# EUCLID’S ELEMENTS OF GEOMETRY

The Greek text of J.L. Heiberg (1883–1885)
from Euclidis Elementa, edidit et Latine interpretatus est I.L. Heiberg, in aedibus
B.G. Teubneri, 1883–1885
edited, and provided with a modern English translation, by
Richard Fitzpatrick

First edition - 2007
Revised and corrected - 2008
ISBN 978-0-6151-7984-1

Contents
Introduction

4

Book 1

5

Book 2

49

Book 3

69

Book 4

109

Book 5

129

Book 6

155

Book 7

193

Book 8

227

Book 9

253

Book 10

281

Book 11

423

Book 12

471

Book 13

505

Greek-English Lexicon

539

Introduction
Euclid’s Elements is by far the most famous mathematical work of classical antiquity, and also has the distinction
of being the world’s oldest continuously used mathematical textbook. Little is known about the author, beyond
the fact that he lived in Alexandria around 300 BCE. The main subjects of the work are geometry, proportion, and
number theory.
Most of the theorems appearing in the Elements were not discovered by Euclid himself, but were the work of
earlier Greek mathematicians such as Pythagoras (and his school), Hippocrates of Chios, Theaetetus of Athens, and
Eudoxus of Cnidos. However, Euclid is generally credited with arranging these theorems in a logical manner, so as to
demonstrate (admittedly, not always with the rigour demanded by modern mathematics) that they necessarily follow
from five simple axioms. Euclid is also credited with devising a number of particularly ingenious proofs of previously
discovered theorems: e.g., Theorem 48 in Book 1.
The geometrical constructions employed in the Elements are restricted to those which can be achieved using a
straight-rule and a compass. Furthermore, empirical proofs by means of measurement are strictly forbidden: i.e.,
any comparison of two magnitudes is restricted to saying that the magnitudes are either equal, or that one is greater
than the other.
The Elements consists of thirteen books. Book 1 outlines the fundamental propositions of plane geometry, including the three cases in which triangles are congruent, various theorems involving parallel lines, the theorem regarding
the sum of the angles in a triangle, and the Pythagorean theorem. Book 2 is commonly said to deal with “geometric
algebra”, since most of the theorems contained within it have simple algebraic interpretations. Book 3 investigates
circles and their properties, and includes theorems on tangents and inscribed angles. Book 4 is concerned with regular polygons inscribed in, and circumscribed around, circles. Book 5 develops the arithmetic theory of proportion.
Book 6 applies the theory of proportion to plane geometry, and contains theorems on similar figures. Book 7 deals
with elementary number theory: e.g., prime numbers, greatest common denominators, etc. Book 8 is concerned with
geometric series. Book 9 contains various applications of results in the previous two books, and includes theorems
on the infinitude of prime numbers, as well as the sum of a geometric series. Book 10 attempts to classify incommensurable (i.e., irrational) magnitudes using the so-called “method of exhaustion”, an ancient precursor to integration.
Book 11 deals with the fundamental propositions of three-dimensional geometry. Book 12 calculates the relative
volumes of cones, pyramids, cylinders, and spheres using the method of exhaustion. Finally, Book 13 investigates the
five so-called Platonic solids.
This edition of Euclid’s Elements presents the definitive Greek text—i.e., that edited by J.L. Heiberg (1883–
1885)—accompanied by a modern English translation, as well as a Greek-English lexicon. Neither the spurious
books 14 and 15, nor the extensive scholia which have been added to the Elements over the centuries, are included.
The aim of the translation is to make the mathematical argument as clear and unambiguous as possible, whilst still
adhering closely to the meaning of the original Greek. Text within square parenthesis (in both Greek and English)
indicates material identified by Heiberg as being later interpolations to the original text (some particularly obvious or
unhelpful interpolations have been omitted altogether). Text within round parenthesis (in English) indicates material
which is implied, but not actually present, in the Greek text.
My thanks to Mariusz Wodzicki (Berkeley) for typesetting advice, and to Sam Watson & Jonathan Fenno (U.
Mississippi), and Gregory Wong (UCSD) for pointing out a number of errors in Book 1.

4

ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Fundamentals of Plane Geometry Involving
Straight-Lines

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ELEMENTS BOOK 1

VOroi.

Definitions

αʹ. Σημεῖόν ἐστιν, οὗ μέρος οὐθέν.
βʹ. Γραμμὴ δὲ μῆκος ἀπλατές.
γʹ. Γραμμῆς δὲ πέρατα σημεῖα.
δʹ. Εὐθεῖα γραμμή ἐστιν, ἥτις ἐξ ἴσου τοῖς ἐφ᾿ ἑαυτῆς
σημείοις κεῖται.
εʹ. ᾿Επιφάνεια δέ ἐστιν, ὃ μῆκος καὶ πλάτος μόνον ἔχει.
ϛʹ. ᾿Επιφανείας δὲ πέρατα γραμμαί.
ζʹ. ᾿Επίπεδος ἐπιφάνειά ἐστιν, ἥτις ἐξ ἴσου ταῖς ἐφ᾿
ἑαυτῆς εὐθείαις κεῖται.
ηʹ. ᾿Επίπεδος δὲ γωνία ἐστὶν ἡ ἐν ἐπιπέδῳ δύο γραμμῶν
ἁπτομένων ἀλλήλων καὶ μὴ ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας κειμένων πρὸς
ἀλλήλας τῶν γραμμῶν κλίσις.
θʹ. ῞Οταν δὲ αἱ περιέχουσαι τὴν γωνίαν γραμμαὶ εὐθεῖαι
ὦσιν, εὐθύγραμμος καλεῖται ἡ γωνία.
ιʹ. ῞Οταν δὲ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα τὰς ἐφεξῆς
γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ, ὀρθὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν
ἐστι, καὶ ἡ ἐφεστηκυῖα εὐθεῖα κάθετος καλεῖται, ἐφ᾿ ἣν
ἐφέστηκεν.
ιαʹ. ᾿Αμβλεῖα γωνία ἐστὶν ἡ μείζων ὀρθῆς.
ιβʹ. ᾿Οξεῖα δὲ ἡ ἐλάσσων ὀρθῆς.
ιγʹ. ῞Ορος ἐστίν, ὅ τινός ἐστι πέρας.
ιδʹ. Σχῆμά ἐστι τὸ ὑπό τινος ἤ τινων ὅρων περιεχόμενον.
ιεʹ. Κύκλος ἐστὶ σχῆμα ἐπίπεδον ὑπὸ μιᾶς γραμμῆς
περιεχόμενον [ἣ καλεῖται περιφέρεια], πρὸς ἣν ἀφ᾿ ἑνὸς
σημείου τῶν ἐντὸς τοῦ σχήματος κειμένων πᾶσαι αἱ
προσπίπτουσαι εὐθεῖαι [πρὸς τὴν τοῦ κύκλου περιφέρειαν]
ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν.
ιϛʹ. Κέντρον δὲ τοῦ κύκλου τὸ σημεῖον καλεῖται.
ιζʹ. Διάμετρος δὲ τοῦ κύκλου ἐστὶν εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ
κέντρου ἠγμένη καὶ περατουμένη ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τὰ μέρη
ὑπὸ τῆς τοῦ κύκλου περιφερείας, ἥτις καὶ δίχα τέμνει τὸν
κύκλον.
ιηʹ. ῾Ημικύκλιον δέ ἐστι τὸ περιεχόμενον σχῆμα ὑπό τε
τῆς διαμέτρου καὶ τῆς ἀπολαμβανομένης ὑπ᾿ αὐτῆς περιφερείας. κέντρον δὲ τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου τὸ αὐτό, ὃ καὶ τοῦ
κύκλου ἐστίν.
ιθʹ. Σχήματα εὐθύγραμμά ἐστι τὰ ὑπὸ εὐθειῶν περιεχόμενα, τρίπλευρα μὲν τὰ ὑπὸ τριῶν, τετράπλευρα δὲ τὰ
ὑπὸ τεσσάρων, πολύπλευρα δὲ τὰ ὑπὸ πλειόνων ἢ τεσσάρων
εὐθειῶν περιεχόμενα.
κʹ. Τῶν δὲ τριπλεύρων σχημάτων ἰσόπλευρον μὲν
τρίγωνόν ἐστι τὸ τὰς τρεῖς ἴσας ἔχον πλευράς, ἰσοσκελὲς
δὲ τὸ τὰς δύο μόνας ἴσας ἔχον πλευράς, σκαληνὸν δὲ τὸ
τὰς τρεῖς ἀνίσους ἔχον πλευράς.
καʹ ῎Ετι δὲ τῶν τριπλεύρων σχημάτων ὀρθογώνιον μὲν
τρίγωνόν ἐστι τὸ ἔχον ὀρθὴν γωνίαν, ἀμβλυγώνιον δὲ τὸ
ἔχον ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν, ὀξυγώνιον δὲ τὸ τὰς τρεῖς ὀξείας
ἔχον γωνίας.

1. A point is that of which there is no part.
2. And a line is a length without breadth.
3. And the extremities of a line are points.
4. A straight-line is (any) one which lies evenly with
points on itself.
5. And a surface is that which has length and breadth
only.
6. And the extremities of a surface are lines.
7. A plane surface is (any) one which lies evenly with
the straight-lines on itself.
8. And a plane angle is the inclination of the lines to
one another, when two lines in a plane meet one another,
and are not lying in a straight-line.
9. And when the lines containing the angle are
straight then the angle is called rectilinear.
10. And when a straight-line stood upon (another)
straight-line makes adjacent angles (which are) equal to
one another, each of the equal angles is a right-angle, and
the former straight-line is called a perpendicular to that
upon which it stands.
11. An obtuse angle is one greater than a right-angle.
12. And an acute angle (is) one less than a right-angle.
13. A boundary is that which is the extremity of something.
14. A figure is that which is contained by some boundary or boundaries.
15. A circle is a plane figure contained by a single line
[which is called a circumference], (such that) all of the
straight-lines radiating towards [the circumference] from
one point amongst those lying inside the figure are equal
to one another.
16. And the point is called the center of the circle.
17. And a diameter of the circle is any straight-line,
being drawn through the center, and terminated in each
direction by the circumference of the circle. (And) any
such (straight-line) also cuts the circle in half.†
18. And a semi-circle is the figure contained by the
diameter and the circumference cuts off by it. And the
center of the semi-circle is the same (point) as (the center
of) the circle.
19. Rectilinear figures are those (figures) contained
by straight-lines: trilateral figures being those contained
by three straight-lines, quadrilateral by four, and multilateral by more than four.
20. And of the trilateral figures: an equilateral triangle is that having three equal sides, an isosceles (triangle)
that having only two equal sides, and a scalene (triangle)
that having three unequal sides.

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ELEMENTS BOOK 1

κβʹ. Τὼν δὲ τετραπλεύρων σχημάτων τετράγωνον μέν
ἐστιν, ὃ ἰσόπλευρόν τέ ἐστι καὶ ὀρθογώνιον, ἑτερόμηκες
δέ, ὃ ὀρθογώνιον μέν, οὐκ ἰσόπλευρον δέ, ῥόμβος δέ, ὃ
ἰσόπλευρον μέν, οὐκ ὀρθογώνιον δέ, ῥομβοειδὲς δὲ τὸ τὰς
ἀπεναντίον πλευράς τε καὶ γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ἔχον, ὃ
οὔτε ἰσόπλευρόν ἐστιν οὔτε ὀρθογώνιον· τὰ δὲ παρὰ ταῦτα
τετράπλευρα τραπέζια καλείσθω.
κγʹ. Παράλληλοί εἰσιν εὐθεῖαι, αἵτινες ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ
ἐπιπέδῳ οὖσαι καὶ ἐκβαλλόμεναι εἰς ἄπειρον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα
τὰ μέρη ἐπὶ μηδέτερα συμπίπτουσιν ἀλλήλαις.

21. And further of the trilateral figures: a right-angled
triangle is that having a right-angle, an obtuse-angled
(triangle) that having an obtuse angle, and an acuteangled (triangle) that having three acute angles.
22. And of the quadrilateral figures: a square is that
which is right-angled and equilateral, a rectangle that
which is right-angled but not equilateral, a rhombus that
which is equilateral but not right-angled, and a rhomboid
that having opposite sides and angles equal to one another which is neither right-angled nor equilateral. And
let quadrilateral figures besides these be called trapezia.
23. Parallel lines are straight-lines which, being in the
same plane, and being produced to infinity in each direction, meet with one another in neither (of these directions).

This should really be counted as a postulate, rather than as part of a definition.

AÊt mata.

Postulates

αʹ. ᾿Ηιτήσθω ἀπὸ παντὸς σημείου ἐπὶ πᾶν σημεῖον
εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν.
βʹ. Καὶ πεπερασμένην εὐθεῖαν κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἐπ᾿
εὐθείας ἐκβαλεῖν.
γʹ. Καὶ παντὶ κέντρῳ καὶ διαστήματι κύκλον γράφεσθαι.
δʹ. Καὶ πάσας τὰς ὀρθὰς γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις εἶναι.
εʹ. Καὶ ἐὰν εἰς δύο εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τὰς ἐντὸς
καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη γωνίας δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονας ποιῇ,
ἐκβαλλομένας τὰς δύο εὐθείας ἐπ᾿ ἄπειρον συμπίπτειν, ἐφ᾿
ἃ μέρη εἰσὶν αἱ τῶν δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονες.

1. Let it have been postulated† to draw a straight-line
from any point to any point.
2. And to produce a finite straight-line continuously
in a straight-line.
3. And to draw a circle with any center and radius.
4. And that all right-angles are equal to one another.
5. And that if a straight-line falling across two (other)
straight-lines makes internal angles on the same side
(of itself whose sum is) less than two right-angles, then
the two (other) straight-lines, being produced to infinity,
meet on that side (of the original straight-line) that the
(sum of the internal angles) is less than two right-angles
(and do not meet on the other side).‡

The Greek present perfect tense indicates a past action with present significance. Hence, the 3rd-person present perfect imperative >Hit sjw
could be translated as “let it be postulated”, in the sense “let it stand as postulated”, but not “let the postulate be now brought forward”. The
literal translation “let it have been postulated” sounds awkward in English, but more accurately captures the meaning of the Greek.
‡ This postulate effectively specifies that we are dealing with the geometry of flat, rather than curved, space.

KoinaÈ ênnoiai.

Common Notions

αʹ. Τὰ τῷ αὐτῷ ἴσα καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν ἴσα.
1. Things equal to the same thing are also equal to
βʹ. Καὶ ἐὰν ἴσοις ἴσα προστεθῇ, τὰ ὅλα ἐστὶν ἴσα.
one another.
γʹ. Καὶ ἐὰν ἀπὸ ἴσων ἴσα ἀφαιρεθῇ, τὰ καταλειπόμενά
2. And if equal things are added to equal things then
ἐστιν ἴσα.
the wholes are equal.
δʹ. Καὶ τὰ ἐφαρμόζοντα ἐπ᾿ ἀλλήλα ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν.
3. And if equal things are subtracted from equal things
εʹ. Καὶ τὸ ὅλον τοῦ μέρους μεῖζόν [ἐστιν].
then the remainders are equal.†
4. And things coinciding with one another are equal
to one another.
5. And the whole [is] greater than the part.

As an obvious extension of C.N.s 2 & 3—if equal things are added or subtracted from the two sides of an inequality then the inequality remains

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ELEMENTS BOOK 1

an inequality of the same type.

aþ.

Proposition 1

᾿Επὶ τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας πεπερασμένης τρίγωνον
ἰσόπλευρον συστήσασθαι.

To construct an equilateral triangle on a given finite
straight-line.

Γ

Α

C

Β

Ε

D

῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα πεπερασμένη ἡ ΑΒ.
Δεῖ δὴ ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΒ εὐθείας τρίγωνον ἰσόπλευρον
συστήσασθαι.
Κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Α διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΑΒ κύκλος
γεγράφθω ὁ ΒΓΔ, καὶ πάλιν κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Β διαστήματι δὲ
τῷ ΒΑ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΑΓΕ, καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ σημείου,
καθ᾿ ὃ τέμνουσιν ἀλλήλους οἱ κύκλοι, ἐπί τὰ Α, Β σημεῖα
ἐπεζεύχθωσαν εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΓΑ, ΓΒ.
Καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ Α σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΓΔΒ κύκλου,
ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΑΒ· πάλιν, ἐπεὶ τὸ Β σημεῖον κέντρον
ἐστὶ τοῦ ΓΑΕ κύκλου, ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΒΑ. ἐδείχθη δὲ
καὶ ἡ ΓΑ τῇ ΑΒ ἴση· ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΓΑ, ΓΒ τῇ ΑΒ ἐστιν
ἴση. τὰ δὲ τῷ αὐτῷ ἴσα καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν ἴσα· καὶ ἡ ΓΑ ἄρα
τῇ ΓΒ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα αἱ ΓΑ, ΑΒ, ΒΓ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις
εἰσίν.
᾿Ισόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον. καὶ συνέσταται
ἐπὶ τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας πεπερασμένης τῆς ΑΒ. ὅπερ ἔδει
ποιῆσαι.

A

B

E

Let AB be the given finite straight-line.
So it is required to construct an equilateral triangle on
the straight-line AB.
Let the circle BCD with center A and radius AB have
been drawn [Post. 3], and again let the circle ACE with
center B and radius BA have been drawn [Post. 3]. And
let the straight-lines CA and CB have been joined from
the point C, where the circles cut one another,† to the
points A and B (respectively) [Post. 1].
And since the point A is the center of the circle CDB,
AC is equal to AB [Def. 1.15]. Again, since the point
B is the center of the circle CAE, BC is equal to BA
[Def. 1.15]. But CA was also shown (to be) equal to AB.
Thus, CA and CB are each equal to AB. But things equal
to the same thing are also equal to one another [C.N. 1].
Thus, CA is also equal to CB. Thus, the three (straightlines) CA, AB, and BC are equal to one another.
Thus, the triangle ABC is equilateral, and has been
constructed on the given finite straight-line AB. (Which
is) the very thing it was required to do.

The assumption that the circles do indeed cut one another should be counted as an additional postulate. There is also an implicit assumption
that two straight-lines cannot share a common segment.

bþ.

Proposition 2†

Πρὸς τῷ δοθέντι σημείῳ τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ ἴσην εὐθεῖαν
θέσθαι.
῎Εστω τὸ μὲν δοθὲν σημεῖον τὸ Α, ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα
ἡ ΒΓ· δεῖ δὴ πρὸς τῷ Α σημείῳ τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΒΓ
ἴσην εὐθεῖαν θέσθαι.
᾿Επεζεύχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α σημείου ἐπί τὸ Β σημεῖον
εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ, καὶ συνεστάτω ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς τρίγωνον ἰσόπλευρον
τὸ ΔΑΒ, καὶ ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ταῖς ΔΑ, ΔΒ

To place a straight-line equal to a given straight-line
at a given point (as an extremity).
Let A be the given point, and BC the given straightline. So it is required to place a straight-line at point A
equal to the given straight-line BC.
For let the straight-line AB have been joined from
point A to point B [Post. 1], and let the equilateral triangle DAB have been been constructed upon it [Prop. 1.1].
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εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΕ, ΒΖ, καὶ κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Β διαστήματι δὲ τῷ And let the straight-lines AE and BF have been proΒΓ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΓΗΘ, καὶ πάλιν κέντρῳ τῷ Δ καὶ duced in a straight-line with DA and DB (respectively)
διαστήματι τῷ ΔΗ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΗΚΛ.
[Post. 2]. And let the circle CGH with center B and radius BC have been drawn [Post. 3], and again let the circle GKL with center D and radius DG have been drawn
[Post. 3].

Γ

C

Θ

H

Κ

K

D

Β

B

Α

A

Η

G

Ζ

F

Λ

L

Ε

E

᾿Επεὶ οὖν τὸ Β σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΓΗΘ, ἴση ἐστὶν
ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΒΗ. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ τὸ Δ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ
ΗΚΛ κύκλου, ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΛ τῇ ΔΗ, ὧν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΔΒ ἴση
ἐστίν. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΑΛ λοιπῇ τῇ ΒΗ ἐστιν ἴση. ἐδείχθη δὲ
καὶ ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΒΗ ἴση· ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΑΛ, ΒΓ τῇ ΒΗ ἐστιν
ἴση. τὰ δὲ τῷ αὐτῷ ἴσα καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν ἴσα· καὶ ἡ ΑΛ
ἄρα τῇ ΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση.
Πρὸς ἄρα τῷ δοθέντι σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ
τῇ ΒΓ ἴση εὐθεῖα κεῖται ἡ ΑΛ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.

Therefore, since the point B is the center of (the circle) CGH, BC is equal to BG [Def. 1.15]. Again, since
the point D is the center of the circle GKL, DL is equal
to DG [Def. 1.15]. And within these, DA is equal to DB.
Thus, the remainder AL is equal to the remainder BG
[C.N. 3]. But BC was also shown (to be) equal to BG.
Thus, AL and BC are each equal to BG. But things equal
to the same thing are also equal to one another [C.N. 1].
Thus, AL is also equal to BC.
Thus, the straight-line AL, equal to the given straightline BC, has been placed at the given point A. (Which
is) the very thing it was required to do.

This proposition admits of a number of different cases, depending on the relative positions of the point A and the line BC. In such situations,
Euclid invariably only considers one particular case—usually, the most difficult—and leaves the remaining cases as exercises for the reader.

gþ.

Proposition 3

Δύο δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν ἀνίσων ἀπὸ τῆς μείζονος τῇ
ἐλάσσονι ἴσην εὐθεῖαν ἀφελεῖν.
῎Εστωσαν αἱ δοθεῖσαι δύο εὐθεῖαι ἄνισοι αἱ ΑΒ, Γ, ὧν
μείζων ἔστω ἡ ΑΒ· δεῖ δὴ ἀπὸ τῆς μείζονος τῆς ΑΒ τῇ
ἐλάσσονι τῇ Γ ἴσην εὐθεῖαν ἀφελεῖν.
Κείσθω πρὸς τῷ Α σημείῳ τῇ Γ εὐθείᾳ ἴση ἡ ΑΔ· καὶ
κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Α διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΑΔ κύκλος γεγράφθω
ὁ ΔΕΖ.
Καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ Α σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΔΕΖ κύκλου,

For two given unequal straight-lines, to cut off from
the greater a straight-line equal to the lesser.
Let AB and C be the two given unequal straight-lines,
of which let the greater be AB. So it is required to cut off
a straight-line equal to the lesser C from the greater AB.
Let the line AD, equal to the straight-line C, have
been placed at point A [Prop. 1.2]. And let the circle
[Post. 3].

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ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΑΔ· ἀλλὰ καὶ ἡ Γ τῇ ΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση.
And since point A is the center of circle DEF , AE
ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΑΕ, Γ τῇ ΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΑΕ is equal to AD [Def. 1.15]. But, C is also equal to AD.
τῇ Γ ἐστιν ἴση.
Thus, AE and C are each equal to AD. So AE is also
equal to C [C.N. 1].

Γ

C

D

Ε

E

Β

Α

B

A

F

Ζ

Δύο ἄρα δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν ἀνίσων τῶν ΑΒ, Γ ἀπὸ τῆς
Thus, for two given unequal straight-lines, AB and C,
μείζονος τῆς ΑΒ τῇ ἐλάσσονι τῇ Γ ἴση ἀφῄρηται ἡ ΑΕ· ὅπερ the (straight-line) AE, equal to the lesser C, has been cut
ἔδει ποιῆσαι.
off from the greater AB. (Which is) the very thing it was
required to do.

dþ.

Proposition 4

᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς [ταῖς] δυσὶ πλευραῖς
ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ τὴν γωνίαν τῇ γωνίᾳ ἴσην
ἔχῃ τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην, καὶ τὴν
βάσιν τῂ βάσει ἴσην ἕξει, καὶ τὸ τρίγωνον τῷ τριγώνῳ ἴσον
ἔσται, καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται
ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ, ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν.

If two triangles have two sides equal to two sides, respectively, and have the angle(s) enclosed by the equal
straight-lines equal, then they will also have the base
equal to the base, and the triangle will be equal to the triangle, and the remaining angles subtended by the equal
sides will be equal to the corresponding remaining angles.

Α

Β

Γ

Ε

D

A

Ζ

B

῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ, ΔΕΖ τὰς δύο πλευρὰς
τὰς ΑΒ, ΑΓ ταῖς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ταῖς ΔΕ, ΔΖ ἴσας ἔχοντα
ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ
καὶ γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἴσην. λέγω,
ὅτι καὶ βάσις ἡ ΒΓ βάσει τῇ ΕΖ ἴση ἐστίν, καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ
τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἔσται, καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι
ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ, ὑφ᾿ ἃς
αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν, ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ,
ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ.
᾿Εφαρμοζομένου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου ἐπὶ τὸ ΔΕΖ
τρίγωνον καὶ τιθεμένου τοῦ μὲν Α σημείου ἐπὶ τὸ Δ σημεῖον

C

E

F

Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having the two
sides AB and AC equal to the two sides DE and DF , respectively. (That is) AB to DE, and AC to DF . And (let)
the angle BAC (be) equal to the angle EDF . I say that
the base BC is also equal to the base EF , and triangle
ABC will be equal to triangle DEF , and the remaining
angles subtended by the equal sides will be equal to the
corresponding remaining angles. (That is) ABC to DEF ,
and ACB to DF E.
For if triangle ABC is applied to triangle DEF ,† the
point A being placed on the point D, and the straight-line

10

δύο εὐθεῖαι χωρίον περιέξουσιν· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΔ τυχὸν σημεῖον τὸ Ζ. (That is) ABC to DEF . εἰ γὰρ τοῦ μὲν Β ἐπὶ τὸ Ε ἐφαρμόσαντος τοῦ δὲ Γ ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ ἡ ΒΓ βάσις ἐπὶ τὴν ΕΖ οὐκ ἐφαρμόσει. ‡ Since Post. 1 implicitly assumes that the straight-line joining two given points is unique. ἐφαρμόσει καὶ τὸ Β σημεῖον ἐπὶ τὸ Ε διὰ τὸ ἴσην εἶναι τὴν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ· ἐφαρμοσάσης δὴ τῆς ΑΒ ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ ἐφαρμόσει καὶ ἡ ΑΓ εὐθεῖα ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΖ διὰ τὸ ἴσην εἶναι τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίαν τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ· ὥστε καὶ τὸ Γ σημεῖον ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ σημεῖον ἐφαρμόσει διὰ τὸ ἴσην πάλιν εἶναι τὴν ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ. eþ. ΓΕ· λέγω. and the triangle will be equal to the triangle. So (because of) AB coinciding with DE. καὶ προσεκβληθεισῶν τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν αἱ to one another. on account of AB being equal to DE. Thus. 4]. again on account of AC being equal to DF . ἐφαρμόσει ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ βάσις ἐπὶ τὴν ΕΖ καὶ ἴση αὐτῇ ἔσται· ὥστε καὶ ὅλον τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον ἐπὶ ὅλον τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον ἐφαρμόσει καὶ ἴσον αὐτῷ ἔσται. the base BC will coincide with EF . So the whole triangle ABC will coincide with the whole triangle DEF .N. ΑΓ εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΒΔ. and the base BC does not coincide with EF . ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ τὸ Β ἐπὶ τὸ Ε ἐφηρμόκει· ὥστε βάσις ἡ ΒΓ ἐπὶ βάσιν τὴν ΕΖ ἐφαρμόσει. For let the point F have been taken at random on BD. point B certainly also coincided with point E. and will be equal to it [C. ὅτι ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἴση ἐστίν. 4]. ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ. then two straight-lines will encompass an area. and have the angle(s) enclosed by the equal straight-line equal. 4]. † The application of one figure to another should be counted as an additional postulate. and (angle) CBD to BCE. the angles under the base will be equal to one another. 4]. and will be equal to it [C. καὶ ἀφῃρήσθω ἀπὸ τῆς μείζονος τῆς ΑΕ τῇ ἐλάσσονι τῇ ΑΖ C G E D Let ABC be an isosceles triangle having the side AB equal to the side AC. καὶ τὸ τρίγωνον τῷ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἔσται. and let AG have been cut off from the greater AE. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ἐπὶ τὰς λοιπὰς γωνίας ἐφαρμόσουσι καὶ ἴσαι αὐταῖς ἔσονται. equal 11 . so that the base BC will coincide with the base EF . The very thing is impossible [Post. For if B coincides with E.N.N. καὶ τὴν βάσιν τῂ βάσει ἴσην ἕξει. the straight-line AC will also coincide with DF . Proposition 5 Τῶν ἰσοσκελῶν τριγώνων αἱ τρὸς τῇ βάσει γωνίαι ἴσαι For isosceles triangles. καὶ προσεκβεβλήσθωσαν ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ταῖς ΑΒ. on account of the angle BAC being equal to EDF . and C with F . the angles at the base are equal ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. I say that the angle ABC is equal to ACB. 1]. and let the straight-lines BD and CE have been produced in a straight-line with AB and AC (respectively) [Post. then the point B will also coincide with E. And the remaining angles will coincide with the remaining angles. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΓΒΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΕ. and will be equal to them [C. respectively. But. if two triangles have two sides equal to two sides. and ACB to DF E [C. 2]. then they will also have the base equal to the base.‡ Thus. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and the remaining angles subtended by the equal sides will be equal to the corresponding remaining angles.N. Α A Β Ζ ∆ Γ B Η F Ε ῎Εστω τρίγωνον ἰσοσκελὲς τὸ ΑΒΓ ἴσην ἔχον τὴν ΑΒ πλευρὰν τῇ ΑΓ πλευρᾷ. AB on DE.STOIQEIWN aþ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς [ταῖς] δύο πλευραῖς ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ τὴν γωνίαν τῇ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχῃ τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην. and if the equal sides are produced then ὑπὸ τὴν βάσιν γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις ἔσονται. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 τῆς δὲ ΑΒ εὐθείας ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ. So the point C will also coincide with the point F . (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

ΗΒ εὐθεῖαι. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. AC. I say that side AB is also equal to side ΑΓ ἐστιν ἴση.4]. the angles at the base are equal to one another. let the straight-lines F C and GB have been joined [Post. to the lesser AF [Prop. (That is) ACF to ABG. the remainder BF is thus equal to the remainder CG [C. 1. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΗΒ ἴση· δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΖ. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὅλη ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΗ γωνία ὅλῃ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΖ γωνίᾳ ἐδείχθη ἴση. ΑΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΗΑ. Thus. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. And F BC was also shown (to be) equal to GCB. and AF C to AGB. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΖΓ. since the whole angle ABG was shown (to be) equal to the whole angle ACF . Thus. ΗΒ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΖΓ γωνίᾳ τῃ ὑπὸ ΓΗΒ ἴση. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΖ τῇ ΑΗ ἡ δὲ ΑΒ τῇ ΑΓ. 1. since AF is equal to AG. within which AB is equal to AC. and the remaining angles subtended by the equal sides will be equal to the corresponding remaining angles [Prop. ὅτι καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΒ πλευρᾷ τῇ to the angle ACB. ὧν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΑΓ ἐστιν ἴση. the base F C is equal to the base GB. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΓΒ ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΓΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΒΗ. ΖΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΓΗ. AC are equal to the two (straight-lines) GA. 12 . F C are equal to the two (straight-lines) CG. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΖΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΗΒ. and if the equal sides are produced then the angles under the base will be equal to one another.N. GB. the triangle BF C will be equal to the triangle CGB. καὶ βάσις αὐτῶν κοινὴ ἡ ΒΓ· καὶ τὸ ΒΖΓ ἄρα τρίγωνον τῷ ΓΗΒ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἔσται. Proposition 6 ᾿Εὰν τριγώνου αἱ δύο γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις ὦσιν. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΒΖ λοιπῇ τῇ ΓΗ ἐστιν ἴση. the remainder ABC is thus equal to the remainder ACB [C. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν. Also. and AB to AC. They also encompass a common angle. καὶ If a triangle has two angles equal to one another then αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας ὑποτείνουσαι πλευραὶ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις the sides subtending the equal angles will also be equal ἔσονται. 3].3]. F AG. and the angle BF C (is) equal to the angle CGB. δύο δὴ αἱ ΖΑ. and the remaining angles subtendend by the equal sides will be equal to the corresponding remaining angles [Prop. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὅλη ἡ ΑΖ ὅλῃ τῇ ΑΗ ἐστιν ἴση.STOIQEIWN aþ. and BCF to CBG. ΑΒ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνίαν κοινὴν περιέχουσι τὴν ὑπὸ ΖΑΗ· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΖΓ βάσει τῇ ΗΒ ἴση ἐστίν. And they are under the base. to one another. But F C was also shown (to be) equal to GB. καὶ τὸ ΑΖΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΗΒ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἔσται. and the base BC is common to them. Therefore. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 3]. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΓΒ ἴση· καί εἰσιν ὑπὸ τὴν βάσιν. the two (straight-lines) F A. Α A ∆ Β D Γ B C ῎Εστω τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ ἴσην ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίαν Let ABC be a triangle having the angle ABC equal τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ γωνίᾳ· λέγω. respectively. for isosceles triangles. And they are at the base of triangle ABC. þ. and the triangle AF C will be equal to the triangle AGB.4]. So the two (straightlines) BF . ὧν ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΒΗ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΖ ἴση. 1]. ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΓΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΗ. AB.N. within which CBG is equal to BCF . Τῶν ἄρα ἰσοσκελῶν τριγώνων αἱ τρὸς τῇ βάσει γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἴση ἡ ΑΗ. In fact. respectively. 1. F BC is equal to GCB. Thus. καὶ προσεκβληθεισῶν τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν αἱ ὑπὸ τὴν βάσιν γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις ἔσονται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. And since the whole of AF is equal to the whole of AG. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἐστιν ἴση· καί εἰσι πρὸς τῇ βάσει τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου.

1].3]. ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς εὐθείας τῆς ΑΒ δύο ταῖς αὐταῖς εὐθείαις ταῖς ΑΓ.4]. ἔστω μείζων ἡ ΑΒ. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 Εἰ γὰρ ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΑΓ. 1]. καὶ τὸ ΔΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΓΒ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἔσται. CB. BC are equal to the two sides AC.5]. have been constructed on the same straight-line AB. AB is not unequal to AC. ADC (is) greater than DCB [C. ἐδείχθη δὲ αὐτῆς καὶ πολλῷ μείζων· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. to two (given) straight-lines (which ἄλλῳ καὶ ἄλλῳ σημείῳ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τὰ αὐτὰ πέρατα meet) cannot be constructed (meeting) at a different ἔχουσαι ταῖς ἐξ ἀρχῆς εὐθείαις. since CB is equal to DB. And let CD have been joined [Post. and BC (is) common. Thus. Again. two other straight-lines δύο εὐθεῖαι ἴσαι ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ οὐ συσταθήσονται πρὸς equal. the two sides DB. and CB is equal to DB. use is made of the previously unmentioned common notion that if two quantities are not unequal then they must be equal. DB. CDB is much greater than DCB [C.5]. ΔΒ ἴσαι ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ συνεστάτωσαν πρὸς ἄλλῳ καὶ ἄλλῳ σημείῳ τῷ τε Γ καὶ Δ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τὰ αὐτὰ πέρατα ἔχουσαι. then they must be equal to one another. καὶ ἀφῃρήσθω ἀπὸ τῆς μείζονος τῆς ΑΒ τῇ ἐλάττονι τῇ ΑΓ ἴση ἡ ΔΒ. καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας ὑποτείνουσαι πλευραὶ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις ἔσονται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 1. 1. respectively. (it is) equal. if a triangle has two angles equal to one another then the sides subtending the equal angles will also be equal to one another. δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΒ. And let DB. And let DC have been joined [Post. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΓΔ. Therefore. equal to the lesser AC. and the angle DBC is equal to the angle ACB. use is made of the closely related common notion that if two quantities are not greater than or less than one another. Later on. but having the same ends as the given straight-lines. ΒΓ δύο ταῖς ΑΓ. the angle ACD is also equal to angle ADC [Prop. the angle CDB is also equal to angle DCB [Prop. if possible. † For if AB is unequal to AC then one of them is greater. have been cut off from the greater AB [Prop. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΑΔ. Here. meeting at different points. zþ. the base DC is equal to the base AB. So CA is equal to DA. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΒ τῇ ΑΓ κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΒΓ. 1. point on the same side (of the straight-line). ΓΒ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἐστιν ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΔΓ βάσει τῇ ΑΒ ἴση ἐστίν. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΓ. Therefore. Thus. CB. since AC is equal to AD. Let AB be greater. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τριγώνου αἱ δὑο γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις ὦσιν. 5]. πάλιν ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΒ τῇ ΔΒ. τὴν δὲ ΓΒ τῇ ΔΒ τὸ αὐτὸ πέρας ἔχουσαν αὐτῇ τὸ Β. equal to two other straight-lines AD. C and D.STOIQEIWN aþ. τὸ ἔλασσον τῷ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἄτοπον· οὐκ ἄρα ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΑΓ· ἴση ἄρα. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. Γ C ∆ Α D Β A Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. ΓΒ ἄλλαι δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΔ.† Thus.N. let the two straight-lines AC. Thus. Proposition 7 ᾿Επὶ τῆς αὐτῆς εὐθείας δύο ταῖς αὐταῖς εὐθείαις ἄλλαι On the same straight-line. But it was shown that the former (angle) is also much greater 13 . ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΓΒ· πολλῷ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΒ μείζων ἐστί τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΓΒ. having the same end B as it. ὥστε ἴσην εἶναι τὴν μὲν ΓΑ τῇ ΔΑ τὸ αὐτὸ πέρας ἔχουσαν αὐτῇ τὸ Α. respectively. since DB is equal to AC. respectively. and the triangle DBC will be equal to the triangle ACB [Prop. the lesser to the greater. ἡ ἑτέρα αὐτῶν μείζων ἐστίν. Thus. having the same end A as it. The very notion (is) absurd [C.N. 5]. 5]. Οὐκ ἄρα ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς εὐθείας δύο ταῖς αὐταῖς εὐθείαις B For. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΒ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΒ.N. 1. and having the same ends (on AB). respectively. on the same side (of AB).

But (such straight-lines) cannot be constructed [Prop. εἰ γὰρ βάσις μὲν ἡ ΒΓ ἐπὶ βάσιν τὴν ΕΖ ἐφαρμόσει. συσταθήσονται ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς εὐθείας δύο ταῖς αὐταῖς εὐθείαις ἄλλαι δύο εὐθεῖαι ἴσαι ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ πρὸς ἄλλῳ καὶ ἄλλῳ σημείῳ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τὰ αὐτὰ πέρατα ἔχουσαι. equal straight-lines. but miss like EG and GF (in the above figure). and have the base equal to the base. respectively. So (because of) BC coinciding with EF . ΔΖ ἴσας ἔχοντα ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. hþ. respectively. but having the same ends as the given straight-lines. καὶ τὴν γωνίαν τῇ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἕξει τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων they will also have equal the angles encompassed by the εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην. ΑΓ πλευραὶ ἐπὶ τὰς ΕΔ. I say that the angle BAC is also equal to the angle EDF . then point C will also coincide with F . For if base BC coincides with base EF . ἐφαρμόσουσιν ἄρα· ὥστε καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ἐπὶ γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἐφαρμόσει καὶ ἴση αὐτῇ ἔσται. ΗΖ. τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ· ἐχέτω δὲ καὶ βάσιν τὴν ΒΓ βάσει τῇ ΕΖ ἴσην· λέγω. but having the same ends. lines equal. two other straightlines equal. ΔΖ οὐκ ἐφαρμόσουσιν ἀλλὰ παραλλάξουσιν ὡς αἱ ΕΗ. ὅτι καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση. respectively. ἄλλῳ καὶ ἄλλῳ σημείῳ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τὰ αὐτὰ πέρατα Thus. For if triangle ABC is applied to triangle DEF . (That is) AB to DE. οὐ συνίστανται δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἐφαρμοζομένης τῆς ΒΓ βάσεως ἐπὶ τὴν ΕΖ βάσιν οὐκ ἐφαρμόσουσι καὶ αἱ ΒΑ. the sides BA and AC cannot not coincide with ED and DF (respectively). (the sides) BA and CA will also coincide with ED and DF (respectively). ΔΖ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. but the sides AB and AC do not coincide with ED and DF (respectively). καὶ τὴν γωνίαν τῇ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἕξει τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. Thus. they will coincide. and will be equal to it [C. 4]. ΑΓ πλευραὶ ἐπὶ τὰς ΕΔ. ΔΖ. ΑΓ ταῖς δύο πλευραῖς ταῖς ΔΕ. and the straight-line BC on EF . and (meeting) at a different point on the same side (of the straight-line). The very thing is impossible. respectively.7]. if two triangles have two sides equal to two side. ΔΕΖ τὰς δύο πλευρὰς τὰς ΑΒ. G E Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having the two sides AB and AC equal to the two sides DE and DF . reἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. ΓΑ ἐπὶ τὰς ΕΔ. and AC to DF . then we will have constructed upon the same straight-line.STOIQEIWN aþ. ∆ Α Ζ Γ Β D A Η F C Ε B ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. then ἴσην. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἄλλαι δύο εὐθεῖαι ἴσαι ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ συσταθήσονται πρὸς (than the latter). Let them also have the base BC equal to the base EF . ᾿Εφαρμοζομένου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου ἐπὶ τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον καὶ τιθεμένου τοῦ μὲν Β σημείου ἐπὶ τὸ Ε σημεῖον τῆς δὲ ΒΓ εὐθείας ἐπὶ τὴν ΕΖ ἐφαρμόσει καὶ τὸ Γ σημεῖον ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ διὰ τὸ ἴσην εἶναι τὴν ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ· ἐφαρμοσάσης δὴ τῆς ΒΓ ἐπὶ τὴν ΕΖ ἐφαρμόσουσι καὶ αἱ ΒΑ. to two (given) straight-lines. 14 .N. on the same straight-line. to two (given) straight-lines (which meet) cannot be constructed (meeting) at a different point on the same side (of the straight-line). and also have the base equal to the base. Thus. the point B being placed on point E. the base BC being applied to the base EF . So the angle BAC will also coincide with angle EDF . 1. on account of BC being equal to EF . Proposition 8 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς [ταῖς] δύο πλευραῖς If two triangles have two sides equal to two sides. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς [ταῖς] δύο πλευραῖς ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ τὴν βάσιν τῇ βάσει ἴσην ἔχῃ. αἱ δὲ ΒΑ. two other straightἔχουσαι ταῖς ἐξ ἀρχῆς εὐθείαις· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἔχῃ δὲ καὶ τὴν βάσιν τῇ βάσει spectively.

1. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΒ. angle DAF is equal to angle EAF [Prop. respectively. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΓΔ. And let the equilateral triangle DEF have been constructed upon DE [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Let AB be the given finite straight-line. 1. jþ. ΑΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΕΑ. I say that the straight-line AB has been cut in half at point D. equal to AD. ΑΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. καὶ συνεστάτω ἐπὶ τῆς ΔΕ τρίγωνον ἰσόπλευρον τὸ ΔΕΖ. ΓΔ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἴση ἐστίν· βάσις ἄρα To cut a given finite straight-line in half. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΑΕ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. Thus. δεῖ δὴ αὐτὴν δίχα τεμεῖν. For since AD is equal to AE. ῾Η ἄρα δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΖ εὐθείας· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. have been cut off from AC [Prop. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΖ· λέγω. For since AC is equal to CB. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΕ. and let the angle ACB have been cut in half by the straight-line CD [Prop. the given rectilinear angle BAC has been cut in half by the straight-line AF . Proposition 9 Τὴν δοθεῖσαν γωνίαν εὐθύγραμμον δίχα τεμεῖν. Α ∆ Β A Ε Ζ D Γ B E F C ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. So it is required to cut the finite straight-line AB in half. 1. And the base DF is equal to the base EF . I say that the angle BAC has been cut in half by the straight-line AF . and CD (is) common. So it is required to cut it in half. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΑΖ.3]. To cut a given rectilinear angle in half. and let DE have been joined. ὅτι ἡ ΑΒ εὐθεῖα δίχα τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Δ σημεῖον. AF . Proposition 10 Τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν πεπερασμένην δίχα τεμεῖν. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ γωνία δίχα τῇ ΓΔ εὐθείᾳ· λέγω. ΓΔ δύο ταῖς ΒΓ. and let AF have been joined.1]. Let the point D have been taken at random on AB. ὅτι ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΖ εὐθείας. ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα πεπερασμένη ἡ ΑΒ· δεῖ δὴ τὴν ΑΒ εὐθεῖαν πεπερασμένην δίχα τεμεῖν. 1.9]. Let the equilateral triangle ABC have been constructed upon (AB) [Prop. and AF is common. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 then they will also have equal the angles encompassed by the equal straight-lines. the two (straight-lines) DA. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΓ. iþ. Συνεστάτω ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς τρίγωνον ἰσόπλευρον τὸ ΑΒΓ. καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΖ βάσει τῇ ΕΖ ἴση ἐστίν· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΑΖ ἴση ἐστίν. καὶ ἀφῃρήσθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τῇ ΑΔ ἴση ἡ ΑΕ. AF are equal to the two (straight-lines) EA. 15 . 1. Let BAC be the given rectilinear angle.8]. δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΑ.STOIQEIWN aþ.1]. and let AE. Εἰλήφθω ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΒ τυχὸν σημεῖον τὸ Δ. Thus.

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

ἡ ΑΔ βάσει τῇ ΒΔ ἴση ἐστίν.

the two (straight-lines) AC, CD are equal to the two
(straight-lines) BC, CD, respectively. And the angle
ACD is equal to the angle BCD. Thus, the base AD
is equal to the base BD [Prop. 1.4].

Γ

Α

C

Β

A

B

D

῾Η ἄρα δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα πεπερασμένη ἡ ΑΒ δίχα τέτμηται
Thus, the given finite straight-line AB has been cut
κατὰ τὸ Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.
in half at (point) D. (Which is) the very thing it was
required to do.

iaþ.

Proposition 11

Τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ ἀπὸ τοῦ πρὸς αὐτῇ δοθέντος σημείου
To draw a straight-line at right-angles to a given
πρὸς ὀρθὰς γωνίας εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν.
straight-line from a given point on it.

Ζ

F

Α

Β

Γ

B

A

Ε

D

῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ τὸ δὲ δοθὲν σημεῖον
ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς τὸ Γ· δεῖ δὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ
πρὸς ὀρθὰς γωνίας εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν.
Εἰλήφθω ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ τυχὸν σημεῖον τὸ Δ, καὶ κείσθω
τῇ ΓΔ ἴση ἡ ΓΕ, καὶ συνεστάτω ἐπὶ τῆς ΔΕ τρίγωνον
ἰσόπλευρον τὸ ΖΔΕ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΓ· λέγω, ὅτι τῇ
δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΑΒ ἀπὸ τοῦ πρὸς αὐτῇ δοθέντος σημείου
τοῦ Γ πρὸς ὀρθὰς γωνίας εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ ἦκται ἡ ΖΓ.
᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΓ τῇ ΓΕ, κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΓΖ, δύο
δὴ αἱ ΔΓ, ΓΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΕΓ, ΓΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ·
καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΖ βάσει τῇ ΖΕ ἴση ἐστίν· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ
ΔΓΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΓΖ ἴση ἐστίν· καί εἰσιν ἐφεξῆς. ὅταν
δὲ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας ἴσας
ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ, ὀρθὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν ἐστιν· ὀρθὴ
ἄρα ἐστὶν ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΔΓΖ, ΖΓΕ.

C

E

Let AB be the given straight-line, and C the given
point on it. So it is required to draw a straight-line from
the point C at right-angles to the straight-line AB.
Let the point D be have been taken at random on AC,
and let CE be made equal to CD [Prop. 1.3], and let the
equilateral triangle F DE have been constructed on DE
[Prop. 1.1], and let F C have been joined. I say that the
straight-line F C has been drawn at right-angles to the
given straight-line AB from the given point C on it.
For since DC is equal to CE, and CF is common,
the two (straight-lines) DC, CF are equal to the two
(straight-lines), EC, CF , respectively. And the base DF
is equal to the base F E. Thus, the angle DCF is equal
to the angle ECF [Prop. 1.8], and they are adjacent.
But when a straight-line stood on a(nother) straight-line

16

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

Τῇ ἄρα δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΑΒ ἀπὸ τοῦ πρὸς αὐτῇ makes the adjacent angles equal to one another, each of
δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ Γ πρὸς ὀρθὰς γωνίας εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ the equal angles is a right-angle [Def. 1.10]. Thus, each
ἦκται ἡ ΓΖ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.
of the (angles) DCF and F CE is a right-angle.
Thus, the straight-line CF has been drawn at rightangles to the given straight-line AB from the given point
C on it. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.

ibþ.

Proposition 12

᾿Επὶ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν ἄπειρον ἀπὸ τοῦ δοθέντος
To draw a straight-line perpendicular to a given infiσημείου, ὃ μή ἐστιν ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς, κάθετον εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν nite straight-line from a given point which is not on it.
ἀγαγεῖν.

Ζ

F

Γ

C

Α

Β
Η

Θ

A

Ε

B
G

H

E
D

῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἄπειρος ἡ ΑΒ τὸ δὲ δοθὲν
σημεῖον, ὃ μή ἐστιν ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς, τὸ Γ· δεῖ δὴ ἐπὶ τὴν δοθεῖσαν
εὐθεῖαν ἄπειρον τὴν ΑΒ ἀπὸ τοῦ δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ Γ,
ὃ μή ἐστιν ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς, κάθετον εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν.
Εἰλήφθω γὰρ ἐπὶ τὰ ἕτερα μέρη τῆς ΑΒ εὐθείας τυχὸν
σημεῖον τὸ Δ, καὶ κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Γ διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΓΔ
κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΕΖΗ, καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΕΗ εὐθεῖα δίχα
κατὰ τὸ Θ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΓΗ, ΓΘ, ΓΕ εὐθεῖαι·
λέγω, ὅτι ἐπὶ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν ἄπειρον τὴν ΑΒ ἀπὸ
τοῦ δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ Γ, ὃ μή ἐστιν ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς, κάθετος
ἦκται ἡ ΓΘ.
᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΘ τῇ ΘΕ, κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΘΓ, δύο
δὴ αἱ ΗΘ, ΘΓ δύο ταῖς ΕΘ, ΘΓ ἴσαι εἱσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ·
καὶ βάσις ἡ ΓΗ βάσει τῇ ΓΕ ἐστιν ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ
ΓΘΗ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΓ ἐστιν ἴση. καί εἰσιν ἐφεξῆς. ὅταν
δὲ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας ἴσας
ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ, ὀρθὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν ἐστιν, καὶ
ἡ ἐφεστηκυῖα εὐθεῖα κάθετος καλεῖται ἐφ᾿ ἣν ἐφέστηκεν.
᾿Επὶ τὴν δοθεῖσαν ἄρα εὐθεῖαν ἄπειρον τὴν ΑΒ ἀπὸ τοῦ
δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ Γ, ὃ μή ἐστιν ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς, κάθετος
ἦκται ἡ ΓΘ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.

Let AB be the given infinite straight-line and C the
given point, which is not on (AB). So it is required to
draw a straight-line perpendicular to the given infinite
straight-line AB from the given point C, which is not on
(AB).
For let point D have been taken at random on the
other side (to C) of the straight-line AB, and let the
circle EF G have been drawn with center C and radius
CD [Post. 3], and let the straight-line EG have been cut
in half at (point) H [Prop. 1.10], and let the straightlines CG, CH, and CE have been joined. I say that the
(straight-line) CH has been drawn perpendicular to the
given infinite straight-line AB from the given point C,
which is not on (AB).
For since GH is equal to HE, and HC (is) common,
the two (straight-lines) GH, HC are equal to the two
(straight-lines) EH, HC, respectively, and the base CG
is equal to the base CE. Thus, the angle CHG is equal
to the angle EHC [Prop. 1.8], and they are adjacent.
But when a straight-line stood on a(nother) straight-line
makes the adjacent angles equal to one another, each of
the equal angles is a right-angle, and the former straightline is called a perpendicular to that upon which it stands
[Def. 1.10].
Thus, the (straight-line) CH has been drawn perpendicular to the given infinite straight-line AB from the

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ELEMENTS BOOK 1
given point C, which is not on (AB). (Which is) the very
thing it was required to do.

igþ.

Proposition 13

᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα γωνίας ποιῇ, ἤτοι δύο
ὀρθὰς ἢ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιήσει.

If a straight-line stood on a(nother) straight-line
makes angles, it will certainly either make two rightangles, or (angles whose sum is) equal to two rightangles.

Ε

Β

E

Α

Γ

D

Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΓΔ σταθεῖσα
γωνίας ποιείτω τὰς ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ, ΑΒΔ· λὲγω, ὅτι αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ,
ΑΒΔ γωνίαι ἤτοι δύο ὀρθαί εἰσιν ἢ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι.
Εἰ μὲν οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ, δύο ὀρθαί
εἰσιν. εἰ δὲ οὔ, ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Β σημείου τῇ ΓΔ [εὐθείᾳ] πρὸς
ὀρθὰς ἡ ΒΕ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ, ΕΒΔ δύο ὀρθαί εἰσιν· καὶ
ἐπεὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ, ΑΒΕ ἴση ἐστίν, κοινὴ
προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΔ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ, ΕΒΔ τρισὶ ταῖς
ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ, ΑΒΕ, ΕΒΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ
δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ, ΕΒΑ ἴση ἐστίν, κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ
ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ, ΑΒΓ τρισὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ, ΕΒΑ,
ΑΒΓ ἴσαι εἰσίν. ἐδείχθησαν δὲ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ, ΕΒΔ τρισὶ
ταῖς αὐταῖς ἴσαι· τὰ δὲ τῷ αὐτῷ ἴσα καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν ἴσα·
καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ, ΕΒΔ ἄρα ταῖς ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ, ΑΒΓ ἴσαι εἰσίν·
ἀλλὰ αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ, ΕΒΔ δύο ὀρθαί εἰσιν· καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ,
ΑΒΓ ἄρα δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν.
᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα γωνίας ποιῇ, ἤτοι
δύο ὀρθὰς ἢ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιήσει· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

B

A

C

For let some straight-line AB stood on the straightline CD make the angles CBA and ABD. I say that
the angles CBA and ABD are certainly either two rightangles, or (have a sum) equal to two right-angles.
In fact, if CBA is equal to ABD then they are two
right-angles [Def. 1.10]. But, if not, let BE have been
drawn from the point B at right-angles to [the straightline] CD [Prop. 1.11]. Thus, CBE and EBD are two
right-angles. And since CBE is equal to the two (angles) CBA and ABE, let EBD have been added to both.
Thus, the (sum of the angles) CBE and EBD is equal to
the (sum of the) three (angles) CBA, ABE, and EBD
[C.N. 2]. Again, since DBA is equal to the two (angles) DBE and EBA, let ABC have been added to both.
Thus, the (sum of the angles) DBA and ABC is equal to
the (sum of the) three (angles) DBE, EBA, and ABC
[C.N. 2]. But (the sum of) CBE and EBD was also
shown (to be) equal to the (sum of the) same three (angles). And things equal to the same thing are also equal
to one another [C.N. 1]. Therefore, (the sum of) CBE
and EBD is also equal to (the sum of) DBA and ABC.
But, (the sum of) CBE and EBD is two right-angles.
Thus, (the sum of) ABD and ABC is also equal to two
right-angles.
Thus, if a straight-line stood on a(nother) straightline makes angles, it will certainly either make two rightangles, or (angles whose sum is) equal to two rightangles. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

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idþ.

Proposition 14

᾿Εὰν πρός τινι εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ δύο
If two straight-lines, not lying on the same side, make
εὐθεῖαι μὴ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας adjacent angles (whose sum is) equal to two right-angles
δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιῶσιν, ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἔσονται ἀλλήλαις αἱ with some straight-line, at a point on it, then the two
εὐθεῖαι.
straight-lines will be straight-on (with respect) to one another.

Α

Γ

Ε

Β

A

C

E

B

D

Πρὸς γάρ τινι εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΑΒ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ
τῷ Β δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΒΓ, ΒΔ μὴ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι
τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, ΑΒΔ δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσας
ποιείτωσαν· λέγω, ὅτι ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἐστὶ τῇ ΓΒ ἡ ΒΔ.
Εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστι τῇ ΒΓ ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἡ ΒΔ, ἔστω τῇ ΓΒ
ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἡ ΒΕ.
᾿Επεὶ οὖν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΓΒΕ ἐφέστηκεν,
αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, ΑΒΕ γωνίαι δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· εἰσὶ δὲ
καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, ΑΒΔ δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ,
ΑΒΕ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ, ΑΒΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν. κοινὴ ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ
ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ ἐστιν
ἴση, ἡ ἐλάσσων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. οὐκ ἄρα
ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΓΒ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι οὐδὲ
ἄλλη τις πλὴν τῆς ΒΔ· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΒ τῇ ΒΔ.
᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρός τινι εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ
δύο εὐθεῖαι μὴ ἐπὶ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας
δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιῶσιν, ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἔσονται ἀλλήλαις αἱ
εὐθεῖαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

For let two straight-lines BC and BD, not lying on the
same side, make adjacent angles ABC and ABD (whose
sum is) equal to two right-angles with some straight-line
AB, at the point B on it. I say that BD is straight-on with
respect to CB.
For if BD is not straight-on to BC then let BE be
straight-on to CB.
Therefore, since the straight-line AB stands on the
straight-line CBE, the (sum of the) angles ABC and
ABE is thus equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.13]. But
(the sum of) ABC and ABD is also equal to two rightangles. Thus, (the sum of angles) CBA and ABE is equal
to (the sum of angles) CBA and ABD [C.N. 1]. Let (angle) CBA have been subtracted from both. Thus, the remainder ABE is equal to the remainder ABD [C.N. 3],
the lesser to the greater. The very thing is impossible.
Thus, BE is not straight-on with respect to CB. Similarly, we can show that neither (is) any other (straightline) than BD. Thus, CB is straight-on with respect to
BD.
Thus, if two straight-lines, not lying on the same side,
make adjacent angles (whose sum is) equal to two rightangles with some straight-line, at a point on it, then the
two straight-lines will be straight-on (with respect) to
one another. (Which is) the very thing it was required
to show.

ieþ.

Proposition 15

᾿Εὰν δύο εὐθεῖαι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλας, τὰς κατὰ κορυφὴν
If two straight-lines cut one another then they make
γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιοῦσιν.
the vertically opposite angles equal to one another.

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Δύο γὰρ εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΒ, ΓΔ τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλας κατὰ
For let the two straight-lines AB and CD cut one anτὸ Ε σημεῖον· λέγω, ὅτι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ γωνία τῇ other at the point E. I say that angle AEC is equal to
ὑπὸ ΔΕΒ, ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΓΕΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ.
(angle) DEB, and (angle) CEB to (angle) AED.

Α

A

Ε

E
Γ

D

C

Β

B

᾿Επεὶ γὰρ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΕ ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΓΔ ἐφέστηκε
γωνίας ποιοῦσα τὰς ὑπὸ ΓΕΑ, ΑΕΔ, αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΕΑ, ΑΕΔ
γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΔΕ ἐπ᾿
εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ ἐφέστηκε γωνίας ποιοῦσα τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ,
ΔΕΒ, αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ, ΔΕΒ γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν.
ἐδείχθησαν δὲ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΕΑ, ΑΕΔ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι· αἱ
ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΕΑ, ΑΕΔ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ, ΔΕΒ ἴσαι εἰσίν. κοινὴ
ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΕΑ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ
ΒΕΔ ἴση ἐστίν· ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται, ὅτι καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΕΒ,
ΔΕΑ ἴσαι εἰσίν.
᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο εὐθεῖαι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλας, τὰς κατὰ κορυφὴν γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιοῦσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

For since the straight-line AE stands on the straightline CD, making the angles CEA and AED, the (sum
of the) angles CEA and AED is thus equal to two rightangles [Prop. 1.13]. Again, since the straight-line DE
stands on the straight-line AB, making the angles AED
and DEB, the (sum of the) angles AED and DEB is
thus equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.13]. But (the sum
of) CEA and AED was also shown (to be) equal to two
right-angles. Thus, (the sum of) CEA and AED is equal
to (the sum of) AED and DEB [C.N. 1]. Let AED have
been subtracted from both. Thus, the remainder CEA is
equal to the remainder BED [C.N. 3]. Similarly, it can
be shown that CEB and DEA are also equal.
Thus, if two straight-lines cut one another then they
make the vertically opposite angles equal to one another.
(Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

iþ.

Proposition 16

Παντὸς τριγώνου μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν προσεκβληθείσης
ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἑκατέρας τῶν ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον γωνιῶν
μείζων ἐστίν.
῎Εστω τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ, καὶ προσεκβεβλήσθω αὐτοῦ
μία πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΓ ἐπὶ τὸ Δ· λὲγω, ὅτι ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ
ΑΓΔ μείζων ἐστὶν ἑκατέρας τῶν ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῶν
ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ, ΒΑΓ γωνιῶν.
Τετμήσθω ἡ ΑΓ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε, καὶ ἐπιζευχθεῖσα ἡ ΒΕ
ἐκβεβλήσθω ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ, καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΒΕ ἴση ἡ
ΕΖ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΓ, καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΑΓ ἐπὶ τὸ Η.
᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΕ τῇ ΕΓ, ἡ δὲ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΖ, δύο
δὴ αἱ ΑΕ, ΕΒ δυσὶ ταῖς ΓΕ, ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ·
καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΕΓ ἴση ἐστίν· κατὰ
κορυφὴν γάρ· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ βάσει τῇ ΖΓ ἴση ἐστίν, καὶ τὸ
ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΕΓ τριγώνῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον, καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ

For any triangle, when one of the sides is produced,
the external angle is greater than each of the internal and
opposite angles.
Let ABC be a triangle, and let one of its sides BC
have been produced to D. I say that the external angle
ACD is greater than each of the internal and opposite
angles, CBA and BAC.
Let the (straight-line) AC have been cut in half at
(point) E [Prop. 1.10]. And BE being joined, let it have
been produced in a straight-line to (point) F .† And let
EF be made equal to BE [Prop. 1.3], and let F C have
been joined, and let AC have been drawn through to
(point) G.
Therefore, since AE is equal to EC, and BE to EF ,
the two (straight-lines) AE, EB are equal to the two

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ELEMENTS BOOK 1

γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ, ὑφ᾿
ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ
τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΓΖ. μείζων δέ ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΓΔ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΓΖ·
μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ. ῾Ομοίως δὴ τῆς ΒΓ
τετμημένης δίχα δειχθήσεται καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΗ, τουτέστιν ἡ
ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ, μείζων καὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ.

Α

(straight-lines) CE, EF , respectively. Also, angle AEB
is equal to angle F EC, for (they are) vertically opposite
[Prop. 1.15]. Thus, the base AB is equal to the base F C,
and the triangle ABE is equal to the triangle F EC, and
the remaining angles subtended by the equal sides are
equal to the corresponding remaining angles [Prop. 1.4].
Thus, BAE is equal to ECF . But ECD is greater than
ECF . Thus, ACD is greater than BAE. Similarly, by
having cut BC in half, it can be shown (that) BCG—that
is to say, ACD—(is) also greater than ABC.

Ζ

A

Ε

Β

F

E

Γ

B

D
C

Η

G

Παντὸς ἄρα τριγώνου μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν προσεκThus, for any triangle, when one of the sides is proβληθείσης ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἑκατέρας τῶν ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπε- duced, the external angle is greater than each of the inναντίον γωνιῶν μείζων ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.
ternal and opposite angles. (Which is) the very thing it
was required to show.

The implicit assumption that the point F lies in the interior of the angle ABC should be counted as an additional postulate.

izþ.

Proposition 17

Παντὸvς τριγώνου αἱ δύο γωνίαι δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονές
For any triangle, (the sum of) two angles taken toεἰσι πάντῇ μεταλαμβανόμεναι.
gether in any (possible way) is less than two right-angles.

Α

A

Β

Γ

B

C

D

῎Εστω τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ· λέγω, ὅτι τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου
Let ABC be a triangle. I say that (the sum of) two
αἱ δύο γωνίαι δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάττονές εἰσι πάντῃ μεταλαμ- angles of triangle ABC taken together in any (possible
βανόμεναι.
way) is less than two right-angles.
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᾿Εκβεβλήσθω γὰρ ἡ ΒΓ ἐπὶ τὸ Δ.
Καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐκτός ἐστι γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ
ΑΓΔ, μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῆς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ.
κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ, ΑΓΒ τῶν
ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, ΒΓΑ μείζονές εἰσιν. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ, ΑΓΒ
δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, ΒΓΑ δύο ὀρθῶν
ἐλάσσονές εἰσιν. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ,
ΑΓΒ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονές εἰσι καὶ ἔτι αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΑΒ, ΑΒΓ.
Παντὸvς ἄρα τριγώνου αἱ δύο γωνίαι δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσςονές εἰσι πάντῇ μεταλαμβανόμεναι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

For let BC have been produced to D.
And since the angle ACD is external to triangle ABC,
it is greater than the internal and opposite angle ABC
[Prop. 1.16]. Let ACB have been added to both. Thus,
the (sum of the angles) ACD and ACB is greater than
the (sum of the angles) ABC and BCA. But, (the sum of)
ACD and ACB is equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.13].
Thus, (the sum of) ABC and BCA is less than two rightangles. Similarly, we can show that (the sum of) BAC
and ACB is also less than two right-angles, and further
(that the sum of) CAB and ABC (is less than two rightangles).
Thus, for any triangle, (the sum of) two angles taken
together in any (possible way) is less than two rightangles. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

ihþ.

Proposition 18

Παντὸς τριγώνου ἡ μείζων πλευρὰ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν
In any triangle, the greater side subtends the greater
ὑποτείνει.
angle.

Α

A

D

Γ

Β

B

C

῎Εστω γὰρ τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ μείζονα ἔχον τὴν ΑΓ
πλευρὰν τῆς ΑΒ· λέγω, ὅτι καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ μείζων
ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ·
᾿Επεὶ γὰρ μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῆς ΑΒ, κείσθω τῇ ΑΒ ἴση
ἡ ΑΔ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΔ.
Καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΒΓΔ ἐκτός ἐστι γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ
ΑΔΒ, μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΓΒ·
ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ, ἐπεὶ καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ
ΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση· μείζων ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ τῆς ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ·
πολλῷ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ.
Παντὸς ἄρα τριγώνου ἡ μείζων πλευρὰ τὴν μείζονα
γωνίαν ὑποτείνει· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

For let ABC be a triangle having side AC greater than
AB. I say that angle ABC is also greater than BCA.
equal to AB [Prop. 1.3], and let BD have been joined.
And since angle ADB is external to triangle BCD, it
is greater than the internal and opposite (angle) DCB
[Prop. 1.16]. But ADB (is) equal to ABD, since side
AB is also equal to side AD [Prop. 1.5]. Thus, ABD is
also greater than ACB. Thus, ABC is much greater than
ACB.
Thus, in any triangle, the greater side subtends the
greater angle. (Which is) the very thing it was required
to show.

ijþ.

Proposition 19

Παντὸς τριγώνου ὑπὸ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ μείζων
In any triangle, the greater angle is subtended by the
πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει.
greater side.
῎Εστω τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ μείζονα ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ
Let ABC be a triangle having the angle ABC greater
γωνίαν τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ· λέγω, ὅτι καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΓ πλευρᾶς than BCA. I say that side AC is also greater than side
τῆς ΑΒ μείζων ἐστίν.
AB.

22

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

Εἰ γὰρ μή, ἤτοι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΑΒ ἢ ἐλάσσων· ἴση
μὲν οὖν οὐκ ἔστιν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΑΒ· ἴση γὰρ ἂν ἦν καὶ γωνία ἡ
ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ· οὐκ ἔστι δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ
τῇ ΑΒ. οὐδὲ μὴν ἐλάσσων ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῆς ΑΒ· ἐλάσσων
γὰρ ἂν ἦν καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ· οὐκ ἔστι
δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἐλάσσων ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῆς ΑΒ. ἐδείχθη δέ, ὅτι
οὐδὲ ἴση ἐστίν. μείζων ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῆς ΑΒ.

For if not, AC is certainly either equal to, or less than,
AB. In fact, AC is not equal to AB. For then angle ABC
would also have been equal to ACB [Prop. 1.5]. But it
is not. Thus, AC is not equal to AB. Neither, indeed, is
AC less than AB. For then angle ABC would also have
been less than ACB [Prop. 1.18]. But it is not. Thus, AC
is not less than AB. But it was shown that (AC) is not
equal (to AB) either. Thus, AC is greater than AB.

Α

A

Β

B

Γ

C

Παντὸς ἄρα τριγώνου ὑπὸ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ μείζων
Thus, in any triangle, the greater angle is subtended
πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.
by the greater side. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

kþ.

Proposition 20

Παντὸς τριγώνου αἱ δύο πλευραὶ τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονές
εἰσι πάντῃ μεταλαμβανόμεναι.

In any triangle, (the sum of) two sides taken together in any (possible way) is greater than the remaining
(side).

D

Α

Β

A

Γ

B

C

῎Εστω γὰρ τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ· λέγω, ὅτι τοῦ ΑΒΓ
For let ABC be a triangle. I say that in triangle ABC
τριγώνου αἱ δύο πλευραὶ τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονές εἰσι πάντῃ (the sum of) two sides taken together in any (possible
μεταλαμβανόμεναι, αἱ μὲν ΒΑ, ΑΓ τῆς ΒΓ, αἱ δὲ ΑΒ, ΒΓ way) is greater than the remaining (side). (So), (the sum
τῆς ΑΓ, αἱ δὲ ΒΓ, ΓΑ τῆς ΑΒ.
of) BA and AC (is greater) than BC, (the sum of) AB
23

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

Διήχθω γὰρ ἡ ΒΑ ἐπὶ τὸ Δ σημεῖον, καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΓΑ
ἴση ἡ ΑΔ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΓ.
᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΑΓ, ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία
ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ τῆς ὑπὸ
ΑΔΓ· καὶ ἐπεὶ τρίγωνόν ἐστι τὸ ΔΓΒ μείζονα ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ
ΒΓΔ γωνίαν τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ, ὑπὸ δὲ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ
μείζων πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει, ἡ ΔΒ ἄρα τῆς ΒΓ ἐστι μείζων. ἴση
δὲ ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΑΓ· μείζονες ἄρα αἱ ΒΑ, ΑΓ τῆς ΒΓ· ὁμοίως
δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι καὶ αἱ μὲν ΑΒ, ΒΓ τῆς ΓΑ μείζονές εἰσιν,
αἱ δὲ ΒΓ, ΓΑ τῆς ΑΒ.
Παντὸς ἄρα τριγώνου αἱ δύο πλευραὶ τῆς λοιπῆς
μείζονές εἰσι πάντῃ μεταλαμβανόμεναι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

and BC than AC, and (the sum of) BC and CA than
AB.
For let BA have been drawn through to point D, and
let AD be made equal to CA [Prop. 1.3], and let DC
have been joined.
Therefore, since DA is equal to AC, the angle ADC
is also equal to ACD [Prop. 1.5]. Thus, BCD is greater
than ADC. And since DCB is a triangle having the angle
BCD greater than BDC, and the greater angle subtends
the greater side [Prop. 1.19], DB is thus greater than
BC. But DA is equal to AC. Thus, (the sum of) BA and
AC is greater than BC. Similarly, we can show that (the
sum of) AB and BC is also greater than CA, and (the
sum of) BC and CA than AB.
Thus, in any triangle, (the sum of) two sides taken together in any (possible way) is greater than the remaining
(side). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

kaþ.

Proposition 21

᾿Εὰν τριγώνου ἐπὶ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν ἀπὸ τῶν περάτων
If two internal straight-lines are constructed on one
δύο εὐθεῖαι ἐντὸς συσταθῶσιν, αἱ συσταθεῖσαι τῶν λοιπῶν of the sides of a triangle, from its ends, the constructed
τοῦ τριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν ἐλάττονες μὲν ἔσονται, μείζονα (straight-lines) will be less than the two remaining sides
δὲ γωνίαν περιέξουσιν.
of the triangle, but will encompass a greater angle.

Α

A
Ε

E

Β

D

Γ

B

Τριγώνου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐπὶ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν τῆς ΒΓ
ἀπὸ τῶν περάτων τῶν Β, Γ δύο εὐθεῖαι ἐντὸς συνεστάτωσαν
αἱ ΒΔ, ΔΓ· λέγω, ὅτι αἱ ΒΔ, ΔΓ τῶν λοιπῶν τοῦ τριγώνου
δύο πλευρῶν τῶν ΒΑ, ΑΓ ἐλάσσονες μέν εἰσιν, μείζονα δὲ
γωνίαν περιέχουσι τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ.
Διήχθω γὰρ ἡ ΒΔ ἐπὶ τὸ Ε. καὶ ἐπεὶ παντὸς τριγώνου
αἱ δύο πλευραὶ τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονές εἰσιν, τοῦ ΑΒΕ ἄρα
τριγώνου αἱ δύο πλευραὶ αἱ ΑΒ, ΑΕ τῆς ΒΕ μείζονές
εἰσιν· κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ΕΓ· αἱ ἄρα ΒΑ, ΑΓ τῶν ΒΕ,
ΕΓ μείζονές εἰσιν. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ τοῦ ΓΕΔ τριγώνου αἱ δύο
πλευραὶ αἱ ΓΕ, ΕΔ τῆς ΓΔ μείζονές εἰσιν, κοινὴ προσκείσθω
ἡ ΔΒ· αἱ ΓΕ, ΕΒ ἄρα τῶν ΓΔ, ΔΒ μείζονές εἰσιν. ἀλλὰ
τῶν ΒΕ, ΕΓ μείζονες ἐδείχθησαν αἱ ΒΑ, ΑΓ· πολλῷ ἄρα αἱ
ΒΑ, ΑΓ τῶν ΒΔ, ΔΓ μείζονές εἰσιν.
Πάλιν, ἐπεὶ παντὸς τριγώνου ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία τῆς ἐντὸς
καὶ ἀπεναντίον μείζων ἐστίν, τοῦ ΓΔΕ ἄρα τριγώνου ἡ
ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΕΔ. διὰ
ταὐτὰ τοίνυν καὶ τοῦ ΑΒΕ τριγώνου ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ

C

For let the two internal straight-lines BD and DC
have been constructed on one of the sides BC of the triangle ABC, from its ends B and C (respectively). I say
that BD and DC are less than the (sum of the) two remaining sides of the triangle BA and AC, but encompass
an angle BDC greater than BAC.
For let BD have been drawn through to E. And since
in any triangle (the sum of any) two sides is greater than
the remaining (side) [Prop. 1.20], in triangle ABE the
(sum of the) two sides AB and AE is thus greater than
BE. Let EC have been added to both. Thus, (the sum
of) BA and AC is greater than (the sum of) BE and EC.
Again, since in triangle CED the (sum of the) two sides
CE and ED is greater than CD, let DB have been added
to both. Thus, (the sum of) CE and EB is greater than
(the sum of) CD and DB. But, (the sum of) BA and
AC was shown (to be) greater than (the sum of) BE and
EC. Thus, (the sum of) BA and AC is much greater than

24

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

ΓΕΒ μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. ἀλλὰ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΕΒ μείζων
ἐδείχθη ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ· πολλῷ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ μείζων ἐστὶ
τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ.
᾿Εὰν ἄρα τριγώνου ἐπὶ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν ἀπὸ τῶν
περάτων δύο εὐθεῖαι ἐντὸς συσταθῶσιν, αἱ συσταθεῖσαι τῶν
λοιπῶν τοῦ τριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν ἐλάττονες μέν εἰσιν,
μείζονα δὲ γωνίαν περιέχουσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

(the sum of) BD and DC.
Again, since in any triangle the external angle is
greater than the internal and opposite (angles) [Prop.
1.16], in triangle CDE the external angle BDC is thus
greater than CED. Accordingly, for the same (reason),
the external angle CEB of the triangle ABE is also
greater than BAC. But, BDC was shown (to be) greater
than CEB. Thus, BDC is much greater than BAC.
Thus, if two internal straight-lines are constructed on
one of the sides of a triangle, from its ends, the constructed (straight-lines) are less than the two remaining sides of the triangle, but encompass a greater angle.
(Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

kbþ.

Proposition 22

᾿Εκ τριῶν εὐθειῶν, αἵ εἰσιν ἴσαι τρισὶ ταῖς δοθείσαις
[εὐθείαις], τρίγωνον συστήσασθαι· δεῖ δὲ τὰς δύο τῆς λοιπῆς
μείζονας εἶναι πάντῃ μεταλαμβανομένας [διὰ τὸ καὶ παντὸς
τριγώνου τὰς δύο πλευρὰς τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονας εἶναι πάντῃ
μεταλαμβανομένας].

To construct a triangle from three straight-lines which
are equal to three given [straight-lines]. It is necessary
for (the sum of) two (of the straight-lines) taken together
in any (possible way) to be greater than the remaining
(one), [on account of the (fact that) in any triangle (the
sum of) two sides taken together in any (possible way) is
greater than the remaining (one) [Prop. 1.20] ].

Α
Β
Γ

A
B
C

Κ

Ζ

Η

K

Θ

Ε

D

Λ

F

G

H

E

L

῎Εστωσαν αἱ δοθεῖσαι τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι αἱ Α, Β, Γ, ὧν αἱ
δύο τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονες ἔστωσαν πάντῃ μεταλαμβανόμεναι,
αἱ μὲν Α, Β τῆς Γ, αἱ δὲ Α, Γ τῆς Β, καὶ ἔτι αἱ Β, Γ τῆς Α·
δεῖ δὴ ἐκ τῶν ἴσων ταῖς Α, Β, Γ τρίγωνον συστήσασθαι.
᾿Εκκείσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΔΕ πεπερασμένη μὲν κατὰ τὸ
Δ ἄπειρος δὲ κατὰ τὸ Ε, καὶ κείσθω τῇ μὲν Α ἴση ἡ ΔΖ,
τῇ δὲ Β ἴση ἡ ΖΗ, τῇ δὲ Γ ἴση ἡ ΗΘ· καὶ κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ
Ζ, διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΖΔ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΔΚΛ· πάλιν
κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Η, διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΗΘ κύκλος γεγράφθω
ὁ ΚΛΘ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΚΖ, ΚΗ· λέγω, ὅτι ἐκ τριῶν
εὐθειῶν τῶν ἴσων ταῖς Α, Β, Γ τρίγωνον συνέσταται τὸ
ΚΖΗ.
᾿Επεὶ γὰρ τὸ Ζ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΔΚΛ κύκλου,
ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΔ τῇ ΖΚ· ἀλλὰ ἡ ΖΔ τῇ Α ἐστιν ἴση. καὶ ἡ

Let A, B, and C be the three given straight-lines, of
which let (the sum of) two taken together in any (possible
way) be greater than the remaining (one). (Thus), (the
sum of) A and B (is greater) than C, (the sum of) A and
C than B, and also (the sum of) B and C than A. So
it is required to construct a triangle from (straight-lines)
equal to A, B, and C.
Let some straight-line DE be set out, terminated at D,
and infinite in the direction of E. And let DF made equal
to A, and F G equal to B, and GH equal to C [Prop. 1.3].
And let the circle DKL have been drawn with center F
and radius F D. Again, let the circle KLH have been
drawn with center G and radius GH. And let KF and
KG have been joined. I say that the triangle KF G has

25

and further DE to F G [Prop. And let the triangle AF G have been constructed from three straight-lines which are equal to CD. equal to the given rectilinear angle DCE. τὸ δὲ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημεῖον τὸ Α. But.STOIQEIWN aþ. KF is also equal to A. Γ ἴσαι εἰσίν. since point G is the center of the circle LKH. and C. since the two (straight-lines) DC. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ΚΖ ἄρα τῇ Α ἐστιν ἴση. For since point F is the center of the circle DKL. and let DE have been joined. 1. ΑΗ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. τρίγωνον συνέσταται τὸ ΚΖΗ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.8]. and CE. καὶ ἔτι τὴν ΔΕ τῇ ΖΗ. Let the points D and E have been taken at random on each of the (straight-lines) CD and CE (respectively). the rectilinear angle F AG. has been constructed at the (given) point A on the given straight-line AB. and GK are equal to A. and GK. Ε. ΓΕ δύο ταῖς ΖΑ. the angle DCE is thus equal to the angle F AG [Prop. been constructed from three straight-lines equal to A. Thus. ΗΚ. Proposition 23 Πρὸς τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ To construct a rectilinear angle equal to a given rectiτῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσην γωνίαν εὐθύγραμμον linear angle at a (given) point on a given straight-line. Εἰλήφθω ἐφ᾿ ἑκατέρας τῶν ΓΔ. ΔΕ. kgþ. 1. Β. and the base DE is equal to the base F G. and C (respectively). ΖΗ. DE. F G. KG is also equal to C. τρίγωνον συνεστάτω τὸ ΑΖΗ. ΖΗ. πάλιν. ἐπεὶ τὸ Η σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΛΚΘ κύκλου. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ΖΗ τῇ Β ἴση· αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΚΖ. G B Let AB be the given straight-line. τὴν δὲ ΓΕ τῇ ΑΗ. and DCE the given rectilinear angle. ∆ D Γ C Ε E Ζ Α F Η Β A ῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΕ· καὶ ἐκ τριῶν εὐθειῶν. F D is equal to F K. So it is required to construct a rectilinear angle equal to the given rectilinear angle DCE at the (given) point A on the given straight-line AB. B. the triangle KF G has been constructed from the three straight-lines KF . ΗΚ τρισὶ ταῖς Α. ΓΕ τυχόντα σημεῖα τὰ Δ. B. Thus. CE to AG. Πρὸς ἄρα τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΑΒ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ ἴση γωνία εὐθύγραμμος συνέσταται ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΑΗ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. (Which 26 . Again. Γ. And F G is also equal to B. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ· δεῖ δὴ πρὸς τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΑΒ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ ἴσην γωνίαν εὐθύγραμμον συστήσασθαι. καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΕ βάσει τῇ ΖΗ ἴση. Thus. A the (given) point on it. GH is equal to GK. B. F D is equal to A. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΘ τῇ ΗΚ· ἀλλὰ ἡ ΗΘ τῇ Γ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΚΗ ἄρα τῇ Γ ἐστιν ἴση. CE are equal to the two (straight-lines) F A. the three straight-lines KF . ὥστε ἴσην εἶναι τὴν μὲν ΓΔ τῇ ΑΖ. αἵ εἰσιν ἴσαι τρισὶ ταῖς ΓΔ. Therefore. Thus. ΓΕ. respectively. Β. and C (respectively). (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ᾿Εκ τριῶν ἄρα εὐθειῶν τῶν ΚΖ. But. GH is equal to C. F G. such that CD is equal to AF .22]. αἵ εἰσιν ἴσαι τρισὶ ταῖς δοθείσαις εὐθείαις ταῖς Α. Thus. AG. γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΑΗ ἐστιν ἴση. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν δύο αἱ ΔΓ. συστήσασθαι. which are equal to the three given straight-lines A.

EF G is much greater than EGF . then (the former triangle) will also have a base greater than the base (of the latter). Thus. since AB is equal to DE and AC to DG. Thus. ὑπὸ δὲ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ μείζων πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει. the base BC is equal to the base EG [Prop. But EG (is) equal to BC. Α ∆ A D Ε E Β Γ B Η Ζ C ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. BC (is) also greater than EF . καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΗ. AB (equal) to DE. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 is) the very thing it was required to do. gle (in the other). μείζων ἄρα καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΕΗ τῆς ΕΖ. AC are equal to the two (straight-lines) ED. DG. δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΑ. καὶ τὴν βάσιν τῆς βάσεως μείζονα ἕξει· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Therefore. G F Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having the two sides AB and AC equal to the two sides DE and DF . have been constructed at the point D on the straight-line DE [Prop.STOIQEIWN aþ. Also the angle BAC is equal to the angle EDG. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ. Thus. respectively. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΖ τῇ ΔΗ. 1. ΔΖ ἴσας ἔχοντα ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΔΕ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Δ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΔΗ. For since angle BAC is greater than angle EDF . I say that the base BC is also greater than the base EF . and let EG and F G have been joined. τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ. ΔΖ ἴση ἡ ΔΗ.19]. Let them also have the angle at A greater than the angle at D. ΔΕΖ τὰς δύο πλευρὰς τὰς ΑΒ. Again. but (one) has the angle encompassed by the equal straight-lines greater than the (corresponding) angle (in the other). 1. ἡ δὲ πρὸς τῷ Α γωνία τῆς πρὸς τῷ Δ γωνίας μείζων ἔστω· λέγω. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ μείζων ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ γωνίας. 27 . but (one) has the angle encompassed by the μείζονα ἔχῃ τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην. and the greater angle is subtended by the greater side [Prop. DF G (is) greater than EGF . if two triangles have two sides equal to two sides. respectively. kdþ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΕΗ τῇ ΒΓ· μείζων ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΒΓ τῆς ΕΖ. καὶ κείσθω ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΓ. (That is). angle DGF is also equal to angle DF G [Prop. καὶ ἐπεὶ τρίγωνόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΖΗ μείζονα ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ γωνίαν τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ. ΔΗ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΗ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ βάσει τῇ ΕΗ ἐστιν ἴση. πάλιν. equal to angle BAC. side EG (is) thus also greater than EF .23]. reἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. since DF is equal to DG. And let DG be made equal to either of AC or DF [Prop. ΖΗ. and AC to DF . the two (straight-lines) BA. let (angle) EDG. ΑΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΕΔ. Thus. καὶ equal straight-lines greater than the (corresponding) anτὴν βάσιν τῆς βάσεως μείζονα ἕξει. 1. τὴν δὲ γωνίαν τῆς γωνίας μείζονα ἔχῃ τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην.4]. respectively. Thus. ἡ δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΗ. 1. τὴν δὲ γωνίαν τῆς γωνίας spectively. 1.5]. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. then (the former triangle) will also have a base greater than the base (of the latter).3]. ΑΓ ταῖς δύο πλευραῖς ταῖς ΔΕ. And since triangle EF G has angle EF G greater than EGF . ὅτι καὶ βάσις ἡ ΒΓ βάσεως τῆς ΕΖ μείζων ἐστίν. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΗΖ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΗ· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΖΗ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ· πολλῷ ἄρα μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ. Proposition 24 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς [ταῖς] δύο πλευραῖς If two triangles have two sides equal to two sides.

Proposition 25 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ἴσας If two triangles have two sides equal to two sides. καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξει [ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ] καὶ τὴν λοιπὴν γωνίαν τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ. respectively. kþ. or that subtending one of the equal angles—then (the triangles) will also have the remaining sides equal to the [corresponding] remaining sides. or less than. indeed. ΔΕΖ τὰς δύο πλευρὰς τὰς ΑΒ. keþ. ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. and AC to DF . (BAC) is certainly either equal to. καὶ τὴν γωνίαν τῆς γωνίας μείζονα ἕξει τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. respectively. (EDF ).STOIQEIWN aþ. τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ. ΔΖ ἴσας ἔχοντα ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. τὴν δὲ βάσιν τῆς βάσεως μείζονα respectively. I say that angle BAC is also greater than EDF . then (the former triangle) will also have ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην.24].4]. Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having the two sides AB and AC equal to the two sides DE and DF . Thus. but (one) has a base greater than the base ἔχῃ. 1. is BAC less than EDF . and one side equal to one side—in fact. if two triangles have two sides equal to two sides. For if not. AB (equal) to DE. τὴν δὲ βασίν τῆς βάσεως μείζονα ἔχῃ. angle BAC is not equal to EDF . But it was shown that (BAC is) not equal (to EDF ) either. ἤτοι ἴση ἐστὶν αὐτῇ ἢ ἐλάσσων· ἴση μὲν οὖν οὐκ ἔστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ· ἴση γὰρ ἂν ἦν καὶ βάσις ἡ ΒΓ βάσει τῇ ΕΖ· οὐκ ἔστι δέ. And let the base BC be greater than the base EF . then (the former triangle) will also have the angle encompassed by the equal straight-lines greater than the (corresponding) angle (in the latter). either that by the equal angles. ἐδείχθη δέ. But it is not. ὅτι καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίας τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ μείζων ἐστίν. the angle encompassed by the equal straight-lines greater than the (corresponding) angle (in the latter). BAC is not equal to EDF . οὐκ ἄρα ἴση ἐστὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ· οὐδὲ μὴν ἐλάσσων ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ· ἐλάσσων γὰρ ἂν ἦν καὶ βάσις ἡ ΒΓ βάσεως τῆς ΕΖ· οὐκ ἔστι δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἐλάσσων ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκάτερᾳ. but (one) has a base greater than the base (of the other). Εἰ γὰρ μή. 1. ΔΕΖ τὰς δύο γωνίας τὰς If two triangles have two angles equal to two angles. ὅτι οὐδὲ ἴση· μείζων ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. Thus. For then the base BC would also have been less than the base EF [Prop. BAC is greater than EDF . ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. But it is not. For then the base BC would also have been equal to the base EF [Prop. and the remaining angle (equal) to the remaining angle. ΑΓ ταῖς δύο πλευραῖς ταῖς ΔΕ. Proposition 26 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο γωνίας δυσὶ γωνίαις ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην ἤτοι τὴν πρὸς ταῖς ἴσαις γωνίαις ἢ τὴν ὑποτείνουσαν ὑπὸ μίαν τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν. Thus. Neither. respectively (That is). angle BAC is not less than EDF . τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ· βάσις δὲ ἡ ΒΓ βάσεως τῆς ΕΖ μείζων ἔστω· λέγω. καὶ τὴν γωνίαν τῆς γωνίας μείζονα ἕξει τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν (of the other). In fact. 28 . Α A Γ C ∆ D Β B Ε Ζ E F ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ.

ΒΘ δυσὶ ταῖς ΔΕ. AB is not unequal to DE. Thus. ∆ D A Α Η Β Ε G Ζ E Θ Γ B Εἰ γὰρ ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ. the (side) by the equal angles. ἡ ἐλάσσων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἀδύνατον. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΒ. and the remaining angle BAC is equal to the remaining angle EDF [Prop. ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ H F C For if AB is unequal to DE then one of them is greater. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΘ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἐστίν. τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ. ἡ μὲν ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ. and let BG be made equal to DE [Prop. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται. and BCA to EF D. ΒΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΔΕ. the two (straight-lines) GB. ὅτι καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξει ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. Thus. GCB (is equal) to DF E. (That is) BAC (equal) to EDF . (That is) ABC (equal) to DEF . and the remaining angles subtended by the equal sides will be equal to the (corresponding) remaining angles [Prop. 1. And angle GBC is equal to angle DEF . ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΓ βάσει τῇ ΔΖ ἴση ἐστίν. And let BH be made equal to EF [Prop. BC are equal to the two (straightlines) DE. ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΒΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἴση ἐστίν· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΗΓ βάσει τῇ ΔΖ ἴση ἐστίν. ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ ὑπόκειται ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΗ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ ἴση ἐστίν.3]. καὶ τὸ ΗΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἐστίν. ΒΓΑ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. And angle ABC is equal to angle DEF . BH are equal to the two 29 . the two (straight-lines) AB. the base AC is equal to the base DF . let BC be greater. (That is) AB (equal) to DE. the remaining angle BAC is equal to the remaining angle EDF . μία αὐτῶν μείζων ἐστίν. and AC to DF . 1. ἡ ΒΓ. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται. and BC to EF . And (they will have) the remaining angle (equal) to the remaining angle. τὴν δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΖΔ· ἐχέτω δὲ καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην. Furthermore. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσας πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΘΑ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΖΔ. Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having the two angles ABC and BCA equal to the two (angles) DEF and EF D. (That is) AC (equal) to DF . respectively. Thus. And let them also have one side equal to one side. δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΗ. I say that they will have the remaining sides equal to the corresponding remaining sides.4].4]. And since BH is equal to EF . ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ ἴση· δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΒ. I say that the remaining sides will be equal to the remaining sides. 1.3]. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΘ. let the sides subtending the equal angles be equal: for instance. ὅτι καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ πλευραὶ ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσαι ἔσονται.STOIQEIWN aþ. καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΔΕ ἴση ἡ ΒΗ. again. and let GC have been joined. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΗΓ. καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΕΖ ἴση ἡ ΒΘ. πρότερον τὴν πρὸς ταῖς ἴσαις γωνίαις τὴν ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ· λέγω. εἰ δυνατόν. Again. the lesser to the greater. If possible. ἔστω μείζων ἡ ΑΒ. ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκαρέρᾳ· καὶ γωνίας ἴσας περιέχουσιν· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΘ βάσει τῇ ΔΖ ἴση ἐστίν. τὴν μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. οὐκ ἄρα ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ. Thus. ἔστω μείζων. EF . μία αὐτῶν μείζων ἐστίν. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ πάλιν ἔστωσαν αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσαι ἴσαι. καὶ ἐπὲι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΒΘ τῇ ΕΖ ἡ δὲ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ. ἡ δὲ ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ καὶ ἔτι ἡ λοιπὴ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἴση ἐστίν. 1. since BG is equal to DE. First of all. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΒΗ τῇ ΔΕ. Let AB be greater. (it is) equal. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. BC † are equal to the two (straight-lines) DE. and let AH have been joined. Thus. the base GC is equal to the base DF . The very thing (is) impossible. For if BC is unequal to EF then one of them is greater. respectively. EF . But. BCG is also equal to BCA. ὡς ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ· λέγω πάλιν. Therefore. Εἰ γὰρ ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ. Thus. and AB to DE. καὶ τὴν λοιπὴν γωνίαν τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ. τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. ἡ δὲ ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ. But. DF E was assumed (to be) equal to BCA. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΓΒ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ. ἴση ἄρα. ΒΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΔΕ. So the two (straight-lines) AB. (That is) BC (equal) to EF . respectively. and triangle GBC is equal to triangle DEF . ΕΖΔ ἴσας ἔχοντα ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. and BC to EF . And BC is also equal to EF . (let) AB (be equal) to DE. καὶ λοιπὴ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἴση ἐστίν.

and let them meet together in the direction of B and D at (point) G. 1. And AB is also equal to DE.16]. for the triangle 30 . Thus. Δ μέρη ἢ ἐπὶ τὰ Α. or that subtending one of the equal angles—then (the triangles) will also have the remaining sides equal to the (corresponding) remaining sides. the (two) straight-lines will be parallel to one another. and the remaining angle BAC (is) equal to the remaining angle EDF [Prop. ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνίας ἴσας περιέχουσι· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΓ βάσει τῇ ΔΖ ἴση ἐστίν. οὐκ ἄρα ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ· ἴση ἄρα. Thus. or (in the direction) of A and C [Def. ΓΔ συμπεσοῦνται ἤτοι ἐπὶ τὰ Β. and the triangle ABH is equal to the triangle DEF . Proposition 27 ᾿Εὰν εἰς δύο εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τὰς ἐναλλὰξ If a straight-line falling across two straight-lines γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ. being produced. So. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΒ. either that by the equal angles. ΔΓ ἐκβαλλόμεναι συμπεσοῦνται ἐπὶ τὰ Β. The Greek text has “BG. παράλληλοι ἔσονται ἀλλήλαις αἱ makes the alternate angles equal to one another then εὐθεῖαι. respectively. Δ μέρη κατὰ τὸ Η. Α Ε Β A E B Η Γ Ζ G ∆ C Εἰς γὰρ δύο εὐθείας τὰς ΑΒ. 1. which is obviously a mistake. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. in triangle AHC. So the two (straight-lines) AB. And they encompass equal angles. καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξει καὶ τὴν λοιπὴν γωνίαν τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν καὶ συμπιπτέτωσαν ἐπὶ τὰ Β. and triangle ABC (is) equal to triangle DEF . kzþ. τριγώνου δὴ τοῦ ΗΕΖ ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΖ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα αἱ ΑΒ. ὁμοίως F D For let the straight-line EF . ὅτι παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. The very thing (is) impossible [Prop. Γ. respectively. Thus. the base AH is equal to the base DF . ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ΕΖΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ ἐστιν ἴση· τριγώνου δὴ τοῦ ΑΘΓ ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΘΑ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ· ὅπερ ἀδύνατον. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἴσον καὶ λοιπὴ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ λοιπῂ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἴση. ἢ τὴν ὑποτείνουσαν ὑπὸ μίαν τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν. And the angles they encompass (are also equal). make the alternate angles AEF and EF D equal to one another. respectively. falling across the two straight-lines AB and CD. EF . BC are equal to the two (straightlines) DE. Let them have been produced. But. EF . and one side equal to one side—in fact. BC is not unequal to EF . So.4]. 1. Thus. EF D is equal to BCA. and the remaining angles subtended by the equal sides will be equal to the (corresponding) remaining angles [Prop. and the remaining angle (equal) to the remaining angle. For if not. ΕΖΔ ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιείτω· λέγω.23]. AB and CD will certainly meet together: either in the direction of B and D. if two triangles have two angles equal to two angles. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο γωνίας δυσὶ γωνίαις ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην ἤτοι τὴν πρὸς ταῖς ἴσαις γωνίαις. the base AC is equal to the base DF . Δ μέρη. (it is) equal. † (straight-lines) DE. Εἰ γὰρ μή. ἐκβαλλόμεναι αἱ ΑΒ. ΓΔ εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα ἡ ΕΖ τὰς ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΕΖ. 1. angle BHA is equal to EF D. I say that AB and CD are parallel.4]. Thus. Thus. BC”. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ ἴση. ΒΓ δύο ταῖς ΔΕ.STOIQEIWN aþ. the external angle BHA is equal to the internal and opposite angle BCA.

