reading of MS. Thus he repeated three grades (f. He -He is mighty and glorious!. see chapter 7.'im-ship. which develops from the state of potentiality to that of actuality with the Qi. 64r. (f.. (fa 63r." 50 to speak.

. a "middIe state. or "bi-al-qüwah " (in potentia) and "bi-aL-fi'l" (in actu). 2.-:tuality.f. §2. i.e. also proceeds from potentiality to a. above." which phrase is mentioned three times in the Qur'in.I.1im. We suppose this phrase to stand as a symbol for the Qi1im. ." an attribute of the Qi'im. This development is based on the typological relation between 'Ali and the Qi1im. we assume.308 • Two leaders are connected to the development of the da'wah: the da'wah is established with 'Ali "in secret" and will be manifested with the last completer or imam.s1 This ufour-ness. which means the state of its full actualization. perfectness. There is. 1. 51 See chapter 7. • 51 See chapter 7. and the "ultimate point" (nihiya1J) in the development of the ta 'wü. This state takes place during the time of the seven ïmims. which was discussed in chapter 7 above. 10/f.. "qüwa1J" (potentiality) and "fi'l " (actuality). Let us now examine the pair of terms. but reaches its full realization in the Qi. 116r.." a transitional stage or grade between the "secret" and "public" states of the da'wah and the "potentiality" and the "actuality" of the 'Night of Power.f. For example. 1. Al-Rizï seems regularly in fact to apply this pair of Greek-Hellenistic terms to the explanation of the development of the roles of divinely-guided leaders • such as the Qi. which is the function of the a$is as weil. is closely related ta the function of esoteric interpretation (al-ta 'W11). 1. The Qi1im is the "fourth ni#t('in actu.lim. pp." a phrase which is mentioned three times.52 The principle of "four-ness" was present in the asü of the fourth na#q in potentia. 16. 114v. which al-RaZï uses in the course of his discussion of the "Night of Power. who thus possessed ta 'wil to a certain degree. namely.. 245-47 above. the principle of "four-ness" (aJ-arba 'iyah). 115r. in actu (f. who is expected to be the Qi'im. 115v..

'im in potentin. so to speak.." These three passages therefore have aImost the same context: this confirms our theory that 'Ali was seen as potentially the holder of the Qi'im-ship interms of his salvational role.'im's salvational function until the latter's parousia. 63v. 16 above. it aIso presumably developed in the hands of different individuals. 1. as briefly pointed out in the last chapter. thus. p. it is not always clear in al-Razj's text which figure. 53 5& lJâ#q. 130 quoted in chapter 7. In the passages we have analyzed. this passage immediately precedes the two passages on the relation between the "Night of Power" and the Qi'in\. 12Sv. L 15..53 As the master of esoteric interpretation (~âlJi" al-ta'vril) (f.. ..rïs during the period after the dedaration of the Qiyamah: 'Ali.'im-ship is carried out by 'Ali in a potential state. 125v. such as 'Ali. as the "cosm ic.'im. 246. the aas of the fourth nipq. p. 248-49)54 and the last asis. L 2/p.V. 105-114 above.-ship. 62r. n. 243-44 above. Il and 1. That is to say. since esoteric interpretation is an integral feature of the Qi. 55 The Qi. • the figure of 'Ali often overlaps with the Qi'im. 1-5/f. A doctrine similar to al-Rizi's speculation on 'Ali was held by the NiZi. passing the Also cf. Discussing 'Alis appearance as an image throughout the ages of the irnimS and his salvational function. In this way both the "four-ness" and the esoteric interpretation develop from potentiality (qùwah ) to actuality (fi'l ) through the different individuals.'im. is being discussed. 15/pp. 'Ali is. 'Ali or the Qi. Il.309 • 7/pp.." perfect man who exists in every age in any farm (induding imims). and the Qi. 226-28).1im as the "true" fourth perfectness of the number four. chapter 7. 151E. the Qi. pp. • 55 See f. is ta appear For an explanation of the idea of the Qi. In addition to esoteric interpretation.1. as seen in the previous chapter.'im. see chapter 4. The logic of the development of sorne of the roles of the divinely-guided leaders from potentiality to actuality leads us to conc1ude that.ship and also discusses on "Night of Power. 12 and 1. 'Ali can be placed in the second most complete phase of this development of the ta 'wü. 'Ali also retains the Qi.

-R. MuJ}ammad al-Nakhi'i (d. between the three prophetie • 56 Halt Bib-i Bibi Sayyidu-a3. On the problem of the taDüllÜ in Ismi'îlism. 278-82 !jl • 58 The extremist notion of 'AIrs appearance in many imams is reminiscent of the doctrine of raœsukb.. see. G. 262-64.'' El 2.): al50 cf. Walker. sorne of which could be sorne vestige of early Shï'ism or a heraid of Iater Nizan Ismâ'ilism.). belief in which the Ismi'jUS. Tokyo-Kyoto 31st August-7th September 1983. vol.56 There aiso existed among earlyextremist-Shi'i (ghâli. Halm. Halm. as God. Of course al-RiZi does not hold any belief in this doctrine. 293-97: Cf.1I Proceedings of the Thirty-First International Congress of Human Sciences in Asia and North Africa. that is.310 • as the Qilim himself and the judge in the eschaton. Little (I. Hodgson in his The arder of Assassins. apPears in every age: he thus appeared as al-f. see: H.. Including al-RâZi's connection of' Ali to Qi'imology. 1984). 'The Doctrine of Metempsychosis in Islam" in [slamic Studies Presented to Charles . 10. pp.'imology. SI Of course. 1 (Tokyo. For an overview of the doctrine of W2àrukb. 'Ali was God or God appeared in hïm. pl. Landolt. most notablyal-5ijistini.eiden. 250 and pp. it is difficult ta prove the influences in the relationship existing between the gbulit. ghulit) groups towards the end of the 3rd/9th century sorne exaltation or even divination of IAli: According to them. if it is 50 slight. 1990). 00. PQ 1998). vol. But we should notice that the expression of bis thought shows some similarity to the doctrine of lalJàsukh. pp.iasan and al. ''TUIinkh. ed. 293f. 131-43. respectively. 286/899) and his foUowers (al-Istliqiyah) held that 'Al. 1991). while the divine 'Ali appeared as sorne of the imims of his descent after bis departure from the world. 53. and the Niziris on this doctrinal point. 00. 297f. p. Adams. 181-83. 94 (Persian text and French transi. Y. Abü Ya'qiib IaJ}iq b. by M. W. Tatsuro.S8 However. 230-37. have often been accused of. 00. JaJaU Ni'ini. Steigerwald into French and incorporatOO in her Majlis: discours sur l'ordre et la création (Saint-Nicolas. pp. Die islamische Gnosis. by D. p. Steigerwald al50 drew our attention to this important doctrinal tendency: La pensée philosophique et théologique de Sbabrastani. M.. 1933). Madelung.. p. . pp.. E. that is. W. pp. Gimaret. for example: D. we can situate ourselves better in trying to understand the severa! elements of al-Razi's Qa. The foIlowing study by D. IIAbü Ya'qiib al-Sijistini and Metempsychosis." pp.f:fusaYn in their ages. Walker. the tendency to be indined ta the doctrine of ranarukb should be studied in the context of the Ismi'lism as a whole. B. S. According to H. There is yet another typological relation.. transI. P. Ivanow in Two Early [smaili Treatises (Bombay. See al50 a similar statement in an Ismi'ili-Shî'i coloured sermon by al-Shahrasbini: Majlis-i MalmiIJ. al-Rizï. p.i SbabruWJi Mua laqid du Khrirazm. W. P. l'The Doctrine of Metempsychosis. by referring to these doctrinal tendencies among various 5hi'i groups. Steigerwald's introduction in the same book. 16-17 (English transI. 219-38. Hallaq and O. transmigration of soul or metempsychosis. p. IIIsma'iii and Sufi Attitudes towards Transmigration." in Iranica Varia: Papers in Honor of Professor Ehsan Yarshater (Leiden. pp. Hodgson's commentary in the same book.

