NCM 100-REVIEWER

NURSING THEORIES
THEORY    IS A SET OF CONCEPTS AND PREPOSITIONS THAT PROVIDE AN ORDERLY WAY TO VIEW PHENOMENA AN ORGANIZED, COHERENT SET OF CONCEPTS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS TO EACH OTHER IT IS OFTEN USED IN DAILY LIFE AND CONVERSATION

COMPONENTS OF NURSING THEORIES    EXPLAINS HOW ELEMENTS ARE UNIQUELY RELATED IN THE PHENOMENA DEVELOPED AFTER EXTENSIVE RESEARCH TO ALLOW THE RESEARCHER TO SEE OR CLEAR PERSPECTIVE OF THE THEORY PROVIDE A FOUNDATION OF KNOWLEDGE FOR THE DIRECTION AND DELIVERY OF CARING NURSING

NURSING PARADIGM – DIRECT THE ACTIVITY OF THE NURSING PROFESSION INCLUDING KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT PHILOSOPHY THEORY EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE RESEARCH PRACTICE AND LITERATURE IDENTIFIED WITH THE PROFESSION LINKAGES:     PERSON HEALTH ENVIRONMENT NURSING

FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE
“NURSING IS THE ART OF UTILIZING ONE’S ENVIRONMENT FOR HIS OR HER OWN RECOVERY”          FOUNDER OF MODERN NURSING OR MOTHER OF MODERN NURSING BORN: MAY 12, 1920 WILLIAM NIGHTINGALE OF EMBLY PARK, HAMPSHIRE ENGLAND SHE RECEIVED A THOROUGH EDUCATION INCLUDING GREEK, LATIN, HISTORY, MATHEMATICS AND PHILOSOPHY AGE OF 25 SHE TOLD HER PARENTS THAT SHE WANTS TO BECOME A NURSE 1851 FLORENCE FATHER GAVE HER PERSMISSION TO STUDY NURSING 31 Y/O ALWAYS INTERESTED IN RELEIVING SUFFERING AND CARING FOR THE SICK BECAME NURSE OVER THE OBJECTION OF FAMILY AND SOCIETY KAISSERWEITH,GERMANY

THE WILL AND THE KNOWLEDGE. MISSOURI FIRST LADY OF NURSING US ARMY SCHOOL OF NURSING 1921 TEACHERS COLLEGE. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY BS 1931 MA 1934 JUNE 1986 – CHRISTIANNE REINMMAN PRIZE DIED MARCH 19 1996 98 Y/O . CRIMEAN WAR NIGHTINGALE’S ENVIRONMENTAL THEORY -DEFINED NURSING AS THE ACT OF UTILIZING THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE PATIENT TO ASSIST HIM IN HIS RECOVERY 5 ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS:      PURE AND FRESH AIR PURE AND CLEAN WATER EFFICIENT DRAINAGE CLEANLINESS LIGHT ESPECIALLY DIRECT SUNLIGHT SOME CONCEPTS STILL USED TODAY    SYSTEMATIC METHOD OF ASSISTING PATIENTS INDIVIDUALIZING CARE MAINTAINING CONFIDENTIALITY NOBLE BELIEFS ALONG NURSING EDUCATION      A HOLISTIC FRAMEWORK INCLUSIVE OF ILLNESS AND HEALTH THE NEED FOR A THEORETICAL BASIS OF NURSING PRACTICE A LIBERAL EDUCATION AS A FOUNDATION FOR NURSING PRACTICE THE IMPORTANCE OF CREATIVITY AND ENVIRONMENT THAT PROMOTES HEALING THE NEED FOR A BODY OF NURSING KNOWLEDGE DISTINCT FROM MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE VIRGINIA HENDERSON “FOURTEEN BASIC HUMAN NEEDS” “I SAY THAT THE NURSE DOES FOR OTHERS WHAT THEY WOULD DO FOR THEMSELVES IF THE HAD THE STRENGTH. DEPENTDENT FROM THE NURSE”        NOV 30 1897 IN KANSAS CITY.

A PARTNER WITH THE PATIENT – WORKING WITH THE PATIENT (COMPLEMENTARY) 14 BASIC HUMAN NEEDS (PATIENT CENTERED)               BREATHING NORMALLY EATING AND DRINKING ADEQUATELY ELIMINATING BODY WASTES MOVIGN AND MAINTAINING A DESIRABLE POSITION SLEEPING AND RESTING SELECTING SUITABLE CLOTHES MAINTAINING BODY TEMP KEEPING THE BODY CLEAN AND WELL GROOMED AVOIDING DANGERS COMMUNICATING WITH OTHERS WORSHIPPING ACCDNG TO ONES FAITH WORKING IN SUCH A WAY THA ONE FEELS A SENSE OF ACCOMPLISHMENT PLAYING OR PARTICIPATING IN VARIOUS FORMS OF RECREATION LEARNING.DEFINITIONS:     PATIENT: AN INDIVIDUAL WHO REQUIRES HELP TOWARD INDEPENDENCE NURSE: THE ONE WHO ASSISTS THE INDIVIDUAL WHETHER ILL OR NOT . A SUBSTITUTE FOR THE PATIENT – DOING FOR THE PATIENT (SUBSTITUTIVE) 2. A HELPER TO THE PATIENT – HELPING THE PATIENT (SUPPLEMENTARY) 3. DISCOVERING OR SATISFYING ONE’S CURIOSITY DOROTHEA OREM “SELF CARE DEFICIT OF NURSING” “NURSING IS A HELPING PROFESSION OF ASSISTING PATIENTS OVERCOME OR COMPENSATE FOR THEIR HEALTH ASSOCIATED LIMITAITIONS AND ENGAGING IN ACTIONS TO REGULATE OWN FUNCTIONING AND DEVELOPMENT OR THAT OF THEIR DEPENDENT CONSTELLATION OF 3 INTERRELATED THEORIES:    NURSING SYsTEMS SELF CARE SELF CARE DEFICIT . ONE WHO SERVES TO MAKE THE PATIENT COMPLETE WHOLE AND INDEPENDENT NURSING ACCORDING TO HENDERSON: THE UNIQUE FUNCTION OF THE NURSE IS TO ASSIST PATIENT IN THE DAILY PERFORMANCE BELIEVED IN “GETTING INSIDE THE SKIN” TO KNOIW WHAT THE PATIENTS NEEDS 3 LEVELS OF NURSE-PATIENT RELATIONSHIPS IN WHICH THE NURSE ACTS 1.

