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ME 481
Vehicle Design
Fall 2000
Lecture Notes
By
Richard B. Hathaway, Ph.D., PE
Professor
Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering
Section 1
Energy Consumption
and
Power Requirements in Design
2
Aerodynamics and Rolling Resistance
GENERAL FORMULAS  AERODYNAMIC
Dynamic Pressure:
2
2
1
v P
d
ρ ·
Drag Force:
) (
2
1
2
RE f A v F
d
ρ ·
A C v F
d d
2
2
1
ρ ·
2
0
) ( ) 2 . 1 (
2
1
v v A C F
d d
+ ·
Aero Power
f(RE) A
V
(2)
= P
3
ρ
Cd = coefficient of drag ρ = air density ≈ 1.2 kg/m
3
A = projected frontal area (m
2
) f(RE) = Reynolds number
v = vehicle velocity (m/sec) V0 = headwind velocity
ENGLISH UNITS
V
A
C
)
10
X (6.93 =
HP
3
d
6
aero
where: A = area (ft
2
) V = velocity (MPH) Cd = drag coefficient
3
SI UNITS
,
_
¸
¸
1
1
1
1
]
1
¸
,
_
¸
¸
W
kW
A C
V
(2)
= P
d
3
KW
1000
1
1000
3600
2 . 1
3
) ( 86 2
0
2
V V V A
C
x )
10
x . (1 =
P d
6
aero
+
P = power (kw) A = area (m
2
)
V = velocity (KpH) V0 = headwind velocity
Cd = drag coefficient ρ = 1.2 kg/m
3
GENERAL FORMULAS – ROLLING RESISTANCE
ENGLISH UNITS
375
V
x W
C
=
HP rr rr
where: Crr = coefficient of rolling resistance W = weight (lbs) V = velocity (MPH)
SI UNITS
V x M x
C
x )
10
x (2.72 =
P
V x M x
C
x
3600
9.81
=
P
rr
3 
rr
rr rr
,
_
¸
¸
where: P = power (kw) Crr = coefficient of rolling resistance
M = mass (kg) V = velocity (KpH)
4
TRACTIVE FORCE REQUIREMENTS.
Vehicles require thrust forces, generated at the tires, to initiate and maintain motion. These forces
are usually referred to as tractive forces or the tractive force requirement. If the required tractive
force (F) is broken into components the major components of the resisting forces to motion are
comprised of acceleration forces (F
accel
= ma & Iα forces), Gradeability requirements (F
grade
),
Aerodynamic loads (F
aero
) and chassis losses (F
roll resist
).
F = F
aero
+ F
roll resist
+ F
grade
+ F
accel
= (ρ/2) C
d
A v
2
+ C
rr
m g + %slope m*g + m a
= (ρ/2) C
d
A v
2
+ m g{C
rr
+ % slope + a/g}
in SI units:
A = frontal area (m
2
) v = velocity (m/s) m = mass (kg)
C
rr
= coefficient of roll resistance (N/N) usually approx .015
C
d
= coefficient of aero drag for most cars .3  .6
% slope = Rise/Run = Tan of the roadway inclination angle
Steady state force are equal to the summation of F
aero
+ F
roll resist
+ F
grade
Fgrade resist Froll Faero + + ∑ ·
ss
F
Transient forces are primarily comprised of acceleration related forces where a change in velocity
is required. These include the rotational inertia requirements (F
Iα
) and the translational mass (F
ma
)
requirements, including steady state acceleration.
VEHICLE ENERGY REQUIREMENTS.
The energy consumption of a vehicle is based on the tractive forces required, the mechanical
efficiency of the drive train system, the efficiency of the energy conversion device and the
efficiency of the storage system. Examples of the above might best be demonstrated with the
following.
Storage efficiency:
A flywheel used for energy storage will eventually lose its total energy stored due to
bearing and aerodynamic losses. A storage battery may eventually discharge due to
intrinsic losses in the storage device. These losses can be a function of the % of the total
system capacity at which the system is currently operating. A liquid fuel usually has
extremely high storage efficiency while a flywheel may have considerably les storage
efficiency. Both however have the storage efficiency a function of time.
5
100 x
E
E E
Efficiency Storge
initial
fianl initial
store
,
_
¸
¸ −
· · η
Conversion efficiency:
An internal combustion engine changes chemical energy to mechanical energy. The
system also produces unwanted heat and due to moving parts has internal friction which
further reduces the system efficiency. A storage battery has an efficiency loss during the
discharge cycle and an efficiency loss during the charge cycle. These efficiencies may be a
function of the rate at which the power is extracted.
100 x
E
P E
Efficiency Conversion
fuel
delivered fuel
conv
−
· ·η
mechanical thermal conv
xη η η ·
Drive system Efficiency:
Conversion of chemical or electrical to mechanical energy does not complete the power
flow to the wheels. Drive train inefficiencies further reduce the power available to produce
the tractive forces. These losses are typically a function of the system design and the
torque being delivered through the system.
100 x
P
P P
Efficiency Mechanical
source power
tractive source power
drive mech
−
· ·η
n
red red red drive mech
x x η η η η ......
2 1
·
6
Reasonable Efficiencies to use for cycle comparisons
(Efficiencies shown are only approximations)
• Electric Motor (Peak) η = 95%
• Electric Motor Efficiency
(Avg if 1 spd Trans) η = 75%
• Electric Motor Efficiency
(Avg if CVT) η = 95%
• Transmission Efficiency
(0.95) =
1)  (R
η
• Battery Efficiency (Regen)η
= 7585%
Battery & Generator Efficiency (Regen) η = 5055%
• Battery & Motor Efficiency
(Accel) η = 80%
• Solar Cell Efficiency η = 15%
• IC Engine (Peak Efficiency)
η = 30%
Flywheel Efficiency
(Storage and Conversion Average) η = 70%
7
Experimental Coast Down Testing
1) Perform a high speed and a low speed test with an incremental (≈ 5km/hr) velocity change at each
velocity.
High Speed Low Speed
V
a1
= 60 km/h V
a2
= 20 km/h
V
b1
= 55 km/h V
b2
= 15 km/h
2) Record the times over which the velocity increments occur.
T
h
= 4 sec T
l
= 6 sec
3) Determine the mean speed at each velocity.
4) Determine the mean deceleration at each velocity.
5) Determine the drag coefficient
6) Determine the coefficient of rolling resistance.
8
h
km v v
v
b a
·
+
·
2
1 1
1
h
km v v
v
b a
·
+
·
2
2 2
2
s
h km
t
v v
a
b a
/
1
1 1
1
·
−
·
s
h km
t
v v
a
b a
/
2
2 2
2
·
−
·
) (
) ( 6
2
2
2
1
2 1
v v
a a
A
m
c
d
−
−
·
) (
) (
10
2 . 28
2
2
2
1
2
2 1
2
1 2
3
v v
v a v a
c
rr
−
−
·
Section 2
Weight and Weight Factors in Design
9
WEIGHT and ROTATIONAL INERITA EFFECTS:
Thrust force (F), at the tire footprint, required for vehicle motion:
F = F
aero
+ F
roll resist
+ F
grade
+ F
accel
= (ρ/2) C
d
A v
2
+ C
rr
m g + %slope m*g + m a
F = (ρ/2) C
d
A v
2
+ m g{C
rr
+ % slope + a/g}
in SI units:
A = frontal area (m
2
) v = velocity (m/s) m = mass (kg)
Crr = coefficient of roll resistance (N/N) usually approx .015
Cd = coefficient of aero drag for most cars .3  .6
% slope = Rise/Run = Tan of the roadway inclination angle
If rotational mass is added it adds not only rotational inertia but also translational inertia.
r
a
=
k
m = I =
dt
d
I =
T
tire
vehicle
wheel comp
2
comp i α α α
ω
a
r
k
m
=
r
a
k
m =
r
T
=
F
2
tire
2 2
2
2
tire
2
tire
wheel
i 1
]
1
¸
,
_
¸
¸
δ
δ
α = angular acceleration k = radius of gyration t = time T = Torque m = mass
δ = ratio between rotating component and the tire
Therefore if the mass rotates on a vehicle which has translation,
a *
m
1 +
r
k
=
F R
2
tire
2 2
i t & r
•
,
_
¸
¸
δ
F = F
aero
+ F
roll resist
+ F
grade
+ F
accel
= (ρ/2) C
d
A v
2
+ C
rr
W
t
+ %slope W
t
+ W
t
a/g
[ ]
1
1
]
1
¸
,
_
¸
¸
m
+
r
k
m
a + Slope % +
C
g
m
+
V
A C =
F t
2
tire
2 2
r rr t
2
d
tire
δ ρ
2
ω = angular velocity of the component Ti = applied torque to overcome inertia
I = mass moment of inertia αwheel = angular acceleration of the wheel
a = translational acceleration of the vehicle
rtire = rolling radius of the tire (meters) Twheel = applied torque at the wheel
Fi = tractive force at the tire footprint to overcome inertia
Fi(r&t) = tractive force at the tire footprint required for losses and translational and rotational inertia
10
The PowerPlant Torque is:
N
r
x
F
=
T
tire
i
PP
t) & (r
The speed of the vehicle in km/h is:
) (
r
N
RPM
= h km
tire
PP
377 . 0 / • •
rtire = Tire Rolling Radius (meters) N = Numerical Ratio between P.P. and Tire
11
WEIGHT PROPAGATION
It might simply be said that weight begets weight in any design!