ΗΘΔ δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. For since (in the first case) EGB is equal to GHD. falling across the two straight-lines AB and CD. AB is parallel to CD [Prop. or the (sum of the) internal (angles) on the same side. or (makes) the (sum of the) παράλληλοι ἔσονται ἀλλήλαις αἱ εὐθεῖαι. 31 . since (in the second case. And they are alternate (angles). Γ· αἱ δὲ ἐπὶ μηδέτερα τὰ μέρη συμπίπτουσαι παράλληλοί εἰσιν· παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. being produced. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εἰς δύο εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τὰς ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ. AB and CD will not meet together in the direction of B and D. 1. Proposition 28 ᾿Εὰν εἰς δύο εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τὴν ἐκτὸς If a straight-line falling across two straight-lines γωνίαν τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἴσην makes the external angle equal to the internal and oppoποιῇ ἢ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας. 1.16].27].23]. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εἰς δύο εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τὴν ἐκτὸς γωνίαν τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἴσην For let EF . site angle on the same side. ΓΔ εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα ἡ ΕΖ τὴν ἐκτὸς γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ ἴσην ποιείτω ἢ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τὰς ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ.27]. if a straight-line falling across two straight-lines makes the alternate angles equal to one another then the (two) straight-lines will be parallel (to one another). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ. ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ ἐστιν ἴση. AGH is thus also equal to GHD. παράλληλοι ἔσονται αἱ εὐθεῖαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. make the external angle EGB equal to the internal and opposite angle GHD. khþ. Ε Α Γ E Η Θ Β A ∆ C Ζ G B H D F Εἰς γὰρ δύο εὐθείας τὰς ΑΒ. Again. Similarly. But (straight-lines) meeting in neither direction are parallel [Def. 1. equal to two right-angles. Let BGH have been subtracted from both. GEF . 1. Πάλιν. ὅτι παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ ἐστιν ἴση· καί εἰσιν ἐναλλάξ· παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. then the (two) straight-lines will be parallel to one another. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 δὴ δειχθήσεται. And they are alternate (angles). (the sum of) AGH and BGH is thus equal to (the sum of) BGH and GHD. AB is parallel to CD [Prop. Thus. but EGB is equal to AGH [Prop. Thus. I say that AB is parallel to CD. Thus.15]. the external angle AEF is equal to the interior and opposite (angle) EF G. 1. the remainder AGH is equal to the remainder GHD. internal (angles) on the same side equal to two rightangles. ΗΘΔ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας· λέγω. Thus. ἐπεὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. BGH and GHD. it can be shown that neither (will they meet together) in (the direction of) A and C. ΒΗΘ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι. The very thing is impossible [Prop. αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ.13]. 1. ΒΗΘ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ.STOIQEIWN aþ. the sum of) BGH and GHD is equal to two right-angles. AB and CD are parallel. Thus. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ. ΗΘΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· κοινὴ ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ ἐστιν ἴση· καί εἰσιν ἐναλλάξ· παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. Thus. ὅτι οὐδὲ ἐπὶ τὰ Α. and (the sum of) AGH and BGH is also equal to two right-angles [Prop.

ΗΘΔ μείζονές εἰσιν. ἀλλὰ αἱ ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ. Let AGH be greater. Thus. ΗΘΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν. equal to two right-angles. Thus. if a straight-line falling across two straight-lines παράλληλοι ἔσονται αἱ εὐθεῖαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. But (straight-lines) being produced to infinity from (internal angles whose sum is) less than two right-angles meet together [Post. Εἰ γὰρ ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ. and the (sum of the) internal (angles) on the same side equal to two right-angles. or (makes) the (sum of the) internal (angles) on the same side equal to two rightangles. And EGB is thus also equal to GHD. (the sum of) AGH and BGH is greater than (the sum of) BGH and GHD. ἀλλὰ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ. ΒΗΘ τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. Thus. ΒΗΘ δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. (the sum of) AGH and BGH is equal to two right-angles [Prop 1.15]. the exἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ἴσην καὶ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ ternal (angle) equal to the internal and opposite (angle). ῾Η ἄρα εἰς τὰς παραλλήλους εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τάς τε ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιεῖ καὶ τὴν ἐκτὸς τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ἴσην καὶ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ For let the straight-line EF fall across the parallel straight-lines AB and CD. Thus. Let BGH be added to both. ΒΗΘ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. will meet together. For if AGH is unequal to GHD then one of them is greater. the external angle EGB equal to the internal and opposite (angle) GHD. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.STOIQEIWN aþ. kjþ. ὅτι τὰς ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ. ΓΔ ἐκβαλλόμεναι εἰς ἄπειρον συμπεσοῦνται· οὐ συμπίπτουσι δὲ διὰ τὸ παραλλήλους αὐτὰς ὑποκεῖσθαι· οὐκ ἄρα ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ· ἴση ἄρα. But. ΗΘΔ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας. AGH is not unequal to GHD. μία αὐτῶν μείζων ἐστίν. AB and CD. αἱ δὲ ἀπ᾿ ἐλασσόνων ἢ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐκβαλλόμεναι εἰς ἄπειρον συμπίπτουσιν· αἱ ἄρα ΑΒ. ΓΔ εὐθεῖα ἐμπιπτέτω ἡ ΕΖ· λέγω. But they do not meet. AGH and GHD. Thus. then the (two) straight-lines will be parallel (to one another). ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ ἐστιν ἴση· κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ. 5]. Thus. and the (sum of the) internal (angles) on the same side. ΗΘΔ ἄρα δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. equal. But. Let BGH have been added to both. I say that it makes the alternate angles. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ποιῇ ἢ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας. AGH is equal to EGB [Prop. makes the external angle equal to the internal and opposite angle on the same side. (the sum of) BGH and GHD is [also] less than two right-angles. ΗΘΔ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονές εἰσιν. on account of them (initially) being assumed parallel (to one another) [Def. being produced to infinity.13]. ΗΘΔ ἴσας ποιεῖ καὶ τὴν ἐκτὸς γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ ἴσην καὶ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τὰς ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. μέρη δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας. (it is) equal. 1. ἔστω μείζων ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ· κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ.23]. [καὶ] αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. ΒΗΘ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. (the sum of) EGB and BGH is equal to two right- 32 . Ε Α Γ E Η Θ Β A ∆ C Ζ G B H D F Εἰς γὰρ παραλλήλους εὐθείας τὰς ΑΒ. Proposition 29 ῾Η εἰς τὰς παραλλήλους εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τάς A straight-line falling across parallel straight-lines τε ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιεῖ καὶ τὴν ἐκτὸς τῇ makes the alternate angles equal to one another. BGH and GHD. Thus. But. 1. (the sum of) EGB and BGH is equal to (the sum of) BGH and GHD.

1. a straight-line falling across parallel straightlines makes the alternate angles equal to one another. (angle) GHF is equal to GKD [Prop. Again. ΓΔ εὐθεῖα ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΗΚ. But AGK was also shown (to be) equal to GHF . παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. angles [Prop. and BC the given straightline. And since the straight-line GK has fallen across the parallel straight-lines AB and EF . ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΘΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΚΔ. Εἰλήφθω ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΓ τυχὸν σημεῖον τὸ Δ. ὅτι καὶ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ ἐστι παράλληλος. ᾿Εμπιπτέτω γὰρ εἰς αὐτὰς εὐθεῖα ἡ ΗΚ. and let AD have been joined. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΚ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΖ ἴση. For let the straight-line GK fall across (AB. Thus. Thus. Let each of the (straight-lines) AB and CD be parallel to EF . ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΚ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΖ. [Αἱ ἄρα τῇ αὐτῇ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλοι καὶ ἀλλήλαις εἰσὶ παράλληλοι·] ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.] (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους εὐθείας τὰς ΕΖ. Proposition 30 Αἱ τῇ αὐτῇ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλοι καὶ ἀλλήλαις εἰσὶ παράλλη(Straight-lines) parallel to the same straight-line are λοι. AB is parallel to CD [Prop.STOIQEIWN aþ. 1. And they are alternate (angles). And let (angle) DAE. Thus. CD. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΚ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΚΔ ἐστιν ἴση· καί εἰσιν ἐναλλάξ. equal to angle ADC. and the (sum of the) internal (angles) on the same side equal to two right-angles. I say that AB is also parallel to CD. 1. lþ. Proposition 31 Διὰ τοῦ δοθέντος σημείου τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλον εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν. 1. πάλιν.13]. Let the point D have been taken a random on BC. Η Α Θ Ε Γ Κ Β A Ζ E ∆ C G H K B F D ῎Εστω ἑκατέρα τῶν ΑΒ. ΓΔ τῇ ΕΖ παράλληλος· λέγω. ῎Εστω τὸ μὲν δοθὲν σημεῖον τὸ Α.27]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. through the point A. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΒΓ· δεῖ δὴ διὰ τοῦ Α σημείου τῇ ΒΓ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλον εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν.29]. Καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους εὐθείας τὰς ΑΒ. (straight-lines) parallel to the same straightline are also parallel to one another. since the straight-line GK has fallen across the parallel straight-lines EF and CD. (the sum of) BGH and GHD is also equal to two right-angles.29]. also parallel to one another. AGK is also equal to GKD. through a given point. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 μέρη δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. (angle) AGK (is) thus equal to GHF [Prop. laþ. Let A be the given point. Thus. the external (angle) equal to the internal and opposite (angle). So it is required to draw a straight-line parallel to the straight-line BC. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΔ· καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΔΑ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΕ· καὶ To draw a straight-line parallel to a given straight-line. and EF ). have been constructed on the straight-line 33 . ΕΖ εὐθεῖα ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΗΚ. [Thus.

ΑΒΓ. 1.27]. EAF is thus parallel to BC [Prop. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΒΔ. and the straight-line BD has fallen across them. ΑΓΕ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. I say that the external angle ACD is equal to the (sum of the) two internal and opposite angles CAB and ABC. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΑΓ. lbþ. 1. Α Β Ε Γ A ∆ B ῎Εστω τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ἴση· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ δυσὶ ταῖς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. ΑΔΓ ἴσας ἀλλήλαις πεποίηκεν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. And since AB is parallel to CE. and AC has fallen across them. and the (sum of the) three internal angles of the triangle—ABC. since AB is parallel to CE. αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. BCA. and let one of its sides BC have been produced to D. παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΑΖ τῇ ΒΓ. ΑΒΓ. (in) falling across the two straight-lines BC and EF . And let the straightline AF have been produced in a straight-line with EA. Again. the whole an- 34 . ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΕ. through the given point A.31]. Καὶ ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΕ. has made the alternate angles EAD and ADC equal to one another. πάλιν. E C D Let ABC be a triangle. the straight-line EAF has been drawn parallel to the given straight-line BC. But ACE was also shown (to be) equal to BAC. and the (sum of the) three internal angles of the triangle is equal to two right-angles. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἐκβεβλήσθω ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας τῇ ΕΑ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΖ. ΒΓΑ. and CAB— is equal to two right-angles. καὶ προσεκβεβλήσθω αὐτοῦ μία πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΓ ἐπὶ τὸ Δ· λέγω.23]. For let CE have been drawn through point C parallel to the straight-line AB [Prop. internal and opposite (angles). ὅτι ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ ἴση ἐστὶ δυσὶ ταῖς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΑΒ. the alternate angles BAC and ACE are equal to one another [Prop. καὶ (then) the external angle is equal to the (sum of the) two αἱ ἐντὸς τοῦ τριγώνου τρεῖς γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν.29]. 1. 1. Thus.STOIQEIWN aþ. Proposition 32 Παντὸς τριγώνου μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν προσεκβληθείσης In any triangle. Α Ε Β ∆ Ζ E Γ B A F C D Καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς δύο εὐθείας τὰς ΒΓ.29]. ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΓΔ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. Διὰ τοῦ δοθέντος ἄρα σημείου τοῦ Α τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΒΓ παράλληλος εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ ἦκται ἡ ΕΑΖ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. the external angle ECD is equal to the internal and opposite (angle) ABC [Prop. Thus. And since the straight-line AD. ΕΖ εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα ἡ ΑΔ τὰς ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΕΑΔ. DA at the point A on it [Prop. ΓΑΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. καὶ αἱ ἐντὸς τοῦ τριγώνου τρεῖς γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ διὰ τοῦ Γ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλος ἡ ΓΕ. (if) one of the sides (is) produced ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία δυσὶ ταῖς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ἴση ἐστίν. 1.

the two (straight-lines) AB. ΒΓΑ. Παντὸς ἄρα τριγώνου μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν προσεκβληθείσης ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία δυσὶ ταῖς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ἴση ἐστίν. Thus. ΓΑΒ ἴσαι εἰσίν. and the (sum of the) three internal angles of the triangle is equal to two right-angles. ΓΒΑ. BC are equal to the two (straight-lines) DC. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. ἐδείχθη δὲ αὐτῇ καὶ ἴση. 1. CBA. straight-lines joining equal and parallel (straight- 35 . δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΒ. Thus. καὶ αἱ ἐντὸς τοῦ τριγώνου τρεῖς γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. and CAB is also equal to two right-angles. (in) falling across the two straight-lines AC and BD. 1. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΒΓΔ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἐστίν. and triangle ABC is equal to triangle DCB ‡ . I say that AC and BD are also equal and parallel. in any triangle. lgþ. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΒΔ. ΑΓΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ. Thus. But. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΒΓ. ΓΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΓ βάσει τῇ ΒΔ ἐστιν ἴση. the alternate angles ABC and BCD are equal to one another [Prop. gle ACD is equal to the (sum of the) two internal and opposite (angles) BAC and ABC. And since AB is equal to CD. 1. καὶ ἐπιζευγνύτωσαν αὐτὰς ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΓ. Thus. Αἱ ἄρα τὰς ἴσας τε καὶ παραλλήλους ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐπιζευγνύουσαι εὐθεῖαι καὶ αὐταὶ ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοί εἰσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ΓΔ. Also. αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ. and let the straight-lines AC and BD join them on the same sides. Proposition 33 Αἱ τὰς ἴσας τε καὶ παραλλήλους ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐπιStraight-lines joining equal and parallel (straightζευγνύουσαι εὐθεῖαι καὶ αὐταὶ ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοί εἰσιν. καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς δύο εὐθείας τὰς ΑΓ. ΒΓ δύο ταῖς ΒΓ. (the sum of) ACD and ACB is equal to two right-angles [Prop. ΒΓΔ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. καὶ ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ.† And the angle ABC is equal to the angle BCD. 1. ΒΔ ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοί εἰσιν. Let BC have been joined.4]. and the remaining angles will be equal to the corresponding remaining angles subtended by the equal sides [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 Κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ. ΓΑΒ ἄρα δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν.27]. παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΒΔ. ὅτι καὶ αἱ ΑΓ. the base AC is equal to the base BD.STOIQEIWN aþ. (the sum of) ACD and ACB is equal to the (sum of the) three (angles) ABC. ΑΓΒ τρισὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΒΓ. since the straight-line BC.29]. A C Let AB and CD be equal and parallel (straight-lines). ᾿Επεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΓ. (the sum of) ACB. (if) one of the sides (is) produced (then) the external angle is equal to the (sum of the) two internal and opposite (angles). Let ACB have been added to both. and BC has fallen across them. lines) on the same sides are themselves also equal and parallel. ΒΔ εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα ἡ ΒΓ τὰς ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις πεποίηκεν. has made the alternate angles (ACB and CBD) equal to one another. BCA. AC is thus parallel to BD [Prop. and CAB. And (AC) was also shown (to be) equal to (BD). CB. angle ACB is equal to CBD. Β ∆ Α B Γ D ῎Εστωσαν ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοι αἱ ΑΒ. ΒΔ· λέγω. Thus. And since AB is parallel to CD.13]. and BC is common.

‡ The Greek text has “DCB”. the alternate angles ABC and BCD are equal to one another [Prop. ΓΒΔ ἴσας ἔχοντα ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην τὴν πρὸς ταῖς ἴσαις γωνίαις κοινὴν αὐτῶν τὴν ΒΓ· καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς ἄρα πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς ἴσας ἕξει ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ τὴν λοιπὴν γωνίαν τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ μὲν ΑΒ πλευρὰ τῇ ΓΔ. the alternate angles ACB and CBD are equal to one another [Prop. Thus. ἡ δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΒΔ. 36 . καὶ ἡ διάμετρος αὐτὰ δίχα are equal to one another. ΓΒΔ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. angle BAC is equal to CDB. Thus. δύο δὴ τρίγωνά ἐστι τὰ ΑΒΓ. respectively. Λέγω δή. 1. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΒΓ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὅτι καὶ ἡ διάμετρος αὐτὰ δίχα τέμνει. the base AC (is) also equal to DB. αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ΒΓΑ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ. καὶ βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΒ ἴση. ῾Η ἄρα ΒΓ διάμετρος δίχα τέμνει τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. in parallelogrammic figures the opposite sides and angles are equal to one another. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. which is obviously a mistake. and BC has fallen across them. CD”. τέμνει. and BC (is) common. ΒΓΔ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. † The Greek text has “BC. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 lines) on the same sides are themselves also equal and parallel. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ [ἄρα] τρίγωνον τῷ ΒΓΔ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἐστίν. I say that for parallelogram ACDB. which is obviously a mistake. I also say that a diagonal cuts them in half. Thus.STOIQEIWN aþ. And. ὅτι τοῦ ΑΓΔΒ παραλληλογράμμου αἱ ἀπεναντίον πλευραί τε καὶ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. and the diagonal BC cuts it in half. and CBD to ACB.29]. and one side equal to one side—the (one) by the equal angles and common to them.26]. the two (straight-lines) AB. 1. ldþ. And BAC was also shown (to be) equal to CDB. For since AB is equal to CD. For since AB is parallel to CD. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΓΒΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ. ΒΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΓΔ. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΒΓ. καὶ ἡ ΒΓ διάμετρος αὐτὸ δίχα τέμνει. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ. and AC to BD. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. Thus. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΒΓ. and a diagonal cuts them in half. and the straight-line BC has fallen across them. CB † . 1. side AB is equal to CD. And since angle ABC is equal to BCD.29]. they will also have the remaining sides equal to the corresponding remaining (sides). the whole (angle) ABD is thus equal to the whole (angle) ACD. ΒΓΔ τὰς δύο γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. since AC is parallel to BD. So ABC and BCD are two triangles having the two angles ABC and BCA equal to the two (angles) BCD and CBD. ΒΓ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἴση. πάλιν ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΒΔ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΒ ἴση. αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ. (namely) BC. καὶ ἔτι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΒ. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἡ ΒΓ· λέγω. And angle ABC is equal to angle BCD. ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ ὅλῃ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ ἐστιν ἴση. and the remaining angle (equal) to the remaining angle [Prop. Proposition 34 Τῶν παραλληλογράμμων χωρίων αἱ ἀπεναντίον πλευραί In parallelogrammic figures the opposite sides and angles τε καὶ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. Τῶν ἄρα παραλληλογράμμων χωρίων αἱ ἀπεναντίον πλευραί τε καὶ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. respectively. Furthermore. the opposite sides and angles are equal to one another. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΒ. and BC its diagonal. Α Γ Β A ∆ C ῎Εστω παραλληλόγραμμον χωρίον τὸ ΑΓΔΒ. Again. B D Let ACDB be a parallelogrammic figure. BC are equal to the two (straightlines) DC.

Thus. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ παραλληλόγραμμόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. parallelograms which are on the same base and between the same parallels are equal to one another. Τὰ ἄρα παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. for the same (reasons). And AB is also equal to DC. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλ. καὶ τὸ ΕΑΒ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΖΓ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἔσται· κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΔΗΕ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΑΒΗΔ τραπέζιον λοιπῷ τῷ ΕΗΓΖ τραπεζίῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον· κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΗΒΓ τρίγωνον· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον ὅλῳ τῷ ΕΒΓΖ παραλληλογράμμῳ ἴσον ἐστίν.same parallels AH and BG. the external to the internal [Prop. ΕΒΓΖ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως τῆς ΒΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΑΖ. I say that the parallelogram 37 . BC”.4]. And DE is common. the whole (straight-line) AE is equal to the whole (straight-line) DF . 1. ‡ The Greek text has “ABCD”. Thus. EF is also equal to BC. which is obviously a mistake. ΔΓ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΔΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ ἐστιν ἴση ἡ ἐκτὸς τῇ ἐντός· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΕΒ βάσει τῇ ΖΓ ἴση ἐστίν. Proposition 35 Τὰ παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ Parallelograms which are on the same base and beἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν. So the two (straight-lines) EA. which is obviously a mistake. 1. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΒΓ. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τῷ ΕΒΓΖ παραλληλογράμμῳ. the base EB is equal to the base F C. † E C Let ABCD and EBCF be parallelograms on the same base BC.4]. AD is equal to BC [Prop. AB are equal to the two (straight-lines) F D. So. DC. leþ. So AD is also equal to EF . the diagonal BC cuts the parallelogram ACDB ‡ in half. for the first time. For since ABCD is a parallelogram. “equal” means “equal in area”.34]. ῎Εστω παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ΑΒΓΔ. ΒΗ· λέγω. 1. ΕΖΗΘ ἐπὶ ἴσων Let ABCD and EF GH be parallelograms which are βάσεων ὄντα τῶν ΒΓ. I say that ABCD is equal to parallelogram EBCF . διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ κοινὴ ἡ ΔΕ· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ΑΕ ὅλῃ τῇ ΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση. 1. Let triangle GBC have been added to both. Α Ε ∆ Ζ A D Η Β F G Γ B ῎Εστω παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ΑΒΓΔ. and triangle EAB will be equal to triangle DF C [Prop. And angle F DC is equal to angle EAB. ΖΗ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις on the equal bases BC and F G. Let DGE have been taken away from both. Here. and (are) between the ταῖς ΑΘ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. lþ. Thus. rather than “congruent”. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 and triangle ABC is equal to triangle BCD [Prop. the whole parallelogram ABCD is equal to the whole parallelogram EBCF . Thus. respectively. Thus. tween the same parallels are equal† to one another. the same parallels are equal to one another.STOIQEIWN aþ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.29]. † The Greek text has “CD. Thus. and between the same parallels AF and BC. Proposition 36 Τὰ παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων ὄντα καὶ ἐν Parallelograms which are on equal bases and between ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΓ ἴση· δύο δὴ αἱ ΕΑ. ΒΓ· λέγω. ΑΒ δύο ταῖς ΖΔ. the remaining trapezium ABGD is equal to the remaining trapezium EGCF .

and are equal. 1. And since BC is equal to F G. ΓΘ. 1. δὶα δὲ τοῦ Γ τῇ ΒΔ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΓΖ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΖΗ. 1. but F G is equal to EH [Prop. καὶ ἡ ΒΓ ἄρα τῇ ΕΘ ἐστιν ἴση. and is equal to ABCD.34]. BC is thus equal to EH. and let the (straight-line) CF have been drawn through C parallel to BD [Prop. 1.34]. and between the same parallels BC and EF [Prop. But (straight-lines) joining equal and parallel (straight-lines) on the same sides are (themselves) equal and parallel [Prop. Thus. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Β τῇ ΓΑ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΒΕ. EB and HC are also equal and parallel]. I say that triangle ABC is equal to triangle DBC. ΕΖ· καί ἐστι τοῦ μὲν ΕΒΓΑ παραλληλογράμμου ἥμισυ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον· ἡ γὰρ ΑΒ διάμετρος αὐτὸ δίχα τέμνει· τοῦ δὲ ΔΒΓΖ παραλληλογράμμου ἥμισυ τὸ ΔΒΓ τρίγωνον· ἡ γὰρ ΔΓ διάμετρος αὐτὸ δίχα τέμνει. BC and AH. ΔΒΓ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως τῆς ΒΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΑΔ. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΒΓ τριγώνῳ. and is between the same parallels. as (ABCD) [Prop. ᾿Εκβεβλήσθω ἡ ΑΔ ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τὰ μέρη ἐπὶ τὰ Ε. for the same (reasons).31]. EBCA and DBCF are both parallelograms. EBCH is a parallelogram [Prop. and EB and HC join them.35]. ΘΓ· αἱ δὲ τὰς ἴσας τε καὶ παραλλήλους ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐπιζευγνύουσαι ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοί εἰσι [καὶ αἱ ΕΒ. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ληλόγραμμον τῷ ΕΖΗΘ. Thus. καί ἐστιν ἴσον τῷ ΑΒΓΔ· βάσιν τε γὰρ αὐτῷ τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχει τὴν ΒΓ. EF GH is also equal to the same (parallelogram) EBCH [Prop. For the diagonal AB cuts the latter in 38 . And they are also parallel. and between the same parallels AD and BC. For let BE and CH have been joined. ΘΓ ἄρα ἴσαι τέ εἰσι καὶ παράλληλοι]. 1. as (ABCD).STOIQEIWN aþ. So.35]. ΔΒΓΖ· καί εἰσιν ἴσα· ἐπί τε γὰρ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεώς εἰσι τῆς ΒΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΓ. παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΕΒΓΑ.33] [thus. parallelograms which are on equal bases and between the same parallels are equal to one another. BC.34]. 1. Α Β ABCD is equal to EF GH. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστὶν αὐτῷ ταῖς ΒΓ. And the triangle ABC is half of the parallelogram EBCA. 1. δὶα τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ΕΖΗΘ τῷ αὐτῷ τῷ ΕΒΓΘ ἐστιν ἴσον· ὥστε καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΕΖΗΘ ἐστιν ἴσον. Thus. Τὰ ἄρα παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. For they are on the same base BC. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ παράλληλοι. So that the parallelogram ABCD is also equal to EF GH.31]. and let the (straight-line) BE have been drawn through B parallel to CA [Prop. ΑΘ. παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΕΒΓΘ. Α Ε Β ∆ Ζ A E Γ F B ῎Εστω τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΖΗ τῇ ΕΘ ἐστιν ἴση. lzþ. [τὰ δὲ D C Let ABC and DBC be triangles on the same base BC. Let AD have been produced in both directions to E and F . καὶ ἐπιζευγνύουσιν αὐτὰς αἱ ΕΒ. For it has the same base. 1. ΒΓ· λέγω. the same parallels are equal to one another. ∆ Ε Θ Γ Ζ A Η B D E H C F G ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΒΕ. Proposition 37 Τὰ τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς Triangles which are on the same base and between αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν. Ζ.

and on τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν. lhþ. ὅτι καὶ ἐν ταῖς the same base BC.34]. and let the (straight-line) F H have been drawn through F parallel to DE [Prop. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΒΓ τριγώνῳ. and between the same parallels BF and GH [Prop. 1. Τὰ ἄρα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. δὶα δὲ τοῦ Ζ τῇ ΔΕ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΖΘ. triangle ABC is equal to triangle DBC. ΕΖ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΖ. ΔΕΖ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων τῶν ΒΓ. ljþ. ΔΕΖΘ· καὶ ἴσον τὸ ΗΒΓΑ τῷ ΔΕΖΘ· ἐπί τε γὰρ ἴσων βάσεών εἰσι τῶν ΒΓ. ΑΔ· λέγω. This is an additional common notion. 1. For let AD have been produced in both directions to G and H. ΕΖ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΖ. are also between the same parallels. Thus.31]. Θ. triangle ABC is equal to triangle DEF .31]. same parallels are equal to one another. Let ABC and DEF be triangles on the equal bases BC and EF . 1. 1. and on the same side (of it). ELEMENTS BOOK 1 τῶν ἴσων ἡμίση ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν]. ᾿Εκβεβλήσθω γὰρ ἡ ΑΔ ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τὰ μέρη ἐπὶ τὰ Η. For they are on the equal bases BC and EF . and between the same parallels BF and AD. And triangle ABC is half of the parallelogram GBCA. Proposition 39 Τὰ ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐπὶ Equal triangles which are on the same base. [And the halves of equal things are equal to one another. ΔΒΓ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως Let ABC and DBC be equal triangles which are on ὄντα καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τῆς ΒΓ· λέγω. For the diagonal DF cuts the latter in half. Thus. For the diagonal DC cuts the latter in half [Prop. and let the (straight-line) BG have been drawn through B parallel to CA [Prop. Η Β Α ∆ Γ Θ Ε G Ζ B A D C H E F ῎Εστω τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ.34].]† Thus. Proposition 38 Τὰ τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς Triangles which are on equal bases and between the παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν. ῎Εστω ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. Τὰ ἄρα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. And the triangle DBC (is) half of the parallelogram DBCF . triangles which are on equal bases and between the same parallels are equal to one another. ΗΘ· καί ἐστι τοῦ μὲν ΗΒΓΑ παραλληλογράμμου ἥμισυ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον. [And the halves of equal things are equal to one another. 1. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. 1. For the diagonal AB cuts the latter in half [Prop. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. the same side.] Thus. παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΗΒΓΑ. I say that triangle ABC is equal to triangle DEF . And triangle F ED (is) half of parallelogram DEF H. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. † half [Prop. triangles which are on the same base and between the same parallels are equal to one another. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Β τῇ ΓΑ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΒΗ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. GBCA and DEF H are each parallelograms. And GBCA is equal to DEF H.36]. I say that 39 . ἡ γὰρ ΑΒ διάμετρος αὐτὸ δίχα τέμνει· τοῦ δὲ ΔΕΖΘ παραλληλογράμμου ἥμισυ τὸ ΖΕΔ τρίγωνον· ἡ γὰρ ΔΖ δίαμετρος αὐτὸ δίχα τέμνει [τὰ δὲ τῶν ἴσων ἡμίση ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν].STOIQEIWN aþ.34].

mþ. ἤχθω διὰ τοῦ Α τῇ ΒΕ παράλληλος ἡ ΑΖ.37]. DBC is also equal to EBC. AD is parallel to BC. and between the same parallels [Prop. ∆ Α D A Ε E Β Γ B C ᾿Επεζεύχθω γὰρ ἡ ΑΔ· λέγω. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΓΕ τριγώνῳ· ἐπί τε γὰρ ἴσων βάσεών εἰσι τῶν ΒΓ. ΑΖ. I say that AD and BC are parallel. ΓΕ καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. ΓΔΕ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων τῶν ΒΓ. 1. and on the μέρη καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν. AE is not parallel to BC. and on the same side. BE and AF [Prop. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΕΒΓ τριγώνῳ· ἐπί τε γὰρ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεώς ἐστιν αὐτῷ τῆς ΒΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις. For. Α A ∆ D Ζ Β Γ F Ε B ῎Εστω ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ.STOIQEIWN aþ. I say that AD is parallel to BE. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΔΓΕ [τρίγωνῳ]· καὶ τὸ ΔΓΕ ἄρα [τρίγωνον] ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΖΓΕ τριγώνῳ τὸ μεῖζον τῷ C E Let ABC and CDE be equal triangles on the equal bases BC and CE (respectively). 1. For let AD have been joined. triangle ABC is equal 40 .38].31]. ᾿Επεζεύχθω γὰρ ἡ ΑΔ· λέγω. For let AD have been joined. For it is on the same base as it. BC and CE. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὅτι οὐδ᾿ ἄλλη τις πλὴν τῆς ΑΔ· ἡ ΑΔ ἄρα τῇ ΒΓ ἐστι παράλληλος. ΓΕ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΕ. 1. the greater to the lesser. let AE have been drawn through point A parallel to the straight-line BC [Prop. Thus. they are also between the same parallels. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. Εἰ γὰρ μή. But. The very thing is impossible. and between the same parallels. Thus. Τὰ ἄρα ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Εἰ γὰρ μή. and on the same side (of BE). Thus. are also between the same parallels. ὅτι παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΒΕ. if not. 1. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΕ. and let EC have been joined. ὅτι παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΒΓ. triangle ABC is equal to triangle EBC. I say that they are also between the same parallels. Similarly. triangle ABC is equal to triangle F CE. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΕΓ. Proposition 40† Τὰ ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων ὄντα καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ Equal triangles which are on equal bases. For they are on equal bases. λέγω. Thus. BC. are also between the same parallels. But ABC is equal to DBC. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΑΒΓ τῷ ΔΒΓ ἐστιν ἴσον· καὶ τὸ ΔΒΓ ἄρα τῷ ΕΒΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ μεῖζον τῷ ἐλάσσονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΒΓ. and let F E have been joined.31]. For if not. same side. ἤχθω διὰ τοῦ Α σημείου τῇ ΒΓ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλος ἡ ΑΕ. equal triangles which are on the same base. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν. let AF have been drawn through A parallel to BE [Prop. Thus. ὅτι καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν. Thus. we can show that neither (is) any other (straight-line) than AD.

then the parallelogram is τὸ παραλληλόγραμμον τοῦ τριγώνου.STOIQEIWN aþ. ἴσον δή ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΕΒΓ τριγώνῳ· ἐπί τε γὰρ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεώς ἐστιν αὐτῷ τῆς ΒΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΓ. ᾿Επεζεύχθω γὰρ ἡ ΑΓ. Thus. BC and AE [Prop. Thus. So parallelogram ABCD is also double (the area) of triangle EBC. mbþ. ὅτι οὐδ᾿ ἄλλη τις πλὴν τῆς ΑΔ· ἡ ΑΔ ἄρα τῇ ΒΕ ἐστι παράλληλος.37]. in a given rectilinear angle. then the parallelogram is double (the area) of the triangle. and on the same side. equal to triangle ABC in the rectilinear angle D. Τὰ ἄρα ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων ὄντα καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.linear angle. ῎Εστω τὸ μὲν δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ. ΑΕ· λέγω. 41 . Thus. So triangle ABC is equal to triangle EBC. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἐλάσσονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα παράλληλος ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΒΕ. ὅτι διπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον τοῦ ΒΕΓ τριγώνου. equal triangles which are on equal bases. as (EBC). The very thing is impossible. Proposition 41 ᾿Εὰν παραλληλόγραμμον τριγώνῳ βάσιν τε ἔχῃ τὴν If a parallelogram has the same base as a triangle. For let AC have been joined. But. and D the given rectiγωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ Δ· δεῖ δὴ τῷ ΑΒΓ τριγώνῳ ἴσον πα. ΑΕ. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα Let ABC be the given triangle. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου· ἡ γὰρ ΑΓ διάμετρος αὐτὸ δίχα τέμνει· ὥστε τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον καὶ τοῦ ΕΒΓ τριγώνου ἐστὶ διπλάσιον. † to [triangle] DCE. AD is parallel to BE. For let parallelogram ABCD have the same base BC as triangle EBC. διπλάσιόν ἐστί τὸ παραλληλόγραμμον τοῦ τριγώνου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and let it be between the same parallels. parallelogram ABCD is double (the area) of triangle ABC. This whole proposition is regarded by Heiberg as a relatively early interpolation to the original text. διπλάσιόν ἐστί is between the same parallels. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα παραλληλόγραμμον τριγώνῳ βάσιν τε ἔχῃ τὴν αὐτὴν καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ᾖ. Thus. maþ. and is between the same parallels. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. AF is not parallel to BE. So it is required to construct a parallelogram ραλληλόγραμμον συστήσασθαι ἐν τῇ Δ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ. the greater to the lesser.34]. double (the area) of the triangle. 1. we can show that neither (is) any other (straight-line) than AD. 1. For it is on the same base. Α Β ∆ Ε A Γ B D E C Παραλληλόγραμμον γὰρ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τριγώνῳ τῷ ΕΒΓ βάσιν τε ἐχέτω τὴν αὐτὴν τὴν ΒΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἔστω ταῖς ΒΓ. and between the same parallels. BC. are also between the same parallels. Similarly. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Proposition 42 Τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον συστήTo construct a parallelogram equal to a given triangle σασθαι ἐν τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ. For the diagonal AC cuts the former in half [Prop. BC and AE. I say that parallelogram ABCD is double (the area) of triangle BEC. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. and αὐτὴν καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ᾖ. [triangle] DCE is also equal to triangle F CE. if a parallelogram has the same base as a triangle.

the remaining complement BK is equal to 42 . ΖΗ. Thus. equal to the given triangle ABC. 1. 1. equal to angle D. and AC its diagonal. BC and AG [Prop. parallelogram F ECG. triangle ABC is equal to triangle ACD [Prop. Thus. ἥτις ἐστὶν ἴση τῇ Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. And since BE is equal to EC. has been constructed in the angle CEF . Again. And let AG have been drawn through A parallel to EC [Prop. since EH is a parallelogram. And the whole triangle ABC is also equal to the whole (triangle) ADC. Thus. triangle AEK plus KGC is equal to triangle AHK plus KF C. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἡ ΑΓ. 1.38]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.23]. the complements of the parallelograms about the diagonal are equal to one another. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ΚΖΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΚΗΓ ἐστιν ἴσον. For it has the same base as (AEC). And let (angle) CEF .31]. Thus.STOIQEIWN aþ. which is equal to D. For since ABCD is a parallelogram. I say that the complement BK is equal to the complement KD. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ∆ D Α Β Ζ Ε Η A Γ B G F E C Τετμήσθω ἡ ΒΓ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε. 1. and BK and KD the so-called complements (about AC). and let AE have been joined. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἡ ΑΓ. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΕΓ τριγώνῳ· ἐπί τε γὰρ ἴσων βάσεών εἰσι τῶν ΒΕ. and let CG have been drawn through C parallel to EF [Prop. have been constructed at the point E on the straight-line EC [Prop. ΕΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΓ. Therefore. triangle ABE is also equal to triangle AEC. 1. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ παραλληλόγραμμόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. And let EH and F G be the parallelograms about AC. Τῷ ἄρα δοθέντι τριγώνῳ τῷ ΑΒΓ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον συνέσταται τὸ ΖΕΓΗ ἐν γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΕΖ. parallelogram F ECG is equal to triangle ABC. 1. Let ABCD be a parallelogram. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΓ. So. ΑΗ· διπλάσιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τοῦ ΑΕΓ τριγώνου. and between the same parallels.34]. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἐστιν ἡ ΑΚ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὸ ΖΕΓΗ παραλληλόγραμμον διπλάσιον τοῦ ΑΕΓ τριγώνου· βάσιν τε γὰρ αὐτῷ τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχει καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς ἐστιν αὐτῷ παραλλήλοις· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΕΓΗ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΑΒΓ τριγώνῳ. triangle KF C is also equal to (triangle) KGC. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΚ παραπλήρωμα τῷ ΚΔ παραπληρώματι. and AK is its diagonal. and AC its diagonal. ΚΔ· λέγω. Let BC have been cut in half at E [Prop. ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΕΚ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΘΚ τριγώνῳ. ἐπεὶ οὖν τὸ μὲν ΑΕΚ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΘΚ τριγώνῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον. τὸ ΑΕΚ τρίγωνον μετὰ τοῦ ΚΗΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΑΘΚ τριγώνῳ μετὰ τοῦ ΚΖΓ· ἔστι δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον ὅλῳ τῷ ΑΔΓ ἴσον· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΒΚ παραπλήρωμα λοιπῷ τῷ ΚΔ παρα- For any parallelogram.10]. ῎Εστω παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. πάλιν. περὶ δὲ τὴν ΑΓ παραλληλόγραμμα μὲν ἔστω τὰ ΕΘ. F ECG is a parallelogram. for the same (reasons). mgþ. Proposition 43 Παντὸς παραλληλογράμμου τῶν περὶ τὴν διάμετρον παραλληλογράμμων τὰ παραπληρώματα ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν. 1. BE and EC. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Α τῇ ΕΓ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΑΗ. triangle AEK is equal to triangle AHK [Prop. and is between the same parallels as (AEC) [Prop. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Γ τῇ ΕΖ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΓΗ· παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΕΓΗ. καὶ ἔχει τὴν ὑπὸ ΓΕΖ γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ δοθείσῃ τῇ Δ.34]. τὸ δὲ ΚΖΓ τῷ ΚΗΓ. ἐπεὶ παραλληλόγραμμόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΘ. and KF C to KGC. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΕ. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΕΓ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Ε τῇ Δ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΕΖ.41]. For they are on the equal bases. (F ECG) also has the angle CEF equal to the given (angle) D. And parallelogram F ECG is also double (the area) of triangle AEC.31]. τὰ δὲ λεγόμενα παραπληρώματα τὰ ΒΚ. ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΓΔ τριγώνῳ. Thus. since triangle AEK is equal to triangle AHK. 1. triangle ABC is double (the area) of triangle AEC.

αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΘΖ. μῳ.ments of the parallelograms about the diagonal are equal λοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 1. τὸ δὲ δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ Γ. 1. And since the straight-line HF falls across the parallels AH and EF . ΖΕ K M B A L Let AB be the given straight-line.STOIQEIWN aþ. ἥ ἐστιν ἴση τῇ Δ· καὶ κείσθω ὥστε ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας εἶναι τὴν ΒΕ τῇ ΑΒ. Α Θ A ∆ Κ Ε Β the remaining complement KD. καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους τὰς ΑΘ. for any parallelogramic figure. Ζ B D K E Γ Η H F G C Παντὸς ἄρα παραλληλογράμμου χωρίου τῶν περὶ τὴν Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 πληρώματί ἐστιν ἴσον. ΕΖ εὐθεῖα ἐνέπεσεν ἡ ΘΖ. αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΒΘΗ. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ Δ· δεῖ δὴ παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ τῷ Γ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβαλεῖν ἐν ἴσῃ τῇ Δ γωνίᾳ. C the given triangle. Συνεστάτω τῷ Γ τριγώνῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΒΕΖΗ ἐν γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΒΗ.42]. mdþ. ΕΖ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΑΘ. and D the given rectilinear angle. the compleδιάμετρον παραλληλογράμμων τὰ παραπληρώματα ἴσα ἀλλή. the (sum of the) angles AHF and HF E is thus equal to two right-angles 43 .† And let F G have been drawn through to H. which is equal to D [Prop. So it is required to apply a parallelogram equal to the given triangle C to the given straight-line AB in an angle equal to (angle) D. ΘΖΕ γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς εἰσιν ἴσαι. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Α ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΒΗ.a given straight-line in a given rectilinear angle. ΗΖΕ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονές εἰσιν· αἱ δὲ ἀπὸ ἐλασσόνων ἢ δύο ὀρθῶν εἰς ἄπειρον ἐκβαλλόμεναι συμπίπτουσιν· αἱ ΘΒ. Let the parallelogram BEF G. And let it have been placed so that BE is straight-on to AB. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΘΒ. and let AH have been drawn through A parallel to either of BG or EF [Prop. ∆ D Γ Ζ Κ Ε Η Θ C Μ Β Α F E G Λ H ῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. Proposition 44 Παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ ἴσον παTo apply a parallelogram equal to a given triangle to ραλληλόγραμμον παραβαλεῖν ἐν τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμ. have been constructed in the angle EBG. equal to the triangle C.31]. and let HB have been joined. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΖΗ ἐπὶ τὸ Θ. to one another.

(the sum of) M HG and HGL is equal to (the sum of) 44 . ΗΘΜ ἄρα δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. KH is straight-on to HM [Prop. Thus. but GBE is equal to D. 5]. ἥ ἐστιν ἴση τῇ Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ΘΗΖ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. περὶ δὲ τὴν ΘΚ παραλληλόγραμμα μὲν τὰ ΑΗ. the alternate angles M HG and HGF are equal to one another [Prop. ΘΗΛ ἴσαι εἰσιν. meþ.3. ΚΘΗ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΚΘΗ. 1. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἡ ΘΚ. Thus. ΗΘΜ ἐστιν ἴση.14]. Thus. ABM is thus also equal to angle D. which is equal to E [Prop. ΖΘ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΚΛ. But. καὶ συνεστάτω τῷ ΑΒΔ τριγώνῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΖΘ ἐν τῇ ὑπὸ ΘΚΖ γωνίᾳ. Thus. So two straight-lines. 1. τὰ δὲ λεγόμενα παραπληρώματα τὰ ΛΒ. ΚΘΗ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΚΘΗ. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἄρα ἐκβαλλόμεναι συμπεσοῦνται. ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΒΕ τῇ Δ ἐστιν ἴση. And (straight-lines) produced to infinity from (internal angles whose sum is) less than two right-angles meet together [Post. Παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν ἄρα εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ τῷ Γ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβέβληται τὸ ΛΒ ἐν γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΜ. 1. ΖΗ εὐθεῖα ἐνέπεσεν ἡ ΘΗ. make adjacent angles with some straight-line GH. And AG and M E (are) parallelograms.STOIQEIWN aþ. and HK its diagonal. ῎Εστω τὸ μὲν δοθὲν εὐθύγραμμον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. πρὸς δή τινι εὐθεῖᾳ τῇ ΗΘ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Θ δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΚΘ. καὶ ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν αἱ ΘΑ. the parallelogram LB. And since angle E is equal to each of (angles) HKF and GHM . καὶ ἡ ΚΖ ἄρα τῇ ΜΛ ἴση τε καὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν· καὶ To construct a parallelogram equal to a given rectilinear figure in a given rectilinear angle. But. ἀλλὰ καὶ ἡ ΘΗ τῇ ΜΛ. Let ABCD be the given rectilinear figure. ΜΕ. (the sum of) F KH and KHG is equal to two right-angles [Prop.31. 1. Thus. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΗΛ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΜΘΗ.44].43]. equal to the given triangle C. παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΘΛΚΖ. ἥ ἐστιν ἴση τῇ Ε· καὶ παραβεβλήσθω παρὰ τὴν ΗΘ εὐθεῖαν τῷ ΔΒΓ τριγώνῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΗΜ ἐν τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΜ γωνίᾳ. ΗΒ ἐπὶ τὰ Λ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΖΚ τῇ ΘΗ ἴση τε καὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν. not lying on the same side. and let them meet together at K. being produced. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ὑπὸ ΜΘΗ. 1. So it is required to construct a parallelogram equal to the rectilinear figure ABCD in the given angle E. equal to the triangle DBC. And let KL have been drawn through point K parallel to either of EA or F H [Prop. LB is equal to BF [Prop. Let DB have been joined. equal to the triangle ABD. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΚΘΗ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΖΚΘ. ΘΗΛ ἄρα δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΗ τῇ ΗΛ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ Ε γωνία ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ὑπὸ ΘΚΖ.† and E the given rectilinear angle. at the point H on it. Thus. (the sum of) KHG and GHM is also equal to two right-angles. αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΜΘΗ. Thus. ΒΖ· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΛΒ τῷ ΒΖ. KH and HM . (whose sum is) equal to two right-angles.23. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ὑπὸ ΖΚΘ. Also. 1. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΜ ἄρα τῇ Δ γωνίᾳ ἐστὶν ἴση. LB is also equal to C. ᾿Επεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΒ. Proposition 45 Τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον συστήσασθαι ἐν τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ. and LB and BF the so-called complements. which is equal to E [Prop. And let the parallelogram GM . and let the parallelogram F H. Let HGL have been added to both. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΚΖ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΜ ἐστιν ἴση.31].42]. have been applied to the straight-line GH in the angle GHM . has been applied to the given straight-line AB in the angle ABM . ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν καὶ συμπιπτέτωσαν κατὰ τὸ Κ. have been constructed in the angle HKF . Μ σημεῖα. And let HA and GB have been produced to points L and M (respectively). And since the straightline HG falls across the parallels KM and F G. and 1. ΘΜ μὴ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιοῦσιν· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΚΘ τῇ ΘΜ· καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους τὰς ΚΜ. (the sum of) BHG and GF E is less than two right-angles. 1.29]. HLKF is a parallelogram. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Κ σημείου ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΕΑ. (the sum of) F KH and KHG is equal to (the sum of) KHG and GHM . which is equal to D. about HK. † [Prop. This can be achieved using Props. Thus. ΗΘΜ ἴσαι εἰσίν. Let them have been produced. Thus. since angle GBE is equal to ABM [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. Let KHG have been added to both.15]. 1. (angle) HKF is thus also equal to GHM . BF is equal to triangle C. Thus. ἥ ἐστιν ἴση τῇ Ε.29]. HB and F E will meet together. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΒΖ τῷ Γ τριγώνῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον· καὶ τὸ ΛΒ ἄρα τῷ Γ ἐστιν ἴσον. 1. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ Ε· δεῖ δὴ τῷ ΑΒΓΔ εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον συστήσασθαι ἐν τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ τῇ Ε. ΘΗΛ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΘΗΖ.29]. 1. ΘΗΛ δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΘΗΖ. 1. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΒΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΜ.

1. 1. αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. AB is equal to DE. KF is thus also equal and parallel to M L [Prop. Let AC have been drawn at right-angles to the straight-line AB from the point A on it [Prop. mþ. And the straight-lines KM and F L join them. ∆ D Γ C Α A Ε Β Ζ Κ Η Θ E B Λ F Μ G K H L M Τῷ ἄρα δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ ΑΒΓΔ ἴσον παραλThus. 1. ΖΛ· καὶ αἱ ΚΜ. the four (sides) BA. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ μὲν ΑΒΔ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΘ παραλληλογράμμῳ.31]. KM and F L are equal and parallel as well [Prop. ΑΔ. rectilinear figure ABCD. and DBC to GM . Thus. ΕΒ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΕΒ παραλληλόγραμμον. ὅτι καὶ ὀρθογώνιον.34]. ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΒΓΔ εὐθύγραμμον ὅλῳ τῷ ΚΖΛΜ παραλληλογράμμῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον. HGF and HGL. the whole rectilinear figure ABCD is thus equal to the whole parallelogram KF LM . ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ To describe a square on a given straight-line. AB is equal to AD. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Β σημείου τῇ ΑΔ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΒΕ.30]. For since the straight-line 45 . ΔΕ.33]. So it is required to describe a square on the straight-line AB. but also HG to M L [Prop. and let BE have been drawn through point B parallel to AD [Prop. τὸ δὲ ΔΒΓ τῷ ΗΜ. and EB are equal to one another. λέγω δή. Thus. So I say that (it is) also right-angled. the extension to many-sided figures is trivial. 1.STOIQEIWN aþ. However. 1. καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΑΒ ἴση ἡ ΑΔ· καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Δ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΔΕ. Thus. (the sum of) M HG and HGL is equal to two right-angles [Prop. ΔΕ εὐθεῖα ἐνέπεσεν ἡ ΑΔ. 1. Therefore. ἐπεὶ γὰρ εἰς παραλλήλους τὰς ΑΒ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ΑΔΕ γωνίαι δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. Thus. ADEB is a parallelogram. But. the parallelogram ADEB is equilateral.34]. But. equal to the given ληλόγραμμον συνέσταται τὸ ΚΖΛΜ ἐν γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΚΜ. and AD to BE [Prop. Proposition 46 ᾿Απὸ τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας τετράγωνον ἀναγράψαι. And let DE have been drawn through point D parallel to AB [Prop. AD. the parallelogram KF LM . gle F KM .3]. 1. ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ· δεῖ δὴ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ εὐθείας τετράγωνον ἀναγράψαι. ἡ δὲ ΑΔ τῇ ΒΕ. 1. παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΕΒ· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ. 1. 1.29]. Thus. (the sum of) HGF and HGL is also equal to two right-angles. KF LM is a parallelogram. † The proof is only given for a four-sided figure. and let AD have been made equal to AB [Prop. Let AB be the given straight-line. And since F K is equal and parallel to HG [Prop. which is equal to the given (angle) E. has been constructed in the anἥ ἐστιν ἴση τῇ δοθείσῃ τῇ Ε· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.14]. And since triangle ABD is equal to parallelogram F H.31].11]. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἐπιζευγνύουσιν αὐτὰς εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΚΜ. ῎Ηχθω τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ ἀπὸ τοῦ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείου τοῦ Α πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΑΓ. 1. F G is straight-on to GL [Prop. Thus. DE. ΖΛ ἄρα ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοί εἰσιν· παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΚΖΛΜ. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ τέσσαρες ἄρα αἱ ΒΑ. Thus.34].

the square on the side subtending the right-angle is equal to the (sum of the) squares on the sides containing the right-angle. And let AD and F C have been joined. ΘΓ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. not lying on the same side. And since angles BAC and BAG are each right-angles. 1. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΒΑ τῇ ΑΘ ἐστιν ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας.34]. ADE (is) also a right-angle. ΑΓ τὰ ΗΒ. and (the squares) GB and HC on AB and AC (respectively) [Prop. ADEB is rightangled. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΔ In right-angled triangles. Γ C ∆ Ε Α D Β A E B Τετράγωνον ἄρα ἐστίν· καί ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ εὐθείας Thus. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὀρθή ἐστιν ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Α ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΒΔ. πρὸς δή τινι εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΒΑ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΓ. ΖΓ. and F B to BA. Thus. Thus. ΑΓ τετραγώνοις. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΒΑ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἑκατέρα· κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ ὅλῃ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση. Thus. But BAD (is a) right-angle. the opposite sides and angles are equal to one another [Prop. And it is deἀναγεγραμμένον· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. And since angle DBC is equal to F BA. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΕ. each of the opposite angles ABE and BED (are) also right-angles. 1. the two (straight-lines) DB. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ μὲν τῆς ΒΓ τετράγωνον τὸ ΒΔΕΓ.29]. ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν ΒΑ. 1. ΒΑΗ γωνιῶν. Thus. And let AL have been drawn through point A parallel to either of BD or CE [Prop. BA is also straight-on to AH. Thus. ῎Εστω τρίγωνον ὀρθογώνιον τὸ ΑΒΓ ὀρθὴν ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίαν· λέγω. ΒΓ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΔ βάσει τῇ ΖΓ [ἐστιν] ἴση. δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΒ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον. ΓΕ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΑΛ· καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΔ. And since DB is equal to BC. Let ABC be a right-angled triangle having the angle BACa right-angle. So. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. scribed on the straight-line AB. for the same (reasons). καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΔΒ τῇ ΒΓ. ΒΕΔ γωνιῶν· ὀρθογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΕΒ. τῶν δὲ παραλληλογράμμων χωρίων αἱ ἀπεναντίον πλευραί τε καὶ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ἀπεναντίον τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ. For let the square BDEC have been described on BC. mzþ. (whose sum is) equal to two right-angles. AD falls across the parallels AB and DE. 1.STOIQEIWN aþ. ΑΗ μὴ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιοῦσιν· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΑ τῇ ΑΗ. I say that the square on BC is equal to the (sum of the) squares on BA and AC. 1.46]. let ABC have been added to both. Proposition 47 ᾿Εν τοῖς ὀρθογωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν τετραγώνοις.31]. the whole (angle) DBA is equal to the whole (angle) F BC. ΒΑ δύο ταῖς ΖΒ. then two straight-lines AC and AG. (ADEB) is a square [Def. for (they are) both right-angles. ὅτι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ.14]. make the adjacent angles with some straight-line BA. 1. BA are equal to the 46 . CA is straight-on to AG [Prop. the (sum of the) angles BAD and ADE is equal to two right-angles [Prop. at the point A on it. ἡ δὲ ΖΒ τῇ ΒΑ.22]. And for parallelogrammic figures.

† respectively. the square on the side BC is equal to the (sum of the) squares on the sides BA and AC.STOIQEIWN aþ. BC”. and the triangle ABD is equal to the triangle F BC [Prop. Θ H Κ K Η G A Α Ζ F Β Γ B C D L E ∆ Λ Ε ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ὀρθογωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν Thus. 1. ΑΓ. τὰ δὲ ΗΒ. † The Greek text has “F B. τραγώνοις· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. ΒΚ δειχθήσεται καὶ τὸ ΓΛ παραλληλόγραμμον ἴσον τῷ ΘΓ τετραγώνῳ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΒΔΕΓ τετράγωνον δυσὶ τοῖς ΗΒ. F B. ΗΓ. And parallelogram BL [is] double (the area) of triangle ABD. 47 . ὁμοίως δὴ ἐπιζευγνυμένων τῶν ΑΕ. 1. in right-angled triangles. BF . ΘΓ τετραγώνοις ἴσον ἐστίν. [τὰ δὲ τῶν ἴσων διπλάσια ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν·] ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ΒΛ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΗΒ τετραγώνῳ. F B and GC [Prop. For they have the same base. BD and AL [Prop. BD.]‡ Thus. the base AD [is] equal to the base F C. AE and BK being joined. And angle DBA (is) equal to angle F BC. ΑΓ πλευρῶν τετραγώνοις. [And the doubles of equal things are equal to one another.41]. ΘΓ ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. the square on the ὀρθὴν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ side subtending the right-angle is equal to the (sum of τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ὀρθὴν [γωνίαν] περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν τε. For again they have the same base.the) squares on the sides surrounding the right-[angle]. the whole square BDEC is equal to the (sum of the) two squares GB and HC. And square GB is double (the area) of triangle F BC. two (straight-lines) CB. ΑΛ· τοῦ δὲ ΖΒΓ τριγώνου διπλάσιον τὸ ΗΒ τετράγωνον· βάσιν τε γὰρ πάλιν τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχουσι τὴν ΖΒ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς εἰσι παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΖΒ. the parallelogram CL can be shown (to be) equal to the square HC. 1. and the (squares) GB and HC on BA and AC (respectively). similarly. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΒΓ τριγώνῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον· καί [ἐστι] τοῦ μὲν ΑΒΔ τριγώνου διπλάσιον τὸ ΒΛ παραλληλόγραμμον· βάσιν τε γὰρ τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχουσι τὴν ΒΔ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς εἰσι παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΔ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. So. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΒΔΕΓ τετράγωνον ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ ἀναγραφέν. and are between the same parallels. the parallelogram BL is also equal to the square GB. ‡ This is an additional common notion. which is obviously a mistake. Thus.41]. And the square BDEC is described on BC. and are between the same parallels. Thus.4]. Thus.

and AC (is) common. AC are equal to the two (straight-lines) BA. and let AD have been made equal to BA [Prop. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΑ τετράγωνον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετραγώνῳ. Proposition 48 ᾿Εὰν τριγώνου τὸ ἀπὸ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν τετράγωνον If the square on one of the sides of a triangle is equal ἴσον ᾖ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν λοιπῶν τοῦ τριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν to the (sum of the) squares on the two remaining sides of τετραγώνοις. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α σημείου τῇ ΑΓ εὐθείᾳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΑΔ καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΒΑ ἴση ἡ ΑΔ. 1.STOIQEIWN aþ. BAC is also a right-angle.3]. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Since DA is equal to AB. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 mhþ. ing sides of the triangle is a right-angle. Thus. ΑΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ· ὑπόκειται γάρ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΓ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετραγώνῳ· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΔΓ τῇ ΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΑΒ. ἡ περιεχομένη γωνία ὑπὸ τῶν λοιπῶν τοῦ the triangle then the angle contained by the two remainτριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν ὀρθή ἐστιν. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. the square on DA is thus also equal to the square on AB. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΑΓ. But DAC is a right-angle. Γ ∆ Α C Β D Τριγώνου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τὸ ἀπὸ μιᾶς τῆς ΒΓ πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἴσον ἔστω τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ.8]. the inverse notion is used.47]. the (square) on DC is equal to the (sum of the squares) on DA and AC. BC. I say that angle BAC is a right-angle. And since DA is equal to AB. For angle DAC is a right-angle [Prop. 1. Thus. For (that) was assumed. the square on DC is equal to the square on BC. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΓ. Thus. But. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΑΒ. ΑΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΓ· ὀρθὴ γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ γωνία· τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. Thus.11]. and let DC have been joined. of triangle ABC be equal to the (sum of the) squares on the sides BA and AC. ὅτι ὀρθή ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία. ΑΓ τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. † A B For let the square on one of the sides. But. ΑΓ δύο ταῖς ΒΑ. ἀλλὰ τοῖς μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν ΔΑ. 48 . ᾿Εὰν ἀρὰ τριγώνου τὸ ἀπὸ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν τετράγωνον ἴσον ᾖ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν λοιπῶν τοῦ τριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν τετραγώνοις. AC. 1. ΑΓ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΓ βάσει τῇ ΒΓ ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ [ἐστιν] ἴση. Later on. δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΑ. ΑΓ πλευρῶν τετραγώνοις· λέγω. the (sum of the) squares on DA and AC is equal to the (sum of the) squares on BA and AC. the two (straight-lines) DA. if the square on one of the sides of a triangle is equal to the (sum of the) squares on the remaining two sides of the triangle then the angle contained by the remaining two sides of the triangle is a right-angle. So side DC is also equal to (side) BC.† Let the square on AC have been added to both. Here. And the base DC is equal to the base BC. ἡ περιεχομένη γωνία ὑπὸ τῶν λοιπῶν τοῦ τριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν ὀρθή ἐστιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ΑΓ τετραγώνοις. angle DAC [is] equal to angle BAC [Prop. use is made of the additional common notion that the squares of equal things are themselves equal. For let AD have been drawn from point A at rightangles to the straight-line AC [Prop. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετράγωνον· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΔΑ. 1. the (square) on BC is equal to (sum of the squares) on BA and AC.

ELEMENTS BOOK 2 Fundamentals of Geometric Algebra 49 .

DL. And DL (is) the (rectangle contained) by A and DE. διὰ δὲ τῶν Δ. and let DK. at rightangles to BC [Prop. ῎Ισον δή ἐστι τὸ ΒΘ τοῖς ΒΚ. For it is contained by GB and BC. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 VOroi. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ὦσι δύο εὐθεῖαι. 1. ΒΔ. ΒΔ· περιέχεται μὲν γὰρ ὑπὸ τῶν ΗΒ. by A and DE. τὸ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ὑπὸ τῶν δύο εὐθειῶν ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ὑπό τε τῆς ἀτμήτου καὶ ἑκάστου τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένοις ὀρθογωνίοις· ὅπερ Let A and BC be the two straight-lines. aþ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΗ τῇ Α· τὸ δὲ ΒΚ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α.34]. let any one whatsoever of the parallelograms about its diagonal. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Β τῇ ΒΓ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΒΖ. ΒΓ. that is to say BG [Prop. of the) rectangles contained by the uncut (straight-line). ΔΕ καὶ ἔτι τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. 1.31]. parallel to BG [Prop. Any rectangular parallelogram is said to be contained by the two straight-lines containing the rightangle. 1.31]. finally. then the rectangle δύο εὐθειῶν ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ὑπό τε τῆς ἀτμήτου καὶ ἑκάστου contained by the two straight-lines is equal to the (sum τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένοις ὀρθογωνίοις. τῇ Α. EH (is) also the (rectangle contained) by A and EC. and let BC be cut. καὶ κείσθω τῇ Α ἴση ἡ ΒΗ. Definitions αʹ. For it is contained by GB and BD. and let GH have been drawn through (point) G. and BG (is) equal to A. βʹ. ΕΘ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΗ τῇ Α. and EH.3]. Α A Β ∆ Ε Γ Η Ζ Κ Λ Θ B G D E C K L H F ῎Εστωσαν δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ Α. ΔΕ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΔΚ. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. Thus. ΒΓ περιεχομένον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ τε ὑπὸ τῶν Α. by A and EC. the (rectangle contained) by A and BC is equal to the (rectangles contained) by A 50 . E. ΒΔ καὶ τῷ ὑπὸ Α. ΓΘ. and BG (is) equal to A. at points D and E. be called a gnomon. ΒΓ.STOIQEIWN bþ. and let BG be made equal to A [Prop. ΒΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ τε ὑπὸ Α. For let BF have been drawn from point B. ΕΓ. τὸ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ὑπὸ τῶν into any number of pieces whatsoever. ὡς ἔτυχεν. ΕΓ. (taken) with its two complements. 1. So the (rectangle) BH is equal to the (rectangles) BK. Proposition 1† ᾿Εὰν ὦσι δύο εὐθεῖαι. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΒΓ. ΒΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. Πᾶν παραλληλόγραμμον ὀρθογώνιον περιέχεσθαι λέγεται ὑπὸ δύο τῶν τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν εὐθειῶν. καὶ ἔτι ὁμοίως τὸ ΕΘ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. and every one of the pieces (of the cut straight-line). 1. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΒΘ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. ΔΕ καὶ ἔτι τῷ ὑπὸ Α. 2. Ε. ΔΛ. Similarly. I say that the rectangle contained by A and BC is equal to the rectangle(s) contained by A and BD. And BK (is) the (rectangle contained) by A and BD. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Η τῇ ΒΓ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΗΘ. For DK. And in any parallelogrammic figure. Γ τῇ ΒΗ παράλληλοι ἤχθωσαν αἱ ΔΚ. Ε σημεῖα· λέγω. τὸ δὲ ΔΛ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. ΕΛ. and C (respectively). Παντὸς δὲ παραλληλογράμμου χωρίου τῶν περὶ τὴν διάμετρον αὐτοῦ παραλληλογράμμων ἓν ὁποιονοῦν σὺν τοῖς δυσὶ παραπληρώμασι γνώμων καλείσθω. and CH have been drawn through (points) D.11]. τμηθῇ δὲ ἡ ἑτέρα αὐτῶν εἰς ὁσαIf there are two straight-lines. ΕΓ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Α. and one of them is cut δηποτοῦν τμήματα. And BH is the (rectangle contained) by A and BC. parallel to BC [Prop. (is) equal to A. τμηθῇ δὲ ἡ ἑτέρα αὐτῶν εἰς ὁσαδηποτοῦν τμήματα. τουτέστιν ἡ ΒΗ. κατὰ τὰ Δ. 1. and. at random. ΒΓ· περιέχεται μὲν γὰρ ὑπὸ τῶν ΗΒ. EL.

Α Γ Β ∆ Ζ Ε Εὐθεῖα γὰρ ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω. and AD (is) equal to AB. ῎Ισον δή ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΕ τοῖς ΑΖ. 1. ΑΓ περιεχομένου ὀρθογωνίου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετραγώνῳ. plus the rectangle contained by BA and AC. and each of the pieces (of the straight-line). τὸ δὲ ΑΖ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ὑπὸ ΒΑ. ΒΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετραγώνῳ. and one of them is cut into any number of pieces whatsoever.31]. if a straight-line is cut at random then the (sum of the) rectangle(s) contained by the whole (straightline). τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ ἑκατέρου τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: a (b + c + d + · · · ) = a b + a c + a d + · · · . and. and every one of the pieces (of the cut straight-line). ΑΓ. bþ. A C B D F E For let the straight-line AB have been cut.STOIQEIWN bþ. is equal to the square on the whole. Proposition 2† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. ὡς ἔτυχεν. plus the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC. the (rectangle contained) by BA and AC. ΒΕ παράλληλος ἡ ΓΖ. † and BD. Thus. and let CF have been drawn through C. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΑΒ· τὸ δὲ ΓΕ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. and each of the pieces (of the straight-line). καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΑΕ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον. is equal to the square on the whole. καὶ ἤχθω διὰ τοῦ Γ ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΔ. Thus. Thus. τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης If a straight-line is cut at random then the (sum of καὶ ἑκατέρου τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον the) rectangle(s) contained by the whole (straight-line). ὡς ἔτυχεν. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΔΕΒ.46]. ΒΓ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΑΒ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΓΕ. is equal to the square on AB. And AE is the square on AB. ὡς ἔτυχεν. then the rectangle contained by the two straight-lines is equal to the (sum of the) rectangles contained by the uncut (straight-line). And CE (is) the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC. finally. by A and EC. ΑΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον· περιέχεται μὲν γὰρ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΑ. 51 . κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον· λέγω. And AF (is) the rectangle contained by the (straight-lines) BA and AC. For let the square ADEB have been described on AB [Prop. parallel to either of AD or BE [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 ἔδει δεῖξαι. at random. 1. at point C. For it is contained by DA and AC. ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης τετραγώνῳ. I say that the rectangle contained by AB and BC. For BE (is) equal to AB. So the (square) AE is equal to the (rectangles) AF and CE. ΑΓ μετὰ τοῦ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. is equal to the square on AB. by A and DE. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. if there are two straight-lines. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΑ.

This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: (a + b) a = a b + a2 . ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Α ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΓΔ. ὡς ἔτυχεν. ΒΕ. and one of the pieces (of the straight-line). Thus. Α Γ Β Ζ ∆ Ε Εὐθεῖα γὰρ ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω. τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς If a straight-line is cut at random then the square ὅλης τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν τμημάτων τε. † ELEMENTS BOOK 2 This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: a b + a c = a2 if a = b + c. and one of the τῷ τε ὑπὸ τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ pieces (of the straight-line). ΓΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετραγώνου. And AE is the rectangle contained by AB and BC. parallel to either of CD or BE [Prop. I say that the rectangle contained by AB and BC is equal to the rectangle contained by AC and CB.46].STOIQEIWN bþ. And DB (is) the square on CB. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.squares on the pieces (of the straight-line). For it is contained by AB and BE. κατὰ τὸ Γ· λέγω. at random. and the square on the aforementioned piece. if a straight-line is cut at random then the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-line). 1.31]. τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ τε ὑπὸ τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ προειρημένου τμήματος τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. plus the square on BC. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. ΒΕ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΑΖ. ΓΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετραγώνου. ὡς ἔτυχεν. τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης If a straight-line is cut at random then the rectangle καὶ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ contained by the whole (straight-line). and let AF have been drawn through A. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΕΔ ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ. tained by (both of) the pieces. and BE (is) equal to BC. ὡς ἔτυχεν. dþ. Thus. 1. Proposition 3† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. and twice the 52 . ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ τε ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ἴσον δή ἐστι τὸ ΑΕ τοῖς ΑΔ. gþ. is equal to the rectangle conἀπὸ τοῦ προειρημένου τμήματος τετραγώνῳ. is equal to the rectangle contained by (both of) the pieces. plus the square on BC. ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον· περιέχεται μὲν γὰρ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ὡς ἔτυχεν. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΒΓ· τὸ δὲ ΑΔ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ΓΒ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΔΓ τῇ ΓΒ· τὸ δὲ ΔΒ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετράγωνον· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. the rectangle contained by AB and BC is equal to the rectangle contained by AC and CB. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΓΔΕΒ. For DC (is) equal to CB. For let the square CDEB have been described on CB [Prop. at (point) C. † A C B F D E For let the straight-line AB have been cut. ΓΕ· καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΑΕ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. and let ED have been drawn through to F . Proposition 4† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. And AD (is) the (rectangle contained) by AC and CB.on the whole (straight-line) is equal to the (sum of the) τραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθο. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. and the square on the aforementioned piece. So the (rectangle) AE is equal to the (rectangle) AD and the (square) CE.

GE is also equal to the (rectangle contained) by AC and CB. ΗΕ ὅλον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΕΒ. ΑΗ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ΘΖ τετράγωνόν ἐστιν· καί ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΘΗ.46]. at (point) C. CB is equal to GK. rectangle contained by the pieces. I say that the square on AB is equal to the (sum of the) squares on AC and CB. ὡς ἔτυχεν. And AG is the (rectangle contained) by AC and CB. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 γωνίῳ.34].31]. ΓΒ.STOIQEIWN bþ. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Η ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΒ. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΚΒΓ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΗ· ὥστε καὶ αἱ ἀπεναντίον αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΗΚ. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΒΔ. for the same (reasons). 1. ὅ ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. 1. ΗΕ ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ.34]. ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΗΒ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ. So the opposite (angles) CGK and GKB are also right-angles [Prop. Thus. the (rectangles) AG and GE are equal to twice the (rectangle contained) by AC and CB. For let the square ADEB have been described on AB [Prop. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΔΕΒ. ὅτι καὶ ὀρθογώνιον. and twice the rectangle contained by AC and CB. ΓΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. But. the squares HF and KC are on AC and CB (respectively). And it is on CB. AG. the four (figures) HF .43]. 1. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Γ ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΔ. ΓΒ τετραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. Thus. 1. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ ἐστιν ἴση. 1. ΓΒ· τὰ ἄρα τέσσαρα τὰ ΘΖ. ΚΓ τετράγωνα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. and let HK have been drawn through G. ΗΓΒ γωνίαι δύο ὀρθαῖς εἰσιν ἴσαι. CK.31]. ἐπεὶ γὰρ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΓΗ τῇ ΒΚ [καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΓΒ]. Thus. But. angle CGB is also equal to GBC. and CG to KB [Prop. ΓΚ τετράγωνα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. But KBC (is) a right-angle. that is to say [on] AC [Prop. the external angle CGB is equal to the internal and opposite (angle) ADB [Prop. ΗΚΒ ὀρθαί εἰσιν.6].29]. 1. ADB is equal to ABD. τουτέστιν [ἀπὸ] τῆς ΑΓ· τὰ ἄρα ΘΖ. at random. ΓΒ· τὰ ἄρα ΑΗ. ΓΚ. Thus. ΕΒ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΓΖ. ἐπεὶ καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΑ τῇ ΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΗΒ ἄρα γωνιά τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΓ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΓΗ ἐστιν ἴση· ἀλλ᾿ ἡ μὲν ΓΒ τῇ ΗΚ ἐστιν ἴση. the angles KBC and GCB are thus equal to two right-angles [Prop. ΓΒ εἰσιν. κατὰ τὸ Γ. So the side BC is equal to the side CG [Prop. For GC (is) equal to CB.34]. and let CF have been drawn through C. ἀλλὰ τὰ ΘΖ. ΓΒ τετραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ΓΚ. and let BD have been joined. 1. ὀρθογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΗΚΒ· ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον· τετράγωνον ἄρα ἐστίν· καί ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ. CGKB is right-angled.5]. καὶ ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΓΖ τῇ ΑΔ. ΑΗ. Α Θ ∆ Γ Η Ζ Β A Κ H Ε D Εὐθεῖα γὰρ γραμμὴ ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω. CGKB is equilateral. parallel to either of AB or DE [Prop. ΓΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. ΗΕ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. Thus. 1. Thus. parallel to either of AD or EB [Prop. ὡς ἔτυχεν. ΓΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. So. τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς C G F B K E For let the straight-line AB have been cut. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΗ τῷ ΗΕ. GK is also equal to KB. ἡ δὲ ΓΗ τῇ ΚΒ· καὶ ἡ ΗΚ ἄρα τῇ ΚΒ ἐστιν ἴση· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΗΚΒ. 1. So I say that (it is) also right-angled. Thus. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. Thus. For since CG is parallel to BK [and the straight-line CB has fallen across them]. καί ἐστι τὸ ΑΗ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ΓΒ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΗΓ τῇ ΓΒ· καὶ τὸ ΗΕ ἄρα ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ ΑΓ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὰ ΘΖ. BCG (is) also a rightangle. and GE are equal to the (sum of the) squares on 53 . λέγω δή. it is a square. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. And HF and CK are the squares on AC and CB (respectively). ΓΒ τετραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. 1. And since CF is parallel to AD. λέγω. And it is on HG. ΔΕ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΘΚ.29]. αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΚΒΓ. Thus. And the (rectangle) AG is equal to the (rectangle) GE [Prop. HF is also a square. since the side BA is also equal to AD [Prop. Thus. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΔ. 1. ὅτι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. and BD has fallen across them.

1. Thus. and GE are γωνίῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 1. 1.31]. (rectangle) AL is also equal to (rectangle) DF . (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 1. which is the square on AB. Α Γ ∆ Β A C D O Ν Θ Κ Μ Λ Ξ Ε Η B H Μ K Ζ Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω εἰς μὲν ἴσα κατὰ τὸ Γ. But. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΘ παραπλήρωμα τῷ ΘΖ παραπληρώματι. parallel to either of AB or EF [Prop. Proposition 5‡ ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ εἰς ἴσα καὶ ἄνισα.43]. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΓΕΖΒ. ΕΖ παράλληλος πάλιν ἤχθω ἡ ΚΜ. εἰς δὲ ἄνισα κατὰ τὸ Δ· λέγω. the square on AB is equal to the (sum of the) squares on AC and CB. between the (equal and unequal) pieces. parallel to either of CL or BM [Prop. ΒΜ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΑΚ. AG. Thus. CK. 1. eþ. Thus. But. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΛΗ. if a straight-line is cut at random then the square on the whole (straight-line) is equal to the (sum of the) squares on the pieces (of the straight-line). 1. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΔΜ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΓΜ ὅλῳ τῷ ΔΖ ἴσον ἐστίν. and let BE have been joined. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν If a straight-line is cut into equal and unequal (pieces) ἀνίσων τῆς ὅλης τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ then the rectangle contained by the unequal pieces of the τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς μεταξὺ τῶν τομῶν τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ whole (straight-line). καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΕ. and again let AK have been drawn through A. I say that the rectangle contained by AD and DB.31]. plus the square on the (difference) ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας τετραγώνῳ.36]. parallel to either of CE or BF [Prop. and again let KM have been drawn through H. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΓΜ τῷ ΑΛ ἴσον ἐστίν.and CB. For let the square CEF B have been described on CB [Prop. the whole (rectangle) AH is equal to the gnomon N OP . ΔΒ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετραγώνῳ. καὶ πάλιν διὰ τοῦ Α ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΓΛ. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 ὅλης τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν τμημάτων τε.AC and BC. and unequally at D. (equivalent to) the whole of ADEB. Thus. Thus. and twice the rectangle contained by the pieces. is equal to the square on half (of the straight-line). And since the complement CH is equal to the complement HF [Prop. ὅ ἐστιν ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ· ὁ ἄρα ΜΝΞ γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΛΗ ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. (rectangle) CM is equal to (rectangle) AL. let the (square) DM have been added to both. † This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: (a + b)2 = a2 + b2 + 2 a b.46]. the whole (rectangle) CM is equal to the whole (rectangle) DF . plus the square on CD. But. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Δ ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΓΕ. Let (rectangle) CH have been added to both. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΑΘ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ.STOIQEIWN bþ. ἐπεὶ καὶ ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΒ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ τὸ ΑΛ ἄρα τῷ ΔΖ ἴσον ἐστίν. the (figures) HF .31]. and twice the rectangle contained by AC τραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθο. since AC is also equal to CB [Prop. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Θ ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΒ. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. ΒΖ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΔΗ. is equal to the square on CB. and twice the rectangle contained by AC and CB. ΔΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς N L P E G M F For let any straight-line AB have been cut—equally at C. ΔΒ. AH 54 . and let DG have been drawn through D. ΔΒ ἐστιν· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΔΘ τῇ ΔΒ· καὶ ὁ ΜΝΞ ἄρα γνώμων ἴσος ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ ΑΔ. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΓΘ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΘ τῷ ΜΝΞ† γνώμονι ἴσον ἐστίν.

(rectangle) AL is also equal to (rectangle) CH [Prop. ὡς ἔτυχεν.43]. plus the square on half (of the original straightline). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. κατὰ τὸ Γ For let any straight-line AB have been cut. ΒΓ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ BC is equal to twice the rectangle contained by AB and 56 . 1. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 τῷ ΓΘ. τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης σὺν τῇ προσκειμένῃ καὶ τῆς προσκειμένης περιεχόμενον ὀρθόγώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς συγκειμένης ἔκ τε τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τῆς προσκειμένης τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ΒΓ τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ at point C. plus the square on CB. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΓΜ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΜ τῷ ΝΞΟ γνώμονί ἐστιν ἴσον. Thus. and the said piece. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΑΜ ἐστι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΛΗ. is equal to twice the rectangle contained by the whole. then the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-line) with the (straight-line) having being added. ὅ ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. Let (rectangle) CM have been added to both. if a straight-line is cut in half. the rectangle contained by AD and DB. ΔΒ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΝΞΟ γνώμονι καὶ τῷ ΛΗ. 1. ὡς ἔτυχεν. Thus. (rectangle) CH is equal to (rectangle) HF [Prop. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: (2 a + b) b + a2 = (a + b)2 . Thus. Α Γ Β A C Λ Θ Η Κ L Ζ H Μ ∆ Ν B K G F M Ε D N E Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΓΘ τῷ ΘΖ ἴσον ἐστίν. Thus. But. But the gnomon N OP and the (square) LG is (equivalent to) the whole square CEF D. is equal to the gnomon N OP and the (square) LG. Therefore. since AC is equal to CB. AM is the (rectangle contained) by AD and DB. and the (straight-line) having being added. is equal to the square on the sum of half (of the original straight-line) and the (straight-line) having been added. gnomon N OP is also equal to the [rectangle contained] by AD and DB. at random.36]. parallel to either of CL or DM [Prop. plus the square on CB. zþ. ΔΒ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ τετραγώνῳ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ δίχα. is equal to the square on CD. If a straight-line is cut at random then the sum of the squares on the whole (straight-line). the whole (rectangle) AM is equal to the gnomon N OP . προστεθῇ δέ τις αὐτῇ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας. and any straightline added to it straight-on. Let LG. which is on CD. Thus. ὅ ἐστιν ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετραγώνῳ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. the rectangle contained by AD and DB. Thus. ἀλλὰ ὁ ΝΞΟ γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΛΗ ὅλον ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΕΖΔ τετράγωνον. σημεῖον· λέγω. and one of the pieces (of the straight-line). For DM is equal to DB.STOIQEIWN bþ. † through A. (rectangle) AL is also equal to (rectangle) HF . and the square on the remaining piece. 1. ΔΒ [περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ]. which is equal to the square on BC. τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ τὸ ἀφ᾿ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων τὰ συναμφότερα τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ τε δὶς ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ τοῦ εἰρημένου τμήματος περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνῳ.31]. καὶ τὸ ΑΛ ἄρα τῷ ΘΖ ἐστιν ἴσον. I say that the (sum of the) squares on AB and τῷ τε δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. Proposition 7† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. ΔΒ· ἴση γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ΔΜ τῇ ΔΒ· καὶ ὁ ΝΞΟ ἄρα γνώμων ἴσος ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. have been added to both. ὅτι τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. But.

are equal to twice the rectangle contained by AB and BC. and the square on AC. are equal to twice the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC. ΒΓ τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ [τε] δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. and let the (rest of the) figure have been drawn double. is equal to the square described on AB and BC. the gnomon KLM . and let the square AEF D have been described on AD [Prop. ἀλλὰ τὰ ΑΖ. For let the square ADEB have been described on AB [Prop.STOIQEIWN bþ. 57 . (rectangle) AF plus (rectangle) CE is the gnomon KLM . † BC. But. and let BD be made equal to CB [Prop. and the square on CA. For let any straight-line AB have been cut. ΗΔ τετράγωνα ὅλον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΕΒ καὶ τὸ ΓΖ. (rectangle) AF plus (rectangle) CE is double (rectangle) AF . the (sum of the) squares on AB and BC is equal to twice the rectangle contained by AB and BC. τὸ τετράκις ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπό τε τῆς ὅλης καὶ τοῦ εἰρημένου τμήματος ὡς ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀναγραφέντι τετραγώνῳ. which is the square on AC. and let the (rest of) the figure have been drawn. 1. the whole (rectangle) AF is equal to the whole (rectangle) CE. τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ τὸ ἀφ᾿ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων τὰ συναμφότερα τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ τε δὶς ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ τοῦ εἰρημένου τμήματος περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ΒΓ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετραγώνῳ. ἀλλὰ ὁ ΚΛΜ γνώμων καὶ τὰ ΒΗ. 1. Thus. and the squares BG and GD. Proposition 8† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. 1. Thus. ὡς ἔτυχεν. καὶ καταγεγράφθω διπλοῦν τὸ σχῆμα. the gnomon KLM .43]. ΒΓ. as on one (complete straightline). I say that four times the rectangle contained by AB and BC. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΓΖ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΖ ὅλῳ τῷ ΓΕ ἴσον ἐστίν· τὰ ἄρα ΑΖ.46]. Let DG. as on one (complete straight-line). at random. ΒΓ ὡς ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀναγραφέντι τετραγώνῳ. and the square on AC. and one of the pieces (of the straight-line). plus the square on the remaining piece. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΔΕΒ· καὶ καταγεγράφθω τὸ σχῆμα. Thus. ΓΕ διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ΑΖ. Thus. Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω. ΗΔ τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ τε δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ.46]. hþ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΗ τῷ ΗΕ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. If a straight-line is cut at random then four times the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-line). ὅ ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετράγωνον· ὁ ἄρα ΚΛΜ γνώμων καὶ τὰ ΒΗ. is double the (rectangle) AF . But. if a straight-line is cut at random then the sum of the squares on the whole (straight-line). ὅτι τὸ τετράκις ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. and the square CF . κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον· λέγω. have been added to both. But double the (rectangle) AF is also twice the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC. at point C. ΒΓ τετράγωνα· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. Thus. since (rectangle) AG is equal to (rectangle) GE [Prop. ᾿Εκβεβλήσθω γὰρ ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας [τῇ ΑΒ εὐθεῖα] ἡ ΒΔ. let the (square) CF have been added to both. ΓΕ ὁ ΚΛΜ ἐστι γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΓΖ τετράγωνον· ὁ ΚΛΜ ἄρα γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΓΖ διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ΑΖ. the gnomon KLM . Therefore. For BF (is) equal to BC. ἅ ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. καὶ ἀναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΔ τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΕΖΔ. καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΓΒ ἴση ἡ ΒΔ. which are the squares on AB and BC (respectively). Thus. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. ἔστι δὲ τοῦ ΑΖ διπλάσιον καὶ τὸ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: (a + b)2 + a2 = 2 (a + b) a + b2 . plus the square on AC. the gnomon KLM and the squares BG and GD is (equivalent to) the whole of ADEB and CF . is equal to twice the rectangle contained by the whole. ὡς ἔτυχεν.3]. ΒΓ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΒΖ τῇ ΒΓ· ὁ ἄρα ΚΛΜ γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΓΖ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. and the said piece. ὡς ἔτυχεν. 1. ΒΓ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετραγώνου. ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ. and the square on the remaining piece. is equal to the square described on the whole and the former piece. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΑ τετραγώνῳ. For let BD have been produced in a straight-line [with the straight-line AB]. and one of the pieces (of the straight-line). Thus. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΔΗ. and the square CF . and the square CF .

1. τουτέστι τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ καὶ ΒΓ ὡς ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀναγραφέντι τετραγώνῳ. τὸ ἄρα τετράκις ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ὡς ἔτυχεν. ἡ δὲ ΗΚ τῇ ΚΝ. ἀλλὰ ἡ μὲν ΓΒ τῇ ΗΚ ἐστιν ἴση. ΒΔ τετραπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ΑΚ. 1. ΒΔ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΣΤΥ γνώμονι. And since AK is the (rectangle contained) by AB and BD. have been added to both. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ μὲν ΓΚ τῷ ΚΔ. GR. For (they are) complements in the parallelogram CP [Prop.36]. four times the rectangle contained by AB and BD. is equal to the gnomon ST U . (square) CK is thus also equal to (square) KD. and the (square) OH. τὸ δὲ ΗΡ τῷ ΡΝ. And since CG is equal to GQ. Thus. And since BC is equal to BD.34]. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΓΚ τῷ ΡΝ ἐστιν ἴσον· παραπληρώματα γὰρ τοῦ ΓΟ παραλληλογράμμου· καὶ τὸ ΚΔ ἄρα τῷ ΗΡ ἴσον ἐστίν· τὰ τέσσαρα ἄρα τὰ ΔΚ. ΒΔ ἐστιν· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΒΚ τῇ ΒΔ· τὸ ἄρα τετράκις ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ΗΡ. the four (taken together) are quadruple (rectangle) AG. ὅ ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΔ· τὸ ἄρα τετράκις ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. since CB is equal to BD. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ μὲν ΑΗ τῷ ΜΠ. But. ὅ ἐστιν ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετραγώνῳ· τὸ ἄρα τετράκις ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ.43]. and GK to KN . (square) CK is equal to (square) RN .STOIQEIWN bþ. τουτέστι τῇ ΗΠ. But the gnomon ST U was also shown (to be equal to) quadruple (rectangle) AK. Thus. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΓΗ τῇ ΗΠ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῂ ΒΔ. the four (rectangles) AG. τὸ δὲ ΠΛ τῷ ΡΖ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΠΡ τῇ ΡΟ ἐστιν ἴση. and BD to KN [Prop. for BK (is) equal to BD. ἡ δὲ ΠΡ τῇ ΡΟ. τετραπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ΑΚ. ἐδείχθη δὲ τοῦ ΑΚ τετραπλάσιος καὶ ὁ ΣΤΥ γνώμων· τὸ ἄρα τετράκις ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ.36]. which comprise the gnomon ST U . 1. ἐστιν ἴση. (rectangle) M Q is equal to (rectangle) QL. and (rectangle) QL to (rectangle) RF [Prop. ΒΔ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ ΑΓ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΣΤΥ γνώμονι καὶ τῷ ΞΘ. Thus. ΜΠ. τουτέστι τῇ ΓΗ ἴση. 58 . ΓΚ. ἡ δὲ ΓΒ τῇ ΗΚ. So. 1. ΡΝ τοῦ ΓΚ τετραπλάσια· τὰ ἄρα ὀκτώ. and RN (taken together are) quadruple (square) CK. ΒΔ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ ΑΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ ΑΔ τετραγώνῳ· ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΔ τῇ ΒΓ. (rectangle) AG is also equal to (rectangle) RF . κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΞΘ. ΚΔ. the eight (figures taken together). CK. Thus.43].34]. ἀλλὰ ἡ μὲν ΒΔ τῇ ΒΚ. τὰ τέσσαρα ἄρα τετραπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ΓΚ. ἡ δὲ ΒΔ τῇ ΚΝ. 1. and RF are equal to one another. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΜΠ τῷ ΠΛ ἐστιν ἴσον· παραπληρώματα γὰρ τοῦ ΜΛ παραλληλογράμμου· καὶ τὸ ΑΗ ἄρα τῷ ΡΖ ἴσον ἐστίν· τὰ τέσσαρα ἄρα τὰ ΑΗ. QL. since CB is equal to BD. Again. καὶ ἡ ΓΗ ἄρα τῇ ΗΠ ἴση ἐστίν. QR is equal to RP . ΗΡ. Thus. For (they are) complements in the parallelogram M L [Prop. M Q. But. and RN are equal to one another. Thus. ΡΖ ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· τὰ τέσσαρα ἄρα τοῦ ΑΗ ἐστι τετραπλάσια. Thus. ἃ περιέχει τὸν ΣΤΥ γνώμονα. But. KD. the four (squares) DK. which is equal to the square on AC. four times the (rectangle contained) by AB and BD is quadruple (rectangle) AK. are quadruple (rectangle) AK. Thus. plus the square on AC. and (square) GR to (square) RN [Prop. And it was also shown that the four (squares) CK. πάλιν ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΒ τῇ ΒΔ. ΠΛ. and QR to RP . CG—and CB is equal to GK—that is to say. Thus. Let OH. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ τὰ τέσσαρα τὰ ΓΚ. GQ—CG is thus also equal to GQ. ἀλλὰ ὁ ΣΤΥ γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΞΘ ὅλον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΕΖΔ τετράγωνον. GR. four times the (rectangle contained) by AB and BD is equal to the gnomon ST U . 1. the four (taken together) are quadruple (square) CK. but BD (is) equal to BK—that is to say. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 Α Γ Β ∆ A C B Τ Η Μ Ξ Κ Π Σ Ρ T Ν M Ο O Υ Ε Θ D G K S Q R N P U Λ Ζ E ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΒ τῇ ΒΔ. but CB is equal to GK [Prop. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. τὸ τετράκις ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνου ἴσου H L F Therefore. for the same (reasons). καὶ ἡ ΗΚ ἄρα τῇ ΚΝ ἐστιν ἴση. καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ ΑΚ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ ΑΓ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΔ. (square) KD is also equal to (square) GR. GK is thus also equal to KN . ΡΝ ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν. (rectangle) AG is also equal to (rectangle) M Q.

and let EA and EB have been joined. is equal to the square described on the whole and the former piece. τὰ ἀπὸ If a straight-line is cut into equal and unequal (pieces) τῶν ἀνίσων τῆς ὅλης τμημάτων τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι then the (sum of the) squares on the unequal pieces of the τοῦ τε ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς μεταξὺ τῶν τομῶν whole (straight-line) is double the (sum of the) square τετραγώνου. I say that the (sum of the) squares on AD and DB is double the (sum of the squares) on AC and CD. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπό τε τῆς ὅλης καὶ τοῦ εἰρημένου τμήματος ὡς ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀναγραφέντι τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Δ τῇ ΕΓ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΔΖ. And since the (angle) at C is a right-angle. parallel to EC [Prop. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΑ. For let CE have been drawn from (point) C. the angle EAC is also equal to the (angle) AEC [Prop. as on one (complete straight-line). Thus. jþ. and let it be made equal to each of AC and CB [Prop.11]. is equal to the (square) on AD. ὅτι τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ τῇ ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΓΕ. that is to say the square described on AB and BC. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Proposition 9† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ εἰς ἴσα καὶ ἄνισα. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΕ. and (let) F G (have been drawn) through (point) F . is thus equal to one right- 59 . plus the square on AC.5]. at rightangles to AB [Prop. καὶ κείσθω ἴση ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΑΓ. ΓΑΕ. 1. 1. EAC and AEC. and one of the pieces (of the straight-line). And let AF have been joined. and unequally at D. four times the (rectangle contained) by AB and BD. Ε Η Α Γ E Ζ ∆ G Β A Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω εἰς μὲν ἴσα κατὰ τὸ Γ. 1. is equal to the square on AD. Thus. four times the rectangle contained by AB and BC. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ· ἴση γάρ ἐστι τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΓΒ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν C F D B For let any straight-line AB have been cut—equally at C. ΔΒ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. 1. the (sum of the) remaining angles (of triangle AEC). as on one (complete straight-line). (parallel) to AB [Prop. ΓΔ τετραγώνων. ΓΒ. εἱς δὲ ἄνισα κατὰ τὸ Δ· λέγω. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς. ΕΒΓ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ ὀρθή ἐστιν. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΖ. if a straight-line is cut at random then four times the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-line). καὶ ἐπεὶ ὀρθή ἐστιν ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ. Thus.3]. And since AC is equal to CE. ΑΕΓ μιᾷ ὀρθῇ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καί εἰσιν ἴσαι· ἡμίσεια ἄρα ὀρθῆς ἐστιν ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΓΕΑ. which is on AD. plus the (square) on AC. And BD (is) equal to BC. † the gnomon ST U and the (square) OH is (equivalent to) the whole square AEF D.31]. ΕΒ. And let DF have been drawn through (point) D. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ.31]. 1. plus the square on the remaining piece. δὶα τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΓΕΒ. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Ζ τῇ ΑΒ ἡ ΖΗ.STOIQEIWN bþ. λοιπαὶ ἄρα αἱ ὑπὸ ΕΑΓ. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: 4 (a + b) a + b2 = [(a + b) + a]2 . on half (the straight-line) and (the square) on the (difference) between the (equal and unequal) pieces.

Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 ὀρθῆς· ἴση ἄρα [ἐστὶν] ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΕΗ τῇ ΗΖ ἐστιν ἴση. (angles) CEB and EBC are also each half a right-angle. and (angle) F DB (is) a right-angle—for again it is equal to the internal and opposite (angle) ECB [Prop. the whole (angle) AEB is a right-angle. τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΖ ἴσα τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. For the angle AEF is a right-angle [Prop. 1. Thus. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΔΒ· ἴση γὰρ πάλιν ἐστὶ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΓΒ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΖΔ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς· ἴση ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Β γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΒ· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΖΔ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΔΒ ἐστιν ἴση. For angle ACE (is) a right-angle [Prop. Thus. 1. the angle at B (is) equal to DF B. Thus. And since AC is equal to CE. 1. ΓΔ τετράγώνων. ΗΖ τετραγώνοις ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ τετράγωνον· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ τετράγωνον διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΖ. So the side F D is also equal to the side DB [Prop. the square on AF is double the (sum of the squares) on AC and CD. since EG is equal to GF . Thus. the (sum of the squares) on EG and GF is double the square on GF . ΔΖ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Δ γωνία· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. Thus. And since GEF is half a right-angle.47]. Thus.29]—the remaining (angle) BF D is half a right-angle [Prop. So the side EG is also equal to the (side) GF [Prop. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΑ διπλάσιον τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. 1. the (square) on EF is double the (square) on CD. and EGF (is) a right-angle—for it is equal to the internal and opposite (angle) ECB [Prop. τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνίσων τῆς ὅλης τμημάτων τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ τε ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς μεταξὺ τῶν τομῶν τετραγώνου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. πάλιν ἐπεὶ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Β γωνία ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς.32]. 1. (angles) CEA and CAE are each half a right-angle. 60 . Thus. τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. Thus. the (sum of the squares) on AD and DF is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD.29]—the remaining (angle) EF G is thus half a right-angle [Prop. the square on EF is double the (square) on GF . πάλιν. the (sum of the) squares on AC and CE is double the (square) on AC. ΔΖ διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΕ. τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ εἰς ἴσα καὶ ἄνισα. And the square on EA is equal to the (sum of the) squares on AC and CE. 1. And DF (is) equal to DB. ΓΕ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ ΑΓ. 1. So.34]. ΕΖ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΔΖ τῇ ΔΒ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. the (square) on EA is double the (square) on AC. ΓΔ τετραγώνων.6]. the (square) on EG (is) also equal to the (square) on GF . since the angle at B is half a right-angle. Again. for the same (reasons).STOIQEIWN bþ. † angle [Prop. the (sum of the) squares on AE and EF is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD. ΓΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΑ τετράγωνον· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ γωνία· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΑ διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ. ΕΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΖ τετράγωνον· ὀρθὴ γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΖ γωνία· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΖ τετράγωνον διπλάσιόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. Thus. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: a2 + b2 = 2[([a + b]/2)2 + ([a + b]/2 − b)2 ]. ΓΔ. Thus.6]. 1. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΗ τῇ ΗΖ. Thus.47]. Thus. Thus. And the (square) on EA is also double the (square) on AC.47]. ΗΖ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΖ τετραγώνου.47].32]. Again. if a straight-line is cut into equal and unequal (pieces) then the (sum of the) squares on the unequal pieces of the whole (straight-line) is double the (sum of the) square on half (the straight-line) and (the square) on the (difference) between the (equal and unequal) pieces. τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΗ. And the (sum of the squares) on AD and DF (is) equal to the (square) on AF . 1. And the square on AF is equal to the (sum of the squares) on AE and EF . And GF (is) equal to CD [Prop. the (square) on AC (is) also equal to the (square) on CE. 1. And they are equal. And the square on EF is equal to the (sum of the) squares on EG and GF [Prop. ΔΒ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. the (sum of the) squares on AD and DB is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD. ἴσον καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΖ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΗ. For the angle at D is a right-angle [Prop. angle GEF [is] equal to EF G. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΗΖ τῇ ΓΔ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ ΑΓ τῷ ἀπὸ ΓΕ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ΓΔ τετραγώνων. 1.32]. 1.

angle EAC is also equal to (angle) AEC [Prop. If a straight-line is cut in half. ἴσον ἐστὶ [καὶ] τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΓ τετράγωνον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΑ For let any straight-line AB have been cut in half at (point) C. Proposition 10† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ δίχα.5]. the (internal angles) CEF and EF D are thus equal to two right-angles [Prop. ἐπεὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς. F EB and EF D are less than two right-angles. ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν καὶ συμπιπτέτωσαν κατὰ τὸ Η. Thus. For it is equal to DCE. at rightangles to AB [Prop. I say that the (sum of the) squares on AD and DB is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD. So. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΗ ὀρθή· ἴση γάρ ἐστι τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ· ἐναλλὰξ γάρ· λοιπὴ ἅρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΗΒ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΔΗΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΒΗ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΔ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΗΔ ἐστιν ἴση. And let EF have been drawn through E. ἡμίσεια ἄρα ὀρθῆς καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΗ. as on one (complete straight-line). ΖΔ εὐθεῖά τις ἐνέπεσεν ἡ ΕΖ.32]. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΓΕΒ. Thus. 1. EAC and AEC [are] each half a right-angle [Prop. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡμίσεια ὀρθῆς ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΓ. προσκείσθω δέ τις αὐτῇ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἡ ΒΔ· λέγω. ΕΖΔ ἄρα δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΖΕΒ. τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης σὺν τῇ προσκειμένῃ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς προσκειμένης τὰ συναμφότερα τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ τε ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς συγκειμένης ἔκ τε τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τῆς προσκειμένης ὡς ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀναγραφέντος τετραγώνου. 1. And since EBC is half a right-angle. ΕΒΓ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ. Thus.11]. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ· καὶ ὀρθὴ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ· ἡμίσεια ἄρα ὀρθῆς [ἐστιν] ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΕΑΓ. Thus. And (straight-lines) produced from (internal angles whose sum is) less than two right-angles meet together [Post. For let CE have been drawn from point C. ΖΔ ἐκβαλλόμεναι ἐπὶ τὰ Β. CEB and EBC are also each half a right-angle. 5]. and let F D have been drawn through D. 1. and let them meet together at G. (angle) AEB is a right-angle. And BDG is also a right-angle. ὅτι τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΕ.STOIQEIWN bþ. 1. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Δ τῇ ΓΕ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΖΔ. ΓΔ τετραγώνων. καὶ κείσθω ἴση ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΑΓ. Ε Α Γ Ζ Β E ∆ A Η C F B D G Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω δίχα κατὰ τὸ Γ. parallel to CE [Prop. 1. 1. καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους εὐθείας τὰς ΕΓ. is double the (sum of the square) on half (the straight-line). and the (square) on the (straight-line) having been added. 1. Let them have been produced. ΑΕΓ. καὶ ἐπεὶ [ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΓ τῇ ΓΑ]. 1. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΓΕ. προστεθῇ δέ τις αὐτῇ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας. and the square described on the sum of half (the straight-line) and (straight-line) having been added.31]. for the same (reasons). And since some straight-line EF falls across the parallel straight-lines EC and F D.29]. For (they are) alternate (angles) 61 . ΕΒ· καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Ε τῇ ΑΔ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΕΖ.15]. And since AC is equal to CE. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Ζ· ἴση γάρ ἐστι τῇ ἀπεναντίον τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΗ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΕΗ· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΗΖ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. and let EA and EB have been joined. and let AG have been joined. Δ μέρη συμπεσοῦνται. αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΕΖ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΑ. πάλιν. ΕΖΔ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονές εἰσιν· αἱ δὲ ἀπ᾿ ἐλασσόνων ἢ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐκβαλλόμεναι συμπίπτουσιν· αἱ ἄρα ΕΒ. ΓΒ.31]. parallel to AD [Prop. then the sum of the square on the whole (straight-line) with the (straight-line) having been added. DBG (is) thus also half a rightangle [Prop. and any straight-line added to it straight-on. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 iþ. being produced in the direction of B and D. the (straight-lines) EB and F D will meet. And the (angle) at C (is) a right-angle. and let it be made equal to each of AC and CB [Prop. ΔΒ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. and let any straight-line BD have been added to it straight-on.3]. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΗ.

τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΓΔ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ τετράγωνον διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ. ΔΒ [τετράγωνα] διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. 1. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΗ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΗΖ. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 τετραγώνῳ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΓ. And DG (is) equal to DB. So side BD is also equal to side GD [Prop.47]. the square on EA is double the square on AC. Thus. Thus. and the (angle) at F (is) a right-angle. And EF (is) equal to CD [Prop. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΔΗ τῇ ΔΒ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΗ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. and one of the εἶναι τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνῳ. for it is equal to the opposite (angle) at C [Prop. is double the (sum of the square) on half (the straight-line). Thus. Proposition 11† Τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τεμεῖν ὥστε τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ To cut a given straight-line such that the rectangle τοῦ ἑτέρου τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον contained by the whole (straight-line). ΓΔ [τετραγώνων]. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΗ τῇ ΕΖ. ΓΔ τετραγώνων. Thus. Thus. if a straight-line is cut in half. and the (square) on the (straight-line) having been added. Thus. is equal to the square on the remaining piece. So the side GF is also equal to the side EF [Prop. And the (sum of the squares) on AD and DG is equal to the (square) on AG [Prop.6]. πάλιν. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: (2 a + b)2 + b2 = 2 [a2 + (a + b)2 ]. Thus. ΓΔ τετραγώνων. the (sum of the) squares on AE and EG is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD. ΖΕ διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ. 1. Again. Thus. 1. τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΓ. ΕΗ τετραγώνοις ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΗ τετράγωνον· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΗ διπλάσιόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. 1. ΓΔ. since F G is equal to EF . since EGF is half a right-angle. 1. † [Prop. 1. DGB is equal to DBG. 1. the (square) on AG is double the (sum of the squares) on AC and CD. the (sum of the) [squares] on AD and DB is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD. ΖΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ. But it was also shown that the (square) on EA (is) double the (square) on AC. the (square) on F G is also equal to the (square) on F E. 62 .47]. the remaining (angle) DGB is half a right-angle.47]. 1. pieces (of the straight-line). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΔΗ [τετράγωνα] διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ.47]. Again. Thus. And the square on AG is equal to the (sum of the) squares on AE and EG [Prop.6]. Thus. Thus. and any straightline added to it straight-on. And since [EC is equal to CA] the square on EC is [also] equal to the square on CA. and the square described on the sum of half (the straight-line) and (straight-line) having been added. προστεθῇ δέ τις αὐτῇ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΑ διπλάσιον τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. ΕΗ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ΓΑ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΑ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΑ τετράγωνον διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετραγώνου. ΔΗ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. as on one (complete straight-line). the square on EG is double the (square) on CD. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ δίχα. ΓΑ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΑ τετραγώνου. τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΗΖ. Thus. the (sum of the) [squares] on AD and DG is double the (sum of the) [squares] on AC and CD. τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης σὺν τῇ προσκειμένῃ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς προσκειμένης τὰ συναμφότερα τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ τε ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς συγκειμένης ἔκ τε τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τῆς προσκειμένης ὡς ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀναγραφέντος τετραγώνου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. angle EGF (is) equal to F EG.STOIQEIWN bþ. then the sum of the square on the whole (straight-line) with the (straight-line) having been added. the (square) on EG is double the (square) on EF . And the (square) on EA is equal to the (sum of the squares) on EC and CA [Prop. Thus.34]. the (sum of the squares) on GF and F E is double the (square) on EF . 1.34].29]. iaþ. the (sum of the) squares on EC and CA is double the square on CA. And the (square) on EG is equal to the (sum of the squares) on GF and F E [Prop. the remaining (angle) F EG is thus half a right-angle.

and let BE have been joined. For let the square ABDC have been described on AB [Prop. ΒΘ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ ΘΑ τετραγώνῳ. the rectangle contained by CF and F A. And EF (is) equal to EB. the remaining (square) F H is equal to the (rectangle) HD. the (rectangle contained) by CF and F A. is equal to the square on the remaining piece. Let the square on AE have been subtracted from both.46]. Ζ Α ELEMENTS BOOK 2 Η Θ F Β A H B E Ε Γ G Κ ∆ C ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ· δεῖ δὴ τὴν ΑΒ τεμεῖν ὥστε τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ τοῦ ἑτέρου τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον εἶναι τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνῳ. ὥστε τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. And HD is the (rectangle contained) by AB and BH. ΒΘ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ποιεῖν τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΘ τετραγώνῳ.3]. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΓΑ ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΘΔ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. For the angle at A (is) a right-angle [Prop. Thus.46]. Let (rectangle) AK have been subtracted from both. And F H (is) the (square) on AH. and let EF be made equal to BE [Prop. is equal to the (square) on EB. and one of the pieces (of the straightline). For AF (is) equal to F G. ΖΑ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετραγώνῳ. plus the (square) on AE. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΗΘ ἐπὶ τὸ Κ· λέγω. ΖΑ τὸ ΖΚ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΗ· τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τὸ ΑΔ· τὸ ἄρα ΖΚ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΑΔ. 2. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΑΓ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε σημεῖον. Thus. For since the straight-line AC has been cut in half at E.STOIQEIWN bþ. ῾Η ἄρα δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Θ ὥστε τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. 1. ΖΑ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ ΕΒ. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ. But. πρόσκειται δὲ αὐτῇ ἡ ΖΑ. ΑΕ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α γωνία· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ. And F K is the (rectangle contained) by CF and F A. plus the (square) on AE. Thus. Thus.10]. is thus equal to the square on EF [Prop. ἀλλὰ τῷ ἀπὸ ΕΒ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. and F A has been added to it. the rectangle contained by AB 63 . plus the square on AE. 1. the (sum of the squares) on BA and AE is equal to the (square) on EB. 1. 1. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ. the remaining rectangle contained by CF and F A is equal to the square on AB. ΖΑ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ τετραγώνῳ. Thus.6]. is equal to the (sum of the squares) on BA and AE. καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΒΕ ἴση ἡ ΕΖ. καὶ ἀναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΖ τετράγωνον τὸ ΖΘ. ΑΕ. ὅτι ἡ ΑΒ τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Θ. ΒΘ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΒΔ· τὸ δὲ ΖΘ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΘ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. And let CA have been drawn through to (point) F . καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΕ. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΒΔΓ. and let GH have been drawn through to (point) K. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΕΒ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ. and let AC have been cut in half at point E [Prop. ΖΑ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. K D Let AB be the given straight-line. κοινὸν ἀρῃρήσθω τὸ ΑΚ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΖΘ τῷ ΘΔ ἴσον ἐστίν. For AB (is) equal to BD. 1. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ. And AD (is) the (square) on AB. And let the square F H have been described on AF [Prop. Thus.47]. the (rectangle) F K is equal to the (square) AD. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ τέτμηται δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε. I say that AB has been cut at H such as to make the rectangle contained by AB and BH equal to the square on AH. So it is required to cut AB such that the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-line). ΒΘ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ποιεῖν τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΘΑ τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. the (rectangle contained) by CF and F A.

and twice the rectangle contained by CA and AD [Prop. the given straight-line AB has been cut at (point) H such as to make the rectangle contained by AB and BH equal to the square on HA. ΔΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ προς τῷ Δ γωνία· τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 and BH is equal to the square on HA. the square on CB is equal to the (sum of the) squares on CA and AB. ἀλλὰ τοῖς μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. ΑΔ. ὡς ἔτυχεν. Thus. ΑΒ τετραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. ΑΔ τετραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. by twice the rectangle contained by CA and AD. ΔΒ τετραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. AD. καὶ τῆς ἀπολαμβανομένης ἐκτὸς ὑπὸ τῆς καθέτου πρὸς τῇ ἀμβλείᾳ γωνίᾳ. to which a perpendicular (straight-line) falls. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. For the angle at D (is) a right-angle [Prop. at point A. perpendicular to CA produced [Prop. So the square on CB is greater than the (sum of the) squares on 64 . ΑΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ· ὥστε τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετράγωνον τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. Let the (square) on DB have been added to both. ὅτι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετράγωνον μεῖζόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. ΑΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. the (square) on CB is equal to the (sum of the squares) on CD and DB. Β ∆ B Α Γ D ῎Εστω ἀμβλυγώνιον τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ ἀμβλεῖαν ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. the (sum of the squares) on CD and DB is equal to the (sum of the) squares on CA. 1. ibþ. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΔ.STOIQEIWN bþ. ΔΒ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. the (square) on DC is thus equal to the (sum of the) squares on CA and AD. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΓΔ τέτμηται. ΑΒ τετραγώνων μεῖζόν ἐστι τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. ΑΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. ἐφ᾿ ἣν ἡ κάθετος πίπτει. ΑΔ [περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ]. And let BD be drawn from point B.47]. I say that the square on BC is greater than the (sum of the) squares on BA and AC. at random. and DB. 2. † This manner of cutting a straight-line—so that the ratio of the whole to the larger piece is equal to the ratio of the larger to the smaller piece—is sometimes called the “Golden Section”. κατὰ τὸ Α σημεῖον. λέγω. ΔΒ ἴσον τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. And the (square) on AB (is) equal to the (sum of the squares) on AD and DB [Prop. ΑΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. having the angle BAC obtuse.47]. and twice the [rectangle contained] by CA and AD.12]. Thus. Proposition 12† ᾿Εν τοῖς ἀμβλυγωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον μεῖζόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν τετραγώνων τῷ περιεχομένῳ δὶς ὑπὸ τε μιᾶς τῶν περὶ τὴν ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Β σημείου ἐπὶ τὴν ΓΑ ἐκβληθεῖσαν κάθετος ἡ ΒΔ. 1. the square on the side subtending the obtuse angle is greater than the (sum of the) squares on the sides containing the obtuse angle by twice the (rectangle) contained by one of the sides around the obtuse angle. But. 1. ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ἀμβλυγωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον μεῖζόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν A C Let ABC be an obtuse-angled triangle. and twice the rectangle contained by CA and AD. For since the straight-line CD has been cut.4]. Thus. In obtuse-angled triangles. ΑΓ τετραγώνων τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. and the (straight-line) cut off outside (the triangle) by the perpendicular (straight-line) towards the obtuse angle.

Let the square on DA have been added to both. by twice the rectangle contained by CB and BD. ἀλλὰ τοῖς μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΔ. igþ. the square on the side subtending the acute angle is less than the (sum of the) squares on the sides containing the acute angle by twice the (rectangle) contained by one of the sides around the acute angle. In acute-angled triangles. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΓΒ τέτμηται. ἐφ᾿ ἣν ἡ κάθετος πίπτει. κατὰ τὸ Δ.12]. καὶ τῆς AD. and the (sum of the) squares on AD and DC. and the (straight-line) cut off outside (the triangle) by the perpendicular (straight-line) towards the obtuse angle. 2. at random. τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. the (square) on AB (is) equal to the (sum of the squares) on BD and DA.47].7]. ΒΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. ΒΔ. καὶ τῆς ἀπολαμβανομένης ἐντὸς ὑπὸ τῆς καθέτου πρὸς τῇ ὀξείᾳ γωνίᾳ. ἀπολαμβανομένης ἐκτὸς ὑπὸ τῆς καθέτου πρὸς τῇ ἀμβλείᾳ Thus. Α Β ∆ A Γ B ῎Εστω ὀξυγώνιον τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ ὀξεῖαν ἔχον τὴν πρὸς τῷ Β γωνίαν. in obtuse-angled triangles. to which a perpendicular (straight-line) falls. And let AD have been drawn from point A. and DA is equal to twice the rectangle contained by CB and BD. ΒΑ τετραγώνων τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. ΔΓ ἴσον τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. ΒΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. ὅτι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετράγωνον ἔλαττόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. to which a perpendicular (straight-line) falls. 65 . ΔΑ τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ τε δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. 1. and the (straight-line) cut off inside (the triangle) by the perpendicular (straight-line) towards the acute angle. ΔΓ τετραγώνιος. I say that the square on AC is less than the (sum of the) squares on CB and BA.STOIQEIWN bþ. For the angle at (point) D is a right-angle [Prop. at (point) D. side subtending the obtuse angle is greater than the (sum of the) squares on the sides containing the obtuse angle by twice the (rectangle) contained by one of the sides around the obtuse angle. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Α σημείου ἐπὶ τὴν ΒΓ κάθετος ἡ ΑΔ· λέγω. the (sum of the) squares on CB. ΒΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΓ τετραγώνῳ. Thus. ΒΔ τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ τε δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. BD. 1. the square on the γωνίᾳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΑ τετράγωνον· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΒΔ· ὥστε μόνον τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ ἔλαττόν ἐστι D C Let ABC be an acute-angled triangle. † This proposition is equivalent to the well-known cosine formula: BC 2 = AB 2 + AC 2 − 2 AB AC cos BAC. But. Proposition 13† ᾿Εν τοῖς ὀξυγωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ὀξεῖαν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἔλαττόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ὀξεῖαν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν τετραγώνων τῷ περιεχομένῳ δὶς ὑπό τε μιᾶς τῶν περὶ τὴν ὀξεῖαν γωνίαν. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 πλευρῶν τετραγώνων τῷ περιχομένῳ δὶς ὑπό τε μιᾶς τῶν CA and AB by twice the rectangle contained by CA and περὶ τὴν ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν. ΒΑ ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ τε ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. For since the straight-line CB has been cut. the (sum of the) squares on CB and BD is thus equal to twice the rectangle contained by CB and BD. perpendicular to BC [Prop. and the square on DC [Prop. since cos BAC = −AD/AB. having the angle at (point) B acute. ὡς ἔτυχεν. ἐφ᾿ ἣν ἡ κάθετος πίπτει. ΔΑ ἴσον τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Δ γωνίᾳ· τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ.

᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ὀξυγωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ὀξεῖαν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἔλαττόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ὀξεῖαν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν τετραγώνων τῷ περιεχομένῳ δὶς ὑπό τε μιᾶς τῶν περὶ τὴν ὀξεῖαν γωνίαν.47]. 1. to which a perpendicular (straight-line) falls.10]. τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΘ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΘΕ. Therefore. with center G. ἔστω μείζων ἡ ΒΕ. have been constructed [Prop. For the square BD. equal to the rectilinear figure A. εἰς δὲ ἄνισα κατὰ τὸ Ε. And let BF have been cut in half at (point) G [Prop. καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΕΔ ἴση ἡ ΕΖ. since cos ABC = BD/AB.3]. the (sum of the squares) on CB and BA is equal to the (square) on AC. since the straight-line BF has been cut— equally at G. καὶ ἐκβεβλήσθω ἡ ΔΕ ἐπὶ τὸ Θ. So it is required to construct a square equal to the rectilinear figure A. Θ H Α A Β Γ Ε Η Ζ B ∆ C ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν εὐθύγραμμον τὸ Α· δεῖ δὴ τῷ Α εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον τετράγωνον συστήσασθαι. συνέσταται γὰρ τῷ Α εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον τετράγωνον τὸ ΒΔ· εἰ δὲ οὔ. the square on the side subtending the acute angle is less than the (sum of the) squares on the sides containing the acute angle by twice the (rectangle) contained by one of the sides around the acute angle. and radius one of the (straight-lines) GB or GF . Therefore. equal to the rectilinear figure A. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΒΖ τέτμηται εἰς μὲν ἴσα κατὰ τὸ Η. 1. has been constructed. Thus. Thus. ἐφ᾿ ἣν ἡ κάθετος πίπτει. Συνεστάτω γὰρ τῷ Α ἐυθυγράμμῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον ὀρθογώνιον τὸ ΒΔ· εἰ μὲν οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΔ. ure. ΕΖ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΘ. καὶ ἐκβεβλήσθω ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ. And let DE have been produced to H.45]. then one of the (straight-lines) BE or ED is greater (than the other). ELEMENTS BOOK 2 τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. and let EF be made equal to ED [Prop. let the semi-circle BHF have been drawn. and the (straight-line) cut off inside (the triangle) by the perpendicular (straight-line) towards the acute angle. Proposition 14 Τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον τετράγωνον συστήσαςTo construct a square equal to a given rectilinear figθαι. καὶ κέντρῳ τῷ Η. 1. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΒΖ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Η. διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν ΗΒ. μία τῶν ΒΕ. and let GH have been joined. idþ. and unequally at E—the rectangle con- 66 . For let the right-angled parallelogram BD. So the (square) on AC alone is less than the (sum of the) squares on CB and BA by twice the rectangle contained by CB and BD. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΗΖ τῇ ΗΘ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΕ. and let it have been produced to F . (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΗΘ. in acute-angled triangles. γεγονὸς ἂν εἴη τὸ ἐπιταχθέν. 1. and twice the (rectangle contained) by CB and BD. This proposition is equivalent to the well-known cosine formula: AC 2 = AB 2 + BC 2 − 2 AB BC cos ABC.STOIQEIWN bþ. And if not. ΕΖ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΖ τετραγώνῳ. † And the (square) on AC (is) equal to the (sum of the squares) on AD and DC [Prop. ΗΖ ἡμικύκλιον γεγράφθω τὸ ΒΘΖ. if BE is equal to ED then that (which) was prescribed has taken place. καὶ τῆς ἀπολαμβανομένης ἐντὸς ὑπὸ τῆς καθέτου πρὸς τῇ ὀξείᾳ γωνίᾳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. And. Let BE be greater. ΒΑ τετραγώνων τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. ΕΗ E G F D Let A be the given rectilinear figure. ΕΔ μείζων ἐστίν. ΒΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΕ.

Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 τετράγωνα· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΕ. BD is the (rectangle contained) by BE and EF . Thus. plus the (square) on GE. Let the square on GE have been taken from both. But.STOIQEIWN bþ.47]. equal to the given rectilinear figure A. the rectilinear figure A is also equal to the square (which) can be described on EH. And BD (is) equal to the rectilinear figure A. the parallelogram BD is equal to the square on HE. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΕ τετράγωνον· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΕ. ΕΖ περιεχόμενον ὄρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΘ τετραγώνῳ. the (rectangle contained) by BE and EF .5]. καὶ τὸ Α ἄρα εὐθύγραμμον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΘ ἀναγραφησομένῳ τετραγώνῳ. ἀλλὰ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΕ. ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΒΔ τῷ Α εὐθυγράμμῳ. 67 . is equal to the (square) on GH. a square—(namely). is thus equal to the square on GF [Prop. Thus. Thus. plus the square on EG. the (rectangle contained) by BE and EF . the remaining rectangle contained by BE and EF is equal to the square on EH. is equal to the (sum of the squares) on HE and EG. ΕΗ. Τῷ ἄρα δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ Α ἴσον τετράγωνον συνέσταται τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΘ ἀναγραφησόμενον· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. Thus. plus the (square) on GE. Thus. And GF (is) equal to GH. 1. tained by BE and EF . ΕΖ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ ΗΕ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΘΕ. And the (sum of the) squares on HE and EG is equal to the (square) on GH [Prop. 2. For EF (is) equal to ED. ΕΖ τὸ ΒΔ ἐστιν· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΕΔ· τὸ ἄρα ΒΔ παραλληλόγραμμον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΘΕ τετραγώνῳ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. that (which) can be described on EH—has been constructed.

68 .

ELEMENTS BOOK 3 Fundamentals of Plane Geometry Involving Circles 69 .

when any point is taken on the circumference of a segment. or whose (distances) from the centers (to the circumferences) are equal (i. And when the straight-lines containing an angle cut off some circumference. at right-angles to AB [Prop. 1. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 VOroi. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΔΗ. GD. And let CE have been cut in half at F [Prop. Τμήματος δὲ γωνία ἐστὶν ἡ περιεχομένη ὑπό τε εὐθείας καὶ κύκλου περιφερείας. ἢ ὧν αἱ ἐκ τῶν κέντρων ἴσαι εἰσίν. ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἴσον ἀπέχειν ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου εὐθεῖαι λέγονται. Let some straight-line AB have been drawn through (ABC). ἥ ἐστι βάσις τοῦ τμήματος. εʹ. and let (AB) have been cut in half at point D [Prop.9]. ΔΒ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΗΑ βάσει τῇ ΗΒ ἐστιν ἴση· ἐκ κέντρου γάρ· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΗ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΔΒ ἴση ἐστίν. A segment of a circle is the figure contained by a straight-line and a circumference of a circle. And a sector of a circle is the figure contained by the straight-lines surrounding an angle. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. if possible. ἐπ᾿ ἐκείνης λέγεται βεβηκέναι ἡ γωνία. And the angle in a segment is the angle contained by the joined straight-lines. do not cut one another. straight-lines are said to be equally far from the center when the perpendiculars drawn to them from the center are equal. at random. 4. Μὴ γάρ. So it is required to find the center of circle ABC. does not cut the circle. and straight-lines are joined from it to the ends of the straight-line which is the base of the segment. ἥτις ἁπτομένη τοῦ κύκλου καὶ ἐκβαλλομένη οὐ τέμνει τὸν κύκλον. ΗΔ. 2. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ τῇ ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθω ἡ ΔΓ καὶ διήχθω ἐπὶ τὸ Ε. And (that straight-line) is said to be further (from the center) on which the greater perpendicular falls (from the center). 1. And let (CD) have been drawn through to E. ἤ ἐν οἷς αἱ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. whose radii are equal). ὅτι τὸ Ζ κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ [κύκλου]. ἐπιζευχθῶσιν εὐθεῖαι. 1. ιαʹ. ἔστω τὸ Η. 8.9]. ὅταν πρὸς τῷ κέντρῷ τοῦ κύκλου συσταθῇ γωνία. 6.STOIQEIWN gþ. Τμῆμα κύκλου ἐστὶ τὸ περιεχόμενον σχῆμα ὑπό τε εὐθείας καὶ κύκλου περιφερείας. ὅταν ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας τοῦ τμήματος ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον καὶ ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τὰ πέρατα τῆς εὐθείας. Circles said to touch one another are any (circles) which. the angle is said to stand upon that (circumference). And since AD is equal to DB. and the circumference cut off by them. καὶ τετμήσθω δίχα κατὰ τὸ Δ σημεῖον. I say that (point) F is the center of the [circle] ABC. δʹ.11]. For (if) not then. ϛʹ. γʹ. Similar segments of circles are those accepting equal angles. Μεῖζον δὲ ἀπέχειν λέγεται. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΔ. And let DC have been drawn from D. 11. Proposition 1 Τοῦ δοθέντος κύκλου τὸ κέντρον εὑρεῖν. ζʹ. 3. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΔΒ. Εὐθεῖα κύκλου ἐφάπτεσθαι λέγεται. ΗΒ. ὧν αἱ διάμετροι ἴσαι εἰσίν. Equal circles are (circles) whose diameters are equal. ἡ περιεχομένη γωνία ὑπὸ τῶν ἐπιζευχθεισῶν εὐθειῶν. ΔΗ δύο ταῖς ΗΔ. 1. ῞Ομοία τμήματα κύκλων ἐστὶ τὰ δεχόμενα γωνίας ἴσας. Διήχθω τις εἰς αὐτόν. Definitions αʹ.e. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΗΑ. ιʹ. the two 70 . καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΓΕ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ζ· λέγω. Τομεὺς δὲ κύκλου ἐστίν. A straight-line said to touch a circle is any (straightline) which. ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ· δεῖ δὴ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου τὸ κέντρον εὑρεῖν. εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. ὡς ἔτυχεν. ηʹ. ῎Ισοι κύκλοι εἰσίν. ῞Οταν δὲ αἱ περιέχουσαι τὴν γωνίαν εὐθεῖαι ἀπολαμβάνωσί τινα περιφέρειαν. ἐφ᾿ ἣν ἡ μείζων κάθετος πίπτει. 7. 10. In a circle. τὸ περιεχόμενον σχῆμα ὑπό τε τῶν τὴν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν εὐθειῶν καὶ τῆς ἀπολαμβανομένης ὑπ᾿ αὐτῶν περιφερείας. Let ABC be the given circle. θʹ. and let GA. let G (be the center of the circle). And the angle of a segment is that contained by a straight-line and a circumference of a circle. To find the center of a given circle. and DG (is) common.. ᾿Εν τμήματι δὲ γωνία ἐστίν. ὅταν αἱ ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου ἐπ᾿ αὐτὰς κάθετοι ἀγόμεναι ἴσαι ὦσιν. meeting one another. and GB have been joined. Κύκλοι ἐφάπτεσθαι ἀλλήλων λέγονται οἵτινες ἁπτόμενοι ἀλλήλων οὐ τέμνουσιν ἀλλήλους. or in which the angles are equal to one another. when the angle is constructed at the center of a circle. aþ. 9. 5. βʹ. meeting the circle and being produced.

Γ C Ζ Α Η ∆ F Β A Ε G D B E Τὸ Ζ ἄρα σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ [κύκλου]. and at ἐστὶ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. — ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΔΖΕ. And let DA and DB have been joined. since DA is equal to DB. ὀρθὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν ἐστιν· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΔΒ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ὅταν δὲ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ. ὅτι ἐὰν ἐν κύκλῳ εὐθεῖά τις So. ΔΒ. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. ὅτι οὐδ᾿ ἄλλο τι πλὴν τοῦ Ζ. οὐκ ἄρα τὸ Η κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. For (if) not then. Therefore. 1. we can show that neither is any other (point) except F . similarly. Corollary ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. DG are equal to the two (straightlines) BD. καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. — (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. if possible. ἴση ἄρα καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ· καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΔΑΕ μία If two points are taken at random on the circumference of a circle then the straight-line joining the points will fall inside the circle. point F is the center of the [circle] ABC. And when a straight-line stood upon (another) straight-line make adjacent angles (which are) equal to one another. 3. DB”. Thus. right-angles. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΔΒ. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Δ. And F DB is also a right-angle. Β· λέγω.STOIQEIWN gþ. Proposition 2 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας ληφθῇ δύο τυχόντα σημεῖα. Thus. And the base GA is equal to the base GB. καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας αὐτοῦ εἰλήφθω δύο τυχόντα σημεῖα τὰ Α. each of the equal angles is a right-angle [Def. (it is) manifest that if any straight-line εὐθεῖάν τινα δίχα καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνῃ.10]. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΔΑ. Let ABC be a circle. And let the center of the circle ABC have been found [Prop. from this. bþ. ἐπὶ τῆς τεμνούσης in a circle cuts any (other) straight-line in half. † The Greek text has “GD. Pìrisma. For (they are both) radii. So. and let DF E have been drawn through. Μὴ γάρ. let it fall outside (the circle). (straight-lines) AD.1]. (point) G is not the center of the circle ABC.8]. The very thing is impossible. the angle DAE 71 . ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. GDB is a right-angle. I say that the straight-line joining A to B will fall inside the circle. which is obviously a mistake. ἡ μείζων τῇ ἐλάττονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. πιπτέτω ἐκτὸς ὡς ἡ ΑΕΒ. like AEB (in the figure). and let two points A and B have been taken at random on its circumference. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ σημεῖα ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐντὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΔΒ ὀρθή· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΔΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΔΒ. ὅτι ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α ἐπὶ τὸ Β ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐντὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου. then the center of the circle is on the former (straight-line). Thus. 1.† respectively. the greater to the lesser. Thus. angle ADG is equal to angle GDB [Prop. and let it be (at point) D. DG. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. F DB (is) equal to GDB. Thus.

ΒΖΕ ὀρθή ἐστιν. And when a straight-line stood upon (another) straightline makes adjacent angles (which are) equal to one another.10]. if two points are taken at random on the cirσημεῖα. So. And the greater angle is subtended by the greater side [Prop. within it. we can show that neither (will it fall) on the circumference itself. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ε. if any straight-line through the center cuts in half any straight-line not through the center then it also cuts it at right-angles. DF (is) greater than DE. καὶ δίχα αὐτὴν τέμνει. And the base EA (is) equal to the base EB. Thus. and F E (is) common. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΑ. οὐκ ἄρα ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α ἐπὶ τὸ Β ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐκτὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου. ΕΒ. And since AF is equal to F B. and. the lesser than the greater. and let it be (at point) E. AEB. μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΔΖ τῆς ΔΕ ἡ ἐλάττων τῆς μείζονος· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον.5]. CD. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΖΕ. καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνει· καὶ ἐὰν πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνῃ. καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ κέντρου ἡ ΓΔ εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τὴν ΑΒ δίχα τεμνέτω κατὰ τὸ Ζ σημεῖον· λέγω. The very thing is impossible. cut in half some straight-line not through the center. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου.8]. Γ C ∆ D Α A Ζ Ε F E Β B ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας ληφθῇ δύο τυχόντα Thus. AF E and BF E are each right-angles. 1. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΒ. μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΕΒ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΑΕ. ὅταν δὲ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ. And since in triangle DAE the one side. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. angle AF E is equal to angle BF E [Prop. 1. two (sides of triangle AF E) [are] equal to two (sides of triangle BF E). ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ σημεῖα ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐντὸς πεσεῖται cumference of a circle then the straight-line joining the τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 πλευρὰ προσεκβέβληται ἡ ΑΕΒ. AB. 1. ἡ ΓΔ ἄρα διὰ τοῦ κέντρου οὖσα τὴν ΑΒ μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου οὖσαν δίχα τέμνουσα καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνει. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὑπὸ δὲ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ μείζων πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΔΒ τῆς ΔΕ. Proposition 3 ᾿Εὰν ἐν κύκλῳ εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ κέντρου εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου δίχα τέμνῃ. at the point F . In a circle. Thus. angle DEB (is) thus greater than DAE [Prop. (is) thus also equal to DBE [Prop. similarly. Thus. ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΕΒ τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ. ὅτι οὐδὲ ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς τῆς περιφερείας· ἐντὸς ἄρα. And DAE (is) equal to DBE [Prop. Thus. ὅτι καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνει. 1. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΔΒ τῇ ΔΖ. Thus.19]. each of the equal angles is a right-angle [Def. And DB (is) equal to DF . 1. DB (is) greater than DE. gþ. δύο δυσὶν ἴσαι [εἰσίν]· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΕΑ βάσει τῇ ΕΒ ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΖΕ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΖΕ ἴση ἐστίν. Thus. Let ABC be a circle. 3. has been produced. Thus. I say that (CD) also cuts (AB) at right-angles. And (conversely) if it cuts it at right-angles then it also cuts it in half. (it will fall) inside (the circle). and let EA and EB have been joined.STOIQEIWN gþ.16].1]. the straight-line joining A to B will not fall outside the circle. For let the center of the circle ABC have been found [Prop. let some straightline through the center. 1. Thus. ὀρθὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν ἐστιν· ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΖΕ. the 72 .5]. DEB (is) greater than DBE. points will fall inside the circle.

26]. also cuts (AB) at right-angles. cut one another then they do not cut one another in half. 3. Therefore. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΑ ὀρθή· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΕΒ ἡ ἐλάττων τῇ In a circle. καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνει· καὶ ἐὰν πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνῃ. οὐ τέμνουσιν ἀλλήλας δίχα. καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνει· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΒ. and let it be (at point) F . Thus. ΒΔ τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλας κατὰ τὸ Ε μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου οὖσαι· λέγω. which are not through the center. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ζ. 1. ἐπεὶ εὐθεῖά τις ἡ ΖΕ εὐθεῖάν τινα τὴν ΒΔ δίχα τέμνει. And let the center of the circle ABCD have been found [Prop. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. Again. 3. Thus. and let F E have been joined. which are not through the center. it also cuts it at right-angles [Prop. let two straightlines. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΒΖ. 1. For. ΕΖΒ τὰς δύο γωνίας δυσὶ γωνίαις ἴσας ἔχοντα καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην κοινὴν αὐτῶν τὴν ΕΖ ὑποτείνουσαν ὑπὸ μίαν τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν· καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς ἄρα πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξει· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΒ. in a circle. that AF is equal to F B. And so let CD cut AB at right-angles. AC and BD. And (conversely) if it cuts it at right-angles then it also cuts it in half. since some straight-line through the center. F E. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. I say that it also cuts (AB) in half. τὴν δὲ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΔ· καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου. which is not through the center. For. they will also have the remaining sides equal to the (corresponding) remaining sides [Prop. καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνει· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΑ· πάλιν. subtending one of the equal angles. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 (straight-line) CD. Proposition 4 ᾿Εὰν ἐν κύκλῳ δύο εὐθεῖαι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλας μὴ δὶα τοῦ κέντρου οὖσαι. ὅτι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΒ. cuts in half some straight-line not through the center. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΕ. Thus. their common (side) EF . Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων. which is through the center and cuts in half the (straight-line) AB. Γ C Ε Α Ζ E Β A F B ∆ D ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ ἡ ΓΔ τὴν ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τεμνέτω· λέγω. τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλας δίχα ὥστε ἴσην εἶναι τὴν μὲν ΑΕ τῇ ΕΓ. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΑ τῇ ΕΒ. cut one another at (point) E. F EA is a right-angle. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ κέντρου ἡ ΖΕ εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τὴν ΑΓ δίχα τέμνει. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. AC. I say that they do not cut one another in half. EAF and EF B are two triangles having two angles equal to two angles. And the right-angle AF E is also equal to the right-angle BF E.5]. καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΓ.3]. if two straight-lines. Thus. ὅτι οὐ τέμνουσιν ἀλλήλας δίχα. since some straight-line F E 73 . ὅτι καὶ δίχα αὐτὴν τέμνει. if any straight-line through the center cuts in half any straight-line not through the center then it also cuts it at right-angles. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ἐν κύκλῳ εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ κέντρου εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου δίχα τέμνῃ. Let ABCD be a circle.STOIQEIWN gþ. if possible. and within it. καὶ δίχα αὐτὴν τέμνει· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and one side equal to one side—(namely). dþ. That is to say.1]. τουτέστιν. with the same construction. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ὀρθὴ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΖΕ ὀρθῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΖΕ ἴση· δύο ἄρα τρίγωνά ἐστι ΕΑΖ. AF (is) equal to F B. such that AE is equal to EC. Thus. let them cut one another in half. and BE to ED. angle EAF is also equal to EBF [Prop. since EA is equal to EB.

Α A Γ ∆ D Ε Β C E B Ζ Η F G Δύο γὰρ κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. ΓΔΗ τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλους κατὰ τὰ Β. in a circle. EC is equal to EG. ∆ Ζ Α D F A E Ε Γ Β C B ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ἐν κύκλῳ δύο εὐθεῖαι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλας μὴ δὶα Thus. ΒΔ τέμνουσιν cuts in half some straight-line BD. and let EC have been joined. the lesser to the greater. οὐκ ἄρα τὸ Ε σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τῶν ΑΒΓ. The very thing is impossible. But EC was also shown (to be) equal to EF . angles [Prop. the same center. if two straight-lines. 3. ἵση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΓ τῇ ΕΖ. οὐ τέμνουσιν ἀλλήλας δίχα· ὅπερ ἔδει through the center. one another in half. The very thing is impossible. I say that they will not have the same center. Thus. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. ΓΔΗ κύκλων. at random. ὅτι οὐκ ἔσται αὐτῶν τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΕΖΗ. since point E is the center of the circle CDG. F EA (is) equal to F EB. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο κύκλοι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλους. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΕΓ. eþ. the lesser to the greater. Γ σημεῖα.3]. οὐκ ἄρα αἱ ΑΓ. ἐπεὶ τὸ Ε σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΓΔΗ κύκλου. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. For. let E be (the common center). if possible.STOIQEIWN gþ. AC and BD do not cut one another in half. ἔστω τὸ Ε. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. cut one another then they do not cut δεῖξαι. καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ Ε σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. F EB (is) a right-angle. Thus. πάλιν. οὐκ ἔσται αὐτῶν If two circles cut one another then they will not have τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον. which are not τοῦ κέντρου οὖσαι. But F EA was also shown (to be) a right-angle. point E is not 74 . EC is equal to EF . Thus. οὐκ ἔστιν For let the two circles ABC and CDG cut one another at points B and C. it also cuts it at rightἀλλήλας δίχα. Again. Thus. Proposition 5 ᾿Εὰν δύο κύκλοι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλους. λέγω. And since point E is the center of the circle ABC. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΓ τῇ ΕΗ· ἐδείχθη δὲ ἡ ΕΓ καὶ τῇ ΕΖ ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΕΖ ἄρα τῇ ΕΗ ἐστιν ἴση ἡ ἐλάσσων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. and let EF G have been drawn through (the two circles). EF is also equal to EG. ὡς ἔτυχεν.

let F be (the common center). point F is not the (common) center of the circles ABC and CDE. ὃ μή ἐστι κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσιν εὐθεῖαί τινες. And for the others. καὶ διήχθω. Again. and the least the remainder (of the same diameter). ἐλαχίστη δὲ ἡ λοιπή. Thus. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο κύκλοι ἐφάπτωνται ἀλλήλων. δύο δὲ μόνον ἴσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ σημείου προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ἐλαχίστης. at random. For. if possible. ἐπεὶ τὸ Ζ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΓΔΕ κύκλου. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. since point F is the center of the circle ABC. ἔστω τὸ Ζ. if two circles cut one another then they will not have the same center. ὡς ἔτυχεν. ἡ ΖΕΒ. since point F is the center of the circle CDE. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. But F C was shown (to be) equal to F B. which is not the center of the circle. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Proposition 7 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ἐπὶ τῆς διαμέτρου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον. Thus. οὐκ ἔσται αὐτῶν τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. F E is also equal to F B.STOIQEIWN gþ. The very thing is impossible. the (common) center of the circles ABC and CDG. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΖΕ. and some straightlines radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle. is taken on the diameter of a circle. Therefore. and let F EB have been drawn through (the two circles). if two circles touch one another then they will not have the same center. Proposition 6 ᾿Εὰν δύο κύκλοι ἐφάπτωνται ἀλλήλων. μεγίστη μὲν ἔσται. ἡ ἐλάττων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. then the greatest (straight-line) will be that on which the center (lies). Thus. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΓ. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΖΒ. If some point. F C is equal to F E. I say that they will not have the same center. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 αὐτῶν τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. þ. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς δὶα τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν. ΓΔΕ ἐφαπτέσθωσαν ἀλλήλων κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον· λέγω. a (straightline) nearer† to the (straight-line) through the center is always greater than a (straight-line) further away. the lesser to the greater. οὐκ ἄρα τὸ Ζ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τῶν ΑΒΓ. ἐφ᾿ ἧς τὸ κέντρον. πάλιν. and let F C have been joined. And only two equal (straight-lines) will radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle. ΓΔΕ κύκλων. (one) on each 75 . ᾿Επεὶ οὖν τὸ Ζ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. οὐκ ἔσται αὐτῶν If two circles touch one another then they will not τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον. F C is equal to F B. have the same center. ὅτι οὐκ ἔσται αὐτῶν τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον. For let the two circles ABC and CDE touch one another at point C. Γ C Ζ F Ε E Β ∆ B D Α A Δύο γὰρ κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. zþ. ἐδείχθη δὲ ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΖΒ ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΖΕ ἄρα τῇ ΖΒ ἐστιν ἴση.

ΖΕ τῆς ΕΗ μείζονές εἰσιν. Again. and of the others. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΒΕ [αἱ ἄρα ΒΕ. For let BE. Thus. ΕΖ τῆς ΒΖ μείζονές εἰσιν. have been constructed on the straight-line EF . καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΔ εἰλήφθω τι σημεῖον τὸ Ζ. μείζων δὲ ἡ μὲν ΖΒ τῆς ΖΓ. since GE is equal to EH. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΘ. 1. ἐλαχίστη δὲ ἡ ΖΔ.20]. ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΒΕ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΕΗ τῇ ΕΔ. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΖΘ τῇ ΖΗ [ἴση ἐστίν]. the two (straight-lines) BE. δύο δὴ αἱ ΗΕ. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον προσπιπτέτωσαν εὐθεῖαί τινες αἱ ΖΒ. πάλιν. radiate from F towards (the circumference of) circle ABCD. οὐκ ἄρα ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου ἑτέρα τις Let ABCD be a circle. αἱ ἄρα ΕΒ. I also say that from point F only two equal (straightlines) will radiate towards (the circumference of) circle ABCD. προσπιπτέτω ἡ ΖΚ. ὅτι τῇ ΖΗ ἄλλη ἴση οὐ προσπεσεῖται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου.24]. since GF and F E are greater than EG [Prop. CE.23]. and let some point F . and let F H have been joined. GF and F E are thus greater than ED. And let some straight-lines. ΖΗ· λέγω. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΓΕ. I say that F A is the greatest (straight-line). the base BF is greater than the base CF . κοινὴ ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ΕΖ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΗΖ λοιπῆς τῆς ΖΔ μείζων ἐστίν. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΕΖ. for the same (reasons). EF are equal to the two (straightlines) CE. ΖΓ. CF is also greater than F G. and F B (is) greater than F C. λέγω δή. καὶ ἐπεὶ παντὸς τριγώνου αἱ δύο πλευραὶ τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονές εἰσιν. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΖΚ τῇ ΖΗ ἴση ἐστίν. have been taken on AD. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἡ μὲν ΖΒ τῆς ΖΓ μείζων. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΓΖ τῆς ΖΗ μείζων ἐστίν. 1. ὅτι μεγίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ ΖΑ. which is not the center of the circle. And AE (is) equal to BE [thus. αἱ ἄρα ΗΖ. F C. F B. Thus. and let AD be its diameter. 1. EF (respectively). and F E (is) common. and EG (is) equal to ED. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΖΕ. ΓΕ. Therefore. And since for every triangle (any) two sides are greater than the remaining (side) [Prop. the base BF is greater than the base CF [Prop. F B (is) greater than F C. the remainder GF is greater than the remainder F D. ἡ δὲ ΖΓ τῆς ΖΗ. at the point E on it [Prop. ὅτι καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου δύο μόνον ἴσαι προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ΖΔ ἐλαχίστης. AF (is) greater than BF . F D the least. Γ C Η Β Α G B Ζ Ε Κ ∆ A F D E H Θ K ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν. συνεστάτω γὰρ πρὸς τῇ ΕΖ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Ε τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΘ. So. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἔστω ἡ ΑΔ. and EF (is) common. EB and EF is thus greater than BF . Λέγω. δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΕ. But. 76 . ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΕ τῇ ΕΘ. (one) on each (side) of the least (straight-line) F D. F D the least. κέντρον δὲ τοῦ κύκλου ἔστω τὸ Ε. Again. ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τῇ ἀπώτερον ἴση· ὅπερ ἀδύνατον. καὶ ἡ ΖΚ ἄρα τῇ ΖΘ ἐστιν ἴση. Thus.20]. ἡ δὲ ΖΓ τῆς ΖΗ. Thus. ἐπεὶ αἱ ΗΖ. and F C than F G. For let the (angle) F EH. BE and EF is equal to AF ]. ὃ μή ἐστι κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. equal to angle GEF . 1. ΖΕ τῆς ΕΔ μείζονές εἰσιν. F A (is) the greatest (straight-line). ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΘΕΖ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΖΗ βάσει τῇ ΖΘ ἴση ἐστίν. Πάλιν. and F G. μεγίστη μὲν ἄρα ἡ ΖΑ. Let EF have been taken from both. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 (side) of the least (straight-line).STOIQEIWN gþ. since BE is equal to CE. εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. angle BEF (is) also greater than angle CEF . ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶ τῇ ΑΖ]· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΑΖ τῆς ΒΖ. and F C than F G. and GE have been joined. ΕΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΘΕ. ἀλλὰ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΖ γωνίας τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΕΖ μείζων· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΒΖ βάσεως τῆς ΓΖ μείζων ἐστίν. ΕΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΓΕ. ΗΕ.‡ Thus. ἐλαχίστη δὲ ἡ ΖΔ. Let E be the center of the circle.

ἐφ᾿ ἧς τὸ κέντρον. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ἐπὶ τῆς διαμέτρου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον. and let DA be through the center. hþ. ἡ μὲν ΔΚ τῆς ΔΛ. if some point. the remainder (being) random. And only two equal (straightlines) will radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle. ὅτι τῶν μὲν πρὸς τὴν ΑΕΖΓ κοίλην περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσῶν εὐθειῶν μεγίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου ἡ ΔΑ. and let some point D have been taken outside ABC. the least is that between the point and the diameter.STOIQEIWN gþ. one of which (passes) through the center. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον διαχθῶσιν εὐθεῖαί τινες. and some straight-lines radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle. 1. For the others. (one) on each (side) of the least (straight-line). μεγίστη μὲν ἔσται. ‡ This is not proved. a (straight-line) nearer† to the (straight-line) through the center is always greater than one further away. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσιν εὐθεῖαί τινες. except by reference to the figure. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς ἐλαχίστης τῆς ἀπώτερόν ἐστιν ἐλάττων. (there is) only one (such straight-line). DF . then the greatest (straight-line) will be that on which the center (lies). and the least the remainder (of the same diameter). and DC. ἔστω δὲ ἡ ΔΑ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου. τῶν δὲ πρὸς τὴν κυρτὴν περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσῶν εὐθειῶν ἐλαχίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ μεταξὺ τοῦ τε σημείου καὶ τῆς διαμέτρου. Thus. and from it let some straight-lines. the nearer to the (straight-line) through the center equal to the further away. Thus. a (straight-line) nearer to the least (straight-line) is always less than one further away. is taken on the diameter of a circle. καὶ ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ διήχθωσαν εὐθεῖαί τινες αἱ ΔΑ. which is not the center of the circle. For the others. the two (straight-lines) GE. And since F K is equal to F G. δύο δὲ μόνον ἴσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ αὐτοῦ σημείου προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ἐλαχίστης· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὡς ἔτυχεν. καὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ εἰλήφθω τι σημεῖον ἐκτὸς τὸ Δ. then for the straight-lines radiating towards the concave (part of the) circumference. For the straight-lines radiating towards the convex (part of the) circumference. Thus. Thus. ὃ μή ἐστι κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. a (straight-line) nearer to the (straight-line) through the center is always greater than a (straight-line) further away. ἐλαχίστη δὲ ἡ λοιπή. λέγω. another (straight-line) equal to GF will not radiate from the point F towards (the circumference of) the circle. in an angular sense. Proposition 8 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐκτός. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν. † Presumably. (one) on each (side) of the least (straight-line). the base F G is equal to the base F H [Prop. ΔΕ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 προσπεσεῖται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἴση τῇ ΗΖ· μία ἄρα μόνη. DE. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς δὶα τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν. And only two equal (straight-lines) will radiate from the same point towards the (circumference of the) circle. The very thing (is) impossible. have been drawn through (the circle). the greatest is that (passing) through the center. So I say that another (straightline) equal to F G will not radiate towards (the circumference of) the circle from point F . EF are equal to the two (straight-lines) HE. ΔΖ. but F H [is equal] to F G. αἱ δὲ λοιπαί. δύο δὲ μόνον ἴσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ σημείου προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ἐλαχίστης. if possible. ἡ δὲ ΔΛ If some point is taken outside a circle. τῶν δὲ πρὸς τὴν ΘΛΚΗ κυρτὴν περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσῶν εὐθειῶν ἐλαχίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ ΔΗ ἡ μεταξὺ τοῦ σημείου καὶ τῆς διαμέτρου τῆς ΑΗ. F K is thus also equal to F H. And for the others. And angle GEF (is) equal to angle HEF . For. μείζων δὲ ἡ μὲν ΔΕ τῆς ΔΖ ἡ δὲ ΔΖ τῆς ΔΓ. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ.4]. ἀεὶ δὲ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς ΔΗ ἐλαχίστης ἐλάττων ἐστὶ τῆς ἀπώτερον. τῶν μὲν πρὸς τὴν κοίλην περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσῶν εὐθειῶν μεγίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου. ΔΓ. I say that for the straight-lines radiating towards the concave (part of 77 . and some straight-lines are drawn from the point to the (circumference of the) circle. DA. EF (respectively). let F K (so) radiate. Let ABC be a circle. ὧν μία μὲν διὰ τοῦ κέντρου.

ΜΘ.21]. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΜ τῇ ΕΜ. So. ΜΛ. (so that) DK (is less) than DL. AD is also greater than ED. ΜΔ τῆς ΕΔ μείζονές εἰσιν· καὶ ἡ ΑΔ ἄρα τῆς ΕΔ μείζων ἐστίν. DG (is) the least (straight-line). the greatest is the one (passing) through the center. 1. then M K and KD are thus less than M L and LD [Prop. similarly. the base ED is greater than the base F D [Prop. And M K (is) equal to M L. and (that) DE (is) greater than DF . 1. 3. HLKG.STOIQEIWN gþ. M D. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΒ. And since AM is equal to EM . ΜΚ. ΜΔ δύο ταῖς ΒΜ. ΚΔ τῆς ΜΔ μείζονές εἰσιν. M F . ELEMENTS BOOK 3 τῆς ΔΘ.24]. and DE (is) greater than DF . δύο δὴ αἱ ΚΜ. ὅτι καὶ ἡ ΖΔ τῆς ΓΔ μείζων ἐστίν· μεγίστη μὲν ἄρα ἡ ΔΑ. ΚΔ. ΜΔ. the least is the one between the point and the diameter AG. since M E is equal to M F . M D are thus equal to F M . Thus. and DL than DH. (namely) AD. ὅτι καὶ δύο μόνον ἴσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ σημείου προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ΔΗ ἐλαχίστης· συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΜΔ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Μ τῇ ὑπὸ ΚΜΔ γωνίᾳ ἴση γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΜΒ. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ΜΔ· ἡ ἄρα ΑΔ ἴση ἐστὶ ταῖς ΕΜ. let M D have been added to both. ἐλάττων δὲ ἡ μὲν ΔΚ τῆς ΔΛ ἡ δὲ ΔΛ τῆς ΔΘ.‡ Thus. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΜΔ. ὅτι καὶ ἡ ΔΛ τῆς ΔΘ ἐλάττων ἐστίν· ἐλαχίστη μὲν ἄρα ἡ ΔΗ. ΜΔ For let the center of the circle have been found [Prop. And let M E. EM and M D is greater than ED [Prop. 1. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΜΔ. 1. μείζων δὲ ἡ μὲν ΔΕ τῆς ΔΖ. (namely) DG.1]. AEF C. ΜΔ ἄρα ταῖς ΖΜ. M K. we can show that DL is also less than DH. Λέγω. and let it be (at point) M [Prop. AD (is) the greatest (straight-line). ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΜΕ τῇ ΜΖ. the) circumference. Thus. the remainder KD is thus greater than the remainder GD. ΜΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΜΔ γωνίας τῆς ὑπὸ ΖΜΔ μείζων ἐστίν. ΚΔ τῶν ΜΛ. and DF than DC. ΜΖ. and DK (is) less than DL. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. M D. And angle EM D is greater than angle F M D. ∆ D Θ Λ Κ Η Β Γ H L K G B C N Ν Ζ F Μ M E Ε Α A Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου καὶ ἔστω τὸ Μ· καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΜΕ. Thus. ἡ δὲ ΔΖ τῆς ΔΓ. the two internal straight-lines M K and KD were constructed on one of the sides. 3. αἱ ἄρα ΜΚ. and a (straight-line) nearer to the least (straight-line) DG is always less than one farther away. Καὶ ἐπεὶ αἱ ΜΚ. And since in triangle M LD. and DL than than DH. So GD is less than KD. and M D (is) common. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΜΗ τῇ ΜΚ. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΚΔ λοιπῆς τῆς ΗΔ μείζων ἐστίν· ὥστε ἡ ΗΔ τῆς ΚΔ ἐλάττων ἐστίν· καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΜΛΔ ἐπὶ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν τῆς ΜΔ δύο εὐθεῖαι ἐντὸς συνεστάθησαν αἱ ΜΚ. Thus.20]. and M H have been joined. For the straight-lines radiating towards the convex (part of the) circumference. βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΕΔ βάσεως τῆς ΖΔ μείζων ἐστίν· ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν.1]. similarly. ΛΔ ἐλάττονές εἰσιν· ἴση δὲ ἡ ΜΚ τῇ ΜΛ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΔΚ λοιπῆς τῆς ΔΛ ἐλάττων ἐστίν. M L. So. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΜΚ τῇ ΜΒ. And since M K and KD is greater than M D [Prop. Again. and M G (is) equal to M K. πάλιν. the remainder DK is less than the remainder DL. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ΕΜ.20]. we can show that F D is also greater than CD. Thus. But. AD is equal to EM and M D. I also say that only two equal (straight-lines) will radi- 78 . ΜΓ. M C. and DF than DC. the (straight-lines) EM . αἱ ΕΜ.

τῶν μὲν πρὸς τὴν κοίλην περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσῶν εὐθειῶν μεγίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ διὰ τοῦ κέντου. 1. Proposition 9 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐντός. The very thing was shown (to be) impossible. the greatest is that (passing) through the center. τῶν δὲ πρὸς τὴν κυρτὴν περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσῶν εὐθειῶν ἐλαχίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ μεταξὺ τοῦ τε σημείου καὶ τῆς διαμέτρου. Thus. ἀπο δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι πλείους ἢ δύο ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι. but DK is equal to DB. and DC. If some point is taken inside a circle. τὸ ληφθὲν σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ κύκλου. And since M K is equal to M B. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον διαχθῶσιν εὐθεῖαί τινες. (so that) a (straightline) nearer to the least (straight-line) DG [is] equal to one further away. (one) on each side of the least (straightline) DG. For. DA. then for the straightlines radiating towards the concave (part of the) circumference. And only two equal (straightlines) will radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle.23]. one of which (passes) through the center. (one) on each (side) of the least (straight-line). and let more than two equal straight-lines. the remainder (being) random. ὅτι τὸ Δ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς ἐλαχίστης τῆς ἀπώτερόν ἐστιν ἐλάττων. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ΔΚ τῇ ΔΒ ἐστιν ἴση. 1. † ate from point D towards (the circumference of) the circle. Therefore. M D are equal to the two (straightlines) BM . ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς ΔΗ ἐλαχίστης τῇ ἀπώτερον [ἐστιν] ἴση· ὅπερ ἀδύνατον ἐδείχθη. respectively. Thus. and let DB have been joined. ΔΓ· λέγω. Let the angle DM B. at the point M on it [Prop. let (such a straight-line) radiate. except by reference to the figure. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. [So] I say that another (straightline) equal to DK will not radiate towards the (circumference of the) circle from point D. λέγω [δή]. (one) on each (side) on the least (straight-line). have been constructed on the straight-line M D. jþ. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν.4]. then the point taken is the center of the circle. προσπιπτέτω καὶ ἔστω ἡ ΔΝ. ἐντὸς δὲ αὐτοῦ σημεῖον τὸ Δ. a (straight-line) nearer to the (straightline) through the center is always greater than one further away. For the straight-lines radiating towards the convex (part of the) circumference. DB. DG. 79 . ὡς ἔτυχεν. καὶ ἡ ΔΒ ἄρα τῇ ΔΝ ἐστιν ἴση. the two (straight-lines) KM . not more than two equal (straight-lines) will radiate towards (the circumference of) circle ABC from point D. and more than two equal straight-lines radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐκτός. ὧν μία μὲν διὰ τοῦ κέντρου αἱ δὲ λοιπαί.STOIQEIWN gþ. Let ABC be a circle. And angle KM D (is) equal to angle BM D. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον προσπιπτέτωσαν πλείους ἢ δύο ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΔΑ. Presumably. ΔΒ. if some point is taken outside a circle. if possible. For the others. δύο δὲ μόνον ἴσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ σημείου προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ἐλαχίστης· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὅτι τῇ ΔΚ εὐθείᾳ ἄλλη ἴση οὐ προσπεσεῖται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ σημείου. since DK is equal to DN . ‡ This is not proved. Thus. in an angular sense. and D a point inside it. M D. the least is that between the point and the diameter. and some straight-lines are drawn from the point to the (circumference of the) circle. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἡ ΔΚ τῇ ΔΝ ἐστιν ἴση. a (straight-line) nearer to the least (straight-line) is always less than one further away. the base DK is equal to the base DB [Prop. and let it be DN . then DB is thus also equal to DN . For the others. οὐκ ἄρα πλείους ἢ δύο ἴσαι πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ σημείου ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ΔΗ ἐλαχίστης προσπεσοῦνται. equal to angle KM D. εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. radiate from D towards (the circumference of) circle ABC. and M D (is) common. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΚΜΔ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΜΔ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΔΚ βάσει τῇ ΔΒ ἴση ἐστίν.

1 corr. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς ΘΛ ἐστι τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. let them (then) have been drawn through to points A and E (respectively). ΒΕΔ γωνιῶν· ἡ ΗΚ ἄρα τὴν ΑΒ τέμνει δίχα καὶ πρὸς ὀρθάς. ΒΓ καὶ τετμήσθωσαν δίχα κατὰ τὰ Ε.11]. GK cuts AB in half. since AE is equal to EB. the center of circle ABC is also on HL. point D is the center of circle ABC. the two (straight-lines) AE. ΕΔ δύο ταῖς ΒΕ. Λ σημεῖα· καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν Κ. Λ ταῖς ΒΘ. Λ Β Κ Ζ Ε L B Γ Η F E ∆ K C G D A Α Θ H ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΑΒ. ED are equal to the two (straight-lines) BE. Ζ.]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΕΔ. ἐπὶ τῆς ΗΚ ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. and H. Ε σημεῖα. And since. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι πλείους ἢ δύο ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι. Κ. B. 80 . Ζ σημεῖα. iþ. Λ σημεῖα. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 I say that point D is the center of circle ABC. F . And ED and F D being joined. ΘΛ εὐθεῖαι ἢ τὸ Δ σημεῖον· τὸ Δ ἄρα σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. Proposition 10 Κύκλος κύκλον οὐ τέμνει κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ δύο. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΕ. and ED (is) common. τὸ ληφθὲν σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Η. κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ κύκλον τὸν ΔΕΖ τεμνέτω κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ δύο τὰ Β.STOIQEIWN gþ. let the circle ABC cut the circle DEF at more than two points. then the center of the circle is on the former (straight-line) [Prop. Thus. For. ΕΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΑ βάσει τῇ ΔΒ ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΕΔ ἴση ἐστίν· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ. 1. 1. K. 1. G. And BH and BG being joined. ΒΗ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀχθεῖσαι αἱ ΚΓ. Θ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐντός. then the point taken is the center of the circle. and at right-angles. let them have been drawn through to points G.10]. Θ. Therefore. the center of the circle is thus on GK. So. ἐὰν ἐν κύκλῳ εὐθεῖά τις εὐθεῖάν τινα δίχα τε καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνῃ. if some point is taken inside a circle. and at right-angles. 3. if some straight-line in a circle cuts some (other) straight-line in half. καὶ οὐδὲν ἕτερον κοινὸν ἔχουσιν αἱ ΗΚ. Thus. Thus. angles AED and BED (are) each right-angles [Def. καὶ ἐπεί. 1. angle AED is equal to angle BED [Prop. And the base DA (is) equal to the base DB. if possible. Thus. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΕΒ. ΖΔ διήχθωσαν ἐπὶ τὰ Η. For let AB and BC have been joined. καὶ ἐπιζευχθεῖσαι αἱ ΒΘ.8]. Thus. for the same (reasons). ED (respectively). H. and L. A circle does not cut a(nother) circle at more than two points. and (then) have been cut in half at points E and F (respectively) [Prop. let them (then) have been cut in half at points K and L (respectively). ΛΜ διήχθωσαν ἐπὶ τὰ Α. ΒΗ δίχα τεμνέσθωσαν κατὰ τὰ Κ. And the straight-lines GK and HL have no common (point) other than point D. and more than two equal straight-lines radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle.10]. ἐπὶ τῆς τεμνούσης ἐστὶ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. καὶ ἐπιζευχθεῖσαι αἱ ΕΔ. And KC and LM being drawn at right-angles to BH and BG from K and L (respectively) [Prop.

]. and let AF and AG have been joined. κοινὴ ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ΖΗ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΑΗ λοιπῆς τῆς ΗΘ μείζων ἐστίν. 3. 3. Οὐκ ἄρα κύκλος κύκλον τέμνει κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ δύο· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and their centers are found. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. I say that the straight-line joining G to F . Μὴ γάρ. ΔΕΖ τὸ αὐτό ἐστι κέντρον τὸ Ο· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Therefore. ἐπεὶ ἐν κύκλῳ τῷ αὐτῷ τῷ ΑΒΓ εὐθεῖά τις ἡ ΝΞ εὐθεῖάν τινα τὴν ΒΗ δίχα καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνει. the center of circle ABC is thus on N O [Prop. and (the center) G of (circle) ADE [Prop. since in the same circle ABC some straight-line N O cuts some (other straight-line) BG in half. let it fall like F GH (in the figure). Thus. ΗΖ τῆς ΖΑ. 3. And the straight-lines AC and N O meet at no other (point) than P .1]. will fall on A. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. Therefore. will fall upon the point of union of the circles. τοῦ δὲ ΑΔΕ τὸ Η· λέγω. the center of circle ABC is thus on AC [Prop. πιπτέτω ὡς ἡ ΖΗΘ. ὅτι ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Η ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐκβαλλομένη ἐπὶ τὸ Α πεσεῖται. μείζονές εἰσιν. ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. being produced. ὅτι καὶ τοῦ ΔΕΖ κύκλου κέντρον ἐστὶ τὸ Ο· δύο ἄρα κύκλων τεμνόντων ἀλλήλους τῶν ΑΒΓ. touch one another internally at point A. it will fall upon the point of union (of the circles) 81 . and at right-angles. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν αἱ ΑΗ.5].]. 1. Thus. καὶ εἰλήφθω τοῦ μὲν ΑΒΓ κύκλου κέντρον τὸ Ζ. Thus. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΖ. the straight-line joining F to G will not fall outside (one circle but inside the other). Δύο γὰρ κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. τουτέστι τῆς ΖΘ. iaþ. ἐπὶ τῆς ΝΞ ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ. 3. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΑΗ τῇ ΗΔ· καὶ ἡ ΗΔ ἄρα τῆς ΗΘ μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ἐλάττων τῆς μείζονος· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ ἐπὶ τὸ Η ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεὶα ἐκτὸς πεσεῖται· κατὰ τὸ Α ἄρα ἐπὶ τῆς συναφῆς πεσεῖται. Again. And AG (is) equal to GD. ABC and DEF . If two circles touch one another internally. Thus. The very thing is impossible [Prop. we can show that P is also the center of circle DEF . being produced. And it was also shown (to be) on AC. if possible. then the straight-line joining their centers. 3. ΝΞ εὐθεῖαι ἢ κατὰ τὸ Ο· τὸ Ο ἄρα σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. καὶ ληφθῇ αὐτῶν τὰ κέντρα. point P is the center of circle ABC.1 corr. and let the center F of circle ABC have been found [Prop. The very thing is impossible. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 Α A ∆ Θ H Κ Λ Ν Μ B D Β K Ξ Ε L N Ο O E P M G Η Ζ F Γ C ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἐν κύκλῳ τῷ ΑΒΓ εὐθεῖά τις ἡ ΑΓ εὐθεῖάν τινα τὴν ΒΘ δίχα καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνει.1]. ABC and ADE. the remainder AG is greater than the remainder GH. πάλιν. ΑΗ. So. Thus. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ κέντρα αὐτῶν ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα καὶ ἐκβαλλομένη ἐπὶ τὴν συναφὴν πεσεῖται τῶν κύκλων. two circles cutting one another. For let two circles. καὶ κατ᾿ οὐδὲν συμβάλλουσιν αἱ ΑΓ.1 corr. let F G have been taken from both. Thus. since in circle ABC some straight-line AC cuts some (other) straight-line BH in half.STOIQEIWN gþ. since AG and GF is greater than F A. that is to say F H [Prop. the lesser than the greater. have the same center P . Proposition 11 ᾿Εὰν δύο κύκλοι ἐφάπτωνται ἀλλήλων ἐντός. similarly. For (if) not then. ΑΔΕ ἐφαπτέσθωσαν ἀλλήλων ἐντὸς κατὰ τὸ Α σημεῖον. GD is also greater than GH. a circle does not cut a(nother) circle at more than two points.20]. and at right-angles.

Θ H ∆ Α D A G Η Β Ζ B F E Ε Γ C ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο κύκλοι ἐφάπτωνται ἀλλήλων ἐντός. καὶ εἰλήφθω τοῦ μὲν ΑΒΓ κέντρον τὸ Ζ. τοῦ δὲ ΑΔΕ τὸ Η· λέγω. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΑ τῇ ΗΔ. ibþ. ΑΔΕ ἐφαπτέσθωσαν ἀλλήλων ἐκτὸς κατὰ τὸ Α σημεῖον. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ κέντρα αὐτῶν ἐπιζευ.STOIQEIWN gþ. since point F is the center of circle ABC. ὅτι ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ ἐπὶ τὸ Η ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα διὰ τῆς κατὰ τὸ Α ἐπαφῆς ἐλεύσεται. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. And F A was also shown 82 . of union of the circles. Β B Ζ F Α Γ A C ∆ D Η G Ε E Δύο γὰρ κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. if possible. If two circles touch one another externally then the (straight-line) joining their centers will go through the point of union. [being produced]. let it go like F CDG (in the figure). ABC and ADE. and let the center F of ABC have been found [Prop. if two circles touch one another internally. ἐπεὶ τὸ Η σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΔΕ κύκλου. then the straight-line joining γνυμένη εὐθεῖα [καὶ ἐκβαλλομένη] ἐπὶ τὴν συναφὴν πεσεῖται their centers.1]. will fall upon the point τῶν κύκλων· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Again. touch one another externally at point A. I say that the straight-line joining F to G will go through the point of union at A. F A is equal to F C. Proposition 12 ᾿Εὰν δύο κύκλοι ἐφάπτωνται ἀλλήλων ἐκτός. ἐδείχθη For let two circles. since point G is the center of circle ADE. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΖ. For (if) not then. 3. Μὴ γάρ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν τὸ Ζ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. GA is equal to GD. Therefore.their centers are found]. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΑ τῇ ΖΓ. [καὶ Thus. ΑΗ.1]. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ κέντρα αὐτῶν ἐπιζευγνυμένη διὰ τῆς ἐπαφῆς ἐλεύσεται. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἐρχέσθω ὡς ἡ ΖΓΔΗ. πάλιν. 3. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 at point A. and (the center) G of ADE [Prop. [and ληφθῇ αὐτῶν τὰ κέντρα]. and let AF and AG have been joined.

2]. Again. ΑΓΚ εἴληπται ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας ἑκατέρου δύο τυχόντα σημεῖα τὰ Α.1]. if possible. ἐάν τε ἐντὸς ἐάν τε ἐκτὸς ἐφάπτηται. 3. (it is) also less [Prop. ῎Επεὶ οὖν κύκλων τῶν ΑΒΓΔ. and outside ACK [Def. Thus. BH is equal to HD. κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου τοῦ ΕΒΖΔ ἐφαπτέσθω πρότερον ἐντὸς κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ ἓν τὰ Δ. Proposition 13 Κύκλος κύκλου οὐκ ἐφάπτεται κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ καθ᾿ ἕν. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. And let the center G of circle ABDC have been found [Prop. 1. The very thing is impossible. And since point G is the center of circle ABDC. A and C. Thus. I say that neither (does it touch) externally (at more than one point). it fell inside ABDC. K Κ Α A Γ C Ε Η E Θ Β G ∆ H B Ζ D F Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. let circle ACK touch circle ABDC externally at more than one point. (to be) equal to F C. ὅτι οὐδὲ ἐντός. ἐδείχθη δέ. ῾Η ἄρα ἀπὸ τοῦ Η ἐπὶ τὸ Θ ἐπιζευγνυμένη ἐπὶ τὰ Β. The very thing 83 . πάλιν. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 δὲ καὶ ἡ ΖΑ τῇ ΖΓ ἴση· αἱ ἄρα ΖΑ. and (the center) H of EBF D [Prop. For. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὅτι οὐδὲ ἐκτός. if two circles touch one another externally then the [straight-line] joining their centers will go through the point of union.1]. (it will go) through it.STOIQEIWN gþ. ΑΗ ταῖς ΖΓ. ΗΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· ὥστε ὅλη ἡ ΖΗ τῶν ΖΑ. the (straight-lines) F A and AG are equal to the (straight-lines) F C and GD. Λέγω δή. the straight-line joining F to G cannot not go through the point of union at A. οὐκ ἄρα ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ ἐπὶ τὸ Η ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα διὰ τῆς κατὰ τὸ Α ἐπαφῆς οὐκ ἐλεύσεται· δι᾿ αὐτῆς ἄρα. Thus. So. τοῦ δὲ ΕΒΖΔ τὸ Θ. ἐπεὶ τὸ Θ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΕΒΖΔ κύκλου. The very thing (is) impossible. Therefore. 3.3]. πιπτέτω ὡς ἡ ΒΗΘΔ. BH (is) much greater than HD.20]. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΓ. Thus. Γ. the straight-line joining the points will fall inside each (circle) [Prop. since point H is the center of circle EBF D. 3. 3. Thus. internally—at more than one point. have been taken at random on the circumference of each of the circles ABDC and ACK. A and C. κύκλος ὁ ΑΓΚ κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ ἐφαπτέσθω ἐκτὸς κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ ἓν τὰ Α. Thus. For. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο κύκλοι ἐφάπτωνται ἀλλήλων ἐκτός. if possible. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ κέντρα αὐτῶν ἐπιζευγνυμένη [εὐθεῖα] διὰ τῆς ἐπαφῆς ἐλεύσεται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ Η σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου. BG (is) greater than HD. So the whole of F G is greater than F A and AG. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ σημεῖα ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐντὸς ἑκατέρου πεσεῖται· ἀλλὰ τοῦ μὲν ΑΒΓΔ ἐντὸς ἔπεσεν. D and B. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΘ τῇ ΘΔ· ἐδείχθη δὲ αὐτῆς καὶ πολλῷ μείζων· ὅπερ ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα κύκλος κύκλου ἐφάπτεται ἐντὸς κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ ἕν. But it was also shown (to be) much greater than it. whether they touch internally or externally. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΗ τῇ ΗΔ· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΒΗ τῆς ΘΔ· πολλῷ ἄρα μείζων ἡ ΒΘ τῆς ΘΔ. But. Καὶ εἰλήφθω τοῦ μὲν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου κέντρον τὸ Η. igþ. 3. a circle does not touch a(nother) circle internally at more than one point. A circle does not touch a(nother) circle at more than one point. Let it fall like BGHD (in the figure). Δ πεσεῖται. Γ. Thus. Β. the (straight-line) joining G and H will fall on B and D [Prop. since two points. BG is equal to GD. And let AC have been joined.11]. let circle ABDC † touch circle EBF D— first of all. τοῦ δὲ ΑΓΚ ἐκτός· ὅπερ ἄτοπον· οὐκ ἄρα κύκλος κύκλου ἐφάπτεται ἐκτὸς κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ ἕν. But. ΑΗ μείζων ἐστίν· ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐλάττων· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον.

for the same (reasons). cuts some (other) straight-line. ΗΕ. the (square) on AE (is) also equal to the (square) on EC. ἴσον καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΓ. ∆ D B Β Η Ε G E Ζ F Γ C Α A ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὅτι ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΕΓ. the (sum of the squares) on AF and F E is equal to the (sum of the squares) on CG and GE. Thus. And the (sum of the squares) on EG and GC (is) equal to the (square) on EC. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΓΔ τῆς ΓΗ ἐστι διπλῆ· καί ἐστιν ἴση ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ· ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΓΗ. τουτέστιν ἴση ἔστω ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΕΗ. ἀλλὰ τῷ μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ ἴσα τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΖ. idþ. which is obviously a mistake. 3. For the angle at F (is) a rightangle [Prop. ΓΔ· λέγω. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν εὐθεῖά τις δὶα τοῦ κέντρου ἡ ΕΖ εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τὴν ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνει.1]. a circle does not touch a(nother) circle at more than one point. ὧν τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΗ· ἴση γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΓΗ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ ἴσον ἐστίν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΕΗ. † The Greek text has “ABCD”.3]. Thus. For AF is equal to CG. AF (is) also equal to CG. it also cuts it in half [Prop. Proposition 14 ᾿Εν κύκλῳ αἱ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἴσον ἀπέχουσιν ἀπὸ τοῦ In a circle. ΓΔ ἴσον ἀπέχουσιν ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου. ἐν δὲ κύκλῳ ἴσον ἀπέχειν ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου εὐθεῖαι λέγονται. ΗΓ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Η γωνία· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΖ. For the angle at G (is) a right-angle [Prop. ὅταν αἱ ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου ἐπ᾿ αὐτὰς κάθετοι ἀγόμεναι ἴσαι ὦσιν· αἱ ἄρα ΑΒ. 1.47]. Thus. neither (does it) internally. through the center (of the circle). Thus. AF (is) equal to F B. καὶ δίχα αὐτὴν τέμνει. And AB is equal to CD. whether they touch internally or externally. λέγω. And it was shown that δεῖξαι. at right-angles. Let ABDC † be a circle.12]. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ε ἐπὶ τὰς ΑΒ. center are equal to one another. καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἔστωσαν αἱ ΑΒ. Thus. equal straight-lines are equally far from the κέντρου. But.STOIQEIWN gþ. ἐάν τε ἐντὸς ἐάν τε ἐκτὸς ἐφάπτηται· ὅπερ ἔδει externally at more than one point. ΕΗ. perpendicular to AB and CD (respectively) [Prop. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τὸ κέντον τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ε. EF . Thus. 1. of which the (square) on AF is equal to the (square) on CG. For let the center of circle ABDC have been found [Prop. AB. AB (is) double AF . since some straight-line. And since AE is equal to EC. and let AB and CD be equal straight-lines within it. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ αἱ ΑΒ. 84 . ΕΓ. ΕΖ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Ζ γωνία· τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΓ ἴσα τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΗ. I say that AB and CD are equally far from the center. and (straight-lines) which are equally far from the ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. So. ΓΔ εὐθεῖαι ἴσον ἀπεχέτωσαν ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου. Therefore. 3. And let EF and EG have been drawn from (point) E. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΕ. and let it be (at) E. ΓΔ κάθετοι ἤχθωσαν αἱ ΕΖ. ΖΕ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΗ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 Κύκλος ἄρα κύκλου οὐκ ἐφάπτεται κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα (is) absurd. ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΒ· διπλῆ ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ τῆς ΑΖ. ὅτι αἱ ΑΒ.47]. ΓΔ ἴσον ἀπέχουσιν ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου. not through the center. the (sum of the squares) on AF and EF (is) equal to the (square) on AE. 1. a circle does not touch a(nother) circle ἢ [καθ᾿] ἕν. CD is also double CG. καὶ αἱ ἴσον ἀπέχουσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου ἴσαι center. And let AE and EC have been joined.

AB (is) equal to CD. F E. καὶ ἔγγιον μὲν τῆς ΑΔ διαμέτρου ἔστω ἡ ΒΓ. Thus. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΕ τῇ ΕΜ. ΕΚ. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. a diameter (is) the greatest (straight-line). And let M E.11]. And since EH is equal to EL. ΕΗ. and EG have been joined. at right-angles to EK [Prop. Thus. ἡ ἄρα ΑΔ ταῖς ΜΕ. And the (sum of the squares) on EG and GC (is) equal to the (square) on CE [Prop. βάσις ἄρα In a circle.14]. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΜΕ. ΕΝ δύο ταῖς ΖΕ. ΕΝ. equal straight-lines are equally far from the center. 1. EK (is) thus greater than EH [Def. Let EL be made equal to EH [Prop. EN . And since AE is equal to CE. καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΜΕΝ γωνίας τῆς ὑπὸ ΖΕΗ μείζων [ἐστίν]. καὶ αἱ ἴσον ἀπέχουσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὅτι διπλῆ ἐστιν ἡ μὲν ΑΒ τῆς ΑΖ. 3. And since BC is nearer to the center. the (sum of the squares) on EF and F A is equal to the (sum of the squares) on EG and GC.STOIQEIWN gþ. ΗΓ. Thus. I say that AB is also equal to CD.47]. Thus. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν. μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΕΚ τῆς ΕΘ.12]. ΖΑ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΗ. ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἄρα αἱ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἴσον ἀπέχουσιν ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου. ἀπώτερον δὲ ἡ ΖΗ· λέγω.5]. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἔγγιον μὲν τοῦ κέντρου ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ. κείσθω τῇ ΕΘ ἴση ἡ ΕΛ. since AE is equal to EM . the (square) on AE is equal to the (square) on CE. Thus. For. For let EH and EK have been drawn from the center E. ΖΗ κάθετοι αἱ ΕΘ. of which the (square) on EF is equal to the (square) on EG. 1. AB and CD are equally far from the center. ΕΝ τῆς ΜΝ μείζονές εἰσιν [καὶ ἡ ΑΔ τῆς ΜΝ μείζων ἐστίν]. 1. And AB is double AF . the (sum of the squares) on EF and F A is equal to the (square) on AE [Prop. But.20] [also AD is 85 . That is to say. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἔστω ἡ ΑΔ.3]. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων ὁμοίως δείξομεν. τῆς δὲ ΓΗ διπλῆ ἡ ΓΔ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. 3. ΕΝ ἴση ἐστίν. let EF be equal to EG. Let ABCD be a circle. 1. and CD (double) CG. and for the others. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΜΝ τῇ ΒΓ· ἡ ΑΔ ἄρα τῆς ΒΓ μείζων ἐστίν. Thus. and ED to EN . with the same construction.47]. τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΖ. ὅτι μεγίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ ΑΔ. 3. in a circle. and CD double CG. M E and EN is greater than M N [Prop. ΕΗ ἴσαι εἰσίν. we can. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Λ τῇ ΕΚ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀχθεῖσα ἡ ΛΜ διήχθω ἐπὶ τὸ Ν. I say that AD is the greatest (straight-line). πάλιν. ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΕ· ἀλλὰ τῷ μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΖ. ieþ. ἡ δὲ ΕΔ τῇ ΕΝ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 1. Again. † Thus. the remaining (square) on F E is equal to the (remaining square) on EG. ΖΕ. and F G further away. show that AB is double AF . κέντρον δὲ τὸ Ε. and BC (is) greater than F G. at right-angles to BC and F G (respectively) [Prop. EF (is) equal to EG. μείζων δὲ ἡ ΒΓ τῆς ΖΗ. So. ΖΑ. and E (its) center. let it have been drawn through to N . AF (is) equal to CG.4]. let the straight-lines AB and CD be equally far from the center. the remaining (square) on AF is equal to the (remaining square) on CG. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ μὲν ΜΕ. Proposition 15 ᾿Εν κύκλῳ μεγίστη μὲν ἡ διάμετρος. ἡ δὲ ΓΔ τῆς ΓΗ· καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΓΕ. and let AD be its diameter. 1. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΜΝ. similarly. ΗΓ· ὧν τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ ἐστιν ἴσον· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΕΗ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΗ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΓΗ· καί ἐστι τῆς μὲν ΑΖ διπλῆ ἡ ΑΒ.† and F G further away. καὶ ἐπεὶ δύο αἱ ΜΕ. ἀπώτερον δὲ ἡ ΖΗ. But. a (straight-line) nearer to the center is always greater than one further away. And LM being drawn through L. ῎Ηχθωσαν γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ε κέντρου ἐπὶ τὰς ΒΓ. The Greek text has “ABCD”. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΘ τῇ ΕΛ. and (straight-lines) which are equally far from the center are equal to one another. τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΕ ἴσα τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΗ. And let BC be nearer to the diameter AD. AD is thus equal to M E and EN . And straight-lines in a circle are said to be equally far from the center when perpendicular (straight-lines) which are drawn to them from the center are equal [Def. Thus. BC is also equal to M N [Prop. For EF (is) equal to EG. which is obviously a mistake.

Ν † ‡ ∆ Γ N Euclid should have said “to the center”. μεγίστη μὲν is greater than BC. 1. ACD (is) also a right-angle. Α A Μ M B Β Ζ Κ F Λ Ε K L E H Θ G Η C D ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἄρα μεγίστη μὲν έστιν ἡ διάμετρος. let it fall inside. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΓ. the two angles DAC and ACD are equal to two rightangles. Proposition 16 ῾Η τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐκτὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου. ὅτι οὐδ᾿ ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας· ἐκτὸς ἄρα. I say that the (straight-line) drawn from A. and let DC have been joined. 1. center is always greater than one further away. EN are equal to the two (straight-lines) F E. ὁμοίως δὴ δεῖξομεν. This is not proved.11].STOIQEIWN gþ. M E. will fall outside the circle. at right-angles to AB [Prop 1. So. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ περὶ κέντρον τὸ Δ καὶ διάμετρον τὴν ΑΒ· λέγω. in a circle. ἡ δὲ λοιπὴ ἐλάττων. And since the two (straight-lines) ἄρα ἡ ΑΔ διάμετρος. AD and F G are not necessarily parallel. and BC (is) greater than F G. at right-angles 86 . and for the others. rather than ”to the diameter AD”. will fall outside the circle. like CA (in the figure). ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ἡ ΜΝ βάσεως τῆς ΖΗ μείζων ἐστίν. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. πιπτέτω ἐντὸς ὡς ἡ ΓΑ. καὶ ἡ μὲν τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου γωνία ἁπάσης γωνίας ὀξείας εὐθυγράμμου μείζων ἐστίν. and M N (is) equal to BC. Thus. καὶ εἰς τὸν μεταξὺ τόπον τῆς τε εὐθείας καὶ τῆς περιφερείας ἑτέρα εὐθεῖα οὐ παρεμπεσεῖται. except by reference to the figure. in triangle ACD. Thus. A (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to the diameter of a circle.5]. a diameter (is) the greatest (straightἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν· line). And another straight-line cannot be inserted into the space between the (aforementioned) straight-line and the circumference. M N was shown (to be) equal to BC [(so) BC is also greater than F G]. iþ. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ· τριγώνου δὴ τοῦ ΑΓΔ αἱ δύο γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ. Thus. and angle M EN [is] greater than angle F EG. EG (respectively). οὐκ ἄρα ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α σημείου τῇ ΒΑ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀγομένη ἐντὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου. And DAC (is) a right-angle. But. ὅτι ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α τῇ ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐκτὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου. ΑΓΔ δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. a (straight-line) nearer to the ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΜΝ τῇ ΒΓ greater than M N ]. AD ἐδείχθη ἴση [καὶ ἡ ΒΓ τῆς ΖΗ μείζων ἐστίν]. Thus. from its end. if possible. since BC. The very thing is impossible [Prop.24]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. τῶν δὲ Thus. the diameter AD (is) the greatest (straight-line). ᾿Επεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΔΓ. Μὴ γάρ. the (straight-line) drawn from point A. 1. Since DA is equal to DC. And the angle of the semi-circle is greater than any acute rectilinear angle whatsoever. Let ABC be a circle around the center D and the diameter AB. from its end. angle DAC is also equal to angle ACD [Prop. and the remaining (angle is) less (than any acute rectilinear angle). For (if) not then. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ.17].‡ the base M N is thus greater than the base F G [Prop. μείζων δὲ ἡ ΒΓ τῆς ΖΗ.