the meaning of al-Rizts statement in the second quoted Therefore through them (i.'im. Adam and Jesus too are the Qi. whether as Adam. AIso the position of a prophet who is 59 See chapter 7.'im-ship (such as the esoteric interpretation. 107/English transI. 73 (French transI. 62v. or 'Ali. the prophets. From our analysis of the passages in the present section it may be suggested that al-Rizï believes the Qi. 1.. three ranks?) he repeated three grades" passage in this section: (f. the Qa'im-ship develops in three persons in some cases in terms of his various functions. p. lJi~'l.. That is.'im-ship in several individuals.e. Therefore.311 • figures.I. 130). Al-5ijistini describes the process of development of prophecy (paygbambari ) as foliows. • Another example of the development of the roles of the divinely-guided leaders can be found in another author. 60 This is. 64r. the salvational raIe and the typological relation based on the mode of contact) can he interpreted as conducted by three persons. we can suggest.. p.'im has appeared in potentia in almost every age in one of these individuals. Prophecy is developed by different individuals. who are compared to the limbs (ja1rin1J) or organs (andim-hi ) of the body. 6O The development in these cases can be called the division of the Qi.e. as in the case of 'Ali.. Adam. Il ••• • AI-Sijistini. i. and the Qi'im are aIl connected with each other in terms of the mode of the contact with the angelic beings. §2 and §3 above. Jesus. p.. 46 (in manusoipt) }.'im.59 Each of sorne of these cases of the development of the Qi. the establishment of the prophecy (ïstadhan-i payghambari) can exist only with all of those limbs and organs. Kubf aJ-M~iü". i. the different prophets. 14/p. according to al-Rizi. in potentia.e. Thus. the uis of the fourth Jesus. which links aIl three. 61 . I/f. just as the well-being of the body depends on the completeness of those limbs and organs. which is related to the function of the kuM of the Qi..61 being in place.

" Our suggestion may perhaps coindde with Ni:pm al-Mulk's account of Abü l:Iitimllls propaganda for the advent of"an imirr\" (imàmi) (Ni~m al-Mulk. p. 169 of the present dissertation above.. in the service of Fipmid religjous policy. just as the former's sacred law bases itself on the latter's. That is. the history developed by the D:i#qs starting with Adam is a process of the manifestation of knowledge from its state in potentia (bi-al-qUwah ) ta its state in actu (bi-al-fi'] ). Madelung.312 • succeeded by another prophet is comparable to the rank of potentiality (~add al-qüwa1J ). 46 (in manuscript». 21 and 27 above).6ol To clarify the issue of the division of the Qi. Also d. pp. 217) ): see also chapter 2. However. aI-Mudhbibah. 2) the rank of the resurrection in the spiritual [state?] ~dd aI-qiyjmab fi al-TÜ. p. According ta him.." could be a person entirely different from the seventh completer. pp. "Das Imamat. we neecl ta deal with his religio-poütical background with caution when analyzing his and other Ismi "ïu views of the development of divinely-established institutions and of the divinely-guided leaders' roles. as follows: • 62 Ibid. namely. The Qâ'im of the parousÜl. p.. the Qi'im-ship does not really develop in one and the same person (probably M~mmad b. Isma'il> for all three grades. let us schematize the development of those institutions or roles which we have seen so far. Isma"il: it could easily mean sorne other 'Alid persona Il • . a1-I<irmari developed his thought in response ta the religio-political situation. the succeeding prophet confirms the truth of the one preceding hîm. 74-75 (French transl. "An imim" need not necessarily be a reference to M~mmad b.-ship under development is comprised of the three grades of completership.63 In other words. 197-98. or the urea! Qi. Ismi'îl. 3) the rank of the calculation and soU (?) (~dd al-~s:ib wa-al-rurib).88f. Al-Kirmini. 107-108/English transI.'im. Thus. 'im in three "ranks": 1) the rank of the corporeal lbeing] (fJadd al-jismam ). p." p. Pseudo (?)-al-Nu"min. al-Rjyi~. We should also remind ourselves here of al-Kirmini's view of the development of prophecy in sacred history. M~ad b.. 79. pp. which was different from the cases of al-RiZi and al-5ijistirû.62 50 far these arguments suggest that the above-mentioned "division" offering the Qi Iim. 267/p. 71 and also see p. pp.fJUj ). whereas the position of the succeeding prophet may be likened to that of actuality (!Jadd al-fi'/). p. concealment and the parousia. 63 AJ-RisaJab al-Mud1Jbibu also seems to have the notion of the development of the Qi. 287 (English transI.1im-ship. Also see chapter 5. This process culminates in the parollSia of the Qatim.

the Real Qi' im (Al-Sijistini) The prophecy (paygbambari ) Developed by Perfected by 6 different prophets . of the fourth ~- highest phase) - - ~ The {j'] TheQa'im - - The {j'] The Qa'im as the final point of ~he interpretation aapq (' Ali b. Isma'il?) The da'wah in public (started with the '1ast completer" = MuJ. .bayIJah ? - - - - The~ûr The real Qi 'im (?) The Da'wah The da'wah in secret. Ismi'U?) .The Master of the Cycle of Cycles.'im-ship thraugh the function of ta'vril and bis salvational role (three states?) Theqüwah ASiS 'Ali b. (started in the name of ' Al) (transitional period?) (the seven completers including M~mmad b..> • .'im-ship developed through three grades The grade of completer-ship M~d b. Ismi'il - - The . . Abi Tilib - - (The 5tate of Transition?) - The /i'] (The Seven lmimS including Mutaammad b..313 (Al-Rizi) • The Qi. the Qi 'im an this case the preceding prophet is in the state of qüwah or potentiality. of the fourth Difiq • The esoteric interpretatian (three phases?) TheqÜ1n1J The ua. while the one following him is in the state of fi'i or aetuaIity. Abi Tilib as the master of the esoteric interpretation) The manifestation of the Qi.1ammad b... that is..(The second The ua. Isma'il?) The Four-ness (two phases) TheqÜ1n1J ~ .

..C .the angels to come to them" (Q 6: 158) means death..') and the end of [aIl] remembrance of the • antagonists Cinqili 1 dhikr al-a9did)." there is the problem of another number in al-I~l~. The coming of . the Qi'im. the "eighth" (al-tbjrgin)..'ds1Jjf amr al-nujabi. was to be recognized as different from the seventh completer. Thus. [Another part of the verse] " .or that thy Lord should come" (Q 6: 158) [means] the day of Resurrection (yawm a/-qiyimah). [and still another pat:t] "." who apparently takes the raIe of the judge in the eschatological event. . Leaving aside for a moment the question of what is meant by the "tenth of the asà. Sorne people said: this is the descending of the Messiah (nuzwal-M2Sl1J).. refers ta: 'Ali or the Qi'im or both.e. who is to have his parousia. M~ad b.lin and the seven completers. no one will enter paradise through it... a holder of ordinary completer-ship. the time of the eschaton in Q 43: 61) is a part of the day (juz' min al-yawm) but is not the day itself.or that one of thy Lord/s signs should come?" (Q 6: 158) refers ta the emergence of the beast (khuraj al-dibbah).. In al-RiZi's text it is not certain which figure(s) this "eighth. This can be observed in the following passage: • He ('Ali) is the "sign" by which he (the Qi'im) is shown. that is.. Isma'ïl. The people of exegesis (abJ al-tMsir) said: ". that is their death. Thus the coming of the angels at the time of death means the uncovering of the authority of the noble people (in....314 • The possible "division" of the Qi'im-ship in the hands of several individuals through the three grades seems aIso to be suggested by the following fact: aI-Rizï mentions in the first quotation in this section that the last completer is the "tenth of the asüin and the seven completers" (Iübir al-uasayu wa-al-atimmi' al-sab Id). And it Ca part of the day or the "sign"?) means the eighth one (al-tbamin) with whom the gate to repentance (bib al-tawbah) is closed: which is to say that it is the eighth gate to paradise (bab al-jannah al-thimin) which is closed.). This appears to indicate that the last completer.. The ''Hour' (i.