• Nearly all vehicle systems are affected by a change in weight of any one component.
• Power increases and/or performance decreases are associated with weight increases.
• “Rule of Thumb” approximations can be made to predict the effects of weight
increases.
For alternate power systems (considering the power system as a unit)
∆W due to weight = 22% x total weight increment
[ ]
SO SM
W W W − · 22 . 1
mod
∆W due to power increase = 4.5% x total weight x power increment
1
]
1
¸
,
_
¸
¸
− + · 1 045 . 0 1
mod
PSO
PSM
base
P
P
W W
Combining the above factors into a single equation:
[ ]
SO SM
PSO
PSM
base
W W
P
P
W W − +
1
]
1
¸
,
_
¸
¸
− + · 22 . 1 1 045 . 0 1
mod
12
Section 3
Power Train Systems and Efficiencies
13
ENERGY STORAGE in VEHICLES
I. LIQUID FUELS (Heat Energy)
Fossil
NonFossil (Alcohol)
II. GASEOUS FUELS (Heat Energy)
Fossil (largely)
NonFossil Hydrogen
III. FLYWHEELS (Kinetic Energy)
Mechanical
IV. HYDRAULIC (Potential Energy)
Accumulator (Pressure, Volume)
POWER = Q x P
V. BATTERY (Electrical Energy)
Generator recharging
Solar Recharging
time
ENERGY KINETIC
= POWER
I
2
1
= KE
2
ω
•
14
ENERGY CONVERSION
I. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES:
Otto cycle
Diesel cycle
Brayton cycle
II. EXTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES:
Stirling cycle
Rankine cycle
III. MECHANICAL:
Flywheel
Hydraulic motors
IV. ELECTRIC:
Electric motors
ENERGY STORAGE
I. LIQUID FUELS:
+ Long Term Storage Possible
+ High Energy / Weight (Fuel & System)
+ High Energy / Volume
 Relatively Low Energy Conversion Ratio
 many are Fossil Fuels => Finite Supply
 Impractical to Recover / Regenerate
 High Atmospheric Pollution
II. GASEOUS FUELS:
+ Long Term Storage Possible
+ High Energy / Weight (fuel)
 Low Energy / Weight (system)
 Impractical to Recover / Regenerate
 Relatively Low Energy Conversion Ratio
 Relatively High Atmospheric Pollution
15
III. FLYWHEEL:
+ High Energy Conversion Ratio
+ High Transient Regeneration Possible
+ Total ondemand Energy Conversion
+ Zero Atmospheric Pollution
 Relatively Short Storage
 Influences Vehicle Dynamic Behavior
IV. HYDRAULIC:
+ Long Term Storage Possible
+ High Energy / Weight (storage)
+ High Transient Regeneration Possible
+ High Energy Conversion Ratio
+ Total ondemand Energy Conversion
+ Zero Atmospheric Pollution
 Complexity, Bulk, Noise
V. Battery:
+ Recharge w/o Fossil Fuels
+ Total ondemand Energy Conversion
+ Limited Atmospheric Pollution
 Finite Storage Life
 Low Energy / Weight
 Low Energy / Volume
 Low Energy Conversion Ratio
16
Hybrid Vehicles Power System Matching
PROBLEM:
I. The various power systems provide torque and power curves which are considerably
different in shape.
II. The different power systems peak in efficiency at different speeds in their operating
range.
III. The different power systems peak in efficiency at different loadsspeed points.
In Light of I, II, and III above a method must be devised to optimize or maximize:
1. Torque Output
2. Peak Efficiency
3. Transition from one Power System to the other
or
Phasing in of the Second Power System in a Parallel System.
A STRATEGY MUST BE DEVISED TO PROVIDE PROPER TIMING OF EACH SYSTEM
BASED ON:
a. Demand
b. Efficiency
c. Perception of the operator
d. System State
 Total Energy Reserve
 Total System Capacity
 Energy Required for Completion of Mission
e. Energy State of each Individual System
17
Gearbox: Transmission
1. Manual transmission:
The types of manual transmission are:
Sliding mesh type
Constant mesh type
Synchromesh gear box
The various components of a manual gearbox and their respective design considerations are listed:
Design considerations for shaft:
There are 3 shafts in the gearbox, namely: Input or clutch shaft, Intermediate or lay
shaft and Output or main shaft.
• Input or clutch shaft:
Design consideration:
Shear and torsional stresses as well as the amount of deflection under full load. This
should not only be designed for maximum engine torque, but also for absorbing
torques as high as five times the maximum engine torque which can be generated by
‘clutch snapping’ in the lower gear.
• Intermediate or lay shaft:
Design consideration:
Shear and torsional stresses should be calculated. Amount of deflection should be
calculated using the load on the internal gear pair, which is nearest to the half way
between the intermediate shaft mounting bearings. For shafts with splines and
serrations, it is common to use the root diameter as the outside diameter in the stress
calculations.
• Output or main shaft:
Design consideration:
Shear and torsional stresses should be calculated.
General equations:
1. Maximum shear stress for shaft, f
s
for a solid circular shaft:
where, d = diameter of shaft Torque in lbin
18
3
16
d
Torque
f
s
π
×
·
2. Amount of deflection:
where,
a = distance between point of deflection and first support
b = distance between point of deflection and second support
ω
1
= total weight of shaft + gear at the point of deflection
l = length of shaft between supports
Gears:
Current cars use various kinds of Synchromesh units, which ensure a smooth gear change,
when the vehicle is in motion. The Synchromesh unit essentially consists of blocking rings,
conical sleeves and engaging dog sleeves.
The Synchomesh system is not quick enough due to the pause in the blocking ring reaction
in bringing the two engaging components in phase. Most racing cars, therefore use gearbox
fitted with facedog engagement system instead of a Synchromesh which provides a quicker
and more responsive gear change and a closer feel for engine performance.
Design consideration for gears:
• Engine speed vs Vehicle speed graph is plotted for determining the gear ratios.
• Various important gear design parameters are calculated as follows:
Normal tooth thickness
Tooth thickness (at tip)
Profile overlap
Measurement over balls
Span measurement over teeth etc.,
With the input parameters being
Number of teeth
Module
Helix angle
Pressure angle
Center distance
Required backlash
Facewidth and
Cutter details – addendum, dedendum, cutter tip radius, cutter tooth thickness at
reference line, protuberance.
19
l E
b a
deflection of Amount
Ι
·
3
2 2
1
ω
Bearings:
Bearings have to take radial and thrust loading (which is dependent on the helix angle of gear
teeth) when helical gears are used. Bearings must be capable of coping with the loads that will be
encountered when the transmission unit is in use. Calculations can be done by straightforward
formulas.
Differential gears:
The functions of the final drive are to provide a permanent speed reduction and also to turn the
drive round through 90
o
. A ‘differential’ essentially consists of the following parts:
1. Pinion gear
2. Ring gear with a differential case attached to it
3. Differential pinions gears and side gears enclosed in the differential case.
Pinion and ring gears:
The pinion and ring gear can have the following tooth designs:
1. Bevel gears –
a) Straight bevel
b) Spiral bevel – Teeth are curved
More quiet operation, because, curved teeth make sliding contact.It is stronger, because, more
than one tooth is in contact all times.
