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Propeller Design Workshop

Presented by David J. Gall Gall Aerospace

Theory and design of practical propellers, Part 2. Design Methods


Propeller Aerodynamics Concept
• There are two things above all else that I wanted you to learn from yesterday’s forum: • Goldstein’s function does for propellers what elliptical loading does for wings - efficiency
– Caveat: Different for each “advance ratio” and number of blades

• Each blade is a complete wing unto itself, with a Propeller Design Methods “tip” vortex from each

: Scientific method still in infancy – Helmholtz’ Theory of Vorticity • Foundation of Hydrodynamics and Aerodynamics – Froude’s and Rankine’s Actuator Disc Theory – Drzwiecki’s Blade Element theory Propeller Design Methods – .History • The development of propeller design methods has mirrored the technologies of the day • 19th c.

History • Early 20th c.: Experiment and Analysis – Scientific method flourished in experiment • Eiffel – wind tunnel investigation of wings and airfoils • Lesley & Durand – tests of model propellers • See the book “What Engineers Know and How They Know It” • Prandtl et. al – Langley propeller tunnel Propeller Design Methods – Tests of full-scale propellers . al – Gottingen tunnel: wings and airfoils • Weick et.

History • Early 20th c.: Experiment and Analysis – Analysis flourished in academia and research institutes • Lanchester: Concepts of vortex flow and “circulation” • Prandtl: Quantified Lanchester’s description – Gave us the concepts of downwash and “induced” drag • Munk: Applied vortex theory to the optimization of wings – gave us the elliptic lift distribution • Betz: Applied vortex theory to the optimization of propellers – described the propeller analog of elliptic lift (thrust) distribution • Goldstein: Exact solution of Betz’ propeller distribution Propeller Design Methods • Glauert: Comprehensive reformulation and .

History • The rest of the 20th century…. • Airplane propeller theory all but stopped in 1948 • A smattering of papers on Theodorsens’s Theory • Larrabee’s wonderful works (Glauert rehashed) • Some stuff on hub effects and ducted fans Propeller Design Methods .

Kerwin: Vortex-lattice lifting-line solution Propeller Design Methods . Lerbs: Non-uniform radial inflow velocity • Larrabee’s similar-appearing “radiallygraded” momentum theory is “like” Lerbs’ theory in the same way a Yugo was “like” a real car • 1955. • Marine propeller theory did not stop in 1948 • 1952.History • The rest of the 20th century…. Theodorsen was a “no-show” • 1961.

10.Computer design methods.Analytic methods.McGinnis' method. 13. 9.Spreadsheets." 6. 11. PROPELLER DESIGN METHODS Propeller Design Methods . 8.Helical pitch. 3.Outline: Theory and design of practical propellers.Ellippse(TM) propellers.Graphical layout. 7.Theodorsen Theory. Part 2. 14. 5.Carter propellers.Kerwin's method.Propellers of "Standard Form. 2.Goldstein . 4.Minimum Induced Loss propellers: Larrabee's method.Betz .Conventional and computer design methods. 12. 1.Hepperle/Eppler.

don’t use CAD! • Very often. a drawing can be made Propeller Design Methods by hand 1.• What is the desired output? • Use the tool most appropriate to the task • Don’t “need” CAD? Then. . the computer is only needed to generate some numeric output • Thereafter. Conventional and Computer Design Methods.

etc.Desired Output • Full-size template at each 'X’ radius station of: – Pressure-side (“thrust face”) including datum – Suction-side (“camber face”) including datum – Profiles modified to account for thickness of subsequent laminations (glass. carbon.) – ‘X’ could be linear inches or percent Propeller Design Methods radius .

Creating a Master Blade • Templates are glued to 1/8” masonite and mounted in a pressure side and suction side array • Used to make guide cuts in the prop blank using a propeller duplicator .

Creating a Master with a CNC Router .

2. but I find them . Spreadsheets • I haven’t been able to get Excel to do native iteration • Neither have I been able to get it to integrate or interpolate using splines or other non-linear interpolation schemes • That’s why I haven’t used my cell phone (Excel) • Spreadsheets can be useful for some Propeller Design Methods preliminary work.

December 1960 • If you’re an EAA member it is free to download from the magazine archive Propeller Design Methods . Sport Aviation.3. Helical pitch • Better to use NACA TN-212. available as: • “Design and Build Your Own Propeller” by Fred Weick.

3. Helical pitch Propeller Design Methods .

Graphical Layout Propeller Design Methods .4.

5. Propellers of "Standard Form" Propeller Design Methods .

6. Analytic Methods • Archaic. obsolete Propeller Design Methods .

7. Computer Design Methods • Blade-element theory + momentum (classical) • Vortex-lattice lifting line theory (Kerwin. et seq. on “corrections” for blade curvature • Vortex lattice lifting surface theory (panel) – Low-order panels use linear approximation Propeller Design Methods .) – Some lit.