οὐδὲ μὴν ἐλάττων τῆς περιεχομένης ὑπό τε τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΕ εὐθείας. I say that another straight-line cannot be inserted into the space between the straight-line AE and the circumference CHA. ὅτι εἰς τὸν μεταξὺ τόπον τῆς τε ΑΕ εὐθείας καὶ τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας ἑτέρα εὐθεῖα οὐ παρεμπεσεῖται. an acute (angle) contained by straight-lines cannot be greater than the angle contained by the straight-line BA and the circumference CHA. let it be inserted like F A (in the figure). ELEMENTS BOOK 3 to BA. So. ἥτις ποιήσει μείζονα μὲν τῆς περιεχομένης ὑπὸ τε τῆς ΒΑ εὐθείας καὶ τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας ὑπὸ εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην. παρεμπιπτέτω ὡς ἡ ΖΑ. ἐλάττων δὲ ὀρθῆς ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΗ. if possible. And since AGD is a rightangle. The very thing is impossible. (it will fall) outside (the circle). perpendicular to F A [Prop. similarly. So. Εἰ γὰρ ἐστί τις γωνία εὐθύγραμμος μείζων μὲν τῆς περιεχομένης ὑπό τε τῆς ΒΑ εὐθείας καὶ τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας. we can show that neither (will it fall) on the circumference. then a straight-line can be inserted into the space between the circumference CHA and the straight-line AE—anything which will make (an angle) contained by straight-lines greater than the angle contained by the straight-line BA and the circumference CHA. Thus. or less than the (angle) contained by the circumference CHA and the straight-line AE. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὀρθή ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΔ. and the remaining (angle) contained by the circumference CHA and the straight-line AE is less than any acute rectilinear angle whatsoever. 1. ἡ ἐλάττων τῆς μείζονος· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. For. and DAG (is) less than a right-angle. For if any rectilinear angle is greater than the (angle) contained by the straight-line BA and the circumference CHA. And DA (is) equal to DH. neither (can it be) less than the (angle) contained by the circumference CHA and the straight-line AE. AD (is) thus greater than DG [Prop. οὐκ ἄρα εἰς τὸν μεταξὺ τόπον τῆς τε εὐθείας καὶ τῆς περιφερείας ἑτέρα εὐθεῖα παρεμπεσεῖται. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ σημείου ἐπὶ τῆν ΖΑ κάθετος ἡ ΔΗ. G A Let it fall like AE (in the figure). Thus. another straight-line cannot be inserted into the space between the straight-line (AE) and the circumference. 87 . οὐ παρεμπίπτει δέ· οὐκ ἄρα τῆς περιεχομένης γωνίας ὑπό τε τῆς ΒΑ εὐθείας καὶ τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας ἔσται μείζων ὀξεῖα ὑπὸ εὐθειῶν περιεχομένη. DH (is) greater than DG. will not fall inside the circle. 1. ἡ δὲ λοιπὴ ἡ περιεχομένη ὑπό τε τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΕ εὐθείας ἁπάσης γωνίας ὀξείας εὐθυγράμμου ἐλάττων ἐστίν. Thus. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. ὅτι καὶ ἡ μὲν τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου γωνία ἡ περιεχομένη ὑπό τε τῆς ΒΑ εὐθείας καὶ τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας ἁπάσης γωνίας ὀξείας εὐθυγράμμου μείζων ἐστίν. and let DG have been drawn from point D. the lesser than the greater. μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΑΔ τῆς ΔΗ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΔΘ· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΔΘ τῆς ΔΗ. ἐλάττων δὲ τῆς περιεχομένης ὑπό τε τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας καὶ τὴς ΑΕ εὐθείας.12]. And I also say that the semi-circular angle contained by the straight-line BA and the circumference CHA is greater than any acute rectilinear angle whatsoever. ἐλάττονα δὲ τῆς περιεχομένης ὑπό τε τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΕ εὐθείας. But (such a straight-line) cannot be inserted.19]. Λέγω. Thus. εἰς τὸν μεταξὺ τόπον τῆς τε ΓΘΑ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΕ εὐθείας εὐθεῖα παρεμπεσεῖται. or less than the (angle) contained by the circumference CHA and the straightline AE. Β B Γ C ∆ D H Θ Ζ Ε F Η E Α Πιπτέτω ὡς ἡ ΑΕ· λέγω δή.STOIQEIWN gþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 3 Pìrisma. 3. So it is required to draw a straight-line touching circle BCD from point A. And let EF and AB have been joined. 1. ὁ δὲ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΒΓΔ· δεῖ δὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α σημείου τοῦ ΒΓΔ κύκλου ἐφαπτομένην εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν. So the two (straight-lines) AE. ἐπειδήπερ καὶ ἡ κατὰ δύο αὐτῷ συμβάλλουσα ἐντὸς αὐτοῦ πίπτουσα ἐδείχθη]· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. And EDF (is) a right-angle. (it is) manifest that a (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to the diameter of a circle. Thus. Thus. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΒΑ.11]. touches the circle [Prop. touches the circle [and that the straight-line touches the circle at a single point. I say that the (straight-line) AB has been drawn from point A touching circle BCD. καί ἐστιν ἡ ΕΒ ἐκ τοῦ κέντρου· ἡ δὲ τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐφάπτεται τοῦ κύκλου· ἡ ΑΒ ἄρα ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΒΓΔ κύκλου. 1. For let the center E of the circle have been found [Prop. EB are equal to the two (straightlines) F E.1]. EBA (is) also a right-angle. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ τῇ ΕΑ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθω ἡ ΔΖ. And EB is a radius. ὅτι ἡ τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐφάπτεται τοῦ κύκλου [καὶ ὅτι εὐθεῖα κύκλου καθ᾿ ἓν μόνον ἐφάπτεται σημεῖον. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΕ. Thus. καὶ τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον τῷ ΕΒΑ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἐστίν. and let AE have been joined. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ τὸ Ε κέντρον ἐστὶ τῶν ΒΓΔ. Thus.16 corr. ᾿Απὸ τοῦ ἄρα δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ Α τοῦ δοθέντος κύκλου τοῦ ΒΓΔ ἐφαπτομένη εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ ἦκται ἡ ΑΒ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΑ. ὅτι ἀπὸ τοῦ Α σημείου τοῦ ΒΓΔ κύκλου ἐφαπτομένη ἦκται ἡ ΑΒ. from this. And let DF have been drawn from from (point) D. AB touches circle BCD. 3. And let (the circle) AF G have been drawn with center E and radius EA. For since E is the center of circles BCD and AF G. the base DF is equal to the base AB. from its extremity. And a (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to the diameter of a circle. ΕΒ δύο ταῖς ΖΕ. and ED to EB. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΖ. and BCD the given circle. ΕΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνίαν κοινὴν περιέχουσι τὴν πρὸς τῷ Ε· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΔΖ βάσει τῇ ΑΒ ἴση ἐστίν. Corollary ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. given point. καὶ κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Ε διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΕΑ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΑΖΗ. Thus.2] ]. So. at right-angles to EA [Prop. 3. and the remaining angles (are equal) to the (corresponding) remaining angles [Prop.4]. Proposition 17 ᾿Απὸ τοῦ δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ δοθέντος κύκλου ἐφαTo draw a straight-line touching a given circle from a πτομένην εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and triangle DEF is equal to triangle EBA. ΑΖΗ κύκλων.STOIQEIWN gþ. ΑΒ· λέγω. izþ. ED (respectively). And they contain a common angle at E. EA is thus equal to EF . Let A be the given point. ἡ δὲ ΕΔ τῇ ΕΒ· δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΕ. (angle) EDF (is) equal to EBA.]. from its extremity. inasmuch as it was also shown that a (straight-line) meeting (the circle) at two (points) falls inside it [Prop. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου τὸ Ε. A Α Ζ F ∆ Β D B Γ Η C G Ε E ῎Εστω τὸ μὲν δοθὲν σημεῖον τὸ Α. the straight-line AB has been drawn touching 88 . ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΕΑ τῇ ΕΖ.

at right-[angles] to the tangent. F C (is) greater than F G. ijþ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ κέντρου If some straight-line touches a circle. at right- 89 . So. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ἁφῆς τῇ ἐφαπτομένῃ πρὸς ὀρθὰς [γωνίας] εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ ἀχθῇ. For let some straight-line DE touch the circle ABC at point C. ὅτι ἡ ΖΓ κάθετός ἐστιν ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ. ἐπὶ τῆς ἀχθείσης ἔσται τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. For if not. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΗΓ γωνία ὀρθή ἐστιν. 1. οὐκ ἄρα ἡ ΖΗ κάθετός ἐστιν ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ. ihþ. ὁμοίως δὴ δεῖξομεν. 1. the lesser than the greater. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ τῇ ΔΕ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθω ἡ ΓΑ· λέγω. and some (other) straight-line is joined from the center (of the circle) to the point of contact. F B (is) also greater than F G. and let F C have been joined from F to C. since angle F GC is a right-angle.1]. we can show that neither (is) any other (straight-line) except F C. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἡ ἐπιζευχθεῖσα κάθετος (other) straight-line is joined from the center (of the cirἔσται ἐπὶ τὴν ἐφαπτομένην. For let some straight-line DE touch the circle ABC at point C. ὅτι οὐδ᾿ ἄλλη τις πλὴν τῆς ΖΓ· ἡ ΖΓ ἄρα κάθετός ἐστιν ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ. And let CA have been drawn from C. Thus. A Α ∆ Β Ζ D B F Η Γ G C Ε E Κύκλου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφαπτέσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΔΕ κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον. and let the center F of circle ABC have been found [Prop. Thus. And the greater angle is subtended by the greater side [Prop. ὅτι ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ ἐστι τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ ἐπὶ τὸ Γ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΓ· λέγω. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα. cle) to the point of contact. F G is not perpendicular to DE. Thus. perpendicular to DE [Prop. then the center (of the circle) will be on the (straight-line) so drawn. The very thing is impossible. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 the given circle BCD from the given point A. I say that F C is perpendicular to DE. Thus. ἡ ἐπιζευχθεῖσα κάθετος ἔσται ἐπὶ τὴν ἐφαπτομένην· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.17]. Proposition 19 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ κέντρου ἐπὶ τὴν ἁφὴν ἐπιζευχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα. then the (straight-line) so joined will be perpendicular to the tangent. Thus. Proposition 18 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα. And F C (is) equal to F B. F C is perpendicular to DE. and some ἐπὶ τὴν ἁφὴν ἐπιζευχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα.STOIQEIWN gþ. and a straightline is drawn from the point of contact. (angle) F CG is thus acute [Prop. 1. then the (straight-line) so joined will be perpendicular to the tangent. ὀξεῖα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΗ· ὑπὸ δὲ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ μείζων πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΖΓ τῆς ΖΗ· ἴση δὲ ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΖΒ· μείζων ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΖΒ τῆς ΖΗ ἡ ἐλάττων τῆς μείζονος· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου τὸ Ζ.19]. Κύκλου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφαπτέσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΔΕ κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον. If some straight-line touches a circle. ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ κάθετος ἡ ΖΗ.12]. let F G have been drawn from F . 3. Εἰ γὰρ μή. if some straight-line touches a circle. similarly. Therefore.

ὅτι διπλασίων ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΓ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. Thus. καὶ πρὸς μὲν τῷ κέντρῳ αὐτοῦ γωνία ἔστω ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΓ. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ ὀρθή· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ ἡ ἐλάττων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 angles to DE [Prop. ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΖ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ. ὅταν τὴν αὐτὴν περιφέρειαν βάσιν ἔχωσιν αἱ γωνίαι. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΑ τῇ ΕΒ. Thus. Therefore. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΓΖ. Α B Ζ Β ∆ A Γ Ε D F C E Μὴ γάρ. Thus. For (if) not. I say that angle BEC is double (angle) BAC. Let ABC be a circle. let AE have been drawn through to F. 90 . Thus. πρὸς δὲ τῇ περιφερείᾳ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. if possible. and let BEC be an angle at its center. 1. let F be (the center of the circle). And ACE is also a right-angle. [Therefore]. ΕΒΑ· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΖ ἄρα τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ ἐστι διπλῆ. ἴση καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΒΑ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ. οὐκ ἄρα τὸ Ζ κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. and BAC (one) at (its) circumference. and a straightline is drawn from the point of contact. since EA is equal to EB. we can show that neither is any (point) other (than one) on AC. ᾿Επιζευχθεῖσα γὰρ ἡ ΑΕ διήχθω ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ. 3. In a circle. and let CF have been joined. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. BEF is also double EAB. angle EAB (is) also equal to EBA [Prop. the lesser to the greater. ἐχέτωσαν δὲ τὴν αὐτὴν περιφέρειαν βάσιν τὴν ΒΓ· λέγω. then the center (of the circle) will be on the (straight-line) so drawn. F CE is equal to ACE. ὅτι οὐδ᾿ ἄλλο τι πλὴν ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ. angle EAB and EBA is double (angle) EAB. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.STOIQEIWN gþ. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. Thus. Thus. ἐπὶ τῆς ἀχθείσης ἔσται τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. similarly. F C is thus perpendicular to DE [Prop. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα. kþ. if some straight-line touches a circle.32]. And let them have the same circumference base BC. ᾿Επεὶ [οὖν] κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφάπτεταί τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΔΕ. Thus.5]. the whole (angle) BEC is double the whole (angle) BAC. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΑΓ ἐστι διπλῆ. The very thing is impossible. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ἁφῆς τῇ ἐφαπτομένῃ πρὸς ὀρθὰς εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ ἀχθῇ. So. ἡ ΖΓ ἄρα κάθετός ἐστιν ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΕ. F is not the center of circle ABC. 1.18]. 1. at right-angles to the tangent. ἔστω τὸ Ζ. F EC is also double EAC. the angle at the center is double that at the circumference. For being joined. And BEF (is) equal to EAB and EBA [Prop. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. F CE is a right-angle. ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΓ ὅλης τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ἐστι διπλῆ. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ κέντρου ἐπὶ τὴν ἁφὴν ἐπέζευκται ἡ ΖΓ. Proposition 20 ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἡ πρὸς τῷ κέντρῳ γωνία διπλασίων ἐστὶ τῆς πρὸς τῇ περιφερείᾳ. So.11]. for the same (reasons). ΕΒΑ γωνίαι τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ διπλασίους εἰσίν. when the angles have the same circumference base. since some straight-line DE touches the circle ABC. I say that the center of the circle is on AC. and F C has been joined from the center to the point of contact.

καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ζ. So let another (straight-line) have been inflected. angles in the same segment are equal to εἰσίν. the remaining (angle) BEC is double the (remaining angle) BDC. A Α Ε Ζ Β E F ∆ B Γ D C ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΒΖΔ γωνία διπλασίων ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. ΒΕΔ· λέγω. 91 . Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΖΔ γωνία πρὸς τῷ κέντρῳ ἐστίν. similarly. 3. Proposition 21 ᾿Εν κύκλῳ αἱ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ τμήματι γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις In a circle.1]. 3.STOIQEIWN gþ. And since angle BF D is at the center. ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ κέντρῳ γωνία διπλασίων ἐστὶ τῆς πρὸς τῇ περιφερείᾳ. καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ τμήματι τῷ ΒΑΕΔ γωνίαι ἔστωσαν αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΒΖ. we can show that angle GEC is double EDC. And DE being joined. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. So. ὅτι διπλῆ ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΕΓ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΓ. and let there be another angle.20]. ΖΔ. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ πρὸς τῇ περιφερείᾳ. Thus. when [the angles] have the same circumference base. ΒΕΔ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου τὸ κέντρον. and let BAD and BED be angles in the same segment BAED. BDC. kaþ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΖΔ καὶ τῆς ὑπὸ Let ABCD be a circle. and BAD at the circumference. in a circle. let it have been produced to G. And let BF and F D have been joined. καὶ ἔστω ἑτέρα γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ. ὧν ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΕΒ διπλῆ ἐστι τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΒ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΓ διπλῆ ἐστι τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ. ὅταν τὴν αὐτὴν περιφέρειαν βάσιν ἔχωσιν [αἱ γωνίαι]· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. καὶ ἔχουσι τὴν αὐτὴν περιφέρειαν βάσιν τὴν ΒΓΔ. For let the center of circle ABCD have been found [Prop. I say that angles BAD and BED are equal to one another. καὶ ἐπιζευχθεῖσα ἡ ΔΕ ἐκβεβλήσθω ἐπὶ τὸ Η. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 Α A ∆ Ε D E Γ Η C Ζ G F Β B Κεκλάσθω δὴ πάλιν. one another. angle BF D is thus double BAD [Prop. and they have the same circumference base BCD. the angle at the center is double that at the circumference. ὅτι αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. and let it be (at point) F . of which GEB is double EDB.

εἰ γὰρ ἡ ΑΒ εὐθεῖα ἐπὶ τὴν ΓΔ ἐφαρμόσει. καὶ κύκλος κύκλον τέμνει κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ δύο· ὅπερ ἐστίν ἀδύνατον. I say that segment AEB is equal to segment CF D. ἤτοι ἐντὸς αὐτοῦ πεσεῖται ἢ ἐκτὸς ἢ παραλλάξει. For if the segment AEB is applied to the segment CF D. The very thing is impossible [Prop. and the segment AEB does not coincide with CF D. ᾿Εφαρμοζομένου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΕΒ τμήματος ἐπὶ τὸ ΓΖΔ καὶ τιθεμένου τοῦ μὲν Α σημείου ἐπὶ τὸ Γ τῆς δὲ ΑΒ εὐθείας ἐπὶ τὴν ΓΔ. τὸ δὲ ΑΕΒ τμῆμα ἐπὶ τὸ ΓΖΔ μὴ ἐφαρμόσει. ὅμοια δὲ τμήματα κύκλων ἐστὶ τὰ δεχόμενα γωνίας ἴσας. and similar segments of circles are those accepting equal angles [Def. Thus.† or it will miss like CGD (in the figure).16]. ὡς τὸ ΓΗΔ. 1. and a circle (will) cut (another) circle at more than two points. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΕΒ τμῆμα τῷ ΓΖΔ τμήματι. and the straight-line AB on CD. on account of AB being equal to CD. And if AB coincides with CD then the segment AEB will also coincide with CF D. Ε E Α Β Ζ Γ A B Η G F ∆ C ῎Εστωσαν γὰρ ἐπὶ ἴσων εὐθειῶν τῶν ΑΒ. two similar and unequal segments of circles cannot be constructed on the same side of the same straight-line. ΔΒ. For if the straight-line AB coincides with CD. οὐκ ἄρα ἐφαρμοζομένης τῆς ΑΒ εὐθείας ἐπὶ τὴν ΓΔ οὐκ ἐφαρμόσει καὶ D For let AEB and CF D be similar segments of circles on the equal straight-lines AB and CD (respectively). since segment ACB is similar to segment ADB. kdþ.11]. then point B will also coincide with point D.STOIQEIWN gþ. 3. and let CB and DB have been joined. ACD have been drawn through (the segments). Οὐκ ἄρα ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς εὐθείας δύο τμήματα κύκλων ὅμοια καὶ ἄνισα συσταθήσεται ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. The very 93 . Therefore. equal to one another. the external to the internal. ΓΖΔ· λέγω. and point A is placed on (point) C. Proposition 24 Τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων εὐθειῶν ὅμοια τμήματα κύλων ἴσα ἀλλήλοις Similar segments of circles on equal straight-lines are ἐστίν. ἐφαρμόσει καὶ τὸ Β σημεῖον ἐπὶ τὸ Δ σημεῖον διὰ τὸ ἴσην εἶναι τὴν ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ· τῆς δὲ ΑΒ ἐπὶ τὴν ΓΔ ἐφαρμοσάσης ἐφαρμόσει καὶ τὸ ΑΕΒ τμῆμα ἐπὶ τὸ ΓΖΔ. angle ACB is thus equal to ADB. ΓΔ ὅμοια τμήματα κύκλων τὰ ΑΕΒ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 αἱ ΓΒ. outside (it). ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ ἡ ἐκτὸς τῇ ἐντός· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. ∆ Γ Α D C Β A B ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΓΒ τμῆμα τῷ ΑΔΒ τμήματι. then it will surely either fall inside it.

94 .N. if a circle is drawn with center E. 3. and EC are equal to one another. καὶ δηλαδὴ ἔσται τὸ ΑΒΓ ἡμικύκλιον. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ σημείου τῇ ΑΓ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΔΒ. and radius one of AE. it will coincide. and let EC have been joined. Thus. But. ΕΓ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ὁ ἄρα κέντρῷ τῷ Ε διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν ΑΕ. ᾿Εὰν δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ ἐλάττων ᾖ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. For a given segment of a circle. For each (is) a right-angle. So it is required to complete the circle for segment ABC. to complete the circle. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΔΒ ἐπὶ τὸ Ε. Both this possibility. And let (angle) BAE. ΕΒ. AE was shown (to be) equal to BE. ΕΒ. Thus. 1. ΔΓ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις ἔσονται. τῆς ΑΔ ἴσης γενομένης ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΒΔ.23. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΒΕ ἐδείχθη ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΒΕ ἄρα τῇ ΓΕ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα αἱ ΑΕ. Thus. and let DB have been drawn from point D. And (it is) clear that the segment ABC is less than a semi-circle.10]. or less than (angle) BAD. the three (straight-lines) AE. equal to. DE are equal to the two (straight-lines) CD. Therefore. 1. ΔΕ δύο ταῖς ΓΔ. κύκλου ἄρα τμήματος δοθέντος προσαναγέγραπται ὁ κύκλος. Τὰ ἄρα ἐπὶ ἴσων εὐθειῶν ὅμοια τμήματα κύκλων ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΔ. the straight-line EB is thus also equal to EA [Prop. Proposition 25 Κύκλου τμήματος δοθέντος προσαναγράψαι τὸν κύκλον. ΕΓ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων καὶ ἔσται προσαναγεγραμμένος. since angle ABE is equal to BAE.11]. or EC. 1. † thing is impossible [Prop. Α Β ∆ Γ Α Ε Β ∆ Γ A Α Β Ε B ∆ D A E B D A B D E Γ C ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν τμῆμα κύκλου τὸ ΑΒΓ· δεῖ δὴ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τμήματος προσαναγράψαι τὸν κύκλον. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΕΓ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ῎Εστω πρότερον μείζων. Τετμήσθω γὰρ ἡ ΑΓ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Δ. ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΕΒ εὐθεῖα τῇ ΕΑ. at right-angles to AC [Prop. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΔΕ. have been constructed on the straight-line BA. Thus. if the straight-line AB is applied to CD. respectively. And angle ADE is equal to angle CDE. Thus. let it be greater. EB. For let AC have been cut in half at (point) D [Prop. are precluded by Prop. 1. similar segments of circles on equal straightlines are equal to one another. καὶ συστησώμεθα πρὸς τῇ ΒΑ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ C C Let ABC be the given segment of a circle. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΒ· ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ γωνία ἄρα τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ ἤτοι μείζων ἐστὶν ἢ ἴση ἢ ἐλάττων. the very one of which it is a segment. the very one of which it is a segment. οὖπέρ ἐστι τμῆμα.23]. 4]. And let DB have been drawn through to E. keþ. 1. καὶ ἴσον αὐτῷ ἔσται. ΔΓ αἱ τρεῖς αἱ ΔΑ. Thus. a circle has been completed from the given segment of a circle. ΔΕ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΕ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ ἐστιν ἴση· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἑκατέρα· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΕ βάσει τῇ ΓΕ ἐστιν ἴση. the base AE is equal to the base CE [Prop.10]. BE is also equal to CE. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 τὸ ΑΕΒ τμῆμα ἐπὶ τὸ ΓΖΔ· ἐφαρμόσει ἄρα. ὡς τὸ ΑΒΓ τμῆμα ἔλαττόν ἐστιν ἡμικυκλίου διὰ τὸ τὸ Ε κέντρον ἐκτὸς αὐτοῦ τυγχάνειν. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ. Thus. Thus.4]. angle ABD is surely either greater than. equal to angle ABD. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΔΓ. because the center E happens to lie outside it. it will also go through the remaining points (of the segment). καὶ ἔσται τὸ Δ κέντρον τοῦ προσαναπεπληρωμένου κύκλου. Thus. EB. and will be equal to it [C. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΒΑ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ. And let AB have been joined. καὶ δῆλον. 3.6]. First of all. DE. at the point A on it [Prop. οὗπέρ ἐστι τμῆμα.9]. 3. ΔΒ. ῾Ομοίως [δὲ] κἂν ᾖ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ γωνία ἴση τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. and the (associated circle) will have been completed [Prop. the segment AEB cannot not also coincide with CF D. and the previous one. and DE (is) common.STOIQEIWN gþ. And since AD is equal to DC. the two (straight-lines) AD.

24]. And the angle at G (is) equal to the angle at H. Κύκλου ἄρα τμήματος δοθέντος προσαναγέγραπται ὁ κύκλος· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. Thus. and within them let BGC and EHF be equal angles at the center. So the two (straight-lines) BG. I say that circumference BKC is equal to circumference ELF . ΕΘΖ. 1. their radii are equal. a circle has been completed from the given segment of a circle. similarly. equal to angle ABD. ἴσαι εἰσὶν αἱ ἐκ τῶν κέντρων· δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΗ. the remaining circumference BKC is equal to the (remaining) circumference ELF . 3. (since) AD becomes equal to each of BD [Prop.4]. GC (are) equal to the two (straight-lines) EH. Α A ∆ Γ Β Κ D Θ Η Ε G C B Ζ Λ K ῎Εστωσαν ἴσοι κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ.STOIQEIWN gþ. And since the angle at A is equal to the (angle) at D. and we construct (angle BAE). DB. And the whole circle ABC is also equal to the whole circle DEF . whether they are standing at the center 95 . ἐάν τε πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε πρὸς ταῖς περιφερείας ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὅτι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΚΓ περιφέρεια τῇ ΕΛΖ περιφερείᾳ. Proposition 26 ᾿Εν τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ ἴσαι γωνίαι ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφεIn equal circles. And since circles ABC and DEF are equal. and DC will be equal to one another. And point D will be the center of the completed circle. And segment ABC will manifestly be greater than a semi-circle. Thus. ΕΔΖ· λέγω. Thus. HF (respectively). ὅμοιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΑΓ τμῆμα τῷ ΕΔΖ τμήματι· καί εἰσιν ἐπὶ ἴσων εὐθειῶν [τῶν ΒΓ. And similar segments of circles on equal straight-lines are equal to one another [Prop. [And]. inside the segment ABC. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α γωνία τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ. καὶ ἔσται δηλαδὴ τὸ ΑΒΓ τμῆμα μεῖζον ἡμικυκλίου. Thus. in equal circles. 3. ΔΕΖ καὶ ἐν αὐτοῖς ἴσαι γωνίαι ἔστωσαν πρὸς μὲν τοῖς κέντροις αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. ΘΖ ἴσαι· καὶ γωνία ἡ πρὸς τῷ Η γωνίᾳ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Θ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ βάσει τῇ ΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. And they are on equal straight-lines [BC and EF ]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. For let BC and EF have been joined. ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ ἴσαι γωνίαι ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβήκασιν.11]. at the point A on it [Prop. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσοι εἰσὶν οἱ ΑΒΓ. And if ABD is less than BAD. the segment BAC is thus similar to the segment EDF [Def.6] and DC. ΔΕΖ κύκλοι. the three (straight-lines) DA. 1. at the circumference. 1. the base BC is equal to the base EF [Prop. on the straight-line BA. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 τῷ Α τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ γωνίᾳ ἴσην. segment BAC is equal to (segment) EDF .23]. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒΓ κύκλος ὅλῳ τῷ ΔΕΖ κύκλῳ ἴσος· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΒΚΓ περιφέρεια τῇ ΕΛΖ περιφερείᾳ ἐστὶν ἴση. kþ. ἐντὸς τοῦ ΑΒΓ τμήματος πεσεῖται τὸ κέντρον ἐπὶ τῆς ΔΒ. ΕΖ]· τὰ δὲ ἐπὶ ἴσων εὐθειῶν ὅμοια τμήματα κύκλων ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· ἴσον ἄρα τὸ ΒΑΓ τμῆμα τῷ ΕΔΖ. ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΒΓ. ΕΖ. H F E L Let ABC and DEF be equal circles. equal angles stand upon equal cirρειῶν βεβήκασιν. ΗΓ δύο ταῖς ΕΘ. And ABC will manifestly be a semi-circle. ἐάν τε πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε πρὸς cumferences whether they are standing at the center or ταῖς περιφερείαις ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι. πρὸς δὲ ταῖς περιφερείαις αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. then the center will fall on DB. equal angles stand upon equal circumferences. even if angle ABD is equal to BAD. Thus. and BAC and EDF (equal angles) at the circumference.

ΕΘΖ. Thus. But. Let ABC and DEF be equal circles. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΒΚ ἄρα τῇ ΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση ἡ ἐλάττων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. standing at the center or at the circumference.23]. ἔστω μείζων ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. Thus. οὐκ ἄρα ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ· ἴση ἄρα. τῆς δὲ ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ ἡμίσεια ἡ πρὸς τῷ Δ· ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α γωνία τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ. angles standing upon equal circumγωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. ΔΕ τὰς μὲν ΑΓΒ. In equal circles. 3. For let the angles BGC and EHF at the centers G and H.STOIQEIWN gþ. and let the (angle) BGK. ΔΕΖ ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν τῶν ΒΓ. Α A ∆ Θ Η Β Ε Γ D H G Ζ B Κ C E F K ᾿Εν γὰρ ἴσοις κύκλοις τοῖς ΑΒΓ. Εἰ γὰρ ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ. Θ κέντροις γωνίαι βεβηκέτωσαν αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. and the lesser circumfer- 96 . Thus. one of them is greater. have been constructed on the straight-line BG. (it is) equal. 1. ὅτι ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ ἐστιν ἴση. I say that the greater circumference ACB is equal to the greater circumference DF E. ΑΖΕ περιφερείας μείζονας ἀφαιροῦσαι τὰς δὲ ΑΗΒ. καὶ ἐν τοῖς κύκλοις ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἔστωσαν αἱ ΑΒ. equal to angle EHF . and the (angles) BAC and EDF at the circumferences. I say that angle BGC is equal to (angle) EHF . khþ. (Which is) the very thing which it was required to show. BK is also equal to BC.26]. and the lesser to the lesser. πρὸς δὲ ταῖς περιφερείαις αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. in equal circles. ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβηκυῖαι γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. and BAC is equal to EDF . ἐάν τε πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε ferences are equal to one another. in the equal circles ABC and DEF (respectively). the lesser to the greater. ΔΕΖ. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΒΗ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Η τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΚ· αἱ δὲ ἴσαι γωνίαι ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβήκασιν. circumference BK (is) equal to circumference EF . ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση. and the (angle) at D half EHF [Prop. stand upon the equal circumferences BC and EF . kzþ. and let AB and DE be equal straight-lines in these circles. ὅτι ἡ μὲν ΑΓΒ μείζων περιφέρεια ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ΔΖΕ μείζονι περιφερείᾳ ἡ δὲ ΑΗΒ ἐλάττων περιφέρεια τῇ ΔΘΕ. the greater (circumference being equal) to the greater. Proposition 27 ᾿Εν τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβηκυῖαι In equal circles. and the lesser (circumferences) AGB and DHE (respectively). Thus. the angle at A (is) also equal to the (angle) at D. Thus. ΔΘΕ ἐλάττονας· λέγω. 3.20]. ῎Εστωσαν ἴσοι κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. whether they are standing at the center or at the circumference. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 or at the circumference. Let BGC be greater. at the point G on it [Prop. For if BGC is unequal to EHF . The very thing is impossible. whether they are πρὸς ταῖς περιφερείαις ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι. angles standing upon equal circumferences are equal to one another. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Proposition 28 ᾿Εν τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἴσας περιφερείας ἀφαιροῦσι τὴν μὲν μείζονα τῇ μείζονι τὴν δὲ ἐλάττονα τῇ ἐλάττονι. μία αὐτῶν μείζων ἐστίν. angle BGC is not unequal to EHF . And the (angle) at A is half BGC. cutting off the greater circumferences ACB and DF E. equal straight-lines cut off equal circumferences. καί ἐστι τῆς μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ ἡμίσεια ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α. when they are at the centers [Prop. ὅταν πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ὦσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΒΚ περιφέρεια τῇ ΕΖ περιφερείᾳ. Thus. ΕΔΖ· λέγω. But equal angles (in equal circles) stand upon equal circumferences. ΕΖ πρὸς μὲν τοῖς Η. ἐάν τε πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε πρὸς ταῖς περιφερείαις ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. EF is equal to BC.

1. ΚΒ δυσὶ ταῖς ΔΛ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΒΚ.1]. And since (ABC and DEF ) are equal circles. 3. καὶ ἔστω τὰ Κ. Thus.8]. E F H Let ABC and DEF be equal circles. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τὰ κέντρα τῶν κύκλων. Thus. ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἴσας περιφερείας ἀφαιροῦσι τὴν μὲν μείζονα τῇ μείζονι τὴν δὲ ἐλάττονα τῇ ἐλάττονι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. For let the centers of the circles. K and L. Λ. ΕΘΖ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ence AGB to (the lesser) DHE.STOIQEIWN gþ. when they are at the centers [Prop. For let the centers of the circles have been found [Prop. KB. cumferences. equal straight-lines cut off equal circumferences. and let AK. kjþ. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒΓ κύκλος ὅλῳ τῷ ΔΕΖ κύκλῳ ἴσος· καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΑΓΒ περιφέρεια λοιπῇ τῇ ΔΖΕ περιφερείᾳ ἴση ἐστίν. the remaining circumference ACB is also equal to the remaining circumference DF E. the greater (circumference being equal) to the greater. Λ. ΕΖ εὐθεῖαι· λέγω. 97 . in equal circles. ΔΕΖ. I say that BC is equal to EF . circumference AGB (is) equal to DHE. And equal angles stand upon equal circumferences. αἱ δὲ ἴσαι γωνίαι ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβήκασιν. ΔΛ. And the whole circle ABC is also equal to the whole circle DEF . And let the straight-lines BC and EF have been joined. their radii are also equal [Def. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσοι κύκλοι εἰσίν. 3. And the base AB (is) equal to the base DE. angle AKB is equal to angle DLE [Prop. and within them let the equal circumferences BGC and EHF have been cut off. KB are equal to the two (straight-lines) DL. ἴσαι εἰσὶ καὶ αἱ ἐκ τῶν κέντρων· δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΚ. 3. Thus. LE (respectively). and let them be (at) K and L. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΗΓ περιφέρεια τῇ ΕΘΖ περιφερείᾳ. So the two (straightlines) AK. DL. have been found [Prop. ΚΒ. ΚΓ. ΛΕ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΑΒ βάσει τῇ ΔΕ ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΚΒ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΛΕ ἴση ἐστίν.1]. And let BK. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΚ. καὶ ἐν αὐτοῖς ἴσαι περιφέρειαι ἀπειλήφθωσαν αἱ ΒΗΓ. and LE have been joined. Thus. ΕΛ. ΛΖ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΒΓ. ὅταν πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ὦσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΗΒ περιφέρεια τῇ ΔΘΕ. ΛΕ.26]. ὅτι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ. and the lesser to the lesser. Γ Ζ C F Κ Λ K L Β Α ∆ Η Ε B A Θ D G E H Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τὰ κέντρα τῶν κύκλων τὰ Κ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. equal straight-lines subtend equal cirὑποτείνουσιν. Proposition 29 ᾿Εν τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις τὰς ἴσας περιφερείας ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι In equal circles. 3. Α ∆ A D Κ Λ K L Β Γ Η Ε Ζ B Θ C G ῎Εστωσαν ἴσοι κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ.1].

ἴσαι εἰσὶ καὶ αἱ ἐκ τῶν κέντρων· δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΚ. CD are equal to the two (straight-lines) BC. the two (straight-lines) AC.11].4]. ΔΕΖ κύκλοι. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῷ μείζονι τμήματι ἐλάττων ὀρθῆς. and CD (is) common. And since AC is equal to CB. 1. laþ. and that in a lesser segment (is) greater than a rightangle. further.10]. and that in a greater segment (is) less than a right-angle. ῾Η ἄρα δοθεῖσα περιφέρεια δίχα τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Δ σημεῖον· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. equal straight-lines subtend equal circumferences. 1. ΓΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἴση· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἑκατέρα· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΔ βάσει τῇ ΔΒ ἴση ἐστίν. EL. And equal straight-lines cut off equal circumferences. And the circumferences AD and DB are each less than a semicircle. Let AB have been joined. ΔΒ περιφερειῶν ἐλάττων ἡμικυκλίου· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΔ περιφέρεια τῇ ΔΒ περιφερείᾳ. circumference AD (is) equal to circumference DB. the greater (circumference being equal) to the greater. For (they are) each rightangles. the base AD is equal to the base DB [Prop.28]. ∆ Α Γ D Β A C B ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα περιφέρεια ἡ ΑΔΒ· δεῖ δὴ τὴν ΑΔΒ περιφέρειαν δίχα τεμεῖν. And angle ACD (is) equal to angle BCD. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΓΔ. ΔΒ. And since the circumference BGC is equal to the circumference EHF . the base BC is equal to the base EF [Prop. and the lesser to the lesser [Prop. and the an- 98 . Thus. ΚΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΕΛ. and DB have been joined. In a circle. ἡ δὲ τοῦ ἐλάττονος τμήματος γωνία ἐλάττων ὀρθῆς. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΒ. the angle in a semi-circle is a right-angle. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθω ἡ ΓΔ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. KC are equal to the two (straight-lines) EL. Thus. Proposition 30 Τὴν δοθεῖσαν περιφέρειαν δίχα τεμεῖν. Let ADB be the given circumference. CD (respectively). lþ. Thus. And since the circles ABC and DEF are equal. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΓ. 3. And let CD have been drawn from point C. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΚΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΛΖ. the angle of a segment greater (than a semi-circle) is greater than a right-angle.1]. 1. Thus. ᾿Επεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΒ. And let AD. and LF have been joined. the given circumference has been cut in half at point D. To cut a given circumference in half. αἱ δὲ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἴσας περιφερείας ἀφαιροῦσι τὴν μὲν μείζονα τῇ μείζονι τὴν δὲ ἐλάττονα τῇ ἐλάττονι· κάι ἐστιν ἑκατέρα τῶν ΑΔ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΔ. καὶ τετμήσθω δίχα κατὰ τὸ Γ. ΓΔ δυσὶ ταῖς ΒΓ. 3. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῷ ἐλάττονι τμήματι μείζων ὀρθῆς· καὶ ἔπι ἡ μὲν τοῦ μείζονος τμήματος γωνία μείζων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσοι εἰσὶν οἱ ΑΒΓ. Proposition 31 ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἡ μὲν ἐν τῷ ἡμικυκλίῳ γωνία ὀρθή ἐστιν. in equal circles. LF (respectively). their radii are also equal [Def. ΛΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνίας ἴσας περιέχουσιν· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ βάσει τῇ ΕΖ ἴση ἐστίν· ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις τὰς ἴσας περιφερείας ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ὑποτείνουσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and let it have been cut in half at (point) C [Prop. KC.STOIQEIWN gþ. So it is required to cut circumference ADB in half.27]. And. the angle BKC is also equal to (angle) ELF [Prop. So the two (straight-lines) BK.4]. 1. And they contain equal angles. 1. at right-angles to AB [Prop.

STOIQEIWN gþ. Thus. AD. καί ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ ἐλάττων ὀρθῆς· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ γωνία μείζων ὀρθῆς ἐστιν· καί ἐστιν ἐν τῷ ΑΔΓ ἐλάττονι τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου τμήματι. angle ABC is thus less than a rightangle. AC. Thus. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΑ. (which is) greater than a semi-circle. Ζ F D ∆ C Γ A Α Ε E B Β ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. [Def. ΑΓΒ γωνίαις ἴση· ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΑΓ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἑκατέρα· ἡ ἄρα ἐν τῷ ΒΑΓ ἡμικυκλίῳ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ὀρθή ἐστιν. and let BC be its diameter. ΒΑΓ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάττονές εἰσιν. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ. ΑΓ εὐθειῶν ὀρθή ἐστιν. ΑΔΓ γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας εἰσίν]. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΒΑ ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ. ΑΓ. and BAC is a right-angle. καί ἐστιν αὐτόθεν φανερόν. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. and the angle ABC in the segment ABC. ΔΓ· λέγω. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΒΓ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΓ εὐθείας περιεχομένη μείζων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῆς ΓΑ εὐθείας καὶ τῆς ΑΔ[Γ] περι- Let ABCD be a circle. Let AE have been joined. (which is) less than a semicircle. And since ABCD is a quadrilateral within a circle. since CE is equal to EA. (which is) less than a semi-circle. 1. ἐπεὶ ἡ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. And it is in segment ABC. The remaining angle ADC is thus greater than a right-angle. (they are) each right-angles. (which is) greater than a semi-circle. 3. ΑΔ. Again. (namely) that contained by the circumference ABC and the straight-line AC. and let BA have been drawn through to F . κέντρον δὲ τὸ Ε. τῶν δὲ ἐν τοῖς κύκλοις τετραπλεύρων αἱ ἀπεναντίον γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν [αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. Thus. ὅτι ἡ μὲν ἐν τῷ ΒΑΓ ἡμικυκλίῳ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ὀρθή ἐστιν.17]. (which is) external to triangle ABC. is also equal to the two angles ABC and ACB [Prop. the whole (angle) BAC is equal to the two (angles) ABC and ACB. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 gle of a segment less (than a semi-circle) is less than a right-angle. (namely) that contained 99 . And the angle of the lesser segment. ACE is also equal to CAE [Prop. angle ABE is also equal to BAE [Prop. πάλιν. ΑΓΒ ἴση ἐστίν. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΒΑ. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΑΕ· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. is less than a rightangle. And F AC. Καὶ ἐπεὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνου δύο γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ΑΖ εὐθειῶν ὀρθή ἐστιν. I also say that the angle of the greater segment. and (angle) ABC is less than a right-angle. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῷ ΑΔΓ ἐλάττονι τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου τμήματι γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ μείζων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. is greater than a right-angle. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἔστω ἡ ΒΓ. And let BA.32]. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΕ τῇ ΕΑ. ἡ δὲ τοῦ ἐλάττονος τμήματος γωνία ἡ περιεχομένη ὑπό [τε] τῆς ΑΔ[Γ] περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΓ εὐθείας ἐλάττων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. ἐλάττων ἄρα ὀρθῆς ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία· καί ἐστιν ἐν τῷ ΑΒΓ μείζονι τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου τμήματι. and the angle ADC in the segment ADC. ᾿Επεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΕ. And it is in segment ADC.22] [angles ABC and ADC are thus equal to two rightangles]. Λέγω. 1. 1.5]. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῷ ΑΒΓ μείζονι τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου τμήματι γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ ἐλάττων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. I say that the angle BAC in the semi-circle BAC is a right-angle. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΑΓ ἐκτὸς τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ.5]. ὅτι καὶ ἡ μὲν τοῦ μείζονος τμήματος γωνία ἡ περιεχομένη ὑπό [τε] τῆς ΑΒΓ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΓ εὐθείας μείζων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. 1. And since the two angles ABC and BAC of triangle ABC are less than two right-angles [Prop. and E its center. is greater than a right-angle. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἡ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΑ.10]. πάλιν. and for quadrilaterals within circles the (sum of the) opposite angles is equal to two right-angles [Prop. and DC have been joined. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐν κύκλῳ τετράπλευρόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. the angle BAC in the semi-circle BAC is a right-angle. Thus. And since BE is equal to EA. angle BAC (is) also equal to F AC. 1.

DC. ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἄρα ἡ μὲν ἐν τῷ ἡμικυκλίῳ γωνία ὀρθή ἐστιν. ἴσαι ἔσονται ταῖς ἐν τοῖς contact into the circle. that angle F BD is equal to the angle constructed in segment BAD. the (angle) contained by the circumference ABC and the straight-line AC is thus greater than a right-angle. the [angle] of a segment greater (than a semi-circle) [is] greater than a rightangle. in a circle. from the point of ποιεῖ γωνίας πρὸς τῇ ἐφαπτομένῃ. by the circumference AD[C] and the straight-line AC. I say that the angles BD makes with the tangent EF will be equal to the angles in the alternate segments of the circle. cutting it (in two). For since the (angle contained by) the two straight-lines BA and AC is a right-angle. And this is immediately apparent. ἡ δὲ τοῦ ἐλάττονος τμήματος [γωνία] ἐλάττων ὀρθῆς· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. A A D D C E C F E F B B Κύκλου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ ἐφαπτέσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΕΖ κατὰ τὸ Β σημεῖον. 1. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ἁφῆς εἰς If some straight-line touches a circle. then ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήμασι γωνίαις. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Β τῇ ΕΖ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΒΑ. For let BA have been drawn from B. καὶ εἰλήφθω ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΔ περιφερείας τυχὸν σημεῖον τὸ Γ. further. ἃς (other) straight-line is drawn across.STOIQEIWN gþ. 100 . and the [angle] of a segment less (than a semicircle) is less than a right-angle. λέγω. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῷ μείζονι τμήματι ἐλάττων ὀρθῆς. ΔΓ. the (angle) contained by the circumference AD[C] and the straight-line CA is thus less than a right-angle. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΕΒΔ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ΔΓΒ τμήματι συνισταμένῃ γωνίᾳ. ὅτι ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΖΒΔ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ΒΑΔ τμήματι συνισταμένῃ γωνίᾳ. Καὶ ἐπεὶ κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ ἐφάπτεταί τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΕΖ For let some straight-line EF touch the circle ABCD at the point B. And let AD. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. the angle in a semi-circle is a rightangle. And. and that in a greater segment (is) less than a right-angle. And let the point C have been taken at random on the circumference BD. τουτέστιν. ΓΒ. at right-angles to EF [Prop. ἴσας ἔσονται ταῖς ἐν τοῖς ἐναλλὰξ τμήμασι τοῦ κύκλου γωνίαις. and that in a lesser [segment] (is) greater than a right-angle. That is to say. cutting the circle (in two). ELEMENTS BOOK 3 φερείας περιεχομένη ἐλάττων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. and angle EBD is equal to the angle constructed in segment DCB. Again. is less than a right-angle. and let some (other) straight-line BD have been drawn from point B into the circle ABCD. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῷ ἐλάττονι [τμήματι] μείζων ὀρθῆς· καὶ ἔπι ἡ μὲν τοῦ μείζονος τμήματος [γωνία] μείζων [ἐστὶν] ὀρθῆς. and some τὸν κύκλον διαχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα τέμνουσα τὸν κύκλον. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Β σημείου διήχθω τις εὐθεῖα εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον τέμνουσα αὐτὸν ἡ ΒΔ. those angles the (straight-line) makes with the tangent will be equal to the angles in the alternate segments of the circle. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΔ.11]. since the (angle contained by) the straight-lines AC and AF is a right-angle. lbþ. Proposition 32 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα. ὅτι ἃς ποιεῖ γωνίας ἡ ΒΔ μετὰ τῆς ΕΖ ἐφαπτομένης. Thus.

accepting an angle νον γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ. And DBF and DBE is also equal to two right-angles [Prop. Thus. Thus. at right-angles to DA [Prop. is a right-angle [Prop. Let AE have been drawn. Thus. 1.32]. the remaining angles (of triangle ADB) BAD and ABD are equal to one right-angle [Prop. Proposition 33 ᾿Επὶ τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας γράψαι τμῆμα κύκλου δεχόμεTo draw a segment of a circle. ΑΒΔ μιᾷ ὀρθῇ ἴσαι εἰσίν.19]. cutting the circle (in two). ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ἁφῆς εἰς τὸν κύκλον διαχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα τέμνουσα τὸν κύκλον. 1. Γ Α ∆ Α ∆ C A Γ Γ Α D ∆ C C A D A H Θ F Ζ Ζ Η Ε F G Η Ζ E G F B Β B Β Ε Β E Ε ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. 3. being in a semi-circle. or obtuse. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ. Thus. equal to angle C. καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς ἁφῆς ἦκται τῇ ἐφαπτομένῃ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΒΑ. ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΑ ἄρα τὸ κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου.23]. the remaining (angle) DBE is equal to the angle DCB in the alternate segment DCB of the circle. on a given straight-line. And since some straight-line EF touches the circle ABCD at point B. ΒΓΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν. 1.11]. Thus. Let ABD have been subtracted from both. on the given straight-line AB. the remaining angle DBF is equal to the angle BAD in the alternate segment of the circle. ΔΒΕ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. ῾Η δὴ πρὸς τῷ Γ [γωνία] ἤτοι ὀξεῖά ἐστιν ἢ ὀρθὴ ἢ ἀμβλεῖα· ἔστω πρότερον ὀξεῖα.31]. ΑΒΔ. let (angle) BAD. have been constructed on the straight-line AB. from the point of contact into the circle. angle ADB. if some straight-line touches a circle. of which BAD was shown (to be) equal to DBF . So the [angle] C is surely either acute. Thus. αἱ ἀπεναντίον αὐτοῦ γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 κατὰ τὸ Β. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΑΒ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ζ. then those angles the (straight-line) makes with the tangent will be equal to the angles in the alternate segments of the circle. DBF and DBE is equal to BAD and BCD. at right-angles to the tangent. a right-angle. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ B E Let AB be the given straight-line. and BA has been drawn from the point of contact. So it is required to draw a segment of a circle. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐν κύκλῳ τετράπλευρόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. 101 D . ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ· δεῖ δὴ ἐπὶ τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας τῆς ΑΒ γράψαι τμῆμα κύκλου δεχόμενον γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ. let it be acute. BAD is also acute. λοιπαὶ ἄρα αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. First of all. ABF is equal to BAD and ABD. Thus. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΖ ὀρθή· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΖ ἴση ἐστὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. the center of circle ABCD is thus on BA [Prop. and CB have been joined. as in the first diagram (from the left).22]. ΔΒΕ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ. καὶ ὡς ἐπὶ τῆς πρώτης καταγραφῆς συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ Α σημείῳ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ· ὀξεῖα ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. equal to a given rectilinear angle. ἤχθω τῇ ΔΑ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΑΕ. 3. (the sum of) its opposite angles is equal to two right-angles [Prop. accepting an angle equal to C. ἴσαι ἔσονται ταῖς ἐν τοῖς ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήμασι γωνίαις· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 1. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα. at the point A (on it) [Prop. And. ἡ ΒΑ ἄρα διάμετός ἐστι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ γωνία ἐν ἡμικυκλίῳ οὖσα ὀρθή ἐστιν. and C the given rectilinear angle. And since ABCD is a quadrilateral in a circle. lgþ. And ABF is also a right-angle. and some (other) straight-line is drawn across. ἃς ποιεῖ γωνίας πρὸς τῇ ἐφαπτομένῃ. ὧν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ ἐδείχθη ἴση· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ τῇ ἐν τῷ ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήματι τῷ ΔΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΒ γωνίᾳ ἐστὶν ἴση. 3. κοινὴ ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ἐναλλὰξ τμήματι τοῦ κύκλου γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ.STOIQEIWN gþ.13]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. BA is a diameter of circle ABCD.

1. And AB has been drawn across (the circle) from the point of contact A. 1. has been cut off from the given circle ABC. and BC has been drawn across (the circle) from the point of contact B. καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς κατὰ τὸ Β ἐπαφῆς διῆκται ἡ ΒΓ. angle F BC is thus equal to the angle constructed in the alternate segment BAC [Prop. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. angle BAD is equal to the angle constructed in the alternate segment AHB of the circle [Prop. from the given circle ABC. accepting an angle equal to C. the (angle) in the segment BAC is also equal to [angle] D. Presumably. since some straight-line EF touches the circle ABC. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφάπτεταί τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΕΖ.4]. the segment BAC. at its extremity. And since AD is at right-angles to the diameter AE. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 equal to the base BG [Prop. ῎Ηχθω τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφαπτομένη ἡ ΕΖ κατὰ τὸ Β σημεῖον. and radius GA. will also go through B (as well as A). a circle of center G. has been drawn on the given straight-line AB. Let it go like AEB (in the third diagram from the left).† And let (angle) F BC. ldþ. Let EF have been drawn touching ABC at point B. accepting an angle equal to a γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ. ᾿Απὸ τοῦ δοθέντος ἄρα κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΓ τμῆμα ἀφῄρηται τὸ ΒΑΓ δεχόμενον γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. Thus. 3.]. a segment AHB of a circle.23]. and then drawing EF through 103 . at the point B on it [Prop. 1. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΖΒ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Β τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ. 3.1]. Thus. F BC is equal to D. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ἐν τῷ ΒΑΓ ἄρα τμήματι ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ [γωνίᾳ]. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ πρὸς τῷ Δ· δεῖ δὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου τμῆμα ἀφελεῖν δεχόμενον γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ. given rectilinear angle. But. † A Let ABC be the given circle. accepting an angle equal to the given rectilinear angle D.16 corr. have been constructed on the straight-line F B. Thus. from a given circle. AD thus touches circle AEB [Prop. Proposition 34 ᾿Απὸ τοῦ δοθέντος κύκλου τμῆμα ἀφελεῖν δεχόμενον To cut off a segment.STOIQEIWN gþ. Γ Ζ F Β B C ∆ Ε D Α E ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. and D the given rectilinear angle. equal to angle D. 3. Thus. angle BAD is equal to C. the angle in segment AHB is also equal to C.32]. But. drawing a straight-line between the center and point B. being drawn. Thus. by finding the center of ABC [Prop. Therefore. accepting an angle equal to the given rectilinear angle D. So it is required to cut off a segment. ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ ἄρα γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ΒΑΓ ἐναλλὰξ τμήματι συνισταμένῃ γωνίᾳ.32].

and let it be (at) F . Εἰ μὲν οὖν αἱ ΑΓ. 3. and unequally at E. Thus. Thus. 1. then (it is) clear that. ΖΕ. if AC and BD are through the center (as in the first diagram from the left). Καὶ ἐπεὶ εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ κέντρου ἡ ΗΖ εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τὴν ΑΓ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνει. the rectangle contained by AE and EC is also equal to the rectangle contained by DE and EB. EC. the (rectangle contained) by AE and EC plus the (square) on F E is equal to the (square) on F B. So. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 point B. ΕΒ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ. Therefore. the rectangle contained by the pieces of the other. ΗΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΓ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. ΕΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ἐν κύκλῳ εὐθεῖαι δύο τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλας. ΕΒ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ ἰσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ. Α A D ∆ Α Β Ε A Ζ ∆ B E Θ Η F D E Ε Γ Β H G C Γ ᾿Εν γὰρ κύκλῳ τῷ ΑΒΓΔ δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΓ. cut one another at point E.12]. 1.STOIQEIWN gþ. ὅτι ἴσων οὐσῶν τῶν ΑΕ. then it also cuts it in half [Prop.47]. ἐπεὶ οὖν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ τέτμηται εἰς μὲν ἴσα κατὰ τὸ Η. Μὴ ἔστωσαν δὴ αἱ ΑΓ. ΔΕ. Thus. and the (square) on F C is equal to the (sum of the squares) on CG and GF [Prop. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ζ. ΔΒ εὐθείας κάθετοι ἤχθωσαν αἱ ΖΗ. φανερόν. ΕΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΕ. ΒΔ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου εἰσὶν ὥστε τὸ Ε κέντρον εἶναι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου. And since some straight-line. AC. the (square) on F E is equal to the (sum of the squares) on EG and GF [Prop. And F C (is) equal to F B.11]. ΗΖ. ΔΒ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ ἐπὶ τὰς ΑΓ. ΕΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. ΕΓ μετὰ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΗΕ. the rectangle contained by AE and EC plus the square on EG is thus equal to the (square) on GC [Prop. cuts at right-angles some (other) straight-line. καὶ δίχα αὐτὴν τέμνει· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΗ τῇ ΗΓ. perpendicular to the straight-lines AC and DB (respectively) [Prop. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΕ. the (rectangle contained) by AE and EC plus the (square) on F E is equal to the (square) on F C. AG (is) equal to GC. κοινὸν ἀφῇρήσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. And let F G and F H have been drawn from F . 3. ΕΒ καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. ΖΘ. ΗΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΗ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΖΒ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. the (rectangle contained) by DE and EB plus the (square) on F E is equal 104 . ἀλλὰ τοῖς μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΗ. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. I say that the rectangle contained by AE and EC is equal to the rectangle contained by DE and EB. ΒΔ τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλας κατὰ τὸ Ε σημεῖον· λέγω. AE. 1. at right-angles to the aforementioned straight-line [Prop. in the circle ABCD.1]. so that E is the center of circle ABCD. ΕΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. and EB being equal. and F E have been joined. leþ. Let the (square) on GF have been added [to both]. through the center. ΕΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. ΖΓ. ΕΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΕ. So let AC and DB not be though the center (as in the second diagram from the left). ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. ΕΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΕ. In fact. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΖΒ.47]. And let F B. τοὶς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΗ.5]. Thus. for the same (reasons). ΕΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ. GF . F C. ΕΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΓ· [κοινὸν] προσκείσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΖ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν τῆς μιᾶς τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον B C For let the two straight-lines AC and BD. the (rectangle contained) by AE and EC plus the (sum of the squares) on GE and GF is equal to the (sum of the squares) on CG and GF . DE. 1. not through the center. Proposition 35 ᾿Εὰν ἐν κύκλῳ δύο εὐθεῖαι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλας. ΕΓ. καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ.3]. 2. εἰς δὲ ἄνισα κατὰ τὸ Ε. But. since the straightline AC is cut equally at G. τὸ ὑπὸ If two straight-lines in a circle cut one another then τῶν τῆς μιᾶς τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ the rectangle contained by the pieces of one is equal to τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν τῆς ἑτέρας τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. and let the center of ABCD have been found [Prop. ΕΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΕ. ΗΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ. ΕΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΓ.

3. and let F be the center of circle ABC. Let the (square) on F E have been taken from both. and let two straight-lines. And the (square) on F D is equal to the (sum of the squares) on F B and BD [Prop. if two straight-lines in a circle cut one another then the rectangle contained by the pieces of one is equal to the rectangle contained by the pieces of the other. DC[A] and DB. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. καὶ ἐπεὶ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ δίχα τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Ζ. (angle) F BD is a right-angle [Prop. to the (square) on F B. between the point and the convex circumference. ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΒ. let CD have been added to it. radiate from D towards circle ABC. the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC plus the (square) on F C is equal to the (square) on F D [Prop. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ζ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. I say that the rectangle contained by AD and DC is equal to the square on DB. ΔΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ For let some point D have been taken outside circle ABC. And F C (is) equal to F B. then the (rectangle contained) by the whole (straight-line) cutting (the circle). ΔΒ· καὶ ἡ μὲν ΔΓΑ τεμνέτω τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον. ἔσται τὸ ὑπὸ ὅλης τῆς τεμνούσης καὶ τῆς ἐκτὸς ἀπολαμβανομένης μεταξὺ τοῦ τε σημείου καὶ τῆς κυρτῆς περιφερείας ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ἐφαπτομένης τετραγώνῳ. Thus. the (rectangle contained) by AE and EC plus the (square) on F E is equal to the (rectangle contained) by DE and EB plus the (square) on F E.STOIQEIWN gþ. Thus. Thus. the (rectangle contained) by AD 105 . Let it first of all be through the center. Thus. the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC plus the (square) on F B is equal to the (square) on F D. And the (rectangle contained) by AE and EC plus the (square) on F E was also shown (to be) equal to the (square) on F B. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν τῆς ἑτέρας τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον προσπιπτέτωσαν δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΔΓ[Α]. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΒ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΒΔ. and two straight-lines radiate from it towards the circle. and the (part of it) cut off outside (the circle). [D]CA is surely either through the center. 1. Proposition 36 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐκτός. καὶ ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι δύο εὐθεῖαι. ἔστω πρότερον διὰ τοῦ κέντρου. Thus. Α Β A Ε Ζ ∆ E F Α Γ Γ B A C Ζ C Β ∆ D F B D Κύκλου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ εἰλήφθω τι σημεῖον ἐκτὸς τὸ Δ. If some point is taken outside a circle. ΒΔ.18]. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΖΒ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. καὶ ἡ μὲν αὐτῶν τέμνῃ τὸν κύκλον. lþ.6]. ἡ δὲ ΒΔ ἐφαπτέσθω· λέγω. And since straight-line AC is cut in half at F .47]. ΔΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ τετραγώνῳ. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. ἡ δὲ ἐφάπτηται. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. Thus. ΒΔ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. the remaining rectangle contained by AE and EC is equal to the rectangle contained by DE and EB. or not. ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΔ. will be equal to the square on the tangent (line). ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τὴς ΖΔ. And let DCA cut circle ABC. and (one) of them cuts the circle. ῾Η ἄρα [Δ]ΓΑ ἤτοι διὰ τοῦ κέντρου ἐστὶν ἢ οὔ. 2. and let BD touch (it). τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΔ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΒ. and the (other) touches (it). πρόσκειται δὲ αὐτῇ ἡ ΓΔ. and let F B have been joined.

ἦν δὲ καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. A For let some point D have been taken outside circle ABC. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΖΕ. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΖΕΔ ὀρθή ἐστιν. 1. and one of them cuts the circle. ΖΒ. Thus. ΖΔ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 νομένης μεταξὺ τοῦ τε σημείου καὶ τῆς κυρτῆς περιφερείας line) cutting (the circle). and let it be (at) F . is equal to the (square) on the (straight-line) meeting (the circle). and the (part of it) cut off outἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς προσπιπτούσης. ᾖ δὲ τὸ ὑπὸ ὅλης τῆς τεμνούσης καὶ τῆς ἐκτὸς ἀπολαμβανομένης μεταξὺ τοῦ τε σημείου καὶ τῆς κυρτῆς περιφερείας ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς προσπιπτούσης. ΔΓ ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ. And their base. Thus. 3. if some point is taken outside a circle. is common. cumference. ΒΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις αὐτῶν κοινὴ ἡ ΖΔ· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ ἐστιν ἴση. κἂν τὸ κέντρον ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ τυγχάνῃ. λέγω. And let the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC be equal to the (square) on DB. ∆ D E Ε Γ C Ζ Β F B Α Κύκλου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ εἰλήφθω τι σημεῖον ἐκτὸς τὸ Δ. and F D have been joined. EF are equal to the two (straight-lines) DB. is equal to the (square) on the (straight-line) meeting (the circle). καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. DCA and DB. and let two straight-lines. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐκτός. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον προσπιπτέτωσαν δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΔΓΑ. καὶ ἡ μὲν αὐτῶν τέμνῃ τὸν κύκλον.16 corr. (Angle) F ED is thus a right-angle [Prop. then the (straight-line) meeting (the circle) will touch the circle. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι δύο εὐθεῖαι. I say that DB touches circle ABC. And DEF (is) a right-angle. And F B produced is a diameter. For let DE have been drawn touching ABC [Prop. ἡ δὲ προσπίπτῃ. Thus. Thus.17]. ΔΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΕ. ΕΖ δύο ταῖς ΔΒ. Thus. ΔΒ. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται. ἡ δὲ ΔΒ προσπιπτέτω. the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC is thus equal to the (square) on DE [Prop. even if the center happens to be on AC.]. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΔΕ ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου.36]. (Which is) the very thing it 107 . between the point and the convex circumference.18]. and two straight-lines radiate from the point towards the circle. radiate from D towards circle ABC. touches the circle [Prop. So the two (straight-lines) DE. Thus. And F E is also equal to F B. ὅτι ἡ ΔΒ ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. between the point and the convex cirτοῦ κύκλου. F D. καί ἐστιν ἡ ΖΒ ἐκβαλλομένη διάμετρος· ἡ δὲ τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐφάπτεται τοῦ κύκλου· ἡ ΔΒ ἄρα ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. Similarly. And the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC was also equal to the (square) on DB. ἔστω δὲ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. καὶ ἡ μὲν ΔΓΑ τεμνέτω τὸν κύκλον. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ζ. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ. τέμνει δὲ ἡ ΔΓΑ. and the (rectangle contained) by the whole (straightline) cutting (the circle). 3. (the same thing) can be shown. and let the center of the circle ABC have been found. 3. and the (part of it) cut off outside (the circle). BF (respectively). ῎Ηχθω γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφαπτομένη ἡ ΔΕ. And let F E. DBF (is) also a right-angle. ἡ προσπίπτουσα ἐφάψεται τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. angle DEF is equal to angle DBF [Prop. F B. the (square) on DE is equal to the (square) on DB. DB touches circle ABC. and let DB meet (the circle). at its extremity. And a (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to a diameter of a circle. 3.8]. And since DE touches circle ABC.STOIQEIWN gþ. then the (straight-line) meeting (the circle) will touch the circle. and the (other) meets (it). ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ΖΕ τῇ ΖΒ ἴση· δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΕ. ἡ προσπίπτουσα ἐφάψεται side (the circle). ΔΓ ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΔΒ. and DCA cuts (it). and let DCA cut the circle. DE (is) equal to DB.

STOIQEIWN gþ. 108 . ELEMENTS BOOK 3 was required to show.

ELEMENTS BOOK 4 Construction of Rectilinear Figures In and Around Circles 109 .

ὅταν ἡ τοῦ κύκλου περιφέρεια ἑκάστης γωνίας τοῦ. Εὐθεῖα εἰς κύκλον ἐναρμόζεσθαι λέγεται. and D the given straightμείζων τῆς τοῦ κύκλου διαμέτρου ἡ Δ. similarly. And a rectilinear figure is said to be circumscribed about a circle when each side of the circumscribed (figure) touches the circumference of the circle. Definitions αʹ. περὶ ὃ περιγράφεται. ὅταν ἑκάστη γωνία τοῦ ἐγγραφομένου ἅπτηται τῆς τοῦ κύκλου περιφερείας. ζʹ. ἅπτηται. γʹ. To insert a straight-line equal to a given straight-line into a circle. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 VOroi. γεγονὸς ἂν εἴη τὸ ἐπιταχθέν· ἐνήρμοσται Let a diameter BC of circle ABC have been drawn. And. 5. similarly.STOIQEIWN dþ. And a circle is said to be circumscribed about a rectilinear (figure) when the circumference of the circle touches each angle of the (figure) about which it is circumscribed. ὅταν ἑκάστη τῶν τοῦ ἐγγραφομένου σχήματος γωνιῶν ἑκάστης πλευρᾶς τοῦ. into the circle ABC. Σχῆμα εὐθύγραμμον εἰς κύκλον ἐγγράφεσθαι λέγεται. Σχῆμα εὐθύγραμμον εἰς σχῆμα εὐθύγραμμον ἐγγράφεσθαι λέγεται. ἅπτηται. 3. Κύκλος δὲ περὶ σχῆμα περιγράφεσθαι λέγεται. δʹ. Σχῆμα δὲ εὐθύγραμμον περὶ κύκλον περιγράφεσθαι λέγεται. 1. ἅπτηται. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα μὴ Let ABC be the given circle. And. εἰς ὃ ἐγγράφεται. ὅταν ἡ τοῦ κύκλου περιφέρεια ἑκάστης πλευρᾶς τοῦ. ∆ D Α Β Ε A Γ B E C F Ζ ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. equal to the ῎Ηχθω τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου διάμετρος ἡ ΒΓ. ὅταν τὰ πέρατα αὐτῆς ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας ᾖ τοῦ κύκλου. ἅπτηται. 2. Σχῆμα δὲ ὁμοίως περὶ σχῆμα περιγράφεσθαι λέγεται. εἰ μὲν οὖν ἴση straight-line D. Proposition 1 Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ μὴ μείζονι οὔσῃ τῆς τοῦ κύκλου διαμέτρου ἴσην εὐθεῖαν ἐναρμόσαι. A straight-line is said to be inserted into a circle when its extemities are on the circumference of the circle. 6. βʹ. 7. a circle is said to be inscribed in a (rectilinear) figure when the circumference of the circle touches each side of the (figure) in which it is inscribed. ϛʹ. εἰς ὃ ἐγγράφεται. So it is required to insert a straight-line. cle.† 110 . (the latter straight-line) not being greater than the diameter of the circle. ὅταν ἑκάστη πλευρὰ τοῦ περιγραφομένου ἑκάστης γωνίας τοῦ. a (rectilinear) figure is said to be circumscribed about a(nother rectilinear) figure when the respective sides of the circumscribed (figure) touch the respective angles of the (figure) about which it is circumscribed. Κύκλος δὲ εἰς σχῆμα ὁμοίως ἐγγράφεσθαι λέγεται. 4. περὶ ὃ περιγράφεται. aþ. A rectilinear figure is said to be inscribed in a circle when each angle of the inscribed (figure) touches the circumference of the circle. ὅταν ἑκάστη πλευρὰ τοῦ περιγραφομένου ἐφάπτηται τῆς τοῦ κύκλου περιφερείας. ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ Δ. εʹ. A rectilinear figure is said to be inscribed in a(nother) rectilinear figure when the respective angles of the inscribed figure touch the respective sides of the (figure) in which it is inscribed. δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓ line (which is) not greater than the diameter of the cirκύκλον τῇ Δ εὐθείᾳ ἴσην εὐθεῖαν ἐναρμόσαι.

But. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΘΑΓ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήματι γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. for the same (reasons). διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση [ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. in circle ABC. equal to the straight-line D. (angle) HAC is thus equal to the angle ABC in the alternate segment of the circle [Prop. 1.STOIQEIWN dþ. And let CA have been joined.23]. and (angle) GAB. in a given circle. equiangular with triangle DEF . 1. εἰ δὲ μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῆς Δ. Thus. And let BC have been joined. καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς κατὰ τὸ Α ἐπαφῆς εἰς τὸν κύκλον διῆκται εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ. CA. ῎Ηχθω τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου ἐφαπτομένη ἡ ΗΘ κατὰ τὸ Α. on the straightline AG at the point A on it [Prop. equal to [angle] DF E. 3. ACB is also equal to DF E. But. ἀλλὰ τῇ Δ ἡ ΓΕ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ Δ ἄρα τῇ ΓΑ ἐστιν ἴση. Therefore. καὶ κέντρῳ τῷ Γ διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΓΕ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΕΑΖ. angle ABC is also equal to DEF . Therefore. † Therefore. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΑ τῇ ΓΕ. CE is equal to D. 3. equiangular with a given trianτρίγωνον ἐγγράψαι. Let GH have been drawn touching circle ABC at A. πρὸς δὲ τῇ ΑΗ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ [γωνίᾳ] ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΑΒ. has been inserted into the circle ABC. Thus. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΓ. equal to angle DEF . bþ.32]. 1.† And let (angle) HAC. So. For the (straight-line) BC. And if BC is greater than D then let CE be made equal to D [Prop.1]. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 γὰρ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον τῇ Δ εὐθείᾳ ἴση ἡ ΒΓ. So it is required to inscribe a triangle. Presumably. equal to the given straight-line D. by finding the center of the circle [Prop. gle. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΓΑ. and let the circle EAF have been drawn with center C and radius CE. since some straight-line AH touches the circle ABC. τὸ δὲ δοθὲν τριγωνον τὸ ΔΕΖ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον τρίγωνον ἐγγράψαι. Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα ἄρα κύκλον τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον τρίγωνον ἐγγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.32]. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΑΘ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΑΓ. have been constructed on the straight-line AH at the point A on it. and then drawing a line through it.3]. if BC is equal to D then that (which) was prescribed has taken place. [Thus. Β B Ε E Ζ F Γ C Η G ∆ Α D A Θ H ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. the remaining (angle) BAC is equal to the remaining (angle) EDF [Prop. Thus. and the straight-line AC has been drawn across (the circle) from the point of contact A. Thus. HAC is equal to DEF . Εἰς ἄρα τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τὸν ΑΒΓ τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ Δ ἴση ἐνήρμοσται ἡ ΓΑ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. Proposition 2 Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον To inscribe a triangle. and DEF the given triangle. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν το Γ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΕΑΖ κύκλου. since the point C is the center of circle EAF . CA is equal to CE. D is also equal to CA. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφάπτεταί τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΘ. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ ἄρα γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. Let ABC be the given circle. triangle ABC is equiangular with triangle DEF . and has been inscribed in circle 111 . καὶ ἐγγέγραπται εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον]. has been inserted into the given circle ABC. κείσθω τῇ Δ ἴση ἡ ΓΕ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.

34. equiangular with a given τρίγωνον περιγράψαι.23]. ἐπειδήπερ καὶ εἰς δύο τρίγωνα διαιρεῖται τὸ ΑΜΒΚ. B. has been inscribed in the given circle. triangle. equiangular with the given triangle. Γ σημείοις γωνίαι. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. C N G Let ABC be the given circle. Θ σημεῖα. ΑΜΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. and C are thus right-angles [Prop. ΔΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν. KB. M N . and angles KAM and KBM are (both) right-angles.18]. a triangle. and C (respectively). Γ σημεῖα. ΚΒΜ γωνίαι. καὶ διὰ τῶν Α. the remaining (angle) M LN is also equal to the 112 . τῇ δὲ ὑπὸ ΔΖΘ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΚΓ. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΔΕΗ. καί εἰσιν ὀρθαὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΚΑΜ. 1. And let (angle) BKA. 1. have been constructed on the straight-line KB at the point K on it. across (ABC). Β. and C (respectively). Let EF have been produced in each direction to points G and H. Β. Thus. and KC are joined from the center K to points A. Thus. So. at random. Thus. Περὶ τὸν δοθέντα ἄρα κύκλον τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον τρίγωνον περιγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. equal to angle DEG. and C (respectively). Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐφάπτονται τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου αἱ ΛΜ. ΚΓ. And since the (sum of the) four angles of quadrilateral AM BK is equal to four rightangles. equiangular with triangle DEF .32]. καὶ ἐπεὶ τοῦ ΑΜΒΚ τετραπλεύρου αἱ τέσσαρες γωνίαι τέτρασιν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. ὀρθαὶ ἄρα εἰσὶν αἱ πρὸς τοῖς Α. about a given circle. M BN . the remainder AM B is equal to the remainder DEF . 3. ΑΜΒ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΔΕΗ. Β. So it is required to circumscribe a triangle.STOIQEIWN dþ. about circle ABC. ΝΓΛ. ᾿Εκβεβλήσθω ἡ ΕΖ ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τὰ μέρη κατὰ τὰ Η. the (sum of the) remaining (angles). ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΛΜΝ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ· καὶ περιγέγραπται περὶ τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον. touching the circle ABC. Γ σημεῖα ἐπεζευγμέναι εἰσὶν αἱ ΚΑ. ΚΒ. And DEG and DEF is also equal to two right-angles [Prop. ὧν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΚΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΗ ἐστιν ἴση· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΜΒ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. Γ σημείων ἤχθωσαν ἐφαπτόμεναι τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου αἱ ΛΑΜ. ὅτι καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΛΝΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΜΛΝ [λοιπῇ] τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση. 3. inasmuch as AM BK (can) also (be) divided into two triangles [Prop. Proposition 3 Περὶ τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον To circumscribe a triangle. Thus. B. τὸ δὲ δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ ΔΕΖ· δεῖ δὴ περὶ τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον τρίγωνον περιγράψαι. καὶ εἰλήφθω τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου κέντρον τὸ Κ. and DEF the given triangle. Β. the angles at points A. εὐθεῖα ἡ ΚΒ. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται. Μ Θ ∆ Ζ Α M H A Β Ε Κ D F B E K Η Λ Γ Ν L ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. λοιπαὶ ἄρα αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΚΒ. ΔΕΖ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΚΒ. it can be shown that LN B is also equal to DF E. gþ. similarly. ὡς ἔτυχεν. καὶ διήχθω. And let the straight-line KB have been drawn. B. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ABC]. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΚΒ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Κ τῇ μὲν ὑπὸ ΔΕΗ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΚΑ. B. ΜΒΝ.13]. and N CL have been drawn through the points A. 3.1]. † See the footnote to Prop. And let the (straight-lines) LAM . ΜΝ. And let the center K of circle ABC have been found [Prop. and KA. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Κ κέντρου ἐπὶ τὰ Α. ΝΛ κατὰ τὰ Α. AKB and AM B is equal to DEG and DEF . and N L touch circle ABC at points A. and (angle) BKC. equal to DF H [Prop. is thus equal to two right-angles. 1.† And since LM . AKB and AM B. of which AKB is equal to DEG.

Εἰς ἄρα τὸ δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ κύκλος ἐγγέγραπται ὁ ΕΖΗ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. and G being right-angles. ΖΒΔ τὰς δύο γωνίας ταῖς δυσὶ γωνίαις ἴσας ἔχοντα καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην τὴν ὑποτείνουσαν ὑπὸ μίαν τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν κοινὴν αὐτῶν τὴν ΒΔ· καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς ἄρα πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΔΖ. F . ΒΓ. Η κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων καὶ ἐφάψεται τῶν ΑΒ. εἰ γὰρ τεμεῖ αὐτάς.12]. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 [remaining] (angle) EDF [Prop. Η σημείοις γωνίας. and one side equal to one side—the (one) subtending one of the equal angles (which is) common to the (triangles)—(namely). Η γραφόμενος κύκλος τεμεῖ τὰς ΑΒ. dþ. and radius one of E. DE (is) equal to DF . ΓΔ εὐθείαις. So it is required to inscribe a circle in triangle ABC. ΒΓ.32]. Thus. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ὀρθὴ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΔ ὀρθῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΖΔ ἴση. καὶ συμβαλλέτωσαν ἀλλήλαις κατὰ τὸ Δ σημεῖον. triangle LM N is equiangular with triangle DEF . Thus. BC. for the same (reasons). F . BD. Proposition 4 Εἰς τὸ δοθὲν τρίγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψαι. So. Thus. Thus. Thus. and CA. the circle drawn with center D. Thus. EBD and F BD are thus two triangles having two angles equal to two angles. 113 . Ζ. To inscribe a circle in a given triangle. DG is also equal to DF .26].STOIQEIWN dþ. and let them meet one another at point D. And it has been drawn around circle ABC. perpendicular to the straight-lines AB. Τετμήσθωσαν αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ΔΖ. on account of the angles at E. from its extremity. δύο δὴ τρίγωνά ἐστι τὰ ΕΒΔ. BC.† will also go through the remaining points. Ζ. 1. ἔσται ἡ τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐντὸς πίπτουσα τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἄτοπον ἐδείχθη· οὐκ ἄρα ὁ κέντρῳ τῷ Δ διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Ε. ΒΓ. † See the footnote to Prop. ΓΑ εὐθείας· ἐφάψεται ἄρα αὐτῶν. falling inside the circle. and DG are equal to one another. the three straight-lines DE. The very thing was shown (to be) absurd [Prop. ΑΓΒ γωνίαι δίχα ταῖς ΒΔ. the circle drawn with center D.9]. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΒΔ. F . 3. ΔΖ.34. they will also have the remaining sides equal to the (corresponding) remaining sides [Prop. 1. 1. 3. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. Ζ. ΔΗ. καὶ ἤχθωσαν ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ ἐπὶ τὰς ΑΒ. αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΔΕ. καὶ ἔσται ὁ κύκλος ἐγγεγραμμένος εἰς τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον. or G.16]. and let DE. ΓΑ εὐθείας κάθετοι αἱ ΔΕ. ἐγγεγράφθω ὡς ὁ ΖΗΕ. DF . Let the angles ABC and ACB have been cut in half by the straight-lines BD and CD (respectively) [Prop. ΔΗ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ὁ ἄρα κέντρῷ τῷ Δ καὶ διαστήματι ἑνὶ τῶν Ε. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΔΗ τῇ ΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση. And since angle ABD is equal to CBD. equiangular with the given triangle. Thus. and the rightangle BED is also equal to the right-angle BF D. has been circumscribed about the given circle. a triangle. and CA (respectively) [Prop. and radius one of E. ΓΑ εὐθειῶν διὰ τὸ ὀρθὰς εἶναι τὰς πρὸς τοῖς Ε. F C Let ABC be the given triangle. 1. and will touch the straight-lines AB. Α Ε A E Η ∆ Β Ζ G D Γ B ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψαι. DF . and DG have been drawn from point D. For if it cuts (one of) them then it will be a (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to a diameter of the circle.

eþ. καί ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΖ. like in the third diagram (from the left). F C. ὁ ἄρα κέντρῳ τῷ Ζ διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Α. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. So that BF is also equal to F C. we can show that point F is the center of the circle circumscribed about triangle ABC. first of all. like F GE (in the figure). on the straight-line BC. Συμπιπτέτωσαν πρότερον ἐντὸς κατὰ τὸ Ζ. meet inside (triangle ABC) at (point) F . Α Α A Ζ Γ Ζ B D Ε Ε D Β A A D Ε Ζ Β ∆ Β ∆ ∆ To circumscribe a circle about a given triangle. the base AF is thus equal to the base BF [Prop. Let them. Thus. Thus. 1. Περὶ τὸ δοθὲν ἄρα τρίγωνον κύκλος περιγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. and CF have been joined. ὡς ἔχει ἐπὶ τῆς τρίτης καταγραφῆς.10]. κοινὴ δὲ καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΔΖ. And let DF and EF have been drawn from points D and E. And so. or C. ΕΖ συμπιπτέτωσαν ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΓ εὐθείας κατὰ τὸ Ζ. or beyond BC. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. 1. E E E F C F C C Let ABC be the given triangle. And let AF have been joined. ὅτι καὶ ἡ ΓΖ τῇ ΑΖ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΒΖ τῇ ΖΓ ἐστιν ἴση· ὁ ἄρα [πάλιν] κέντρῳ τῷ Ζ διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν ΖΑ. κοινὴ δὲ καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΔΖ.4].11]. ΕΖ συμπιπτέτωσαν ἐκτὸς τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου κατὰ τὸ Ζ πάλιν. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 or G. Let it have been (so) inscribed. the three (straight-lines) F A. the circle EF G has been inscribed in the given triangle ABC. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΖ. So. So (DF and EF ) will surely either meet inside triangle ABC. or DG. like in the second diagram (from the left). we can show that CF is also equal to AF . And. ΖΓ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων. 114 . And let AF . So that F B is also equal to F C. it will touch them and will be the circle inscribed in triangle ABC. ΖΓ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. similarly. καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν Δ.4]. καὶ ἔσται περιγεγραμμένος περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον. καὶ ἔσται περιγεγραμμένος ὁ κύκλος περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον. the circle drawn with center F . again. let DF and EF meet outside triangle ABC. Proposition 5 Περὶ τὸ δοθὲν τρίγωνον κύκλον περιγράψαι. ΖΓ. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ αἱ ΔΖ. and DF is common and at right-angles. † Here. 1. καὶ ἐπεὶ πάλιν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΔΒ. BF .STOIQEIWN dþ. ΑΓ εὐθεῖαι δίχα κατὰ τὰ Δ. it is understood that the radius is actually one of DE. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. let DF and EF meet on the straight-line BC at (point) F . similarly. So. Thus. βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΖ βάσει τῇ ΒΖ ἐστιν ἴση. like ABC (in the first diagram from the left). Let the straight-lines AB and AC have been cut in half at points D and E (respectively) [Prop. F B. And the circle will have been circumscribed about triangle ABC. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΖΒ. Thus. again at (point) F . BC. Ε σημεῖα. Τετμήσθωσαν αἱ ΑΒ. περιγεγράφθω ὡς ὁ ΑΒΓ. ὅτι τὸ Ζ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον περιγραφομένου κύκλου. ΖΒ. Β. So. ΒΖ. and F C are equal to one another. ὡς ἔχει ἐπὶ τῆς δευτέρας καταγραφῆς. B. at right-angles to AB and AC (respectively) [Prop. Ε σημείων ταῖς ΑΒ. and radius one of A. And so. will also go through the remaining points. ΖΑ. ΓΖ. Α Γ B F B Γ ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ· δεῖ δὲ περὶ τὸ δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ κύκλον περιγράψαι. Thus. similarly. we can show that CF is also equal to AF . 1. So it is required to circumscribe a circle about the given triangle ABC. ΕΖ· συμπεσοῦνται δὴ ἤτοι ἐντὸς τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου ἢ ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΓ εὐθείας ἢ ἐκτὸς τῆς ΒΓ. does not cut the straight-lines AB. ὅτι καὶ ἡ ΓΖ τῇ ΑΖ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΖΒ τῇ ΖΓ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα αἱ ΖΑ. Γ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. and CA. and F A have been joined. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΔΒ. ΑΓ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθωσαν αἱ ΔΖ. βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΖ βάσει τῇ ΖΒ ἐστιν ἴση. And since AD is equal to DB. and in the following propositions. the base AF is thus equal to the base F B [Prop. DF . ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ αἱ ΔΖ. and DF is common and at right-angles. ΖΒ. Let it have been (so) circumscribed. since AD is equal to DB. and let F B.

λέγω δή. BAD is thus a semi-circle. by finding the center of the circle [Prop. ΓΔΑ ὀρθή ἐστιν· ὀρθογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράπλευρον. for E (is) the center (of the circle). ΔΑ.4]. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. at right-angles to the first [Prop. for the same (reasons). Thus. each of BC and CD is equal to each of AB and AD. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 [again] the circle drawn with center F .† And let AB. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΔ· κέντρον γὰρ τὸ Ε· κοινὴ δὲ καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΕΑ. Proposition 6 Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τετράγωνον ἐγγράψαι. 1. AC and BD. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΒΓ. Thus. Thus.STOIQEIWN dþ. and F C. CD. † Presumably. ΑΔ ἴση ἐστίν· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράπλευρον. Thus. Proposition 7 Περὶ τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τετράγωνον περιγράψαι. will also go through the remaining points. 1. So. þ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον· τετράγωνον ἄρα ἐστίν. the quadrilateral ABCD is equilateral. For since the straight-line BD is a diameter of circle ABCD. and CDA are also each right-angles. drawing a line through it. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. To inscribe a square in a given circle. βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ βάσει τῇ ΑΔ ἴση ἐστίν. and DA have been joined. Let ABCD be the given circle. zþ. the square ABCD has been inscribed in the given circle. ΒΔ. BC. ΓΔ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΑΒ. a circle has been circumscribed about the given triangle. Εἰς ἄρα τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τετράγωνον ἐγγέγραπται τὸ ΑΒΓΔ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. καὶ ἐγγέγραπται εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον. So. 115 . 1. ῎Ηχθωσαν τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου δύο διάμετροι πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀλλήλαις αἱ ΑΓ. And it has been inscribed in circle ABCD. So I say that (it is) also right-angled. Thus. it is a square [Def. Let two diameters of circle ABCD. To circumscribe a square about a given circle. ΒΓ. the quadrilateral ABCD is right-angled. and radius one of F A. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. and EA is common and at right-angles. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. for the same (reasons). Α Β Ε A ∆ B E D Γ C ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον τετράγωνον ἐγγράψαι. BCD. 3.1]. And it will have been circumscribed about triangle ABC. So it is required to inscribe a square in circle ABCD. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΒ. the base AB is thus equal to the base AD [Prop. (angles) ABC. And since BE is equal to ED. ὅτι καὶ ὀρθογώνιον. and then drawing a second line through it.22]. ἡμικύκλιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΑΔ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ γωνία. ΒΓΔ.11]. Thus. angle BAD (is) a rightangle [Prop. F B. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἡ ΒΔ εὐθεῖα διάμετρός ἐστι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου. have been drawn at right-angles to one another. ΓΔ.31]. 3.

ΖΚ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΗΖ. but AC (is) also (equal) to each of GH and F K. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. So it is required to κύκλον τετράγωνον περιγράψαι. the quadrilateral F GHK is thus equilateral. and AEB is a right-angle. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. for the same (reasons). ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΗΘΚ τετράπλευρον. Κ. And it has been circumscribed about circle ABCD. ΘΚ ἐστιν ἴση].STOIQEIWN dþ. 116 . ὀρθογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΗΘΚ. touching circle ABCD. ΘΚ. For since GBEA is a parallelogram. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ· δεῖ δὴ περὶ τὸν ΑΒΓΔ Let ABCD be the given circle. and EA has been joined from the center E to the point of contact A. Ζ γωνίαι ὀρθαί εἰσιν. the angles at points B. So that GH is also parallel to F K [Prop. and BK are (all) parallelograms. GF is equal to HK. ὅτι καὶ αἱ πρὸς τοῖς Θ. See the footnote to the previous proposition.29]. So. ΒΔ. 3. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἐφάπτεται ἡ ΖΗ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου. GK. ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΒ.34] [and each of GH and F K is thus equal to each of GF and HK]. παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΘ τῇ ΑΓ. AGB is thus also a right-angle [Prop. GH. καὶ διὰ τῶν Α. So. C. ΖΒ. circumscribe a square about circle ABCD. ἐστὶ δὲ ὀρθὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΗ. AC is also parallel to F K. Γ. and D (respectively). GH is thus parallel to AC [Prop. and F are also right-angles. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Ε κέντρου ἐπὶ τὴν κατὰ τὸ Α ἐπαφὴν ἐπέζευκται ἡ ΕΑ. and BD is equal to each of GF and HK [Prop. So. ἀλλὰ καὶ ἡ μὲν ΑΓ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΗΘ. 1. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὀρθή ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ γωνία. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον· τετράγωνον ἄρα ἐστίν. καὶ περιγέγραπται περὶ τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον. Thus. Η Β Θ Α Ε Γ Ζ G ∆ B Κ H ῎Ηχθωσαν τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου δύο διάμετροι πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀλλήλαις αἱ ΑΓ. ΖΚ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΒΔ. it is a square [Def. ἡ δὲ ΒΔ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΗΖ. ΚΖ. 1. K. αἱ ἄρα πρὸς τῷ Α γωνίαι ὀρθαί εἰσιν. Δ σημείων ἤχθωσαν ἐφαπτόμεναι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου αἱ ΖΗ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΖΚ ἐστι παράλληλος. Β.30]. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.† And let F G. 1. ΒΚ· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΗΖ τῇ ΘΚ. and KF have been drawn through points A. F B. similarly. C. καί ἐστιν ὀρθὴ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ. ὅτι καὶ ὀρθογώνιον. similarly. See the footnote to Prop. B. And since AC is equal to BD. So I say that (it is) also right-angled. † ‡ A E C F D K Let two diameters of circle ABCD. AK. ΘΚ τῇ ΒΕΔ ἐστι παράλληλος. ΑΚ. ἡ δὲ ΗΘ τῇ ΖΚ. and EBG is also a right-angle. Δ σημείοις γωνίαι ὀρθαί εἰσιν. And since angle AEB is a rightangle.34]. παραλληλόγραμμα ἄρα ἐστὶ τὰ ΗΚ. a square has been circumscribed about the given circle. λέγω δή. ΗΓ.‡ Therefore. Thus. AC and BD. and D are also right-angles. 1. ἐπεὶ γὰρ παραλληλόγραμμόν ἐστι τὸ ΗΒΕΑ. the angles at A are thus right-angles [Prop. HK. GC. Περὶ τὸν δοθέντα ἄρα κύκλον τετράγωνον περιγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. we can show that the angles at H.34]. F GHK is right-angled. Thus. 3. ὅτι καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΗΖ. ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΗΘ τῇ ΖΚ ἐστι παράλληλος. and GH to F K [Prop.18].34.22]. Thus. we can show that GF and HK are each parallel to BED. 1. Thus. ΘΚ ἐστιν ἴση [καὶ ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΗΘ. have been drawn at right-angles to one another. Γ. ΗΘ. So. since F G touches circle ABCD. 1. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ αἱ πρὸς τοῖς Β. for the same (reasons).

HD. AE (is) thus also equal to AF . ΓΔ. So it is required to circumscribe a circle about square ABCD. ὁ ἄρα κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Η διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Ε. or K. or K. or DA. ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ· δεῖ δὴ περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράγωνον κύκλον περιγράψαι. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. GC.31]. 117 . ΗΚ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΖΗ. For if the circle cuts AB. from its extremity. BC. parallel to either of AB or CD. the four (straightlines) GE. and radius one of E. ΒΓ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΖΚ· παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶν ἕκαστον τῶν ΑΚ. ΓΔ. and will have been inscribed in the square ABCD. ΑΗ. GH.10]. F G (is) also equal to GE. Θ. ἡ τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐντὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἄτοπον ἐδείχθη. BC. then a (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to a diameter of the circle. Let AD and AB each have been cut in half at points E and F (respectively) [Prop. CD. and their opposite sides [are] manifestly equal [Prop. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Ζ ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΔ. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 hþ. ΗΘ. and GD are each parallelograms. ΗΖ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΑΒ.16]. Thus. the circle drawn with center G. and AF half of AB. it will touch them. Α Ζ Β Ε Η Θ ∆ A Κ F Γ B E G H D K C Τετμήσθω ἑκατέρα τῶν ΑΔ. Κ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων· καὶ ἐφάψεται τῶν ΑΒ. ΑΘ. F . Ζ σημεῖα. jþ. ΓΔ παράλληλος ἤχθω ὁ ΕΘ. ΒΗ. H. ΒΓ. will fall inside the circle. ΒΓ. Let the given square be ABCD. ΗΕ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ τέσσαρες ἄρα αἱ ΗΕ. ἐφάψεται ἄρα αὐτῶν καὶ ἔσται ἐγγεγραμμένος εἰς τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράγωνον. AK. And it will touch the straight-lines AB. similarly. Θ. So that the opposite (sides are) also (equal). 1. AH. Thus. Thus. CD. δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψαι. καὶ αἱ ἀπεναντίον αὐτῶν πλευραὶ δηλονότι ἴσαι [εἰσίν]. Thus. Θ. ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. CD. Thus. BC. ΑΒ δίχα κατὰ τὰ Ε. ΗΚ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις [εἰσίν]. ΔΑ. Ζ. 3. ΗΓ.STOIQEIWN dþ. ΓΔ. AG. Proposition 9 Περὶ τὸ δοθὲν τετράγωνον κύκλον περιγράψαι. Κ γωνίας· εἰ γὰρ τεμεῖ ὁ κύκλος τὰς ΑΒ. Ζ.34]. 1. Thus. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. BG. a circle has been inscribed in the given square. The very thing was shown (to be) absurd [Prop. And let EH have been drawn through E. and DA. ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΑΖ· ὥστε καὶ αἱ ἀπεναντίον· ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΖΗ τῇ ΗΕ. we can also show that each of GH and GK is equal to each of F G and GE. Κ κύκλος γραφόμενος τεμεῖ τὰς ΑΒ. ΚΒ. Thus. Proposition 8 Εἰς τὸ δοθὲν τετράγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψαι. 1. Let ABCD be the given square. ΘΔ. the circle drawn with center G. So it is required to inscribe a circle in square ABCD. or DA. So. GF . and radius one of E. ΔΑ εὐθειῶν διὰ τὸ ὀρθὰς εἶναι τὰς πρὸς τοῖς Ε. H. F . To circumscribe a circle about a given square. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Ε ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΒ. ὅτι καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΗΘ. Εἰς ἄρα τὸ δοθὲν τετράγωνον κύκλος ἐγγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. and GK [are] equal to one another. ΒΓ. on account of the angles at E. H. And since AD is equal to AB. and let F K have been drawn through F . F . and K being right-angles. does not cut the straight-lines AB. τῆς δὲ ΑΒ ἡμίσεια ἡ ΑΖ. ΔΑ εὐθείας. parallel to either of AD or BC [Prop. and AE is half of AD. will also go through the remaining points. οὐκ ἄρα ὁ κέντρῳ τῷ Η διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Ε. To inscribe a circle in a given square. ΗΔ. Ζ. καί ἐστι τῆς μὲν ΑΔ ἡμίσεια ἡ ΑΕ. KB.