2. Hypoid gears :
In this, the centerline of the pinion shaft is below the center of the ring gear.
Advantage: It allows the drive shaft to be placed lower to permit reducing the hump
on the floor.
Terms used in gear design:
1.Pitch circle:
An imaginary circle, which by pure rolling action would give the same motion as the
actual gear.
2.Pitch circle diameter:
The diameter of the pitch circle. The size of the gear is usually specified by the pitch
circle diameter. It is also called as pitch diameter.
3. Pitch point:
The common point of contact between two pitch circles.
20
4. Pitch surface:
The surface of rolling discs, which the meshing gears have replaced, at the pitch circle.
5. Pressure angle or angle of obliquity:
The angle between the common normal to two gear teeth at the point of contact and the
common tangent at the pitch point. It is usually denoted by φ . The standard pressure
angles are 14 ½
0
and 20
0
.
6. Addendum:
The radial distance of a tooth from the pitch circle to the top of the tooth.
7. Dedendum:
The radial distance of a tooth from the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth.
8. Addendum circle:
The circle drawn through the top of the teeth and is concentric with the pitch circle.
9. Dedendum circle:
The circle drawn through the bottom of the teeth. It is also called root circle.
Root circle diameter = Pitch circle diameter x cos φ
where, φ is the pressure angle.
10. Circular pitch:
The distance measured on the circumference of a pitch circle from a point on one tooth
to the corresponding point on the next tooth. It is usually denoted by p
c
.
Mathematically,
Circular pitch, p
c
= πD / T
where, D = Diameter of pitch circle T = Number of teeth on wheel
11. Diametrical pitch:
The ratio of number of teeth to the pitch circle diameter in millimeters. It is denoted by
p
d
. Mathematically,
Diametrical pitch,
where, T = Number of teeth D = Pitch circle diameter
21
c
d
p D
T
p
π
· ·
12. Module:
It is ratio of pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the number of teeth. It is usually
denoted by m. Mathematically,
Module, m = D / T
13. Clearance:
The radial distance from the top of the tooth to the bottom of the tooth, in a meshing
gear. The circle passing through the top of the meshing gear is known as the clearance
circle.
14. Total depth:
The radial distance between the addendum and dedendum of a gear. It is equal to the
sum of the addendum and dedendum.
15. Working depth:
The radial distance from the addendum circle to the clearance circle. It is equal to the
sum of the addendum of the two meshing gears.
16. Tooth thickness:
The width of the tooth measured along the pitch circle.
17. Tooth space:
The width of space between two adjacent teeth measured along the pitch circle.
18. Backlash:
The difference between the tooth space and the tooth thickness, as measured along the
pitch circle. Theoretically, the backlash should be zero, but in actual practice some
backlash must be allowed to prevent jamming of teeth due to teeth errors and thermal
expansion.
19. Face of tooth:
The surface of the gear tooth above the pitch surface.
20. Flank of tooth:
The surface of the gear tooth below the pitch surface.
21. Top land:
The surface of the top of the tooth.
22. Face width:
The width of the gear tooth measured parallel to its axis.
23. Profile:
The curve formed by the face and the flank of the tooth.
22
24. Fillet radius:
The radius that connects the root circle to the profile of the teeth.
25. Path of contact:
The path traced by the point of contact of two teeth from the beginning to the end of
engagement.
26. Length of path of contact:
The length of the common normal cutoff by the addendum circles of the wheel and
pinion.
27. Arc of contact:
The path traced by a point on the pitch circle from the beginning to the end of
engagement of a given pair of teeth. The arc contact consists of two parts, i.e.,
(a) Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from the beginning of
engagement to the pitch point.
(b) Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact from the pitch point to the
end of engagement of a pair of teeth.
23
Section 4
Brake System Design
In conventional hydraulic brake systems the apply force at the brake pedal is converted to hydraulic
pressure in the master cylinder. Apply force from the driver is multiplied through a mechanical
advantage between the brake pedal and the master cylinder to increase the force on the master cylinder.
Hydraulic pressure is a typical force transfer mechanism to the wheel brake as the fluid can be routed
through flexible lines to the wheels while the wheels under complex wheel motions.
MASTER CYLINDER PRESSURE (w/o power assist):
d
/4
.
M.A x
F
=
P
2
mc
pedal pedal
mc
π
Power assist may be added to a conventional hydraulic brake system to assist the driver in brake apply.
Power assist utilizes a system which may use air pressure, atmospheric/vacuum pressure hydraulic
pressure or other means to apply direct force to the master cylinder.
MASTER CYLINDER PRESSURE (w/ power assist):
d
/4
F
+ )
.
M.A x
F
(
=
A
F
=
P
2
mc
booster pedal pedal
mc
mc
mc
π
The pressure from the master cylinder is typically modified by a series of valves before reaching the
wheel cylinders. The valves modify pressure to proportion pressure as a function of weight transfer,
vehicle static load and load location, and the wheel brake characteristics. Valves may also be placed
within these lines to provide for antilock braking, traction control and/or yaw stability control.
The modified master cylinder pressure is delivered to a hydraulic wheel cylinder which utilizes the
hydraulic pressure to create a mechanical apply force.
WHEEL CYLINDER APPLY FORCE
[ ]
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸
· ·
d
d
x
F
+ )
.
M.A x
F
( =
A
A
x F =
d
x P A x P F
2
mc
wc
booster pedal pedal
mc
wc
mc
2
wc mc wc mc wc
2
4
π
The wheel cylinder mechanical force is applied to the metal backing of the friction material. The
friction material, upon apply, is forced into contact with the rotating brake surface creating the friction
forces required to decelerate the vehicle. The friction force from the brake friction material acts at the
24
mean radius of the braking surface. For an internal or external expanding brake the mean radius of the
braking surface is the radius of the braking surface.
For a disk brake the mean radius (r
m
) of the braking surface is
DISC BRAKE MEAN RADIUS
The wheel torque the brake system creates during braking (T
w
) is a function of the wheel cylinder force
(F
wc
), the coefficient of friction between the friction pad and the brake surface (µ), the mean radius of
the braking surface (r
m
), the number of braking surfaces (N), and the multiplication factor
(effectiveness factor) of the brake (E).
WHEEL TORQUE DURING BRAKING
N
Disc
= 2/wheel N
Drum
= 1/wheel
Formal calculation of brake energizing factors are derived from efficiency calculated from drive
systems that employ wrap angles. In a brake system the shoes are discontinuous and the anchor pins
can be located off the apply tangency point which makes calculations more complex. The equations
below are those which apply to continuous wrap systems such as an external band brake. An internal
shoe brake is more complex , however rough approximations can be made with these same equations.
energizing
e
T
T
1
]
1
¸
·
µβ
2
1
or
Energizing NON
e
T
T
−
1
]
1
¸
− · 1
2
1 µβ
T1 = tension on the apply side T2 = tension on the anchor side
µ = coefficient of friction pad to surface β = wrap angle in radians
BRAKE TYPE ENERGIZING FACTOR (approximate)
Disc ≈ 0.7 – 0.8
LeadingTrailing drum ≈ 2.5
Double Leading ≈ 3.5
Dualservo ≈ 5.0
Brake linings all have “edge codes” for friction, compound and vendor identification. An example
might be FF20AB. FF identifies the friction coefficient and the 20AB identify the compound and
vendor respectively. The following table identifies the coefficient of friction values. The first letter in
the code provides information as to the moderate (normal) temperature characteristics, the second letter
provides information as to the high temperature characteristics of the lining.
25
2
2 2
i o
m
r r
r
+
·
m pad wc w
r x E x N x x F T µ ·
Edge Letter Code Friction coefficient
C
µ ≤ 0.15
D
0.15 ≤ µ ≤ 0.25
E
0.25 ≤ µ ≤ 0.35
F
0.35 ≤ µ ≤ 0.45
G
0.45 ≤ µ ≤ 0.55
H
µ > 0.55
Z unclassified
The braking force available at the tiretoroad interface is the wheel torque divided by the rolling radius
of the tire.