'im and 'Ali. • 5- V." We can interpret this ta imply that the eighth one is another example of the overlapping of the identity of the Qi.66 However.315 IIthy Lord" at the Resurrection means the master of baring of the leg (Le. or 'Ali.. "One of thy Lord's signs. 122 in chapter 7.248). as we mentioned above. 105/p. 13. This passage forms part of the interpretation of an eschatological verse Q 43: 61 ('1t is knowiedge of the Hour"). 1.248) V. (f. 125r.1. in the above quotation it is uncertain whether the '~our. One of them is " 0 ne of thy Lord's signs. 58r. 1. 66 . al-Rizi holds that one of "thy Lord's signs" is the "eighth one.'im. Moreover.." which is the beast of the earth and the descending of the Messiah... 125r.~" al-kashf 'an al-saq)65 who is responsible for the [task of] instructing the Iower 1. 10- V. II/p.1. the I/three events" to take place with the approach of the eschaton. 125r." The third Cf. 249. which discusses the typological relation between 'Ali and the Qi 'im: in the passage preceding this one.59v." the Qi'im and/or 'Ali. 1... 6/f.. These are three states (thali. means the eighth who shuts the gate of repentance.. 1.V. 125r. earthly) hierarchy (tarbiyat aI-fJudüd aI-$uf1ïyah). 241~ above. The first "state.. It should aiso be noted in this connection that the "eighth one. 1.. is aiso regarded as one of the "three states" (thalithat a. 6. the "Hour" is identified with the Qi'im. 1 mean. 1.!Jril). Q 68: 42." meaning his rank and position. l/p. This phrase has already been mentioned in different context above in chapter 7. The second is the "coming of thy Lord" or the "master of baring of the leg. Il. • (.. pp. p. l. and its "sign" ('alamab) with 'Ali Cf. toward the end of the above quoted passage.V..2-7 If." the "eighth" one refers to the Qi. or even ail of these. 6S • See also the translation and our interpretation of the passage in f." or event is the "coming of the angels. the eighth one which shuts the gate of repentance." that is.that a(nvil). the "death" of the antagonists. 12ff.

Cf. Isma'il's son.'im and one of his manifestations (ilbis rank and position" in the above passage) respectively. or his grandson. and the l Ieighth after the completer-imàms" (al-thimin ba Ida al-a 'immah al-mutimm in). 43.61 W. If our interpretation is correct.a~id text." namely. of the numbering of 61 Kiâb al-RudJd. p. im. 2S and English translation of the passage on p. refers to the seventh na~q as being the "tenth from M~ammad. "Das Imamat. This renders even more important the statement from the above quotation to the effect that IIthe 'Hour' is a part of the day but is not the day itself. Al}mad. so ta speak. Madelung. 25. 69 ." the "clay" as a whole. 'im-ship itself in its "three states. Madelung. Ivanow maintains that this "tenth" and Ueighth" could be identified with either M~ammad b.. this "'part.. 69 This same sort of disorder or rearrangement. Studies in Early Persian lsmailism. "Das Imamat." p. On this passage." can represent the Qi. 'Abd Alli. p. 90." Returning to the problem of the numbering of the imâms and other dignitaries.68 According to Madelung the statement in Kitab al-Rushd shows that its author thought that the age of the seven completers had already elapsed. also: Ivanow. the "eighth one.316 • is "one of thy Lord's signs. 52. Shldies." Since the 'lfiour" is the Qi 'im and simply one part of the II day.ship." It may be suggested that the second and third states impIy the Qi." p. the passage quoted above represents an account of the development of the Qi. Kitab • al-Rœhd wa-al-Hidayah. 52. • 61 Ivanow. see also above in chapter 4. p. 199. it should be noted that an anonymous. _ 'Ali and the seven imâms (from the descendants of these two) [who are the] compIeters" (al-'asharmin Mr4Ja mmad wa-'Ali wa-al-$ab'ah al-a'immab min dhumyati-bimi mutimmün). oIder.h.. p. contrasted with. perhaps pre.

the Prophet M~amm. aIso found in the first treatise of /Citab al-Kuhf. 71 /Cirab al-Kub/.71 Madelung explains this peculiarity in the numbering of the "eight completers" as resulting from the authors' tendency to defy convention by including 'Ali among the completers. pp. the number "ten " is completed with the "eight completers" (bi-al-dJaminiyah atïmma 1 ).74 One possible explanation is that al-Razi may have utilized an oid numbering of divinely guided leaders as weil as that of completers as a theoretical scheme for explaining the division of the Qi'im-ship.e. whatever the original problem may have been?73 However. another anonymous text of presumably pre-Fipmid origin. KütJï. espedally the completers.. 91-92 above. 91-92.ijJ. The "eighth one" or the /ltenth one" 70 See also above in chapter 4. 72 Madelung.Qadar.ad) and IMlltlammad" (probably the Qi'im). See also our discussion of this passage in chapter 4." as being additional to the thirty nights of Moses' covenant (mïqat) with God in Q 7: 142. pp. pp.71 Each of these explanations of the number problem is bound to a particular texte Therefore we need to find an over-arching explanation of why a number problem conceming the Qi'im in pre-Fipmid texts would recur in a later text like al-I~l.70 The text interprets the "ten nights. one has as yet offered a plausible explanation for this. . we still have to explain whyal-Rizï saw fit to reexamine the issue as part of bis elaboration of his eschatological doctrine.317 • the divinely-guided leaders. This could be explained by sorne presumed reason: Küni-Qadar could still be utilized for letter symbolism which we already saw in chapter 4 above. Basically we follow Madelung's partial translation of the passage. According to the author. 15-16. inta their cosmological system and theory of prophecy. if this is the case. Madelung. 73 No 74 • One example of the adoption of a vestigial concept into a doctrinal system is the introduction by a1-Sjistini and al-Rizi of old hypostases. as mentioned in chapter 4. • Is this sort of numbering merely a vestige from the time of Kitab al-Rushd or /Citab al-Kashf. in this cycle is. ibid. "AJ:unad" (i." p. ''Cas Imamat.54.

the seventh mi~9 was assigned a raIe different from the '1ord of resurrection. he will restore the people to • good health. 82 (French transI. which could be carried out by the two different persons. This suggests that al-5ijistinï may have seen the Qi. K.'im-ship coming after the seventh completer.hd were composed." This can mean that as one of the physicians (1ike the other prophets)." i. during which the seven Uphysicians. the seven prophets. For example.. 'im.1S In this passage al-5ijistini seems to distinguish the role of the "seven" physidan- prophets from that of the "lord of the resurrection. p. Another due to the concept of the division of the Qi.76 . 75 AI-5ijismIi. the period for the healing of those diseased souls is destined to be the seven cycles (bail dawr). treat the people with the appropriate medicine.bl al-Ma. 115-160/Englsih transI.318 • could be the bearer of the Qi. the two asPeCts of the Qi'im-ship would be canied out by one and the same persan. p. would come as an eighth figure after the seventh lJi#q.. pp. the real Qi. comparable to physicians (fabibin).. he compares the souls living in the cycle of concealment to people suffering from serious disease (bimil'ï) and the cycle of unveiling to a state of good health (durusti).e. According to al-5ijistani.'im-ship as divisible into two parts or functions (healing the sick and restoring their health).fJiub." that is." This passage can thus be interpreted to mean that the "lord of resurrection.'im-ship may be offered by al-5ijistini. 52 (in manusaipt».. An attempt to answer this doctrinal problem of al-5ijisQni would . The prophets who rule the cycle of concealment are. moreover. In the same passage al-5ijistini aise states that this work of bringing the people into a state of good health is the "sign" of the Mahdi (nislWJ-i Mahdi ). respectively. There is also the possibility that the division of the Qi'im-ship dated from pre-a~d time when most of the sections in Kitâb al-Kuhf and Drab al-R. When the prophetie mission reaches the '1ord of the resurrection" (khudiwand-i qiyimar). • 76 Or will the seventh na!iq become the "lord of resurrection" after he accomplishes the mission of heaIing the diseased? H it is so.