7. Computer Design Methods • Larrabee’s method is technically a “blade-element” method + momentum theory • Larrabee laments that a lifting-line theory of the propeller does not exist • I guess Larrabee hadn’t read Kerwin! • It doesn’t matter because at the design point the two will give nearly identical results Propeller Design Methods • And we’re only using it for design at .

Marc Drela • DFDC – Ducted Fan Design Code – Sorry. my internet is down so I can’t fact-check this morning Propeller Design Methods . Susan French – Commercial version of Larrabee’s method for wind turbines • Q-Prop – Dr. Marc Drela with Dr. Larrabee • Xrotor – Dr. Computer Design Methods • Helice – With Dr.7.

7. Martin Hepperle’s JavaProp – Does Adkins and Liebeck’s version of Larrabee – Doesn’t do the hub correctly (tapers to nothing) – Doesn’t do Theodorsen • Bates Engineering “Prop Optimizer Pro” – Appears to be a Monte Carlo method Propeller Design Methods • Other web resources: . Computer Design Methods • Dr.

7. Mathematica. (TK! Solver) • NIST Handbook of Mathematical Functions Propeller Design Methods . Computer Design Methods • NISA Software (free “evaluation” version) • Alibre Design (low-cost full 3D like SolidWorks) • Google Sketch-Up • MatLab. Octave • Mathcad.

5. 10. Computer Design Methods • Larrabee’s method as implemented here is actually the algorithm from “Design of Optimum Propellers” by Adkins & Liebeck. Vol. No. Sept. 1994 • As modified by David J.-Oct. published in Journal of Propulsion and Power.7. Gall to include Theodorsen’s theory (abridged) Propeller Design Methods • And to include physical (structural) .

com Propeller Design Methods . Computer Design Methods • Additional Guidance from “The Aerodynamics of Propellers” by Quentin R.7. Progress in Aerospace Sciences 42 (2006) 85128 • An excellent article.ScienceDirect. well worth the $35 from www. Wald.

. Computer Design Methods • “Wake” occurs ahead of airplanes as well as behind them – it influences inflow to the prop • The wake adaptation algorithm used here is an implementation of a method given in “Influence of Fuselage on Propeller Design” by Theodor Troller.7. translated from the original German and published as Propeller Design Methods NACA Technical Memorandum No.

Computer Design Methods • Based on work by Fuhrmann before WWI • This work was immensely important in reconciling theoretical and practical aerodynamics • It solved d’Alembert’s “Paradox” (complaint) • It showed that the parasite drag is the sum of the (theoretically Propeller Design Methods calculated) pressure drag. the skin .7.

Computer Design Methods • Troller’s body wake adaptation algorithm employs von Karman’s adaptation of Prandtl’s line distribution of Rankine’s source-sink method to approximate a body of revolution • This is probably the first instance of CFD that worked. yet it’s a footnote in history Propeller Design Methods • Let’s talk about spinners and inlets .7.

8. Ellippse™ Propellers Propeller Design Methods .

solving for the shape of the distribution curve as a function of the Betz’ condition • Ignores the fundamental importance Propeller Design Methods and the overarching achievement of . Ellippse™ Propellers • Arbitrarily forces an elliptical lift distribution from tip-to-tip (across the hub) without regard for the reversal of circulation across the hub • Arbitrarily imposes an elliptical distribution vs.8.

9. Carter Propellers • Apparently designed using the idea that the aft-ward acceleration of air should be constant along the blade. Betz’ condition of aft-ward velocity being constant • Static thrust measurement is not adequate to predict in-flight performance Propeller Design Methods . vs.

10. McGinnis’ Method • Designed for constant Reynolds’ Number (Re) along the blade from hub to tip • I don’t know whether there’s any consideration for the loading distribution along the blade • I can do a constant Re prop very easily using Larrabee’s method while still retaining consideration for the Propeller Design Methods optimum loading .

Computer Design Methods • Betz .Theodorsen Theory • Minimum Induced Loss (MIL) Propellers: Larrabee's method • Lerbs’ radially non-uniform inflow method • Kerwin's method – Vortex Lattice Lifting Line and Vortex Lattice Lifting Surface Propeller Design Methods .11.Goldstein .

Computer Design Methods • What’s your input? – Power – Physical constraints – Design operating conditions (design points) • What’s your DATA – Good Goldstein numbers are hard to find • I’m using values published by Wald – What’s your interpolation scheme Propeller Design Methods • Original DTMB documents have complex .11. www.Propeller Design Workshop David . Gall Gall Aerospace David@Gall.