WHEEL BRAKING FORCE
BRAKING FORCE REQUIRED FOR A STOP
The braking force required at each front wheel, if the brakes are properly propotioned, is:
g
a
2
L
h
g
a
W +
W
=
F
F
brakeF
1
]
1
¸
,
_
¸
¸
The braking force required at each rear wheel, if the brakes are properly propotioned, is:
g
a
2
L
h
g
a
W 
W
=
F
R
brakeR
1
]
1
¸
,
_
¸
¸
26
,
_
¸
¸
· ·
t
m
pad wc
t
w
b
r
r
x E x N x x F
r
T
F µ
[ ] [ ]
,
_
¸
¸
¹
)
¹
¹
'
¹
,
_
¸
¸
·
t
m
pad
2
mc
wc
booster pedal pedal
b
r
r
x E x N x x
d
d
x
F
+ )
.
M.A x
F
( F µ
2
LIMITING BRAKING FORCE:
The limiting braking force over which wheel slide will occur at each front wheel is:
µ
µ
road  tire
F
brake
2
)
L
h
W +
W
(
=
F
F
The limiting braking force over which wheel slide will occur at each rear wheel is:
µ
µ
road  tire
R
brake
2
)
L
h
W 
W
(
=
F
R
If the brakes are properly proportioned the braking force maximum is:
µ
µ µ
x x
2
)
L
h
W 
W
(
2
)
L
h
W +
W
(
=
F
road  tire
R F
br
2
max
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
)
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
1
1
1
]
1
¸
+
1
1
1
]
1
¸
µ µ
r  t
tot
r  t
r f brake
x
W
= x )
W
+
W
( = F
max
27
Section 4
Suspension Design Considerations
28
EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF THE STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY
OF VEHICLES
• Vehicle stiffness is an important parameter which influences ride quality, handling properties,
and vehicle aesthetics.
• Vehicle stiffness determines the quality of fit of many external panels and the interaction of the
surface panels as uniform and asymmetric loads are applied.
• Road noise transmission and dynamic response is influenced by the vehicle stiffness.
• Vehicles typically are called upon to meet deflection criteria in design.
a) meeting deflection criteria will establish designs that inherently meet stress related
criteria.
b) Chassis design will require the engineer assure that key deflection limits are imposed
for critical locations on the chassis, frame and body.
c) Vehicles modeled to meet crash standards may also meet deflection standards in the
design process.
d) All measures; deflection, stress and yield, and impact must be verified in the design
process.
STIFFNESS IS MEASURED IN A NUMBER OF MODES.
a) Torsional ridgidity is commonly used as measure of the overall stiffness quality.
1. Fundamentally this is a measure of the deflection that occurs if all the load were
place on diagonally opposite tires of the vehicle. As deflection occurs in this
mode the quality of fit of the surface components on the body is altered.
2. Torsion of the chassis also occurs due to the differing roll stiffness of the front
and rear suspension systems.
b) Hbeaming is used to determine the flexural stiffness of the chassis.
1. basically bending about the rocker panels of the vehicle.
2. measured as flexure along the longitudinal axis of the vehicle as a vertical
load is applied at specific locations along the longitudinal axis.
3. Vertical deflection of the chassis is measured at critical points.
4. This mode may influence glass breakage and affect ride quality.
c) Cowl loading is the term used to define the stiffness as it might be viewed by the
operator.
1. This stiffness criteria is established such that the operator does not perceive
excessive deflection of the steering column and related interior components.
29
d) Rear end beaming is a term used to define bending due to the frame “kickups” that
are present in rear wheel drive and dependent rear suspension vehicles.
1. This is measured with the frame supported and weight added to the rear
extremities of the vehicle at or near the rear bumper location.
2. The measure was to assure adequate stiffness as the frame was shaped to allow
clearance for rear axle movement.
• A parameter that is commonly used to establish the stiffness is the frequency of the system.
• Minimum values are always far above those anticipated in the suspension for sprung
and unsprung natural frequencies.
• This usually sets minimum values at approximately 15 Hz while most current designs
will exceed 20 Hz.
• Load factors are the percentage of the maximum torsional rigidity the vehicle might see in
service which is the maximum diagonal moment.
Load Factor Determination.
1. Raise the vehicle and place the calibrated Zero referenced scales under each
wheel. Verify the tires are properly inflated.
2. Record the weight at each wheel location.
3. Determine the load factor by
a. taking the sum of the weights on the left and right front suspensions and
multiplying the sum by ½ the wheel track.
b. taking the sum of the weights on the left and right rear suspensions and
multiplying the sum by ½ the wheel track.
c. taking the smaller of a and b and it is to be called a load factor of one.
d. Typically ¼ to ½ load factor, incrementally applied, will be used to
establish the torsional rigidity for the chassis.
30
ANALYSIS of FRONT SUSPENSION LOADS
(FOR DESIGN)
LATERAL
{CORNERING + IMPACT}
LONGITUDINAL
{BRAKING + IMPACT} VERTICAL
{STATIC + IMPACT}
BRAKING: {use 12 g braking load)
[ ] LOAD DYNAMIC LOAD STATIC L
b
+ ·
2
2
µ
1
]
1
¸
,
_
¸
¸
+
,
_
¸
¸
·
L
h
a m
L
l
W L
r
b
µ
1
]
1
¸
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸
+
,
_
¸
¸
·
L
h
g
a
W
L
l
W L
r
b
µ
where, h = C.G Height L = Wheel base l
r
= C.G Rear axle
VERTICAL: {total is commonly considered as 3g load}
1
]
1
¸
,
_
¸
¸
,
_
¸
¸
+
,
_
¸
¸
·
L
h
g
a
W W
L
l
V
r
2
3
,
_
¸
¸ +
·
L g
h a g l
W V
r
2
3
31
LATERAL {commonly considered as 2g load }
,
_
¸
¸ +
·
L g
h a g l
W L
r
l
32
FRONT SUSPENSION LOADS
TOP VIEW:
F
L
Σ M
PSA
= 0
0 · − − +
s FH LS US SB
r B c F b F d F
( ) b F r B c F
d
F
US s FH LS SB
− + ·
1
1
]
1
¸
− − + · ) ( ) ( c b
h
a
c r
d
B
F
s
FH
SB
Σ F
HLat
= 0
F
UCH
+ F
SB
– F
LCH
– F
LAT
= 0
F
LCH
= F
UCH
+ F
SB
 F
L
Σ F
HLong
= 0
F
US
– F
LS
+B
FH
= 0 or B
FH
= F
LS
 F
US
33
Projected Steer Axis (PSA)
FSB
d
FLCH
Upper Ball Joint to PSA (b)
Scrub Radius (rs)
Lower Ball Joint to PSA (c)
FUS
FLS
S
Braking Force Horizontal (BFH)
Lateral Force (FLAT)
FUCH
FRONT SUSPENSION LOADS
SIDE VIEW:
F
US
F
LS
Σ M
B
= 0
a B h F
FH US
·
,
_
¸
¸
·
h
a
B F
FH US
Σ F
X
= 0
F
US
– F
LS
+ B
FH
= 0
F
LS
= F
US
+ B
FH
,
_
¸
¸
+ · 1
h
a
B F
FH LS
34
h
SB
LB
UB
BFH
a
FRONT SUSPENSION LOADS
REAR VIEW:
Σ M
LB
= 0
F
UCV
h tan φ + F
UCH
h + F
SB
e + F
L
a – V (r
s
+ c) = 0
α sin
UC UCV
F F ·
α cos
UC UCH
F F ·
( )
( ) h
a F e F c r V
F
L SB s
UC
α φ α cos tan sin +
− − +
·
( ) ( )
L UC s
FH
LCH
F F c b
h
a
c r
d
B
F − +
1
]
1
¸
− − + · α cos
Σ F
V
= 0
V – F
LCV
+ F
UC
= 0
F
LCV
= V + F
UC
sin α
35
F
UC
V
F
LCH
F
SB
LB
F
UCV
F
UCH
α
φ
F
L
UB
F
LBV
e
h
SUMMARY
,
_
¸
¸
+ · 1
h
a
B F
FH LS
1
]
1
¸
− − + · ) ( ) ( c b
h
a
c r
d
B
F
s
FH
SB
( )
( ) h
a F e F c r V
F
L SB s
UC
α φ α cos tan sin +
− − +
·
( ) ( )
L UC s
FH
LCH
F F c b
h
a
c r
d
B
F − +
1
]
1
¸
− − + · α cos
F
LCV
= V + F
UC
sin α
UPPER CONTROL ARM
F
UFM
F
ULF
f
F
UC
g F
US
F
ULR
F
URH
F
UC
lu
F
UC
36
Σ M
UFP
= 0
F
UC
(f) + F
US
(lu) – F
ULR
(f+g) = 0
F
ULR
= F
UC
(f) + F
US
(lu) {In the direction of F
UC
}
f+g
Σ F
AXIS
= 0
F
ULF
+ F
ULR
= F
UC
F
ULF
= F
UC
 F
ULR
To determine F
UFH
and F
URH
the geometry and the understanding that all loads pass through UB can
be used:
g/ lu = F
URH
/ F
ULR
∴ F
URH
= F
ULR
(g)
lu
F
UFH
+ F
URH
= F
US
F
UFH
= F
US
– F
URH
LOWER CONTROL ARM
{Spring force and bump stop force need be determined}
F
LS
i
F
LC
j
F
B
F
LCV
F
SP
l
b
l
s
F
LCH
β l
l
37
LOGARITHMIC DECREMENT
Logarithmic decrement can be used to experimentally determine the amount of damping present in a
free vibrating system.