the·leaders of the da'wah.'ïlism. came to be expressed in more indirect terms by sorne thinkers. it seems. for example." Madelung. lead us to go beyond the narrow scope of our present study. Kubf al-Ma. pp. AIso. if we tum eyes to al-5ijisœni's interpretation of the victory of the Qi'im which we have just seen.79 Hence rus description of Kirab al~Kubf. pp. 81-82 (French transI. Madelung maintains that al-Sijistini discusses the role of the Qi'im "in entirely worldly terms.'im' s conquest of Makkah and Madinah and the perfection of God's religion with his advent is spoken of. we will examine his political function. for exampIe.77 the final political victory towards the eschaton is identified with the Qj. But these accomplishments are interpreted metaphorically.. [slamic Messianism.fJjüb. 119·20 above. 150·79. 115/English transI." p. ". al-5ijisti. Seemingly commenting on this passage. pp..'im-ship in early Ismi. In fact. la 'ri. pp. AIse see chapter 4. p. p. the doctrine of the political victory. the spread of justice (lad!).319 • Let us then further develop our investigation of the possibility of the division of the Qi'im-ship in terms of some of the functions the Qi'im was thought ta hold. in the 4th/IOth century. . see. 32-35. particularly bis role in bringing victory ta the true religion toward the conting of the eschaton.al-Sijistini and Metempsychosis. As an example.ni lists what must accompany after political victory in the age of the "lord of the resurrection. But this becomes questionable.. W. and the removal of tyranny (jawr). 137. • .. following our earlier discussion of one of bis important functions. "justice" as knowledge (lüm ) and "tyranny" as ignorance this victory is not entirely political.On the political victory of the Mahdi in Ithni'ashrï -Shi'i tradition. 79 AI." such as the killing of (religiously) corrupt people. where the Qi. 78 However. 52 (in manuscnpt». in Kuhf al-M~iüb. Tl 78 (jah/).Sijistini. Here i~ should be • recalled that al-RaZi in al-I~li1} assigns the raIe of fighting the eschatological battle to the "noble people" (al-nujabi'). namely. the doctrine of the political victory of the Mahdi-Qa 'im is common to an systems of Shï'i thought. Sachedina. Just as we saw in Kilib al-Kubf (a pre-Fi\imid text).

AIse in the same text {p. 50 (English transI. O . In addition he specifies that this deputy was in the ascendancy of his political power. although the Qi. P. The above discussion on the political victory of the Qi'im revolves around the essential issue of the Qi.'im-ship is. E.81 The following statement would further suggest the tendency towards the AI-5ijistini.ni the mission and the persan of the Qi'im are discussed in less political terms. Early Philosophical Shiism. Walker. p. In the eyes of al-5ijisti. so to speak. II In both passages. 163. 83-84 (English transI. the "intellectual benefits" (al-lari'id al-'a'lliyab) will be brought to sorne human beings. entailed by the political victory of the da'wah. In ms commentary on this passage. 75) ) he maintains that with the "perfect individual" (al-sbaIdJ.'im.J» to actuality (al-li'l). al-5jistiri holds that when the Qi'im reaches bis position Cmamil••u-hu). al This suggests that the political victory prepares or predicts" the parousia of the Qi.. 101-102) ). 83. Walker points out that this "perfect individual" very likely denotes the Qi'im. the political aspect is kept separate from the person of the Qi' im himself.. • . on the other hand. The phrase "one of his deputies" could refer to the fourth lmim-ealiph al-Mu'izz.'im-ship. • in the theoretical discussion of the Qi'im-ship. al-5ijistini asserts that God fulfilled bis promise by manifesting "the banner of this Qi'im in the presence of one ofhis deputies" (i~bar rayat bidbâ al-Qi 'Un lali ra's * d klJulafj'i-hi). This tendency in the doctrinal discourse can generally be described in general terms as the "spiritualization of the Qi'im-ship. 80 81 In aJ-Y~bi' {pp. al-timïl ) the soul moves from potentiality (aJ-qütn.'im-ship is ta be fulfilled in the other or higher dimension of the cosmos. aJ-UtücJJjr. The Wellsprings of Wisdom. p. particularly on whether the mission of the Qal im is to be fulfilled in this world or outside it.. pp.320 • In bis al-lftildJar. bis political raIe and mission are assigned to other leading people such as the noble people" (in the case of al-RaZi) II and the deputies (in that of al-Sijistani). In these passages al-5ijisœni shows that the Qi'im brings the "spiritual" benefits to the human sauls. In other words.. pp. in response to those who expressed doubt over the coming of the resurrection (al-fJiyimah). p. 141-42. Walker. Thus the Qi.

while he is [also] the holder of them in the highest world in actu.. the master of the seventh cycle) is the master of the cycle of unveiling (~à.." However.321 • spiritualization of the Qi. iL 5-17/p. The question ïs.'im-sbip...82: The holder (al-misik) of these six bodily parts is "the substance as the seventh one" (al-jawIJar al-si. their conjunction will be "in actu at that time.~d bis cycle "partner of the simple world" (zavrj li-I-'jJam 107r. which is • counted as the seventh substance after the six '1imbs. 111-112 above. and then he becomes their holder (mbilcu-ha ) in actu after the unveiling (al-kasb/).bi') which is their carrier (llimilla-lJa) in this world in potentia (bi-al-qüwab) and the carrier of his (Le. see chapter 4. This role of the Qi'im is discussed by al-RaZï in the form of an analogy with the spirit-like substance of the human body. C.. • 82 On the spirit-like seventh substance. .. 106v.. the highest world (al-'aIam al-a 'là) in nctu (bi-al-li'l) . This statement implies that there is a higher world or a higher dimension of the cosmos in which the Qa'im accomplishes his parousia. or the Qi'im-ship. IL 5-13/f. which is the bearer of the six bodily parts in this world in potentin. . And as for the master of the seventh cycle he possesses the final point of esoteric interpretation (tJÜJàyat al-ta 'W11) which is the carrier of the six sacred laws in potentia until they (sacred laws) are completed... That is to say. 212) a1-"uj~). finds its final accomplishment in the spiritual dimension of the cosmos. And he (Le.). however: How does the "spiritualization" develop in sacred history? The next quoted passage appears to mean that the mission of the Qi1im in sacred history. (da'WTU-hu) is a (f. . the human being's) form in (~b al-dawr al-sabi ').... pp." Here "this world" is contrasted with the eschatological time when the salvation is actualized. in the last section we pointed out that "the people of the true conjunction" would come into conjunction "in potentia with the avrliya' in this world.!Ub dawr al-kubJ) in the same manner as the substance as the seventh one.

there is still another development compared to the act of "birth.. 83 As for the "spiritual forms" (al-fuwar al-riiftinïyab). develops from its potentiality to full actuality. After the formation of the shan 'ab and foundation of the da'wah. p." which is the "birth" of the "spiritual forms" (al-fuwar al-m. ta'ri .fJ one can find passages which discuss the process of refining the a~d human soul toward the parousia of the Qi'im the eschatol1. 1. 15.7/pp. Also cf.. chapter 5.. the expression "parmer of the simple world" which is left unexplained would seemingly mean that his cycle would not have its counterpart in this physical. composite world as the previous cycles of the six nu~qi do. and which are concerned with the theme of the "spiritualization" of the Qi'im-ship. as already seen in chapter seven above.f. AIso. Furthermore. l/f.flaniya1J) (f." higher world." spiritual world? In a1-1~1i. 63v. . but only in the "simple. just as the function of the spirit-like substance is fullY actualized in the "highest world. Thus the expression 1 in question brings us to another question: What situation would the Qi. 135-36)." The actuality of esoteric interpretation will be fullyaccomplished with the "unveiling": in other words. the reference to religious practice (al-'amai) means their generation (naslJ 1 a1-~uwar al-rü~yab) and their being "etemalized in the punishment and • 13 See chapter 7." al-RaZi implies that the mission of the Qi-im is also to be fully actualized in the highest. since he "possesses the final point of esoteric interpretation (tJibiyat al-ta'vriJ ). iL 5. spiritual dimension of the cosmos in the future. the seventh nipq 's mission. 65r.-ship • effect in our world in order to transform it into a "partner" of the "simple.322 • Al-Rizi holds that just as the spirit-like substance moves from the state of potentiality to that of actuality.im. which are compared to the result of the union of male and female. 64v. 23940 above. pp. 166-68 above. 1. the "unveiling" is the fully actualized esoteric interpretation.