1. And since angle DAB is equal to ABC. Let some straight-line AB be taken. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. or D. Δ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων καὶ ἔσται περιγεγραμμένος περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράγωνον. Γ. ὥστε τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. C. ΕΔ ἴση ἐστίν. and AC (is) common. περιγεγράφθω ὡς ὁ ΑΒΓΔ.5]. Thus. angle DAC is equal to angle BAC [Prop. ΕΓ.1]. ΑΓ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΓ βάσει τῇ ΒΓ ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ἴση ἐστίν· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ γωνία δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΓ. And let AD and DC have been joined. Περὶ τὸ δοθὲν ἄρα τετράγωνον κύκλος περιγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ΔΒ εὐθειῶν. similarly. and let it have been cut at point C so that the rectangle contained by AB and BC is equal to the square on CA [Prop. and radius AB. have been inserted into circle BDE [Prop. B. ᾿Εκκείσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. And since DA is equal to AB. EB. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. iþ. 4.11]. 2. Let it have been (so) circumscribed.8]. ὁ ἄρα κέντρῳ τῷ Ε καὶ διαστήματι ἑνὶ τῶν Α. and will have been circumscribed about the square ABCD. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. So that side EA is also equal to EB [Prop. AC. And the base DC (is) equal to the base BC. and CDA have each been cut in half by the straight-lines AC and DB. 4. Thus. ΑΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΒΑ. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΑΓ. Proposition 10 ᾿Ισοσκελὲς τρίγωνον συστήσασθαι ἔχον ἑκατέραν τῶν πρὸς τῇ βάσει γωνιῶν διπλασίονα τῆς λοιπῆς. 1. the two (straight-lines) DA. τῆς δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ ἡμίσεια ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΑ. καὶ ἐνηρμόσθω εἰς τὸν ΒΔΕ κύκλον τῇ ΑΓ εὐθείᾳ μὴ μείζονι οὔσῃ τῆς τοῦ ΒΔΕ κύκλου διαμέτρου ἴση εὐθεῖα ἡ ΒΔ· καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΔ. ὅτι καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΕΑ. we can show that each of the [straight-lines] EA and EB are also equal to each of EC and ED. 118 .6]. a circle has been circumscribed about the given square. To construct an isosceles triangle having each of the angles at the base double the remaining (angle). E. αἱ τέσσαρες ἄρα αἱ ΕΑ. Α Β Ε A ∆ B E D Γ C Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΑΒ. ΕΒ [εὐθειῶν] ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΕΓ. and EAB is half of DAB. Thus. ὅτι καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. EAB is thus also equal to EBA. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ᾿Επιζευχθεῖσαι γὰρ αἱ ΑΓ. equal to the straight-line AC. will also go through the remaining points. similarly. So. So. δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΑ. we can show that ABC. ΒΓΔ. ΔΓ. let them cut one another at κατὰ τὸ Ε.STOIQEIWN dþ. And let the straight-line BD. ΕΔ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. BCD. καί ἐστι τῆς μὲν ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ ἡμίσεια ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ. the circle drawn with center E. καὶ τετμήσθω κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΒΑ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΕΑ τῇ ΕΒ ἐστιν ἴση. EC. And let the circle ACD have been circumscribed about triangle ACD [Prop. Thus. And let the circle BDE have been drawn with center A. and EBA half of ABC. Β. ΓΔΑ δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. being not greater than the diameter of circle BDE. ΕΒ. Thus. the angle DAB has been cut in half by AC. and ED are equal to one another. AC are thus equal to the two (straight-lines) BA. ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον εἶναι τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΑ τετραγώνῳ· καὶ κέντρῳ τῷ Α καὶ διαστήματι τῷ ΑΒ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΒΔΕ. the four (straight-lines) EA. ΒΔ τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλας AC and BD being joined. like ABCD (in the figure). and radius one of A. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. καὶ περιγεγράφθω περὶ τὸ ΑΓΔ τρίγωνον κύκλος ὁ ΑΓΔ.

ἀλλὰ ἡ ΒΔ τῇ ΓΑ ὑπόκειται ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΓΑ ἄρα τῇ ΓΔ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΑ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΔΑ. ἐπεὶ καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΑΒ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἐστιν ἴση. and AC (is) equal to BD. since BDC is equal to DAC. CDA and DAC is double DAC. So that angle CDA is also equal to angle DAC [Prop. Thus. and two straightlines BA and BD have radiated from B towards the circle ACD. the angle BDC is thus equal to the angle DAC in the alternate segment of the circle [Prop. BDA is equal to CBD. ᾿Ισοσκελὲς ἄρα τρίγωνον συνέσταται τὸ ΑΒΔ ἔχον ἑκατέραν τῶν πρὸς τῇ ΔΒ βάσει γωνιῶν διπλασίονα τῆς λοιπῆς· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.5]. Thus. But. BDA and DBA are each double DAB. ΔΒΑ. and the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC is equal to the (square) on BD. BDA is also equal to BCD. But BCD (is) equal to CDA and DAC. since the side AD is also equal to AB [Prop. ΔΑΓ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ἐκτὸς ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ ἄρα ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ. 1. καὶ ἡ μὲν αὐτῶν τέμνει. ΒΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ. the external (angle) BCD is equal to CDA and DAC [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 Β B Γ C ∆ D Α A Ε E Καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. But. the whole of BDA is equal to the two (angles) CDA and DAC. And BCD (is) equal to to each of BDA and DBA. 3. BD was assumed (to be) equal to CA. ΔΒΑ τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ ἐστι διπλῆ. αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ. Thus. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Β πρὸς τὸν ΑΓΔ κύκλον προσπεπτώκασι δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΒΑ. ΔΒΑ· καὶ ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ.STOIQEIWN dþ. BCD is also double CAD. since BD touches (the circle). Thus. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ. ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΒΔ ἐστιν ἴση. 1. ἡ δὲ προσπίπτει. ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΔΑ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. BD thus touches circle ACD [Prop. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ. 1. ΔΑΓ· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἄρα τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ ἐστι διπλῆ. let CDA have been added to both. ΒΓΑ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. CA is also equal to CD. 1. ΔΑΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ εἰσι διπλασίους. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΔ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΔΓ. Thus. ἀλλὰ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΔΑ. Therefore. Thus. ΒΓ ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΔ. and (one) of them cuts (the circle). the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC is thus equal to the (square) on BD. So that DBA is also equal to BCD. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΒΔ. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ΔΑΓ. ἡ ΒΔ ἄρα ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΑΓΔ κύκλου. But. ΒΔ. and BCD are equal to one another. and DC has been drawn across (the circle) from the point of contact D. 3. and (the other) meets (the circle).32]. the three (angles) BDA. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς κατὰ τὸ Δ ἐπαφῆς διῆκται ἡ ΔΓ. iaþ. Thus. And since some point B has been taken outside of circle ACD. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐφάπτεται μὲν ἡ ΒΔ.6]. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ γωνιά ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήματι γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ. Proposition 11 Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ 119 To inscribe an equilateral and equiangular pentagon .32]. καί ἐστι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. the isosceles triangle ABD has been constructed having each of the angles at the base BD double the remaining (angle). And since angle DBC is equal to BCD. ΒΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΔ. Therefore. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΑ· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ ἴση ἐστὶ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΔΑ. side BD is also equal to side DC [Prop.5].37]. And since the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC is equal to the (square) on AC. DBA. Thus. καὶ ἐπεὶ κύκλου τοῦ ΑΓΔ εἴληπταί τι σημεῖον ἐκτὸς τὸ Β.

BC. an equilateral and equiangular pentagon has been inscribed in the given circle. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἡ ΑΒ περιφέρεια τῇ ΔΕ περιφερείᾳ ἐστὶν ἴση. in a given circle. Θ ἴσην ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ. And equal angles stand upon equal circumferences [Prop. Thus. ΒΔΑ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. and are cut in half by the straight-lines CE and DB. So let ACD and CDA have been cut in half by the straight-lines CE and DB. Therefore. ὥστε τῇ μὲν πρὸς τῷ Ζ γωνίᾳ ἴσην εἶναι τὴν ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ. ΔΕ. To circumscribe an equilateral and equiangular pentagon about a given circle. DE and EA have been joined. DE. τετμήσθω δὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ. ἐπὶ δὲ τῆς ΕΔΓΒ περιφερείας γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ ἄρα γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ ἐστιν ἴση. So I say that (it is) also equiangular. ΔΕ. ΑΕΔ ἐστιν ἴση· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πεντάγωνον. ᾿Εκκείσθω τρίγωνον ἰσοσκελὲς τὸ ΖΗΘ διπλασίονα ἔχον ἑκατέραν τῶν πρὸς τοῖς Η. have been inscribed in circle ABCDE. each of the angles ABC. ΒΓΔ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ACD and CDA are each double CAD. ACE. pentagon ABCDE is equiangular. And let AB. ΓΔΑ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ ἐστι διπλῆ. the five angles DAC. ΕΓΔ. And let triangle ACD. 3. Thus. 4. Θ γωνιῶν τῆς πρὸς τῷ Ζ. ΓΔΑ γωνιῶν διπλασίων ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ. ΕΑ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. καὶ ἐγγεγράφθω εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔΕ κύκλον τῷ ΖΗΘ τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΓΔ. ΔΒ εὐθειῶν. equiangular to F GH. Α A Ζ F Ε Β Γ ∆ E B Η Θ C D G H ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔΕ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔΕ κύκλον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγράψαι. 3. ΔΒ εὐθειῶν. ΔΕ. and BDA are thus equal to one another. the five circumferences AB. Thus.STOIQEIWN dþ. and CDE is also equal to each of BAE and AED. respectively [Prop. ibþ. ΓΔΑ δίχα ὑπὸ ἑκατέρας τῶν ΓΕ. ΓΔΑ· καὶ ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ. ΑΓΕ. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. Thus. and angle BAE upon circumference EDCB. ΓΔ. for the same (reasons). ὅτι καὶ ἰσογώνιον. So. Let the the isosceles triangle F GH be set up having each of the angles at G and H double the (angle) at F [Prop.9]. CD.26]. ΒΓ.29]. 1. such that CAD is equal to the angle at F .10]. Let ABCDE be the given circle. So it is required to inscribed an equilateral and equiangular pentagon in circle ABCDE. ΓΔ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον. ΕΑ. the pentagon ABCDE is equilateral. Εἰς ἄρα τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. 3. ὑπὸ δὲ τὰς ἴσας περιφερείας ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ὑποτείνουσιν· αἱ πέντε ἄρα εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΒ. since angles ACD and CDA are each double CAD. angle BAE is also equal to AED [Prop. 4. αἱ πέντε ἄρα γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ΒΓΔ· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ΑΒΓΔ περιφέρια ὅλῃ τῇ ΕΔΓΒ περιφερείᾳ ἐστὶν ἴση. ΒΓ. respectively [Prop. And the angle AED stands upon circumference ABCD. ΓΔΕ γωνιῶν ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ. ECD. λέγω δή. BC. 120 . καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΒ. and the (angles) at G and H (are) equal to ACD and CDA. For since the circumference AB is equal to the circumference DE. Proposition 12 Περὶ τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον περιγράψαι. Thus. καὶ βέβηκεν ἐπὶ μὲν τῆς ΑΒΓΔ περιφερείας γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ΕΑ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πεντάγωνον. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ἰσογώνιον ἐγγράψαι. Thus. καὶ τετμημέναι εἰσὶ δίχα ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΕ.2]. ἑκατέραν δὲ τῶν πρὸς τοῖς Η. ΒΓ. and EA are equal to one another [Prop. let BCD have been added to both. CDB. the whole circumference ABCD is equal to the whole circumference EDCB. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ. BCD.27]. Thus. αἱ δὲ ἴσαι γωνίαι ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβήκασιν· αἱ πέντε ἄρα περιφέρειαι αἱ ΑΒ. ΓΔΒ.

Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ μὲν ΚΛ εὐθεῖα ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΑΒΓΔΕ κατὰ τὸ Γ. 1. ΔΕ. Thus.STOIQEIWN dþ. And let F B. καί ἐστιν ἡ ΒΚ τῇ ΚΓ ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΘΚ ἄρα τῇ ΚΛ ἐστιν ἴση. of which the (square) on F C is equal to the (square) on F B. And since F B is equal to F C. the remaining (square) on CK is equal to the remaining (square) on BK. C. Δ. Thus. CF D is also double CF L. And angle F CK is also equal to F CL. ΒΓ. ΒΚ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΚ· ὥστε τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΓ.8]. F L. touching the circle. And BF C is double KF C. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΔΖΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΛΖΓ· ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΚΖΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΛΖΓ· ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΚ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΓΛ ἴση. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΖΚΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΛΓ. the (square) on F K is also equal to the (sum of the squares) on F B and BK. the (square) on F K is thus equal to the (sum of the squares) on F C and CK [Prop. ΜΗ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ αἱ πρὸς τοῖς Β. such that the circumferences AB. Ε ἤχθωσαν τοῦ κύκλου ἐφαπτόμεναι αἱ ΗΘ. ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΒΚ τῇ ΓΚ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΓΖΔ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΖΛ ἐστι διπλῆ. Δ σημείοις γωνίαι ὀρθαί εἰσιν. and F C has been joined from the center F to the point of contact C. B. δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΖ. ΒΚ ἐστιν ἴσα. for the same (reasons). ΖΛΓ τὰς δύο γωνίας ταῖς δυσὶ γωνίαις ἴσας ἔχοντα καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην κοινὴν αὐτῶν τὴν ΖΓ· καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς ἄρα πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξει καὶ τὴν λοιπὴν γωνίαν τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ μὲν ΚΓ εὐθεῖα τῇ ΓΛ. Γ. διὰ τὰ αὐτα δὴ δειχθήσεται καὶ ἡ ΘΚ τῆς ΒΚ διπλῆ.† And let the center F of the circle ABCDE have been found [Prop.18]. D. ΕΑ περιφερείας· καὶ διὰ τῶν Α. 1. and E have been conceived as the angular points of a pentagon having been inscribed (in circle ABCDE) [Prop. 3. 3. F K. ΓΔ. Ε. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΚΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΖΚΓ. Thus. and E (respectively). angle BF C is also equal to CF D [Prop. καὶ κοινὴ ἡ ΖΚ. διπλῆ ἄρα ἡ ΚΛ τῆς ΚΓ. and BKC (is double) F KC. Γ. for the same (reasons). And BKF (is equal) to F KC [Prop. ΖΚ δυσὶ ταῖς ΓΖ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΒ τῇ ΖΓ. C. ΖΚ. the two (straightlines) BF . Β. 3. καί ἐστιν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΖΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΚΖΓ διπλῆ. So it is required to circumscribe an equilateral and equiangular pentagon about circle ABCDE. ἡ ΖΓ ἄρα κάθετός ἐστιν ἐπὶ τὴν ΚΛ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἑκατέρα τῶν πρὸς τῷ Γ γωνιῶν. Thus. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Ζ κέντρου ἐπὶ τὴν κατὰ τὸ Γ ἐπαφὴν ἐπέζευκται ἡ ΖΓ. CD. Δ. Β. and DLC (is also double) F LC. for the same (reasons). KF C is also equal to LF C. ΖΓ. ΖΔ. ΓΚ. each of the angles at C is a rightangle. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΒ.1]. KL. the angles at B and D are also right-angles. F K. DE. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται C L Let ABCDE be the given circle.27]. B. LM . τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΚ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΓ. D. And since the straight-line KL touches (circle) ABCDE at C. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΖΒ. ΛΜ. So. ΖΚ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΒΚ βάσει τῇ ΓΚ [ἐστιν] ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΖΚ [γωνίᾳ] τῇ ὑπὸ ΚΖΓ ἐστιν ἴση· ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΚΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΚΓ· διπλῆ ἄρα ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΖΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΚΖΓ.47].8]. ΖΛ. καὶ εἰλήφθω τοῦ ΑΒΓΔΕ κύκλου κέντρον τὸ Ζ. So. BF C (is) double KF C. ΘΚ. F C. 1. δύο δὴ τρίγωνά ἐστι τὰ ΖΚΓ. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΔΛΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΖΛΓ. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΖΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΖΔ. So that the (sum of the squares) on F C and CK is equal to the (sum of the squares) on F B and BK. and DF C (is double) LF C. Let A. and F D have been joined. 3. and M G have been drawn through (points) A. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΚΓ τῇ ΓΛ. And since circumference BC is equal to CD. So. F C is thus perpendicular to KL [Prop.11]. BK (is) equal to CK. So. HK. ΓΚ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΒ. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 Η Α G Ε A Μ Θ H M Ζ F Β ∆ Κ Γ E B Λ D K ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔΕ· δεῖ δὲ περὶ τὸν ΑΒΓΔΕ κύκλον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον περιγράψαι. ΚΛ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ περιφέρεια τῇ ΓΔ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὀρθή ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΚ γωνία. and F K (is) common. F KC and F LC are two triangles hav- 121 . Νενοήσθω τοῦ ἐγγεγραμμένου πενταγώνου τῶν γωνιῶν σημεῖα τὰ Α. Thus. ὧν τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΓ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ ἐστιν ἴσον· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΚ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΚ ἐστιν ἴσον. Thus. ὥστε ἴσας εἶναι τὰς ΑΒ. And let GH. F K are equal to the two (straight-lines) CF . And the base BK [is] equal to the base CK. and EA are equal. angle BF K is equal to [angle] KF C [Prop. And since angle F CK is a rightangle. BC.

Thus. † ing two angles equal to two angles. it can be shown that HK (is) also double BK. and KLM double F LC. ΚΛΜ ἴση· αἱ πέντε ἄρα γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΗΘΚ. Proposition 13 Εἰς τὸ δοθὲν πεντάγωνον. λέγω δή. HKL. So. So. the straight-line KC (is) equal to CL. KLM . Τετμήσθω γὰρ ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ. 3. LM G. GM .26]. HKL is thus also equal to KLM . Thus. KL (is) thus double KC.STOIQEIWN dþ. for the same (reasons). ΜΛ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΘΚ. ὅτι καὶ ἰσογώνιον.34. each of HG. pentagon GHKLM is equilateral. and the remaining angle to the remaining angle [Prop. ΘΚΛ. ΜΗΘ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. ΚΛ ἴση· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΗΘΚΛΜ πεντάγωνον. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. See the footnote to Prop. and HKL was shown (to be) double F KC. ΗΜΛ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ὑπὸ ΘΚΛ. τῆς δὲ ὑπὸ ΖΛΓ διπλῆ ἡ ὑπὸ ΚΛΜ. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΗΘΚΛΜ πεντάγωνον. and M L can also be shown (to be) equal to each of HK and KL. similarly. So I say that (it is) also equiangular. κύκλον ἐγγράψαι. at which the straight-lines CF and DF meet one another. the pentagon GHKLM is equiangular. Thus. [Περὶ τὸν δοθέντα ἄρα κύκλον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον περιγέγραπται]· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. similarly. 1. καθ᾿ ὃ συμβάλλουσιν ἀλλήλαις αἱ ΓΖ. (namely) their common (side) F C. ΖΕ εὐθεῖαι.9]. Thus. And from the point F . ΔΖ εὐθειῶν· καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου. ΓΔΕ γωνιῶν δίχα ὑπὸ ἑκατέρας τῶν ΓΖ. καὶ ἐδείχθη τῆς μὲν ὑπὸ ΖΚΓ διπλῆ ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΚΛ. ΘΗΜ. they will also have the remaining sides equal to the (corresponding) remaining sides. and has been circumscribed about circle ABCDE. HGM . καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν K D Let ABCDE be the given equilateral and equiangular pentagon. and the angle F KC to F LC. Thus. let the 122 . igþ. and M GH are equal to one another. and GM L can also be shown (to be) equal to each of HKL and KLM . HK is also equal to KL. 1. and one side equal to one side. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ΘΗ. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. ὅ ἐστιν ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ To inscribe a circle in a given pentagon. ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΖΒ. ΛΜΗ. ΔΖ εὐθεῖαι. For let angles BCD and CDE have each been cut in half by each of the straight-lines CF and DF (respectively) [Prop. each of KHG. [Thus. καὶ περιγέγραπται περὶ τὸν ΑΒΓΔΕ κύκλον. Α A Η Μ M G Β Ε B E Ζ F Λ Θ Γ Κ H ∆ L C ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πεντάγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψαι. Thus. lateral and equiangular. So. And BK is equal to KC. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ὑπὸ ΚΘΗ. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΚΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΛΓ. ΚΛΜ. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΚΛ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΚΛΜ ἐστιν ἴση. ΖΑ. For since angle F KC is equal to F LC. So it is required to inscribe a circle in pentagon ABCDE. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον. the five angles GHK. And since KC is equal to CL. an equilateral and equiangular pentagon has been circumscribed about the given circle]. which is equiἰσογώνιον. ΗΜ.

L. So. ΕΑ εὐθειῶν διὰ τὸ ὀρθὰς εἶναι τὰς πρὸς τοῖς Η. And since BC is equal to CD. ΓΔ. ΖΜ. and CF (is) common. it follows that a (straight-line) drawn at rightangles to the diameter of the circle. ἤχθωσαν δὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου ἐπὶ τὰς ΑΒ. Μ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων καὶ ἐφάψεται τῶν ΑΒ. CD. 1. ΕΑ εὐθείας· ἐφάψεται ἄρα αὐτῶν. ΔΕ. F H. and F M have been drawn from point F . the perpendicular F H (is) equal to the perpendicular F K. F H. and triangle BCF is equal to triangle DCF . H. BC. the five straight-lines F G. and M being right-angles.STOIQEIWN dþ. And angle BCF [is] equal to angle DCF . BC. falls inside the circle. Κ. and radius one of G. 1. Thus. is equilateral and equiangular. L. And since CDE is double CDF .26]. they will also have the remaining sides equal to the (corresponding) remaining sides [Prop. ὅτι καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ΖΛ. Let it have been drawn. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ ἄρα τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΒΖ ἐστι διπλῆ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΖ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ τῆς ΒΖ εὐθείας. the circle drawn with center F . and F G are each equal to each of F H and F K. ΓΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΔΓ. Κ. F M . ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται. ΕΑ εὐθείας κάθετοι αἱ ΖΗ. will also go through the remaining points. καὶ ἐπεὶ διπλῆ ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΔΖ. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται. similarly. F L. the base BF is equal to the base DF . ΖΛ. δύο δὴ τρίγωνά ἐστι τὰ ΖΘΓ. Thus. and the right-angle F HC is also equal to the [right-angle] F KC. ΖΜ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. ΖΛ. ΔΕ. Proposition 14 Περὶ τὸ δοθὲν πεντάγωνον. ἀλλὰ τεμεῖ αὐτάς. it can be shown that BAE and AED have been cut in half by the straight-lines F A and F E. ΖΚΓ τὰς δύο γωνίας δυσὶ γωνίαις ἴσας ἔχοντα καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην κοινὴν αὐτῶν τὴν ΖΓ ὑποτείνουσαν ὑπὸ μίαν τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν· καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς ἄρα πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξει· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΖΘ κάθετος τῂ ΖΚ καθέτῳ. CF . ΔΕ. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΓΔ. F K. ΖΕ εὐθειῶν. perpendicular to the straight-lines AB. BC. γεγράφθω ὡς ὁ ΗΘΚΛΜ. ΓΔ. the two (straight-lines) BC. ΖΚ. ὁ ἄρα κέντρῳ τῷ Ζ διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Η. L. and will touch the straight-lines AB. Thus. Thus. ὅ ἐστιν ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ To circumscribe a circle about a given pentagon which ἰσογώνιον. Κ. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. Thus. F HC and F KC are two triangles having two angles equal to two angles. ΖΘ. Thus. from its extremity. a circle has been inscribed in the given pentagon which is equilateral and equiangular. CD. 3. the circle drawn with center F . ΖΗ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΖΘ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΓΖ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΚΓΖ. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται. Λ. it will touch them. 1. οὐκ ἄρα ὁ κέντρῳ τῷ Ζ διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Η.12]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. Λ. Thus. And since angle HCF is equal to KCF .4]. like GHKLM (in the figure). H. H. ὅ ἐστιν ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ Let ABCDE be the given pentagon which is equilat- 123 . So let F G. F A. εἰ γὰρ οὐκ ἐφάψεται αὐτῶν. subtending one of the equal angles. but cuts them. and F M are equal to one another. καὶ τὸ ΒΓΖ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΓΖ τριγώνῳ ἐστιν ἴσον. CF are equal to the two (straightlines) DC. Thus. κύκλος ἐγγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. DE. Μ σημείων γραφόμενος κύκλος τεμεῖ τὰς ΑΒ. ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν πεντάγωνον. ΒΓ. it can be shown that F L. DE. (namely) their common (side) F C. and EA. or EA. ὅτι καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ. Θ.16]. ΖΚ ἴση ἐστίν· αἱ πέντε ἄρα εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΖΗ. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΒΖ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΖ. Λ. F L. and F E have been joined. συμβήσεται τὴν τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένην ἐντὸς πίπτειν τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἄτοπον ἐδείχθη. angle CBF (is) equal to CDF . ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ὀρθὴ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΘΓ [ὀρθῇ] τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΚΓ ἴση. DE. The very thing was shown (to be) absurd [Prop. Thus. Thus. For if it does not touch them. κύκλον περιγράψαι. ΒΓ. does not cut the straight-lines AB. angle ABC has been cut in half by the straight-line BF . ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΓΔΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΒΖ. Θ. and the remaining angles will be equal to the (corresponding) remaining angles which the equal sides subtend [Prop. So. or M . ὅ ἐστιν ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον. ΓΔ. or M . F K. straight-lines F B. K. ΒΓ. ΖΘ. respectively. and EA (respectively) [Prop. K. Μ σημείοις γωνίας. and CDE (is) equal to ABC. CD. Εἰς ἄρα τὸ δοθὲν πεντάγωνον. and CDF to CBF . ΓΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΖ [ἐστιν] ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΒΖ βάσει τῇ ΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση. ΖΜ. K. Θ. and one side equal to one side. and radius one of G. on account of the angles at points G. ΖΚ. CBA is thus also double CBF . δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΓ. Thus. similarly. ΑΕΔ δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ ἑκατέρας τῶν ΖΑ. idþ. angle ABF is equal to F BC. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΓΖ.

καί ἐστι τῆς μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἡμίσεια ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΔ. ΖΕ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΖΓ. And EG and CG being joined. 1. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. 1. A. F A. with center D. 3. ΑΕΔ γωνιῶν δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ ἑκάστης τῶν ΖΒ. ῎Ηχθω τοῦ ΑΒΓΔΕΖ κύκλου διάμετρος ἡ ΑΔ. Thus. ΒΓ. and E (respectively). ΖΔ. will also go through the remaining points. let them have been drawn across (the cir- 124 . καὶ κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Δ διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΔΗ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΕΗΓΘ. And since angle BCD is equal to CDE. ΒΑΕ. F D. which is equilateral and equiangular. So. Ζ σημεῖα. Proposition 15 Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον ἑξάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγράψαι. ΖΕ εὐθειῶν. ΕΖ. and AED have also been cut in half by the straight-lines F B. ΖΕ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων καὶ ἔσται περιγεγραμμένος. F B. ΓΗ διήχθωσαν ἐπὶ τὰ Β. ὅτι καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ΖΒ. καὶ ἐπιζευχθεῖσαι αἱ ΕΗ. it can be shown that angles CBA. circle about the pentagon ABCDE. Α. and F CD is half of BCD. the circle drawn with center F . Α A Β Ε B E Ζ Γ F ∆ C D Τετμήσθω δὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ. And let the circle EGCH have been drawn. and let it be ABCDE. F CD is thus also equal to F DC. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου. similarly. F D. or F E. Let it have been (so) circumscribed. and F E are also each equal to each of F C and F D.STOIQEIWN dþ. ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔΕΖ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔΕΖ κύκλον ἑξάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγράψαι. to the (proposition) before this (one). F A. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ. ὁμοίως δὴ τῷ πρὸ τούτου δειχθήσεται. ΓΔΕ γωνιῶν δίχα ὑπὸ ἑκατέρας τῶν ΓΖ. So. Let the diameter AD of circle ABCDEF have been drawn.6]. So it is required to circumscribe a κύκλον περιγράψαι. Let ABCDEF be the given circle. ΖΓ.9]. ΖΑ. So let angles BCD and CDE have been cut in half by the (straight-lines) CF and DF . ὅ ἐστιν ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον. and F E. respectively [Prop. it can be shown that F B. similarly. ΖΕ. and radius DG. F A. F B. Thus. F C. τῆς δὲ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ ἡμίσεια ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΖ. and F E are equal to one another.† and let the center G of the circle have been found [Prop. καθ᾿ ὃ συμβάλλουσιν αἱ εὐθεῖαι. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ἰσογώνιον. ὅτι To inscribe an equilateral and equiangular hexagon in a given circle. κύκλος περιγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. and CDF half of CDE. and F E have been joined from point F . ΔΕ. ΖΑ· λέγω. the five straight-lines F A. BAE. ΖΕ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. a circle has been circumscribed about the given pentagon. τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ· δεῖ δὴ περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πεντάγωνον eral and equiangular. So it is required to inscribe an equilateral and equiangular hexagon in circle ABCDEF . καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΒ. And let the straight-lines F B. Περὶ ἄρα τὸ δοθὲν πεντάγωνον. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΔ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΔΓ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΖΓ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΖΔ ἐστιν ἴση. ΖΒ. καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου τὸ Η. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται. at which the straight-lines meet. and radius one of F A. ΖΑ. Thus. and will have been circumscribed.1]. ΖΒ. ΖΑ. Ε σημεῖα ἐπεζεύχθωσαν εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΖΒ. to the points B. F C. ὅτι καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ. So that side F C is also equal to side F D [Prop. ΖΔ. ὀ ἄρα κέντρῳ τῷ Ζ καὶ διαστήματι ἑνὶ τῶν ΖΑ. ΖΓ. ieþ. ΖΔ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ πέντε ἄρα εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΖΑ. περιγεγράφθω καὶ ἔστω ὁ ΑΒΓΔΕ. respectively. ΓΔ. ἐπὶ τὰ Β. ΔΖ.

DE is equal to DG. Again. ΓΗΒ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ὥστε καὶ αἱ κατὰ κορυφὴν αὐταῖς αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΑ. DGC. ΔΗΓ.29]. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΗΓ τρίτον δύο ὀρθῶν. And equal angles stand on equal circumferences [Prop. ὑπὸ δὲ τὰς ἴσας περιφερείας αἱ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ὑποτείνουσιν· αἱ ἓξ ἄρα εὐθεῖαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ το ΑΒΓΔΕΖ ἑξάγωνον. And the three angles of the triangle are equal to two right-angles [Prop.13]. CD. Thus. ΖΗΕ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΓΗ εὐθεῖα ἐπὶ τὴν ΕΒ σταθεῖσα τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΕΗΓ. CD. angle AF E is equal 125 . λέγω δή. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται. and F A) are equal to one another. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ΑΒΓΔ περιφέρεια· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ΖΑΒΓΔ ὅλῃ τῇ ΕΔΓΒΑ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ βέβηκεν ἐπὶ μὲν τῆς ΖΑΒΓΔ περιφερείας ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΔ γωνία.5]. Θ cle) to points B and F (respectively). Εἰς ἄρα τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον ἑξάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε F A For since point G is the center of circle ABCDEF . ὅτι καὶ ἰσογώνιον. Thus. αἱ δὲ ἴσαι γωνίαι ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβήκασιν· αἱ ἓξ ἄρα περιφέρειαι αἱ ΑΒ. And since the straight-line CG. H ∆ D Ε Γ Η Β E C G Ζ B Α ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ τὸ Η σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔΕΖ κύκλου. the six angles EGD. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ΗΕ τῇ ΗΔ ἐδείχθη ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΗΕ ἄρα τῇ ΕΔ ἴση ἐστίν· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΕΗΔ τρίγωνον· καὶ αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα αὐτοῦ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΕΗΔ. EF . 1. ΑΗΖ. and F A are equal to one another. similarly. DGC. inasmuch as the angles at the base of isosceles triangles are equal to one another [Prop. angles EGD. ΖΑ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. I say that (it is) also equiangular. ΑΗΖ. And equal circumferences are subtended by equal straight-lines [Prop. ΖΗΕ ἴσαι εἰσὶν [ταῖς ὑπὸ ΕΗΔ. And let AB. 3. Thus. and F GE are equal to one another. ΔΗΓ. and DEG are also equal to one another. the six circumferences AB. So. DGC. its three angles EGD.STOIQEIWN dþ. ΔΕΗ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. standing on EB. CGB. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΕ τῇ ΗΔ. Thus. hexagon ABCDEF is equilateral. makes adjacent angles EGC and CGB equal to two right-angles [Prop. Thus. καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΗΒ τρίτον ἐστὶ δύο ὀρθῶν· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΕΗΔ. πάλιν. Thus. For since circumference F A is equal to circumference ED. ΔΕ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον· καὶ ἐγγέγραπται εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔΕΖ κύκλον. ΖΕΔ γωνιῶν· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕΖ ἑξάγωνον. triangle EGD is equilateral. ὅτι καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔΕΖ ἑξαγώνου κατὰ μίαν ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΖΕ.15]. ΓΗΒ].32]. BGA. GE is also equal to ED. GE is equal to GD. ΓΗΒ. Thus. ΓΔ. 3. ΒΓ. and CGB are equal to one another. So. and F GE are also equal [to EGD. ἐπὶ δὲ τῆς ΕΔΓΒΑ περιφερείας ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΖΕ γωνία· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΖΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. I say that the hexagon ABCDEF is equilateral and equiangular. BC. and CGB (respectively)] [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕΖ ἑξάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τέ ἐστι καὶ ἰσογώνιον. 1. But. ΓΗΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιεῖ. ἐπεὶ τὸ Δ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΗΓΘ κύκλου. 1. EF . ΗΔΕ. BC. the remaining angle CGB is thus also one third of two right-angles. AGF . angle EGD is one third of two rightangles. DE. GE was shown (to be) equal to GD. DGC can also be shown (to be) one third of two right-angles. the six straight-lines (AB. EF . and F A have been joined. And hence the (angles) opposite to them BGA. let circumference ABCD have been added to both. CD. Thus. Thus. ἐπειδήπερ τῶν ἰσοσκελῶν τριγώνων αἱ πρὸς τῇ βάσει γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· καί εἰσιν αἱ τρεῖς τοῦ τριγώνου γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΕΗΔ γωνία τρίτον ἐστὶ δύο ὀρθῶν. Thus. since point D is the center of circle GCH. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΑ περιφέρεια τῇ ΕΔ περιφερείᾳ. ΒΗΑ. BC. Thus. GDE. DE. the whole of F ABCD is equal to the whole of EDCBA.26]. And angle F ED stands on circumference F ABCD. 1. DE. αἱ ἓξ ἄρα γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΕΗΔ. and angle AF E on circumference EDCBA. AGF . ΔΗΓ. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΔΗ. ΕΖ.

περιγραφήσεται περὶ τὸν κύκλον ἑξάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἀκολούθως τοῖς ἐπὶ τοῦ πενταγώνου εἰρημένοις. And it has been inscribed in circle ABCDE. Corollary ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. ᾿Εγγεγράφθω εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον τριγώνου μὲν ἰσοπλεύρου τοῦ εἰς αὐτὸν ἐγγραφομένου πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΓ. ῾Ομοίως δὲ τοῖς ἐπὶ τοῦ πενταγώνου ἐὰν διὰ τῶν κατὰ τὸν κύκλον διαιρέσεων ἐφαπτομένας τοῦ κύκλου ἀγάγωμεν. further. Let the side AC of an equilateral triangle inscribed in (the circle) [Prop. 3. Thus. iþ. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. an equilateral and equiangular hexagon can be circumscribed about the circle. Thus. if we draw tangents to the circle through the (sixfold) divisions of the (circumference of the) circle. And. (it is) manifest that a side of the hexagon is equal to the radius of the circle. ἡ δὲ ΑΒ περιφέρεια πέμτον οὖσα τοῦ κύκλου ἔσται τριῶν· λοιπὴ ἄρα D Let ABCD be the given circle. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. 4. Pìrisma. So. from this. hexagon ABCDEF is equiangular. Α A Β B Ε E Γ ∆ C ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον πεντεκαιδεκάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγράψαι. analogously to the aforementioned pentagon. being a third of the circle. 4. 4.STOIQEIWN dþ. Similarly.11]. Proposition 16 Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον πεντεκαιδεκάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν To inscribe an equilateral and equiangular fifteenτε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγράψαι. πενταγώνου δὲ ἰσοπλεύρου ἡ ΑΒ· οἵων ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλος ἴσων τμήματων δεκαπέντε. just as the circle ABCD is (made up) of fifteen equal pieces. So it is required to inscribe an equilateral and equiangular fifteen-sided figure in circle ABCD.2]. the circumference ABC. we can inscribe and circumscribe a circle in (and about) a given hexagon. sided figure in a given circle. Thus. καὶ ἔτι διὰ τῶν ὁμοίων τοῖς ἐπὶ τοῦ πενταγώνου εἰρημένοις εἰς τὸ δοθὲν ἑξάγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψομέν τε καὶ περιγράψομεν· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. an equilateral and equiangular hexagon has been inscribed in the given circle. to DEF [Prop. it can also be shown that the remaining angles of hexagon ABCDEF are individually equal to each of the angles AF E and F ED. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. τοιούτων ἡ μὲν ΑΒΓ περιφέρεια τρίτον οὖσα τοῦ κύκλου ἔσται πέντε.27]. and (the side) AB of an (inscribed) equilateral pentagon [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. And similarly to a pentagon. have been inscribed in circle ABCD. † See the footnote to Prop. will be (made up) of five 126 . by (means) similar to the aforementioned pentagon. ὅτι ἡ τοῦ ἑξαγώνου πλευρὰ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐκ τοῦ κέντρου τοῦ κύκλου.6.

through similar proofs to the pentagon. each of the circumferences BE and EC is one fifteenth of the circle ABCDE. the remainder BC (will be made up) of two equal (pieces). 4. joining BE and EC. ΕΓ περιφερειῶν πεντεκαιδέκατόν ἐστι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου.1]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. being a fifth of the circle. And similarly to the pentagon. ΕΓ ἴσας αὐταῖς κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς εὐθείας ἐναρμόσωμεν εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ[Ε] κύκλον. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.STOIQEIWN dþ. ἔτι δὲ διὰ τῶν ὁμοίων τοῖς ἐπὶ τοῦ πενταγώνου δείξεων καὶ εἰς τὸ δοθὲν πεντεκαιδεκάγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψομέν τε καὶ περιγράψομεν· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. Thus. ῾Ομοίως δὲ τοῖς ἐπὶ τοῦ πενταγώνου ἐὰν διὰ τῶν κατὰ τὸν κύκλον διαιρέσεων ἐφαπτομένας τοῦ κύκλου ἀγάγωμεν. if. ἔσται εἰς αὐτὸν ἐγγεγραμμένον πεντεκαιδεκάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. then an equilateral and equiangular fifteensided figure will have been inserted into (the circle). περιγραφήσεται περὶ τὸν κύκλον πεντεκαιδεκάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον. Thus. Let (circumference) BC have been cut in half at E [Prop. such (pieces). τετμήσθω ἡ ΒΓ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε· ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΒΕ.30]. we can circumscribe an equilateral and equiangular fifteen-sided figure about the circle. 3. further. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ἐπιζεύξαντες τὰς ΒΕ. 127 . we continuously insert straight-lines equal to them into circle ABCD[E] [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ἡ ΒΓ τῶν ἴσων δύο. and the circumference AB. And. if we draw tangents to the circle through the (fifteenfold) divisions of the (circumference of the) circle. will be (made up) of three. Thus. we can also inscribe and circumscribe a circle in (and about) a given fifteen-sided figure.

128 .

ELEMENTS BOOK 5 Proportion† † The theory of proportion set out in this book is generally attributed to Eudoxus of Cnidus. Throughout the footnotes in this book. l.. etc.. The novel feature of this theory is its ability to deal with irrational magnitudes. etc. n. 129 . denote general (possibly irrational) magnitudes. denote positive integers. whereas m. β. α. γ. which had hitherto been a major stumbling block for Greek mathematicians.

similarly. ιαʹ. τὸ δὲ τοῦ τρίτου πολλαπλάσιον μὴ ὑπερέχῃ τοῦ τοῦ τετάρτου πολλαπλασίου. ᾗ ὑπερέχει τὸ ἡγούμενον τοῦ ἑπομένου. ᾗ ὑπερέχει τὸ ἡγούμενον τοῦ ἑπομένου. ῞Οταν δὲ τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. and the multiple of the third (magnitude) does not exceed the multiple of the fourth. ὅταν τὰ τοῦ πρώτου καί τρίτου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τῶν τοῦ δευτέρου καὶ τετάρτου ἰσάκις πολλαπλασίων καθ᾿ ὁποιονοῦν πολλαπλασιασμὸν ἑκάτερον ἑκατέρου ἢ ἅμα ὑπερέχῃ ἢ ἅμα ἴσα ᾖ ἢ ἅμα ἐλλείπῇ ληφθέντα κατάλληλα. θʹ. Σύνθεσις λόγου ἐστὶ λῆψις τοῦ ἡγουμένου μετὰ τοῦ ἑπομένου ὡς ἑνὸς πρὸς αὐτὸ τὸ ἑπόμενον. to the following (magnitude) by itself. τὸ πρῶτον πρὸς τὸ τρίτον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχειν λέγεται ἤπερ πρὸς τὸ δεύτερον. And let magnitudes having the same ratio be called proportional. and (setting it equal to) the (ratio of the) following (magnitude) to the following. (Those) magnitudes are said to have a ratio with respect to one another which. Magnitudes are said to be in the same ratio. and the third to the fourth. then the first (magnitude) is said to have a greater ratio to the second than the third (magnitude has) to the fourth. And when four magnitudes are (continuously) proportional. βʹ. Διαίρεσις λόγου ἐστὶ λῆψις τῆς ὑπεροχῆς. whatever the (continuous) proportion might be. ῾Ομόλογα μεγέθη λέγεται τὰ μὲν ἡγούμενα τοῖς ἡγουμένοις τὰ δὲ ἑπόμενα τοῖς ἑπομένοις. Λόγον ἔχειν πρὸς ἄλληλα μεγέθη λέγεται. And a proportion in three terms is the smallest (possible). are both equal to. δʹ.∗∗ 14. Μέρος ἐστὶ μέγεθος μεγέθους τὸ ἔλασσον τοῦ μείζονος. And the greater (magnitude is) a multiple of the lesser when it is measured by the lesser. ἤπερ τὸ τρίτον πρὸς τὸ τέταρτον. the multiple of the first (magnitude) exceeds the multiple of the second.∗ 7. Πολλαπλάσιον δὲ τὸ μεῖζον τοῦ ἐλάττονος. ζʹ. Λόγος ἐστὶ δύο μεγεθῶν ὁμογενῶν ἡ κατὰ πηλικότητά ποια σχέσις. A composition of a ratio is a taking of the (ratio of the) leading plus the following (magnitudes). ιεʹ.\$\$ 130 . εʹ. οὕτως ἐν τοῖς δευτέροις μεγέθεσι τὸ πρῶτον πρὸς τὸ ἔσχατον· ἢ ἄλλως· λῆψις τῶν ἄκρων 1. ϛʹ. as one. in successive order. καὶ ἀεὶ ἑξῆς ὁμοίως. An alternate ratio is a taking of the (ratio of the) leading (magnitude) to the leading (of two equal ratios). ιβʹ. being multiplied. ὅταν καταμετρῇ τὸ μεῖζον. ὅταν καταμετρῆται ὑπὸ τοῦ ἐλάττονος. Definitions αʹ. ὡς ἂν ἡ ἀναλογία ὑπάρχῃ. or are both less than. Τὰ δὲ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχοντα λόγον μεγέθη ἀνάλογον καλείσθω. 5). Δι᾿ ἴσου λόγος ἐστὶ πλειόνων ὄντων μεγεθῶν καὶ ἄλλων αὐτοῖς ἴσων τὸ πλῆθος σύνδυο λαμβανομένων καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. ιϛʹ. and the following to the following. respectively. are capable of exceeding one another.§§ And so on. ιγʹ. the lesser of the greater. ᾿Αναλογία δὲ ἐν τρισὶν ὅροις ἐλαχίστη ἐστίν.§ 5. ᾿Εναλλὰξ λόγος ἐστὶ λῆψις τοῦ ἡγουμένου πρὸς τὸ ἡγούμενον καὶ τοῦ ἑπομένου πρὸς τὸ ἑπόμενον. being taken in corresponding order.†† 10. 12. ῞Οταν δὲ τρία μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. τὸ πρῶτον πρὸς τὸ τέταρτον τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχειν λέγεται ἤπερ πρὸς τὸ δεύτερον. when equal multiples of the first and the third either both exceed. ηʹ. ῞Οταν δὲ τῶν ἰσάκις πολλαπλασίων τὸ μὲν τοῦ πρώτου πολλαπλάσιον ὑπερέχῃ τοῦ τοῦ δευτέρου πολλαπλασίου.† 2. πρὸς αὐτὸ τὸ ἑπόμενον. ᾿Ανάπαλιν λόγος ἐστὶ λῆψις τοῦ ἑπομένου ὡς ἡγουμένου πρὸς τὸ ἡγούμενον ὡς ἑπόμενον. ιʹ. 11. An inverse ratio is a taking of the (ratio of the) following (magnitude) as the leading and the leading (magnitude) as the following. ἃ δύναται πολλαπλασιαζόμενα ἀλλήλων ὑπερέχειν. ᾿Εν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ μεγέθη λέγεται εἶναι πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. τότε τὸ πρῶτον πρὸς τὸ δεύτερον μείζονα λόγον ἔχειν λέγεται.\$ 9. according to any kind of multiplication whatever. ιδʹ. A magnitude is a part of a(nother) magnitude. equal multiples of the second and the fourth. And when for equal multiples (as in Def. the first is said to have to the third the squaredk ratio of that (it has) to the second. And when three magnitudes are proportional. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 VOroi.¶ 6. γʹ.‡ 4.STOIQEIWN eþ. the first to the second. ὅταν ᾖ ὡς ἐν τοῖς πρώτοις μεγέθεσι τὸ πρῶτον πρὸς τὸ ἔσχατον.¶¶ 13. 8. These magnitudes are said to be corresponding (magnitudes): the leading to the leading (of two ratios). 3. ιζʹ. when it measures the greater. ᾿Αναστροφὴ λόγου ἐστὶ λῆψις τοῦ ἡγουμένου πρὸς τὴν ὑπεροχήν. the first is said to have to the fourth the cubed‡‡ ratio of that (it has) to the second. A ratio is a certain type of condition with respect to size of two magnitudes of the same kind.

τοσαυταπλάσια ἔσται καὶ τὰ magnitudes. ὅταν τριῶν ὄντων μεγεθῶν καὶ ἄλλων αὐτοῖς ἴσων τὸ πλῆθος γίνηται ὡς μὲν ἐν τοῖς πρώτοις μεγέθεσιν ἡγούμενον πρὸς ἐπόμενον. the ratio of two magnitudes. β. a proportion in three terms—α. 15.. A separation of a ratio is a taking of the (ratio of the) excess by which the leading (magnitude) exceeds the following to the following (magnitude) by itself. Τεταραγμένη δὲ ἀναλογία ἐστίν. ǫ. aþ. ǫ. if α. are irrational. γ are the first set of magnitudes. §§ In other words. In modern notation. and γ—is written: α : β :: β : γ. if α.††† 17. β. and α : β :: δ : ǫ as well as β : γ :: ζ : δ. is denoted α : β. §§§ In other words. In other words. and m α = n β whenever m γ = n δ. if α : β then the separated ratio corresponds to α − β : β. for some m and n. ‡‡ Literally. of some (other) ἐστιν ἓν τῶν μεγεθῶν ἑνός. α is said to be a part of β if β = m α. ιηʹ. so the leading (is) to the following in the second (set of) magnitudes. if α : β :: β : γ then α : γ :: α 2 : β 2 . and δ. †† In other words. the remaining magnitude) in the first (set of) magnitudes. οὕτως ἐν τοῖς δευτέροις μεγέθεσιν ἡγούμενον πρὸς ἑπόμενον. then as many 131 .§§§ † In other words. ††† ‡‡‡ In other words. (which are) also in the same ratio taken two by two. γ are the first set of magnitudes. This definition is the kernel of Eudoxus’ theory of proportion. and as the following (is) to some other (i. and δ. if α : β then the inverse ratio corresponds to β : α. and is valid even if α. etc. ζ the second set. § In other words. ¶¶ In other words. respectively. and α : β : γ :: δ : ǫ : ζ. and m α < n β whenever m γ < n δ. k Literally.STOIQEIWN eþ. if α : β then the converted ratio corresponds to α : α − β. β. a ratio via equality (or ex aequali) occurs when as the first is to the last in the first (set of) magnitudes. \$\$ In other words. ∗∗ In other words. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 καθ᾿ ὑπεξαίρεσιν τῶν μέσων. ∗ Thus if α and β have the same ratio as γ and δ then they are proportional. of equal number (to them). Or alternately. “double”. then the ratio via equality (or ex aequali) corresponds to α : γ :: δ : ζ. There being three magnitudes. a perturbed proportion occurs when as the leading is to the following in the first (set of) magnitudes. if α : β :: β : γ :: γ : δ then α : δ :: α 3 : β 3 . α and β. kk In other words. ζ the second set. ‡ In modern notation. so the first (is) to the last in the second (set of) magnitudes. for all m and n. α has a ratio with respect to β if m α > β and n β > α. if α : β :: γ : δ then the alternate ratio corresponds to α : γ :: β : δ. (it is) a taking of the (ratio of the) outer (magnitudes) by the removal of the inner (magnitudes). and other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. ὁσαπλάσιόν (which are) equal multiples. ¶ In other words.. Proposition 1† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη ὁποσωνοῦν μεγεθῶν ἴσων τὸ If there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever πλῆθος ἕκαστον ἑκάστου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον. \$ In modern notation. so some other (is) to the leading in the second (set of) magnitudes.e. α : β :: γ : δ.kk 16.‡‡‡ 18. α : β :: γ : δ if and only if m α > n β whenever m γ > n δ. A conversion of a ratio is a taking of the (ratio of the) leading (magnitude) to the excess by which the leading (magnitude) exceeds the following. if α : β then the composed ratio corresponds to α + β : β. οὕτως ἐν τοῖς δευτέροις ἄλλο τι πρὸς ἡγούμενον. There being several magnitudes. β. “triple”. then the proportion is said to be perturbed. ὡς δὲ ἐν τοῖς πρώτοις μεγέθεσιν ἑπόμενον πρὸς ἄλλο τι. and other (magnitudes) of equal number to them.

Ζ. Let AB have been divided into magnitudes AG. Β Γ Θ A ∆ E Ζ ῎Εστω ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη τὰ ΑΒ. ΘΔ. ΘΔ τοῖς Ε. ὅτι ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Ε. καὶ τὰ ΗΒ. And let a fifth (magnitude) BG and a sixth EH also be (other) equal multiples of the second C and the fourth F (respectively). CD. καὶ τὰ ΑΗ. CH to E.STOIQEIWN eþ. (being added together). διῃρήσθω τὸ μὲν ΑΒ εἰς τὰ τῷ Ε μεγέθη ἴσα τὰ ΑΗ. For let a first (magnitude) AB and a third DE be equal multiples of a second C and a fourth F (respectively). ΗΒ. Thus. ΓΔ τῶν Ε. Thus. GB will be equal to the number of (divisions) CH. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. HD. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΗΒ τῷ Ε. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Ε καὶ τὸ ΓΔ τοῦ Ζ. F . CD equal to E. (to give) AG. τὸ δὲ ΓΘ τῷ Ζ. ΓΔ τῶν Ε. then the first (magnitude) and the fifth. Ζ· ὁσαπλάσιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Ε. so many times will all (of the first magnitudes) also (be divisible) by all (of the second). CD also be (divisible) by E. and a fifth (magnitude) and a sixth (are) also equal multiples of the second and fourth (respectively). ΘΔ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΑΗ. τοσαυταπλάσια ἔσται καὶ τὰ πάντα τῶν πάντων· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. so many times will AB. of some (other) magnitudes. HD to E. Ζ ἴσων τὸ πλῆθος ἕκαστον ἑκάστου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον· λέγω. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τῷ ΓΔ ἴσα τῷ Ζ. τοσαυταπλάσια ἔσται καὶ τὰ ΑΒ. καὶ συντεθὲν πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον τετάρτου. HD. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη ὁποσωνοῦν μεγεθῶν ἴσων τὸ πλῆθος ἕκαστον ἑκάστου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον. I say that the first (magnitude) and the fifth. τοσαυταπλάσια ἔσται καὶ τὰ ΑΒ. and AG. ΓΔ ὁποσωνοῦν μεγεθῶν τῶν Ε. ὅτι καὶ συντεθὲν πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΑΗ δευτέρου τοῦ Γ ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΔΘ τετάρτου τοῦ Ζ. if there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever (which are) equal multiples. E. this proposition reads m α + m β + · · · = m (α + β + · · · ). τὸ δὲ ΓΔ εἰς τὰ τῷ Ζ ἴσα τὰ ΓΘ. ἴσον ἄρα τὸ ΑΗ τῷ Ε. being added together. of equal number (to them). as many times as AB is (divisible) by E. For since AB. Thus. † G B C H D F Let there be any number of magnitudes whatsoever. Ζ· ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΑΒ ἴσα τῷ Ε. for the same (reasons). equal to F . F . so many times will all (of the first magnitudes) also (be divisible) by all (of the second). CD also be (divisible) by E. AB. ΓΔ ἴσα τοῖς Ε. Proposition 2† ᾿Εὰν πρῶτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τετάρτου. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 πάντα τῶν πάντων. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τοῖς ΑΒ. GB. ἔστω δὲ καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΒΗ δευτέρου τοῦ Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΕΘ τετάρτου τοῦ Ζ· λέγω. and the third and the sixth. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΑΒ μεγέθη ἴσα τῷ Ε. Α Ε Η times as one of the (first) magnitudes is (divisible) by one (of the second). and CD into (magnitudes) CH. respectively. as many (magnitudes) as (there) are in AB equal to E. and CH to F . CD are equal multiples of E. so many times will AB. thus as many magnitudes as (there) are in AB equal to E. so many (are there) also in AB. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ μὲν ΑΗ τῷ Ε. GB is equal to E. Ζ. being added together. the number of (divisions) AG. ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστιν ἓν τῶν μεγεθῶν ἑνός. F . ᾖ δὲ καὶ πέμπτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον καὶ ἕκτον τετάρτου. equal to E. ΗΒ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΓΘ. (which are) equal multiples. of equal number (to them). If a first (magnitude) and a third are equal multiples of a second and a fourth (respectively). AG (is) thus equal to E. Ζ. So. Πρῶτον γὰρ τὸ ΑΒ δευτέρου τοῦ Γ ἰσάκις ἔστω πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τὸ ΔΕ τετάρτου τοῦ Ζ. and the third (magnitude) and the sixth. 132 . (being added together. then as many times as one of the (first) magnitudes is (divisible) by one (of the second). And since AG is equal to E. I say that as many times as AB is (divisible) by E. so many (are there) also in CD equal to F . F . ΓΘ τοῖς Ε. In modern notation. will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) and the fourth (respectively). and GB. F . respectively. So. F . of some (other) magnitudes. bþ. F .

τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ ΔΘ ἴσα τῷ Ζ· ὁσαπλάσιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΗ τοῦ Γ. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τῷ ΕΘ ἴσα τῷ Ζ· ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ ΑΗ ἴσα τῷ Γ. (being added together. as many times as AG is (divisible) by C. as many (magnitudes) as (there) are in BG equal to C. and let the equal multiples EF and GH have been taken of A and C (respectively). thus as many (magnitudes) as (there) are in EF equal to A. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρῶτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τετάρτου. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τῷ ΔΕ ἴσα τῷ Ζ. and the third (magnitude) and the sixth. καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου τῶν ληφθέντων ἑκάτερον ἑκατέρου ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον τὸ μὲν τοῦ δευτέρου τὸ δὲ τοῦ τετάρτου. For let a first (magnitude) A and a third C be equal multiples of a second B and a fourth D (respectively). διῃρήσθω τὸ μὲν ΕΖ εἰς τὰ τῷ Α μεγέθη ἴσα τὰ ΕΚ. καὶ συντεθὲν πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον τετάρτου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Πρῶτον γὰρ τὸ Α δευτέρου τοῦ Β ἰσάκις ἔστω πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τὸ Γ τετάρτου τοῦ Δ. then. via equality. In modern notation. respectively. If a first (magnitude) and a third are equal multiples of a second and a fourth (respectively). Thus. † B For since AB and DE are equal multiples of C and F (respectively). so many (are there) also in GH 133 . will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) and the fourth (respectively). Thus. being added together. And so. so many (are there) also in the whole of DH equal to F . as many (magnitudes) as (there) are in the whole of AG equal to C. will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) C and the fourth F (respectively). will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) C and the fourth F (respectively). Thus. and the third and sixth. Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ ΕΖ. the first (magnitude) and the fifth. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. gþ. and equal multiples are taken of the first and the third. so many times will DH also be divisible by F . ληφθῇ δὲ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τοῦ τε πρώτου καὶ τρίτου. καὶ συντεθὲν ἄρα πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΑΗ δευτέρου τοῦ Γ ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΔΘ τετάρτου τοῦ Ζ. so many (are there) also in EH equal to F . (being added together). the (magnitudes) taken will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) and the fourth. so many (are there) also in DE equal to F . (to give) AG. ΗΘ· λέγω. for the same (reasons). καὶ εἰλήφθω τῶν Α. Α Β A Η G C Γ ∆ Ε D Θ E H F Ζ ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ καὶ τὸ ΔΕ τοῦ Ζ. τοσαυταπλάσιον ἔσται καὶ τὸ ΔΘ τοῦ Ζ. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΕΖ ἴσα τῷ Α. and a fifth (magnitude) and a sixth (are) also equal multiples of the second and fourth (respectively).STOIQEIWN eþ. this propostion reads m α + n α = (m + n) α. ᾖ δὲ καὶ πέμπτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον καὶ ἕκτον τετάρτου. ὅτι ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΕΖ τοῦ Β καὶ τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ Δ. to give) DH. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὅσα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΒΗ ἴσα τῷ Γ. being added together. if a first (magnitude) and a third are equal multiples of a second and a fourth (respectively). I say that EF and GH are equal multiples of B and D (respectively). Thus. then the first (magnitude) and the fifth. thus as many (magnitudes) as (there) are in AB equal to C. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΕΖ τοῦ Α καὶ τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ Γ. τὸ δὲ ΗΘ εἰς τὰ τῷ Γ ἴσα τὰ ΗΛ. Proposition 3† ᾿Εὰν πρῶτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τετάρτου. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΑΒ ἴσα τῷ Γ. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τῷ ΗΘ ἴσα τῷ Γ. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 to give) DH. ΚΖ. For since EF and GH are equal multiples of A and C (respectively).

ΚΖ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΗΛ. according to any kind of multiplication whatsoever. being added together. Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Ε. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. Πρῶτον γὰρ τὸ Α πρὸς δεύτερον τὸ Β τὸν αὐτὸν ἐχέτω λόγον καὶ τρίτον τὸ Γ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Δ. ληφθῇ δὲ τοῦ πρώτου καὶ τρίτου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. are thus also equal multiples of the second (magnitude) B and the fourth D (respectively) [Prop. and other random equal multiples G and 134 . KF and LH are equal multiples of B and D (respectively). So. (being added together.STOIQEIWN eþ. K L F H Thus. and GL to C. And since A and C are equal multiples of B and D (respectively). ἃ ἔτυχεν. respectively. the number of (magnitudes) EK. being taken in corresponding order. KF will be equal to the number of (magnitudes) GL. καὶ τὰ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τοῦ τε πρώτου καὶ τρίτου πρὸς τὰ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τοῦ δευτέρου καὶ τετάρτου καθ᾿ ὁποιονοῦν πολλαπλασιασμὸν τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον ληφθέντα κατάλληλα. EK and GL are thus equal multiples of B and D (respectively). Α Β Ε Γ ∆ Η Κ Λ A B E Ζ C D G Θ ᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρῶτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τετάρτου. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΕΚ τοῦ Β καὶ τὸ ΗΛ τοῦ Δ. since the first (magnitude) EK and the third GL are equal multiples of the second B and the fourth D (respectively). καὶ συντεθὲν ἄρα πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΕΖ δευτέρου τοῦ Β ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΗΘ τετάρτου τοῦ Δ. via equality. dþ. † equal to C. if a first (magnitude) and a third are equal multiples of a second and a fourth (respectively). Δ ἄλλα. and EK (is) equal to A.2]. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ Α τοῦ Β καὶ τὸ Γ τοῦ Δ. and GH into (magnitudes) GL. If a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second that a third (has) to a fourth then equal multiples of the first (magnitude) and the third will also have the same ratio to equal multiples of the second and the fourth. to give) GH. ἔστι δὲ καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΚΖ δευτέρου τοῦ Β ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΛΘ τετάρτου τοῦ Δ. τῶν δὲ Β. this proposition reads m(n α) = (m n) α. ΛΘ. Therefore. and equal multiples are taken of the first and the third. Proposition 4† ᾿Εὰν πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. Θ· λέγω. then the first (magnitude) and fifth. ἐπεὶ οὖν πρῶτον τὸ ΕΚ δευτέρου τοῦ Β ἴσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τὸ ΗΛ τετάρτου τοῦ Δ. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ΛΘ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΕΚ. Ζ. For let a first (magnitude) A have the same ratio to a second B that a third C (has) to a fourth D. KF equal to A. Let EF have been divided into magnitudes EK. καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου τῶν ληφθέντων ἑκάτερον ἑκατέρου ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον τὸ μὲν τοῦ δευτέρου τὸ δὲ τοῦ τετάρτου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. for the same (reasons). and the fifth (magnitude) KF and the sixth LH are also equal multiples of the second B and the fourth D (respectively). LH equal to C. (to give) EF . So. And let equal multiples E and F have been taken of A and C (respectively). LH. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Η. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΚΖ τοῦ Β καὶ τὸ ΛΘ τοῦ Δ. In modern notation. 5. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. τὸ δὲ ΗΛ τῷ Γ. ἴσον δὲ τὸ μὲν ΕΚ τῷ Α. οὕτως τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ Θ. then. the (magnitudes) taken will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) and the fourth. καὶ εἰλήφθω τῶν μὲν Α. and the third (magnitude) and sixth.

then if K exceeds M then L also exceeds N . καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Μ. ἴσον. τῶν δὲ Β. and the other random equal multiples M and N of B and D (respectively). ἃ ἔτυχεν. according to any kind of multiplication whatsoever. if a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second that a third (has) to a fourth then equal multiples of the first (magnitude) and the third will also have the same ratio to equal multiples of the second and the fourth.STOIQEIWN eþ. ἔλαττον. being taken in corresponding order. I say that as E (is) to G. Δ ἄλλα.5]. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ Μ τοῦ Β καὶ τὸ Ν τοῦ Δ. and if (K is) less (than M then L is also) less (than N ) [Def. and M and N other random equal multiples of G and H (respectively). ἃ ἔτυχεν. Thus. Thus. for the same (reasons). Θ ἄλλα. for all m and n. ἃ ἔτυχεν. Ν τῶν Η. 135 . τὰ δὲ Μ. 5. τὸ δὲ Ζ τοῦ Γ. M and N are equal multiples of B and D (respectively). so F (is) to H [Def. εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Κ τοῦ Μ. as E (is) to G. K and L are thus equal multiples of A and C (respectively) [Prop.3]. οὕτως τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ Θ. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 H of B and D (respectively). Ζ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Κ. Λ τῶν Ε. So. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν μὲν Α. ἴσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ Κ τοῦ Α καὶ τὸ Λ τοῦ Γ. And K and L are equal multiples of E and F (respectively). καὶ τὰ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τοῦ τε πρώτου καὶ τρίτου πρὸς τὰ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τοῦ δευτέρου καὶ τετάρτου τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον καθ᾿ ὁποιονοῦν πολλαπλασιασμὸν ληφθέντα κατάλληλα· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Θ ἄλλα. Ζ ἴσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Κ.5]. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Λ τοῦ Ν. Ν. Λ. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν Ε. so C (is) to D. Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Κ. Λ. τῶν δὲ Η. [And] since E and F are equal multiples of A and C (respectively). Ν. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. and the equal multiples K and L have been taken of E and F (respectively). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and the equal multiples K and L have been taken of A and C (respectively). ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Μ. † For let equal multiples K and L have been taken of E and F (respectively). καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Κ. 5. so F (is) to H. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. Α Β Ε Η Κ Μ Γ ∆ Ζ Θ Λ Ν A B E G K M C D F H L N Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν Ε. 5. and if (K is) equal (to M then L is also) equal (to N ). Ζ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Η. Λ. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then m α : n β :: m γ : n δ. In modern notation. and other random equal multiples M and N of G and H (respectively). [Καὶ] ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ μὲν Ε τοῦ Α. And since as A is to B.

the remainder EB will also be the same multiple of the remainder F D as that which the whole AB (is) of the whole CD (respectively). AE and EB are thus equal multiples of CF and F D (respectively). AB is an equal multiple of each of GF and CD. ὅπερ ἀφαιρεθὲν ἀφαιρεθέντος. καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον. And AE and AB are assumed (to be) equal multiples of CF and CD (respectively). Thus. And since AE and EB are equal multiples of CF and GC (respectively). ὅπερ ἀφαιρεθὲν τὸ ΑΕ ἀφαιρεθέντος τοῦ ΓΖ· λέγω. ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστιν ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἤτοι ἴσα ἐστὶν ἢ ἰσάκις αὐτῶν πολλαπλάσια. spectively) then the remainder will also be the same multiple of the remainder as that which the whole (is) of the whole (respectively). ἰσάκις δὲ ὑπόκειται πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΕΒ τοῦ ΖΔ καὶ τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ. 5. so many times let EB also have been made (divisible) by CG. Proposition 6† ᾿Εὰν δύο μεγέθη δύο μεγεθῶν ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσια. καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν τοῦ λοιποῦ ἰσάκις that a (part) taken away (is) of a (part) taken away (reἔσται πολλαπλάσιον. Thus. And AE and AB are assumed (to be) equal multiples of CF and CD (respectively). AE and AB are thus equal multiples of CF and GF (respectively) [Prop. and GC (is) equal to DF . ΓΔ δύο μεγεθῶν τῶν Ε. κεῖται δὲ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΕΒ τοῦ ΗΓ. GF (is) equal to CD. And since AE and EB are equal multiples of CF and GC (respectively). ELEMENTS BOOK 5 eþ. if a magnitude is the same multiple of a magnitude that a (part) taken away (is) of a (part) taken away (respectively) then the remainder will also be the same multiple of the remainder as that which the whole (is) of the whole (respectively). καὶ ἀφαιρεθέντα τινὰ τῶν αὐτῶν ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσια. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΓΖ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΗΓ λοιπῷ τῷ ΖΔ ἴσον ἐστίν. Proposition 5† ᾿Εὰν μέγεθος μεγέθους ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιον. I say that the remainder EB will also be the same multiple of the remainder F D as that which the whole AB (is) of the whole CD (respectively). Δύο γὰρ μεγέθη τὰ ΑΒ. Α Η Γ Ε Β A Ζ ∆ G C Μέγεθος γὰρ τὸ ΑΒ μεγέθους τοῦ ΓΔ ἰσάκις ἔστω πολλαπλάσιον. τοσαυταπλάσιον γεγονέτω καὶ τὸ ΕΒ τοῦ ΓΗ. Thus. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΕΒ τοῦ ΗΓ. ὅτι καὶ λοιπὸν τὸ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα μέγεθος μεγέθους ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιον. ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστιν ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. Thus. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ ΗΖ. † E B F D For let the magnitude AB be the same multiple of the magnitude CD that the (part) taken away AE (is) of the (part) taken away CF (respectively). respectively). ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστι καὶ τὸ ὅλον τοῦ ὅλου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. EB and AB are equal multiples of F D and CD (respectively). καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν τοῦ λοιποῦ ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον. ῾Οσαπλάσιον γάρ ἐστι τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. þ. Ζ If two magnitudes are equal multiples of two (other) magnitudes. For as many times as AE is (divisible) by CF . or (are) equal multiples 136 . In modern notation. then the remainders are also either equal to the latter (magnitudes). the remainder GC is equal to the remainder F D. Thus. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ ἑκατέρου τῶν ΗΖ. ὅπερ If a magnitude is the same multiple of a magnitude ἀφαιρεθὲν ἀφαιρεθέντος. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΕΒ τοῦ ΖΔ.1]. ΓΔ· ἴσον ἄρα τὸ ΗΖ τῷ ΓΔ.STOIQEIWN eþ. Thus. and some (parts) taken away (from the former magnitudes) are equal multiples of the latter (magnitudes. ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ὅλον τοῦ ὅλου. this proposition reads m α − m β = m (α − β). Let CF have been subtracted from both. ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΗΓ τῷ ΔΖ.

Thus. I say that HD is also equal to F . Α Η Ε Κ Γ Β A E K Θ ∆ Ζ C B H D F ῎Εστω γὰρ πρότερον τὸ ΗΒ τῷ Ε ἴσον· λέγω. αὐτῶν τῶν Ε. Β. or (are) equal multiples of them. καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἤτοι ἴσα ἐστὶν ἢ ἰσάκις αὐτῶν πολλαπλάσια· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. tio) to the equal (magnitudes). Proposition 7 Τὰ ἴσα πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ Equal (magnitudes) have the same ratio to the same πρὸς τὰ ἴσα. random magnitude. ὅτι καὶ τὸ ΘΔ τῷ Ζ ἴσον ἐστίν. Therefore.2]. καὶ ἀφαιρεθέντα τὰ ΑΗ. ἴσον δὲ τὸ μὲν ΗΒ τῷ Ε. Κείσθω γὰρ τῷ Ζ ἴσον τὸ ΓΚ. Let CH have be taken away from both. Thus. For let CK be made equal to F . ὅτι ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΗ τοῦ Ε καὶ τὸ ΓΘ τοῦ Ζ. ΓΔ τοῦ Ζ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον. καὶ τὸ Γ πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΚΘ τῷ ΓΔ. Ζ ἰσάκις ἔστω πολλαπλάσια· λέγω. ΘΔ τοῖς Ε. similarly. Thus. And AB and CD are assumed (to be) equal multiples of E and F (respectively). † G For let GB be. ῾Ομοίως δὴ δείξομεν. καὶ ἀφαιρεθέντα τινὰ τῶν αὐτῶν ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσια. and C some other τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. HD is also equal to F . Hence. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο μεγέθη δύο μεγεθῶν ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσια. we can show that even if GB is a multiple of E then HD will also be the same multiple of F . τοσαυταπλάσιον ἔσται καὶ τὸ ΘΔ τοῦ Ζ. μέγεθος τὸ Γ· λέγω. KH and CD are equal multiples of F and F (respectively). κᾂν πολλαπλάσιον ᾖ τὸ ΗΒ τοῦ Ε. ΓΘ τῶν of them (respectively). and KC to F . So. τὸ δὲ ΚΓ τῷ Ζ. Β. ἀλλὰ τὸ Ζ τῷ ΚΓ ἐστιν ἴσον· καὶ τὸ ΘΔ ἄρα τῷ Ζ ἴσον ἐστίν. equal to E. And let πολλαπλάσια. Since AG and CH are equal multiples of E and F (respectively). respectively). But. I say that A and B each have the 137 . F is equal to KC. I say that the remainders GB and HD are also either equal to E and F (respectively). Thus.STOIQEIWN eþ. (magnitude). ὅτι καὶ For let two magnitudes AB and CD be equal multiλοιπὰ τὰ ΗΒ. and GB (is) equal to E. In modern notation. this proposition reads m α − n α = (m − n) α. the remainder KC is equal to the remainder HD. 5. or (are) equal multiples of them (respectively). κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΓΘ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΚΓ λοιπῷ τῷ ΘΔ ἴσον ἐστίν. ἄλλο δέ τι. Thus. Β πρὸς τὸ Γ Let A and B be equal magnitudes. KH and CD are each equal multiples of F . Ζ ἤτοι ἴσα ἐστὶν ἢ ἰσάκις αὐτῶν ples of two magnitudes E and F (respectively). ὃ ἔτυχεν. AB and KH are thus equal multiples of E and F (respectively) [Prop. the (parts) taken away (from the former) AG and CH be equal multiples of E and F (respectively). if two magnitudes are equal multiples of two (other) magnitudes. ὅτι. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΚΘ. καὶ τὸ ΘΔ ἴσον ἔσται τῷ Ζ. KH is equal to CD. ὥστε εἰ τὸ ΗΒ τῷ Ε ἴσον ἐστίν. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ἰσάκις ἔστω πολλαπλάσια. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Ε καὶ τὸ ΚΘ τοῦ Ζ. and the latter (magnitude has the same ra῎Εστω ἴσα μεγέθη τὰ Α. ἰσάκις δὲ ὑπόκειται πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Ε καὶ τὸ ΓΔ τοῦ Ζ· ἴσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΚΘ τοῦ Ζ καὶ τὸ ΓΔ τοῦ Ζ. first of all. and some (parts) taken away (from the former magnitudes) are equal multiples of the latter (magnitudes. then the remainders are also either equal to the latter (magnitudes). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. if GB is equal to E then HD will also be equal to F . zþ.

Εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Δ τοῦ Ζ. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ Δ τῷ Ε· ἄλλο δέ τι τὸ Ζ· εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Ζ τοῦ Δ. τοῦ δὲ Γ ἄλλο. Λέγω [δή]. and (that) D has a greater ratio to C than (it has) to AB. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. Proposition 8 Τῶν ἀνίσων μεγεθῶν τὸ μεῖζον πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ ἔλαττον. so C (is) to B [Def.5]. ἴσον. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B C D E F Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν Α. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Ε τοῦ Ζ. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Α. Β ἄλλα. καὶ ἀνάπαλιν ἀνάλογον ἔσται. τὰ δὲ Δ. if F exceeds D then it also exceeds E. ῎Εστω ἄνισα μεγέθη τὰ ΑΒ. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. proportional then they will also be proportional inversely. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. ὅ ἔτυχεν. And F (is) different. D (is) thus also equal to E. ὑπερέχει καὶ τοῦ Ε. and the latter (magnitude has the same ratio) to the equal (magnitudes). ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Β ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. καὶ τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Γ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ πρὸς τὸ ΑΒ. And F is a multiple of C. this corollary reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then β : α :: δ : γ. 5. † The Greek text has “E”. For unequal magnitudes. οὕτως τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. Therefore. equal (magnitudes) have the same ratio to the same (magnitude). and (that) C (has the same ratio) to each of A and B. ἔλαττον. that if some magnitudes are ᾖ. Corollary‡ ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. τὸ Δ· λέγω. Thus. [So] I say that C † also has the same ratio to each of A and B. as A (is) to C. Thus. ἴσον δὲ τὸ Α τῷ Β. the greater (magnitude) has a greater ratio than the lesser to the same (magnitude). and if (F is) equal (to D then it is also) equal (to E). that D is equal to E. so B (is) to C [Def. πολλαπλάσιον τὸ Ζ. similarly. as C (is) to A. and if (D is) less (than F then E is also) less (than F ). Thus. ὅτι καὶ τὸ Γ πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. and F another random multiple of C. ἃ ἔτυχεν. and D another random magnitude. ὃ ἔτυχεν. and if (F is) less (than D then it is also) less (than E). which is obviously a mistake. ἄλλο δέ. ἴσον. And the latter (magnitude) has a greater ratio to the lesser (magnitude) than to the greater. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 same ratio to C. since D and E are equal multiples of A and B (respectively). Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων ὁμοίως δείξομεν. ‡ In modern notation. τὸ δὲ Ζ τοῦ Γ ἄλλο. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Δ. if D exceeds F then E also exceeds F . For. καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ πρὸς τὸ ἔλαττον μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ πρὸς τὸ μεῖζον. we can show. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. and A (is) equal to B. and D and E other random equal multiples of A and B. Ε. ὃ ἔτυχεν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and the other random multiple F of C. Β ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Δ. ὅτι ἐὰν μεγέθη τινὰ ἀνάλογον So (it is) clear. For let the equal multiples D and E have been taken of A and B (respectively). Let AB and C be unequal magnitudes. καὶ ἔστω μεῖζον τὸ ΑΒ.STOIQEIWN eþ. by the same construction. Thus. ἄλλο δέ. ὃ ἔτυχεν. from this. ἔλαττον. and let AB be the greater (of the two). καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν Ζ τοῦ Γ πολλαπλάσιον.5]. I say that AB has a greater ratio to D than C (has) to D. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ Δ τοῦ Α καὶ τὸ Ε τοῦ Β. 5. And D and E are equal multiples of A and B (respectively). Β τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. τὸ Ζ. Τὰ ἴσα ἄρα πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ πρὸς τὰ ἴσα. Ε τῶν Α. ἴσον ἄρα καὶ τὸ Δ τῷ Ε. Thus. at random. πολλαπλάσιον· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ. Pìrisma. ὅτι τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ Δ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. Ε τῶν Α. And F (has) some other (value). and if (D is) equal (to F then E is also) equal (to F ). 138 . Γ. hþ.

And N is a multiple of D. D and M (added) together is equal to N . K are equal multiples of AB. C. τὸ δὴ ἔλαττον τὸ ΕΒ πολλαπλασιαζόμενον ἔσται ποτὲ τοῦ Δ μεῖζον. πάλιν. But. A E G K D L M N Z ELEMENTS BOOK 5 B H A J G K D L M N E B A E B A C C Z H J F K D L M N ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· τὸ Δ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Γ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ ΑΒ. ἕως ἂν τὸ λαμβανόμενον πολλαπλάσιον μὲν γένηται τοῦ Δ. inasmuch as M is three times D. Κ τῶν ΑΒ. and N does not exceed F H. C. ὅτι τὸ μὲν Ν τοῦ Κ ὑπερέχει. 5. First of all.4]. τριπλάσιον δὲ τὸ Μ. καὶ ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΖΗ τοῦ ΑΕ. For. So. K other random equal multiples of AB. and let AE have been multiplied. similarly. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν Ν τοῦ Δ πολλαπλάσιον. And F G and K are equal multiples of AE and C (respectively).1]. Δ τῷ Ν ἴσα ἐστίν. I say that D also has a greater ratio to C than D (has) to AB. And since F G and GH are equal multiples of AE and EB (respectively). And K does not exceed N . ἀλλὰ συναμφότερα τὰ Δ. And F H. ἃ ἔτυχεν. and F H. GH (is) thus also equal to K. the whole of F H is greater than D and M (added) together. Therefore. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΖΘ τῶν Μ. Thus. by the same construction. μεῖζον δὲ τὸ ΖΗ τοῦ Δ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΖΘ συναμφοτέρων τῶν Δ. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΕΒ μεῖζον ἔστω. ὅτι καὶ τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Γ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ ΑΒ. F H. let BE be made equal to C. 5. Thus. τὰ ΖΘ. Κ τῶν ΑΒ. and let F G be a multiple of it which (is) greater than D. Δ μεῖζόν ἐστιν· τὸ ΖΘ ἄρα τοῦ Ν ὑπερέχει· τὸ δὲ Κ τοῦ Ν οὐχ ὑπερέχει. and let it also be the quadruple multiple N of D—the first (multiple) greater than K. Γ ἄλλα. D has a greater 139 . F G and F H are thus equal multiples of AE and AB (respectively) [Prop. being multiplied. So. But. until the (multiple) taken becomes the first multiple of D (which is) greater than K. And as many times as F G is (divisible) by AE. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΖΗ τοῦ ΑΕ καὶ τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΕΒ. and M and D (added) together is four times D.STOIQEIWN eþ. ἐπειδήπερ τὸ Μ τοῦ Δ τριπλάσιόν ἐστιν. Again. τοσαυταπλάσιον γεγονέτω καὶ τὸ μὲν ΗΘ τοῦ ΕΒ τὸ δὲ Κ τοῦ Γ· καὶ εἰλήφθω τοῦ Δ διπλάσιον μὲν τὸ Λ. εἰλήφθω. And F G (is) greater than D. καὶ ἑξῆς ἑνὶ πλεῖον. and the triple multiple M . ΕΒ πολλαπλασιαζόμενον ἔσται ποτὲ τοῦ Δ μεῖζον. Thus. τὸ δὲ Ν τοῦ ΖΘ οὐχ ὑπερέχει. 5. πρώτως δὲ μεῖζον τοῦ Κ. Thus. and N is also four times D. GH not less than M either. let AE be less than EB. (each increasing) in order by one. K is thus not less than M . we can show that N exceeds K. Μ μεῖζόν ἐστιν. F H is greater than M and D. Δ τοῦ Δ ἐστι τετραπλάσια. πε- E B G H F G H K D L M N For since AB is greater than C. καὶ πεπολλαπλασιάσθω τὸ ΑΕ. ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΕΒ καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Γ. καὶ ἔστω αὐτοῦ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΖΗ μεῖζον ὂν τοῦ Δ. Γ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια. since K is less than N first. Thus. τὸ Κ ἄρα τοῦ Μ οὔκ ἐστιν ἔλαττον. Thus.7]. And let the double multiple L of D have been taken. τὰ δὲ ΖΘ. ἴσον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΗΘ τῷ Κ. and EB (is) equal to C. πρώτως δὲ μεῖζον τοῦ Κ. τὸ δὲ Ν τοῦ Δ ἄλλο. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ν τετραπλάσιον μὲν τοῦ Δ. Thus. πολλαπλάσιον· τὸ ΑΒ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Δ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. ἔστω πρότερον τὸ ΑΕ ἔλαττον τοῦ ΕΒ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν τὸ Κ τοῦ Ν πρώτως ἐστὶν ἔλαττον. ἰσάκις δέ ἐστι πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΖΗ τοῦ ΑΕ καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Γ· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΖΘ τοῦ ΑΒ καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Γ. K are equal multiples of AB. F H exceeds N . the lesser of AE and EB. F H and K are equal multiples of AB and C (respectively). Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων ὁμοίως δείξομεν. Μ τῷ Ν ἐστιν ἴσα. κείσθω τῷ Γ ἴσον τὸ ΒΕ· τὸ δὴ ἔλασσον τῶν ΑΕ. C (respectively). καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν ΖΘ. and several more. And K is not less than M . συναμφότερα δὲ τὰ Μ. Let it have been taken. Κ ἄρα τῶν ΑΒ. M and D (added) together is equal to N . ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΖΗ τοῦ ΑΕ καὶ τὸ ΖΘ τοῦ ΑΒ. and K by C. and N another random multiple of D. ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΕΒ τῷ Γ. Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. ὃ ἔτυχεν. AB has a greater ratio to D than C (has) to D [Def. τὸ δὲ Κ τοῦ Μ οὔκ ἐστιν ἔλαττον· οὐδ᾿ ἄρα τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ Μ ἔλαττόν ἐστιν. Thus. so many times let GH also have become (divisible) by EB. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὸ Ν τοῦ Δ τετραπλάσιον· συναμφότερα ἄρα τὰ Μ. since GH and K are equal multiples of EB and C. Λέγω δή. will sometimes be greater than D [Def.

5. Let it have been multiplied. For if not. which (is) greater than GH—that is to say. For let A and B each have the same ratio to C. And K does not exceed N . being multiplied. μεῖζον δὲ τοῦ Δ· καὶ ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΕΒ. Εἰ γὰρ μή. ἐκεῖνα ἴσα ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 πολλαπλασιάσθω. So. And those (magἐστίν. And. τοῦ Ν οὐχ ὑπερέχει. A is equal to B. Thus. So. μεῖζον δὲ τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ Δ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΖΘ τῶν Δ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. A is equal to B. Thus. the lesser. (magnitudes) having the same ratio to the same (magnitude) are equal to one another. ἐπειδήπερ καὶ τὸ ΖΗ μεῖζον ὂν τοῦ ΗΘ. similarly (to the above). F G is again not less than M . ᾿Εχέτω δὴ πάλιν τὸ Γ πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. will sometimes be greater than D. have been taken. we can show that F H and K are equal multiples of AB and C (respectively). Thus. Proposition 10 Τῶν πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ λόγον ἐχόντων τὸ μείζονα λόγον For (magnitudes) having a ratio to the same (magἔχον ἐκεῖνο μεῖζόν ἐστιν· πρὸς ὃ δὲ τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον nitude). But they do. the whole of F H exceeds D and M . οὐκ ἂν ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. But it does. Thus. similarly (to the above). let the multiple N of D. τὸ δὲ Κ τοῦ Γ. πρώτως δὲ μεῖζον τοῦ ΖΗ· ὥστε πάλιν τὸ ΖΗ τοῦ Μ οὔκ ἐστιν ἔλασσον. And GH (is) greater than D. that (magnitude which) has the greater ratio is 140 . for unequal magnitudes. καὶ ἔστω τὸ ΗΘ πολλαπλάσιον μὲν τοῦ ΕΒ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β. Μ. inasmuch as F G. For if not. we (can) complete the proof in the same manner. τουτέστι τοῦ Κ. nitudes) to which the same (magnitude) has the same ratio are equal. τὸ δὲ Κ τοῦ Ν οὐχ ὑπερέχει. 5. And as many times as GH is (divisible) by EB. ὅτι τὰ ΖΘ. Τὰ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχοντα λόγον ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· καὶ πρὸς ἃ τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. And. C would not have the same ratio to each of A and B [Prop.8]. jþ. Proposition 9 Τὰ πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχοντα λὸγον ἴσα ἀλλήλοις (Magnitudes) having the same ratio to the same ἐστίν· καὶ πρὸς ἃ τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἕχει λόγον. and K by C. Β πρὸς τὸ Γ τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον· λέγω. So. ratio to C than D (has) to AB [Def. Κ τῶν ΑΒ. And those (magnitudes) to which the same (magnitude) has the same ratio are equal. Β τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον· λέγω. so many times let F G also have become (divisible) by AE. καὶ ὡσαύτως κατακολουθοῦντες τοῖς ἐπάνω περαίνομεν τὴν ἀπόδειξιν. K—also does not exceed N . again. And the latter (magnitude) has a greater ratio to the lesser (magnitude) than to the greater. I say that A is equal to B. A and B would not each have the same ratio to C [Prop. that is to say N . and let GH be a multiple of EB (which is) greater than D. τοσαυταπλάσιον γεγονέτω καὶ τὸ μὲν ΖΗ τοῦ ΑΕ. EB. Α Β A Γ B C ᾿Εχέτω γὰρ ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. (which is) the first (multiple) greater than F G.5]. 5. iþ. following the above (arguments). ἐκεῖνα ἴσα (magnitude) are equal to one another. Thus. Γ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια· καὶ εἰλήφθω ὁμοίως τὸ Ν πολλαπλάσιον μὲν τοῦ Δ. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β. And so let AE be greater than EB. ὑπερέχει.STOIQEIWN eþ. Β τὸν αὐτὸν εἶχε λόγον· ἔχει δέ· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β. the greater (magnitude) has a greater ratio than the lesser to the same (magnitude). Τῶν ἄρα ἀνίσων μεγεθῶν τὸ μεῖζον πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ ἔλαττον· καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ πρὸς τὸ ἔλαττον μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ πρὸς τὸ μεῖζον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.8]. So. I say that A is equal to B. Εἰ γὰρ μή. let C have the same ratio to each of A and B. τουτέστι τοῦ Ν. Β πρὸς τὸ Γ τὸν αὐτὸν εἶχε λόγον· ἔχει δέ· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β. οὐκ ἂν τὸ Γ πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Α.

οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ· λέγω. H. And that (magnitude) to which the latter (magnitude) has a greater ratio is (the) lesser. so E (is) to F . 5. Εἰ γὰρ μή. E (respectively). ἤτοι ἴσον ἐστὶν ἢ μεῖζον. A is not less than B. And it was shown not (to be) equal either. ἐλλείπει. A is not equal to B. A is surely either equal to or less than B. Δ ἄλλα. Μ. so C (is) to D. 5. Neither. ἐδείχθη δὲ οὐδὲ ἴσον· μεῖζον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Α τοῦ Β. Δ. so E (is) to F . iaþ. indeed. ἐπεί ἐστιν A B G L C D H M E F K N For let it be that as A (is) to B. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. ἴσον μὲν οὖν οὔκ ἐστι τὸ Β τῷ Α· τὸ Γ γὰρ ἂν πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. ἐδείχθη δέ. καὶ εἰ ἐλλείπει. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν Α. D. καὶ εἰ ἴσον ἐστίν. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ἔχει. B is not equal to A. ἴσον μὲν οὖν οὔκ ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β· ἑκάτερον γὰρ ἂν τῶν Α. again. 5. A is not equal to B. Proposition 11† Οἱ τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ οἱ αὐτοὶ καὶ ἀλλήλοις εἰσὶν οἱ αὐτοί. Ζ ἄλλα. ᾿Εχέτω δὴ πάλιν τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Α· λέγω. Β τὸν αὐτὸν εἶχε λόγον. (Ratios which are) the same with the same ratio are also the same with one another. For if not. Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. N of B. ἐκεῖνο ἔλαττόν ἐστιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. Thus. so C (is) to D. And it was shown that (it is) not equal (to A) either. let C have a greater ratio to B than C (has) to A.8]. Thus. Κ. Ν. F (respectively). ἴσον. But it does not. Neither. οὐκ ἔχει δέ· οὐκ ἄρα μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Β τοῦ Α. Εἰ γὰρ μή. Thus. B is not greater than A. Β πρὸς τὸ Γ τὸν αὐτὸν εἶχε λόγον.STOIQEIWN eþ. And since as A is to B. ἃ ἔτυχεν. M . οὐκ ἔχει δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β. For let the equal multiples G. thus if G exceeds L then H also exceeds M .7]. Thus. indeed. C. ὅτι ἔλασσόν ἐστι τὸ Β τοῦ Α. Γ Α Ε ∆ Ζ Β Θ Κ Η Λ Μ Ν ῎Εστωσαν γὰρ ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Η τοῦ Λ. and as C (is) to D. For let A have a greater ratio to C than B (has) to C. 5. Τῶν ἄρα πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ λόγον ἐχόντων τὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχον μεῖζόν ἐστιν· καὶ πρὸς ὃ τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. ἃ ἔτυχεν. and if (G is) equal (to L then H is also) 141 . ὡς δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. ἐκεῖνο ἔλαττόν ἐστιν. Θ. For (then) A would have a lesser ratio to C than B (has) to C [Prop. Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. B is less than A. K have been taken of A. For (then) C would have a lesser ratio to B than (it has) to A [Prop. But they do not. ὅτι μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Α τοῦ Β. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Λ. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Θ τοῦ Μ. οὐδὲ μὴν ἔλασσόν ἐστι τὸ Α τοῦ Β· τὸ Α γὰρ ἂν πρὸς τὸ Γ ἐλάσσονα λόγον εἶχεν ἤπερ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. Γ. I say that as A is to B. τῶν δὲ Β. And that (magnitude) to which the latter (magnitude) has a greater ratio is (the) lesser. For if not. (it is) surely either equal or greater. ὅτι οὐδὲ ἴσον· ἔλαττον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Β τοῦ Α. is B greater than A. Θ. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν μὲν Α. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. τῶν δὲ Β. οὐκ ἔχει δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἔλασσόν ἐστι τὸ Α τοῦ Β. So. and the other random equal multiples L and M of B and D (respectively). I say that A is greater than B. and the equal multiples G and H have been taken of A and C (respectively). In fact. πάλιν.8].7]. is A less than B. A is greater than B. But it does not. ἤτοι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β ἢ ἔλασσον. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. For (then) A and B would each have the same ratio to C [Prop. Α Β A Γ B C ᾿Εχέτω γὰρ τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ μείζονα λόγον ἤπερ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ· λέγω. (the) greater. οὐκ ἔχει δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β. for (magnitudes) having a ratio to the same (magnitude). A is not equal to B. But it does not. Thus. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Λ. Thus. In fact. Μ. For (then) C would have the same ratio to each of A and B [Prop. that (magnitude which) has the greater ratio is (the) greater. οὐδὲ μὴν μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Β τοῦ Α· τὸ Γ γὰρ ἂν πρὸς τὸ Β ἐλάσσονα λόγον εἶχεν ἤπερ πρὸς τὸ Α. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. I say that B is less than A. and the other random equal multiples L.

and if (G is) less (than L then K is also) less (than N ). Ν. καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Ν. Β. Οἱ ἄρα τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ οἱ αὐτοὶ καὶ ἀλλήλοις εἰσὶν οἱ αὐτοί· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. And G and K are equal multiples of A and E (respectively). B. F . Ζ ἄλλα. and if (H is) less (than M then K is also) less (than N ) [Def. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. E. ἴσον. ἔλαττον. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. Ν. But (we saw that) if H was exceeding M then G was also exceeding L. N of B. F (respectively). and if (H was) less (than M then G was also) less (than L). Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. N of B. Ζ ἄλλα. and the equal multiples H and K have been taken of C and E (respectively). ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Ν. Μ. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν Γ. Θ. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. ἃ ἔτυχεν. Ζ ἄλλα. and the other random equal multiples L. Thus. If there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever (which are) proportional then as one of the leading (magnitudes is) to one of the following. Κ τῶν δὲ Β. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν μὲν Α. ὑπερεῖχε καὶ τὸ Η τοῦ Λ. E (are) to B. (so that) as A (is) to B. A. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. Ζ ἄλλα. and if (G is) less (than L then H is also) less (than M ) [Def. C. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Λ. Ζ. (which are) proportional. Δ. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Η τοῦ Λ. οὕτως ἅπαντα τὰ ἡγούμενα πρὸς ἅπαντα τὰ ἑπόμενα. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. Δ. Ν. D. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. and L and N other random equal multiples of B and F (respectively). ἃ ἔτυχεν. ἀλλὰ εἰ ὑπερεῖχε τὸ Θ τοῦ Μ. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. D. τῶν δὲ Β. ἴσον. καὶ τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. and K (exceeds) N . Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Θ τοῦ Μ. Γ. thus if H exceeds M then K also exceeds N . and if (H was) equal (to M then G was also) equal (to L). Γ. 142 . καὶ εἰ ἴσον. τῶν δὲ Δ. Κ. and the equal multiples G. Α Β Η Θ Κ Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B Λ Μ Ν G H K ῎Εστωσαν ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη ἀνάλογον τὰ Α. and if (G is) equal (to L then K is also) equal (to N ). Θ. as A is to B. K have been taken of A. Κ. K have been taken of A. if G exceeds L then K also exceeds N . ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. M . Δ.5]. so E (is) to F .5]. Ν τῶν Β. and K to N ). καὶ εἰ ἔλλατον. Μ. For let the equal multiples G. E (respectively). and E to F . ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Λ. 5. ibþ. C. and the other random equal multiples M and N of D and F (respectively). Ζ. H. Κ τῶν Α. ἃ ἔτυχεν. M . 5. ἃ ἔτυχεν. and if (H is) equal (to M then K is also) equal (to N ). C. Ε. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Μ. 5. E (respectively). οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. C D E F L M N Let there be any number of magnitudes whatsoever. D. F (respectively).STOIQEIWN eþ. so A. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. (ratios which are) the same with the same ratio are also the same with one another. D. καὶ τὸ Ε πρὸς το Ζ· λέγω. so C (is) to D. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ and γ : δ :: ǫ : ζ then α : β :: ǫ : ζ. and E to F . καὶ εἰ ἴσον. ἔλαττον· ὥστε καὶ εἰ ὑπερέχει τὸ Η τοῦ Λ. I say that as A is to B. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. so will all of the leading (magnitudes) be to all of the following. ἴσον. Δ. since as C is to D. Proposition 12† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη ἀνάλογον. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. ἴσον. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Ν. And since as A is to B. hence. οὕτως τὰ Α. ἔλαττον. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν Α. thus if G exceeds L then H also exceeds M . Ε πρὸς τὰ Β. Γ. † equal (to M ). In modern notation.5]. so E (is) to F [Def. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Θ τοῦ Μ. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Η. so C (is) to D. ἔσται ὡς ἓν τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἓν τῶν ἑπομένων. H. C. Thus. Γ. Again. ὥστε καὶ εἰ ὑπερέχει τὸ Η τοῦ Λ. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Θ. and if (G is) equal (to L then H is also) equal (to M . ἔλαττον. and the other random equal multiples L. τὰ δὲ Λ. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. F . And.

Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. And G and G. And. ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστιν ἓν τῶν μεγεθῶν ἑνός. τῶν δὲ Δ. And as many times as G is (divisible) by C. οὕτως ἅπαντα τὰ ἡγούμενα πρὸς ἅπαντα τὰ ἑπόμενα· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Ζ ἄλλα. such that G exceeds K. so will all of the leading (magnitudes) be to all of the following. ἔσται ὡς ἓν τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἓν τῶν ἑπομένων. 5. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. τοσαυταπλάσια ἔσται καὶ τὰ πάντα τῶν πάντων.5]. if G exceeds L then G. K are also) equal (to L. N ). Κ τῶν Λ. ἃ ἔτυχεν. τοσαυταπλάσιον ἔστω καὶ τὸ Μ τοῦ Α. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ Λ καὶ τὰ Λ. H. H. sixth. ὅτι καὶ πρῶτον τὸ Α πρὸς δεύτερον τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἕξει ἤπερ πέμπτον τὸ Ε πρὸς ἕκτον τὸ Ζ. of equal number (to them).1]. And as many times as K (is divisible) 143 . N . so A. F (respectively). † and if (G is) less (than L then H is also) less (than M . 5. C D G K E F H L For let a first (magnitude) A have the same ratio to a second B that a third C (has) to a fourth D. Λ. and other random equal multiples of D and F . οὕτως τὰ Α. so many times will all (of the first magnitudes) also (be divisible) by all (of the second) [Prop. Θ. ἔλαττονα. Κ τοῦ Α καὶ τῶν Α. τρίτον δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Δ μείζονα λόγον ἐχέτω ἢ πέμπτον τὸ Ε πρὸς ἕκτον τὸ Ζ. D. and K and L other random equal multiples of D and F (respectively). ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη ἀνάλογον. Ν τοῦ Β καὶ τῶν Β. Ζ ἄλλα. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. καὶ τὸ μὲν τοῦ Γ πολλαπλάσιον τοῦ τοῦ Δ πολλαπλασίου ὑπερέχει. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἔστι τινὰ τῶν μὲν Γ. K also exceed L. Ν. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. then as many times as one of the (first) magnitudes is (divisible) by one (of the second). Θ. λέγω. τὸ δὲ Θ τοῦ Λ μὴ ὑπερέχειν· καὶ ὁσαπλάσιον μέν ἐστι τὸ Η τοῦ Γ. so many times let M be (divisible) by A. if there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever (which are) proportional then as one of the leading (magnitudes is) to one of the following. for the same (reasons). ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ὑπερέχει καὶ τὰ Η. M . D. K are also) less (than L. εἰλήφθω. hence. C. ὁσαπλάσιον δὲ τὸ Κ τοῦ Δ. inasmuch as if there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever (which are) equal multiples. In modern notation. Proposition 13† ᾿Εὰν πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἒχῃ λόγον καὶ If a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. Ε πρὸς τὰ Β. Μ. Μ. Thus. this proposition reads that if α : α′ :: β : β ′ :: γ : γ ′ etc. M . and K than N ) [Def. H. Α Β Μ Ν Γ ∆ Η Κ Ε Ζ Θ Λ A B M N Πρῶτον γὰρ τὸ Α πρὸς δεύτερον τὸ Β τὸν αὐτὸν ἐχέτω λόγον καὶ τρίτον τὸ Γ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Δ. M . igþ. τρίτον δὲ πρὸς τέταρτον μείζονα that a third (has) to a fourth. E (are) to B. then α : α′ :: (α + β + γ + · · · ) : (α′ + β ′ + γ ′ + · · · ). I say that the first (magnitude) A will also have a greater ratio to the second B than the fifth E (has) to the sixth F . τὸ δὲ τοῦ Ε πολλαπλάσιον τοῦ τοῦ Ζ πολλαπλασίου οὐχ ὑπερέχει. Thus. For since there are some equal multiples of C and E.STOIQEIWN eþ. ὥστε τὸ μὲν Η τοῦ Κ ὑπερέχειν. and the multiple of E does not exceed the multiple of F [Def. Ζ. and the third (magnitude) λόγον ἔχῃ ἢ πέμπτον πρὸς ἕκτον. ἐπειδήπερ ἐὰν ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη ὁποσωνοῦν μεγεθῶν ἴσων τὸ πλῆθος ἕκαστον ἑκάστου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον. and if (G is) equal (to L then G. K are equal multiples of A and A. then the first (magnitude) will also have a greater ratio to the second than the fifth (has) to the sixth. but H does not exceed L. F (respectively). respectively. Θ. N ) and if (G is) less (than L then G. L and L. 5. M . Γ. and let the third (magnitude) C have a greater ratio to the fourth D than a fifth E (has) to a sixth F . Δ. as A is to B. So. E (respectively). ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Κ. Γ. (for which) the multiple of C exceeds the (multiple) of D. ἴσα. Ζ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. καὶ πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον has a greater ratio to the fourth than a fifth (has) to a μείζονα λόγον ἕξει ἢ πέμπτον πρὸς ἕκτον. let them have been taken. And let G and H be equal multiples of C and E (respectively). ἃ ἔτυχεν. καὶ ἔστω τῶν μὲν Γ. of some (other) magnitudes. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν Η καὶ τὰ Η. τοσαυταπλάσιον ἔστω καὶ τὸ Ν τοῦ Β. N are also equal multiples of B and B. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η.7]. Δ. H. τῶν δὲ Δ. C.

A has a greater ratio to B than E (has) to F [Def. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. B is greater than D. ἃ ἔτυχεν. then the second will also be greater than the fourth. ἴσον. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Ν. ῾Ομοίως δὴ δεῖξομεν. τὸ δὲ Θ τοῦ Λ οὐχ ὑπερέχει· καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Μ. and the first (magnitude) καὶ τὸ δεύτερον τοῦ τετάρτου μεῖζον ἔσται. And since as A is to B. I say that B is also greater than D. 5. And let A be greater than C. ἴσον. C also has a greater ratio to D than C (has) to B. ὅτι κἂν ἴσον ᾖ τὸ Α τῷ Γ. κἂν ἴσον. ἐκεῖνο ἔλασσόν ἐστιν· ἔλασσον ἄρα τὸ Δ τοῦ Β· ὥστε μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Β τοῦ Δ. and the equal multiples M and G have been taken of A and C (respectively). ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ τὸ Α τοῦ Γ μεῖζόν ἐστιν. And M and H are equal multiples of A and E (respectively). D (is) less than B. greater than the fourth. Κ. And as A (is) to B. then the first (magnitude) will also have a greater ratio to the second than the fifth (has) to the sixth. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν μὲν Α. εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Μ τοῦ Ν. τῶν δὲ Β. and B (is) another random [magnitude]. And H does not exceeds L. ἔλαττον. So. A thus has a greater ratio to B than C (has) to B [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἒχῃ λόγον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. and if (M is) equal (to N then G is also) equal (to K). And G exceeds K. Thus. ἄλλο δέ. πρὸς ὃ δὲ τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει. and a third (magnitude) has a greater ratio to a fourth than a fifth (has) to a sixth. ἔλαττον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 5. For since A is greater than C. Δ ἄλλα. ὃ ἔτυχεν. μεῖζον δὲ ἔστω τὸ Α τοῦ Γ· λέγω. Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Μ. τρίτον δὲ πρὸς τέταρτον μείζονα λόγον ἔχῃ ἢ πέμπτον πρὸς ἕκτον. Thus. καὶ πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον μείζονα λόγον ἕξει ἢ πέμπτον πρὸς ἕκτον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.10]. κἂν ἴσον. τὰ δὲ Ν. [μέγεθος] τὸ Β. ἃ ἔτυχεν. And if (the first magnitude is) 144 . C D For let a first (magnitude) A have the same ratio to a second B that a third C (has) to a fourth D. idþ. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. τὸ δὲ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. if a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second that a third (has) to a fourth. ἔλασσον ἔσται καὶ τὸ Β τοῦ Δ. Λ τῶν Β. and the other random equal multiples N and K of B and D (respectively). Θ τῶν Α. thus if M exceeds N then G exceeds K. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. τὸ δὲ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. And that (magnitude) to which the same (magnitude) has a greater ratio is the lesser [Prop. M also exceeds N . ἴσον ἔσται καὶ τὸ Β τῷ Δ. τὸ Α ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. κἄν ἔλασσον ᾖ τὸ Α τοῦ Γ. then the second will also be κἂν ἔλαττον. and the first (magnitude) is greater than the third. Hence. and N and L other random equal multiples of B and F (respectively). if a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second that a third (has) to a fourth.STOIQEIWN eþ.5]. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ and γ : δ > ǫ : ζ then α : β > ǫ : ζ. And if (the first magnitude is) equal (to the third then the second will also be) equal (to the fourth). so C (is) to D. that a third (has) to a fourth. and even if A is less than C then B will also be less than D. Α Β Γ ∆ A B Πρῶτον γὰρ τὸ Α πρὸς δεύτερον τὸ Β αὐτὸν ἐχέτω λόγον καὶ τρίτον τὸ Γ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Δ. ὑπερέχει δὲ τὸ Η τοῦ Κ· ὑπερέχει ἄρα καὶ τὸ Μ τοῦ Ν. Thus. and if (M is) less (than N then G is also) less (than K) [Def. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ· καὶ τὸ Γ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Δ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β.8]. In modern notation. ἔλλατον. we can show that even if A is equal to C then B will also be equal to D.7]. Η. κἂν ἔλαττον. Thus. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Η τοῦ Κ. so C (is) to D. καὶ τὸ δεύτερον τοῦ τετάρτου μεῖζον ἔσται. † by D. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. ἴσον. Proposition 14† ᾿Εὰν πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον καὶ If a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. Thus. Thus. 5. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· τὸ ἄρα Α πρὸς τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. is greater than the third. Ζ ἄλλα. And if (the first magnitude is) less (than the third then the second will also be) less (than the fourth). 5. ὅτι καὶ τὸ Β τοῦ Δ μεῖζόν ἐστιν. similarly. so many times let N be (divisible) by B. ὡς δὲ τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. καὶ εἰ ἴσον.

Thus. Let AB have been divided into (magnitudes) AG. ΗΘ. taken in corresponding order. Α ∆ Η Θ Κ Λ Β Ε A H B C D Ζ K L E F ῎Εστω γὰρ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ καὶ το ΔΕ τοῦ Ζ· λέγω. For let the equal multiples E and F have been taken of A and B (respectively). so all of the leading (magnitudes will be) to all of the following [Prop. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ· λέγω. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And AG is equal to C. Β. ἃ ἔτυχεν. ΛΕ ἴσα ἀλλήλοις. ΚΛ. So. ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ. ΘΒ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΔΚ. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν Α. so AB (is) to DE. KL. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ καὶ τὸ ΔΕ τοῦ Ζ. ΘΒ. ἔσται ἄρα καὶ ὡς ἓν τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἓν τῶν ἑπομένων. 145 . GH. LE are also equal to one another. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. And if (the first magnitude is) less (than the third then the second will also be) less (than the fourth). † G Γ For let AB and DE be equal multiples of C and F (respectively). † In modern notation. ΛΕ. KL. If four magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional alternately. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς τὸ ΔΚ. GH. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΔΕ. LE. thus (for proportional magnitudes). thus as AG is to DK. ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. KL. For since AB and DE are equal multiples of C and F (respectively). and the other random equal multiples G and H of C and D (respectively). καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ἀνάλογον ἔσται. οὕτως τὸ ΗΘ πρὸς τὸ ΚΛ. And since AG. and DE into (magnitudes) DK. (so that) as A (is) to C. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὰ ΔΚ. HB are equal to one another. so C (is) to D. ieþ. ΗΘ. so B (is) to D. Δ ἄλλα. ὅτι καὶ ἐναλλὰξ [ἀνάλογον] ἔσται. ἴσον δὲ τὸ μὲν ΑΗ τῷ Γ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ΑΗ. Θ. οὕτως τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Δ. ΗΘ.7]. so many (are there) also in DE equal to F . equal to C. Ζ. καὶ τὸ ΘΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΕ. ῎Εστω τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον τὰ Α. (such that) as A (is) to B. LE.12]. οὕτως ἅπαντα τὰ ἡγουμένα πρὸς ἅπαντα τὰ ἑπόμενα· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς τὸ ΔΚ. ΛΕ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΑΗ. I say that as C is to F . this proposition reads that α : β :: m α : m β. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 equal (to the third then the second will also be) equal (to the fourth). ΘΒ ἀλλήλοις. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΔΕ. and DK to F . in corresponding order. equal to F . 5. so AB (is) to DE. Proposition 16† ᾿Εὰν τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. HB will equal the number of (magnitudes) DK. And. Β ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Ε. I say that they will also be [proportional] alternately. Δ. ΚΛ. parts have the same ratio as similar multiples. GH. so AB (is) to DE. B. 5. ΚΛ. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΑΒ μεγέθη ἴσα τῷ Γ. and HB to LE [Prop. the number of (magnitudes) AG. τὸ δὲ ΔΕ εἰς τὰ τῷ Ζ ἴσα τὰ ΔΚ. τὸ δὲ ΔΚ τῷ Ζ· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ζ οὕτως τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΔΕ. taken λόγον ληφθέντα κατάλληλα.STOIQEIWN eþ. διῃρήσθω τὸ μὲν ΑΒ εἰς τὰ τῷ Γ ἴσα τὰ ΑΗ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. Γ. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. as AG is to DK. Let A. C and D be four proportional magnitudes. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τῷ ΔΕ ἴσα τῷ Ζ. In modern notation. τῶν δὲ Γ. HB. Thus. as one of the leading (magnitudes) will be to one of the following. Τὰ ἄρα μέρη τοῖς ὡσαύτως πολλαπλασίοις τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον ληφθέντα κατάλληλα· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Proposition 15† Τὰ μέρη τοῖς ὡσαύτως πολλαπλασίοις τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει Parts have the same ratio as similar multiples. iþ. as C is to F . thus as many magnitudes as there are in AB equal to C. so GH (is) to KL. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then α T γ as β T δ. and DK.

ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ. ἐὰν δὲ τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. Β ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. so G (is) to H [Prop. ἐπεὶ τὰ Η. izþ. (so that) as AB (is) to BE. And. ΘΚ.15]. ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ. so C (is) to D. (so that) as AE (is) to EB. and if (E is) equal (to G then F is also) equal (to H). ὅτι καὶ διαιρεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ ΚΞ. ἴσον. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ M B C H K N F D O P Let AB. LM . Θ τῶν Γ. and the first is greater than the third then the second will also be greater than the fourth. ΖΔ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ ΗΘ. so CF (is) to DF . οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. οὕτως τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Δ. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Ζ τοῦ Θ. so B (is) to D [Def. ΕΒ. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΔΖ· λέγω. as A is to C. thus as A is to B. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then α : γ :: β : δ. and G and H other random equal multiples of C and D (respectively). so G (is) to H [Prop. if four magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional alternately. ΓΖ. Again. CF . Θ τῶν Γ. so CD (is) to DF . since G and H are equal multiples of C and D (respectively). ELEMENTS BOOK 5 Α Β Ε Ζ Γ ∆ Η Θ A B E F Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ Ε τοῦ Α καὶ τὸ Ζ τοῦ Β. In modern notation. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ.15]. and if (the first is) less (than the third then the second will also be) less (than the fourth) [Prop. And. εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Ε τοῦ Η. thus. ὡς τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΒ. For let the equal multiples GH. Thus. as E (is) to F . 5. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΛΜ. οὕτως τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Θ. EB. ΒΕ. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν ΑΕ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. οὕτως τὸ ΓΖ πρὸς τὸ ΔΖ. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΑΕ καὶ τὸ ΘΚ τοῦ ΕΒ. κἄν ἔλαττον. τὰ δὲ μέρη τοῖς ὡσαύτως πολλαπλασίοις τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. πάλιν. and M N have been taken of AE. ΜΝ. ΝΠ. ἴσον. And E and F are equal multiples of A and B (respectively).STOIQEIWN eþ. and if (the first is) equal (to the third then the second will also be) equal (to the fourth). καὶ εἰ ἴσον. ἔλαττον. Ζ τῶν Α. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. † C D G H And since E and F are equal multiples of A and B (respectively). τὸ δὲ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. καὶ διαιρεθέντα If composed magnitudes are proportional then they ἀνάλογον ἔσται. 5. But as C (is) to D. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ἀνάλογον ἔσται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 5. BE. And if four magnitudes are proportional. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. [οὕτως] τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. ἃ ἔτυχεν. if E exceeds G then F also exceeds H. and parts have the same ratio as similar multiples [Prop.5]. and F D (respectively). [so] E (is) to F . τὰ δὲ Η. ΓΔ. ΔΖ. and if (E is) less (than G then F is also) less (than H). Thus.11]. thus as C is to D. will also be proportional (when) separarted. ἃ ἔτυχεν. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. Δ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Ε. Proposition 17† ᾿Εὰν συγκείμενα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. HK. ὡς δὲ τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. CD. 5. Thus. οὕτως τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Θ. 5. τῶν δὲ ΕΒ. as C (is) to D. Δ ἄλλα. so E (is) to F .11]. καὶ τὸ δεύτερον τοῦ τετάρτου μεῖζον ἔσται. and the other random equal multiples KO and N P of EB and F D (respectively).14]. 146 . κἂν ἴσον. Α Ε Η Λ Μ Β Γ Θ Κ Ν Ζ ∆ A Ξ E G Π L ῎Εστω συγκείμενα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον τὰ ΑΒ. ἔλαττον. ΖΔ ἄλλα. But as A (is) to B. 5. thus. so E (is) to F [Prop. and DF be composed magnitudes (which are) proportional. ὡς δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. I say that they will also be proportional (when) separated.

ἀλλα εἰ ὑπερεῖχε τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΘΞ ὑπερεῖχε καὶ τὸ ΛΝ τοῦ ΜΠ· ὑπερέχει ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΛΝ τοῦ ΜΠ. Proposition 18† ᾿Εὰν διῃρημένα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. LM and LN are thus equal multiples of CF and CD (respectively) [Prop. τὰ δὲ ΚΞ. and if (GK is) equal (to HO then LN is also) equal (to M P ). But GH and LM are equal multiples of AE and CF (respectively). ΛΝ. GH and GK are thus equal multiples of AE and AB (respectively) [Prop. (which are) proportional. καὶ κοινοῦ ἀφαιρεθέντος τοῦ ΜΝ ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΝΠ· ὥστε εἰ ὑπερέχει τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΚΞ. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ ΛΝ τοῦ ΜΠ. καὶ συντεθέντα If separated magnitudes are proportional then they ἀνάλογον ἔσται. and KO.5]. we can show that even if GH is equal to KO then LM will also be equal to N P . εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΘΞ. In modern notation. 5. Again. So let GK exceed HO. τῶν δὲ ΕΒ. πάλιν. GH exceeds KO. similarly.5]. and KO and N P are also equal multiples of EB and F D (respectively). ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΒ. Hence. ΛΝ ἄρα τῶν ΑΒ. So. καὶ συντεθὲν τὸ ΘΞ τοῦ ΕΒ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τὸ ΜΠ τοῦ ΖΔ. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. and even if (GH is) less (than KO then LM will also be) less (than N P ). CF (is) to F D. LM also exceeds N P . and if (GK is) less (than HO then LN is also) less (than M P ) [Def. N P other random equal multiples of EB. will also be proportional (when) composed. ἔλαττον. as AE is to EB. GK and LN are equal multiples of AB and CD (respectively). And GH. ΓΖ. ΛΜ τῶν ΑΕ. M N being taken away from both. κἂν ἔλαττον. CF . ἴσον. CD.1]. F D.STOIQEIWN eþ. ΕΒ. And since as AB (is) to BE. 5. since LM and M N are equal multiples of CF and F D (respectively). ἰσάκις δὲ ἦν πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΑΒ· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΑΒ καὶ τὸ ΛΝ τοῦ ΓΔ. Thus. ΖΔ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ ΘΞ. since HK and M N are equal multiples of EB and F D (respectively). καὶ διαιρεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἔλαττον. ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ. And LM and GK were equal multiples of CF and AB (respectively). ὁμοίως δὴ δεῖξομεν. if GH exceeds KO then LM also exceeds N P . Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ΑΕ καὶ τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΑΒ. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΛΝ τοῦ ΓΔ. πάλιν. LN are equal multiples of AB. this proposition reads that if α + β : β :: γ + δ : δ then α : β :: γ : δ. so CD (is) to DF . and F D be separated magnitudes ὡς τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΒ. LN also exceeds M P . καὶ εἴληπται τῶν μὲν ΑΒ. CD. ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλασίον τὸ ΘΚ τοῦ ΕΒ καὶ τὸ ΜΝ τοῦ ΖΔ. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν ΗΘ. CF . LN have been taken of AB. ὅτι κἂν ἴσον ᾖ τὸ ΗΘ τῷ ΚΞ. HO and M P are also equal multiples of EB and F D (respectively) [Prop. M P of EB.1]. Again. ὑπερεχέτω δὴ τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΘΞ. ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΜΝ τοῦ ΖΔ. Thus. and thus. (so that) as AE (is) to EB. and. ἃ ἔτυχεν. ΓΔ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ ΗΚ. τὰ ΗΚ. thus if GK exceeds HO then LN also exceeds M P . GK. and the equal multiples GK. ΖΔ. then. and the equal multiples HO. LM are equal multiples of AE. if composed magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional (when) separarted. I say that they will also be proportional 147 . καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ. HK being taken away from both. F D. Let AE. † And since GH and HK are equal multiples of AE and EB (respectively). 5. οὕτως τὸ ΓΖ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ. ἴσον ἔσται καὶ τὸ ΛΜ τῷ ΝΠ. οὕτως τὸ ΓΖ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ· λέγω. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. 5. added together. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΝΠ. GK and LM are equal multiples of AB and CF (respectively). EB. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΔΖ. ΜΠ. Α Γ Ε Β Ζ Η A ∆ C E B F G D ῎Εστω διῃρημένα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον τὰ ΑΕ. ΖΔ ἄλλα. so CF (is) to F D [Def. ΓΔ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια. Thus. ἰσάκις δέ ἐστι πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΑΕ καὶ τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΓΖ· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΑΒ καὶ τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΓΖ. 5. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα συγκείμενα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. Thus. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὸ ΚΞ τοῦ ΕΒ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τὸ ΝΠ τοῦ ΖΔ. ΓΖ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. so ὅτι καὶ συντεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται. καὶ κοινοῦ ἀφαιρεθέντος τοῦ ΘΚ ὑπερέχει ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΚΞ. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΝΠ τῶν ΕΒ.2]. ihþ. But (we saw that) if GK was exceeding HO then LN was also exceeding M P .

οὕτως τὸ ΓΖ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ. alternately. 5. (when) composed. καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν πρὸς τὸ λοιπὸν ἔσται ὡς ὅλον πρὸς away is to the (part) taken away then the remainder to ὅλον. οὕτως ἀφαιρεθὲν πρὸς ἀφαιIf as the whole is to the whole so the (part) taken ρεθέν. so CD (is) to less than F D. Thus. so DF (is) to CF [Prop. 5. Εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ. (it is) also (the case). οὕτως τὸ ΔΓ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ. (so that) as AB is to BE. ὅτι οὐδὲ πρὸς μεῖζον· πρὸς αὐτὸ ἄρα. the second (magnitude) GD (is) also greater than the fourth F D [Prop. Thus. that a fourth magnitude proportional to three given magnitudes can always be found. so CD (is) to F D. Thus. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ ὡς ὅλον πρὸς ὅλον. (it is) also (the case that) as CG (is) to GD.16]. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΔΗ. so CD (is) to F D. Thus. οὕτως ὑπόκειται ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ.‡ Let it. ἔσται ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ. Α Γ Ε Β Ζ A ∆ C ῎Εστω γὰρ ὡς ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ. καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΓΗ πρὸς τὸ ΗΔ.17]. they will thus also be proportional (when) separated [Prop. οὕτως ἀφαιρεθὲν τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς ἀφειρεθὲν τὸ ΓΖ· λέγω. (it is) not (the case that) as AB is to BE. Also. 5. Euclid assumes. (namely) DG. ὑπόκειται δὲ καὶ ὡς τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΒ. οὕτως τὸ ΔΖ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ· καὶ ἐναλλάξ. The very thing is impossible.17]. καὶ συντεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. οὕτως τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς ἔλασσον τοῦ ΖΔ. But (it is) also less. And the first (magnitude) CG (is) greater than the third CF . οὕτως ἀφαιρεθὲν πρὸς E B F D For let the whole AB be to the whole CD as the (part) taken away AE (is) to the (part) taken away CF . For if (it is) not (the case that) as AB is to BE. ὡς δὲ τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ. (that) as BA (is) to AE. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then α + β : β :: γ + δ : δ. so the whole AB (is) to the whole CD. οὕτως τὸ ΓΖ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ. if separated magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional (when) composed. I say that the remainder EB to the remainder F D will also be as the whole AB (is) to the whole CD. For since as AB is to CD. Similarly. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς τὸ ΒΑ πρὸς τὸ ΑΕ. 5. καὶ διαιρεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται. καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΕΒ πρὸς λοιπὸν τὸ ΖΔ ἔσται ὡς ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΒ. And since composed magnitudes are proportional. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΔΖ. as BE (is) to DF . ὡς τὸ ΒΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΑ. ἀλλὰ καὶ ἔλαττον· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ. οὕτως τὸ ΓΗ πρὸς τὸ ΗΔ. 5. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ ἤτοι πρὸς ἔλασσόν τι τοῦ ΔΖ ἢ πρὸς μεῖζον. thus. as the remainder EB (is) to the remainder F D. Thus. Thus. the remainder will also be as the whole (is) to the whole. ὡς τὸ ΒΕ πρὸς τὸ ΔΖ. οὕτως τὸ ΕΑ πρὸς τὸ ΖΓ. And it was assumed that as AE (is) to CF . ᾿Εὰν ἄρα διῃρημένα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ. 148 .14]. And. ὅτι καὶ λοιπὸν τὸ ΕΒ πρὸς λοιπὸν τὸ ΖΔ ἔσται ὡς ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ. as AE is to EB. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. ijþ. Proposition 19† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ ὡς ὅλον πρὸς ὅλον. so CG (is) to GD. so CD is either to some (magnitude) less than DF . alternately. so AE (is) to CF . καὶ ἐπεὶ συγκείμενα μεγέθη ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν. then it will surely be (the case that) as AB (is) to BE. 5. (it is the case) to the same (as F D). † In modern notation. so DC (is) to CF [Prop. so EA (is) to F C [Prop. ‡ Here. be to (some magnitude) less (than DF ). συγκείμενα μεγέθη ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν· ὥστε καὶ διαιρεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται. ῎Εστω πρότερον πρὸς ἔλασσον τὸ ΔΗ. without proof. so CD (is) to DG. so the whole AB will be to the whole CD. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And since composed magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional (when) separated. (so that) as BE (is) to EA. or (some magnitude) greater (than DF ). first of all. But it was also assumed that as AE (is) to EB.16].11]. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ. we can show that neither (is it the case) to greater (than F D). (so that) as AB (is) to BE.STOIQEIWN eþ. μεῖζον δὲ τὸ πρῶτον τὸ ΓΗ τοῦ τρίτου τοῦ ΓΖ· μεῖζον ἄρα καὶ τὸ δεύτερον τὸ ΗΔ τοῦ τετάρτου τοῦ ΖΔ. so CF (is) to F D. so CF (is) to F D [Prop.

[so] D (is) to E. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ἀφαιρεθέν. δι᾿ ἴσου δὲ τὸ number to them. ὅτι κἂν ἴσον ᾖ τὸ Α τῷ Γ. (it is) also (the case). ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. so E (is) to F . κἂν D E F Let A. ὡς δὲ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. [Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐδείχθη ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ. καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος τὰ Δ. (when) converted. B. composed magnitudes are proportional. And let A be greater than C. Thus. ἔλαττον. so CD (is) to F D.STOIQEIWN eþ. And if (A is) equal (to C then D will also be) equal (to F ). Proposition 20† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος. οὕτως τὸ ΕΒ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ. this corollary reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then α : α − β :: γ : γ − δ. ἄλλο δέ τι τὸ Β. τῶν δὲ πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ λόγον ἐχόντων τὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχον μεῖζόν ἐστιν. alternately. If there are three magnitudes. συγκείμενα ἄρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν· ἐδείχθη δὲ ὡς τὸ ΒΑ πρὸς τὸ ΑΕ. ἴσον. And for (mag- 149 . and (if). ὅτι ἐὰν συγκείμενα μεγέθη So (it is) clear. δι᾿ ἴσου δὲ μεῖζον ἔστω τὸ Α τοῦ Γ· λέγω. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ.]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ τὸ τέταρτον τοῦ ἕκτου by two. inversely. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Α τοῦ Γ. Ε. And if (A is) less (than C then D will also be) less (than F ). Ζ. and others of equal σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγω. ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. [(Which is) the very thing it was required to show. D also has a greater ratio to E than F (has) to E [Prop. 5.7 corr.8]. Thus. (being) in the same ratio taken two by two. Thus. κἂν ἔλαττον. third then the fourth will also be greater than the sixth. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B C ῎Εστω τρία μεγέθη τὰ Α. ἀνάπαλιν οὕτως τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ Ε· καὶ τὸ Δ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Ε μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ Ε. 5. and B some other (magnitude). 5. I say that D will also be greater than F . so D (is) to E. as C (is) to B. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε. Β. Γ. (being) also in the same ratio taken two πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ. ἴσον ἔσται καὶ τὸ Δ τῷ Ζ. and as B (is) to C. In modern notation. And if (the first is) equal (to the third then the fourth will also be) equal (to the sixth). οὕτως τὸ ΔΓ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ· καί ἐστιν ἀναστρέψαντι]. F other (magnitudes) of equal number to them.] Pìrisma. the first is greater than the μεῖζον ἔσται. τὸ δὲ μεῖζον πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ ἔλαττον. And. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ.13]. kþ. μεῖζον ἄρα τὸ Δ τοῦ Ζ.] [And since it was shown (that) as AB (is) to CD. and C be three magnitudes. καὶ ἀναστρέψαντι ἀνάλογον ἔσται· ὅπερ ἔδει tudes are proportional then they will also be proportional δεῖξαι. (that) as AB (is) to BE. via equality. via equality. from this. ἴσον. And it was shown (that) as BA (is) to AE. Corollary‡ ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. so F (is) to E [Prop. and D. (so that) as A (is) to B. κἂν ἴσον. But as A (is) to B. ἔλαττον. κἂν ἔλαττον. καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν πρὸς τὸ λοιπὸν ἔσται ὡς ὅλον πρὸς ὅλον [ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι]. ὡς δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. that if composed magniἀνάλογον ᾖ. And (the latter) is converted (from the former). And if (the first is) less (than the third then the fourth will also be) less (than the sixth). τὸ Α ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. E. A thus has a greater ratio to B than C (has) to B. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β [οὕτως] τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε. and the greater (magnitude) has a greater ratio than the lesser to the same (magnitude) [Prop. † ‡ In modern notation. so DC (is) to CF . κἂν ἴσον. so EB (is) to F D. ὅτι καὶ τὸ Δ τοῦ Ζ μεῖζον ἔσται. For since A is greater than C. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then α : β :: α − γ : β − δ. if as the whole is to the whole so the (part) taken away is to the (part) taken away then the remainder to the remainder will also be as the whole (is) to the whole.

And (if the first is) less (than the third then the fourth will also be) less (than the sixth). † nitudes) having a ratio to the same (magnitude).STOIQEIWN eþ. (being) in the same ratio taken two by two. δι᾿ ἴσου δὲ τὸ Α τοῦ Γ μεῖζον ἔστω· λέγω. and (if). Thus. and C be three magnitudes. via equality. so E (is) to D [Prop. and others of equal number to them. ὅτι καὶ τὸ Δ τοῦ Ζ μεῖζον ἔσται. δι᾿ ἴσου δὲ τὸ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. ἴσον. καὶ τὸ τέταρτον τοῦ ἕκτου μεῖζον ἔσται. ἒλαττον. And if (the first is) equal (to the third then the fourth will also be) equal (to the sixth). if there are three magnitudes. 5. we can show that even if A is equal to C then D will also be equal to F . ἴσον. F is less than D. and others of equal number to them. so D (is) to E. καὶ τὸ τέταρτον τοῦ ἕκτου μεῖζον ἔσται. πρὸς ὃ δὲ τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει. καὶ τὸ Ε ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Ζ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Δ. And let A be greater than C. the first is greater than the third then the fourth will also be greater than the sixth. so E (is) to F . the first is greater than the third. (so that) as A (is) to B.]. A thus has a greater ratio to B than C (has) to B [Prop. Ζ. ἴσον ἔσται καὶ τὸ Δ τῷ Ζ. F other (magnitudes) of equal number to them.13]. and B some other (magnitude). via equality. and (if) their proportion (is) perturbed. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Α τοῦ Γ. ἔλαττον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἔλαττον. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγω. as C (is) to B. (being) also in the same ratio taken two by two. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. then the fourth will also be greater than the sixth. κἂν ἔλαττον. ᾖ δὲ τεταραγμένη αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία. ὡς δὲ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. Similarly. Thus. For since A is greater than C. ἀνάπαλιν οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Δ. Β. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε. 150 . 5. ἄλλο δέ τι τὸ Β. ἔστω δὲ τεταραγμένη αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία. D (is) greater than F . κἂν ἴσον. D E F Let A. τὸ Α ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. and (if). κἂν ἴσον. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. κἂν ἴσον. kaþ. δι᾿ ἴσου δὲ τὸ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. I say that D will also be greater than F . and D. And if (the first is) equal (to the third then the fourth will also be) equal (to the sixth). Ε. κἂν ἔλαττον. καὶ τὸ τέταρτον τοῦ ἕκτου μεῖζον ἔσται. E also has a greater ratio to F than E (has) to D [Prop. And if (the first is) less (than the third then the fourth will also be) less (than the sixth). And if (A is) equal (to C then D will also be) equal (to F ). ἐκεῖνο ἔλασσόν ἐστιν· ἔλασσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Ζ τοῦ Δ· μεῖζον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Δ τοῦ Ζ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος. B. and as B (is) to C. κἂν ἔλαττον.10]. (being) also in the same ratio taken two by two. that having the greater ratio is greater [Prop. Thus.10]. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ἔλαττον. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B C ῎Εστω τρία μεγέθη τὰ Α. Γ καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος τὰ Δ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. κἂν ἒλαττον. And that (magnitude) to which the same (magnitude) has a greater ratio is (the) lesser (magnitude) [Prop. 5. ᾖ δὲ τεταραγμένη αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία. δι᾿ ἴσου δὲ τὸ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. and even if (A is) less (than C then D will also be) less (than F ). Thus. In modern notation. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος. via equality. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. ὅτι κἂν ἴσον ᾖ τὸ Α τῷ Γ. And. And if (A is) less (than C then D will also be) less (than F ). D is greater than F . ἴσον. If there are three magnitudes. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. and even if (A is) less (than C then D will also be) less (than F ). Similarly. Proposition 21† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. inversely. E.8]. And let their proportion be perturbed. κἂν ἴσον. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. 5. ὡς δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. But as A (is) to B. ἔλαττον. ἔλαττον. so E (is) to F . this proposition reads that if α : β :: δ : ǫ and β : γ :: ǫ : ζ then α T γ as δ T ζ.7 corr. we can show that even if A is equal to C then D will also be equal to F . 5.

ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ἴσον. E. as A is to C. and as B (is) to C. And G and H are equal multiples of A and D (respectively). 5. so D is to F . I say that they will also be in the same ratio via equality. Ν. so E (is) to F . δὶα τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὡς τὸ Κ πρὸς τὸ Μ. and (some) other (magnitudes). ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Κ. Θ τῶν Α. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. And since as A is to B. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ. Λ. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. (which are) also in the same ratio taken two by two. If there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever. Ε. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε. and N other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. Δ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. ἴσον. K. if there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever. Κ. (so that) as A (is) to B. via equality. ἃ ἔτυχεν. τῶν δὲ Β. Therefore. and if (G is) less (than M then H is also) less (than N ) [Prop. οὕτως τὸ Λ πρὸς τὸ Ν. F . this proposition reads that if α : β :: ǫ : ζ and β : γ :: δ : ǫ then α T γ as δ T ζ. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. οὕτως τὸ Θ πρὸς τὸ Λ. and the yet other random equal multiples M and N of C and F (respectively). and if (G is) equal (to M then H is also) equal (to N ). for the same (reasons). ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος. Α ∆ Η Θ Β Ε Κ Λ Γ Ζ Μ Ν A D G H ῎Εστω ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη τὰ Α. Μ. τῶν δὲ Β.) For let the equal multiples G and H have been taken of A and D (respectively). and (if). ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Κ. ὅτι καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου ἐν τῷ αὐτῳ λόγῳ ἔσται. Ε ἄλλα. Δ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. if there are three magnitudes. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Η. and the other random equal multiples K and L of B and E (respectively). (being) also in the same ratio taken two by two. A. kbþ. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα. and the other random equal multiples K and L of B and E (respectively). Λ. κἂν ἔλαττον. And if (the first is) equal (to the third then the fourth will also be) equal (to the sixth). ἐπεὶ οὖν τρία μεγέθη ἐστὶ τὰ Η. B. since G. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. And if (the first is) less (than the third then the fourth will also be) less (than the sixth). so D (is) to E. εἰ ὑπερέχει τὸ Η τοῦ Μ. Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β.5]. as A is to C. C. (which are) also in the same ratio taken two by 151 . then they will also be in the same ratio via equality. καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ἔσται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. and H. so. thus as G is to K. καὶ ἔτι τῶν Γ. B E K L C F M N Let there be any number of magnitudes whatsoever. Ζ ἄλλα. ἃ ἔτυχεν. Thus. Ζ ἄλλα. and (some) other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. Proposition 22† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος. and the equal multiples G and H have been taken of A and D (respectively). † Thus. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε. ἃ ἔτυχεν. so H (is) to L [Prop. and M are three magnitudes. (which are) in the same ratio taken two by two. Γ καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος τὰ Δ. 5. καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος τὰ Θ. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν Α. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Θ τοῦ Ν. Thus. Δ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η.20]. καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου ἐν and (some) other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. (That is. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν μὲν Α. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. thus. Ν τῶν Γ. D. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Κ. Ε ἄλλα. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. And.STOIQEIWN eþ. ἔλαττον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Μ. of equal number to them. so L (is) to N . 5. as K (is) to M . Λ. and M and N other random equal multiples of C and F (respectively). so D (is) to E. ἔλαττον. so D (is) to F [Def. (which are) also in the same ratio taken two by two. the first is greater than the third then the fourth will also be greater than the sixth. ἃ ἔτυχεν. Β. ὡς δὲ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. via equality. if G exceeds M then H also exceeds N . Θ. τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ἔσται. In modern notation.4]. and others of equal number to them. Ζ. Θ. L. Ν. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ· λέγω. τὰ δὲ Μ. and (if) their proportion (is) perturbed.

ᾖ δὲ τεταραγμένη number to them. (being) in the same ratio taken two by two. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Ν. Ε.15]. thus as B is to D.STOIQEIWN eþ. so E (is) to F . Ε ἰσάκις ἐστι πολλαπλάσια. thus. and if (G is) less (than L then K is also) less (than N ) [Prop. and D. so L (is) to M [Prop. καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ἔσται. καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοις ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος τὰ Κ. C B A Γ Β Α Ζ Ε ∆ Λ Θ Η Μ Κ Ν ῎Εστω τρία μεγέθη τὰ Α. τὸ Κ πρὸς τὸ Μ. οὕτως τὸ Μ πρὸς τὸ Ν. so K (is) to M [Prop. ἐπεὶ τὰ Λ. B. so C (is) to E. τὰ δὲ μέρη τοῖς ἰσάκις πολλαπλασίοις τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. and L are three magnitudes. Γ καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ τὰ Δ. and C be three magnitudes. καί ἐστιν αὐτῶν τεταραγμένη ἡ ἀναλογία. so. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ε. B. Θ. if G exceeds L then K also exceeds N .11]. ἔλαττον. so C (is) to E [Prop. and K. Δ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. πάλιν. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Η. and their proportion is perturbed. And. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. as H (is) to L. οὕτως τὸ Λ πρὸς τὸ Μ. so E (is) to F . and if (G is) equal (to L then K is also) equal (to N ). thus. οὕτως τὸ Λ πρὸς τὸ Μ. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Δ. so L (is) to M [Prop. H. But. 5. Κ. so D (is) to E. as H (is) to K. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ε. as C (is) to E. (being) in the same ratio taken two by two. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 two. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. τῶν δὲ Γ. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. Κ τῶν Β. Θ τῶν Α. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. ἔστω δὲ τεταραγμένη αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία. Let the equal multiples G. as E (is) to F . And. and N of C. and F (respectively). M . and parts have the same ratio as similar multiples [Prop. ᾖ δὲ τεταραγμένη D G K E H M F L N Let A. and (if) their proportion is perturbed. and the other random equal multiples L. Β. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. for the same (reasons). E. as H (is) to K. since L and M are equal multiples of C and E (respectively). then they will also be in the same ratio via equality. then they will also be in the same ratio via equality. via equality. so M (is) to N . and L and N of C and 152 . alternately. οὕτως τὸ Θ πρὸς τὸ Κ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ Θ πρὸς τὸ Κ. thus as C is to E. Θ. as G (is) to H. † In modern notation. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ. 5. Κ τῶν Α. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ε. E and F other (magnitudes) of equal number to them.11]. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Θ. so G (is) to H.15]. since G. so C (is) to E [Prop. Μ. 5. Again. τὰ δὲ Λ. Ε. 5. Ζ. And since G and H are equal multiples of A and B (respectively). οὕτως τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Θ. as B (is) to D. and parts have the same ratio as similar multiples [Prop. ὡς δὲ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. so M (is) to N [Prop. I say that as A is to C. and as B (is) to C. Δ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. And as A is to B. Ζ. thus. And it was also shown (that) as G (is) to H. and N other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. H.21]. Ζ ἄλλα. and D (respectively).16]. Β. Ν σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. 5. alternately. And G and K are equal multiples of A and D (respectively). τὰ δὲ μέρη τοὶς ὡσαύτως πολλαπλασίοις τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε. (being) in the same ratio taken two by αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία. οὕτως τὸ Μ πρὸς τὸ Ν. M . 5. Μ τῶν Γ. so D (is) to E. Therefore. And since H and K are equal multiples of B and D (respectively). εἰ ὑπερέχει τὸ Η τοῦ Λ. 5. And. 5. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὡς τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. Proposition 23† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος If there are three magnitudes. and others of equal σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. Μ. And since as B is to C. Δ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ε· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ Θ πρὸς τὸ Κ. 5. (so that) as A (is) to B. And let their proportion be perturbed. ἃ ἔτυχεν. οὕτως τὸ Μ πρὸς τὸ Ν· καί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Δ. Ν. ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. as B (is) to D. also. Also. But. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα. kgþ. two. and K have been taken of A. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Λ. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς τὸ Θ πρὸς τὸ Λ. so M (is) to N . ἐπεὶ οὖν τρία μεγέθη ἐστὶ τὰ Η. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Δ. this proposition reads that if α : β :: ǫ : ζ and β : γ :: ζ : η and γ : δ :: η : θ then α : δ :: ǫ : θ. Εἰλήφθω τῶν μὲν Α.16]. thus. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ε. οὕτως τὸ Θ πρὸς τὸ Κ. thus as A (is) to B. so H (is) to K.15]. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ. so H (is) to K. Β.11]. ἴσον. Λ. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε· λέγω. καὶ ἐπεὶ τὰ Θ. so D (is) to F . And. Ν τῶν Γ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ὡς τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Θ.

(has) to the fourth F . via equality. via equality. καὶ συντεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς τὸ ΗΒ. as AG is to GB. οὕτως τὸ ΔΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΘ. οὕτως τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ ΕΘ. as BG is to C. this proposition reads that if α : β :: ǫ : ζ and β : γ :: δ : ǫ then α : γ :: δ : ζ. also. † In modern notation. καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ἔσται· ὅπερ F (respectively). [Def. then the first (magnitude) and the fifth. added together.22]. if there are three magnitudes. οὕτως τὸ ΕΘ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. will also have the same ratio to the second C that the third (magnitude) and the sixth. καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΔΘ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Ζ. 5. and others of equal number to them. Thus. καὶ συντεθὲν πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον πρὸς τέταρτον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεὶξαι. so DH (is) to F [Prop. ἐχέτω δὲ καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΒΗ πρὸς δεύτερον τὸ Γ τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΕΘ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Ζ· λέγω. I say that the first (magnitude) and the fifth. Proposition 24† ᾿Εὰν πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. will also have the same ratio to the second that the third (magnitude) and the sixth (added 153 . kdþ. ὡς δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ ΒΗ. οὕτως τὸ ΕΘ πρὸς τὸ Ζ· δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς τὸ Γ. καὶ συντεθὲν πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον πρὸς τέταρτον. ἔχῃ δὲ καὶ πέμπτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον καὶ ἕκτον πρὸς τέταρτον. Thus. and a fifth (magnitude) also has to the second the same ratio that a sixth (has) to the fourth. AG.7 corr.18]. so F (is) to EH. For since as BG is to C. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ Γ. have) to the fourth. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία. οὕτως τὸ ΔΘ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. added together. ὅτι καὶ συντεθὲν πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς δεύτερον τὸ Γ τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον. (added together). οὕτως τὸ ΔΘ πρὸς τὸ ΘΕ. as A (is) to C. Therefore. 5. Thus. so EH (is) to F . δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΗ. as AG is to C.STOIQEIWN eþ. If a first (magnitude) has to a second the same ratio that third (has) to a fourth. Thus. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ὡς τὸ ΒΗ πρὸς τὸ Γ. and (if) their proportion is perturbed. H For let a first (magnitude) AB have the same ratio to a second C that a third DE (has) to a fourth F . 5. οὕτως τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ ΕΘ. Thus. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΒΗ πρὸς τὸ Γ.5]. so D (is) to F ἔδει δεῖξαι. 5. then the first (magnitude) and the fifth. so DE (is) to F . will also have the same ratio to the second that the third (magnitude) and sixth (added together. 5. so F (is) to EH [Prop. And let a fifth (magnitude) BG also have the same ratio to the second C that a sixth EH (has) to the fourth F . as C (is) to BG. so EH (is) to F . And since separated magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional (when) composed [Prop.]. And. ἔχῃ δὲ καὶ πέμπτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον καὶ ἕκτον πρὸς τέταρτον. inversely. καὶ ἐπεὶ διῃρημένα μεγέθη ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν. if a first (magnitude) has to a second the same ratio that a third (has) to a fourth. then they will also be in the same ratio via equality. so DH (is) to HE. so DE (is) to EH [Prop. ἀνάπαλιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ ΒΗ. Β Α Γ ∆ Ζ Ε B Η A C G E Θ D F Πρῶτον γὰρ τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς δεύρερον τὸ Γ τὸν αὐτὸν ἐχέτω λόγον καὶ τρίτον τὸ ΔΕ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Ζ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. DH. thus. and a fifth (magnitude) also has to the second the same ratio that a sixth (has) to the fourth. thus. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. as AB is to BG. and as C (is) to BG. since as AB is to C. οὕτως τὸ ΔΕ πρὸς τὸ Ζ.22]. added together. (being) in the same ratio taken two by two.

οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. And [since] if [equal (magnitudes) are added to unequal (magnitudes) then the wholes are unequal. τὰ ἄρα ΑΗ.STOIQEIWN eþ. have) to the fourth. Ε. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ μὲν ΑΗ τῷ Ε. and CH to F . thus the remainder GB will also be to the remainder HD as the whole AB (is) to the whole CD [Prop. ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. συνάγεται τὰ ΑΒ. τὸ μέγιστον [αὐτῶν] If four magnitudes are proportional then the (sum of καὶ τὸ ἐλάχιστον δύο τῶν λοιπῶν μείζονά ἐστιν. thus as AB is to CD. τὸ δὲ ΓΘ τῷ Ζ. E. For let AG be made equal to E. Thus. ΘΔ ἀνίσων ὄντων καὶ μείζονος τοῦ ΗΒ τῷ μὲν ΗΒ προστεθῇ τὰ ΑΗ. τῷ δὲ Ζ ἴσον τὸ ΓΘ. Ε. so AG (is) to CH. if four magnitudes are proportional then the (sum of the) largest and the smallest of them is greater than the (sum of the) remaining two (magnitudes). ἐὰν ἄρα] τῶν ΗΒ. CD. and α is the greatest and δ the least. so E (is) to F . Ε. καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΗΒ πρὸς λοιπὸν τὸ ΘΔ ἔσται ὡς ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ. and E (is) equal to AG. † B D Let AB. Ζ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς ΓΘ. Proposition 25† ᾿Εὰν τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ. and F the least. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ. ΓΔ. Ζ. 5. Ζ μείζονα τῶν ΓΔ. Ζ. thus if] AG and F are added to GB. ἔστω δὲ μέγιστον μὲν αὐτῶν τὸ ΑΒ. and CH and E to HD—GB and HD being unequal. 154 . (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ [ἐπεὶ] ἐὰν [ἀνίσοις ἴσα προστεθῇ. † In modern notation. τὸ μέγιστον αὐτῶν καὶ τὸ ἐλάχιστον δύο τῶν λοιπῶν μείζονά ἐστιν. ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Ζ τῶν ΓΔ. the) largest and the smallest [of them] is greater than the (sum of the) remaining two (magnitudes). And since the whole AB is to the whole CD as the (part) taken away AG (is) to the (part) taken away CH. And AB (is) greater than CD. And let AB be the greatest of them. τὰ ὅλα ἄνισά ἐστιν. ᾿Επεὶ [οὖν] ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ. τὸ δὲ Ζ τῷ ΓΘ. then α + δ > β + γ. thus AG and F is equal to CH and E. τῷ δὲ ΘΔ προστεθῇ τὰ ΓΘ. ὅτι τὰ ΑΒ. and GB greater—it is inferred that AB and F (is) greater than CD and E. Thus. and CH equal to F . And since AG is equal to E. Ε. [In fact. and F to CH.19]. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ. so E (is) to F . GB (is) also greater than HD. keþ. Α Ε Γ Ζ Η Θ G Β A E H ∆ C F ῎Εστω τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον τὰ ΑΒ. In modern notation. Κείσθω γὰρ τῷ μὲν Ε ἴσον τὸ ΑΗ. Ε μείζονά ἐστιν. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ and ǫ : β :: ζ : δ then α + ǫ : β :: γ + ζ : δ. (such that) as AB (is) to CD. ἴσον δὲ τὸ μὲν Ε τῷ ΑΗ. μεῖζον δὲ τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ· μεῖζον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΗΒ τοῦ ΘΔ.] since as AB is to CD. οὕτως ἀφαιρεθὲν τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς ἀφαιρεθὲν τὸ ΓΘ. ἐλάχιστον δὲ τὸ Ζ· λέγω. and F be four proportional magnitudes. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. οὕτως τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς τὸ ΓΘ. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 together. I say that AB and F is greater than CD and E.

ELEMENTS BOOK 6 Similar Figures 155 .

ΑΚ. Similar rectilinear figures are those (which) have (their) angles separately equal and the (corresponding) sides about the equal angles proportional. aþ. 3. ῞Ομοια σχήματα εὐθύγραμμά ἐστιν. So. and let [any number] (of straight-lines) BG and GH be made equal to base BC.STOIQEIWN þ. as many times as base LC is (divisible) by base CD. so many times is triangle ALC also (divisible) by triangle ACD. ΑΓΔ εἴληπται ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τῆς μὲν ΒΓ βάσεως καὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου ἥ τε ΘΓ βάσις καὶ τὸ ΑΘΓ τρίγωνον. ὅσα τάς τε γωνίας ἴσας ἔχει κατὰ μίαν καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. ῎Ακρον καὶ μέσον λόγον εὐθεῖα τετμῆσθαι λέγεται. ῞Υψος ἐστὶ πάντος σχήματος ἡ ἀπὸ τῆς κορυφῆς ἐπὶ τὴν βάσιν κάθετος ἀγομένη. Thus. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσαι εἰσὶν αἱ ΓΒ. ΑΒΓ τρίγωνα ἀλλήλοις. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ὁσαπλασίων ἐστὶν ἡ ΛΓ βάσις τῆς ΓΔ βάσεως. ΚΛ. 1. for the same (reasons). τῇ δὲ ΓΔ βάσει ἴσαι ὁσαιδηποτοῦν αἱ ΔΚ. and two trian- 156 .38]. ΗΘ ἀλλήλαις. τῆς δὲ ΓΔ βάσεως καὶ τοῦ ΑΔΓ τριγώνου ἄλλα. And since CB. and parallelogram EC to parallelogram CF . ἔλασσον. βʹ. and ABC are also equal to one another [Prop. Definitions αʹ. 1. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ΑΘΓ τρίγωνον τῳ ΑΓΛ τριγώνῳ. τοσαυταπλάσιόν ἐστι καὶ τὸ ΑΘΓ τρίγωνον τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου. ΗΘ. The height of any figure is the (straight-line) drawn from the vertex perpendicular to the base. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 VOroi. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΗ. καὶ τὸ ΕΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. ΒΗ. as many times as base HC is (divisible by) base BC. Proposition 1† Τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ τὰ παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ὑπὸ τὸ αὐτὸ Triangles and parallelograms which are of the same ὕψος ὄντα πρὸς ἄλληλά ἐστιν ὡς αἱ βάσεις. ΑΓΔ. so triangle ABC (is) to triangle ACD. AK. οὕτως τὸ μεῖζον πρὸς τὸ ἔλαττὸν. AH. and AL have been joined. BG. of the same height AC.‡ And if (HC is) less (than CL then AHC is also) less (than ACL). and EC and CF parallelograms. and any number (of straight-lines) DK and KL equal to base CD. τεσσάρων δὴ ὄντων μεγεθῶν δύο μὲν βάσεων τῶν ΒΓ. 2. Θ Η Ε Α Ζ Β Γ ∆ Κ Λ H ῎Εστω τρίγωνα μὲν τὰ ΑΒΓ. And if base HC exceeds base CL then triangle AHC also exceeds triangle ACL. ΑΛ. So. ᾿Εκβεβλήσθω γὰρ ἡ ΒΔ ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τὰ μέρη ἐπὶ τὰ Θ. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ ΑΘΓ τρίγωνον τοῦ ΑΓΛ τριγώνου. And if base HC is equal to base CL then triangle AHC is also equal to triangle ACL [Prop. ὁσαπλασίων ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΘΓ βάσις τῆς ΒΓ βάσεως. triangles AHG. I say that as base BC is to base CD. ὅταν ᾖ ὡς ἡ ὅλη πρὸς τὸ μεῖζον τμῆμα. two bases. ἴσα ἐστὶ καὶ τὰ ΑΘΗ. A straight-line is said to have been cut in extreme and mean ratio when as the whole is to the greater segment so the greater (segment is) to the lesser. ΑΘ. For let the (straight-line) BD have been produced in each direction to points H and L. ΓΖ ὑπὸ τὸ αὐτὸ ὕψος τὸ ΑΓ· λέγω. καὶ εἰ ἐλάσσων. καὶ εἰ ὑπερέχει ἡ ΘΓ βάσις τῆς ΓΛ βάσεως. And let AG. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΓ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ βάσις. καὶ κείσθωσαν τῇ μὲν ΒΓ βάσει ἴσαι [ὁσαιδηποτοῦν] αἱ ΒΗ.38]. τοσαυταπλάσιόν ἐστι καὶ τὸ ΑΛΓ τρίγωνον τοῦ ΑΓΔ τριγώνου· καὶ εἰ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΘΓ βάσις τῇ ΓΛ βάσει. their being four magnitudes. γʹ. παραλληλόγραμμα δὲ τὰ ΕΓ. ΓΔ. δύο δὲ τριγώνων τῶν ΑΒΓ. height are to one another as their bases. and GH are equal to one another. G E A F B C D K L Let ABC and ACD be triangles. Λ σημεῖα. ΑΗΒ. so many times is triangle AHC also (divisible) by triangle ABC. AGB. 1. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΓΔ τρίγωνον. BC and CD.

And if (two of) the sides of a triangle are cut proportionally then the straight-line joining the cutting (points) will be parallel to the remaining side of the triangle. And it has been shown that if base HC exceeds base CL then triangle AHC also exceeds triangle ALC. Proposition 2 ᾿Εὰν τριγώνου παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν ἀχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα.STOIQEIWN þ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ἃ ἔτυχεν. ABC and ACD. ἀνάλογον τεμεῖ τὰς τοῦ τριγώνου πλευράς· καὶ ἐὰν αἱ τοῦ τριγώνου πλευραὶ ἀνάλογον τμηθῶσιν. 157 .34].11]. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΓΔ τρίγωνον. And since parallelogram EC is double triangle ABC. 1. bþ. equal multiples have been taken of base BC and triangle ABC—(namely). Thus. so οὕτως ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. or parallelograms. Τὰ ἄρα τρίγωνα καὶ τὰ παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ὑπὸ τὸ αὐτὸ ὕψος ὄντα πρὸς ἄλληλά ἐστιν ὡς αἱ βάσεις· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 5. and if (HC is) equal (to CL then AHC is also) equal (to ALC). οὕτως τὸ ΕΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. base LC and triangle ALC. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐδείχθη. do not share a common side. so triangle ABC (is) to triangle ACD [Def. 5. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ βάσιν. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΓΔ τρίγωνον. since it was shown that as base BC (is) to CD. οὕτως τὸ ΕΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΖΓ παραλληλόγραμμον. καί εἰ ἴση. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια ἥ τε ΛΓ βάσις καὶ τὸ ΑΛΓ τρίγωνον· καὶ δέδεικται. οὕτως τὸ ΕΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΖΓ παραλληλόγραμμον. ἔλασσον· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΓ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ βάσιν. CE (is) to EA. so parallelogram EC (is) to parallelogram F C. † As is easily demonstrated. base HC and triangle AHC—and other random equal multiples of base CD and triangle ADC—(namely).5]. τοῦ δὲ ΑΓΔ τριγώνου διπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΖΓ παραλληλόγραμμον. gles.15]. so parallelogram EC (is) to parallelogram F C [Prop. as base BC (is) to base CD. this proposition holds even when the triangles. In fact. 5. sides BC of triangle ABC. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΓΔ τρίγωνον. also. and parts have the same ratio as similar multiples [Prop. ‡ This is a straight-forward generalization of Prop. Thus. τὰ δὲ μέρη τοῖς ὡσαύτως πολλαπλασίοις τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. εἰ ὑπερέχει ἡ ΘΓ βάσις τῆς ΓΛ βάσεως.38. thus. so parallelogram EC (is) to parallelogram CF . triangles and parallelograms which are of the same height are to one another as their bases. ἴσον. so triangle ABC (is) to triangle ACD. Καὶ ἐπεὶ τοῦ μὲν ΑΒΓ τριγώνου διπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΓ παραλληλόγραμμον. and if (HC is) less (than CL then AHC is also) less (than ALC). Α A ∆ Ε Β D Γ E B C Τριγώνου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ παράλληλος μιᾷ τῶν πλευρῶν For let DE have been drawn parallel to one of the τῇ ΒΓ ἤχθω ἡ ΔΕ· λέγω. and as triangle ABC (is) to triangle ACD. and parallelogram F C is double triangle ACD [Prop. 1. as base BC is to base CD. and/or are not right-angled. καὶ εἰ ἔλασσων. I say that as BD is to DA. thus as triangle ABC is to triangle ACD. ὡς μὲν ἡ ΒΓ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. If some straight-line is drawn parallel to one of the sides of a triangle then it will cut the (other) sides of the triangle proportionally. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ ΑΘΓ τρίγωνον τοῦ ΑΛΓ τριγώνου. ὅτι. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰς τομὰς ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα παρὰ τὴν λοιπὴν ἔσται τοῦ τριγώνου πλευράν. ὡς δὲ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΓΔ τρίγωνον. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ.

ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΓ. F A is equal to DC. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. BF is parallel to CD [Prop.16]. Therefore. and as BC (is) to CA. and. 1. παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΒΖ τῇ ΓΔ. Thus. and those (sides) subtending equal ὑποτείνουσαι. F ACD is a parallelogram. Let them have been produced. and let them meet at (point) F . πάλιν. οὕτως ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ. Τῶν ἄρα ἰσογωνίων τριγώνων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας καὶ ὁμόλογοι αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας ὑποτείνουσαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. angles correspond.17].28]. καὶ ἐπεὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. C E Let ABC and DCE be equiangular triangles. 5]. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ.28]. παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΖΕ. since (angle) ACB is equal to DEC. And since angle DCE is equal to ABC. so F D (is) to DE [Prop. Thus. Again. ὅτι τῶν ΑΒΓ. as BA (is) to AC. thus as BA is to AF . οὕτως ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ.34]. as AB (is) to BC. thus as BC (is) to CE. being produced. And AF (is) equal to CD. Thus. so BC (is) to CE [Prop. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ.STOIQEIWN þ. and. since CD is parallel to BF . ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΓΔ τῇ ΒΖ. since it was shown that as AB (is) to BC. Thus. so CE (is) to ED [Prop. 1. I say that in triangles ABC and DCE the sides about the equal angles are proportional. and. 1. alternately. ΔΕΓ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάττονές εἰσιν· αἱ ΒΑ. παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΑΓΔ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ μὲν ΖΑ τῇ ΔΓ. thus. ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΓ. so CE (is) to ED. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΑ. 5. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΑ. Again. ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν καὶ συμπιπτέτωσαν κατὰ τὸ Ζ. πάλιν. ἡ δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΖΔ. Let BC be placed straight-on to CE. so BC (is) to CE. so AC (is) to DE. further. Ζ F Α A ∆ Β Γ D Ε B ῎Εστω ἰσογώνια τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. 6. so CD (is) to DE [Prop.N. Proposition 4 Τῶν ἰσογωνίων τριγώνων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ In equiangular triangles the sides about the equal anπερὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας καὶ ὁμόλογοι αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας gles are proportional.2]. in equiangular triangles the sides about the equal angles are proportional. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΖΔ τῇ ΑΓ· ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. τὴν δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ καὶ ἔτι τὴν ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΕΔ· λέγω. οὕτως ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ. ἐστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΖ. so DC (is) to CE.2]. And since angles ABC and ACB are less than two right-angles [Prop 1. and (angle) BAC to CDE. ΕΔ ἄρα ἐκβαλλόμεναι συμπεσοῦνται. and AC to F D [Prop. (angle) ACB to CED. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΓΔ· ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. 6. as BC (is) to CA. οὕτως ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ. and ACB (is) equal to DEC. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 See Post. καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΖΒΕ παρὰ μίαν τὴν ΖΕ ἦκται ἡ ΑΓ. αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. οὕτως ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. ΔΓΕ ἴσην ἔχοντα τὴν μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίαν τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ. Thus. Κείσθω γὰρ ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΓΕ. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. as BA (is) to CD. AC is parallel to F E [Prop. οὕτως ἡ ΖΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ. 6. so DC (is) to CE [Prop. alternately. dþ. via equality. And since AC has been drawn parallel to one (of the sides) F E of triangle F BE. as BC is to CE. And F D (is) equal to AC.22]. and those (sides) subtending equal angles correspond. and those (sides) subtend- 160 .2]. οὕτως ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐδείχθη ὡς μὲν ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. will meet [C. ΔΓΕ τριγώνων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας καὶ ὁμόλογοι αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας ὑποτείνουσαι. BA and ED. thus ABC and DEC are less than two right-angles. ΑΓΒ γωνίαι δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάττονές εἰσιν. οὕτως ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. Thus. 5. οὕτως ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. having angle ABC equal to DCE. 5.

STOIQEIWN þ. Proposition 5 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχῃ. καὶ τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον τῷ ΗΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἴσον. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ gles will be equiangular. [οὕτως] ἡ ΗΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. οὕτως τὴν ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΔ. and 161 . Thus. Συνεστάτω γὰρ πρὸς τῇ ΕΖ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τοῖς πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείοις τοῖς Ε. as DE (is) to EF . ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΕΗ. [so] GE (is) to EF . καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΖΕΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. οὕτως ἡ ΗΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. BAC to EDF . (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. (angle) ABC (equal) to DEF .32]. So. and (angle) EF G. τῇ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Η ἐστιν ἴση. further. And base DF [is] equal to base F G. λέγω. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΕΖ. οὕτως τὴν ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. Ζ τῇ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΗ. and EF (is) common. (is) DE to EF . ΗΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΗΕ. Thus. for triangles ABC and EGF . Thus. 1. τῶν ἄρα ΑΒΓ. 1. and. ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΖ βάσει τῇ ΖΗ [ἐστιν] ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. Thus. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having proportional sides.4]. 5. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. (so that) as AB (is) to BC. οὕτως τὴν ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ. the remaining (angle) at A is equal to the remaining (angle) at G [Prop. and. τὴν δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΖΔ καὶ ἔτι τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. eþ. the sides about the equal angles are proportional. ῎Ισογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΕΗΖ [τριγώνῳ]. and triangle DEF (is) equal to triangle GEF . further. so. καὶ ἔτι ὡς τὴν ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. ∆ Α Ε Β Γ D A Ζ E Η C F G B ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. Thus. For let (angle) F EG. angle DF E is also equal to GF E. and will have the angles which ὁμόλογοι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν. for the same (reasons). Thus. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν. angle DEF is equal to angle GEF [Prop. equal to ACB. DE and GE each have the same ratio to EF . and the remaining angles (are) equal to the remaining angles which the equal sides subtend [Prop. But. so EF (is) to F D. it was assumed. ΕΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΗΕ. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ. I say that triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . as BA (is) to AC. ὡς μὲν τὴν ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. equal to angle ABC. ἰσογώνια If two triangles have proportional sides then the trianἔσται τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ ἴσας ἕξει τὰς γωνίας. ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΔΕ. so GE (is) to EF [Prop.4]. οὕτως ὑπόκειται ἡ ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ· ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΕ. corresponding sides subtend equal. Therefore. 5. DE is equal to GE [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ing equal angles correspond. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΔΖ τῇ ΗΖ ἐστιν ἴση.8]. and as BC (is) to CA. DF is also equal to GF . ΕΗΖ τριγώνων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας καὶ ὁμόλογοι αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας ὑποτείνουσαι· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ὁμόλογοι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν. as AB is to BC. 1. since DE is equal to EG. triangle ABC is equiangular to [triangle] EGF . 1. so DE (is) to EF . τὴν μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. 6. and (that the triangles) will have the angles which corresponding sides subtend equal. so ED (is) to DF . Thus. Thus. as AB (is) to BC. ΔΕΖ τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχοντα. ὡς δὲ τὴν ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΑ. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι. the two (sides) DE. ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΖΕ. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. ὅτι ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ καὶ ἴσας ἕξουσι τὰς γωνίας. have been constructed on the straight-line EF at the points E and F on it (respectively) [Prop. EF (respectively). BCA to EF D.11].9]. EF are equal to the two (sides) GE. (That is).23]. and (those) sides subtending equal angles correspond [Prop.

Thus. so ED (is) to DF . And DF (is) common. and triangle DEF is equal to triangle GDF .STOIQEIWN þ. ΔΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΗΔ. and the remaining angles 162 . ΔΕΖ μίαν γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ μιᾷ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἴσην ἔχοντα. as ED (is) to DF . οὕτως ἡ ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ. So.4]. further. proportionally. τὴν δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. And since (angle) F ED is equal to GEF . 5.32]. and will have the angles πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν. And it was also assumed that as BA is) to AC. and (angle) ACB to DF E. (angle) ACB is also equal to DF E. περὶ If two triangles have one angle equal to one angle. τῇ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΖΗ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Β γωνία λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Η ἴση ἐστίν. (so that) as BA (is) to AC. and the sides about the equal angles proportional. as BA (is) to AC. ΔΖ ἴσας εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΔΖ [ἐστιν] ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΕΖ βάσει τῇ ΗΖ ἐστιν ἴση. ED (is) equal to DG [Prop. Συνεστάτω γὰρ πρὸς τῇ ΔΖ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τοῖς πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείοις τοῖς Δ. ὐφ᾿ ἃς ἴσας πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ὁμόλογοι the triangles will be equiangular. if two triangles have proportional sides then the triangles will be equiangular. οὕτως ἡ ΗΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ. ᾿Ισογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΗΖ τριγώνῳ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. þ.9]. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ ἐστιν ἴση. DF are equal to the two (sides) GD. BAC. ΕΔΖ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΔΗ. the two (sides) ED. angle ABC is thus also equal to DEF . Thus. 6. οὕτως ἡ ΗΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ. DF (respectively). and (angle) GEF to ABC. EDF (respectively). And angle EDF [is] equal to angle GDF . and (angle) DF G. then τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ ἴσας ἕξει τὰς γωνίας. 1. have been constructed on the straight-line AF at the points D and F on it (respectively) [Prop. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχῃ. And. Proposition 6 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα μίαν γωνίαν μιᾷ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχῃ. I say that triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΔΗΖ F C Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having one angle. καὶ ἔτι ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. Thus. which corresponding sides subtend equal. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσας ἔσονται. and. and will have angle ABC equal to DEF .11]. the (angle) at A to the (angle) at D. ὑπόκειται δὲ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. so GD (is) to DF [Prop. 5. 1. περὶ δὲ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. Thus. ὡς τὴν ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ.23]. and will have the angles which corresponding sides subtend equal. equal to each of BAC and EDF . ἰσογώνια ἔσται and the sides about the equal angles proportional. Thus. οὕτως τὴν ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ· λέγω. equal to one angle. equal to ACB. Thus. δὲ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. so GD (is) to DF [Prop. Thus. base EF is equal to base GF . the remaining angle at B is equal to the remaining angle at G [Prop. So. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ὁμόλογοι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΕΔ τῇ ΔΗ· καὶ κοινὴ ἡ ΔΖ· δύο δὴ αἱ ΕΔ. for the same (reasons). Ζ ὁποτέρᾳ μὲν τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. so ED (is) to DF . ἰσογώνια ἔσται τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ ἴσας ἕξει τὰς γωνίας. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DGF . For let (angle) F DG. καὶ τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον τῷ ΗΔΖ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἐστίν. ὅτι ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ καὶ ἴσην ἕξει τὴν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίαν τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. thus. ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΔΖΗ τῇ ὑπο ΔΖΕ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ΑΒΓ ἄρα γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. ∆ Α D A Η Ε Β G Ζ E Γ B ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. (angle) EDF to EGF .

ΔΕΖ μίαν γωνίαν μιᾷ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχοντα τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ὁμόλογοι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. ἔστω μείζων ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ΔΕΖ τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν Α γωνία τῇ Δ. Proposition 7 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα μίαν γωνίαν μιᾷ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχῃ. and the sides about (some) other angles. equal to one angle. equal to (angle) DEF . right-angles. then the triangles will be equiangular. and the sides about the equal angles proportional. the remaining (angle) AGB is thus equal 163 . 1. EDF (respectively). περὶ δὲ ἄλλας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. περὶ ἃς ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραί. Εἰ γὰρ ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΒΗ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. ἰσογώνια ἔσται τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ ἴσας ἕξει τὰς γωνίας. τῶν δὲ λοιπῶν ἑκατέραν ἅμα ἤτοι ἐλάσσονα ἢ μὴ ἐλάσσονα ὀρθῆς. Let ABC be greater. and the remaining angles either both less than. καὶ λοιπὴ δηλονότι ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Ζ ἴση. Α A ∆ Β D B Ε Η E Ζ G F Γ C ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. both less than right-angles. and (that) the remaining (angle) at C (will be) manifestly equal to the remaining (angle) at F .23]. zþ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. περὶ δὲ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. Thus. ὑπόκειται δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἴση· καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Β λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Ε ἴση ἐστίν· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. and the remaining (angles) at C and F . μία αὐτῶν μείζων ἐστίν. then the triangles will be equiangular. proportional. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΒ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ ἐστιν ἴση. (so that) as AB (is) to BC. And (angle) BAC was also assumed (to be) equal to EDF . and (that) angle ABC will be equal to DEF .4]. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Β τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΗ. Thus. first of all. and will have the angles which corresponding sides subtend equal. have been constructed on the straight-line AB at the point B on it [Prop. ἰσογώνια ἔσται τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ ἴσας ἕξει τὰς γωνίας. Ζ πρότερον ἑκατέραν ἅμα ἐλάσσονα ὀρθῆς· λέγω. Thus. so DE (is) to EF . If two triangles have one angle equal to one angle. (angle) DF G is equal to ACB. And since angle A is equal to (angle) D. περὶ δὲ ἄλλας γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . οὕτως τὴν ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. ὡς τὴν ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. will be equal to the remaining angles which the equal sides subtend [Prop. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα μίαν γωνίαν μιᾷ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχῃ. (angle) DF G is equal to DF E. For if angle ABC is not equal to (angle) DEF then one of them is greater. τῶν δὲ λοιπῶν τῶν πρὸς τοῖς Γ.32]. 1. (angle) ACB is also equal to DF E. or both not less than. But. if two triangles have one angle equal to one angle. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΗ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having one angle.STOIQEIWN þ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. ὅτι ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. and (angle) DGF to DEF . and the sides about other angles proportional. and (angle) ABG to DEF . and will have the angles about which the sides are proportional equal. And let (angle) ABG. BAC. καὶ ἴση ἔσται ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΖΗ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ ἐστιν ἴση. I say that triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . 1. the remaining (angle) at B is equal to the remaining (angle) at E [Prop. ABC and DEF (respectively). Thus.

So. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τριγώνῳ. καὶ ἐδείχθη ἴση οὖσα τῇ πρὸς τῷ Ζ· καὶ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Ζ ἄρα μείζων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. ἰσογώνια ἔσται τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ ἴσας ἕξει τὰς γωνίας. is greater than a right-angle [Prop. Thus. BGC (is) not less than a right-angle either. But. οὕτως ἡ ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. or both not less than. Thus. with the same construction. Thus. again. a (straight-line) is drawn from the right-angle perpendicular to the base then the triangles around the perpendicular are similar to the whole (triangle). so DE (is) to EF [Prop. And. the adjacent angle to it. For. ῎Εστω τρίγωνον ὀρθογώνιον τὸ ΑΒΓ ὀρθὴν ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίαν. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. And the angle at C was assumed (to be) less than a right-angle. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων ὁμοίως δείξομεν. The very thing is impossible [Prop. περὶ δὲ ἄλλας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. Thus. 1. then the triangles will be equiangular. Thus.5]. But it was assumed (to be) less than a rightangle. Thus. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΗ. Ζ μὴ ἐλάσσων ὀρθῆς· λέγω πάλιν. AB has the same ratio to each of BC and BG [Prop. ὅτι καὶ οὕτως ἐστὶν ἰσογώνιον τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. again. Hence. AGB. Thus. The very thing is absurd. 6. angle ABC is not unequal to (angle) DEF . οὐκ ἐλάττων δὲ ὀρθῆς ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ· οὐκ ἐλάττων ἄρα ὀρθῆς οὐδὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ ἴση· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Ζ ἴση ἐστίν. ὥστε καὶ γωνία ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ ἐστιν ἴση. Thus. And the (angle) at A is also equal to the (angle) at D. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ πάλιν ὑποκείσθω ἑκατέρα τῶν πρὸς τοῖς Γ. τὰ πρὸς τῇ καθέτῳ τρίγωνα ὅμοιά ἐστι τῷ τε ὅλῳ καὶ ἀλλήλοις. οὐκ ἄρα πάλιν ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ· ἴση ἄρα. Hence.32]. hþ. right-angles. οὐκ ἄρα ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ· ἴση ἄρα. BC (is) equal to BG [Prop. Thus. (it is) equal. and the sides about other angles proportional. 5. Thus. Thus. ΒΗ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΒΗ. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ.32].11]. let each of the (angles) at C and F be assumed (to be) not less than a right-angle.STOIQEIWN þ. the angle at C is equal to (angle) BGC.17]. Thus. Proposition 8 ᾿Εὰν ἐν ὀρθογωνίῳ τριγώνῳ ἀπό τῆς ὀρθῆς γωνίας ἐπὶ τὴν βάσιν κάθετος ἀχθῇ. angle ABC is not unequal to DEF . ὅτι ὅμοιόν ἐστιν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΑΒΔ. (it is) equal. to the remaining (angle) DF E [Prop. 1. 1. And as DE (is) to EF . ἐλάττων δὲ ὀρθῆς ὑπόκειται ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ· ἐλάττων ἄρα ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς καὶ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ· ὥστε ἡ ἐφεξῆς αὐτῇ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΒ μείζων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. and the remaining angles both less than. And (AGB) was shown to be equal to the (angle) at F . [so] it was assumed (is) AB to BC. 5. And the (angle) at C (is) not less than a right-angle. as AB is to BG. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . and let AD have been drawn from 164 . ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α ἴση τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ· καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Ζ ἴση ἐστίν. 1. hence. τῶν δὲ λοιπῶν ἑκατέραν ἅμα ἐλάττονα ἢ μὴ ἐλάττονα ὀρθῆς. And the (angle) at A is also equal to the (angle) at D. And thus the remaining (angle) at C is equal to the remaining (angle) at F [Prop. Let ABC be a right-angled triangle having the angle BAC a right-angle. Thus. triangle ABG is equiangular to triangle DEF . the (angle) at F is also greater than a right-angle. and to one another. in triangle BGC the (sum of) two angles is not less than two right-angles. [οὕτως] ὑπόκειται ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ· ἡ ΑΒ ἄρα πρὸς ἑκατέραν τῶν ΒΓ. ΑΔΓ If. the remaining (angle) at C is equal to the remaining (angle) at F [Prop. ὅτι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΒΗ· ὥστε καὶ γωνία ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ ἴση ἐστίν. (angle) BGC is also less than a right-angle.9]. τριγώνου δὴ τοῦ ΒΗΓ αἱ δύο γωνίαι δύο ὀρθῶν οὔκ εἰσιν ἐλάττονες· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. I say. again. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα μίαν γωνίαν μιᾷ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχῃ.13]. Thus. and will have the angles about which the sides (are) proportional equal. περὶ ἃς ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραί· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. also. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Α ἐπὶ τὴν ΒΓ κάθετος ἡ ΑΔ· λέγω. Thus. 1.32]. that triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF in this case also. the angle at C is equal to angle BGC [Prop. in a right-angled triangle.4]. ὑπόκειται δὲ ἐλάσσων ὀρθῆς· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἄτοπον. 1. if two triangles have one angle equal to one angle. we can similarly show that BC is equal to BG.

And let a random point D have been taken on AC. 1. 1. proportionally. 6. from this. Τῆς ἄρα δοθείσης εὐθείας τῆς ΑΒ τὸ ἐπιταχθὲν τρίτον μέρος ἀφῄρηται τὸ ΑΖ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.2]. Proposition 10 Τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν ἄτμητον τῇ δοθείσῃ τετμημένῃ To cut a given uncut straight-line similarly to a given ὁμοίως τεμεῖν. οὕτως ἡ ΒΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. ἡ angle. has been cut off from the given straight-line. Let AB be the given straight-line. Thus. encompassing a random angle with AB. [καὶ] διήθχω τις ἀπὸ τοῦ Α εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ γωνίαν περιέχουσα μετὰ τῆς ΑΒ τυχοῦσαν· καὶ εἰλήφθω τυχὸν σημεῖον ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ τὸ Δ. And CD (is) double DA. ΕΓ. † In other words.] Pìrisma.3]. ὅτι ἐὰν ἐν ὀρθογωνίῳ τριγώνῳ So (it is) clear. διπλῆ δὲ ἡ ΓΔ τῆς ΔΑ· διπλῆ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΒΖ τῆς ΖΑ· τριπλῆ ἄρα ἡ ΒΑ τῆς ΑΖ. καὶ κείσθωσαν τῇ ΑΔ ἴσαι αἱ ΔΕ. 166 . BC. the perpendicular is the geometric mean of the pieces. To cut off a prescribed part from a given straight-line. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΓ. of triangle ABC. that if. And let DF have been drawn through D parallel to it [Prop. a (straight-line) is drawn from the right-angle perἀχθεῖσα τῶν τῆς βάσεως τμημάτων μέση ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν· pendicular to the base then the (straight-line so) drawn ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Therefore. cut (straight-line). ELEMENTS BOOK 6 then the triangles around the perpendicular are similar to the whole (triangle). [And] let some straight-line AC have been drawn from (point) A. since F D has been drawn parallel to one of the sides.STOIQEIWN þ. So it is required to cut off a prescribed part from AB. the prescribed third part. Thus. [(Which is) the very thing it was required to show. BF (is) also double F A. iþ. Γ C Ε E ∆ Α D Ζ Β A F B ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ· δεῖ δὴ τῆς ΑΒ τὸ προσταχθὲν μέρος ἀφελεῖν. in a right-angled triἀπὸ τῆς ὀρθῆς γωνάις ἐπὶ τὴν βάσις κάθετος ἀχθῇ. Corollary ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. And let BC have been joined. then. Proposition 9 Τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας τὸ προσταχθὲν μέρος ἀφελεῖν. BA (is) triple AF . as CD is to DA. And let DE and EC be made equal to AD [Prop. is in mean proportion to the pieces of the base. ᾿Επιτετάχθω δὴ τὸ τρίτον. So let a third (part) have been prescribed. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΒΓ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΒΓ ἦκται ἡ ΖΔ. jþ.† (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. AF . καὶ διὰ τοῦ Δ παράλληλος αὐτῇ ἤχθω ἡ ΔΖ. AB. and to one another. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ.31]. so BF (is) to F A [Prop.

Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΔΕ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΔΕ ἦκται ἡ ΒΓ. And it was also shown that as CE (is) to ED. And let DF and EG have been drawn through (points) D and E (respectively). ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΔ τῇ ΑΓ. 1. KC. καὶ διὰ τῶν Δ. 6. proportionally. Again. ῎Εστωσαν αἱ δοθεῖσαι [δύο εὐθεῖαι] αἱ ΒΑ. since BC has been drawn parallel to one of the sides DE of triangle ADE. οὕτως ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. ἡ δὲ ΘΚ τῇ ΗΒ. so BG (is) to GF . καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΑΓ ἴση ἡ ΒΔ. Thus. ΕΗ. so KH (is) to HD [Prop. Ε σημεῖα. Thus. Παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΖΘ. οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. And let BC have been joined. And let DE have been drawn through (point) D parallel to it [Prop. AB. and let them be laid down encompassing a random angle.31]. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΓ. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Δ τῇ ΑΒ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΔΘΚ.31]. 6. proportionally. as ED is to DA. has been cut similarly to the given cut straight-line. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ. ἡ δὲ ΘΔ τῇ ΗΖ. and as ED (is) to DA. as CE is to ED. And since the straight-line HE has been drawn parallel to one of the sides.34]. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Δ παράλληλος αὐτῇ ἤχθω ἡ ΔΕ. so BG (is) to GF . οὕτως ἡ ΒΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΖ· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς μὲν ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ. Thus. 6. F H and HB are each parallelograms. And KH (is) equal to BG. Thus. οὕτως ἡ ΒΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΖ. 1. thus. δεῖ δὴ τῶν ΒΑ. For let (BA and AC) have been produced to points D and E (respectively). and let (AC) be laid down so as to encompass a random angle (with AB). Let BA and AC be the [two] given [straight-lines]. parallel to AB [Prop. ἡ δὲ τετμημένη ἡ ΑΓ κατὰ τὰ Δ.2]. ΘΒ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ μὲν ΔΘ τῇ ΖΗ. as CE is to ED. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ. οὕτως ἡ ΒΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΖ. Ε σημεῖα. Proposition 11 Δύο δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν τρίτην ἀνάλογον προσευρεῖν. And BD (is) equal 167 .3].STOIQEIWN þ. καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΔΚΓ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΚΓ εὐθεῖα ἦκται ἡ ΘΕ. ῾Η ἄρα δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἄτμητος ἡ ΑΒ τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τετμημένῃ τῇ ΑΓ ὁμοίως τέτμηται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι· Let AB be the given uncut straight-line. as CE is to ED. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ΚΘ τῇ ΒΗ. ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν γὰρ ἐπὶ τὰ Δ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 Γ C Ε Θ ∆ Α Ζ E Η H D Κ Β A F G K B ῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἅτμητος ἡ ΑΒ. 1. ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΗΕ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΗΕ ἦκται ἡ ΖΔ. οὕτως ἡ ΚΘ πρὸς τὴν ΘΔ. To find a third (straight-line) proportional to two given straight-lines. AC. so AC (is) to CE [Prop. as AB is to BD. ΑΓ τρίτην ἀνάλογον προσευρεῖν. 1. ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΔ. And let CB have been joined. and let BD be made equal to AC [Prop. iaþ. So it is required to find a third (straight-line) proportional to BA and AC. and HD to GF . and AC a (straight-line) cut at points D and E. DH (is) equal to F G. since F D has been drawn parallel to one of the sides. so GF (is) to F A. πάλιν. Ε τῇ ΒΓ παράλληλοι ἤχθωσαν αἱ ΔΖ. so GF (is) to F A [Prop. ΑΓ καὶ κείσθωσαν γωνίαν περιέχουσαι τυχοῦσαν. οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. καὶ κείσθωσαν ὥστε γωνίαν τυχοῦσαν περιέχειν. and HK to GB [Prop. so BG (is) to GF . the given uncut straight-line. parallel to BC.2]. of triangle DKC. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ.2]. Therefore. of triangle AGE. thus. οὕτως ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. proportionally. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ. and let DHK have been drawn through (point) D. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΓΒ. GE.

So it is required to find a fourth (straight-line) proportional to A. τῇ δὲ Β ἴση ἡ ΗΕ. Therefore. ΑΓ τρίτη ἀνάλογον Thus. καὶ ἔτι τῇ Γ ἴση ἡ ΔΘ· καὶ ἐπιζευχθείσης τῆς ΗΘ παράλληλος αὐτῇ ἤχθω διὰ τοῦ Ε ἡ ΕΖ. AB and AC. and DH to C. has been found αὐταῖς προσεύρηται ἡ ΓΕ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. Γ τετάρτη ἀνάλογον προσεύρηται ἡ ΘΖ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. 1. Β. Thus. as A is to B. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΔΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΕ. Α Β Γ A B C Ε G Η ∆ Θ E Ζ D ῎Εστωσαν αἱ δοθεῖσαι τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι αἱ Α. as AB is to AC. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν τριγώνου τοῦ ΔΕΖ παρὰ μίαν τὴν ΕΖ ἦκται ἡ ΗΘ. and C. Β. ibþ. let EF have been drawn through (point) E parallel to it [Prop. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ΔΗ τῇ Α.STOIQEIWN þ. further. Proposition 12 Τριῶν δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν τετάρτην ἀνάλογον προTo find a fourth (straight-line) proportional to three σευρεῖν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. and. Α A Β B Γ C D ∆ Ε E Δύο ἄρα δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν τῶν ΑΒ. (which is) proportional to the two given straight-lines. since GH has been drawn parallel to one of the sides EF of triangle DEF . Γ τετράτην ἀνάλογον προσευρεῖν. And DG (is) equal to A. so AC (is) to CE. ᾿Εκκείσθωσαν δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΔΕ. οὕτως ἡ ΔΘ πρὸς τὴν ΘΖ. CE. so C (is) 168 . DH to C [Prop. And GH being joined.2]. ΔΖ γωνίαν περιέχουςαι [τυχοῦσαν] τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ· καὶ κείσθω τῇ μὲν Α ἴση ἡ ΔΗ.3]. B.31]. Β. H F Let A. Let the two straight-lines DE and DF be set out encompassing the [random] angle EDF . and GE to B. and C be the three given straight-lines. thus as DG is to GE. Thus. ἡ δὲ ΔΘ τῇ Γ· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. οὕτως ἡ Γ πρὸς τὴν ΘΖ. ἡ δὲ ΗΕ τῇ Β. Γ· δεῖ δὴ τῶν Α. a third (straight-line). 6. And let DG be made equal to A. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 to AC. 1. so DH (is) to HF [Prop. Τριῶν ἄρα δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν τῶν Α. and GE to B. given straight-lines. B.

igþ. F B and BG are also straight-on (with respect to one another) [Prop. So it is required to find the (straight-line) in mean proportion to AB and BC. Proposition 13 Δύο δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν μέσην ἀνάλογον προσευρεῖν. at right-angles to AC [Prop. καὶ κείσθωσαν ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας αἱ ΔΒ. λέγω. ΒΓ μέση ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν. Proposition 14 Τῶν ἴσων τε καὶ ἴσογωνίων παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας· καὶ ὧν ἰσογωνίων παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. ῎Εστω ἴσα τε καὶ ἰσογώνια παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ΑΒ. ᾿Επεὶ ἐν ἡμικυκλίῳ γωνία ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐν ὀρθογωνίῳ τριγώνῳ τῷ ΑΔΓ ἀπὸ τῆς ὀρθῆς γωνίας ἐπὶ τὴν βάσιν κάθετος ἦκται ἡ ΔΒ. 6. Let (AB and BC) be laid down straight-on (with respect to one another). 1. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ. Δύο ἄρα δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν τῶν ΑΒ. idþ. A. † B C Let AB and BC be the two given straight-lines. a fourth (straight-line).14]. Κείσθωσαν ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας. ἴσα ἐστὶν ἐκεῖνα. τουτέστιν.8 corr. in the right-angled triangle ADC. DB has been found (which is) in mean proportion to the two given straight-lines. Let AB and BC be equal and equiangular parallelograms having the angles at B equal.11]. DB is thus the mean proportional to the pieces of the base. And let AD and DC have been joined. to find the geometric mean of two given straight-lines. and C. HF . the (straight-line) DB has been drawn from the right-angle perpendicular to the base. ΒΓ μέσην ἀνάλογον προσευρεῖν. ΒΓ μέση ἀνάλογον προσεύρηται ἡ ΔΒ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. In other words. And those equiangular parallelograms in which the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional are equal.10]. And since ADC is an angle in a semi-circle. 1. Thus. ΒΓ ἴσας ἔχοντα τὰς πρὸς τῷ Β γωνίας. I say that the sides of AB and 169 . has been found (which is) proportional to the three given straight-lines. ΔΓ. it is a right-angle [Prop. ΒΓ· δεῖ δὴ τῶν ΑΒ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ἡ ΔΒ ἄρα τῶν τῆς βάσεως τμημάτων τῶν ΑΒ. ὅτι τῶν ΑΒ. ΒΗ. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Β σημείου τῇ ΑΓ εὐθείᾳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΒΑ. καὶ γεγράφθω ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ ἡμικύκλιον τὸ ΑΔΓ. οὕτως ἡ ΗΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΖ. ὀρθή ἐστιν. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΔ.† ∆ Α Β D Γ A ῎Εστωσαν αἱ δοθεῖσαι δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΒ. 1.31]. And let DB and BE be laid down straight-on (with respect to one another). (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 to HF . AB and BC [Prop.]. Thus. and let the semi-circle ADC have been drawn on AC [Prop. AB and BC. ΒΓ ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. And since.STOIQEIWN þ. To find the (straight-line) in mean proportion to two given straight-lines. 3. ΒΕ· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα εἰσὶ καὶ αἱ ΖΒ. In equal and equiangular parallelograms the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. B. And let BD have been drawn from (point) B. Thus.