For damped vibration the displacement (x) is expressed as equation 1.
( ) φ
ω
ξ
ω
ξ
+  1
e
X = x
nt
2
t 
n
Sin
The logarithmic decrement is then defined as the natural log or the ratio of any two successive
amplitudes as shown in equation 2.
x
x
=
2
1
ln δ
( )
( ) φ
τ ω
ξ
φ
ω
ξ
δ
τ ω ξ
ω ξ
+ ) +
t
(  1
e
+
t
 1
e
=
d 1 n
2
) + t ( 
1 n
2
t 
d 1 n
1 n
Sin
Sin
ln
Equation 2 can be reduced to equation 3 based on the fact that the value of the sines are equal for each
period at t = t1+τ
d
.
e
=
e
e
=
d n
d 1 n
1 n
) +
t
( 
t

τ ω
ξ
τ ω
ξ
ω
ξ
δ ln ln
τ ω
ξ δ
d n
=
Since the damped period is
ξ
ω
π
τ
2
n
d
 1
2
=
equation 3 can be reduced to equation 5.
38
ξ
πξ
δ
2
 1
2
=
Therefore the amplitude ratio for any two consecutive cycles is as shown in equation 6.
e
=
x
x
2
1 δ
It can also be show that for n cycles the following relationship exists
x
x
n
1
=
n
0
ln δ
39
Section 1 Energy Consumption and Power Requirements in Design
2
Aerodynamics and Rolling Resistance
GENERAL FORMULAS  AERODYNAMIC Dynamic Pressure:
Pd
Drag Force:
=
1 ρ v2 2
1 ρ v 2 A f ( RE ) 2
Fd
=
Fd
=
1 ρ v 2 Cd A 2
Fd
=
1 (1.2) Cd A (v + v0 ) 2 2
Aero Power
P=
Cd = A= v= coefficient of drag projected frontal area (m2) vehicle velocity (m/sec)
ρ 3 V A f(RE) (2)
ρ = f(RE) V0 = air density ≈ 1.2 kg/m3 = Reynolds number headwind velocity
ENGLISH UNITS
6 3 HP aero = (6.93 X 10 ) C d A V
where: A = area (ft2) V = velocity (MPH)
Cd = drag coefficient
3
72 x 10 ) x C rr x M x V where: P M = power (kw) = mass (kg) Crr V = coefficient of rolling resistance = velocity (KpH) 4 .SI UNITS 3 1.2 V C A 1 kW PKW = 3600 3 d 1000 W (2) 1000 6 P aero = (12.86 x 10 ) x C d A V (V + V0 ) 2 P V Cd = power (kw) = velocity (KpH) = drag coefficient A V0 ρ = area (m2) = headwind velocity = 1.2 kg/m3 GENERAL FORMULAS – ROLLING RESISTANCE ENGLISH UNITS HPrr = C rr W x V 375 W = weight (lbs) V = velocity (MPH) where: Crr = coefficient of rolling resistance SI UNITS 9.81 x C rr x M x V P rr = 3600 3 P rr = (2.
generated at the tires.TRACTIVE FORCE REQUIREMENTS. If the required tractive force (F) is broken into components the major components of the resisting forces to motion are comprised of acceleration forces (Faccel = ma & Iα forces). The energy consumption of a vehicle is based on the tractive forces required. A liquid fuel usually has extremely high storage efficiency while a flywheel may have considerably les storage efficiency. Examples of the above might best be demonstrated with the following. the efficiency of the energy conversion device and the efficiency of the storage system.. These losses can be a function of the % of the total system capacity at which the system is currently operating. including steady state acceleration. to initiate and maintain motion. These forces are usually referred to as tractive forces or the tractive force requirement. the mechanical efficiency of the drive train system. F = Faero + Froll resist + Fgrade + Faccel = (ρ/2) Cd A v2 + Crr m g + %slope m*g + m a = (ρ/2) Cd A v2 + m g{Crr + % slope + a/g} in SI units: A= frontal area (m2) v = velocity (m/s) m = Crr = coefficient of roll resistance (N/N) usually approx .3 . Aerodynamic loads (Faero) and chassis losses (Froll resist ).6 % slope = Rise/Run = Tan of the roadway inclination angle Steady state force are equal to the summation of Faero + Froll resist + Fgrade Fss = ∑ Faero + Froll resist + Fgrade Transient forces are primarily comprised of acceleration related forces where a change in velocity is required. A storage battery may eventually discharge due to intrinsic losses in the storage device. These include the rotational inertia requirements (FIα ) and the translational mass (Fma) requirements. Vehicles require thrust forces. Storage efficiency: A flywheel used for energy storage will eventually lose its total energy stored due to bearing and aerodynamic losses. VEHICLE ENERGY REQUIREMENTS. Both however have the storage efficiency a function of time. mass (kg) 5 . Gradeability requirements (Fgrade).015 Cd = coefficient of aero drag for most cars .
A storage battery has an efficiency loss during the discharge cycle and an efficiency loss during the charge cycle.. Drive train inefficiencies further reduce the power available to produce the tractive forces. These losses are typically a function of the system design and the torque being delivered through the system.− E fianl E x 100 Storge Efficiency = η store = initial Einitial Conversion efficiency: An internal combustion engine changes chemical energy to mechanical energy.. These efficiencies may be a function of the rate at which the power is extracted. Mechanical Efficiency = η mech drive = Ppower source − Ptractive Ppower source x 100 ηmech drive = ηred1 x η red 2 x ..ηred n 6 . E − Pdelivered Conversion Efficiency = ηconv = fuel x 100 E fuel ηconv = ηthermal x η mechanical Drive system Efficiency: Conversion of chemical or electrical to mechanical energy does not complete the power flow to the wheels. The system also produces unwanted heat and due to moving parts has internal friction which further reduces the system efficiency...
Reasonable Efficiencies to use for cycle comparisons (Efficiencies shown are only approximations) • Electric Motor (Peak) η = 95% Electric Motor Efficiency η = 75% Electric Motor Efficiency η = 95% • • (Avg if 1 spd Trans) (Avg if CVT) • Transmission Efficiency η = (0.95) (R1) • Battery Efficiency (Regen)η = 7585% Battery & Generator Efficiency (Regen) η = 5055% Battery & Motor Efficiency η = 80% • (Accel) • Solar Cell Efficiency η = 15% • Flywheel Efficiency (Storage and Conversion Average) IC Engine (Peak Efficiency) η = 30% η = 70% 7 .
a1 = v a1 − vb1 km / h = t1 s a2 = va 2 − vb 2 km / h = t2 s 5) Determine the drag coefficient cd = 6 m ( a1 − a 2 ) A ( v12 − v 2 2 ) 6) Determine the coefficient of rolling resistance. 28. Tl = 6 sec 5km/hr) velocity change at each Low Speed Va2 = 20 km/h Vb2 = 15 km/h v1 = v a1 + vb1 km = 2 h v2 = va 2 + vb 2 km = 2 h 4) Determine the mean deceleration at each velocity. Th = 4 sec 3) Determine the mean speed at each velocity. High Speed Va1 = 60 km/h Vb1 = 55 km/h 2) Record the times over which the velocity increments occur.Experimental Coast Down Testing 1) Perform a high speed and a low speed test with an incremental (≈ velocity.2 ( a2 v1 − a1v2 ) crr = 3 2 2 10 ( v1 − v2 ) 2 2 8 .