180. (al-~uwar al- The use of latter term used in the following passage is the same as that found in the above quotation.86 and implies that they develop in each of the cycles of the lJU~qi... 79 Œnglish transI. p. Early Philoscphical 5hiism. p. 98). E. as weil as in. perhaps..36.. tri Ibid. 67. Walker. P. This "invisible form" appears to have sorne relation with the "spiritual forms" in al-Sijistini's text. p. 83-84. pp. In the case of al-Rizi the term "spiritual forms" • (al-~uwar al-rü. Il.323 • the reward" (f. 48).. 52). al-Rizi's al-l.iirab al-kbHiyab) of the ïndividual as "aetivated by the lIintellectual benefits" (al-fari 'id al-'aqliya1Ù. Walker writes that al-Sijistini saw the lIinvisible form" (al-. 64)..fJaniyah ) seems to be used in altemation with under the appellation "simple forms" buj~). p..84 According to him. • " Ibid. 31r. 31v. 85 AIso he holds that the "growth" and "emergence" of these "forms" (n. .. 13 (English transl.Yanabi' but unfortunately does not explain clearly. These two statements suggest that this idea of Ilspiritual forms" denotes the forms of human souls which are generated and instructed by the work or the practice of duties laid down in the sacred law. p. 24.fJ.Ii.fJamyab wa- take place with the seven imams and the seven "deputies. as Al-5ijisti nir al-Yanabi'. p. p." the ulan and the uùizJ. IL 4-6/f.hü' burüz-hi) al-~uwar al-TÜ.87 These passages suggest that the spiritual forms" are born in each cycle and develop toward their II completion at the end of all the cycles.. 19 Œnglish transI. n. the new development in the da'wah begins with the establishment of the sacred law and the da'wah by the asasan as follows: Then the coalescing of the two fundaments (ijrimi' al-uasayn) [takes place] with the foundation of the da'wah (qiyim al-da 'wah ) upon the SI ll ~abir of the Based on :al-fanibi'. That is to say. p. Al-5ijistani mentions the term. 100 and p. "spiritual forms" in al. the "ongin" (ibtidà ') of these forms lies in the four "roots..

e. 69r. that is...usta. 144) The new development in the da/wah. Ham. Il. Tüb. which is affected by the da'wah . for this is a secret birth in potentin (wilidah kbafïyah bi-al-qüwah). ll. in the following passage: The matter we have mentioned is that the birth (al-wilidah ) occurs with the coalescing of the a. that is. because the enunciator-prophet has with respect to him the position of the male and the "fundament" (uü) that of the female. the emergence of the II 11 3 imple forms" (or "spiritual forms") is aIso called a secret birth" (wilidaIJ kbafïyah). And every da'wah is a part of the world of this [simple] form. of this world) because of the coalescing of its parts in the four da'wahs (al-da 'rit al-arba tah . whereas MS. Tüb. makes even more sense however. (f. And with the coalescing of the two ["fundaments"] the "products" that emerge have the simple forms (al-~uwar a1-&uï~). This world. At that time the form. 1-2) and MS. (f. This is because the simple form (al-~ürah al-&uipth lJ8 is born • through the establishment of the da'wah and lives with the knowledge. i. Its (this world's) generation will [take place] with perfection (aI-kamil) and actualization (al-titI).. 4) has ~ I ~I. as will he mentioned shortly.lilm al-lD. The reading of the printed edition and MS. who possesses the rank of the "four-ness" (bi-fJadd al88 We adopt the reading of the printed edition (p.70v. sic) [borne] upon the three [pairs of] sacred laws at the time of the parousia of the master of the seventh cycle.12-15/p. 1. in the plural. l. As we saw in al-Sijistani's discussion of the "spiritual forms. Thus at that time it (Le. of the form. 71v. • .324 • sacred law.. if we interpret it not as a simple singular but as a generic singular. (f. 70r. 147. 14)." this IIsecret birth" is not completed within a cycle but unfolds trans-historically. iL 9-12/f. simple form) will emerge with the form of this world affected in these cycles..jann fi al-a lmil ) at the time of the termination of aIl the cycles. (al-~ürab) will emerge with its completion (bi-tamimi-hi.rÜ'in .. extending beyond a particular cycle.the latter being influenced by the highest simple world (al-laJun al-a lli al-buï~ ) - will be completed in the world of the rational soul by means of the knowledge hidden in the religious practices (al.

. plants. 147) • Here the "simple forms" are put in the generic singular. This relation can be 19 A1-Râzi also writes that "products" (a]-mawilid. 71v.89 This '~irth in potentia" presumably requires another birth in another cycle which is in actu. S/p. addressesl sciences.. expressions. II then. I l••• al-5ijistinï and Metempsychosis." that is. of course. Il. • ."). 1. 1.influenced by the higher simple world") and then the da'wah influences "this world." p. "this world.325 ar&a'iyah).ürab II al-basï~ liA secret birth in potentia. These are inherited and combined with the new elements from generation ta generation up ta the resurrection (aJ-4liyimab). According ta him the barizikb (pl." or the birth of the simple form" takes place in any da'wah in a certain cycle. of banakb) consist of l'speech. such as minerais.. al-.. we consulted W. For the interpretation of this passage. • The highest of them is. 90 This notion of the world of "simple form" reminds us of al-5ijiswu's interpretation of banakh in Q 23: 100 {isthmus for the souls of the dead}. logic. (f. as was the case with Adam seen earlier. and craftsmanship" of the bygone PeOple. "al-Bihirah. 71i. 71 V. the world of nature in this contexte In the text the da'wah undergoes the influence of the "higher simple world. 46." probably. 1. 3/p. In this collective inheritance there are also ta be found punishment and reward. 3-12/f. 11. Madelung.138f.. the completion of the whole world of the simple form requires aIl the cycles through aU "four da'wahs" (three brought by the six nu~qa 1 and one by the Qil im himself). the description of "each da'wah" as lia part of the world of this [simple] form" implies the trans-cyclical development of the simple forme That is to say.." that is. AI-5ijistini. politics1 letters. 70v. 71r. AIso. 146).. 1. specifically referring ta hwnan beings) are in every cycle only in the state of potentiality (bi-aJ-qüwab) (f.f. 14/f.90 Moreover. the ''highest simple world" which consists of the Universal Intellect and Soul and is followed by the rational world" and.. the spiritual assistance (al-ta 'yid) ("the da'wah. ward. supposedly. through their calling ("this world being affected by the da'wah. animais: here.'1 p.. in the above quotation the hierarchy of the three worlds is recognized.

41-45): this idea is related to the above-mentioned completion of "this world" ~ the "world of rational soul.326 schematized as follows: • The "highest simple world" ." the world of nature. 92 ."). 1. The following description of al-RiZi's anthropology is based on chapter 6.II. 19r. to be accomplished with the intervention of the Qi. This completion." The other is that only at the time of the perfection of the human being will every existent being" of this world be perfected and lI completed (f.. 9.. "This world" The da'wah thus leads the world of nature towards its completion in the "world of rational soul" at the end of time. is connected to that of the realm of the human beings.16r. In the text the process of the emergence of the real "form. the human being (f.. 1." of the human being is actualized through the parousia of the "master of the seventh cycle. of the form of this world) completion. 1.. after the four da 'wahs.1.." the Qi' im... The above discussion points to two facets of al-Razj's anthropology. 2/pp.. 4-10/f. 21r. 35-36).f.91 Theda'wah .. is aiso the completion of the cosmos with its contents according to • 91 The arrow indicates the direction in which the influence is exerted.92 One of these is that the rational soul is united with the fourth substance of the cosmos.{J.e. • that is. 1. 18v. With these anthropological ideas the completion of "this world.{J.. 1..V. ID/pp. 14.f. Al-RiZi then goes on to explain that with this completion of the world the form of the human sou! is also completed ("At that time the form will emerge with its (i. 1. 16r. 21r. §1-3 above. 13/f. im.