And those equiangular parallelograms in which the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional are equal. ἴσα ἐστὶν ἐκεῖνα. so DB (is) to BE. I say that parallelogram AB is equal to parallelogram BC. Thus. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ. so parallelogram AB (is) to parallelogram F E. also. (namely) BAC (equal) to DAE. οὕτως ἡ ΗΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΖ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ. For let the parallelogram F E have been completed. in equal and equiangular parallelograms the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. ΑΔΕ τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. as (parallelogram) AB (is) to F E. ieþ. 5. that as DB is to BE. thus. οὕτως ἡ ΗΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΖ. so GB (is) to BF . Therefore.11]. οὕτως τὸ ΒΓ πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ. For since as DB is to BE. And so. 5. so GB (is) to BF [Prop. οὕτως τὸ ΒΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ παραλληλόγραμμον. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΗΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΖ. τῶν ἄρα ΑΒ. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ παραλληλόγραμμον. also. let DB be to BE. but as DB (is) to BE. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 BC about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. as (parallelogram) AB (is) to F E. so GB (is) to BF . ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ. And those triangles having one angle equal to one angle for which the sides about the equal angles (are) reciprocally proportional are equal. ΒΓ παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. so GB (is) to BF . Τῶν ἄρα ἴσων τε καὶ ἰσογωνίων παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας· καὶ ὧν ἰσογωνίων παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. ὡς δὲ τὸ ΒΓ πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ. and as GB (is) to BF . parallelogram AB is equal to parallelogram BC [Prop. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΓΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΔ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ. καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΒΓ παραλληλογράμμῳ. Ε Ζ Α Β Γ E Η F ∆ A B C G D Συμπεπληρώσθω γὰρ τὸ ΖΕ παραλληλόγραμμον. as DB (is) to BE. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ. Thus. τουτέστιν. in parallelograms AB and BC the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. thus as (parallelogram) AB is to F E. that is to say. ἄλλο δέ τι τὸ ΖΕ. since parallelogram AB is equal to parallelogram BC. 5. οὕτως In equal triangles also having one angle equal to one (angle) the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. ἴσα ἐστὶν ἐκεῖνα· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.1]. Thus. ΑΔΕ μίαν μιᾷ ἴσην ἔχοντα γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΑΕ· λέγω. so parallelogram BC (is) to parallelogram F E [Prop. I say that. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΒΓ παραλληλογράμμῳ. Proposition 15 Τῶν ἴσων καὶ μίαν μιᾷ ἴσην ἐχόντων γωνίαν τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας· καὶ ὧν μίαν μιᾷ ἴσην ἐχόντων γωνίαν τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. 6. Let ABC and ADE be equal triangles having one angle equal to one (angle). the sides about the 170 . οὕτως ἡ ΗΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΖ. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ ἔστω ὡς ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ. οὕτως ἡ ΗΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΖ· λέγω. ῎Εστω ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. as GB (is) to BF . and F E (is) some other (parallelogram). so (parallelogram) BC (is) to F E [Prop. so (parallelogram) BC (is) to F E [Prop. 6.STOIQEIWN þ.7]. Thus. οὕτως τὸ ΒΓ πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΒΓ παραλληλογράμμῳ. in triangles ABC and ADE. οὕτως ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ.1]. ὅτι τῶν ΑΒΓ.9]. and as (parallelogram) BC (is) to F E. But.

1. Ε. And those equiangular parallelograms in which the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional are equal [Prop. καὶ συμπεπληρώσθω τὰ ΒΗ. Θ H Η Α Ε G Β Γ ∆ A Ζ E ῎Εστωσαν τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον αἱ ΑΒ. rectangle contained by the middle (two) then the four straight-lines will be proportional. 6. [For] let AG and CH have been drawn from points A and C at right-angles to the straight-lines AB and CD (respectively) [Prop. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. and AG to F . I say that the four straight-lines will be proportional. Ε. Ζ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. ἴσα ἐστὶν ἐκεῖνα· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΗ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΔΘ παραλληλογράμμῳ. so CH (is) to AG. For E (is) equal to CH. and F be four proportional straightlines. οὕτως ἡ Ε πρὸς τὴν Ζ. αἱ τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. I say that the rectangle contained by AB and F is equal to the rectangle contained by CD and E. And since as AB is to CD. parallelogram BG is equal to parallelogram DH. if four straight-lines are proportional then the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the rectangle contained by the middle (two). Ε τὸ ΔΘ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΓΘ τῇ Ε· τὸ ἄρα ΒΗ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΔΘ. And let the parallelograms BG and DH have been completed. Ζ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. Thus. And DH (is) the (rectangle contained) by CD and E. And BG is the (rectangle contained) by AB and F . ἐπεὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. αἱ τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. Ε περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογώνιῳ. And DH (is) the (rectangle contained) by CD and E.angle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the χομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ.11]. Thus. B C D F Let AB. And in equal and equiangular parallelograms the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional [Prop. Thus. ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. 6. so CH (is) to AG. οὕτως ἡ Ε πρὸς τὴν Ζ· λέγω. (such that) as AB (is) to CD. λέγω. let the rectangle contained by AB and F be equal to the rectangle contained by CD and E. ῎Ηχθωσαν [γὰρ] ἀπὸ τῶν Α. And if the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to 172 . ΔΘ ἄρα παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΒΗ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ΔΘ παραλληλόγραμμα. so E (is) to F .STOIQEIWN þ. τῶν δὲ ἴσων καὶ ἰσογωνίων παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. And BG is the (rectangle contained) by AB and F . τῶν ΒΗ. with the same construction.14]. Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. ὧν δὲ ἰσογωνίων παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραί αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνάις. Ζ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΑΗ τῇ Ζ· τὸ δὲ ΔΘ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. Ε· ἴση γὰρ ἡ Ε τῇ ΓΘ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. And they are equiangular. καὶ κείσθω τῇ μὲν Ζ ἴση ἡ ΑΗ. Ζ. Ε περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. For CH (is) equal to E. Thus. so E (is) to F . and F to AG. 1. since the (rectangle contained) by AB and F is equal to the (rectangle contained) by CD and E. ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. Ζ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ΓΘ τῇ Ε. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων. as AB is to CD. καί ἐστιν ἰσογώνια. Γ σημείων ταῖς ΑΒ. ΓΔ. ἡ δὲ Ζ τῇ ΑΗ. And CH (is) equal to E.14].3]. so E (is) to F . οὕτως ἡ ΓΘ πρὸς τὴν ΑΗ. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν Ε τῇ ΓΘ. CD. (so that) as AB (is) to CD. For AG is equal to F . οὕτως ἡ Ε πρὸς τὴν Ζ. ΓΘ. For AG (is) equal to F . καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. E. in the parallelograms BG and DH the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. BG is thus equal to DH. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ᾖ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν μέσων περιε. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. And so. Thus. τῇ δὲ Ε ἴση ἡ ΓΘ. ἡ δὲ ΑΗ τῇ Ζ· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. οὕτως ἡ ΓΘ πρὸς τὴν ΑΗ. as AB is to CD. thus as AB is to CD. ὅτι αἱ τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν μέσων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ· κἂν τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ᾖ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν μέσων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. so E (is) to F . Ε περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. οὕτως ἡ Ε πρὸς τὴν Ζ. ΓΔ εὐθείαις πρὸς ὀρθὰς αἱ ΑΗ. Ζ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἔστω τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. the rectangle contained by AB and F is equal to the rectangle contained by CD and E. And let AG be made equal to F . and CH to E [Prop. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. and E (is) equal CH. For. Ζ τὸ ΒΗ· ἴση γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ΑΗ τῇ Ζ· τὸ δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. Thus.

the (rectangle contained) by A and C is equal to the (rectangle contained) by B and D. so B (is) to C. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον [ὀρθογώνιον] ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν μέσων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 the rectangle contained by the middle (two) then the four straight-lines will be proportional. so B (is) to C. I say that the rectangle contained by A and C is equal to the square on B. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. B and C be three proportional straight-lines. as A is to B. And if the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the square on the middle (one) then the three straight-lines will be proportional. as A (is) to B. The (rectangle contained) by A and C is thus equal to the (rectangle contained) by B and D. οὕτως ἡ Β πρὸς τὴν Γ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων. οὕτως ἡ Δ πρὸς τὴν Γ. But. (such that) as A (is) to B. with the same construction. 6. thus as A is to B. ἐὰν δὲ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων ἴσον ᾖ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν μέσων. 6. I say that as A is to B.STOIQEIWN þ. so B (is) to C. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς μέσης τετραγώνῳ· κἂν τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ᾖ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς μέσης τετραγώνῳ. the (square) on B is the (rectangle contained) by B and D. Thus. Δ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Β ἐστιν· ἴση γὰρ ἡ Β τῇ Δ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Α. Δ. And if the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the square on the middle (one) then the three straight-lines will be proportional. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. Γ ἴσον ἔστω τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Β· λέγω. (so) D (is) to C. ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. And if the (rectangle contained) by the (two) outermost is equal to the (rectangle contained) by the middle (two) then the four straight-lines are proportional [Prop. But. Thus. Β. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. Thus.3]. ἡ Δ πρὸς τὴν Γ. For B (is) equal to D. Γ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. D Let A. so D (is) to C. Γ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Β. If three straight-lines are proportional then the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the square on the middle (one). Thus. And if four straight-lines are proportional then the [rectangle] contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the rectangle contained by the middle (two) [Prop. izþ. since the (rectangle contained) by A and C is equal to the (square) on B. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. if three straight-lines are proportional then the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the square on the middle (one). And B (is) equal to D. ἴση δὲ ἡ Β τῇ Δ. Α Β Γ A B C ∆ ῎Εστωσαν τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον αἱ Α. Γ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Β τετραγώνῳ. Proposition 17 ᾿Εὰν τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. αἱ τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν. αἱ τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. αἱ τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. let the (rectangle contained) by A and C be equal to the (square) on B. For. (Which is) the very thing it was required to 173 . Δ. the rectangle contained by A and C is equal to the square on B.16]. οὕτως ἡ Β πρὸς τὴν Γ. And so. For B (is) equal to D. Let D be made equal to B [Prop. οὕτως ἡ Β πρὸς τὴν Γ· λέγω. οὕτως ἡ Β πρὸς τὴν Γ. Γ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν Β.16]. 1. Κείσθω τῇ Β ἴση ἡ Δ. Γ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Β τετραγώνῳ. so B (is) to C. and B (is) equal to D. Thus. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς μέσης τετραγώνῳ· κἂν τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ᾖ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς μέσης τετραγώνῳ. ἀλλὰ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Β τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Β. Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. Γ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν Β. the (rectangle contained) by B and D is the (square) on B. And since as A is to B. ἐὰν δὲ τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. Δ ἐστιν· ἴση γὰρ ἡ Β τῇ Δ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Α. ἐπεὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. ἀλλὰ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Β. ἴση δὲ ἡ Β τῇ Δ· ὡς ἄρα ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Α.

and DF E to BGH. 6. have been constructed on the straight-line BG at the points G and B on it (respectively) [Prop. Thus. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τοῖς πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείοις τοῖς Α. let BGH. proportionally. ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΖΕ ὅλῃ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ ἐστιν ἴση. so F E (is) to GH. D A B Let AB be the given straight-line. Thus. Ε E Ζ F Θ H Η Γ ∆ Α G Β C ῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. 1. for the same (reasons). thus the whole (angle) CF E is equal to the whole (angle) AGH. Thus. And it was also shown (that) as F D (is) to GB. So. proportionally. And since angle CF D is equal to AGB. Thus. so F C (is) to GA. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΖΔ πρὸς τὴν ΗΒ. triangle F DE is equiangular to triangle GHB. triangle F CD is equiangular to triangle GAB. the remaining (angle) at E is equal to the remaining (angle) at H [Prop. τῇ δὲ ὑπὸ ΖΔΕ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΒΘ. ἡ δὲ πρὸς τῷ Ε τῇ πρὸς τῷ Θ. have been constructed on the straight-line AB at the points A and B on it (respectively) [Prop. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΘ τῷ ΓΕ· καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας αὐτῶν πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχει· ὅμοιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΘ εὐθύγραμμον τῷ ΓΕ εὐθυγράμμῳ. and CE the given rectilinear figure. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Ε λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Θ ἐστιν ἴση· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΔΕ τρίγωνον τῷ ΗΘΒ τριγώνῳ· ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΖΔ πρὸς τὴν ΗΒ. the rectilinear figure AH is similar to the rectilinear figure CE [Def. and similarly laid down. so F C (is) to GA. (figure) AH is equiangular to CE. and CD to AB. ED to HB. to the rectilinear figure CE on the straight-line AB. Thus. the remaining (angle) CF D is equal to AGB [Prop. Thus. to a given rectilinear figure on a given straight-line. as F C (is) to AG. further. Again. and ED to HB [Prop. Thus. Let DF have been joined.4]. οὕτως ἡ ΖΕ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ καὶ ἡ ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΘΒ.32]. ᾿Επεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΖ. ihþ. as F D is to GB. And the (angle) at C is also equal to the (angle) at A.32]. and CD to AB [Prop. Proposition 18 ᾿Απὸ τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ To describe a rectilinear figure similar.4]. 6.23]. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ μὲν πρὸς τῷ Γ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Α ἴση. Η τῇ μὲν ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ.23]. Thus. equal to (angle) CDF . and ABG. and simiὅμοιόν τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον εὐθύγραμμον ἀναγράψαι. and the (angle) at E to the (angle) at H. and similarly laid down. 6. (angle) CDE is also equal to ABH. and let GAB. 1. τὸ δὲ δοθὲν εὐθύγραμμον τὸ ΓΕ· δεῖ δὴ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ εὐθείας τῷ ΓΕ εὐθυγράμμῳ ὅμοιόν τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον εὐθύγραμμον ἀναγράψαι. πάλιν συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΒΗ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τοῖς πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείοις τοῖς Β. larly laid down. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 show. οὕτως ἥ τε ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ καὶ ἡ ΖΕ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ καὶ ἔτι ἡ ΕΑ πρὸς τὴν ΘΒ.1]. 1. Thus. and GBH equal to (angle) F DE. 1. the rectilinear figure AH. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΖΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΗΒ ἐστιν ἴση· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΓΔ τρίγωνον τῷ ΗΑΒ τριγώνῳ. so CD (is) to AB. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΖΔ πρὸς τὴν ΗΒ. also. And (the two figures) have the sides about their equal angles proportional. to the given rectilinear figure CE has been constructed on the given straight-line AB. and F E to GH. equal to angle DF E. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΘ ἐστιν ἴση. ᾿Απὸ τῆς δοθείσης ἄρα εὐθείας τῆς ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ ΓΕ ὅμοιόν τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον εὐθύγραμμον ἀναγέγραπται τὸ ΑΘ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. Thus.STOIQEIWN þ. equal to the angle at C. (Which is) the 174 . οὕτως ἡ ΖΓ πρὸς τὴν ΗΑ καὶ ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΖΓ πρὸς τὴν ΑΗ. Β τῇ μὲν πρὸς τῷ Γ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΑΒ. as F D is to GB. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΓΖΔ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΗΒ. καὶ ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ. τῇ δὲ ὑπὸ ΓΔΖ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΗ. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. So it is required to describe a rectilinear figure similar. similar. οὕτως ἡ ΖΓ πρὸς τὴν ΗΑ. and.

Corollary ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. triangle ABC also has a squared ratio to (triangle) ABG with respect to (that side) BC (has) to EF . ἐὰν τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον So it is clear. ΕΖ τρίτη ἀνάλογον ἡ ΒΗ. so EF (is) to BG. [ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. ὧν δὲ μίαν μιᾷ ἴσην ἐχόντων γωνίαν τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνάις. ἡ πρώτη πρὸς τὴν τρίτην διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ πρὸς τὴν δευτέραν.1]. ἐὰν δὲ τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. so EF (is) to BG. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. Thus. as BC (is) to EF . ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΑΒΗ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. ὅτι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. Thus. alternately. Thus. 6. for triangles ABG and DEF . since as AB is to BC. οὕτως τὴν ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. ΔΕΖ ἄρα τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνάις. similar triangles are to one another in the squared ratio of (their) corresponding sides. such that BC corresponds to EF . I say that triangle ABC has a squared ratio to triangle DEF with respect to (that side) BC (has) to EF . 5. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς ΔΕ. ὡς δὲ τὴν ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΒΗ. and if three straight-lines are proportional then the first has a squared ratio to the third with respect to the second [Def. Proposition 19 Τὰ ὅμοια τρίγωνα πρὸς ἄλληλα ἐν διπλασίονι λόγῳ ἐστὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν. as DE (is) to EF . οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΒΗ τρίγωνον· καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ ἄρα τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΒΗ διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. And since as BC (is) to EF . And let AG have been joined. And triangle ABG (is) equal to triangle DEF . And as CB (is) to BG. Therefore. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν ΒΓ. as AB (is) to DE. ὥστε εἶναι ὡς τὴν ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. so EF is to BG.STOIQEIWN þ. have been taken (which is) proportional to BC and EF . as AB is to DE. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ ἄρα τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. οὕτως ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. οὕτως τὴν ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΒΗ· καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΗ. so triangle ABC (is) to triangle ABG [Prop. And those triangles having one (angle) equal to one (angle) for which the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional are equal [Prop.16].] Let ABC and DEF be similar triangles having the angle at B equal to the (angle) at E. so DE (is) to EF . Thus. οὕτως ἡ ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. ὥστε ὁμόλογον εἶναι τὴν ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ· λέγω. BG. BC thus has a squared ratio to BG with respect to (that) CB (has) to EF . And. ijþ. ἔστιν ὡς ἡ πρώτη πρὸς τὴν τρίτην.9]. [(Which is) the very thing it was required to show]. so BC (is) to EF [Prop. Α A ∆ Β Η Γ Ε D Ζ B G C E F ῎Εστω ὅμοια τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. so EF (is) to BG [Prop. so that as BC (is) to EF . οὕτως ἐστιν ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς ΒΗ. that if three straight-lines are ὦσιν.15]. ἴσα ἐστὶν ἐκεῖνα. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΗ. Τὰ ἄρα ὅμοια τρίγωνα πρὸς ἄλληλα ἐν διπλασίονι λόγῳ ἐστὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν. But.11]. ὅτι. Similar triangles are to one another in the squared† ratio of (their) corresponding sides. thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 very thing it was required to do. For let a third (straight-line). 5. Pìrisma. the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. ΔΕΖ ἴσην ἔχοντα τὴν πρὸς τῷ Β γωνίαν τῇ πρὸς τῷ Ε. Thus. οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ proportional. ἡ ΒΓ ἄρα πρὸς τὴν ΒΗ διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. 6. and AB to BC. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς ΒΗ· τῶν ΑΒΗ. thus. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΗ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. then as the first is to the third. from this. so the figure 175 . ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς ΕΖ. triangle ABC also has a squared ratio to triangle DEF with respect to (that side) BC (has) to EF . 6. triangle ABG is equal to triangle DEF .

ΖΗΛ μίαν γωνίαν μιᾷ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχοντα. Therefore. Proposition 20 Τὰ ὅμοια πολύγωνα εἴς τε ὅμοια τρίγωνα διαιρεῖται καὶ Similar polygons can be divided into equal numbers εἰς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος καὶ ὁμόλογα τοῖς ὅλοις. triangle EBC is also similar to triangle LGH [Prop. ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΒΕ.4. so LG (is) to GF . 6. squared ratio with respect to (that) a corresponding side (has) to a corresponding side. 6. so F G (is) to GH. 6. ΕΓ. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ διὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῶν πολυγώνων ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς ΒΓ. (figure) on the second. Def. as EB is to BA. (they are) also similar [Prop. and the sides about the equal angles. triangle EBC is equiangular to triangle LGH [Prop.1]. the remaining angle EBC is equal to LGH. ὅτι τὰ ΑΒΓΔΕ. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΗΛ τριγώνῳ· ὥστε καὶ ὅμοιον· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΗΛ. 6. since ABE and F GL are two triangles having one angle equal to one angle and the sides about the equal angles proportional. Thus. thus. Hence.22]. on account of the similarity of the polygons. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πολύγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΘΚΛ πολύγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΖΗ. ΖΗΘΚΛ. And since. ὁμόλογος δὲ ἔστω ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΖΗ· λέγω. ἐπεὶ οὖν δύο τρίγωνά ἐστι τὰ ΑΒΕ. EC. ΛΗΘ αἱ πλευραὶ ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΕΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΛΗΘ τριγώνῳ· ὥστε καὶ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΛΗΘ τριγώνω. So. ΖΗΘΚΛ πολύγωνα εἴς τε ὅμοια τρίγωνα διαιρεῖται καὶ εἰς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος καὶ ὁμόλογα τοῖς ὅλοις. ΖΗΘΚΛ εἴς τε ὅμοια τρίγωνα διῄρηται καὶ εἰς ἴσα K D Let ABCDE and F GHKL be similar polygons. triangle ECD is also similar 176 . ἔστι δὲ καὶ ὅλη ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ ὅλῃ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΗΘ ἴση διὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῶν πολυγώνων· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΛΗΘ ἐστιν ἴση. ΗΛ. I say that polygons ABCDE and F GHKL can be divided into equal numbers of similar triangles corresponding (in proportion) to the wholes. 6. καί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς ΑΕ. οὕτως ἡ ΛΗ πρὸς ΗΘ. “double”. angle ABE is equal to (angle) F GL. Def. GL. and (that) polygon ABCDE has a squared ratio to polygon F GHKL with respect to that AB (has) to F G. οὕτως ἡ ΛΗ πρὸς ΗΖ. via equality. And the whole (angle) ABC is equal to the whole (angle) F GH. And since polygon ABCDE is similar to polygon F GHKL. for the same (reasons). and as BA is to AE. 6. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΕΒ πρὸς ΒΓ. περὶ δὲ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. so LG (is) to GH [Prop. καὶ τὸ πολύγωνον of similar triangles corresponding (in proportion) to the πρὸς τὸ πολύγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ὁμόλογος wholes. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΖΛ. and similarly ὁμοίως ἀναγραφόμενον. τὰ ἄρα ὅμοια πολύγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓΔΕ. and let AB correspond to F G. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ΕΓΔ τρίγωνον ὅμοιόν ἐστι τῷ ΛΘΚ τριγώνῳ. Α A Ζ Β F Ε Η Μ Θ Γ E Λ B Ν G M Κ L N H ∆ C ῎Εστω ὅμοια πολύγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓΔΕ. ΛΘ. but also. 5. EBC and LGH. Thus. καὶ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνάις τὰς ὑπὸ ΕΒΓ. as AB is to BC. kþ. and one polygon has to the (other) polygon a πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ὁμόλογον πλευράν. as EB is to BC. Let BE.1].4.STOIQEIWN þ. angle BAE is equal to angle GF L. triangle ABE is thus equiangular to triangle F GL [Prop.1]. so GF (is) to F L [Def. and LH have been joined. καὶ ἐπεὶ διὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῶν ΑΒΕ. described. ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus.6]. οὕτως ἡ ΖΗ πρὸς ΗΘ. ΖΗΛ τριγώνων ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΕΒ πρὸς ΒΑ. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πολύγωνον τῷ ΖΗΘΚΛ πολυγώνῳ. † Literally. Hence. on account of the similarity of the polygons. οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς ΖΛ. 6.6]. on account of the similarity of triangles ABE and F GL. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τῆς πρώτης εἶδος πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς δευτέρας τὸ ὅμοιον καὶ (described) on the first (is) to the similar. are proportional.

proportionally. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ ἄρα πολύγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΘΚΛ πολύγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΑΒ ὁμόλογος πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ΖΗ ὁμόλογον πλευράν. ὅτι καὶ ὡς τὸ ΒΕΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΛΗΘ τρίγωνον. And so. on account of the similarity of the polygons. so F N (is) to N H [Prop. τουτέστιν ὥστε ἀνάλογον εἶναι τὰ τρίγωνα. so [triangle] ABM is to M BC. so triangle F GL (is) to triangle GLH. Hence. so (triangle) ABE (is) to CBE. we can also show. as AM (is) to M C. similarly. But. Thus. (triangle) ECD to LHK. so (the sum of) all the leading (magnitudes is) to (the sum of) all the following [Prop. 1. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΖ. ὁμοίως δὴ δεῖξομεν. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον.1]. οὕτως τὸ ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΗΛΘ τρίγωνον. That is to say. ὅτι καὶ ὁμόλογα τοῖς ὅλοις. so polygon ABCDE (is) to polygon F GHKL. (I) also (say) that polygon ABCDE has a squared ratio to polygon F GHKL with respect to (that) a corresponding side (has) to a corresponding side—that is to say. οὕτως τὸ ΕΒΓ πρὸς τὸ ΛΗΘ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν ἐπιζευχθεισῶν τῶν ΒΔ. so F G (is) to GH. Thus. and. ὡς ἡ ΑΜ πρὸς ΜΓ. also. and (angle) BCA to GHF .16]. 5. οὕτως τὸ ΒΕΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΗΛΘ τρίγωνον. so (the sum of) all the leading (magnitudes) is to (the sum of) all the following (magnitudes) [Prop. 5. also. and ECD are the leading (magnitudes). καὶ ἔτι τὸ ΕΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΛΘΚ. τουτέστιν ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΖΗ. οὕτως ἅπαντα τὰ ἡγούμενα πρὸς ἅπαντα τὰ ἑπόμενα· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον. Thus. Thus. we can show that triangle BM C is also equiangular to triangle GN H. the triangles are proportional: ABE. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΜ [τρίγωνον] πρὸς τὸ ΜΒΓ. καί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΜ πρὸς ΜΓ. so F N (is) to N G. καὶ τὸ ΑΜΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΜΓ· πρὸς ἄλληλα γάρ εἰσιν ὡς αἱ βάσεις.22]. And since angle BAM is equal to GF N . as AM (is) to M C. οὕτως ἡ ΑΜ πρὸς ΜΓ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΑΜ πρὸς ΜΓ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΜ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΖΝ. triangle ABE has a squared ratio 177 . οὕτως ἡ ΖΗ πρὸς ΗΘ. Λέγω. So. as AM (is) to M C. so triangle BEC (is) to triangle GLH [Prop. as (triangle) AM B (is) to BM C. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle F GH [Prop. as triangle AM B (is) to BM C. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τὸ πλῆθος. angle BAC is equal to GF H. via equality. And since as triangle ABE is to triangle F GL. Thus. so triangle ECD (is) to triangle LHK. thus as triangle ABE is to triangle F GL. οὕτως τὸ ΕΓΔ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΛΘΚ τρίγωνον. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΑΒ ὁμόλογος πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ΖΗ ὁμόλογον πλευράν· τὰ γὰρ ὅμοια τρίγωνα ἐν διπλασίονι λόγῳ ἐστὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν.12]. EBC. ΕΓΔ. as F N (is) to N H.4]. (side) AB to F G. οὕτως ἡ ΖΝ πρὸς ΝΘ. ἑπόμενα δὲ αὐτῶν τὰ ΖΗΛ. ΛΘΚ. καί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς ΒΓ. so (triangle) EBC (is) to LGH. ΗΚ. and LHK (respectively).32]. 5. αλλ᾿ ὡς τὸ ΑΜΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΜΓ. οὕτως ἅπαντα τὰ ἡγούμενα πρὸς ἅπαντα τὰ ἑπόμενα· ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΑΜΒ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΒΜΓ. as AM is to M B. Thus. and also as one of the leading (magnitudes is) to one of the following. and their (associated) following (magnitudes are) F GL. καὶ τὸ to triangle LHK. I also say that (the triangles) correspond (in proportion) to the wholes. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πολύγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΘΚΛ πολύγωνον. And since angle ABC is equal to F GH. 6. καὶ ὅτι τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πολύγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΘΚΛ πολύγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ὁμόλογος πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ὁμόλογον πλευράν. so triangle ABE (is) to triangle EBC. Τὰ ἄρα ὅμοια πολύγωνα εἴς τε ὅμοια τρίγωνα διαιρεῖται καὶ εἰς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος καὶ ὁμόλογα τοῖς ὅλοις. So. also. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ΑΜ πρὸς ΜΓ. καὶ ἐπεὶ διὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῶν πολυγώνων ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΗΘ. οὕτως ἡ ΖΝ πρὸς ΝΘ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΒΕΓ τρίγωνον. 6. ΛΗΘ. so F N (is) to N H. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἓν τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἓν τῶν ἑπομένων. the similar polygons ABCDE and F GHKL have been divided into equal numbers of similar triangles. καὶ ἡγούμενα μὲν εἶναι τὰ ΑΒΕ. for the same (reasons). For let AC and F H have been joined. so GN (is) to N H [Prop. ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΗΘ τριγώνῳ· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΖΘ. 5. But. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΖΝ πρὸς ΝΘ. by joining BD and GK. and as BM (is) to M C. triangle ABM is equiangular to triangle F GN . καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἓν τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἓν τῶν ἑπόμενων.STOIQEIWN þ. as triangle ABE (is) to triangle BEC. οὕτως τὸ ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΗΛΘ τρίγωνον. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΜ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΗΝ ἴση. ὡς μὲν ἡ ΑΜ πρὸς ΜΒ. and (angle) ABM is also equal to F GN (see earlier).12]. LGH. similarly. For they are to one another as their bases [Prop. But. οὕτως ἡ ΖΝ πρὸς ΝΗ.6]. οὕτως ἡ ΗΝ πρὸς ΝΘ· ὥστε καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου. and as AB is to BC. as triangle ABE (is) to triangle F GL. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΕ πρὸς τὸ ΓΒΕ. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστίν. ΖΘ. further. ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΑΓ. καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΜΒ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΝΗ ἴση ἐστίν· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΜ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΗΝ τριγώνῳ. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΒΜ πρὸς ΜΓ. the remaining (angle) AM B is thus also equal to the remaining (angle) F N G [Prop. alternately. and AM E to EM C. And as AM is to M C. so triangle F GL (is) to triangle GLH. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΕΒΓ τρίγωνον. that as triangle BEC (is) to triangle LGH. 6. ὅτι καὶ τὸ ΒΜΓ τρίγωνον ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τῷ ΗΝΘ τριγώνῳ. And as one of the leading (magnitudes) is to one of the following (magnitudes). Thus. so AM (is) to M C. and. ΕΒΓ.

Again. (A) is equiangular to (C). 6. triangles are in the squared ratio of corresponding sides [Prop. ὅτι καὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β ἐστιν ὅμοιον. and have the sides about the equal angles 178 . Pìrisma. 6.1]. And. Thus. and one polygon has to the (other) polygon a squared ratio with respect to (that) a corresponding side (has) to a corresponding side. similar δεῖξαι]. and has the sides about the equal angles proportional [Def. in the same manner. A and B are each equiangular to C. in general. ἰσογώνιόν τέ ἐστιν αὐτῷ καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχει.1]. πάλιν. ure are also similar to one another. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 πολύγωνον πρὸς τὸ πολύγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ to triangle F GL with respect to (that) the corresponding ἡ ὁμόλογος πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ὁμόλογον πλευράν [ὅπερ ἔδει side AB (has) to the corresponding side F G. For. ὅτι ἐν διπλασίονι λόγῳ εἰσὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν. ἑκάτερον ἄρα τῶν Α. And it was also shown for triangles. ἰσογώνιόν τέ ἐστιν αὐτῷ καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχει. Β τῷ Γ ἰσογώνιόν τέ ἐστι καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχει [ὥστε καὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β ἰσογώνιόν τέ ἐστι καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας Let each of the rectilinear figures A and B be similar to (the rectilinear figure) C. 6.STOIQEIWN þ. Β εὐθυγράμμων τῷ Γ ὅμοιον· λέγω. Proposition 21 Τὰ τῷ αὐτῷ εὐθυγράμμῳ ὅμοια καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν (Rectilinear figures) similar to the same rectilinear figὅμοια. similar rectilinear figures are also to one another in the squared ratio of (their) corresponding sides. since B is similar to C. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ Α τῷ Γ. Corollary ῾Ωσαύτως δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν [ὁμοίων] τετραπλεύρων δειχθήσεται. Thus. I say that A is also similar to B. (B) is equiangular to (C). similar polygons can be divided into equal numbers of similar triangles corresponding (in proportion) to the wholes. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἐπεὶ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ Β τῷ Γ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν τριγώνων· ὥστε καὶ καθόλου τὰ ὅμοια εὐθύγραμμα σχήματα πρὸς ἄλληλα ἐν διπλασίονι λόγῳ εἰσὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν. Thus. Α A Β Γ B C ῎Εστω γὰρ ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. it can also be shown for [similar] quadrilaterals that they are in the squared ratio of (their) corresponding sides. For since A is similar to C. kaþ. and has the sides about the equal angles proportional [Def. polygon ABCDE also has a squared ratio to polygon F GHKL with respect to (that) the corresponding side AB (has) to the corresponding side F G. Hence. [(Which is) the very thing it was required to show]. ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.14].

ΓΔ τρίτη ἀνάλογον ἡ Ξ.22]. οὕτως ἡ ΗΘ πρὸς τὴν Ο. and the similar. I say also that as AB is to CD. καὶ τὰ ἀπ᾿ αὐτῶν εὐθύγραμμα ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγεγραμμένα ἀνάλογον ἔσται· κἂν τὰ ἀπ᾿ αὐτῶν εὐθύγραμμα ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγεγραμμένα ἀνάλογον ᾖ. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ ἔστω ὡς τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ. so M F (is) to N H. οὕτως [καὶ] τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ. so EF (is) to P [Prop. thus. ΓΔ ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενα εὐθύγραμμα τὰ ΚΑΒ. and as CD (is) to O. so EF (is) to GH. so EF (is) to GH. as KAB (is) to LCD. as EF 179 . ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν Ξ. and similarly described. EF .11]. so M F (is) to N H [Prop. via equality. I say that as KAB is to LCD. rectilinear figures (drawn) on them are proportional then the straight-lines themselves will also be proportional. ΗΘ ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενα εὐθύγραμμα τὰ ΜΖ. καὶ ἀναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς D R Let AB. as AB is to O. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν Ο. so GH (is) to P . καὶ ἀναγεγράφθωσαν ἀπὸ μὲν τῶν ΑΒ.1]. And let the similar. ὅτι ἐστὶ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ. But. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΠΡ. τῶν δὲ ΕΖ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὅμοιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β· ὅπερ proportional [hence. καὶ αὐτὰι αἱ εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. and similarly laid out. εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστιν. 5. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. rectilinear figures (drawn) on them will also be proportional. A is similar to B [Def. ΕΖ. rectilinear figures KAB and LCD have been described on AB and CD (respectively). ΛΓΔ. οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ. οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ. so [also] KAB (is) to LCD. kbþ. (such that) as AB (is) to CD. ἔστω ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. and similarly described.]. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν Ξ. and similarly laid out. ΓΔ. and a third (straight-line) P proportional to EF and GH [Prop. ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν ΕΖ. Proposition 22 ᾿Εὰν τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. Thus. let AB be to CD.STOIQEIWN þ. ΗΘ τρίτη ἀνάλογον ἡ Ο. thus. And if similar. and as EF (is) to P . ELEMENTS BOOK 6 πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχει]. Κ K Λ Α Β Μ Ε Ξ Ζ L Γ Ν Η A ∆ B M Θ E Σ O Ο Π C N G F H S P Q Ρ ῎Εστωσαν τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον αἱ ΑΒ. And since as AB is to CD. ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. A is also equiangular to B. as M F (is) to N H. the sides about the equal angles proportional]. 5. and GH be four proportional straight-lines. and has ἔδει δεῖξαι. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν Ξ. And so let KAB be to LCD. For let a third (straight-line) O have been taken (which is) proportional to AB and CD. 6. as AB (is) to O. οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ. rectilinear figures M F and N H on EF and GH (respectively). οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν Ο. οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ· λέγω.19 corr. For if as AB is to CD. And. ΗΘ. 6. ΝΘ· λέγω. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. If four straight-lines are proportional then similar. CD. so M F (is) to N H. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν ΑΒ. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς μὲν ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. so EF (is) not to GH. so EF (is) to GH.

ἔστι δὲ αὐτῷ καὶ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΗΘ τῇ ΠΡ. οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΣΡ. that if two similar figures are equal then any pair of corresponding sides is also equal. Let AC and CF be equiangular parallelograms having angle BCD equal to ECG. τῆς τε ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΗ καὶ τῆς ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. 6. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. And it was also assumed that as KAB (is) to LCD. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. DC is also straight-on to CE [Prop. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. so EF (is) to QR. K also has to M the ratio compounded out of (the ratios of) the sides (of the parallelograms). so (parallelogram) AC (is) to CH. Thus.12]. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Λ. 5. Euclid assumes. καὶ γεγονέτω ὡς μὲν ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΗ. ΓΖ ἴσην ἔχοντα τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ γωνίαν τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΓΗ· λέγω. so parallelogram AC (is) to CH [Prop. οὕτως ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Λ. πάλιν.† And since AB is to CD. Here. οὕτως ἡ Λ πρὸς τὴν Μ. But. rectilinear figures (drawn) on them are proportional then the straight-lines themselves will also be proportional. And let some straight-line K have been laid down. without proof. ΓΔ ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενα τὰ ΚΑΒ. οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ. as K (is) to L. and QR (is) equal to GH. ΣΡ. And since as BC is to CG. and the similar. ΛΓΔ. kgþ. GH (is) equal to QR. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ΠΡ ὁποτέρῳ τῶν ΜΖ. οὕτως τὸ ΓΘ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ. so M F (is) to N H. Thus. also. Again. καὶ τὰ ἀπ᾿ αὐτῶν εὐθύγραμμα ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγεγραμμένα ἀνάλογον ἔσται· κἂν τὰ ἀπ᾿ αὐτῶν εὐθύγραμμα ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγεγραμμένα ἀνάλογον ᾖ. also. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. 6. Οἱ ἄρα λόγοι τῆς τε Κ πρὸς τὴν Λ καὶ τῆς Λ πρὸς τὴν Μ οἱ αὐτοί εἰσι τοῖς λόγοις τῶν πλευρῶν.21]. 1. Proposition 23 Τὰ ἰσογώνια παραλληλόγραμμα πρὸς ἄλληλα λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν. And let the rectilinear figure SR. ΣΡ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΝΘ τῷ ΣΡ. so L (is) to M [Prop. καὶ ἐκκείσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ Κ. similar. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. thus as KAB is to LCD. the ratios of K to L and of L to M are the same as the ratios of the sides. and as DC (is) to CE. ΝΘ ὅμοιόν τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον εὐθύγραμμον τὸ ΣΡ. and similarly described. and similarly described. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΠΡ τῇ ΗΘ. τὸ ΜΖ ἄρα πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν ΝΘ. Thus. Hence. καὶ συμπεπληρώσθω τὸ ΔΗ παραλληλόγραμμον. καὶ αὐτὰι αἱ εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. so M F (is) to SR (see above).9]. Therefore. ὅτι τὸ ΑΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν. N H is equal to SR [Prop. since as AB is to CD. the ratio of K to M is compounded out of the ratio of K to L and (the ratio) of L to M . and similarly laid down. then similar. have been described on QR [Props. οὕτως τὸ ΑΓ πρὸς τὸ ΓΘ. M F has the same ratio to each of N H and SR. 6. οὕτως ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Λ. ΠΡ ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενα τὰ ΜΖ. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΠΡ. 6. 5. as M F (is) to SR. οὕτως τὸ ΑΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΘ. but as BC (is) to CG.STOIQEIWN þ. οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΣΡ. Thus.14]. thus. so M F (is) to N H [Prop. Thus. since as DC (is) to CE. 6. ἀλλ᾿ ὁ τῆς Κ πρὸς Μ λόγος σύγκειται ἔκ τε τοῦ τῆς Κ πρὸς Λ λόγου καὶ τοῦ τῆς Λ πρὸς Μ· ὥστε καὶ ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Μ λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν. (namely). rectilinear figures (drawn) on them will also be proportional. ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν ΕΖ. ῎Εστω ἰσογώνια παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ΑΓ. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΗ. And let the parallelogram DG have been completed. ὑπόκειται δὲ καὶ ὡς τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ. and the similar. if four straight-lines are proportional. And let it be contrived that as BC (is) to CG. to either of M F or N H. thus as AB is to CD. so K (is) to L. For let BC be laid down so as to be straight-on to CG. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΠΡ. so EF (is) to GH. and similarly laid out. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΗ.12]. and similarly laid out. Thus. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. Equiangular parallelograms have to one another the ratio compounded† out of (the ratios of) their sides. I say that parallelogram AC has to parallelogram CF the ratio compounded out of (the ratios of) their sides. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. † (is) to QR [Prop. and similarly laid out. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. καὶ ἀναγέγραπται ἀπὸ μὲν τῶν ΑΒ. BC to CG and DC to CE (respectively). as EF (is) to QR. (rectilinear figures) M F and SR on EF and QR (resespectively). so K (is) to L. Κείσθω γὰρ ὥστε ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας εἶναι τὴν ΒΓ τῇ ΓΗ· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΔΓ τῇ ΓΕ.11]. so parallelogram 180 . ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ.18. And if similar.1]. (rectilinear figures) KAB and LCD have been described on AB and CD (respectively). And it is also similar. to it.

16]. angle AF G is equal to DCA [Prop. so parallelogram CH (is) to parallelogram CF . so CF (is) to F A [Prop. A B Κ Λ Μ D H C G K L M Ε Ζ E F Τὰ ἄρα ἰσογώνια παραλληλόγραμμα πρὸς ἄλληλα λόγον Thus. as CF (is) to F A. But. 6. ὅτι ἑκάτερον τῶν ΕΗ. and to one another. ΘΚ· λέγω. οὕτως ἡ ΔΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΑ. ὡς μὲν ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Λ. And K has to M the ratio compounded out of (the ratios of) the sides (of the parallelograms). but as DC (is) to CE. And let EG and HK be parallelograms about AC.22]. And. οὕτως τὸ ΑΓ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. so parallelogram AC (is) to parallelogram CH. also. as CF is to F A. and as L (is) to M . ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΓΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. I say that the parallelograms EG and HK are each similar to the whole (parallelogram) ABCD.29]. compounding.2]. if two ratios are “compounded” then they are multiplied together. and to one another. in parallelograms ABCD and EG the sides about the common angle BAD are proportional. ΘΚ παραλληλογράμμων ὅμοιόν ἐστι ὅλῳ τῷ ΑΒΓΔ καὶ ἀλλήλοις. οὕτως ἡ ΕΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΗ. so it was also shown (is) BE to EA. 5. as K is to M .2]. proportionally. ῎Εστω παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. equiangular parallelograms have to one another ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. οὕτως τὸ ΓΘ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. Proposition 24 Παντὸς παραλληλογράμμου τὰ περὶ τὴν διάμετρον παραλληλόγραμμα ὅμοιά ἐστι τῷ τε ὅλῳ καὶ ἀλλήλοις. so parallelogram CH (is) to parallelogram CF . 6. alternately.STOIQEIWN þ. καὶ ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΗΖ τῇ ΔΓ. so L (is) to M . 5.18]. thus. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐδείχθη. Α Β ∆ Θ Γ Η CH (is) to CF [Prop. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ΓΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. so (parallelogram) AC (is) to parallelogram CF [Prop. thus. οὕτως ἡ ΔΑ πρὸς ΑΗ. 181 . ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΓΔ παρὰ μίαν τὴν ΓΔ ἦκται ἡ ΖΗ. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΒΓ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΒΓ ἦκται ἡ ΕΖ. And. and AC its diagonal. ΕΗ παραλληλογράμμων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὴν κοινὴν γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. 1. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΖΗ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΑ· καὶ κοινὴ τῶν δύο In any parallelogram the parallelograms about the diagonal are similar to the whole. οὕτως τὸ ΑΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΘ παραλληλόγραμμον. οὕτως ἡ ΔΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΑ. so DA (is) to AG [Prop. as BE is to EA. (parallelogram) AC also has to (parallelogram) CF the ratio compounded out of (the ratio of) their sides. 5. And since GF is parallel to DC. thus. Therefore. And thus as BE (is) to EA. καὶ συνθέντι ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς ΑΕ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 οὕτως ἡ Λ πρὸς τὴν Μ. Thus. περὶ δὲ τὴν ΑΓ παραλληλόγραμμα ἔστω τὰ ΕΗ. since it was shown that as K (is) to L. Again. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. so EA (is) to AG [Prop. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΔ. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Μ. so DG (is) to GA. as BA (is) to AD. as BA (is) to AE. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ Λ πρὸς τὴν Μ.1]. ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ. τῶν ἄρα ΑΒΓΔ. † In modern terminology. the ratio compounded out of (the ratio of) their sides. 6. ὡς δὲ ἡ Λ πρὸς τὴν Μ. For since EF has been drawn parallel to one of the sides BC of triangle ABC. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἡ ΑΓ. so DG (is) to GA [Prop. via equality. οὕτως ἡ ΓΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. οὕτως τὸ ΓΘ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. kdþ. as L (is) to M . οὕτως ἐδείχθη καὶ ἡ ΒΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ. proportionally. πάλιν. ἡ δὲ Κ πρὸς τὴν Μ λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν· καὶ τὸ ΑΓ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν. Let ABCD be a parallelogram. since F G has been drawn parallel to one (of the sides) CD of triangle ACD. Thus.

ἔδει δεῖξαι. 6.22]. so GF (is) to F A. οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. via equality. Ε Α Β Ζ Η ∆ And angle DAC (is) common to the two triangles ADC and AGF . οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. as DC is to CB. and. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ΑΓΒ τρίγωνον ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τῷ ΑΖΕ τριγώνῳ. triangle ACB is equiangular to triangle AF E. A Γ B F G Θ Κ E D H K C Παντὸς ἄρα παραλληλογράμμου τὰ περὶ τὴν διάμετρον Thus. And (rectilinear figures) similar to the same rectilinear figure are also similar to one another [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τριγώνων τῶν ΑΔΓ. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΒ.32]. and to one another. τὰ δὲ τῷ αὐτῷ εὐθυγράμμῳ ὅμοια καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν ὅμοια· καὶ τὸ ΕΗ ἄρα παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΘΚ παραλληλογράμμῳ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν. and as AC (is) to CB. καὶ ἔτι ὡς ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΑ. parallelogram ABCD is also similar to parallelogram KH. Thus. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΒ. and as AC (is) to CB. 5. in any parallelogram the parallelograms about παραλληλόγραμμα ὅμοιά ἐστι τῷ τε ὅλῳ καὶ ἀλλήλοις· ὅπερ the diagonal are similar to the whole. Thus. Proposition 25 Τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ ὅμοιον καὶ ἄλλῳ τῷ δοθέντι ἴσον τὸ αὐτὸ συστήσασθαι. 1. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον καὶ τῷ ΚΘ παραλληλογράμμῳ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν· ἑκάτερον ἄρα τῶν ΕΗ. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΑ. ΕΗ παραλληλογράμμων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας· ὅμοιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλογράμμον τῷ ΕΗ παραλληλογράμμῳ. and as DC (is) to CA. and the whole parallelogram ABCD is equiangular to parallelogram EG. parallelograms EG and HK are each similar to [parallelogram] ABCD. for the same (reasons). so AF (is) to F E. as AD (is) to DC. thus. ΑΗΖ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ γωνία· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΗΖ τριγώνῳ. ΘΚ παραλληλογράμμων τῷ ΑΒΓΔ [παραλληλογράμμῳ] ὅμοιόν ἐστιν. οὕτως ἡ ΑΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΕ.STOIQEIWN þ. 182 . οὕτως ἡ ΑΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΖ. parallelogram ABCD is similar to parallelogram EG [Def. Thus. in parallelograms ABCD and EG the sides about the equal angles are proportional.21]. So. so AG (is) to GF . 6. οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΕ. further. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΒ.1]. καὶ ὅλον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΕΗ παραλληλογράμμῳ ἰσογώνιόν ἐστιν. and equal to a different given rectilinear figure. οὕτως ἡ ΑΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΕ. Thus.4]. triangle ADC is equiangular to triangle AGF [Prop. 6. so AF (is) to F E. proportionally. τῶν ἄρα ΑΒΓΔ. so GF (is) to F E [Prop. for the same (reasons). To construct a single (rectilinear figure) similar to a given rectilinear figure. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐδείχθη ὡς μὲν ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΑ. keþ. οὕτως ἡ ΖΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ. So. parallelogram EG is also similar to parallelogram HK. And since it was shown that as DC is to CA. so GF (is) to F A. as CB (is) to BA. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΓ. Thus. Thus. so F E (is) to EA [Prop.

18]. ΓΖ μέση ἀνάλογον ἡ ΗΘ. If from a parallelogram a(nother) parallelogram is subtracted (which is) similar.16]. so parallelogram BE (is) to parallelogram EF [Prop. ἔστι δὲ τὸ ΚΗΘ καὶ τῷ ΑΒΓ ὅμοιον. which is equal to CBL [Prop. 1. οὕτως τὸ ΒΕ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΕΖ παραλληλόγραμμον· ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ παραλληλόγραμμον. so triangle KGH (is) to parallelogram EF [Prop. so GH (is) to CF . καὶ ἀναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΘ τῷ ΑΒΓ ὅμοιόν τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον τὸ ΚΗΘ. οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς πρώτης εἶδος πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς δευτέρας τὸ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφόμενον. Παραβεβλήσθω γὰρ παρὰ μὲν τὴν ΒΓ τῷ ΑΒΓ τριγώνῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΒΕ. and similarly described. οὕτως τὸ ΚΗΘ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΕΖ παραλληλόγραμμον.45].13]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. as triangle ABC (is) to parallelogram BE. and D the (rectilinear figure) to which (the constructed figure) is required (to be) equal. so the figure (described) on the first (is) to the similar. And since as BC is to GH. similar. τὸ Δ· δεῖ δὴ τῷ μὲν ΑΒΓ ὅμοιον. But. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΖ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 Κ K Α A ∆ Β D Γ Ζ Η B Θ C F G H Λ Ε Μ ῎Εστω τὸ μὲν δοθὲν εὐθύγραμμον. ἔστιν ὡς ἡ πρώτη πρὸς τὴν τρίτην. And. thus as BC is to CF . BC is straight-on to CF . Thus. a single (rectilinear figure) KGH has been constructed (which is) similar to the given rectilinear figure ABC. also. in the angle F CE.19 corr. ἥ ἐστιν ἴση τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΒΛ. to the whole. Proposition 26 ᾿Εὰν ἀπὸ παραλληλογράμμου παραλληλόγραμμον ἀφαιρεθῇ ὅμοιόν τε τῷ ὅλῳ καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον κοινὴν γωνίαν ἔχον αὐτῷ. and similarly laid out. ἡ δὲ ΛΕ τῇ ΕΜ. alternately. KGH is also equal to D. And KGH is also similar to ABC. and similarly laid out. triangle KGH (is) also equal to parallelogram EF .STOIQEIWN þ. as BC (is) to CF . Thus. For. 1. and LE to EM [Prop. from parallelogram ABCD. so parallelogram BE (is) to parallelogram EF . So it is required to construct a single (rectilinear figure) similar to ABC. οὕτως τὸ ΒΕ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΕΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. ἐὰν δὲ τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. 5. ᾧ δεῖ ὅμοιον συστήσασθαι. Thus. And let the mean proportion GH have been taken of BC and CF [Prop. τῷ δὲ Δ ἴσον τὸ αὐτὸ συστήσασθαι. L E M Let ABC be the given rectilinear figure to which it is required to construct a similar (rectilinear figure). Τῷ ἄρα δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ ΑΒΓ ὅμοιον καὶ ἄλλῳ τῷ δοθέντι τῷ Δ ἴσον τὸ αὐτὸ συνέσταται τὸ ΚΗΘ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. παρὰ δὲ τὴν ΓΕ τῷ Δ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΓΜ ἐν γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΓΕ. and the parallelogram CM . ᾧ δὲ δεῖ ἴσον. Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. 6. having a common angle with it. ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΒΓ τῇ ΓΖ. Thus. 6. οὕτως ἡ ΗΘ πρὸς τὴν ΓΖ. equal to D. parallelogram EF is equal to D. then (the subtracted parallelogram) is about the same diagonal as the whole. ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΒΕ παραλληλογράμμῳ· ἴσον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΚΗΘ τρίγωνον τῷ ΕΖ παραλληλογράμμῳ. And triangle ABC (is) equal to parallelogram BE.1]. And let KGH. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΚΗΘ τρίγωνον. Thus. and equal to D. τὸ ΑΒΓ. and equal to a different given (rectilinear figure) D. καὶ εἰλήφθω τῶν ΒΓ. περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν διάμετρόν ἐστι τῷ ὅλῳ. 6. kþ. ᾿Απὸ γὰρ παραλληλογράμμου τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΑΖ ὅμοιον τῷ ΑΒΓΔ καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον κοινὴν γωνίαν ἔχον αὐτῷ τὴν ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ· λέγω. But. (figure) on the second [Prop. have been applied to (the straight-line) BC [Prop. as triangle ABC (is) to triangle KGH. ἀλλὰ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΖ. καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΚΗΘ τρίγωνον. so triangle ABC (is) to triangle KGH. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΕΖ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ Δ ἐστιν ἴσον· καὶ τὸ ΚΗΘ ἄρα τῷ Δ ἐστιν ἴσον. (have been applied) to (the straight-line) CE. 6. and if three straight-lines are proportional then as the first is to the third.14].]. equal to triangle ABC. let (parallelogram) 183 . to ABC have been described on GH [Prop. 1. For let the parallelogram BE.44]. thus.

And. For (if) not. since ABCD is about the same diagonal as KG. if from a parallelogram a(nother) parallelogram is subtracted (which is) similar. the lesser to the greater. And let the parallelogram AD have been applied to the straight-line AB. Proposition 27 Πάντων τῶν παρὰ τὴν αὐτὴν εὐθεῖαν παραβαλλομένων παραλληλογράμμων καὶ ἐλλειπόντων εἴδεσι παραλληλογράμμοις ὁμοίοις τε καὶ ὁμοίως κειμένοις τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας ἀναγραφομένῳ μέγιστόν ἐστι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας παραβαλλόμενον [παραλληλόγραμμον] ὅμοιον ὂν τῷ ἐλλείμμαντι. as GA (is) to AK. to ABCD.24]. And producing GF . let it have been drawn through to (point) H. 6. and similarly laid out. Thus. and similarly laid out. K Γ D F E Θ Β G H C B Μὴ γάρ. ΒΓ παράλληλος ἡ ΘΚ. τουτέστι τῆς ΓΒ· λέγω. so GA (is) to AE. καὶ παραβεβλήσθω παρὰ τὴν ΑΒ εὐθεῖαν τὸ ΑΔ παραλληλόγραμμον ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ τῷ ΔΒ ἀναγραφέντι ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας τῆς ΑΒ. so GA (is) to AK [Prop. οὕτως ἡ ΗΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΕ. parallel to either of AD or BC [Prop. καὶ ἐκβληθεῖσα ἡ ΗΖ διήχθω ἐπὶ τὸ Θ. I say that ABCD is about the same diagonal as AF . ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΑΚ ἡ ἐλάττων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. ῎Εστω εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ καὶ τετμήσθω δίχα κατὰ τὸ Γ. Α Η ∆ A Ζ Ε Κ AF have been subtracted (which is) similar.10]. περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν διάμετρόν ἐστι τῷ ὅλῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. then (the subtracted parallelogram) is about the same diagonal as the whole. on account of the similarity of ABCD and EG. ἔστι δὲ καὶ διὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῶν ΑΒΓΔ. ὅτι πάντων τῶν παρὰ τὴν ΑΒ παραβαλλομένων παραλληλογράμμων καὶ ἐλλειπόντων εἴδεσι [παραλληλογράμμοις] ὁμοίοις τε καὶ ὁμοίως κειμένοις τῷ ΔΒ μέγιστόν ἐστι τὸ Of all the parallelograms applied to the same straightline. to the whole. Let AB be a straight-line. ἔστω [αὐτῶν] διάμετρος ἡ ΑΘΓ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἡ ΗΑ ἄρα πρὸς ἑκατέραν τῶν ΑΚ. as DA (is) to AB. 1. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. then. οὐκ ἄρα οὔκ ἐστι περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν διάμετρον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τῷ ΑΖ· περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν ἄρα ἐστὶ διάμετρον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΑΖ παραλληλογράμμῳ. and falling short by parallelogrammic figures similar. 5. kzþ. Thus. and similarly laid out. καὶ ἤχθω διὰ τοῦ Θ ὁπορέρᾳ τῶν ΑΔ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν διάμετρόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τῷ ΚΗ. ABCD is not not about the same diagonal as AF . And let HK have been drawn through (point) H. οὕτως ἡ ΗΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΚ. CB. οὕτως ἡ ΗΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΕ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΗΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΚ. Thus. let AHC be [ABCD’s] diagonal. to the (parallelogram) described on half (the straight-line). parallelogram ABCD is about the same diagonal as parallelogram AF . GA has the same ratio to each of AK and AE.31]. falling short by the parallelogrammic figure DB (which is) applied to half of AB—that is to say. having a common angle with it. also. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ἀπὸ παραλληλογράμμου παραλληλόγραμμον ἀφαιρεθῇ ὅμοιόν τε τῷ ὅλῳ καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον κοινὴν γωνίαν ἔχον αὐτῷ. Thus. thus as DA is to AB. AE is equal to AK [Prop. Therefore. and let it have been cut in half at (point) C [Prop.STOIQEIWN þ. the greatest is the [parallelogram] applied to half (the straight-line) which (is) similar to (that parallelogram) by which it falls short. ΕΗ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΔΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ. The very thing is impossible. I say that of all the parallelograms applied to AB.9]. 1. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ὅτι περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν διάμετρόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τῷ ΑΖ. Thus. if possible. having the common angle DAB with it. also. and falling short by 184 . so GA (is) to AE. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΔΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ. ΑΕ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. Thus.

43]. 6. since (complement) CF is equal to (complement) F E [Prop. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΖ τῷ ΖΕ. and C the given rectilinear figure to which the (parallelogram) applied to 185 . Thus. But. ᾧ δεῖ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΑΒ παραβαλεῖν. parallelogram DB—that is to say. For let the parallelogram AF have been applied to the straight-line AB. for all parallelograms applied to the same straight-line. the greatest is the [parallelogram] applied to half (the straight-line). Proposition 28† Παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβαλεῖν ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ ὁμοίῳ τῷ δοθέντι· δεῖ δὲ τὸ διδόμενον εὐθύγραμμον [ᾧ δεῖ ἴσον παραβαλεῖν] μὴ μεῖζον εἶναι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας ἀναγραφομένου ὁμοίου τῷ ἐλλείμματι [τοῦ τε ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ ᾧ δεῖ ὅμοιον ἐλλείπειν]. equal to a given rectilinear figure. τοῦ ΑΖ παραλληλογράμμου μεῖζόν ἐστιν. τὸ δὲ δοθὲν εὐθύγραμμον. (the applied parallelogram) falling short by a parallelogrammic figure similar to a given (parallelogram). Ε D E N Ν Ζ Μ Η Λ Α Γ Κ Θ F M G Β L A C K H B ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ ΔΒ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΖΒ παραλληλογράμμῳ. Let AB be the given straight-line. they are about the same diagonal [Prop. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΓΘ τῷ ΓΗ ἐστιν ἴσον. I say that AD is greater than AF . καὶ τὸ ΗΓ ἄρα τῷ ΕΚ ἐστιν ἴσον. For since parallelogram DB is similar to parallelogram F B. to DB. 1. (parallelogram) GC is also equal to EK. It is necessary for the given rectilinear figure [to which it is required to apply an equal (parallelogram)] not to be greater than the (parallelogram) described on half (of the straight-line) and similar to the deficit.26]. Thus. to the (parallelogram) described on half (the straight-line). Πάντων ἄρα τῶν παρὰ τὴν αὐτὴν εὐθεῖαν παραβαλλομένων παραλληλογράμμων καὶ ἐλλειπόντων εἴδεσι παραλληλογράμμοις ὁμοίοις τε καὶ ὁμοίως κειμένοις τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας ἀναγραφομένῳ μέγιστόν ἐστι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας παραβληθέν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ΑΔ. since AC (is) also (equal) to CB [Prop. and similarly laid out. falling short by the parallelogrammic figure F B (which is) similar. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΓΖ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΖ τῷ ΛΜΝ γνώμονί ἐστιν ἴσον· ὥστε τὸ ΔΒ παραλληλόγραμμον. and falling short by a parallelogrammic figure similar. to DB. κοινὸν δὲ τὸ ΖΒ. Let their (common) diagonal DB have been drawn. καὶ καταγεγράφθω τὸ σχῆμα. and similarly laid out.1]. ∆ [parallelogrammic] figures similar. περὶ τὴν αὐτήν εἰσι διάμετρον. παραβεβλήσθω γὰρ παρὰ τὴν ΑΒ εὐθεῖαν τὸ ΑΖ παραλληλόγραμμον ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ τῷ ΖΒ ὁμοίῳ τε καὶ ὁμοίως κειμένῳ τῷ ΔΒ· λέγω. ἤχθω αὐτῶν διάμετρος ἡ ΔΒ. τὸ Γ μὴ μεῖζον [ὂν] τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας τῆς ΑΒ ἀναγραφομένου ὁμοίου τῷ ἐλλείμματι. τουτέστι τὸ ΑΔ. ᾧ δὲ δεῖ ὅμοιον ἐλλείπειν. AD—is greater than parallelogram AF . 6. and let the (rest of the) figure have been described. the whole (parallelogram) CH is thus equal to the whole (parallelogram) KE. ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΓΘ ὅλῳ τῷ ΚΕ ἐστιν ἴσον. and similarly laid out. τὸ Δ· δεῖ δὴ To apply a parallelogram. the whole (parallelogram) AF is equal to the gnomon LM N . Thus. ῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ.STOIQEIWN þ. and (parallelogram) F B is common. the greatest is AD. ἐπεὶ καὶ ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΒ. Hence. Let (parallelogram) CF have been added to both. khþ. to a given straight-line. Therefore. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. (parallelogram) CH is equal to CG. ὅτι μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΔ τοῦ ΑΖ.

ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΘΕ τῷ ΗΒ· μεῖζον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΗΒ τοῦ Γ. and GP to LM [Prop. and equal to the excess by which GB is greater than C [Prop. καὶ συμπεπληρώσθω τὸ ΑΗ παραλληλόγραμμον. Παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν ἄρα εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ Γ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβέβληται τὸ ΣΤ ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ τῷ ΠΒ ὁμοίῳ ὄντι E S B K N Let AB have been cut in half at point E [Prop. Thus. KM is also similar to GB [Prop. καὶ ἀναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΒ τῷ Δ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον τὸ ΕΒΖΗ. Therefore. So it is required to apply a parallelogram. Εἰ μὲν οὖν ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΗ τῷ Γ. And since (parallelogram) GB is equal to (figure) C and (parallelogram) KM . Let GO be made equal to KL. let KL correspond to GE. and similarly laid out. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΗ τοῖς Γ. GE is also greater than KL. GB (is) also greater than C. and GF than LM . τῇ δὲ ΛΜ ἴση ἡ ΗΟ.1]. ᾧ δὴ μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ ΗΒ τοῦ Γ.25]. have been described on EB [Prop. 6. Therefore. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΗΒ τοῖς Γ. and D the (parallelogram) to which the deficit is required (to be) similar. ἀλλ᾿ ὁ ΦΧΥ γνώμων τῷ Γ ἐδείχθη ἴσος· καὶ τὸ ΤΣ ἄρα τῷ Γ ἐστιν ἴσον. λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΥΧΦ γνόμων λοιπῷ τῷ Γ ἴσος ἐστίν.26]. 6. 6. For a parallelogram AG. Thus. 1. if AG is equal to C then the thing prescribed has happened. Thus. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΟΡ τῷ ΞΣ. since BG is equal to C and KM . has been applied to the given straight-line AB. of which GQ is equal to KM . and similarly laid out.43]. the whole (parallelogram) P B is equal to the whole (par- 186 . J H O Z H G P F G X T A F E L U P C Q M L R S B O T D V M U Q W R D K N A Τετμήσθω ἡ ΑΒ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε σημεῖον. GQ is also similar to GB [Prop.21]. let HE be greater than C. to (parallelogram) D. ἔστω οὖν ὁμόλογος ἡ μὲν ΚΛ τῂ ΗΕ. let (parallelogram) KLM N have been constructed (so as to be) both similar. let (parallelogram) QB have been added to both. ἐπεὶ καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΕ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΕΒ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ τὸ ΤΕ ἄρα τῷ ΟΒ ἐστιν ἴσον. falling short by a parallelogrammic figure GB which is similar to D. ΚΜ. 1. Let GQB be their (common) diagonal. and let (parallelogram) EBF G. Thus. the remaining gnomon U W V is thus equal to the remainder C. ταύτῃ τῇ ὑπεροχῇ ἴσον.10]. ἔστω αὐτῶν διάμετρος ἡ ΗΠΒ. ὧν τὸ ΗΠ τῷ ΚΜ ἐστιν ἴσον. 6. to D.the (parallelogram) described on half of AB and similar ραλληλογράμμῳ ὁμοίῳ ὄντι τῷ Δ.STOIQEIWN þ. καὶ συμπεπληρώσθω τὸ ΞΗΟΠ παραλληλόγραμμον· ἴσον ἄρα καὶ ὅμοιον ἐστι [τὸ ΗΠ] τῷ ΚΜ [ἀλλὰ τὸ ΚΜ τῷ ΗΒ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν]. to the straight-line AB. And HE (is) equal to GB [Prop. κείσθω τῇ μὲν ΚΛ ἴση ἡ ΗΞ. καὶ τὸ ΗΠ ἄρα τῷ ΗΒ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν· περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν ἄρα διάμετρόν ἐστι τὸ ΗΠ τῷ ΗΒ. Therefore. 1. (which is) similar. ἀλλὰ τὸ Δ τῷ ΗΒ [ἐστιν] ὅμοιον· καὶ τὸ ΚΜ ἄρα τῷ ΗΒ ἐστιν ὅμοιον. τῷ δὲ Δ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον τὸ αὐτὸ συνεστάτω τὸ ΚΛΜΝ. So. And let the parallelogram OGP Q have been completed. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ AB is required (to be) equal. Thus. GB [is] similar to D. μεῖζόν ἔστω τὸ ΘΕ τοῦ Γ.18]. and LM to GF . 6. μεῖζον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΗΒ τοῦ ΚΜ· μείζων ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ μὲν ΗΕ τῆς ΚΛ. And if not. equal to the given rectilinear figure C. ἡ δὲ ΗΖ τῆς ΛΜ. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΞΣ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΤΣ ὅλῳ τῷ ΦΧΥ γνώμονί ἐστιν ἴσον. And let parallelogram AG have been completed. Thus. ἡ δὲ ΛΜ τῇ ΗΖ. γεγονὸς ἂν εἴη τὸ ἐπιταχθέν· παραβέβληται γὰρ παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ Γ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΑΗ ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ τῷ ΗΒ ὁμοίῳ ὄντι τῷ Δ. GB is thus greater than KM . And since (the complement) P R is equal to (the complement) OS [Prop. falling short by a parallelogrammic figure which is similar to D. ΚΜ. equal to the given rectilinear figure C. GQ and GB are about the same diagonal [Prop. But. to the deficit. 6. KM is similar to GB]. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΞΒ τῷ ΤΕ ἐστιν ἴσον. [GQ] is equal and similar to KM [but.21]. Thus. καὶ καταγεγράφθω τὸ σχῆμα. [being] not greater than τῷ Γ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβαλεῖν ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει πα.3]. and let the (remainder of the) figure have been described. εἰ δὲ οὔ. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΠΒ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΟΒ ὅλῳ τῷ ΞΒ ἴσον ἐστίν.

τῇ δὲ ΚΗ ἴση ἡ ΖΕΝ. ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν αἱ ΖΛ.STOIQEIWN þ. gnomon V W U was shown (to be) equal to C. x is the ratio of a side of the deficit to the corresponding side of figure D. So it is required to apply a parallelogram. καὶ ἐπεὶ μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΖΒ. τῷ δὲ Δ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον τὸ αὐτὸ συνεστάτω τὸ ΗΘ. which is similar to D [inasmuch as QB is similar to GQ [Prop. Therefore.24] ]. the whole (parallelogram) T S is equal to the gnomon V W U .ear figure. καὶ συναμφοτέροις μὲν τοῖς ΒΖ. 6. 6. T E is also equal to P B. overshooting by a parallelogrammic figure similar to D. But. Only the smaller root of the equation is found. ΖΕ. Z G K L M J F D A L M K H C D E N F Y B O Q P X A E V X B W H ῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. Proposition 29† Παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ To apply a parallelogram.10]. (the applied paralleloραλληλογράμμῳ ὁμοίῳ τῷ δοθέντι. α is the ratio of the length of AB to the length of that side of figure D which corresponds to the side of the deficit running along AB. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΗΘ τῷ ΕΛ ἐστιν ὅμοιον· P N Q O G Let AB be the given straight-line. καὶ συμπεπληρώσθω τὸ ΜΝ· τὸ ΜΝ ἄρα τῷ ΗΘ ἴσον τέ ἐστι καὶ ὅμοιον. Thus. μείζων ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ μὲν ΚΘ τῆς ΖΛ. But. and let the parallelogram BF . OB is equal to T E. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τῷ Δ [ἐπειδήπερ τὸ ΠΒ τῷ ΗΠ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν]· ὅπερ ἔδει allelogram) OB. † This proposition is a geometric solution of the quadratic equation x2 −α x+β = 0. ὁμόλογος δὲ ἔστω ἡ μὲν ΚΘ τῇ ΖΛ. τὸ Γ. and C the given rectilinear figure to which the (parallelogram) applied to AB is required (to be) equal. equal to the given rectilinear figure C. kjþ. Let AB have been cut in half at (point) E [Prop. and equal to the sum of BF and C [Prop. ᾧ δεῖ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΑΒ παραβαλεῖν. AE is equal to side EB [Prop. to D. ἡ δὲ ΚΗ τῇ ΖΕ. Here. And since (parallelogram) GH is greater than (parallelogram) F B. and similarly laid out. equal to a given rectilinἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβαλεῖν ὑπερβάλλον εἴδει πα. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. has been applied to the given straightline AB. 6. to the given straight-line AB.1]. the parallelogram ST . gram) overshooting by a parallelogrammic figure similar to a given (parallelogram). to D.25]. καὶ τῇ μὲν ΚΘ ἴση ἔστω ἡ ΖΛΜ. and D the (parallelogram) to which the excess is required (to be) similar. 6. And let KH correspond to F L. to a given straight-line. and KG to F E. καὶ ἀναγεγράθω ἀπὸ τὴς ΕΒ τῷ Δ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΒΖ. τὸ Δ· δεῖ δὴ παρὰ τὴν ΑΒ εὐθεῖαν τῷ Γ εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβαλεῖν ὑπερβάλλον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ ὁμοίῳ τῷ Δ. since side ποιῆσαι. 1. Thus. And let (parallelogram) GH have been constructed (so as to be) both similar. 187 . Τετμήσθω ἡ ΑΒ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε. (which is) similar.18]. The larger root can be found by a similar method. equal to the given rectilinear figure C. Γ ἴσον. ᾧ δὲ δεῖ ὅμοιον ὑπερβάλλειν. and similarly laid out. The constraint corresponds to the condition β < α2 /4 for the equation to have real roots. have been described on EB [Prop. τὸ δὲ δοθὲν εὐθύγραμμον. and β is the ratio of the areas of figures C and D. Thus. ἡ δὲ ΚΗ τῇ ΖΕ. Let (parallelogram) OS have been added to both. falling short by the parallelogrammic figure QB. (parallelogram) T S is also equal to (figure) C.

M N is equal and similar to GH. Only the positive root of the equation is found. † KH is thus also greater than F L. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΗΘ τῷ ΜΝ ἴσον ἐστίν. M N is also similar to EL [Prop. But. Let F L and F E have been produced. Thus. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ΑΝ τῷ ΝΒ. 1.1]. But. Γ.3]. and F EN to KG [Prop. ἤχθω αὐτῶν διάμετρος ἡ ΖΞ.43]. has been applied to the given straightline AB. And since AE is equal to EB. So it is reΑΒ εὐθεῖαν ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τεμεῖν. Here. Γ ἴσον ἐστίν. (parallelogram) LP [Prop. Let (parallelogram) EO have been added to both. τουτέστι τῷ ΛΟ. that is to say. 6. and KG than F E. Thus. καὶ καταγεγράφθω τὸ σχῆμα. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 καὶ τὸ ΜΝ ἄρα τῷ ΕΛ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν· περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν ἄρα διάμετρόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΛ τῷ ΜΝ. (parallelogram) AN is also equal to (parallelogram) N B [Prop. the remaining gnomon XW V is equal to (figure) C. α is the ratio of the length of AB to the length of that side of figure D which corresponds to the side of the excess running along AB. 6. but GH is equal to (parallelogram) M N . since P Q is also similar to EL [Prop. And since (parallelogram) GH is equal to (parallelogram) EL and (figure) C. and β is the ratio of the areas of figures C and D.26]. EL is thus about the same diagonal as M N [Prop. καὶ τὸ ΜΝ ἄρα τοῖς ΕΛ. the gnomon V W X is equal to (figure) C. Thus. Let EL have been subtracted from both. Let their (common) diagonal F O have been drawn. Παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν ἄρα εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ Γ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβέβληται τὸ ΑΞ ὑπερβάλλον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ τῷ ΠΟ ὁμοίῳ ὄντι τῷ Δ. Proposition 30† Τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν πεπερασμένην ἄκρον καὶ μέσον To cut a given finite straight-line in extreme and mean λόγον τεμεῖν. Γ Α Ζ Ε Θ C Β A ∆ F E H B D ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα πεπερασμένη ἡ ΑΒ· δεῖ δὴ τὴν Let AB be the given finite straight-line. quired to cut the straight-line AB in extreme and mean 188 . the whole (parallelogram) AO is equal to the gnomon V W X. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΕΛ· λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΨΧΦ γνώμων τῷ Γ ἐστιν ἴσος.21].STOIQEIWN þ. lþ. GH is similar to EL. 6. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ἀλλὰ ὁ ΦΧΨ γνώμων τῷ Γ ἴσος ἐστίν· καὶ τὸ ΑΞ ἄρα τῷ Γ ἴσον ἐστίν. 1. And let (parallelogram) M N have been completed. and let the (remainder of the) figure have been described. the parallelogram AO. ratio. ᾿Επεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΗΘ τοῖς ΕΛ. 6. ἐπεὶ καὶ τῷ ΕΛ ἐστιν ὅμοιον τὸ ΟΠ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΕΒ. x is the ratio of a side of the excess to the corresponding side of figure D.24]. and let F LM be (made) equal to KH. This proposition is a geometric solution of the quadratic equation x2 +α x−β = 0. M N is thus also equal to EL and C. equal to the given rectilinear figure C. (parallelogram) AO is also equal to (figure) C. Thus. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΕΞ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΞ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΦΧΨ γνώμονι. Thus. overshooting by the parallelogrammic figure QP which is similar to D.

14].12].14]. laþ. ΑΔΓ πρὸς τῇ καθέτῳ τρίγωνα ὅμοιά ἐστι τῷ τε ὅλῳ τῷ ΑΒΓ καὶ ἀλλήλοις. in the right-angled triangle ABC. as F E is to ED. and AE is its greater piece. as BA is to AE. Α Β ∆ A B Γ ῎Εστω τρίγωνον ὀρθογώνιον τὸ ΑΒΓ ὀρθὴν ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίαν· λέγω.8]. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΕ. ἔστι δὲ αὐτῷ καὶ ἰσογώνιον· τῶν ΒΖ. since. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΓ τῷ ΓΔ.STOIQEIWN þ.29]. 5. and similarly described. so AE (is) to EB. And it is also equiangular to it. the remaining (rectangle) BF is equal to the remaining (square) AD. οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς πρώτης εἶδος πρὸς D C Let ABC be a right-angled triangle having the angle BAC a right-angle. 6. figures on the sides τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφομένοις. τὰ ΑΒΔ. the sides of BF and AD about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional [Prop. ῎Ηχθω κάθετος ἡ ΑΔ. καὶ ἐπεὶ τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν. οὕτως ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΒ. Thus.11. 1. I say that the figure (drawn) on BC is equal to the (sum of the) similar. This method of cutting a straight-line is sometimes called the “Golden Section”—see Prop. ἔστιν ὡς ἡ πρώτη πρὸς τὴν τρίτην. 6. καὶ παραβεβλήσθω παρὰ τὴν ΑΓ τῷ ΒΓ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΓΔ ὑπερβάλλον εἴδει τῷ ΑΔ ὁμοίῳ τῷ ΒΓ. the figure (drawn) on the γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς εἶδος ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν side subtending the right-angle is equal to the (sum of τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν εἴδεσι τοῖς ὁμοίοις the) similar. † ratio. thus 189 . and let the parallelogram CD.46]. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΓΕ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΒΖ λοιπῷ τῷ ΑΔ ἐστιν ἴσον. Thus. ΑΓ εἴδεσι τοῖς ὁμοίοις τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφομένοις. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ᾿Αναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΒΓ. the triangles ABD and ADC about the perpendicular are similar to the whole (triangle) ABC. surrounding the right-angle. so AE (is) to EB. the straight-line AB has been cut in extreme and mean ratio at E. Τετράγωνον δέ ἐστι τὸ ΒΓ· τετράγωνον ἄρα ἐστι καὶ τὸ ΑΔ. and similarly described. equal to BC. 1. Thus. οὕτως ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΒ. Thus. μείζων δὲ ἡ ΑΒ τῆς ΑΕ· μείζων ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΑΕ τῆς ΕΒ. and ED to AE. ῾Η ἄρα ΑΒ εὐθεῖα ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Ε. And AB (is) greater than AE. Therefore. 6. Proposition 31 ᾿Εν τοῖς ὀρθογωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ὀρθὴν In right-angled triangles. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΑ. 2. ΑΔ ἄρα ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΖΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ. Let the perpendicular AD have been drawn [Prop. Let the square BC have been described on AB [Prop. And since BC is equal to CD. καὶ τὸ μεῖζον αὐτῆς τμῆμά ἐστι τὸ ΑΕ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. let (rectangle) CE have been subtracted from both. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἐν ὀρθογωνίῳ τριγώνῳ τῷ ΑΒΓ ἀπὸ τῆς πρὸς τῷ Α ὀρθῆς γωνίας ἐπὶ τὴν ΒΓ βάσιν κάθετος ἦκται ἡ ΑΔ. Thus. Thus. And since ABC is similar to ABD. the (straight-line) AD has been drawn from the rightangle at A perpendicular to the base BC. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τῷ ΑΒΔ. ὅτι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ εἶδος ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. And BC is a square. Thus. ἡ δὲ ΕΔ τῇ ΑΕ. AD is also a square. overshooting by the figure AD (which is) similar to BC [Prop. and to one another [Prop. AE (is) also greater than EB [Prop. have been applied to AC. οὕτως ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΔ. figures on BA and AC. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ΖΕ τῇ ΑΒ. And F E (is) equal to AB. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.

(Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and similarly described. 6. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ ἴση ἐστίν. ὥστε καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ ἐστιν ἴση. lbþ. Proposition 32 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα συντεθῇ κατὰ μίαν γωνίαν τὰς δύο If two triangles. And so. BAC is equal to CDE. τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΕ· λέγω. 5. so the figure (drawn) on BC (is) to the (figure) on CA. so DC (is) to DE—and (having side) AB parallel to DC. ὡς μὲν τὴν ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. then the remaining τῶν τριγώνων πλευραὶ ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἔσονται. as BC (is) to CD. as BC (is) to BD and DC. 1. also. and similarly described. so the figure (drawn) on the first is to the similar. ΔΓ. ΑΓΔ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. hence. and similarly described. And. ΔΓΕ μίαν γωνίαν τὴν πρὸς τῷ Α μιᾷ γωνίᾳ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ ἴσην ἔχοντα. περὶ C E Let ABC and DCE be two triangles having the two sides BA and AC proportional to the two sides DC and DE—so that as AB (is) to AC. and similarly described. (figure) on the second [Prop. οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ εἶδος πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΑ τὸ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφόμενον. ΔΓΕ τὰς δύο πλευρὰς τὰς ΒΑ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ.STOIQEIWN þ. sides of the triangles will be straight-on (with respect to one another). the figure (drawn) on BC (is) also equal to the (sum of the) similar.9]. ΑΓ εἴδεσι τοῖς ὁμοίοις τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφομένοις. παράλληλον δὲ τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΓ. Thus. figures on BA and AC [Prop. for the same (reasons). ΔΓ· ἴσον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ἄπὸ τῆς ΒΓ εἶδος τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. in right-angled triangles. αἱ λοιπαὶ corresponding sides are also parallel. I say that (side) BC is straight-on to CE. figures on the sides surrounding the right-angle. so the figure (drawn) on CB (is) to the similar. αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. so the figure (drawn) on BC (is) to the (sum of the) similar. so AB (is) to BD [Def. ΑΓ ταῖς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ταῖς ΔΓ. καὶ ἐπεὶ δύο τρίγωνά ἐστι τὰ ΑΒΓ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΓ ταῖς ΒΔ. ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΔ. having two sides proportional to two πλευρὰς ταῖς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ἀνάλογον ἔχοντα ὥστε τὰς sides. Thus. οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ εἶδος πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΑ. the alternate angles BAC and ACD are equal to one another [Prop. Thus. ὥστε καὶ ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὰς ΒΔ.]. For since AB is parallel to DC. CDE is also equal to ACD.19 corr. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ. 6. ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ὀρθογωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς εἶδος ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν εἴδεσι τοῖς ὁμοίοις τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφομένοις· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.29]. And since ABC and DCE are two triangles having the one angle at A equal to the one 190 . ὅτι ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΓΕ.24]. And BC is equal to BD and DC. οὕτως τὴν ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ. as CB (is) to BD. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΓ. οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ εἶδος πρὸς τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. ΑΓ τὰ ὅμοια καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφόμενα. and similarly described. And since three straight-lines are proportional. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς δευτέρας τὸ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφόμενον. for the same (reasons). and the straight-line AC has fallen across them. (figures) on BA and AC [Prop. are placed together at a single angle such that the ὁμολόγους αὐτῶν πλευρὰς καὶ παραλλήλους εἶναι. 5. So. as CB is to BA. and AC to DE. ∆ D Α Β Γ A Ε B ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. Hence. (figure) on BA.1]. the figure (drawn) on the side subtending the right-angle is equal to the (sum of the) similar. as the first is to the third. ΔΕ ἀνάλογον ἔχοντα.

But. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and (angle) BAC to EDF . and let BGC and EHF be angles at their centers. angle ABC is equal to DCE. at the point C on it. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα συντεθῇ κατὰ μίαν γωνίαν τὰς δύο πλευρὰς ταῖς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ἀνάλογον ἔχοντα ὥστε τὰς ὁμολόγους αὐτῶν πλευρὰς καὶ παραλλήλους εἶναι. ΓΗΚ. πρὸς δή τινι εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΑΓ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Γ δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΒΓ. and CBA. not lying on the same side. ΚΛ. And let GK. ΓΕ μὴ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνάις τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ. Therefore. ΑΓΒ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. so angle BGC (is) to EHF . Proposition 33 ᾿Εν τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ γωνίαι τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχουσι In equal circles. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. GL. ΑΓΒ ἄρα δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. Thus. ACE and ACB are also equal to two right-angles. the whole (angle) ACE is equal to the two (angles) ABC and BAC. ACB. angle at D. then the remaining sides of the triangles will be straight-on (with respect to one another). ΚΗΛ γωνίαι ἀλλήλαις· ὁσαπλασίων ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΛ περιφέρεια τῆς ΒΓ. Θ γωνίαι ἔστωσαν αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. having two sides proportional to two sides. Thus. Thus. ΕΘΖ. ΕΔΖ· λέγω. ΘΜ. ACE and ACB are equal to BAC. τοσαυταπλασίων ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΛ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. if two triangles. CK and KL. F M and M N . G and H (respectively). make adjacent angles ACE and ACB (whose sum is) equal to two right-angles with some straight-line AC. 3. be made equal to circumference BC. ἐφ᾿ ὧν βεβήκασιν. ΘΝ. ABC. τῇ δὲ ΕΖ περιφερείᾳ ἴσαι ὁσαιδηποτοῦν αἱ ΖΜ. I say that as circumference BC is to circumference EF . ΑΓΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιοῦσιν· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΓΕ. lgþ. ΔΕΖ.32]. and ACB are equal to two right-angles [Prop. For let any number whatsoever of consecutive (circumferences). Thus. CK. ΑΓΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ. and HN have been joined. 1. and BAC and EDF (angles) at their circumferences. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΓ περιφέρεια πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ περιφέρειαν. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΓΕ τριγώνῳ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ. Thus. ΜΝ. διὰ τὰ E F N M Let ABC and DEF be equal circles. Let ACB have been added to both.14]. ΓΚ. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ. triangle ABC is thus equiangular to triangle DCE [Prop. to circumference EF . BC is straight-on to CE [Prop. And (angle) ACD was also shown (to be) equal to BAC.27].STOIQEIWN þ. Thus. they are standing at the centers (of the circles) or at the circumferences. (so that) as BA (is) to AC. as many times as circumference BL is (divisible) by BC. and any number whatsoever.6]. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΗΚ. Thus. 1. αἱ λοιπαὶ τῶν τριγώνων πλευραὶ ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἔσονται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ΑΒΓ. ΚΛ περιφέρειαι ἀλλήλαις. and the sides about the equal angles proportional. οὕτως ἥ τε ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 δὲ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. ἐάν τε πρὸς tio of the) circumferences on which they stand. angles BGC. and KGL are also equal to one another [Prop. ΗΛ. ὡς τὴν ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. so many 191 . D A H B J L G D A K G B H E L Z M N C K ῎Εστωσαν ἴσοι κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. ΓΒΑ ἴσαι εἰσίν. ΑΓΒ. Κείσθωσαν γὰρ τῇ μὲν ΒΓ περιφερείᾳ ἴσαι κατὰ τὸ ἑξῆς ὁσαιδηποτοῦν αἱ ΓΚ. Thus. angles have the same ratio as the (raλόγον ταῖς περιφερείαις. CGK. whether τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε πρὸς ταῖς περιφερείαις ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι. BAC. the two straight-lines BC and CE. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ἴση· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. 6. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴσαι εἰσὶν αἱ ΒΓ. ΒΑΓ ἴση ἐστίν. so CD (is) to DE. οὕτως τὴν ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ. ἴσαι εἰσὶ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. are placed together at a single angle such that the corresponding sides are also parallel. πρὸς δὲ ταῖς περιφερείαις αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. and KL are equal to one another. HM . since circumferences BC. καὶ πρὸς μὲν τοῖς κέντροις αὐτῶν τοῖς Η.

ὑπερέχει καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΛ γωνία τῆς ὑπο ΕΘΝ γωνίας.† and if (BL is) less (than EN then BGL is also) less (than EHN ). δύο μὲν περιφερειῶν τῶν ΒΓ. So there are four magnitudes. ἴση. in equal circles. so angle BGC (is) to EHF . ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ γωνίαι τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχουσι λόγον ταῖς περιφερείαις. καὶ εἰ ἐλάσσων. and if circumference BL is greater than circumference EN then angle BGL is also greater than EHN . Thus. τῆς δὲ ΕΖ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ γωνίας ἥ τε ΕΝ περιφέρια καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΘΝ γωνία. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And so. ὅτι εἰ ὑπερέχει ἡ ΒΛ περιφέρεια τῆς ΕΝ περιφερείας. ἐλάσσων. and of circumference EF and angle EHF . οὕτως ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ.27]. ἐφ᾿ ὧν βεβήκασιν. ἐλάσσων. so (angle) BAC (is) to EDF [Prop. But as angle BGC (is) to EHF . † times is angle BGL also (divisible) by BGC. δύο δὲ γωνιῶν τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. two circumferences BC and EF . 3. τεσσάρων δὴ ὄντων μεγεθῶν. 3.5].20]. 3. whether they are standing at the centers (of the circles) or at the circumferences. And it has been shown that if circumference BL exceeds circumference EN then angle BGL also exceeds angle EHN . εἴληπται τῆς μὲν ΒΓ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνίας ἰσάκις πολλαπλασίων ἥ τε ΒΛ περιφέρεια καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΛ γωνία. οὕτως ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. also. as circumference BC (is) to EF . and two angles BGC and EHF .27 192 . ὡς ἡ ΒΓ περιφέρεια πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. angles have the same ratio as the (ratio of the) circumferences on which they stand. 5. τοσαυταπλασίων ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΝΘΕ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ. as many times as circumference N E is (divisible) by EF . οὕτως ἥ τε ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ. ἐάν τε πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε πρὸς ταῖς περιφερείαις ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἔστιν ἄρα. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΛ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΝ. διπλασία γὰρ ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρας. Thus. εἰ ἄρα ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΛ περιφέρεια τῇ ΕΝ περιφερείᾳ.15]. as circumference BC (is) to circumference EF . This is a straight-forward generalization of Prop. ΕΖ. καὶ δέδεικται. so angle BGC (is) to EHF [Def. ΕΘΖ. καὶ εἰ ἴση. And equal multiples have been taken of circumference BC and angle BGC. 5. and if (BL is) less (than EN then BGL is also) less (than EHN ). for the same (reasons). and BAC to EDF . and if (BL is) equal (to EN then BGL is also) equal (to EHN ). καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ περιφέρεια πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ περιφέρειαν. For the former (are) double the latter (respectively) [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὁσαπλασίων ἐστὶν ἡ ΝΕ περιφέρεια τῆς ΕΖ. if circumference BL is equal to circumference EN then angle BGL is also equal to EHN [Prop. καὶ εἰ μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΛ περιφέρεια τῆς ΕΝ περιφερείας. καὶ εἰ ἐλάσσων. Thus. so many times is angle N HE also (divisible) by EHF . (namely) circumference BL and angle BGL. Thus.STOIQEIWN þ. (namely) circumference EN and angle EHN . μείζων ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΛ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΘΝ.

193 .ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Elementary Number Theory† † The propositions contained in Books 7–9 are generally attributed to the school of Pythagoras.