Section 2 Weight and Weight Factors in Design 9 .
k2 δ 2 F i r &t = 2 + 1 • m R * a r tire F = Faero + Froll resist + Fgrade + Faccel = (ρ/2) Cd A v2 + Crr Wt + %slope Wt + Wt a/g + mt F tire = k2 δ 2 ρ C d A V 2 + mt g [ C rr + % Slope] + a mr 2 2 r tire ω = I = a= rtire = Fi = Fi(r&t) = angular velocity of the component Ti = applied torque to overcome inertia mass moment of inertia αwheel = angular acceleration of the wheel translational acceleration of the vehicle rolling radius of the tire (meters) Twheel = applied torque at the wheel tractive force at the tire footprint to overcome inertia tractive force at the tire footprint required for losses and translational and rotational inertia 10 . Ti= I dω avehicle = I α comp = m k 2 α comp α wheel = dt r tire a 2 m k2 δ 2 T wheel = m 2 k 2 δ = 2 Fi = a r tire r tire r tire m = mass α = angular acceleration k = radius of gyration t = time T = Torque δ = ratio between rotating component and the tire Therefore if the mass rotates on a vehicle which has translation.6 % slope = Rise/Run = Tan of the roadway inclination angle m = mass (kg) If rotational mass is added it adds not only rotational inertia but also translational inertia.3 .WEIGHT and ROTATIONAL INERITA EFFECTS: Thrust force (F).. at the tire footprint. required for vehicle motion: F = Faero + Froll resist + Fgrade + Faccel = (ρ/2) Cd A v2 + Crr m g + %slope m*g + m a F = (ρ/2) Cd A v2 + m g{Crr + % slope + a/g} in SI units: A= frontal area (m2) v = velocity (m/s) Crr = coefficient of roll resistance (N/N) usually approx .015 Cd = coefficient of aero drag for most cars .
The PowerPlant Torque is: T PP = The speed of the vehicle in km/h is: F i(r &t) x r tire N km / h = RPM PP • rtire • ( 0.377 ) N rtire = Tire Rolling Radius (meters) N = Numerical Ratio between P.P. and Tire 11 .
5% x total weight x power increment P Wmod = Wbase 1 + 0. • “Rule of Thumb” approximations can be made to predict the effects of weight increases. For alternate power systems (considering the power system as a unit) ∆W due to weight = 22% x total weight increment Wmod = 1.045 PSM − 1 + 1.22 [WSM − WSO ] P PSO 12 .22 [WSM − WSO ] ∆W due to power increase = 4.WEIGHT PROPAGATION It might simply be said that weight begets weight in any design! • • Nearly all vehicle systems are affected by a change in weight of any one component.045 PSM − 1 P PSO Combining the above factors into a single equation: P Wmod = Wbase 1 + 0. Power increases and/or performance decreases are associated with weight increases.
Section 3 Power Train Systems and Efficiencies 13 .
GASEOUS FUELS Fossil (largely) NonFossil Hydrogen FLYWHEELS Mechanical III. LIQUID FUELS Fossil NonFossil (Heat Energy) (Alcohol) (Heat Energy) II. BATTERY Generator recharging Solar Recharging (Electrical Energy) (Potential Energy) 14 .ENERGY STORAGE in VEHICLES I. (Kinetic Energy) 1 I •ω2 2 KINETIC ENERGY POWER = time KE = IV. HYDRAULIC Accumulator (Pressure. Volume) POWER = Q x P V.
IV. III.Impractical to Recover / Regenerate .Relatively Low Energy Conversion Ratio .Impractical to Recover / Regenerate . ENERGY STORAGE I. LIQUID FUELS: + Long Term Storage Possible + High Energy / Weight (Fuel & System) + High Energy / Volume .Relatively Low Energy Conversion Ratio .ENERGY CONVERSION I.Low Energy / Weight (system) .High Atmospheric Pollution II.Relatively High Atmospheric Pollution 15 . INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES: Otto cycle Diesel cycle Brayton cycle EXTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES: Stirling cycle Rankine cycle MECHANICAL: Flywheel Hydraulic motors ELECTRIC: Electric motors II. GASEOUS FUELS: + Long Term Storage Possible + High Energy / Weight (fuel) .many are Fossil Fuels => Finite Supply .
Influences Vehicle Dynamic Behavior IV. Noise V.Low Energy / Volume .Finite Storage Life . Battery: + Recharge w/o Fossil Fuels + Total ondemand Energy Conversion + Limited Atmospheric Pollution .III. Bulk. FLYWHEEL: + High Energy Conversion Ratio + High Transient Regeneration Possible + Total ondemand Energy Conversion + Zero Atmospheric Pollution . HYDRAULIC: + Long Term Storage Possible + High Energy / Weight (storage) + High Transient Regeneration Possible + High Energy Conversion Ratio + Total ondemand Energy Conversion + Zero Atmospheric Pollution .Relatively Short Storage .Low Energy / Weight .Complexity.Low Energy Conversion Ratio 16 .
Demand Efficiency Perception of the operator System State . Torque Output Peak Efficiency Transition from one Power System to the other or Phasing in of the Second Power System in a Parallel System. d.Total System Capacity . In Light of I. The different power systems peak in efficiency at different loadsspeed points. The different power systems peak in efficiency at different speeds in their operating range.Hybrid Vehicles Power System Matching PROBLEM: I. A STRATEGY MUST BE DEVISED TO PROVIDE PROPER TIMING OF EACH SYSTEM BASED ON: a.Energy Required for Completion of Mission Energy State of each Individual System e. The various power systems provide torque and power curves which are considerably different in shape. and III above a method must be devised to optimize or maximize: 1. 3. c. 2. II. II. III. b. 17 .Total Energy Reserve .
Intermediate or lay shaft: Design consideration: Shear and torsional stresses should be calculated. Amount of deflection should be calculated using the load on the internal gear pair. This should not only be designed for maximum engine torque. • Input or clutch shaft: Design consideration: Shear and torsional stresses as well as the amount of deflection under full load. which is nearest to the half way between the intermediate shaft mounting bearings. • • General equations: 1. Output or main shaft: Design consideration: Shear and torsional stresses should be calculated. Manual transmission: The types of manual transmission are: Sliding mesh type Constant mesh type Synchromesh gear box The various components of a manual gearbox and their respective design considerations are listed: Design considerations for shaft: There are 3 shafts in the gearbox. namely: Input or clutch shaft. Maximum shear stress for shaft. but also for absorbing torques as high as five times the maximum engine torque which can be generated by ‘clutch snapping’ in the lower gear. it is common to use the root diameter as the outside diameter in the stress calculations. Intermediate or lay shaft and Output or main shaft. fs for a solid circular shaft: fs = Torque ×16 π d3 where. d = diameter of shaft Torque in lbin 18 .Gearbox: Transmission 1. For shafts with splines and serrations.
2. when the vehicle is in motion. The Synchromesh unit essentially consists of blocking rings. therefore use gearbox fitted with facedog engagement system instead of a Synchromesh which provides a quicker and more responsive gear change and a closer feel for engine performance. Various important gear design parameters are calculated as follows: Normal tooth thickness Tooth thickness (at tip) Profile overlap Measurement over balls Span measurement over teeth etc. conical sleeves and engaging dog sleeves. Most racing cars. protuberance. Design consideration for gears: • • Engine speed vs Vehicle speed graph is plotted for determining the gear ratios. a = distance between point of deflection and first support b = distance between point of deflection and second support ω 1 = total weight of shaft + gear at the point of deflection l = length of shaft between supports Gears: Current cars use various kinds of Synchromesh units. which ensure a smooth gear change. cutter tip radius. Amount of deflection: ω 1 a 2 b2 Amount of deflection = 3E Ι l where. 19 . The Synchomesh system is not quick enough due to the pause in the blocking ring reaction in bringing the two engaging components in phase.. dedendum. With the input parameters being Number of teeth Module Helix angle Pressure angle Center distance Required backlash Facewidth and Cutter details – addendum. cutter tooth thickness at reference line.
which by pure rolling action would give the same motion as the actual gear. the centerline of the pinion shaft is below the center of the ring gear.Pitch circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle. The size of the gear is usually specified by the pitch circle diameter. It is also called as pitch diameter. Ring gear with a differential case attached to it 3. because. curved teeth make sliding contact. Pinion and ring gears: The pinion and ring gear can have the following tooth designs: Bevel gears – a) Straight bevel b) Spiral bevel – Teeth are curved More quiet operation. Bearings must be capable of coping with the loads that will be encountered when the transmission unit is in use.Bearings: Bearings have to take radial and thrust loading (which is dependent on the helix angle of gear teeth) when helical gears are used. Advantage: It allows the drive shaft to be placed lower to permit reducing the hump on the floor. Differential pinions gears and side gears enclosed in the differential case. Terms used in gear design: 1. 1. more than one tooth is in contact all times. A ‘differential’ essentially consists of the following parts: 1. because. Differential gears: The functions of the final drive are to provide a permanent speed reduction and also to turn the drive round through 90o. 20 . Pinion gear 2. 2.It is stronger.Pitch circle: An imaginary circle. 3. 2. Hypoid gears : In this. Pitch point: The common point of contact between two pitch circles. Calculations can be done by straightforward formulas.