Il.. the parousia of the Qi. pp. As for the scum.'im-ship is entailed by the completion of this cosmos. the ether (al-at1ür) which is aIso identified with fire93: Thus the seventh is the seventh of the six (sibi t aJ-sittab) in terms of the grade of the cycle (ruthat al-dawr).. pp. and what profits men abides in the earth. the Ismi.said: 'lfie sends down out of heaven water.afi).'im is compared to the all-encompassing element. and the wadis flow each in its measure. Even so God strikes His similitudes" (Q 13: 17). come into the pure light (aJ-nür al-. 224) In the above passage al-Rizi presents the image of the fire which is. 93 . 112-14 and chapter S. 50 God strikes both the true and the faIse. the mixture of the '1ight" and the "heat": the '1ight" is compared to the • On al-Rizi's utilization of the concept of "ether. 113r.. This idea is confirmed in the following passage in which the Qi..uwar al-buî~ aJ-munfatilab fi al-shar:i'i 1 bi-al-ta 'ri). (f. being desirous of ornament or ware.. Thus it is suggested that the "spiritualized" Qi. S-13ff. Il. On the other hand they (Le. it vanishes as jetsam. if (or when) it (Le." see chapter 4.'ilis) are [potentiallyl in conjunction with him (the Qat im) and in actu at the time of the unveiling ('inda al-kubl) and surpass the mixture [of the ~j1Jjr • of the sacred laws] with the esoteric interpretation. 113v.327 • the above ideas. according to him. just as God -He is mighty and glorious!. and out of that over which they kindle fue. and the torrent carries a swelling scum. out of that rises a scum the like of it. 4-13/p.' im would not bring the cosmos into an entirely "spiritualized" and "incorporealized" state but into a condition that is complete and perfect. 164-65 above. whereas he is the fourth of them in potentia in terms of the three sacred laws: their ~ibir is mixed with their biPn like the mixture of the heat of the fire with its light. the esoteric interpretation) is purified.. Thus the simple forms affected in the sacred laws with esoteric interpretation (al-. That is to say.

31. the new phase brought by the Qi." purified and perfected state of the cosmos. and the "heat" to their ~~r aspect. pp. M. Alchimie et mystique en terre d'Islam (Lagrasse. Corbin. ed. and presented by P.'im-ship in al-Rizi's discussion on the Qi'im. Lory (Paris. The passages examined above show that after the mission of the group leadership of the da 'wah. commented uPOn by Aydamur Jaldaki (d. 25-39. Lory. the people will come into full conjunction with the ~' im. Jà"ir . and the meaning of the "spiritualization" of the Qi." in H. pp. 1986). 750/1349-50 or 761/1360-1) and discussed in Corbin. 8-9. Lory." in Alchimie comme art hiératique. another appellation of the purified fire. Thus the purification of the esoteric interpretation in the world of religion is juxtaposed with the purification of fire in the work of nature."a {fayyin. in the homily attributed to Imim 'Ali b.95 al-Rizi's utilization of the alchemical concept confirms that the situation brought by the • Qa.'im is entailed by the completion and perfection of the cosmos. Eliade. This passage can also be interpreted to mean that when the esoteric interpretation is purified from the ~r. and the M P. Aiso d. In the background of this idea the concept of alchemy may clearly be recognized. IICommentaire de la khotbat al-"ayin par Jaldaki. Also cf. pp. S. It is then that the human souls come into the "pure light. 46-47. See aiso the purification of four elements for the production of an "elixir" according to Jabir b. The purification of each element is a part of the process towarcis the acquisition of the philosopher's stone. or its most essential part. Comn <London. pp. which in burning gives off light." The above image of purification of the esoteric interpretation or bi#ni teaching is implicitly parallel to that of the purifying action of fue. . 2. Alchimie comme art hiératique. the notion of the "transmuted fire" (fell transmué). 1962).94 On the assumption that alchemy aims at the return of the human soul to the intelligible world through the purification of matter. vol. The Forge and the Crudble.328 • bi. 13-14. • 95 See P. transI. ~1:ntroduction. This "spiritualization" of the Qal im-ship is carried out by al-RiZi using the tenninology of the Greek-Hellenistic sciences such as "ether." the four qualities. AbiTâlib. This shows the final phase of the Qi.!in and esoteric interpretation of the sacred laws. f:layyin as described in P.'im will be introduced in the "spiritual. 1986).'im-ship. Kraus.

" or the theorized doctrine of the Qi.329 • concept "in actu" and "in potentia." This suggests that "Qi'imology. • • . appears and is developed in al-RiZi' 5 discussion of the parousia of the Qi im in sacred 1 history.1im with Greek-Hellenistic terminology.

and the emergence of various religious communities and sects. In this way he formulated his own answer to the univers al • problem of how monotheistic religious tradition should respond to the influence of philosophy of Greek-Hellenistic origin. E. but never as a basis for that doctrine. Le. Early Philosophical Shiism. to philosophical knowledge.330 • Chapter9 Conclusion As we have seen at various times in the course of the present study.2 P.fJ (as seen in Chapters 4 to 5 above) phllosophical concepts of Greek-Hellenistic origin in explanation of cosmology. the ranking of prophets. Isma'ilï thinkers were considerably influenced by Greek philosophy. or revelation. pp. al·Rizi constantly applies in Kitj" al-I~lâ.. In spite of his vigorous attack on Rhazes and his (somewhat reserved) criticism of various ancient philosophers. Walker. reason. 145-56. However. 1 This situation presumably resulted from their doctrinal emphasis on the institution of imimah as the sole guarantor of knowledge of any sort. natural-philosophical ideas. Walker put the Ismi'ïlï attitude to philosophy into the expression "control of reason:' Walker. that is. becomes a principle which al-Rizi strongly advocates in A 'Jam al-Nu"üwab in opposition to Rhazes. To achieve this he relies on the idea of correspondences between nature and humankind. ibid. 1 • 2 Œ. they had to struggle at the same time to keep its influence subordinate to their own doctrines. The te~t of al-l~lâp is a typical example of the early Ism:i'ilï attitude to philosophical knowledge. . Thus the superiority of doctrine. in that it utilizes the latter to elaborate or explain doctrine.

as we have seen.3 This leads us to conclude that al-Rizi's differences with al-Nasafï were of an "ad hominem' nature. 50 to speak. while the latter was composed as part of the internaI debate on Isma'ïli doctrinal issues. including. That is to say: How can a monotheist religious tradition adapt a so. the undue influence of Greek-Hellenistie philosophy.called "statie" cosmological system to the doctrine of sacred history which explains the meaning behind the vicissitudes of humankind from the time of God's creation to the eschaton ? We raised this problem in the introduction and discussed it again in chapters 6 and 7 above. This can be called a variation or sub-division of the above-mentioned problem of reason and revelation. Besides.. p. it is suggested that whereas al-Razi was fully conscious of the necessity to respond to what he saw as. how to adapt Greek-Hellenistic philosophy to theological discourse. every monotheist religious tradition has to face when adopting Greek philosophy to its purposes. in view of bis efforts at adopting philosophieal ideas such as • 'lfutellect" and "Soul" (albeit with some reservations). in al-l~li~ al-Rau would not have had to voice as severe a criticism of the validity of philosophy as a weapon in the defense of basic religious principles (such as prophecy and imamah) as he did in A 'am. There is another problem which.'ïlï community. generally speaking. Thus. since he and al-Nasafi shared substantially the same position. he also recognized its validity as a tooi for elucidating doctrine. an obvious question imposes itself: Why is it that al-Rizi's two most famous works demonstrate two such different attitudes to Greek-Hellenistic philosophy? One possible explanation is that A 'Jjm and al-l~la!J were written for two different purposes: the former work aims at the refutation of anti-prophetic advocacy of the superiority of reason over revelation from outside the ISIIli. 131-32. . This problem is concerned with • 3 See above in chapter S.331 • Nevertheless.