THE FOCUS OF OREM’S MODEL IS TO ENHANE THE PERSON’S ABILITY FOR SELF CARE AND EXTENDS TO THE CARE OF DEPENDENTS 3 SYSTEMS IN PROFESSIONAL NURSING PRACTICE MODEL 1. THEY ARE CLASSIIED AS: 1. EDUCATION-DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM – CLIENT HAS PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY FOR PERSONAL HEALTH WITH NURSE ACTING AS A CONSULTANT SELF CARE REQUISITES – ARE GROUPS OF NEEDS OR REQUIREMENTS THAT OREM IDENTIFIED. DEVELOPMENTAL SELF CARE REQUISITES – THOSE NEEDS THAT RELATE TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INDIVIDUAL 3. WHOLLY COMPENSATORY MECHANISM – NURSE PROVIDES TOTAL CARE 2. CURE”      DEVELOPED IN THE LATE 1960’S 3 SEPARATE DOMAINS: BODY – CARE ILLNESS – CURE PERSON – CORE CORE – REFES ON THE PERSON OR THE RECIPIENT OF CARE AND INCLUDES THE USE OF THERAPEUTIC SELF TO RELEASE WITH THE PATIENT CURE – REFERS TO MEDICAL INTERVENTIONS THAT ARE PERFORMED ON THE PATIENT CARE – IS THE EXCLUSIVE DOMAIN OF NURSING . CORE. PARTIALLY COMPENSATORY MECHANISM – NURSE AND PATIENT SHOWS RESPONSIBILITY FOR CARE 3. UNIVERSAL SELF CARE REQUISITES – THOSE NEEDS THAT ALL PEOPLE HAVE 2. HEALTH DEVIATION REQUISITES – THOSE NEEDS THAT ARISE AS A RESULT OF A PATIENT’S CONDITION NURSES ARE ENCOURAGED TO RATE THEIR PATIENT’S DEPENDENCIES OR EACH OF THE SELF CARE DEFICITS ON THE FOLLOWING CARE:    TOTAL COMPENSATION PARTIAL COMPENSATION EDUCATIVE/ SUPPORTIVE LYDIA HALL “CARE.

CARE – INDEPENDENTLY CURE – DEPENDENTLY CORE – INTERDEPENDENTLY MADELEINE LEININGER “CULTURE CARE THEORY”    FOUNDER OF TRANSCULTURAL NURSING INITIATED THIS FIELD OF NURSING IN THE MID 1950’S SUTTON. 9. 2. 5. 4. BELIEF 7 LIFEWAYS POLITICAL & LEGAL FACTORS EDUCATIONAL FACTORS TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS ECONOMIC FACTORS 3 CULTURALLY BASED ACTIONS:    CULTURE CARE PRESERVATION CULTURE CARE ACCOMODATION CULTURE CARE REPATTERNING NURSING PROCESS   THE CORNERSTONE OF THE NURSING PROFESSION SYNANYMOUS WITH THE PROBLEM SOLVING APPROACH FOR DISCOVERING THE HEALTHCARE AND NURSING NEEDS OF THE CLIENT . 3. WORLDVIEW CARING LANGUAGE OF CARING PHILOSOPHICAL & RELIGIOUS FACTORS KINSHIP & SOCIAL FACTORS CULTURAL VALUES. 8. 7. LEININGER. FOCUSES ON DESCRIBING. 6. NEBRASKA THE THEORY   THE CULTURE CARE THEORY AND UNIVERSALITY THEORY ACCORDING TO DR. EXPLAINING AND PREDICTING NURSING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCE FOCUSED PRIMARILY ON HUMAN CARE AND CARING IN HUMAN CULTURE THE CULTURE CARE DIVERSITY & UNIVERSITY THEORY DOES NOT FOCUS ON MEDICAL SYMPTOMS CULTURAL CARE DIMENSION 1.

DECISION. AND EVALUATING AMERICAN NURSES ASSOCIATION: DIAGNOSIS. INTRODUCED OBSERVATION. VALIDATION DOROTHY JOHNSON – INTRODUCED – ASSESSMENT. ASSESSING PLANNING. NURSE’S REACTION.     STEPS:      LYDIA HALL – ORIGINATED THE TERM NURSING PROCESS IN 1955. ASSESSMENT DIAGNOSIS PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION EVALUATION Characteristics of the nursing process:      Cyclic and dynamic Goal directed and client centered Interpersonal and collaborative Universally applicable Systematic . CLIENT’S BEHAVIOR.ADMIN OF CARE. NURSING ACTION IDA JEAN ORLANDO – 3 STEPS. NURSES ACTION 1961 YURA & WALSH – 4 COMPONENTS.IMPLEMENTING.

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