φ is the pressure angle. 9. at the pitch circle. It is also called root circle. 11. It is denoted by pd. Root circle diameter = Pitch circle diameter x cos φ where. Circular pitch. Addendum: The radial distance of a tooth from the pitch circle to the top of the tooth. Addendum circle: The circle drawn through the top of the teeth and is concentric with the pitch circle. Diametrical pitch: The ratio of number of teeth to the pitch circle diameter in millimeters. Dedendum: The radial distance of a tooth from the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth. It is usually denoted by pc. pc = πD / T where. 7. which the meshing gears have replaced. Mathematically. The standard pressure angles are 14 ½ 0 and 200. 6. 10. 8.4. Circular pitch: The distance measured on the circumference of a pitch circle from a point on one tooth to the corresponding point on the next tooth. Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: The angle between the common normal to two gear teeth at the point of contact and the common tangent at the pitch point. Mathematically. T = Number of teeth 21 . It is usually denoted by φ . pd = T π = D pc D = Pitch circle diameter where. Dedendum circle: The circle drawn through the bottom of the teeth. D = Diameter of pitch circle T = Number of teeth on wheel 5. Diametrical pitch. Pitch surface: The surface of rolling discs.
Flank of tooth: The surface of the gear tooth below the pitch surface. 19. It is usually denoted by m. Total depth: The radial distance between the addendum and dedendum of a gear. Module: It is ratio of pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the number of teeth. as measured along the pitch circle. Profile: The curve formed by the face and the flank of the tooth. Tooth space: The width of space between two adjacent teeth measured along the pitch circle. m = D / T 13. 18. Top land: The surface of the top of the tooth. Module. It is equal to the sum of the addendum of the two meshing gears. Backlash: The difference between the tooth space and the tooth thickness. 22 . It is equal to the sum of the addendum and dedendum. Theoretically. 20. 16. 23. Face width: The width of the gear tooth measured parallel to its axis.12. 22. the backlash should be zero. The circle passing through the top of the meshing gear is known as the clearance circle. 21. in a meshing gear. 14. Mathematically. but in actual practice some backlash must be allowed to prevent jamming of teeth due to teeth errors and thermal expansion. Tooth thickness: The width of the tooth measured along the pitch circle. Face of tooth: The surface of the gear tooth above the pitch surface. Clearance: The radial distance from the top of the tooth to the bottom of the tooth. Working depth: The radial distance from the addendum circle to the clearance circle. 15. 17.
Length of path of contact: The length of the common normal cutoff by the addendum circles of the wheel and pinion. (a) Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from the beginning of engagement to the pitch point.. 23 . Path of contact: The path traced by the point of contact of two teeth from the beginning to the end of engagement.24. 25. The arc contact consists of two parts. i. 26. 27. Fillet radius: The radius that connects the root circle to the profile of the teeth. Arc of contact: The path traced by a point on the pitch circle from the beginning to the end of engagement of a given pair of teeth. (b) Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact from the pitch point to the end of engagement of a pair of teeth.e.
Valves may also be placed within these lines to provide for antilock braking. Power assist utilizes a system which may use air pressure. WHEEL CYLINDER APPLY FORCE Fwc = Pmc x Awc = Pmc x Awc d 2 wc π 2 = [( F pedal x M. upon apply.A . The valves modify pressure to proportion pressure as a function of weight transfer. The friction material. The friction force from the brake friction material acts at the 24 .Section 4 Brake System Design In conventional hydraulic brake systems the apply force at the brake pedal is converted to hydraulic pressure in the master cylinder. Apply force from the driver is multiplied through a mechanical advantage between the brake pedal and the master cylinder to increase the force on the master cylinder. The modified master cylinder pressure is delivered to a hydraulic wheel cylinder which utilizes the hydraulic pressure to create a mechanical apply force. Hydraulic pressure is a typical force transfer mechanism to the wheel brake as the fluid can be routed through flexible lines to the wheels while the wheels under complex wheel motions.pedal ) + F booster π/4 d 2 Amc mc The pressure from the master cylinder is typically modified by a series of valves before reaching the wheel cylinders. and the wheel brake characteristics. MASTER CYLINDER PRESSURE (w/ power assist): P mc = F mc = ( F pedal x M. traction control and/or yaw stability control. is forced into contact with the rotating brake surface creating the friction forces required to decelerate the vehicle. MASTER CYLINDER PRESSURE (w/o power assist): P mc = F pedal x M.A .pedal π/4 d 2 mc Power assist may be added to a conventional hydraulic brake system to assist the driver in brake apply. atmospheric/vacuum pressure hydraulic pressure or other means to apply direct force to the master cylinder. vehicle static load and load location.pedal ) + F booster ] x 2 d wc = Fmc x A 4 d mc mc The wheel cylinder mechanical force is applied to the metal backing of the friction material.A .
The first letter in the code provides information as to the moderate (normal) temperature characteristics.5 ≈ 5.7 – 0. compound and vendor identification. For a disk brake the mean radius (rm) of the braking surface is DISC BRAKE MEAN RADIUS rm = ro2 + ri 2 2 The wheel torque the brake system creates during braking (Tw) is a function of the wheel cylinder force (Fwc).mean radius of the braking surface. the coefficient of friction between the friction pad and the brake surface (µ). WHEEL TORQUE DURING BRAKING Tw = Fwc x µ pad x N x E x rm NDisc = 2/wheel NDrum = 1/wheel Formal calculation of brake energizing factors are derived from efficiency calculated from drive systems that employ wrap angles. In a brake system the shoes are discontinuous and the anchor pins can be located off the apply tangency point which makes calculations more complex.5 ≈ 3.8 ≈ 2. the mean radius of the braking surface (rm). the second letter provides information as to the high temperature characteristics of the lining. 25 . and the multiplication factor (effectiveness factor) of the brake (E). T1 T1 µβ µβ or = e − 1 =e T2 NON − Energizing T2 energizing T1 = tension on the apply side µ = coefficient of friction pad to surface BRAKE TYPE Disc LeadingTrailing drum Double Leading Dualservo T2 = tension on the anchor side β = wrap angle in radians ENERGIZING FACTOR (approximate) ≈ 0. The equations below are those which apply to continuous wrap systems such as an external band brake. however rough approximations can be made with these same equations. An internal shoe brake is more complex . the number of braking surfaces (N). An example might be FF20AB. The following table identifies the coefficient of friction values.0 Brake linings all have “edge codes” for friction. For an internal or external expanding brake the mean radius of the braking surface is the radius of the braking surface. FF identifies the friction coefficient and the 20AB identify the compound and vendor respectively.
Edge Letter Code C D E F G H Z Friction coefficient µ ≤ 0.55 unclassified The braking force available at the tiretoroad interface is the wheel torque divided by the rolling radius of the tire. is: a h W F + W g L a F brake F = 2 g The braking force required at each rear wheel.A . if the brakes are properly propotioned. if the brakes are properly propotioned.15 ≤ µ ≤ 0.35 0.W g L a F brake R = 2 g 26 .15 0.55 µ > 0.35 ≤ µ ≤ 0. WHEEL BRAKING FORCE Fb = Tw = Fwc x µ pad x N x E rt r x m r t d 2 wc Fb = [( F pedal x M.45 ≤ µ ≤ 0.pedal ) + F booster ] x 2 d mc r x µ pad x N x E x m r t [ ] BRAKING FORCE REQUIRED FOR A STOP The braking force required at each front wheel.25 0.45 0.25 ≤ µ ≤ 0. is: a h W R .
road 2 2 Fbrake max = ( W f + W r ) x µ t r = W tot x µ t r 27 .W µ L ) F br max = + x 2 x µ tire.road If the brakes are properly proportioned the braking force maximum is: h h ( W F + Wµ L ) ( W R .LIMITING BRAKING FORCE: The limiting braking force over which wheel slide will occur at each front wheel is: F brakeF = (W F +W µ 2 h ) L µ tire .W µ 2 h ) L µ tire.road The limiting braking force over which wheel slide will occur at each rear wheel is: F brake R = (W R .
