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The world went into recession in 2008. However, in the UAE the economy is showing signs of improvement. these linkers are used with main (independent) clauses
In addition to developing its roads, Dubai has introduced an urban train network. these linkers are used in a phrase, (e.g. with a verb + ‘ing’ or with a noun). The phrase must be used together with a main (independent) clause.
Although America’s economy has suffered recently, it is still the richest country in the world. these linkers are used with subordinate (dependent) clauses - they must be used together with a main (independent) clause
furthermore in addition moreover
in addition to
despite in spite of
although even though
Cause & Effect
therefore as a result consequently hence thus in other words in contrast on the other hand conversely alternatively on the contrary for example for instance as a matter of fact in fact
because of due to as a result of
Unlike In contrast with
From ‘Academic Writing for Graduate Students’ by J.M.Swales & C.B. Feak, University of Michigan Press, 1994. Adapted by Gary O’Neill.