according to which each prophet received reve1ation from God through the cosmic hierarchy.e. There is another problem underlying the notion of the connection between the earthly and heaven1y hierarchies. any more than he does the issue of the superiority of revelation over reason in A 'Iam. Chapter 1 of Utblülüjiyi Aristi. 1993). IV. whether Plotinus describes here his union with the One or just with the Intellect. whereas J. Hadot ("L'union de l'ame avec l'intellect divin dans l'expérience mystique plotinienne" in Proclus et son influence: Actes du colloque de Neuchâtel. where the author reports on bis ascension !rom the intellectual • . 1987). p. an Arabie paraphrase composed in 3rd/9th œntury of sorne treatises from the last three parts of the Ennemies. juin 1985." The answer depends on how the • This problem is typically represented in Plotinus's Enneades. For example. 104-105) and P. Boss & G. He differentiates between the ranks of the nuraqi' in terms of their modes of contact with the angelic hypostases of the upper world.aJÏ$ <Theology of Aristotle). pp. i. The context suggests that the answer lies in the early Ismi. M. O. pp. placing an emphasis on the mission and the characteristics of the Qi' îm. Rist CPlotinus: The Rotld to ReJzlity. 'ïli theory of prophecy. 8. 195-97) maintains that he experienced the union with the One. G. This we interpret to be al-Rizj's answer to the problem of cosmology and sacred history.1: there nevertheless remains a problem of interpretation. a process which advanced the course of sacred history. 15) think that Plotinus came into union with the Intellect.. O'Meara {Plotinus: An Introduction to the Enneades (Oxford. Seel (Zürich. offers the corresponding passage to IV. and the typological relation of Jesus and Adam to • hïm.1.332 both the vertical (or revelational) and horizontal (or chronological) dimension of prophecy. ed. which may be expressed in the form of a question: Is there any possibility for a human being of making direct contact with the Absolute One or God? This is a serious problem in any form of negative theology or even mysticism in monotheist religion. Al-Razi does not explicitly mention this problem in al-/~Ii~ . This emphasis on the connection between the earthly and heavenly hierarchies • opens the door to a possible association between cosmology and sacred history. 8. it is possible to consider sorne of his discussion of the prophets' encounters with angelic beings as constituting his response to the problem. However.

De Smet.-R. 00. Early Philosophical 5hiism. See Kamada. Taking the necessity of the above two hierarchies as understood. IV.r and a1-Suhrawardi (d.. that is. If this is taken in the sense of God's "economy" or government and arrangement of the world. then it clearly relates to the question of sacred history. p. for having drawn our attention ta the problem of the interpretation of Enneades. pp. in AI1ü~ÜI1 'iada al-'Anb.. Lewis: 'Theologia" in Plotini Opera. 1959). See Pseudo-Aristotle. 1994). al-Nasafi and al-Râzi debated which of the highest angelic beings was the most sublime that the world (aI·'ilam aI-'aqlt) te the divine world (al-'jJam al-Bibl). human beings cannot dispense with either of these hierarchies for both are essential ta the religious instruction • which leads ta salvation.'i pp. There is thus room for future research into the problem of the reception of Plotinus's thought on contact with higher (intellectual or divine?) beings into Islamic philosophy.'ilism. Aouad. God Himself in early Ismi'ili theology can be compared to Deus absconditus. the first and only being created by God Himself.333 • Absolute One or God brings Himself into contact with human beings and their earthly world. 225). "La Théologie d'Aristote et autres textes du Plotin us Arabus. Henry and H." in Dictionnaire des philosophes antiques. We would Iike to express our deep gratitude ta Professer S. 582. the Ikhwin al·~fi. are in effective charge of the government of the cosmos. 5 Thus. 587/1191): See M. 8. the latter of which cannot be found in the Greek original. p. in early Ismi. and the Universal Soul as well. is comparable to Deus revelatus. This would mean that even revelation is sent down to the prophets by these two highest hypostases (al~lan) via the heavenly hierarchy. pp. God Himself. Interestingly enough. 2. for example. His first created being. However. chapter 2 i'le raw~d ou l'approche impossible de l'Ultime Transcendent" in his La quiéhlde de l'intellect. see.1. Schwyzer (paris/Bruxelles. though called the "Creator" (alMubdi'). the question of how God leads a1l human beings toward salvation. on the relation of the still unedited "Longer Version" of the Theology of Aristotle ta early Ismi'ilism. Horie of Keio University. vol. was seen as transcending the cosmos and as unapproachable byany of His creatures. Thus. while the Universal Intellect. 22 (English transi. and that thereafter religious instruction is transmitted to ordinary believers through the earthly hierarchy. Goulet. 1966). It can thus be suggested that Plotinus Arabus in the Theo[ogy provides us with an interpretation doser ta the possibility of Plotinus's union with the One over the Intellect. • . this passage of the would-be mystical union is quoted by al-Firàl:i. Also. Walker. 35-37 and 3944. Aiso cf. Badawi (al-Qihirah. The Universal Intellect.a3 and 588. vol.. 1 (paris. Tokyo. published under the direction of R. ed. therefore.. i'The First Being. 'A. 17-18. by G. P. Urblülüjiyi Ari$~!âlî$.

even prophets. seen in his attack on antinomian "extremists" (ghulit ) in Da'a 'im al-Islam and in his insistence on the continuity of shari'ah in the age of the Prophet lI M~ammad in AStis al-Ta'wil.'ïlïs were to adapt a sort of "antipodal" view on the issue in question which consisted in taking the radical step of calling the imim himself a manifestation of the 'Ward" (Kalimah) or "Order" (Amr) of God. Le. Niziri Ismi. al-Rizi's interpretation of the Qur1inic tales of the prophets' contact with the angelic beings shows a quite "strict." we should also • al-On al-Tiisi. 196-97) and pp..witness the brief antinomian rule of the faise Mahdi of the Qarmatians and the Niziris' abandonment of sacred law beginning with the declaration of the qiyimah in 557/1162 and ending only in the early 7th/13th century.& transI. in his attitude to shari'ah. That is to say. his theory does not allow for earthly dignitaries. Daftary. Al-Qi4i al-Nu'man shares with al-Razi this sober attitude towards shari'ah. and this by • forcefully insisting on its existence in the cycle of Adam in his debate with al-Nasafï.6 Here it should be recalled that al-Rizï showed his sobriety" or "conservatism" II aiso in another field of doctrine. p. pp. 362 (English transI. 367-68 (English transi. to bypass the lower angelic beings with whom theyare supposed ta come into contact first. particularly during the qiyi. Rawdat al-TulÜD . 201-202).. by Badakhchani.. 00. In the later development of Isma'ïlism. Cf. Examples of positions antipodal" to those of ai-Razi may be found not only in the field of scholarly debate but also in the religio-political context itself.334 • prophets could direetly recognize. 393. pp. 6 Na~r . The lsma'üü. a position Iater attacked by al-5ijistini.mah (Resurrection) period which began in 557/1162. Denying the possibility of direct recognition of the Universal Soul." "sober" or "conservative" approach to this issue of negative theology and hierarchism. With regard to the theme of "conservatism versus radicalism. p.

In this way al-RiZi sets these three apart from the other prophets. However. such as Ja'farb. Based upon our discussion of doctrinal IIconservatism" and "radicalism. Did they have some reason for waiting to avoid the problem? Al-Razi's discussion of the modes of contact may reflect the mood of the Isma. but not the former? In al-RiZi's text the question remains unanswered.4i al-Nu'man. Their silence could be meaningful.7 Upon consideration of this historical context.335 • remind ourselves of al-Rizi's argument in which he attributes a certain mode of contact with the angelic beings specifically to the prophetie figures Adam. the Qi. which still preserved millennialist hope in the postponed advent of the Qi' im and developed a theorized doctrine respecting him or "Qi. mostly with regard to the specific missions and characteristics of certain prophets • such as Adam and Jesus. lies at the heart of bis Qi.'w thinkers.·im. M~ür al-Yaman and al-Qi. This is a possible indication of al-Rizi's own radicalism with respect to the prophets..im which consists partiatly of Greek-Hellenistic philosophicaI ideas. Why is the latter conferred a specific mode of contact with the angelic beings. The issue of the modes of contact with the angelic beings was discussed by other Ismi. the logic of al-Râzi's argument would have forced him to assign the Qi'im a rank superior to thatof the Prophet. 'm movement of his age in the first half of the 4th/IDth century. 'imology. neither of these two thinkers ever bothered to mention the Qi'im. A logical consequence of this argument however was the potential it had for setting up an opposition between the Prophet Mu1)ammad and the Qi. That is ta say.'im.. it is suggested that al-Razi's discussion of the contact with the angelic hypostases. where the emphasis is on the Qi' im. Jesus and.'imology. particularly.." it • This could be a part of his "Qi 'imology." a theorized doctrine of the Qi. 7 .