Section 4 Suspension Design Considerations 28 .
measured as flexure along the longitudinal axis of the vehicle as a vertical load is applied at specific locations along the longitudinal axis. 29 b) c) . c) Vehicles modeled to meet crash standards may also meet deflection standards in the design process. This stiffness criteria is established such that the operator does not perceive excessive deflection of the steering column and related interior components. stress and yield. This mode may influence glass breakage and affect ride quality. d) All measures. b) Chassis design will require the engineer assure that key deflection limits are imposed for critical locations on the chassis. 1. 3. Fundamentally this is a measure of the deflection that occurs if all the load were place on diagonally opposite tires of the vehicle. Road noise transmission and dynamic response is influenced by the vehicle stiffness. 2. Vertical deflection of the chassis is measured at critical points.EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF THE STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF VEHICLES • • • • Vehicle stiffness is an important parameter which influences ride quality. 2. basically bending about the rocker panels of the vehicle. Vehicles typically are called upon to meet deflection criteria in design. Hbeaming is used to determine the flexural stiffness of the chassis. and vehicle aesthetics. Cowl loading is the term used to define the stiffness as it might be viewed by the operator. As deflection occurs in this mode the quality of fit of the surface components on the body is altered. Torsion of the chassis also occurs due to the differing roll stiffness of the front and rear suspension systems. STIFFNESS IS MEASURED IN A NUMBER OF MODES. Vehicle stiffness determines the quality of fit of many external panels and the interaction of the surface panels as uniform and asymmetric loads are applied. deflection. 1. frame and body. a) meeting deflection criteria will establish designs that inherently meet stress related criteria. a) Torsional ridgidity is commonly used as measure of the overall stiffness quality. and impact must be verified in the design process. 1. handling properties. 4.
2. 30 . Load Factor Determination. b. Record the weight at each wheel location. Typically ¼ to ½ load factor. • Minimum values are always far above those anticipated in the suspension for sprung and unsprung natural frequencies. • This usually sets minimum values at approximately 15 Hz while most current designs will exceed 20 Hz. 3. • c. Raise the vehicle and place the calibrated Zero referenced scales under each wheel. Verify the tires are properly inflated. d. taking the smaller of a and b and it is to be called a load factor of one.d) Rear end beaming is a term used to define bending due to the frame “kickups” that are present in rear wheel drive and dependent rear suspension vehicles. Load factors are the percentage of the maximum torsional rigidity the vehicle might see in service which is the maximum diagonal moment. • A parameter that is commonly used to establish the stiffness is the frequency of the system. This is measured with the frame supported and weight added to the rear extremities of the vehicle at or near the rear bumper location. 2. will be used to establish the torsional rigidity for the chassis. Determine the load factor by a. taking the sum of the weights on the left and right front suspensions and multiplying the sum by ½ the wheel track. 1. incrementally applied. taking the sum of the weights on the left and right rear suspensions and multiplying the sum by ½ the wheel track. 1. The measure was to assure adequate stiffness as the frame was shaped to allow clearance for rear axle movement.
Rear axle where.ANALYSIS of FRONT SUSPENSION LOADS (FOR DESIGN) LATERAL {CORNERING + IMPACT} LONGITUDINAL {BRAKING + IMPACT} BRAKING: VERTICAL {STATIC + IMPACT} {use 12 g braking load) µ Lb = 2 [ STATIC LOAD + DYNAMIC LOAD ] 2 l h Lb = µ W r + m a L L l Lb = µ W r + W L a h g L lr = C.G.G Height L = Wheel base {total is commonly considered as 3g load} V = 3 lr W +W 2 L V = 3 W 2 a h g L lr g + a h gL 31 . VERTICAL: h = C.
LATERAL {commonly considered as 2g load } l g + ah Ll = W r gL 32 .
FUS 1 ( FLS c + BFH rs − FUS b ) d BFH d a (rs + c) − h (b − c) 33 .FL Σ FHLong = 0 FUS – FLS +BFH = 0 or BFH = FLS .FRONT SUSPENSION LOADS TOP VIEW: FSB Projected Steer Axis (PSA) d FLCH FUCH FL Lateral Force (FLAT) Upper Ball Joint to PSA (b) Scrub Radius (rs) Lower Ball Joint to PSA (c) FUS FLS S Braking Force Horizontal (BFH) Σ MPSA = 0 FSB d + FUS b − FLS c − B FH rs = 0 FSB = FSB = Σ FHLat = 0 FUCH + FSB – FLCH – FLAT = 0 FLCH = FUCH + FSB .
FRONT SUSPENSION LOADS SIDE VIEW: FUS h UB SB FLS a LB BFH Σ MB = 0 FUS h = B FH a a FUS = B FH h FUS – FLS + BFH = 0 FLS = FUS + BFH a FLS = BFH + 1 h Σ FX = 0 34 .
FRONT SUSPENSION LOADS REAR VIEW: UB FUCV FUC α φ e FSB FLCH FLBV V Σ MLB = 0 LB h FUCH FL FUCV h tan φ + FUCH h + FSB e + FL a – V (rs + c) = 0 FUCV = FUC sin α FUCH = FUC cos α FUC = V ( rs + c ) − FSB e − FL a ( sin α tan φ + cos α ) h BFH a ( rs + c ) − h ( b − c ) + FUC cos α − FL d FLCH = Σ FV = 0 V – FLCV + FUC = 0 FLCV = V + FUC sin α 35 .
SUMMARY a FLS = BFH + 1 h FSB = BFH d a (rs + c) − h (b − c) FUC = V ( rs + c ) − FSB e − FL a ( sin α tan φ + cos α ) h FLCH = BFH a ( rs + c ) − h ( b − c ) + FUC cos α − FL d FLCV = V + FUC sin α UPPER CONTROL ARM FUFM FULF f FUC g FUS FULR FURH lu FUC FUC 36 .
Σ MUFP = 0 FUC (f) + FUS (lu) – FULR(f+g) = 0 FULR = FUC (f) + FUS (lu) {In the direction of FUC} f+g Σ FAXIS = 0 FULF + FULR = FUC FULF = FUC .FULR To determine FUFH and FURH the geometry and the understanding that all loads pass through UB can be used: g/ lu = FURH / FULR ∴ FURH = FULR (g) lu FUFH + FURH = FUS FUFH = FUS – FURH LOWER CONTROL ARM {Spring force and bump stop force need be determined} FLS i FLC j FB ls FLCV FSP lb FLCH β ll 37 .
ξ 2 ω nt + φ ( ) The logarithmic decrement is then defined as the natural log or the ratio of any two successive amplitudes as shown in equation 2. x = X eξ ω nt Sin 1 .ξ ω n ( t 1+τ d ) Sin ( ( 1 . δ = ln e e ξ ω n t 1 ξ ω n( t 1+τ d = ln eξ ω nτ d ) δ = ξ ω nτ d Since the damped period is τd= equation 3 can be reduced to equation 5. 2π 2 ωn 1ξ 38 .LOGARITHMIC DECREMENT Logarithmic decrement can be used to experimentally determine the amount of damping present in a free vibrating system.ξ 2 ω n( t 1 + τ d ) + φ ) Equation 2 can be reduced to equation 3 based on the fact that the value of the sines are equal for each period at t = t1+τd. For damped vibration the displacement (x) is expressed as equation 1. δ = ln x1 x2 δ = ln e e ξω n t 1 Sin .ξ 2 ω n t 1+φ ) 1 .
δ= 2πξ 1ξ 2 Therefore the amplitude ratio for any two consecutive cycles is as shown in equation 6. x1 = δ e x2 It can also be show that for n cycles the following relationship exists δ= 1 x0 ln n xn 39 .