although al-Ri-zi was aetive in the initial phase of classical Ismi'ïlism in the fà~d period. Thus. aImost his entire discussion of these issues is made within his contemporary Isma. In terms of grading the divinely-guided leaders this "cohabitation" of "radicalism" and sobriety" could be taken as showing the uniqueness of II al-RiZi's "prophetie thought" in Ismi'ilism. ta him alone. and shari'ah. present any new seminal paradigm. He utilizes sorne of the same ideas and terminology as do bis colleagues al-Nasafi and al-5ijistâni. it is difficu1t for us to ascribe sorne of his theorized arguments utilizing Greek-Hellenistic philosophical ideas. and does not seem to show the same talent for elaboration . whereas al-Râzï retains a certain "sobriety" with respect to negative theology. However. Thus each of the elements that make up al-Rizi's unique position may be regarded aIso as a manifestation or variation on a common problem in the broader Shi 'i context.limology. The issue of "originality" is difficult to resolve due to the meagemess of the materials that have survived from the period before him and especially due to our lack of al-Nasafi's al-Ma. espeeially in terms of ranking the prophets. unlike his opponents • al-Nasafi and al-Kirmini. such as bis Qi. He did not. if the objeet of this ranking ean be extended from the prophets to prophetie figures such as ïmims. moreover. it indicates a tendency characteristie of the history of Shi' ism in general: over-reverence for eertain imams at the expense of the prophets or even the Prophet himself. Thus. Even hjs blend of "radical" and "sober" positions on issues of doctrine can be shown to contain elements that had aIready been addressed in the Shi'ï intellectual tradition. bis discussion of the mode of contact with the angelie beings has a certain radical bent.336 • should be stated that. In our analysis of bis thought it has been shown that al-Rizi discusses various universal theological and philosophieal issues within the Ismâ'ili framework or • paradigm operative during the 4th/IDth and Sth/I1th centuries.'ïn intelIectual framework. hierarchism.fJ~ül.

For these reasons. contemporary sources for reconstrueting his life. Based on our analysis of his interpretation of the story of Solomon it is suggested that in al-I~J~ al-RaZi may have been trying to distance himself from both the Fi~ds and the Bahrayni-Qarma\ian leadership. and cannot be balanced by contemporary internal-Isma 'jli sources. Madelung uses aJ-I. There are even signs that he regarded the legitimate deputy-Ieadership as belonging to himself.mal-Mulk. he aIso refuses to recognize the fulliegitimacy of the former. require eareful examination as one of the few internaI and. 'uï religio-political movement as seen through al-l~Ja~. given that the Ismi'jus in the first half of the 4th/IDth century were supposedly divided into several politico-intellectual • 1 W. However." pp. these being 50 few on the ground. and f(jtjb its main topie. 'm work. 96-100. Our study has pointed out sorne of the difficulties that must be confronted by anyone writing about al-Razï's life.'ili intellectual trends is not thereby diminished. the theory of prophecy. al-/~li~. Thus. This is because we cannot help but depend on 5unnï sources. while criticizing the latter. which are often anti-Ismi'ilï. and especially his religio-political background. it has also been suggested that his theory regarding these issues refleets the party that he supported within the Ismâ'ili community or rus sectarian affiliation.I~ for this purpose: It seems that he utilizes the text ta support the infonnation available from polemicaI works of IAbd aI-Jabbir al-Hamadhani and Nip. al-Razi' 5 specifically Ismi. We should therefore set aside our quest for evidence of al-Razï's originality and focus instead on an investigation into the milieu of the Ismi. liJ)as Imamat. 1 . the value of bis al-l~l~ as one of the earliest sources for 4th/IDth century Isma.'ili da'wah activity of bis day and its cause in a1-1~1al) . hostile and polemical in nature. surely. 103-108. See: Madelung.8 Sïnce there is every likelihood • that al-Razi spoke for the Ismi.337 • and systematization of doctrinal ideas that al-5ijistilli demonstrates. idem. Religious Trends pp. This is because it seems that.

and also in al-5ijistiIû. if the division of the Qi1im-ship •• . Walker. d. the idea of spiritualization" II can likewise be found in the latiers works. as we found out. On religio-political diversity. the division of the Qi im-ship was foreseen in certain pre-Fi\ÎIlÙd treatises such as l al-Kashfand al-Rœ1Jd. one issue in particular seems crucial: How did al-Rizï see the coming parousia of the Qi 'im. it is useful ta recall al-Rizi's resemblance to the Fi1imid thinker Ja'far b. in theory.~ In searching for a clue to his religio-politicalloyalties.zi's life and its relation to the thought of a1-1~1i. "Heterodox Ismi'ilism. or at the very least as • a thinker who was independent of bis surroundings. But. As already seen.338 faetions.- On the intellectual diversity of the 4th/10th century IsmilHis. in relation to the issue of the parousia. im-ship a response to the religious 1 policy of the Fi\ÏIllÏds? This question may appear to contradict our conclusion as to al-Rizi's sectarian affiliation. Nevertheless. e. that he was independent of the Fi~d and QarmalÏan camps of the Ismi'ilïs. we can raise the question: Were the division and subsequent "spiritualization" of the Qi. Ma~ür in terms of bis usage of images such as the spiritual "stream" and his interpretation of the story of Solomon. l62f. cf.. Hence. effective1y. Given the similarity between al-5ijistini and al-Ri. l im-ship into several individuals and of Hs II spiritualization" or actualization in the spiritual dimension of the cosmos.g.Zi on this issue.? His description of the parousia can." 9 . and to be reminded as weil of al-5ijistini's probable approach to the Fipmid Imamate-Caliphate toward the end of his career. Moreover. given the diversity in the Ismi.'ilï movement of the time there are still other possible explanations of al-Ri. Stern. be characterized as envisioning the division of the Qi. 'The Universal Soul and the Particular Soul. • However." p. these ideas do not represent original contributions by al-Rizï. which was.9 al-Ri.zi could be seen as having led one of them.

. One further question: Do such concepts as the division of the Qi. this cannot be the sole criterion for determining his importance in the history of Isma'ïli thought. for example. then such a doctrine respecting the Qi.'im-ship may have made room for the FiPmids within sacred history without having to recognize their imimab or the Qi' im-ship of any one of them. We have on occasion questioned his originality as a thinker. II II Our conclusions must remain hypothetical at fuis stage of research.'im-ship and its uspiritualization" have any relation to al-Kirmini's theory of the appearance of severa! imams in advance of the parousia of the Qi. the argument becomes rather speculative.-ship could provide a theoretical basis for the postponement of the parousia of the Qirim. as seen in ai-Kinnini and possibly other thinkers (such as N~r-i Khusraw).'im. Until bis parousia sorne of bis functions could he entrusted to severa! individuals and the "'spiritualized" • Qi' im' s arrivaI deIayed until these have accomplished their tasks. This leads us back to the issue of al-Razï's place in Isma'ïlïsm. the division and "spiritualization" of the Qi. while leaving its full actualization in a sp iritualized" dimension for the real Qi'im" to come." p. 126. "Das Imamat. however. In the case of al-Rizi bis intellectual activity within Isma'ïlï circles is not only a reflection of the thought in those circles but may aise have provoked a long doctrinal debate in the development of Ismi 'üi philosophy. al-Sijistini. and would require a comparative study of the thought of al-RaZi. however. However. Also.'im?10 Again theoretically. al-Rizi provided them with a considerable amount of material • la On al-Kirmini's theory of severa! imims. whether in the near or the distant future. At this stage. That is to say. and al-Kirminï on the parousia of the Qi' im to be resolved. which lasted for about two generations. the political struggle against antagonists. they could have been conceded sorne functions of the Qi'im-ship.339 • and its spiritualization are seen as part of the same argument. see Madelung.

'ïlism. that he was truly an influential thinker in the history of Ismi. contained in the record of the debate with Rhazes. • • . This confirms our starting point..340 • to analyze. Le.

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