᾿Αριθμοὶ ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν. And an odd-times-odd number is one (which is) measured by an odd number according to an odd number. ᾿Αριθμὸς ἀριθμὸν πολλαπλασιάζειν λέγεται. And when two numbers multiplying one another make some (other number) then the (number so) created is called plane. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 VOroi. ηʹ. ιζʹ. ὅταν μὴ καταμετρῇ. A square number is an equal times an equal. Σύνθετοι δὲ πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοί εἰσιν οἱ ἀριθμῷ τινι μετρούμενοι κοινῷ μέτρῳ. πλευραὶ δὲ αὐτοῦ οἱ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοί. 18. A primek number is one (which is) measured by a unit alone. Μέρη δέ. ιεʹ. κβʹ. Κύβος δὲ ὁ ἰσάκις ἴσος ἰσάκις ἢ [ὁ] ὑπὸ τριῶν ἴσων ἀριθμῶν περιεχόμενος. εʹ. And when three numbers multiplying one another make some (other number) then the (number so) created is (called) solid. A unit is (that) according to which each existing (thing) is said (to be) one.STOIQEIWN zþ. Μονάς ἐστιν. Πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοί εἰσιν οἱ μονάδι μόνῃ μετρούμενοι κοινῷ μέτρῳ. and (thereby) some (other number) is produced. ζʹ. ιγʹ. Σύνθετος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ ἀριθμῷ τινι μετρούμενος. τοσαυτάκις συντεθῇ ὁ πολλαπλασιαζόμενος. A composite number is one (which is) measured by some number. And an even-times-odd number is one (which is) measured by an even number according to an odd number. κʹ. And numbers composite to one another are those (which are) measured by some number as a common measure. A number is said to multiply a(nother) number when the (number being) multiplied is added (to itself) as many times as there are units in the former (number). θʹ. δʹ.‡ 4. ᾿Αρτιάκις ἄρτιος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ ὑπὸ ἀρτίου ἀριθμοῦ μετρούμενος κατὰ ἄρτιον ἀριθμόν. or (a plane number) contained by two equal numbers. 1. 17. 14. ιηʹ. ὅταν. 194 . when it measures the greater. 2. Τέλειος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ τοῖς ἑαυτοῦ μέρεσιν ἴσος ὤν. An even-times-even number is one (which is) measured by an even number according to an even number. ῎Αρτιος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ δίχα διαιρούμενος. ῞Ομοιοι ἐπίπεδοι καὶ στερεοὶ ἀριθμοί εἰσιν οἱ ανάλογον ἔχοντες τὰς πλευράς. ῞Οταν δὲ δύο ἀριθμοὶ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ποιῶσί τινα. 7. ϛʹ. 8. ιδʹ. and its sides (are) the numbers which multiply one another.† 3. Περισσάκις δὲ περισσὸς ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ ὑπὸ περισσοῦ ἀριθμοῦ μετρούμενος κατὰ περισσὸν ἀριθμόν. 12.\$ 11. ᾿Αριθμὸς δὲ τὸ ἐκ μονάδων συγκείμενον πλῆθος. And a cube (number) is an equal times an equal times an equal. ὅσαι εἰσὶν ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδες. ὅταν ὁ πρῶτος τοῦ δευτέρου καὶ ὁ τρίτος τοῦ τετάρτου ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιος ἢ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ὦσιν. βʹ. Definitions αʹ. πλευραὶ δὲ αὐτοῦ οἱ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοί. or which differs from an even number by a unit. καθ᾿ ἣν ἕκαστον τῶν ὄντων ἓν λέγεται. And a number (is) a multitude composed of units. Numbers prime to one another are those (which are) measured by a unit alone as a common measure. And the greater (number is) a multiple of the lesser when it is measured by the lesser.∗ 10. Μέρος ἐστὶν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ ὁ ἐλάσσων τοῦ μείζονος. 6. ὁ γενόμενος στερεός ἐστιν. ιʹ. ὅταν καταμετρῇ τὸν μείζονα. Πολλαπλάσιος δὲ ὁ μείζων τοῦ ἐλάσσονος. and its sides (are) the numbers which multiply one another. Περισσὸς δὲ ὁ μὴ διαιρούμενος δίχα ἢ [ὁ] μονάδι διαφέρων ἀρτίου ἀριθμοῦ. Τετράγωνος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ ἰσάκις ἴσος ἢ [ὁ] ὑπὸ δύο ἴσων ἀριθμῶν περιεχόμενος. the lesser of the greater. ιαʹ. ὁ γενόμενος ἐπίπεδος καλεῖται. ὅταν καταμετρῆται ὑπὸ τοῦ ἐλάσσονος. ῞Οταν δὲ τρεῖς ἀριθμοὶ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ποιῶσί τινα. ιβʹ. 19. A number is part of a(nother) number. Πρῶτος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ μονάδι μόνῃ μετρούμενος. 16.¶ 9. But (the lesser is) parts (of the greater) when it does not measure it. 15. And an odd number is one (which can)not (be) divided in half. An even number is one (which can be) divided in half. γʹ. 13. καʹ. or (a solid number) contained by three equal numbers. ιϛʹ. καὶ γένηταί τις. ιθʹ.§ 5. ῎Αρτιάκις δὲ περισσός ἐστιν ὁ ὑπὸ ἀρτίου ἀριθμοῦ μετρούμενος κατὰ περισσὸν ἀριθμόν.

of the second that the third (is) of the fourth. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 20. let the remainder never measure the (number) preceding it. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Ε· καὶ ὁ μὲν ΓΔ τὸν ΒΖ μετρῶν λειπέτω ἑαυτοῦ ἐλάσσονα τὸν ΖΑ. 21. μετρείτω. or the same part. ¶ In other words. in turn. †† In other words. ΓΔ μονὰς μόνη μετρεῖ. 22. ὁ δὲ ΓΔ τὸν ΒΖ μετρεῖ. Numbers are proportional when the first is the same multiple. a number a is part of another number b if there exists some number n such that n a = b. and let GC measuring F H leave a unit. ΓΔ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. or the same parts. preceding it. ΓΔ ἀνθυφαιρουμένου ἀεὶ τοῦ ἐλάσσονος ἀπὸ τοῦ μείζονος ὁ λειπόμενος μηδέποτε καταμετρείτω τὸν πρὸ ἑαυτοῦ. For if AB and CD are not prime to one another then some number will measure them. ‡ In other words. from the greater. such that n a = m b. ἀνθυφαιρουμένου δὲ Two unequal numbers (being) laid down. καὶ ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν ΒΖ μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸν ΒΑ· καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸν ΑΖ μετρήσει. ∗ In other words. Let (some number) measure them. Proposition 1 Δύο ἀριθμῶν ἀνίσων ἐκκειμένων. the lesser being continually subtracted. m and n. an even-times-odd number is the product of an even and an odd number. then the original numbers will be prime to one another. ΓΔ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους.†† † In other words. until a unit remains. ἕως οὗ λειφθῇ μονάς· λέγω. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ὁ Ε τὸν ΓΔ μετρεῖ. ὁ δὲ ΗΓ τὸν ΖΘ μετρῶν λειπέτω μονάδα τὴν ΘΑ. k Literally. I say that AB and CD are prime to one another—that is to say. “first”. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ ΑΒ. and let it be E. μετρήσει τις αὐτοὺς ἀριθμός. until a unit remains.STOIQEIWN zþ. ὅτι οἱ ΑΒ. in turn. and the ἀεὶ τοῦ ἐλάσσονος ἀπὸ τοῦ μείζονος. that a unit alone measures (both) AB and CD. a perfect number is equal to the sum of its own factors. ἕως οὗ λειφθῇ μονάς. (E) will also measure the remainder 195 . ὁ δὲ ΑΖ τὸν ΔΗ μετρῶν λειπέτω ἑαυτοῦ ἐλάσσονα τὸν ΗΓ. In fact.† And (E) also measures the whole of BA. § In other words. And let CD measuring BF leave F A less than itself. HA. since E measures CD. a number a is parts of another number b (where a < b) if there exist distinct numbers. if the remainder never measures the (number) οἱ ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλὴλους ἔσονται. A perfect number is that which is equal to its own parts. ἐὰν ὁ λειπόμενος lesser being continually subtracted. ὁ δὲ ΓΗ τὸν ΖΘ μετρεῖ· D For two [unequal] numbers. and let AF measuring DG leave GC less than itself. τουτέστιν ὅτι τοὺς ΑΒ. ὁ δὲ ΑΖ τὸν ΔΗ μετρεῖ· καὶ ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν ΔΗ μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸν ΔΓ· καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸν ΓΗ μετρήσει. an even-times-even number is the product of two even numbers. \$ In other words. greater. and CD measures BF . a “number” is a positive integer greater than unity. AB and CD. aþ. E thus also measures BF . an odd-times-odd number is the product of two odd numbers. Similar plane and solid numbers are those having proportional sides. from the μηδέποτε καταμετρῇ τὸν πρὸ ἑαυτοῦ. Thus. Α Ζ A Θ H F Γ Η C G Ε Β E ∆ B Δύο γὰρ [ἀνίσων] ἀριθμῶν τῶν ΑΒ.

then a also measures the remainder of b. In fact. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 καὶ ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν ΖΘ μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸν ΖΑ· καὶ λοιπὴν ἄρα τὴν ΑΘ μονάδα μετρήσει ἀριθμὸς ὤν· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. ΓΔ. καὶ ὁ μὲν ΓΔ τὸν ΒΕ μετρῶν λειπέτω ἑαυτοῦ ἐλάσσονα τὸν ΕΑ. Thus. μονὰς μὲν γὰρ οὐ λειφθήσεται· εἰ δὲ μή. ΓΔ κοινὸν D Let AB and CD be the two given numbers (which are) not prime to one another. E also measures DG. which will measure the (number) preceding it. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ ΓΖ τὸν ΑΕ μετρεῖ. then a also measures c. Thus. Εἰ δὲ οὐ μετρεῖ ὁ ΓΔ τὸν ΑΒ. Therefore. since CF measures AE. Thus. ὃς μετρήσει τὸν πρὸ ἑαυτοῦ. καὶ ὁ ΓΖ ἄρα τὸν ΔΖ μετρήσει. Thus. Thus. AB and CD will be prime to one another [Prop. ‡ Here. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἑαυτόν· καὶ ὅλον ἄρα τὸν ΓΔ μετρήσει. where all symbols denote numbers.STOIQEIWN zþ. CD is thus a common measure of CD and AB. For a unit will not be left. (E) will also measure the remainder CG. Thus. if CD measures AB. in turn. from the greater. ΓΔ ἀριθμοὺς μετρήσει τις ἀριθμός· οἱ ΑΒ. ὁ δὲ ΓΖ τὸν ΑΕ μετρείτω. And it also measures itself. Proposition 2 Δύο ἀριθμῶν δοθέντων μὴ πρώτων πρὸς ἀλλήλους τὸ μέγιστον αὐτῶν κοινὸν μέτρον εὑρεῖν. it will 196 . AB and CD are prime to one another. ΑΒ κοινὸν μέτρον ἐστίν. ὁ δὲ ΓΔ τὸν ΒΕ μετρεῖ· καὶ ὁ ΓΖ ἄρα τὸν ΒΕ μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν ΕΑ· καὶ ὅλον ἄρα τὸν ΒΑ μετρήσει· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν ΓΔ· ὁ ΓΖ ἄρα τοὺς ΑΒ. Α Ε A E Γ Ζ C F Η Β G ∆ B ῎Εστωσαν οἱ δοθέντες δύο ἀριθμοὶ μὴ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ ΑΒ. AF .‡ And AF measures DG. CF will thus also measure DF .1]. and a measures part of b. And (it is) manifest that (it is) also the greatest (common measure). (since CD) also measures itself. the lesser being continually subtracted. καὶ φανερόν. The very opposite thing was assumed. ὁ δὲ ΑΕ τὸν ΔΖ μετρεῖ. (E) will also measure the remaining unit AH. ὅτι καὶ μέγιστον· οὐδεὶς γὰρ μείζων τοῦ ΓΔ τὸν ΓΔ μετρήσει. Thus. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς ΑΒ. For nothing greater than CD can measure CD. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὁ δὲ ΕΑ τὸν ΔΖ μετρῶν λειπέτω ἑαυτοῦ ἐλάσσονα τὸν ΖΓ. and let CF measure AE. ὃς μετρήσει τὸν πρὸ ἑαυτοῦ. ἔσονται οἱ ΑΒ. To find the greatest common measure of two given numbers (which are) not prime to one another. † Here. So it is required to find the greatest common measure of AB and CD. And (E) also measures the whole of DC. Εἰ μὲν οὖν ὁ ΓΔ τὸν ΑΒ μετρεῖ. ΓΔ τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον εὑρεῖν. ὁ ΓΖ ἄρα τῶν ΑΒ. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἑαυτόν. But if not. some number does not measure (both) the numbers AB and CD. and AE measures DF . and let EA measuring DF leave F C less than itself. And let CD measuring BE leave EA less than itself. bþ. use is made of the unstated common notion that if a measures b. λειφθήσεταί τις ἄρα ἀριθμὸς. some number will remain which will measure the (number) preceding it. And (E) also measures the whole of F A. where all symbols denote numbers. and b measures c. ΓΔ μετρεῖ. E also measures F H. Thus. And CG measures F H. ΓΔ ἀνθυφαιρουμένου ἀεὶ τοῦ ἐλάσσονος ἀπὸ τοῦ μείζονος λειφθήσεταί τις ἀριθμός. (despite) being a number. use is made of the unstated common notion that if a measures b. ΓΔ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὁ ΓΔ ἄρα τῶν ΓΔ. ΓΔ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὅπερ οὐχ ὑπόκειται. δεῖ δὴ τῶν ΑΒ. But if CD does not measure AB then some number will remain from AB and CD. τῶν ΑΒ. The very thing is impossible. 7.

For let the greatest common measure. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A ῎Εστωσαν οἱ δοθέντες τρεῖς ἀριθμοὶ μὴ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ Α. ΓΔ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει μείζων ὢν τοῦ ΓΖ· ὁ ΓΖ ἄρα τῶν ΑΒ. Β τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ὁ Δ· ὁ δὴ Δ τὸν Γ ἤτοι μετρεῖ ἢ οὐ μετρεῖ. and let it be G. μετρείτω πρότερον· μετρεῖ δέ καὶ τοὺς Α. ὁ δὲ ΓΔ τὸν ΒΕ μετρεῖ. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 μέτρον ἐστίν. Thus. and C. CF is a common measure of AB and CD. The very thing is impossible. Thus. And CD measures BE. Β. μετρείτω. B. [(Which is) the very thing it was required to show]. Thus.2]. of the two (numbers) A and B have been taken [Prop. εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστιν ὁ ΓΖ τῶν ΑΒ. Β. Β. For if CF is not the greatest common measure of AB and CD then some number which is greater than CF will measure the numbers AB and CD. And since G measures CD. So it is required to find the greatest common measure of A. Β. And it also measures the whole of DC. So D either measures. μετρήσει τις τοὺς ΑΒ. καὶ τὸ μέγιστον αὐτῶν κοινὸν μέτρον μετρήσει· ὅπερ two numbers then it will also measure their greatest comἔδει δεῖξαι. ΓΔ μέγιστόν ἐστι κοινὸν μέτρον [ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι]. To find the greatest common measure of three given numbers (which are) not prime to one another. Corollary ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὅτι ἐὰν ἀριθμὸς δύο ἀριθμοὺς So it is manifest. And it also measures A and B. ὅτι καὶ B C D E F Let A. And it also measures the whole of BA. ὁ δὲ ΑΕ τὸν ΔΖ μετρεῖ· καὶ ὁ Η ἄρα τὸν ΔΖ μετρήσει· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸν ΔΓ· καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸν ΓΖ μετρήσει ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς ΑΒ. Let it (so) measure (AB and CD). it will also measure the whole of BA. ΓΔ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον. from this. Thus. and C be the three given numbers (which are) not prime to one another. Thus. G will also measure DF . let it measure (C). Thus. CF also measures BE. CF is the greatest common measure of AB and CD. Γ τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον εὑρεῖν. Γ κοινὸν μέτρον ἐστίν. also measure the whole of CD. καὶ ὁ Η ἄρα τὸν ΒΕ μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸν ΒΑ· καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸν ΑΕ μετρήσει. And it also measures EA. 7. Thus. D. gþ. mon measure. Proposition 3 Τριῶν ἀριθμῶν δοθέντων μὴ πρώτων πρὸς ἀλλήλους τὸ μέγιστον αὐτῶν κοινὸν μέτρον εὑρεῖν. it will also measure the remainder CF . So I say that (it is) also the greatest (common measure). or does not measure. C. Γ μετρεῖ· ὁ Δ ἄρα τῶν Α. λέγω δή. First of all. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Η. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Η τὸν ΓΔ μετρεῖ. some number which is greater than CF cannot measure the numbers AB and CD. it will also measure the remainder AE.STOIQEIWN zþ. B. Γ· δεῖ δὴ τῶν Α. and CD measures BE. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ δύο τῶν Α. And AE measures DF . λέγω δή. the greater (measuring) the lesser. that if a number measures μετρῇ. Β· ὁ Δ ἄρα τοὺς Α. ΓΔ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμὸς μείζων ὢν τοῦ ΓΖ. D 197 . Thus. G thus also measures BE. Thus. ὅτι καὶ μέγιστον. Pìrisma. CF measures (both) AB and CD. And it also measures CD.

Μὴ μετρείτω δὴ ὁ Δ τὸν Γ· λέγω πρῶτον.2 corr. and D measures A and B. it will also measure the greatest common measure of A and B [Prop. Β. Proposition 4 ῞Απας ἀριθμὸς παντὸς ἀριθμοῦ ὁ ἐλάσσων τοῦ μείζονος ἤτοι μέρος ἐστὶν ἢ μέρη. Β. 7. B. it will also measure the greatest common measure of A and B [Prop. since E measures A. Thus. μετρείτω. ὅτι καὶ μέγιστον. Γ τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον. Γ ἄρα ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει· οἱ Δ. Γ μέγιστόν ἐστι κοινὸν μέτρον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Β. For if D is not the greatest common measure of A. and C). Γ ἄρα μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον μετρήσει. τὸ δὲ τῶν Α. Β. Β ἄρα μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον μετρήσει. Thus. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Ζ τοὺς Α. And it also measures C. B. and C will also measure A and B. Thus. measures A.STOIQEIWN zþ. it will thus also measure A and B. Γ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον. have been taken [Prop. let their greatest common measure. The very thing is impossible. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Ζ. εἰλήφθω οὖν αὐτῶν τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ὁ Ε. Let A and BC be two numbers. B. and C. Thus. μετρήσει τις τοὺς Α. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Α. dþ. B. Β. And D is the greatest common measure of A and B. B. Β μετρήσει. And since E measures D. And D is the greatest common measure of A and B. first of all. B. B. Β. Β μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ἐστὶν ὁ Δ· ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. and C. some number which is greater than D cannot measure the numbers A. B. B. Β μετρεῖ· καὶ τὸ τῶν Α. F measures D and C. and C. τὸ δὲ τῶν Α.]. and it will also measure the greatest common measure. C are not prime to one another. εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστιν ὁ Ε τῶν Α. Β μετρεῖ. Therefore. D is the greatest common measure of A. B. ἐπεὶ γὰρ οἱ Α. καὶ τὸ τῶν Α. and C. it will also measure the greatest common measure of D and C [Prop. Β μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν Γ· ὁ Ε ἄρα τοὺς Α. Γ μετρεῖ. I say that BC is either part or parts of A. Β ἄρα μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον μετρήσει. Thus. and C. Any number is either part or parts of any (other) number. ὅτι ὁ ΒΓ τοῦ Α ἤτοι μέρος ἐστὶν ἢ μέρη. Let it (so) measure (A. ΒΓ. Γ κοινόν ἐστι μέτρον. τὸ δὲ τῶν Δ. 7. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Γ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμὸς μείζων ὢν τοῦ Δ. ὅτι οἱ Γ. Γ οὔκ εἰσι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. and C. E measures A. Let it (so) measure (A. μετρήσει τις τοὺς Α. 7. Thus. E. B. some number will measure the numbers D and C. and C then some number greater than E will measure the numbers A. And it also measures C. Γ ἄρα οὔκ εἰσι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. that C and D are not prime to one another. 7.]. of A and B [Prop. For if E is not the greatest common measure of A. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Ε τὸν Δ μετρεῖ. Thus. And E is the greatest common measure of D and C. ὁ Ε ἄρα τῶν Α. Β ἄρα μετρήσει· καὶ τὸ τῶν Α. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ Ε τοὺς Α. So let D not measure C. some number which is greater than E does not measure the numbers A.2 corr. it also measures A and B. the greater (measuring) the lesser. 198 . Γ μετρεῖ· καὶ τὸ τῶν Δ. Γ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμὸς μείζων ὢν τοῦ Ε. Γ μετρεῖ.2 corr. 7. So I say that (it is) also the greatest (common measure). the greater (measuring) the lesser. D is a common measure of A. E is a common measure of A. ὁ δὴ τοὺς Α. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 μέγιστον. B. and C). D. ῎Εστωσαν δύο ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. Γ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει μείζων ὢν τοῦ Ε· ὁ Ε ἄρα τῶν Α. B. So the (number) measuring A. καὶ ἔστω ἐλάσσων ὁ ΒΓ· λέγω. Therefore. καὶ τοὺς Α. μετρήσει τις αὐτοὺς ἀριθμός. Γ μετρῶν καὶ τοὺς Α. Β μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ἐστὶν ὁ Δ· ὁ Ζ ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν Γ· ὁ Ζ ἄρα τοὺς Δ.2].]. Thus. And it also measures C. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Α. and C then some number greater than D will measure the numbers A. F measures E. So I say that (it is) also the greatest (common measure). Γ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ἐστὶν ὁ Ε· ὁ Ζ ἄρα τὸν Ε μετρεῖ ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Β. Thus. E is the greatest common measure of A.]. εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστιν ὁ Δ τῶν Α. For since A. καὶ ὁ Ε ἄρα τοὺς Α. μετρείτω. Β. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Ε. and C. B. and let it be F . Δ οὔκ εἰσι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. The very thing is impossible. E thus also measures A and B. Β. Β. Thus. ὁ δὲ Δ τοὺς Α. Γ μέγιστόν ἐστι κοινὸν μέτρον. and C. Γ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει μείζων ὢν τοῦ Δ· ὁ Δ ἄρα τῶν Α. καὶ τοὺς Α. F measures D. Thus. Thus. and let it be E. D and C are not prime to one another. Γ μετρεῖ. Thus. Β. some number will measure them. and C. λέγω δή. and let BC be the lesser. Thus. Β μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον τὸν Δ μετρήσει· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν Γ· τοὺς Δ. And since F measures A. Β. B. and C. Thus.2 corr. B. B. Β. and C. the lesser of the greater. Thus. E measures D. I say. Β. B. and C.

equal to D. BC is parts of A.Let A and BC. and F C. then the sum (of the μέρος ἔσται. Proposition 5† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρος ᾖ. For A and BC are either prime to one another. μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΒΓ τοῦ Α. ΕΖ. let the greatest common measure. τοῦ Α. ΒΓ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. διαι. μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Δ τοῦ Α· ἴσος δὲ ὁ Δ ἑκάστῳ τῶν ΒΕ. BC is parts of A. the lesser of the greater. each of the units μονὰς τῶν ἐν τῷ ΒΓ μέρος τι τοῦ Α· ὥστε μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΒΓ in BC will be some part of A. first of all. ὅπερ ὁ εἷς τοῦ ἑνός. So ρεθέντος δὴ τοῦ ΒΓ εἰς τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας ἔσται ἑκάστη separating BC into its constituent units. leading numbers) will also be the same part of the sum (of the following numbers) that one (number) is of another. and another (numαὐτὸ μέρος ᾖ. and . (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΖΓ. εἰλήφθω τῶν Α. καὶ 199 C D F For let a number A be part of a [number] BC. or not. And since D measures A. EF . καὶ συναμφότερος συναμφοτέρου τὸ αὐτὸ ber) is the same part of another. ΖΓ τοῦ Α μέρος ἐστίν· ὥστε μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΒΓ τοῦ Α. or does not measure. BE. So BC either measures. So let A and BC be not prime to one another. ΕΖ. of A and BC have been taken [Prop. Α Β B Ε E Ζ F Γ ∆ A C D Μὴ ἔστωσαν δὴ οἱ Α. ῞Απας ἄρα ἀριθμὸς παντὸς ἀριθμοῦ ὁ ἐλάσσων τοῦ μείζονος ἤτοι μέρος ἐστὶν ἢ μέρη· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ΒΓ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὁ δὴ ΒΓ τὸν Α ἤτοι μετρεῖ ἢ οὐ μετρεῖ. Therefore. EF . ΒΓ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ὁ Δ. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Οἱ Α. any number is either part or parts of any (other) number. ἔστωσαν πρότερον οἱ Α. ΒΓ γὰρ ἤτοι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσὶν ἢ οὔ. and let BC have been divided into BE. A. and F C are also each part of A. Hence. εἰ μὲν οὖν ὁ ΒΓ τὸν Α μετρεῖ. καὶ διῃρήσθω ὁ ΒΓ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Δ ἴσους τοὺς ΒΕ. And if not. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Δ τὸν Α μετρεῖ. εἰ δὲ οὔ. Thus. ΕΖ. And D is equal to each of BE. if BC measures A then BC is part of A. 7. καὶ ἕτερος ἑτέρου τὸ If a number is part of a number. Hence. D is a part of A. Thus. D. Β B Ε Η Α Γ E G Θ ∆ H Ζ A ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ Α [ἀριθμοῦ] τοῦ ΒΓ μέρος ἔστω.2]. be prime to one another. eþ. and F C. ΖΓ· καὶ ἕκαστος ἄρα τῶν ΒΕ.STOIQEIWN zþ. EF .

GC will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) EH. τοσαῦτά ἐστι καὶ ἐν τῷ ΔΕ μέρη τοῦ Ζ.STOIQEIWN zþ. Δ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ ΒΓ. ὁ δὲ ΕΖ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Δ ἴσους τοὺς ΕΘ. Thus. D is also the same part of the sum BC. ὁ δὲ ΕΘ τῷ Δ. Α A ∆ Η Β D G Θ Γ Ε H B Ζ ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ ΑΒ ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ Γ μέρη ἔστω. In modern notation. Δ. Δ. Ζ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστίν. For since which(ever) parts AB is of C. ὅσοι ἄρα εἰσὶν ἐν τῷ ΒΓ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι τῷ Α. καὶ συναμφότερος συναμφοτέρου τὰ αὐτὰ ber) is the same parts of another. τοσαυταπλασίων ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΒΓ. DH and HE. ὅπερ ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ· λέγω. τοσοῦτοί εἰσι καὶ ἐν τοῖς ΒΓ. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ. ὅπερ ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ. ὁ δὲ ΔΕ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Ζ μέρη τὰ ΔΘ. ΘΕ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΑΗ. D. thus as many parts of C as are in AB. DE (is) also the same parts of F . ὅτι καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΑΒ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ οἱ ΗΓ. þ. διῇρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΒΓ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Α ἴσους τοὺς ΒΗ. Thus. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ Γ. F that AB (is) of C. ΕΖ ἴσοι τοῖς Α. D is the same part of EF . ΕΖ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὅπερ ὁ εἷς τοῦ ἑνός. then the sum (of the μέρη ἔσται. this proposition states that if a = (1/n) b and c = (1/n) d then (a + c) = (1/n) (b + d). D is also the same part of the sum BC. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσος ἐστὶν ὁ μὲν ΒΗ τῷ Α. leading numbers) will also be the same parts of the sum (of the following numbers) that one (number) is of another. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ Α. ὁσαπλασίων ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ΒΓ τοῦ Α. ὅσοι ἄρα [εἰσὶν] ἐν τῷ ΒΓ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι τῷ Α. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 ἕτερος ὁ Δ ἑτέρου τοῦ ΕΖ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος. and another (numαὐτὰ μέρη ᾖ. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ. Δ ἴσοι. Proposition 6† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρη ᾖ. which(ever) part A is of BC. ΘΕ. So the multitude of (divisions) AG. equal to D. ΕΖ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ Α. ΗΓ. where all symbols denote numbers. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. EH (is) also equal to A. EF also (divisible) by the sum A. HF (is) also (equal) to A. ΘΖ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΒΗ. Thus. the sum A. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΑΒ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Γ μέρη τὰ ΑΗ. τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη καὶ ὁ ΔΕ τοῦ Ζ. καὶ οἱ ΒΗ. for the same (reasons). so many times is the sum BC. Δ. τὸ C E F For let a number AB be parts of a number C. I say that the sum AB. HF . ΗΓ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΘ. And since BG is equal to A. ΘΖ τοῖς Α. ΕΖ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν. so many parts of F are also in DE. ἅπερ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ. and DE into the parts of F . ΗΒ. so many numbers are also in EF equal to D. ὅτι καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ Α. D. EF that A (is) of BC. ἅπερ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ· λέγω. as many numbers as [are] in BC equal to A. Δ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ ΒΓ. For since which(ever) part A is of BC. DE is also the same parts of the sum C. † another (number) D (be) the same part of another (number) EF that A (is) of BC. καὶ ἕτερος ἑτέρου τὰ If a number is parts of a number. So the multitude of (divisions) BG. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΑΒ μέρη τοῦ Γ. 200 . καὶ ἕτερος ὁ ΔΕ ἑτέρου τοῦ Ζ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ. EF . and another (number) DE (be) the same parts of another (number) F that AB (is) of C. GB will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) DH. So. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ. Let BC have been divided into BG and GC. ΕΘ ἄρα τοῖς Α. ΗΒ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΔΘ. equal to A. I say that the sum A. ΘΖ. thus BG. ἃ μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ. EF equal to A. καὶ ἐπεί. and EH to D. so many are also in BC. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Δ τοῦ ΕΖ. thus as many numbers as are in BC equal to A. as many times as BC is (divisible) by A. GC. D. τοσοῦτοί εἰσι καὶ ἐν τῷ ΕΖ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι τῷ Δ. AG and GB. ΔΕ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ Γ. D. and EF into EH and HF . Let AB have been divided into the parts of C.

καὶ ἐπεί. DE is also the same parts of the sum C. Ζ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΑΒ. ὅπερ ἀφαιρεθεὶς ὁ ΑΕ ἀφαιρεθέντος τοῦ ΓΖ· λέγω. κοινὸς ἀφῃρήσθω ὁ ΓΖ· λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΗΓ λοιπῷ τῷ ΖΔ ἐστιν ἴσος. let EB also be the same part of CG. Proposition 8† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρη ᾖ. Thus. der will also be the same parts of the remainder that the 201 . τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΗΒ. the sum GB. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ Γ. καὶ ὁ λοιπὸς τοῦ λοιποῦ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἔσται. DH is also the same part of the sum C. And since which(ever) part AE is of CF . this proposition states that if a = (m/n) b and c = (m/n) d then (a + c) = (m/n) (b + d). ΔΘ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ Γ. (AB) is also the same part of CD. also. Ζ. which(ever) part AB is of GF . ὅτι καὶ λοιπὸς ὁ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν. EB is also the same part of CG. the sum AB. the sum AG. But. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. ΘΕ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ Γ. HE. this proposition states that if a = (1/n) b and c = (1/n) d then (a − c) = (1/n) (b − d). ὅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. καὶ ὁ λοιπὸς τοῦ λοιποῦ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἔσται. ἴσος δὲ ὁ ΗΓ τῷ ΖΔ. thus which(ever) part AE is of CF . where all symbols denote numbers. Proposition 7† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρος ᾖ. which(ever) parts AB is of C. ἃ ἄρα μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. And since which(ever) part AE is of CF . F . And since which(ever) part AG is of C.5]. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. ἀλλὰ ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. AB is also assumed (to be) the same part of CD. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἔστω καὶ ὁ ΕΒ τοῦ ΓΗ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. AB is also the same part of CD. F [Prop. and GC (is) equal to F D. for the same (reasons). Ζ. DH is also the same part of F . τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ τοῦ ΓΔ· ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΖ τῷ ΓΔ. zþ. καὶ ἐπεί. ὃ δὲ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. which(ever) part GB is of C. where all symbols denote numbers.5]. Thus. hþ. which(ever) part AE is of CF .STOIQEIWN zþ. Thus. HE is also the same part of the sum C. ὅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. For which(ever) part AE is of CF . Thus. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΕΒ τοῦ ΖΔ. ἅπερ ἀφαιρεθεὶς ἀφαιIf a number is those parts of a number that a (part) ρεθέντος. the remainder GC is equal to the remainder F D. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΕΒ τοῦ ΓΗ. F . I say that the remainder EB is also the same part of the remainder F D that the whole AB (is) of the whole CD. AB is also the same part of GF [Prop. EB is also the same part of F D. taken away (is) of a (part) taken away then the remainἅπερ ὁ ὅλος τοῦ ὅλου. der will also be the same part of the remainder that the whole (is) of the whole. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΑΗ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ· καὶ λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν. GF is equal to CD. the remainder EB is also the same part of the remainder F D that the whole AB (is) of the whole CD. Α Ε Η Β A E Γ Ζ ∆ G ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ ΑΒ ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ ΓΔ μέρος ἔστω. Thus. 7. ῝Ο γὰρ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΒ τοῦ Γ. ὅπερ ἀφαιρεθεὶς ἀφαιIf a number is that part of a number that a (part) ρεθέντος. 7. Let CF have been subtracted from both. ΔΕ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ Γ. taken away (is) of a (part) taken away then the remainὅπερ ὁ ὅλος τοῦ ὅλου. And so. In modern notation. † B C F D For let a number AB be that part of a number CD that a (part) taken away AE (is) of a part taken away CF . τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΗΖ. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 αὑτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΔΘ τοῦ Ζ. thus which(ever) part AE is of CF . τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος [ἐστὶ] καὶ ὁ ΕΒ τοῦ ΗΓ. thus which(ever) part AG is of C. EB [is] also the same part of GC. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ὑπόκειται καὶ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ· ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΗΖ. And which(ever) part AE is of CF . † In modern notation.

Thus. the second (number) will also be the same part. Thus. ΛΕ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΗΚ. jþ. ἅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΘΗ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. and another (number) is the same part of another. ἅπερ ἀφαιρεθεὶς ὁ ΑΕ ἀφαιρεθέντος τοῦ ΓΖ· λέγω. KH will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) AL. and CD (is) greater than CF . 7. Again.5]. And the remainder M K was also shown to be the same part of the remainder F D that the whole GK (is) of the whole CD. which(ever) part KH (is) of CD. and HG to BA. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΛ τοῦ ΓΖ. which(ever) parts GH is of CD. If a number is part of a number. alternately. 7. EL is also the same part of CF . κείσθω τῷ ΕΛ ἴσος ὁ ΚΝ. ὅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΗΚ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. Let KN be made equal to EL. this proposition states that if a = (m/n) b and c = (m/n) d then (a − c) = (m/n) (b − d). or 202 . So the multitude of (divisions) GK. ὅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΚΘ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. Γ Ζ Η ΜΚ Α Λ ∆ C ΝΘ G M K Β A L Ε ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ ΑΒ ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ ΓΔ μέρη ἔστω. ΝΘ τοῦ ΔΖ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστίν. Thus. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΕΛ τοῦ ΓΖ. ἅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. Thus. which(ever) part GK is of CD. or parts. ἅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. KN is also the same part of CF . N H (is) equal to EB. LE. πάλιν ἐπεί. καὶ ἐναλλάξ. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 whole (is) of the whole. Κείσθω γὰρ τῷ ΑΒ ἴσος ὁ ΗΘ. In modern notation. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΚΘ τοῦ ΓΔ. μείζων ἄρα καὶ ὁ ΗΚ τοῦ ΑΛ. Let GM be made equal to AL. HK (is) thus also greater than EL. the remainder M K is also the same part of the remainder F D that the whole GK (is) of the whole CD [Prop.STOIQEIWN zþ. GM is also the same part of CF . And the sum M K. since which(ever) part KH is of CD. ὅτι καὶ λοιπὸς ὁ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστίν. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΚ τοῦ ΓΔ. and CD (is) greater than CF . τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΗΜ τοῦ ΓΖ· καὶ λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΜΚ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν. ΝΘ τῷ ΕΒ. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΚ τοῦ ΓΔ. καὶ ἐπεί. † F D NH E B For let a number AB be those parts of a number CD that a (part) taken away AE (is) of a (part) taken away CF . N H is the same parts of DF that the whole HG (is) of the whole CD. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΚΘ τοῦ ΓΔ. For let GH be laid down equal to AB. the first (number) is of the third. which(ever) part. where all symbols denote numbers. τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. μείζων ἄρα καὶ ὁ ΘΚ τοῦ ΕΛ. Let GH have been divided into the parts of CD.5]. ΚΘ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἔσται ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη καὶ ὁ δεύτερος τοῦ τετάρτου. ΚΘ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΑΛ. AL is also the same part of CF . I say that the remainder EB is also the same parts of the remainder F D that the whole AB (is) of the whole CD. the sum M K. ὅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΗΚ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ· καὶ συναμφότερος ἄρα ὁ ΜΚ. also. Thus. Thus. μείζων δὲ ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ ΓΖ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. the remainder EB is also the same parts of the remainder F D that the whole AB (is) of the whole CD. κείσθω τῷ ΑΛ ἴσος ὁ ΗΜ. AL and LE. ὁ δὲ ΘΗ τῷ ΒΑ· καὶ λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστίν. καὶ ἕτερος ἑτέρου τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ᾖ. the remainder N H is also the same part of the remainder F D that the whole KH (is) of the whole CD [Prop. Proposition 9† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρος ᾖ. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΗΘ εἰς τὰ τοῦ ΓΔ μέρη τὰ ΗΚ. AE is also the same parts of CF . ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ λοιπὸς ὁ ΜΚ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ὤν. ὁ δὲ ΑΕ εἰς τὰ τοῦ ΓΖ μέρη τὰ ΑΛ. ΛΕ. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ἢ μέρη ὁ πρῶτος τοῦ τρίτου. Thus. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΚΝ τοῦ ΓΖ· καὶ λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΝΘ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν. GK and KH. ἃ ἄρα μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΘ τοῦ ΓΔ. μείζων δὲ ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ ΓΖ. and AE into the part of CF . ἴσος δὲ συναμφότερος μὲν ὁ ΜΚ. And since which(ever) part GK is of CD. GK (is) thus also greater than AL.

ΗΓ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΘ. BC is also the same part. ὁ δὲ ΕΖ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Δ ἴσους τοὺς ΕΘ. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΒΓ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Α ἴσους τοὺς ΒΗ. ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ ΑΒ ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ Γ μέρη ἔστω. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΒΓ τοῦ ΕΖ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. which(ever) parts. ΗΓ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΘ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. where all symbols denote numbers. or the same parts. and another (number) D (be) the same part of another EF that A (is) of BC. also. If a number is parts of a number. I say that. the second will also be the same parts. And hence. And since the numbers BG and GC are equal to one another. of the fourth. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ οἱ ΕΘ. 7. which(ever) part. καὶ ἕτερος ἑτέρου τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ᾖ. τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἔσται καὶ ὁ δεύτερος τοῦ τετάρτου ἢ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος. or parts. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσοι εἰσὶν οἱ ΒΗ. BG is of EH. BC is also the same part. which(ever) part. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΗΓ τοῦ ΘΖ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· ὥστε καὶ ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΒΗ τοῦ ΕΘ ἢ μέρη. καὶ ἐναλλάξ. or parts. For since which(ever) part A is of BC. and another (number) is the same parts of another. of the sum EF [Props. GC is equal to the multitude of (divisions) EH. and another (number) DE (be) the same parts of another F . of EF . ἃ μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ πρῶτος τοῦ τρίτου ἢ μέρος. † C D F For let a number A be part of a number BC. ὅτι καὶ ἐναλλάξ. thus as many numbers as are in BC equal to A. A is of D. ΘΖ. τοσοῦτοί εἰσι καὶ ἐν τῷ ΕΖ ἴσοι τῷ Δ. καὶ ἕτερος ὁ Δ ἑτέρου τοῦ ΕΖ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος. also. ΗΓ. καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΒΗ. and EF into EH and HF . ὅτι καὶ ἐναλλάξ. alternately. and the numbers EH and HF are also equal to one another. ὅσοι ἄρα εἰσὶν ἐν τῷ ΒΓ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι τῷ Α. Ε E Β B Θ Η Α H G Γ ∆ Ζ A ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ Α ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ ΒΓ μέρος ἔστω. the sum BC is also the same part. alternately. of the fourth. or parts. 203 . ELEMENTS BOOK 7 the same parts. Proposition 10† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρη ᾖ. 7. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΒΓ τοῦ ΕΖ ἢ μέρη. the first (number) is of the third. For let a number AB be parts of a number C. so many are also in EF equal to D. ἃ μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΔΕ ἢ μέρος. So the multitude of (divisions) BG. I say that. which(ever) part.STOIQEIWN zþ. ὁ δὲ ΕΘ τῷ Δ· ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ Δ ἢ μέρη. καὶ ἕτερος ὁ ΔΕ ἑτέρου τοῦ Ζ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· λέγω. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΒΓ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ ΕΖ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. BG is of EH. equal to D. and the multitude of (divisions) BG. ΘΖ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΒΗ. HC. which(ever) parts. ΘΖ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι ἀλλήλοις. GC is also the same part. iþ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Δ τοῦ ΕΖ. Let BC have been divided into BG and GC. ὅπερ ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ· λέγω. and EH to D.5. or the same parts. or part. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ. or part. τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Ζ ἢ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος. of HF . or the same parts.6]. also. alternately. In modern notation. or parts. this proposition states that if a = (1/n) b and c = (1/n) d then if a = (k/l) c then b = (k/l) d. A is of D. equal to A. And BG (is) equal to A. D is also the same part of EF . Thus. GC will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) EH. or parts. HF . thus which(ever) part. ἴσος δὲ ὁ μὲν ΒΗ τῷ Α. of EF . ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΒΗ τοῦ ΕΘ ἢ μέρη. ΘΖ. ΗΓ ἀριθμοὶ ἀλλήλοις. or the same part. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ Δ ἢ μέρη.

HE. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΔΘ τοῦ Ζ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Ζ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. 204 . or the same parts. ΘΕ. also. 7. ΗΒ. In modern notation. C is also the same parts. or the same parts. ῎Εστω ὡς ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸν ΓΔ. or the same parts. But. C was also shown (to be) the same part. which(ever) part. where all symbols denote numbers. And. or the same parts. I say that the remainder EB is to the remainder F D as the whole AB (is) to the whole CD. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΑΒ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Γ μέρη τὰ ΑΗ. this proposition states that if a = (m/n) b and c = (m/n) d then if a = (k/l) c then b = (k/l) d. C is also the same part. And since which(ever) part AG is of C. AG and GB. AG is of DH.5. of F [Prop. GB is also the same part. of F . of F . AB is of DE. or parts. καὶ] ἃ [ἄρα] μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΔΕ ἢ μέρος. ἃ μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Ζ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· ὥστε καί [ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ ΔΘ ἢ μέρη. 7. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 AB is of DE. οὕτως ἀφαιρεθεὶς ὁ ΑΕ πρὸς ἀφαιρεθέντα τὸν ΓΖ· λέγω. 7.6]. Let AB have been divided into the parts of C.9]. or the same parts. or parts. C is also the same part. ∆ D Α A Θ Η Β H G Ε Γ B Ζ ᾿Επεὶ γάρ. thus as many parts of C as are in AB. DH is also the same part of F . AG is of DH. ὁ δὲ ΔΕ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Ζ μέρη τὰ ΔΘ. AG is of DH. ὡς ὅλος πρὸς ὅλον. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐδείχθη καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Ζ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. or parts. καὶ ἐπεί. ΗΒ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΔΘ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. of F . ὅτι καὶ λοιπὸς ὁ ΕΒ πρὸς λοιπὸν τὸν ΖΔ ἐστιν. And thus. of F [Prop. If as the whole (of a number) is to the whole (of another). τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Ζ ἢ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. which(ever) part. And so. τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΔΕ τοῦ Ζ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΔΕ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· ἀλλ᾿ ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ ΔΘ ἢ μέρη. καὶ ὁ λοιπὸς πρὸς τὸν λοιπὸν ἔσται. C is also the same parts. So the multitude of (divisions) AG. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ ΔΘ ἢ μέρη. or parts.9]. † C E F For since which(ever) parts AB is of C. GB will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) DH.STOIQEIWN zþ. iaþ. of DE [Props. or parts. or the same part. so a (part) taken away (is) to a (part) taken away. for the same (reasons). alternately. οὕτως ἀφαιρεθεὶς πρὸς ἀφαιρεθέντα. thus] which(ever) parts. ΘΕ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΑΗ. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΑΒ μέρη τοῦ Γ. or part. AB is also the same part. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΒ τοῦ ΘΕ ἢ μέρη. καὶ ἐναλλάξ. Proposition 11 ᾿Εαν ᾖ ὡς ὅλος πρὸς ὅλον. AG is of DH. 7. which(ever) part. so many parts of F (are) also in DE. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τῷ ΔΕ μέρη τοῦ Ζ. ὡς ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸν ΓΔ. GB is of HE. DE is also the same parts of F . of HE. DH and HE. then the remainder will also be to the remainder as the whole (is) to the whole. And so [which(ever) part. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καί. which(ever) part. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ Γ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΗΒ τοῦ ΘΕ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· καὶ ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ ΔΘ ἢ μέρη. Let the whole AB be to the whole CD as the (part) taken away AE (is) to the (part) taken away CF . and DE into the parts of F . or the same part.

B. or the same parts. 205 . τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. ἔσται ὡς εἷς If any multitude whatsoever of numbers are proporτῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἕνα τῶν ἑπομένων. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ Β ἢ μέρη. ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. A. or the same parts. οὕτως ὁ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸν ΓΔ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. In modern notation. καὶ συναμφότερος ἄρα ὁ Α. οὕτως ὁ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸν ΓΖ. Thus. 7.20]. thus which(ever) part. Δ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Δ ἢ μέρη. 7. ibþ. as A is to B. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Δ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶν ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. so AB (is) to CD [Def. Proposition 12† ᾿Εὰν ὦσιν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον. so AE (is) to CF . as EB is to F D. so A. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ ΕΒ πρὸς τὸν ΖΔ. Γ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 7. 7. the sum A. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ· λέγω. C is also the same part.20]. or parts. or parts. οὕτως οἱ Α. B C D Let any multitude whatsoever of numbers. 7. the following so (the sum of) all of the leading (numbers) will be to (the sum of) all of the following. D [Def. Thus. ἅπερ ὁ Α τοῦ Β. Α Β Γ ∆ A ῎Εστωσαν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον οἱ Α. † D (For) since as AB is to CD. AE is also the same part. (such that) as A (is) to B.7. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β.STOIQEIWN zþ. be proportional. so C (is) to D. Γ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ Β. I say that as A is to B. οὕτως ἅπαντες οἱ tional then as one of the leading (numbers is) to one of ἡγούμενοι πρὸς ἅπαντας τοὺς ἑπομένους. οὕτως οἱ Α. 7.20]. C. C is also the same part. this proposition states that if a : b :: c : d then a : b :: a − c : b − d. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ ἢ μέρη.6]. AB is of CD. or parts. thus which(ever) part. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Γ Α C Ζ F A Ε Β E ∆ B ᾿Επεί ἐστιν ὡς ὁ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸν ΓΔ. Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. the remainder EB is also the same part.5. Β. A is of B. where all symbols denote numbers. Γ πρὸς τοὺς Β. καὶ λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶν ἢ μέρη.8]. C (is) to B. of D [Def. Thus. D. Δ. or parts. Γ πρὸς τοὺς Β. ἅπερ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ. of CF [Def. Thus. so A. 7. C (is) to B. D that A (is) of B [Props. 7. D. of the sum B. so C (is) to D.20]. of the remainder F D that AB (is) of CD [Props. For since as A is to B.

(which are) in the same ratio taken two by two. Proposition 14† ᾿Εὰν ὦσιν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ καὶ ἄλλοι αὐτοῖς ἴσοι τὸ If there are any multitude of numbers whatsoever. Γ. as A is to D. so D (is) to E. 7. Thus. alterately. πλῆθος σύνδυο λαμβανόμενοι καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. and D be proportional.20]. E. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ Γ ἢ μέρη. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Δ. (such that) as A (is) to B. Proposition 13† ᾿Εὰν τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. D. thus. since as B is to C. so C (is) to D. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Γ. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ζ. this proposition states that if a : b :: c : d then a : b :: a + c : b + d. thus which(ever) part. 7. as B is 206 . F . so D (is) to F . igþ. οὕτως ὁ D E F Let there be any multitude of numbers whatsoever. which(ever) part. where all symbols denote numbers. or the same parts. C. so B (is) to E [Prop. of D [Def. For since as A is to B. Β. alternately. or the same parts. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ Β ἢ μέρη. idþ. C is also the same part. ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Γ. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B C ῎Εστωσαν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. Ε. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 7. as A is to C.STOIQEIWN zþ. A is of B. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Δ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. καὶ δι᾿ and (some) other (numbers) of equal multitude to them. B is also the same part. of equal multitude to them. thus. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. alternately. In modern notation. ὡς μὲν ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. Β. where all symbols denote numbers. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ· λέγω. of D [Props. ὅτι καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Γ. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. so D (is) to E. A. B. † B C D Let the four numbers A. or parts. ὡς δὲ ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Γ. For since as A is to B. ἴσου ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῷ ἔσονται.10]. as A is to C. I say that also. via equality. (such that) as A (is) to C. ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Γ. or parts. and (some) other (numbers). ᾿Επεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. and as B (is) to C. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. † ELEMENTS BOOK 7 In modern notation. Again. 7. Δ. A is of C. ὅτι καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. (such that) as A (is) to B. Γ καὶ ἄλλοι αὐτοῖς ἴσοι τὸ πλῆθος σύνδυο λαμβανόμενοι ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ οἱ Δ. so B (is) to D.13]. (which are) also in the same ratio taken two by two. then they will also be in the same ratio via equality. be proportional alternately. οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. πάλιν. so E (is) to F . οὕτως ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Ζ· λέγω. Thus. I say that they will also be proportional alternately. C. so E (is) to F .9. Ζ. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ If four numbers are proportional then they will also ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Δ. so C (is) to D. 7. so B (is) to D [Def. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα. Α Β Γ ∆ A ῎Εστωσαν τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον οἱ Α. B. this proposition states that if a : b :: c : d then a : c :: b : d.20]. οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ε. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Β τοῦ Δ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη.

so A (is) to D. I say that. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ε.13]. ἰσακις δὲ ἕτερος ἀριθμὸς If a unit measures some number. ΚΛ. ΗΘ. ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΒΗ. also. † B For let a unit A measure some number BC. ΘΓ μονάδων τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΚ. so C (is) to F . Thus. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ οἱ ΕΚ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. For since the unit A measures the number BC as many times as D (measures) EF . ὁ δὲ ΕΖ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Δ ἴσους τοὺς ΕΚ. equal to D. and the unit HC to the number LF . KL. so D (is) to F [Prop. ὅτι καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ἰσάκις ἡ Α μονὰς τὸν Δ ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ ΒΓ τὸν ΕΖ. Thus. ΘΓ. So the multitude of (units) BG. GH. τοσοῦτοί εἰσι καὶ ἐν τῷ ΕΖ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι τῷ Δ. οὕτως ὁ ΒΓ πρὸς τὸν ΕΖ. οὕτως ἅπαντες οἱ ἡγούμενοι πρὸς ἅπαντας τοὺς ἑπομένους· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΗ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν ΕΚ ἀριθμόν. so the unit GH will be to the number KL. 207 . τρίτον ἀριθμὸν μετρήσει καὶ ὁ δεύτερος τὸν τέταρτον. the unit A also measures the number D as many times as BC (measures) EF . alternately. Α ∆ Β Ε Η Θ Κ Γ A Λ Ζ E H G K C L F D Μονὰς γὰρ ἡ Α ἀριθμόν τινα τὸν ΒΓ μετρείτω. alternately. † to E. GH. KL. 7. and LF are also equal to one another. And thus. Let BC have been divided into its constituent units. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ζ. And the unit BG (is) equal to the unit A. also. also. and HC. οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Δ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Δ. so many numbers are also in EF equal to D. ΚΛ.9. and the numbers EK. and EF into the (divisions) EK. Thus. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ἰσάκις ἡ μονὰς τὸν ber measures some other number as many times. BG. This proposition is a special case of Prop. ΘΓ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΚ. ΗΘ.STOIQEIWN zþ. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Α μονὰς τὸν Δ ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ ΒΓ τὸν ΕΖ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Proposition 15 ᾿Εὰν μονὰς ἀριθμόν τινα μετρῇ. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἰσάκις ἡ Α μονὰς τὸν ΒΓ ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Δ τὸν ΕΖ. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΒΓ εἰς τὰς ἐν ἑαυτῷ μονάδας τὰς ΒΗ. Thus. the unit A measures the number D as many times as BC (measures) EF [Def. Thus. the unit will measure the third number as many times as the second (number measures) the fourth. as A is to C. ΗΘ.12]. οὕτως ἡ ΗΘ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν ΚΛ ἀριθμὸν καὶ ἡ ΘΓ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν ΛΖ ἀριθμόν. thus as the unit BG (is) to the number EK. ἰσάκις δὲ ἕτερος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Δ ἄλλον τινὰ ἀριθμὸν τὸν ΕΖ μετρείτω· λέγω. ΛΖ ἀριθμῶν. 7. and let another number D measure some other number EF as many times. so BC (is) to EF . and HC are equal to one another. as the unit BG (is) to the number EK. 7. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσαι εἰσὶν αἱ ΒΗ. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ζ· ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Γ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ Α μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Δ ἀριθμόν. And as B (is) to E. GH. In modern notation. and LF . GH. and the number EK to the number D. ἔσται ἄρα καὶ ὡς εἷς τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἕνα τῶν ἑπομένων. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Ε πρὸς τὸν Ζ. so (the sum of) all of the leading will be to (the sum of) all of the following [Prop. οὕτως ὁ ΒΓ πρὸς τὸν ΕΖ. where all symbols denote numbers. LF . so C (is) to F [Prop. ΗΘ. as A (is) to D. ΚΛ. ΛΖ. ieþ. ΘΓ μονάδες ἀλλήλαις. ΛΖ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι ἀλλήλοις. ΚΛ. ὅσαι ἄρα εἰσὶν ἐν τῷ ΒΓ μονάδες. LF . HC is equal to the multitude of the numbers EK. and the multitude of the (units) BG. 7. ἔσται ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΗ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν ΕΚ ἀριθμόν. ὡς δὲ ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ε. And since the units BG. KL.20]. so BC (is) to EF . this proposition states that if a : b :: d : e and b : c :: e : f then a : c :: d : f . alternately. 7. ΛΖ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΗ μονὰς τῇ Α μονάδι. HC will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) EK. KL. thus as many units as are in BC. as the unit A is to the number D.13]. and another numἄλλον τινὰ ἀριθμὸν μετρῇ. καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΒΗ. then. as one of the leading (numbers is) to one of the following. ὁ δὲ ΕΚ ἀριθμὸς τῷ Δ ἀριθμῷ. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ζ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

καὶ ὁ μὲν Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω. ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ Γ τῷ Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. the unit E measures the number B as many times as A (measures) C [Prop. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν. For since A has made D (by) multiplying B. 7. Ε ποιείτω· λέγω.(numbers) then the (numbers) generated from them will πλασιασθεῖσιν. where all symbols denote numbers. Α Β ∆ Ζ A B D F Γ Ε C E ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ Α δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Β. izþ. In modern notation.15]. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 iþ. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε A B C D E ῎Εστωσαν δύο ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. Β.15]. ἰσάκις δὲ ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Β ἀριθμὸν ἐμέτρει καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Γ· ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ Α ἑκάτερον τῶν Γ. 7.STOIQEIWN zþ. the unit E measures the number B as many times as A (measures) D. οἱ γενόμενοι ἐξ αὐτῶν ἴσοι ἀλλήλοις ἔσονται. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Β κατὰ τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Β ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Δ. Again. this proposition states that a b = b a. 7. Thus. Proposition 16† Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ποιῶσί τινας. And the unit E was measuring the number B as many times as A (measures) C. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἰσάκις ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Β ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Γ. Proposition 17† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς δύο ἀριθμοὺς πολλαπλασιάσας ποιῇ τινας. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. † Let A and B be two numbers. Thus. If a number multiplying two numbers makes some οἱ γενόμενοι ἐξ αὐτῶν τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξουσι λόγον τοῖς πολλα. A thus measures D according to the units in B [Def. I say that C is equal to D. If two numbers multiplying one another make some (numbers) then the (numbers) generated from them will be equal to one another. For since A has made C (by) multiplying B. so D (is) to E. And 208 . have the same ratio as the multiplied (numbers). Thus. ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Α πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ ποιείτω· λέγω. Thus. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Β πρὸς E (by) multiplying the two numbers B and C (respecτὸν Γ. And let A make C (by) multiplying B. μετρεῖ measures D according to the units in A [Def. B thus measures C according to the units in A [Def. tively). the unit E measures the number A as many times as B (measures) C. B thus ὁ Β ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Α μονάδας. Δ μετρεῖ. I say that as B is to C.15]. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Α ἀριθμὸν κατὰ τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Α ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Β τὸν Γ. alternately.15]. Thus. 7. ὁ Β ἄρα τὸν Γ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Α μονάδας. since B has made D (by) multiplying A. And the unit E also measures the number A according to the units in it. And the unit E also measures B according to the units in it. A measures each of C and D an equal number of times. πάλιν. Γ πολλαFor let the number A make (the numbers) D and πλασιάσας τοὺς Δ. and let B make D (by) multiplying A. ἐπεὶ ὁ Β τὸν Α πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. ὁ Α ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Β μονάδας. ὅτι ἴσος ἐστὶν ὁ Γ τῷ Δ. C is equal to D.

for the same (reasons). Α Β Γ ∆ Ε A B C D E Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. by) multiplying some number C. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. I say that as A is to B. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὡς ἡ Ζ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Α ἀριθμόν. this propositions states that if a c = d and b c = e then a : b :: d : e. them will have the same ratio as the multiplying (numbers). Thus. Proposition 18† ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ ἀριθμόν τινα πολλαπλασιάσαντες If two numbers multiplying some number make some ποιῶσί τινας. Δ. οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Δ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus.17].16]. ijþ. (such that) as A (is) to B. 7. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε πεποίηκεν. for the same (reasons). so D (is) to E. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ε· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Δ. so C (is) to E. so D (is) to E [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. so D (is) to E [Prop. B. I say that E is equal to F . as B (is) to D. 209 . 7. Let A.20]. ὅτι ἴσος ἐστὶν ὁ Ε τῷ Ζ. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. † the unit F also measures the number A according to the units in it. so C (is) to D. Β. so B (is) to D [Def. where all symbols denote numbers. In modern notation. ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ζ ποιείτω· λέγω. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. this proposition states that if d = a b and e = a c then d : e :: b : c.STOIQEIWN zþ. where all symbols denote numbers. 7. Ε ποιείτωσαν· λέγω.13]. ῎Εστωσαν τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον οἱ Α. For since A has made D (by) multiplying C. And let A make E (by) multiplying D. If four number are proportional then the number created from (multiplying) the first and fourth will be equal to the number created from (multiplying) the second and third. as the unit F (is) to the number A. Ε πεποίηκεν. So. Thus. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὁ Α τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. καὶ ὁ μὲν Α τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε ποιείτω. Β ἀριθμόν τινα τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσαντες τοὺς Δ. C. † For let the two numbers A and B make (the numbers) D and E (respectively. as B is to C. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 δὲ καὶ ἡ Ζ μονὰς τὸν Α ἀριθμὸν κατὰ τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Ζ μονὰς τὸν Α ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Β τὸν Δ. Β πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Δ. as the unit F is to the number A. Proposition 19† ᾿Εὰν τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. ἀριθμὸς δὴ ὁ Γ δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Α. alternately. as A is to B. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. C has thus also made D (by) multiplying A [Prop. ὁ ἐκ πρώτου καὶ τετάρτου γενόμενος ἀριθμὸς ἴσος ἔσται τῷ ἐκ δευτέρου καὶ τρίτου γενομένῳ ἀριθμῷ· καὶ ἐὰν ὁ ἐκ πρώτου καὶ τετάρτου γενόμενος ἀριθμὸς ἴσος ᾖ τῷ ἐκ δευτέρου καὶ τρίτου. So the number C has made D and E (by) multiplying the two numbers A and B (respectively). and D be four proportional numbers. ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ε. In modern notation. Γ. 7. so C (is) to E. the unit F measures the number A as many times as B (measures) D. ihþ. καὶ ὁ Γ ἄρα τὸν Α πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. and let B make F (by) multiplying C. Thus. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Γ. And so. C has also made E (by) multiplying B. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. οἱ τέσσασρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ Ζ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Α ἀριθμόν. οἱ γενόμενοι ἐξ αὐτῶν τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξουσι λόγον (other numbers) then the (numbers) generated from τοῖς πολλαπλασιάσασιν. And thus. And if the number created from (multiplying) the first and fourth is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) the second and third then the four numbers will be proportional.

thus as G is to E. Again. as C (is) to D. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε. as C is to D. also. as A (is) to B. the number A has made G and E by multiplying the two numbers C and D (respectively). οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε. so A (is) to B [Prop. But.18]. G has the same ratio to each of E and F . as G (is) to E. Β οἱ ΓΔ. B has also made F (by) multiplying C. again. So. Thus. τὸν δὲ Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε πεποίηκεν. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. The least numbers of those (numbers) having the same ratio measure those (numbers) having the same ratio as them an equal number of times. so C (is) to D. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε. 5. 7. ῎Εστω δὴ πάλιν ἴσος ὁ Ε τῷ Ζ· λέγω. and the lesser the lesser. 7. For. Thus. I say that CD measures A the same number of times as EF (measures) B. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε. 7. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β.18]. And as G (is) to F . the greater (measuring) the greater. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ Α τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Η πεποίηκεν. † B C D E F G For let A make G (by) multiplying C. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὁ Β τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ζ πεποίηκεν. so G (is) to E [Prop. δύο δὴ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. in fact. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ζ. 210 . In modern notation. ἐπεὶ ὁ Α τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Η πεποίηκεν. so C (is) to D [Prop. thus. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. so G (is) to F [Prop. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ζ. ὡς δὲ ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ζ.9]. Thus. also. Β ἀριθμόν τινα τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσαντες τοὺς Η. but. 5.17]. since A has made G (by) multiplying C. Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τούς Η. so G (is) to E. as A (is) to B. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. ΕΖ· λέγω. so G (is) to F [Prop. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. let E be equal to F . I say that as A is to B. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων. kþ. so G (is) to F . this proposition reads that if a : b :: c : d then a d = b c. E is equal to F [Prop. since E is equal to F . Ζ πεποιήκασιν. as A is to B. by) multiplying some number C. ὁ Η ἄρα πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Ε. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ζ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. ἐπεὶ ἴσος ἐστὶν ὁ Ε τῷ Ζ. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. Ζ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον· ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ Ε τῷ Ζ. οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. 7. and vice versa.7]. and has made E (by) multiplying D. Ε πεποίηκεν. And thus. Thus.17]. so G (is) to E.STOIQEIWN zþ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε. Therefore. But. as A (is) to B. with the same construction. πάλιν. the two numbers A and B have made G and F (respectively. Proposition 20 Οἱ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα. where all symbols denote numbers. so C (is) to D. But. since A has made G (by) multiplying C. so A (is) to B. ἀριθμὸς δὴ ὁ Α δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Γ. οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. And. For let CD and EF be the least numbers having the same ratio as A and B (respectively). ῎Εστωσαν γὰρ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α. ὅτι ἰσάκις ὁ ΓΔ τὸν Α μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ ΕΖ τὸν Β. as G (is) to E. Α Β ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Γ ∆ Ε Ζ Η A ῾Ο γὰρ Α τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Η ποιείτω. Thus.

The very thing is impossible. And since the numbers CG and GD are equal to one another.STOIQEIWN zþ. ἔστω· καὶ ὁ ΕΖ ἄρα τοῦ Β τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστίν. kaþ. Β· λέγω. ΕΖ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσὶν ἐλάσσονες ὄντες αὐτῶν· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· ὑπόκεινται γὰρ οἱ ΓΔ. GD will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) EH. if possible. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΓΔ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Α μέρη τὰ ΓΗ. ΕΘ ἄρα τοῖς ΓΔ. For if not then there will be some numbers less than A and B which are in the same ratio as A and B. Let A and B be numbers prime to one another. as one of the leading (numbers is) to one of the following. CD measures A the same number of times that EF (measures) B. Thus. Thus. ΘΖ. And EF is the same part of B that CD (is) of A [Def. ἔσται ἄρα καὶ ὡς εἷς τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἕνα τῶν ἑπομένων.20. GD is equal to the multitude of (divisions) EH. Prop. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ ΓΗ πρὸς τὸν ΕΘ. EF is also the same parts of B that CD (is) of A [Def. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΓΔ μέρη τοῦ Α. Let them be C and D. being less than them. Β ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. ΘΖ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι ἀλλήλοις. I say that A and B are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. Thus. thus as CG is to EH. and EF into the parts of B. καὶ ὁ ΕΖ τοῦ Β τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν. CD is not parts of A.12]. so will (the sum of) all of the leading (numbers) be to (the sum of) all of the following [Prop. ὅπερ ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ Α· ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ ΓΔ τὸν Α μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ ΕΖ τὸν Β· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Β. and the numbers EH and HF are also equal to one another. Β ἐλάσσονες ἀριθμοὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ὄντες τοῖς Α. so CD (is) to EF . Thus. 211 . ἔστωσαν οἱ Γ. EH and HF . 7.13].20. οὕτως ὁ ΗΔ πρὸς τὸν ΘΖ. 7. ἅπερ ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ Α.13]. Α ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Β A Γ Η Ε B C E H Θ G F Ζ ∆ D ῾Ο ΓΔ γὰρ τοῦ Α οὔκ ἐστι μέρη. ὁ δὲ ΕΖ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Β μέρη τὰ ΕΘ. HF . καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΓΗ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. For CD is not parts of A. ΗΔ ἀριθμοὶ ἀλλήλοις. εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. ΗΔ. (it is) a part (of A) [Prop. ἔσονταί τινες τῶν Α. τοσαῦτά ἐστι καὶ ἐν τῷ ΕΖ μέρη τοῦ Β. HF . Let CD have been divided into the parts of A. ΗΔ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΘ. For. For CD and EF were assumed (to be) the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. CG and GD. as many parts of A as are in CD.4]. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ ΓΗ πρὸς τὸν ΕΘ. ΗΔ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΘ. Thus. ΕΖ ἐλάχιστοι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. so GD (is) to HF . CG and EH are in the same ratio as CD and EF . Εἰ γὰρ μή. let it be (parts of A). 7. 7. ΘΖ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΓΗ. and the multitude of (divisions) CG. as CG is to EH. Prop 7. Proposition 21 Οἱ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοὶ ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσοι εἰσὶν οἱ ΓΗ. so many parts of B are also in EF . Numbers prime to one another are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ οἱ ΕΘ. οὕτως ἅπαντες οἱ ἡγούμενοι πρὸς ἅπαντας τοὺς ἑπομένους. Thus. ῎Εστωσαν πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. 7. So the multitude of (divisions) CG. Thus. Δ. ΘΖ. οὕτως ὁ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸν ΕΖ· οἱ ΓΗ. οὐκ ἄρα μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ Α· μέρος ἄρα. Thus. ὅτι οἱ Α.

E measures A and B. οὐκ ἄρα ἔσονταί τινες τῶν Α. μετρείτω. same ratio as them are prime to one another. since the least numbers of those (numbers) having the same ratio measure those (numbers) having the same ratio (as them) an equal number of times. A and B are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. Let A and B be the least numbers of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. For if they are not prime to one another then some number will measure them. E thus also measures A according to the units in C [Prop. Β ἄρα ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὅτι οἱ Α. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε A B C D E ῎Εστωσαν ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς οἱ Α. Proposition 22 Οἱ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων The least numbers of those (numbers) having the αὐτοῖς πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. so many units let there be in E. καὶ ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Β μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Ε μονάδας. And since C measures A according to the units in E.16]. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ε. the leading (measuring) the leading. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὁ Ε ἄρα τοὺς Α. καὶ ὁσάκις μὲν ὁ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ. Thus. So. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ὁ Ε καὶ τὸν Β μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Δ μονάδας. Thus. 7. Β μετρεῖ πρώτους ὄντας πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. E also measures B according to the units in D [Prop. The very thing is impossible. and the following the following—C thus measures A the same number of times that D (measures) B [Prop. the greater (measuring) the greater. Β. and let it be C. οἱ Α. kbþ. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Δ.16]. Β· λέγω. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Ε μονάδας.STOIQEIWN zþ. and the lesser the lesser—that is to say. καί ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Γ μονάδας. Thus. So as many times as C measures A. D also measures B according to the units in E. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Β ἐλάσσονες ἀριθμοὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ὄντες τοῖς Α. And as many times as C measures A. 7.20]. there cannot be any numbers less than A and B which are in the same ratio as A and B. Let it (so measure them). ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Δ τὸν Β. τουτέστιν ὅ τε ἡγούμενος τὸν ἡγούμενον καὶ ὁ ἑπόμενος τὸν ἑπόμενον. Therefore. which are prime to one another. so 212 . 7. ὁσάκις δὴ ὁ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ. μετρήσει τις αὐτοὺς ἀριθμός. Thus. for the same (reasons). Α ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Β Γ ∆ Ε A B C D E ᾿Επεὶ οὖν οἱ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάττων τὸν ἐλάττονα. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Γ. I say that A and B are prime to one another.

15]. So. D measures A and B. Thus. I say that C and B are also prime to one another. so A (is) to B [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Α Β Γ A ∆ B C D . Thus. 213 . so many units let there be in E. 7. Since D measures C. Β. many units let there be in D. Let A and B be two numbers (which are) prime to one another. for the same (reasons). some number does not measure the numbers A and B. ὁ τὸν ἕνα If two numbers are prime to one another then a numαὐτῶν μετρῶν ἀριθμὸς πρὸς τὸν λοιπὸν πρῶτος ἔσται. τὸν δὲ Α μετρείτω τις ἀριθμὸς ὁ Γ· λέγω. D thus also measures A. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Proposition 24 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρός τινα ἀριθμὸν πρῶτοι ὦσιν. Ε ἄρα τοῖς Α. If two numbers are prime to some number then the number created from (multiplying) the former (two numbers) will also be prime to the latter (number). Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Α. καὶ ὁ ἐξ αὐτῶν γενόμενος πρὸς τὸν αὐτὸν πρῶτος ἔσται. ἐπεὶ ὁ Δ τὸν Γ μετρεῖ. 7. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Β πεποίηκεν. Β πεποίηκεν· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. A and B are prime to one another. For if C and B are not prime to one another then [some] number will measure C and B. Thus. And as many times as C measures B. ὁ δὲ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ.17]. D and E are in the same ratio as A and B. Β ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσὶν ἐλάσσονες ὄντες αὐτῶν· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν Β· ὁ Δ ἄρα τοὺς Α. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ Γ. C has also made B (by) multiplying E. Β ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Δ. So the number C has made A and B (by) multiplying the two numbers D and E (respectively). Thus. Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and C measures A. καὶ ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Α μετρεῖ. ῎Εστωσαν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ Α. μετρήσει [τις] τοὺς Γ. ber measuring one of them will be prime to the remaining (one). οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β· οἱ Δ. ᾿Επεὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Δ μονάδας. Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. Thus. Β μετρεῖ πρώτους ὄντας πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. The very thing is impossible. Thus. some number does not measure the numbers C and B. Since C measures A according to the units in D. οἱ Α. ὅτι καὶ οἱ Γ. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Γ. kdþ. Β ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει.STOIQEIWN zþ. as D is to E. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 ὁσάκις δὲ ὁ Γ τὸν Β μετρεῖ. Let it (so) measure (them). and let it be D. ἀριθμὸς δὴ ὁ Γ δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Δ. ὁ Γ ἄρα τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν. οἱ Γ. μετρείτω. which are prime to one another. being less than them. C has thus made A (by) multiplying D [Def. and let some number C measure A. Β ἀριθμός. Proposition 23 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὦσιν. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ε. And (D) also measures B. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. C and B are prime to one another. kgþ. The very thing is impossible. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Α.

τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ζ· καὶ ὁ Ζ ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Ε μονάδας. And since C and A are prime to one another. ὁσάκις δὴ ὁ Ε τὸν Δ μετρεῖ. For if C and D are not prime to one another then [some] number will measure C and D. as E is to A. and the following the following [Prop. the leading (measuring) the leading.23]. ὅτι Let A and B be two numbers (which are) prime to 214 . 7.20]. καὶ ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω· λέγω. 7. and let it be E. Δ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ Γ. Δ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. keþ.16]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. C and D are prime to one another. οἱ τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Α. Β πρός τινα ἀριθμὸν τὸν Γ πρῶτοι ἔστωσαν. Thus. ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Ζ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. the greater (measuring) the greater. μετρήσει [τις] τοὺς Γ. οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ζ. And it also measures C. Ζ τῷ ἐκ τῶν Α.21]. Δ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει. And let A make D (by) multiplying B. οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα.STOIQEIWN zþ. οἱ δὲ πρῶτοι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι. The very thing is impossible. Β. Δ ἀριθμός. τουτέστιν ὅ τε ἡγούμενος τὸν ἡγούμενον καὶ ὁ ἑπόμενος τὸν ἑπόμενον· ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Β μετρεῖ. ἐὰν δὲ ὁ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων ἴσος ᾖ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν μέσων. Β. Thus. some number cannot measure the numbers C and D. 7. καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Γ. in fact. which are prime to one another. and some number E measures C. And A and E (are) prime (to one another). καὶ ἔστω ὁ Ε. I say that C and D are prime to one another. Thus. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν Γ· ὁ Ε ἄρα τοὺς Β. But. and the lesser the lesser—that is to say. μετρείτω. ὅτι οἱ Γ. Γ μετρεῖ πρώτους ὄντας πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. And (numbers) prime (to one another) are also the least (of those numbers having the same ratio) [Prop. E measures B and C. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Γ. 6. E has made D (by) multiplying F [Def. Ε πρῶτοι. οἱ δὲ Α. prime to the remaining (number). E measures B. the (number created) from (multiplying) E and F is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) A and B. Ε ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. A has also made D (by) multiplying B. ὁ ἐκ τοῦ If two numbers are prime to one another then the ἑνὸς αὐτῶν γενόμενος πρὸς τὸν λοιπὸν πρῶτος ἔσται.15]. Δ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.15]. Let it (so) measure them. number created from (squaring) one of them will be ῎Εστωσαν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ Α. Α Β ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B C D E F Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. Thus. καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ ποιείτω· λέγω. οἱ Γ. Thus. Thus. Proposition 25 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὦσιν. A and E are thus prime to one another [Prop. 7. F also measures D according to the units in E [Prop. 7. So as many times as E measures D. For let A and B be two numbers (which are both) prime to some number C. τὸν δὲ Γ μετρεῖ τις ἀριθμὸς ὁ Ε. οἱ Α. so B (is) to F . Thus. Δ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. so many units let there be in F . And the least numbers of those (numbers) having the same ratio measure those (numbers) having the same ratio as them an equal number of times. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν· ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἑκ τῶν Ε. And if the (rectangle contained) by the (two) outermost is equal to the (rectangle contained) by the middle (two) then the four numbers are proportional [Prop.

Α πρὸς τὸν Β πρῶτός ἐστιν· καὶ ὁ ἐκ τῶν Δ. C and D. E and C are prime to one another. Δ ἄρα γενόμενος πρὸς τὸν Ε πρῶτος ἔσται. Thus. ∆ A B C D Κείσθω γὰρ τῷ Α ἴσος ὁ Δ. Thus. For let D be made equal to A. Thus. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 οἱ Β. ὁ δὲ Γ τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ζ ποιείτω· λέγω. Since A and B are prime to one another. And let A make C (by) multiplying itself. Proposition 26 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρὸς δύο ἀριθμοὺς ἀμφότεροι πρὸς ἑκάτερον πρῶτοι ὦσιν. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. C and B are prime to one another. ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῶν Α. Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ἑκάτερος ἄρα τῶν Δ. C and D are each prime to E. both be prime to each of two numbers.24]. Α Β Ε Ζ Γ ∆ A B E F Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. Α γενόμενος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ Γ. And F is the (number) created from (multiplying) C and D. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. the (number) created from (multilying) D and A will also be prime to B [Prop. Β γενόμενός ἐστιν ὁ Ε· οἱ Ε. I say that B and C are prime to one another. Thus. Α ἄρα γενόμενος πρὸς τὸν Β πρῶτος ἔσται. ἴσος δὲ ὁ Α τῷ Δ.24]. ὅτι οἱ Ε. Ζ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Δ γενόμενός ἐστιν ὁ Ζ. 215 . And let A make E (by) multiplying B. ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῶν Γ. and A (is) equal to D. for the same (reasons). καὶ ὁ μὲν Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε ποιείτω. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἑκάτερος τῶν Α. the (number) created from (multiplying) C and D will also be prime to E [Prop. For since A and B are each prime to C. ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῶν Δ. Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Δ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. And C is the number created from (multiplying) D and A. καὶ ὁ ἐκ τῶν Γ. καὶ ὁ ἐκ τῶν Α. Β πρὸς τὸν Γ πρῶτός ἐστιν. the (number) created from (multiplying) A and B will thus also be prime to C [Prop. 7. E and F are prime to one another. I say that E and F are prime to one another. and let C make F (by) multiplying D. καὶ οἱ ἐξ αὐτῶν γενόμενοι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἔσονται. If two numbers are both prime to each of two numbers then the (numbers) created from (multiplying) them will also be prime to one another. D and A are each prime to B. Δ ἀμφότεροι πρὸς ἑκάτερον πρῶτοι ἔστωσαν. And E is the (number) created from (multiplying) A and B. Thus. 7. οἱ Ε. Β πρὸς δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Γ. D and B are thus also prime to one another. οἱ Γ. Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε πρῶτός ἐστιν. A and B. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. So. kþ. ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. Β ἄρα γενόμενος πρὸς τὸν Γ πρῶτος ἔσται. Ζ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ οἱ Ε. καί οἱ Δ. Γ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Α Β Γ one another. Thus. 7. C D For let two numbers.STOIQEIWN zþ. ἑκάτερος ἄρα τῶν Γ. Γ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλὴλους εἰσίν. E and D are also prime to one another.24].

and let it make F by multiplying E. καὶ ὁ Β ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε πεποίηκεν. καὶ πολλαπλασιάσας ἑκάτερος ἑαυτὸν ποιῇ τινα.25]. I say that C and E. And let B make E (by) multiplying itself. and if the original (numbers) make some (more numbers by) multiplying the created (numbers) then these will also be prime to one another [and this always happens with the extremes]. Proposition 27† ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὦσιν. 7. Ε ἀμφότεροι πρὸς ἑκάτερον πρῶτοί εἰσιν. Ε ὁ Ζ. τὸν δὲ Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ ποιείτω. and B has made E (by) multiplying itself.26]. In modern notation. καὶ ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 kzþ. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A ῎Εστωσαν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ Α. κἂν οἱ ἐξ ἀρχῆς τοὺς γενομένους πολλαπλασιάσαντες ποιῶσί τινας. κἀκεῖνοι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἔσονται [καὶ ἀεὶ περὶ τοὺς ἄκρους τοῦτο συμβαίνει]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὁ δὲ Β ἑαυτὸν μὲν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε ποιείτω. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ οἱ Α. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. since A and B are prime to one another. Β. and D and F .STOIQEIWN zþ. And if the sum συναμφότερος πρὸς ἕνα τινὰ αὐτῶν πρῶτος ᾖ. οἱ Δ. And D is the (number created) from (multiplying) A and C. † B C D E F Let A and B be two numbers prime to one another. Ε καὶ οἱ Δ. 216 . Γ πρὸς δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Β.25]. Proposition 28 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὦσιν. For since A and B are prime to one another. πάλιν. and let it make D (by) multiplying C. Ε ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Ε ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. καὶ ὁ Β ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε πεποίηκεν. καὶ συIf two numbers are prime to one another then their ναμφότερος πρὸς ἑκάτερον αὐτῶν πρῶτος ἔσται· καὶ ἐὰν sum will also be prime to each of them. Again. and let A make C (by) multiplying itself. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. C and E are thus prime to one another [Prop. Therefore. Γ ὁ Δ. since C and B are prime to one another. 7. τὸν δὲ Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ζ ποιείτω· λέγω. and F the (number created) from (multiplying) B and E. khþ. ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. where all symbols denote numbers. as well as a3 to b3 . οἱ Γ. Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. this proposition states that if a is prime to b..25]. and B has made E (by) multiplying itself. ἐπεὶ οὖν δύο ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. and A has made C (by) multiplying itself. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. καὶ οἱ ἐξ (of two numbers) is prime to any one of them then the ἀρχῆς ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἔσονται. D and F are prime to one another. If two numbers are prime to one another and each makes some (number by) multiplying itself then the numbers created from them will be prime to one another. Ε πρῶτός ἐστιν. A and E are thus prime to one another [Prop. ὅτι οἵ τε Γ. οἱ Γ. original numbers will also be prime to one another. Ζ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. then a2 is also prime to b2 . Therefore. καί ἐστιν ὁ μὲν ἐκ τῶν Α. Γ ἄρα γενόμενος πρὸς τὸν ἐκ τῶν Β. 7. 7. etc. ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῶν Β. ἐπεὶ οὖν οἱ Γ. Ζ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. οἱ γενόμενοι ἐξ αὐτῶν πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἔσονται. οἱ Α. since the two numbers A and C are both prime to each of the two numbers B and E. καὶ ὁ ἐκ τῶν Α. the (number) created from (multiplying) A and C is thus prime to the (number created) from (multiplying) B and E [Prop. Thus. are prime to one another. καὶ ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν μὲν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω. C and B are thus prime to one another [Prop.

Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς ΓΑ.STOIQEIWN zþ. μετρήσει τις τοὺς ΓΑ. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Δ. ΒΓ πρῶτός ἐστιν. for the same (reasons). μετρείτω ὁ Γ. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Δ. ῎Εστωσαν δὴ πάλιν οἱ ΓΑ. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν ΒΑ· ὁ Δ ἄρα τοὺς ΑΒ. ΑΒ ἀριθμός. καὶ ὅλον ἄρα τὸν ΓΑ μετρήσει. I say that their sum AC is also prime to each of AB and BC. μετρείτω. μετρήσει τις τοὺς ΑΒ. Let A be a prime number. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Δ ἑκάτερον τῶν ΑΒ. ΑΒ μετρεῖ. again. and let it be D. For if AB and BC are not prime to one another then some number will measure AB and BC. ΑΒ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει· οἱ ΓΑ. D measures AB and BC. οἱ Α. AB and BC are prime to one another. Let it (so) measure (them). ὅτι καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΑΓ πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν ΑΒ. The very thing is impossible. ΒΓ πρῶτός ἐστιν. some number cannot measure (both) the numbers AB and BC. C is thus not the same as A. Thus. (despite) not being the same as it. ἐπεὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Β μετρεῖ. be laid down together. I say that AB and BC are also prime to one another. Proposition 29 ῞Απας πρῶτος ἀριθμὸς πρὸς ἅπαντα ἀριθμόν. Let C measure (them). πρῶτός ἐστιν. So. μετρήσει τις αὐτοὺς ἀριθμός. Therefore. Thus. ὁ δὲ Α τὸν Β οὐ μετρεῖ. CA is prime to each of AB and BC. Thus. and A does not measure B. ΒΓ μετρεῖ πρώτους ὄντας πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. CA and AB are prime to one another. let CA and AB be prime to one another. D measures CA and AB. ὃν μὴ μετρεῖ. Thus. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ ΓΑ. μετρείτω. kjþ. ΑΒ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. Α πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. ΒΓ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. And it also measures BA. Thus. some number cannot measure (both) B and A. ΒΓ ἀριθμός. For if B and A are not prime to one another then some number will measure them. since D measures CA and AB. which are prime to one another. Thus. it will thus also measure the remainder BC. For if CA and AB are not prime to one another then some number will measure CA and AB. The very thing is impossible. Α μετρεῖ. Let it (so) measure (them). So. And since C measures B and A. καὶ τὸν Α ἄρα μετρεῖ πρῶτον ὄντα μὴ ὢν αὐτῷ ὁ αὐτός· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. (Which is) the very thing it was required to 217 . which is prime. and let it be D. ὅτι οἱ Β. Since C measures B. ὁ Γ ἄρα τῷ Α οὔκ ἐστιν ὁ αὐτός. I say that B and A are prime to one another. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Β. Thus. ὁ ΓΑ ἄρα πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν ΑΒ. ὅτι καὶ οἱ ΑΒ. ΒΓ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ ΑΒ. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Α Β Γ A ∆ B C D Συγκείσθωσαν γὰρ δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ ΑΒ. Α Β Γ A B C ῎Εστω πρῶτος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Α καὶ τὸν Β μὴ μετρείτω· λέγω. it will thus also measure the whole of CA. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ Δ τοὺς ΓΑ. AC and CB are also prime to one another. and let it not measure B. (which are) prime to one another. ΒΓ μετρεῖ. AB and BC. some number cannot measure (both) the numbers CA and AB. ΑΒ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. A and B are prime to one another. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν ΑΒ· ὁ Δ ἄρα τοὺς ΓΑ. ΑΒ μετρεῖ πρώτους ὄντας πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Thus. which are prime to one another. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ Β. And since D measures each of AB and BC. καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸν ΒΓ μετρήσει. ΑΒ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους· λέγω. Α μετρήσει τις ἀριθμός. ΒΓ· λέγω. And it also measures AB. Every prime number is prime to every number which it does not measure. it thus also measures A. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ οἱ ΑΓ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Γ τοὺς Β. Thus. ΒΓ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. ΓΒ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς ΑΒ. οἱ ΑΒ. For let the two numbers. ΒΓ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Α πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. The very thing is impossible.

19]. the greater (measuring) the greater. But. For let two numbers A and B make C (by) multiplying one another. laþ. Therefore. οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα. and let some prime number D measure C. in fact. D has thus made C (by) multiplying E [Def. τουτέστιν ὅ τε ἡγούμενος τὸν ἡγούμενον καὶ ὁ ἐπόμενος τὸν ἑπόμενον· ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Β μετρεῖ. the leading (measuring) the leading. Thus. and (numbers) prime (to one another are) also the least (of those numbers having the same ratio) [Prop. Β μετρεῖ.STOIQEIWN zþ. And as many times as D measures C. I say that A is measured ῎Εστω σύνθεντος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Α· λέγω. οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ε. 7. since D measures C according to the units E. some number will measure ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ σύνθετός ἐστιν ὁ Α. τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ μετρεῖται. Every composite number is measured by some prime number. 7. ὁ Δ ἄρα ἕνα τῶν Α. ὅτι καὶ ἐὰν τὸν Β μὴ μετρῇ. Α πρῶτοι. 7.15]. Let A be a composite number. A and D are thus prime to one another [Prop. οἱ δὲ Δ. one another.20]. Thus.21]. ber (so) created from them. and let it be B. I say that D measures one of A and B. Proposition 31 ῞Απας σύνθεντος ἀριθμὸς ὑπὸ πρώτου τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ μετρεῖται. we can also show that if (D) does not measure B then it will measure A. And if B 218 . A has also made C (by) multiplying B. and the following the following [Prop. D measures B. Thus. ὅτι ὁ Δ ἕνα τῶν Α. ὅτι ὁ Α ὑπὸ πρώτου by some prime number. So. τὸν δὲ Γ μετρείτω τις πρῶτος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Δ· λέγω. the (number created) from (multiplying) D and E is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) A and B. D measures one of A and B. Β μετρεῖ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. τὸν Α μετρήσει. μετρήσει τις αὐτὸν it. lþ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Α. then it will also measure one of the original (numbers). ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν· ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Δ. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ε. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε A B C D E Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. and the least (numbers) measure those (numbers) having the same ratio (as them) an equal number of times. τὸν δὲ γενόμενον ἐξ αὐτῶν μετρῇ τις πρῶτος ἀριθμός. so many units let there be in E.29]. οἱ δὲ πρῶτοι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι. Thus. so B (is) to E [Prop. And D and A (are) prime (to one another). 7. And since D is prime. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ Δ τὸν Γ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Ε μονάδας. and some prime number measures the numκαὶ ἕνα τῶν ἐξ ἀρχῆς μετρήσει. For since A is composite. as D is to A. καὶ ὁσάκις ὁ Δ τὸν Γ μετρεῖ. 7. Β πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους τὸν Γ ποιείτωσαν. Β. similarly. Ε τῷ ἐκ τῶν Α. Proposition 30 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ποιῶσί If two numbers make some (number by) multiplying τινα. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 show. For let it not measure A. Let it (so) measure (A). and the lesser the lesser—that is to say. Τὸν γὰρ Α μὴ μετρείτω· καί ἐστι πρῶτος ὁ Δ· οἱ Α. Δ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν.

In fact.STOIQEIWN zþ. ῎Εστωσαν οἱ δοθέντες ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. in this manner of continued investigation. and C. some prime number will (eventually) be found which will measure the (number) preceding it. εἰ δὲ σύνθετος. and C be any given multitude of numbers. Γ· δεῖ δὴ εὑρεῖν τοὺς ἐλαχίστους τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α. which will also measure A). καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Β μετρεῖ. is prime then that which was prescribed has happened. To find the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as any given multitude of numbers. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Β. if A is prime then that which was prescribed has happened. For A. μετρείτω. Γ. In fact. will measure the number A. μετρείτω. ληφθήσεταί τις ἄρα πρῶτος ἀριθμός. εἰ γὰρ οὐ ληφθήσεται. ὃς μετρήσει. Thus. καὶ εἰ μὲν πρῶτός ἐστιν ὁ Β. And if C is prime then that which was prescribed has happened. ὅτι ὁ Α ἤτοι πρῶτός ἐστιν ἢ ὑπὸ πρώτου τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ μετρεῖται. μετρήσουσι τὸν Α ἀριθμὸν ἄπειροι ἀριθμοί. Β. ὧν ἕτερος ἑτέρου ἐλάσσων ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον ἐν ἀριθμοῖς. εἰ δὲ σύνθετος. γεγονὸς ἂν εἴη τὸ ἐπιταχθέν. 7. καὶ εἰ μὲν πρῶτός ἐστιν ὁ Γ. Β. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 ἀριθμός. Proposition 33 ᾿Αριθμῶν δοθέντων ὁποσωνοῦν εὑρεῖν τοὺς ἐλαχίστους τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. The very thing is impossible for numbers. C thus also measures A. Let it (so) measure (B). B. Α Β Γ A B C ῞Απας ἄρα σύνθεντος ἀριθμὸς ὑπὸ πρώτου τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ Thus. lbþ. Οἱ Α. every composite number is measured by some μετρεῖται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Εἰ μὲν οὖν πρῶτός ἐστιν ὁ Α. and B measures A. prime number. γεγονὸς ἂν εἴη τὸ ἐπιταχθέν. εἰ δὲ σύνθετος. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 7. ῞Απας ἄρα ἀριθμὸς ἤτοι πρῶτός ἐστιν ἢ ὑπὸ πρώτου τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ μετρεῖται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. And if (B is) composite then some number will measure it. So. each of which is less than the preceding. and C are prime to one another then they are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them [Prop. μετρήσει τις αὐτὸν ἀριθμός. τοιαύτης δὴ γινομένης ἐπισκέψεως ληφθήσεταί τις πρῶτος ἀριθμός. So it is required to find the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as A. Β. And if (C is) composite then some number will measure it. ὃς καὶ τὸν Α μετρήσει. Thus. Α A ῎Εστω ἀριθμὸς ὁ Α· λέγω. every number is either prime or is measured by some prime number. ὃς μετρήσει τὸν πρὸ ἑαυτοῦ. μετρήσει τις αὐτὸν ἀριθμός. B. And since C measures B. lgþ. I say that A is either prime or is measured by some prime number. if A. Every number is either prime or is measured by some prime number. γεγονὸς ἂν εἴη τό ἐπιταχθέν. And if (it is) composite then some prime number will measure it [Prop. and C are either prime to one another. Let A. And if (such a number) cannot be found then an infinite (series of) numbers. μετρήσει τις αὐτὸν πρῶτος ἀριθμός. ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Α μετρεῖ. B.22]. and let it be C. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Γ.31]. some prime number will be found which will measure (the number preceding it. καὶ ὁ Γ ἄρα τὸν Α μετρεῖ. or not. Γ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Proposition 32 ῞Απας ἀριθμὸς ἤτοι πρῶτός ἐστιν ἢ ὑπὸ πρώτου τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ μετρεῖται. B. ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. which will also measure A. Γ γὰρ ἤτοι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσὶν ἢ οὔ. 219 . εἰ μὲν οὖν οἱ Α. Let A be a number. Β.

15].20]. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Θ.3]. Γ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Μ μονάδας. οἱ Ε. 7. καὶ ὁσάκις ὁ Δ ἕκαστον τῶν Α. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν ἑκάστῳ τῶν Ε. Thus. C (respectively). G are in the same ratio as A. B. C). Λ ἑκάτερον τῶν Β. So I say that (they are) also the least (of those numbers having the same ratio as A. M measures A. respectively. B. Δ τῷ ἐκ τῶν Θ. B. G which are in the same ratio as A. M (is) also greater than D [Prop. B. And if not. Ζ. F . Thus. for the same (reasons).STOIQEIWN zþ. L. καὶ μετρεῖ τοὺς Α. ῎Εστωσαν οἱ δοθέντες δύο ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. Β· δεῖ δὴ εὑρεῖν. (both) measure. the (number created) from (multiplying) E and D is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) H and M . Thus. ὃν ἐλάχιστον μετροῦσιν To find the least number which two given numbers ἀριθμόν. Λ ἑκάτερον τῶν Β. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὁ Ε τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν. B. Β. Thus. K. And as many times as H measures A. ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Ε. B. B. L also measure B. F .15]. according to the units in D [Prop. F . respectively. For if E. G measure A. L. B. Thus. G. F . C (respectively). Γ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν ἑκατέρῳ τῶν Κ. Thus. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Θ τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Μ μονάδας. Ζ. K. Let A and B be the two given numbers. Γ. E. Η ἕκαστον τῶν Α. Thus. Β. and C. C (respectively). And thus E. Γ μετρεῖ. Η ἐλάσσονες ἀριθμοὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ὄντες τοῖς Α. So. H has thus made A (by) multiplying M . G measure A. For D was assumed (to be) the greatest common measure of A. F . Γ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσίν.13]. and C have be taken [Prop. εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ Ε. 7. Β. And as many times as D measures A. B. C (respectively). οὕτως ὁ Μ πρὸς τὸν Δ. 5. Λ· ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ Θ τὸν Α μετρεῖ καὶ ἑκάτερος τῶν Κ. And since H measures A according to the units in M . καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Θ τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Μ μονάδας. B. as E (is) to H. C according to the units in K. F . and C. respectively. ὁ Θ ἄρα τὸν Μ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν. καὶ ὁ Μ ἄρα τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Θ μονάδας. The very thing is impossible. then there will be [some] numbers less than E. there cannot be any numbers less than E. Thus. C. E. ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι. So it is re- 220 . So. Thus. Η ἐλάχιστοι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α. Γ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Δ μονάδας. Η ἄρα ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α. F . respectively. E. C. Γ τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ὁ Δ. Thus. Β. λέγω δή. Γ· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· ὑπόκειται γὰρ ὁ Δ τῶν Α. Ζ. Γ. Ζ. 7. so many units let there be in M . Γ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Β. respectively. D.19]. Ζ. M thus also measures A according to the units in H [Prop. Β. B. καὶ ἕκαστος ἄρα τῶν Ε. 7. 7. Κ. ὁσάκις δὲ ὁ Θ τὸν Α μετρεῖ. ldþ. C. G are not the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as A. for the same (reasons). Γ. H measures A the same number of times that K. Λ μονάδας· ὁ Μ ἄρα τοὺς Α. Η ἄρα τοῖς Α. and C. G which are in the same ratio as A. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ὁ Μ καὶ ἑκάτερον τῶν Β. Η ἐλάσσονες ἀριθμοὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ὄντες τοῖς Α. Γ μετρεῖ. M also measures B. let the greatest common measure. Α Β Γ ∆ ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Ε Ζ Η Θ Κ Λ Μ A B C D E F G H K L M Εἰ δὲ οὔ. Let them be H. Ζ. μείζων δὲ ὁ Ε τοῦ Θ· μείζων ἄρα καὶ ὁ Μ τοῦ Δ. so many units let there be in E. Η ἄρα τοὺς Α. And since H measures A according to the units in M . Η. Γ ἰσάκις μετροῦσιν· οἱ Ε. Proposition 34 Δύο ἀριθμῶν δοθέντων εὑρεῖν. C. Γ τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον. Ζ. Μ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἔσονται [τινες] τῶν Ε. B. C (respectively) [Def. Β. C (respectively) an equal number of times. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Μ· καὶ ἑκάτερος ἄρα τῶν Κ. οὐκ ἄρα ἔσονταί τινες τῶν Ε. so M (is) to D [Prop. οἱ Ε. of A. And E (is) greater than H. Β. L measure B. E has also made A (by) multiplying D. according to the units in M . Β. ἔστωσαν οἱ Θ. F . And (M ) measures A. Γ. εἰλήφθω τῶν Α. B. Β. Ζ. G are the least of (those numbers) having the same ratio as A. Β. Β.

thus as B is to E. Thus. 7. Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Γ. ὁ μὲν Α ἄρα τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν.STOIQEIWN zþ. And let A make C (by) multiplying B. Β μετροῦσί τινα ἀριθμὸν ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Γ. A and B do not (both) measure some number which is less than C. or not. Ε τῷ the same ratio as A and B (respectively) [Prop. ὡς ἑπόμενος ἑπόμενον. Thus. A and B will (both) measure some (other) number which is less than C. ὁσάκις δὲ ὁ Β τὸν Δ μετρεῖ. οὐκ ἄρα οἱ Α. ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Ζ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν· ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Α. Thus. Β γὰρ ἤτοι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσὶν ἢ οὔ. the greater (measuring) the greater. And as many times as A measures D. 7. Let them. 7. And since A has made C and D (by) multiplying B and E (respectively). οὕτως ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Ε. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ε. A has made D (by) multiplying E. Thus. Β A C D E Ζ Οἱ Α. as A (is) to B. Ε τῷ ἐκ τῶν Β. εἰ γὰρ μή. Β ἄρα τὸν Γ μετροῦσιν. And A and B are prime (to one another). Let them (both) measure D (which is less than C). Β οἱ Ζ. ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστον. so many units let there be in F . and prime (numbers) are the least (of those numbers having the same ratio) [Prop. And B measures E. so F (is) to E [Prop. Ζ. For if not. And καὶ εἰλήφθωσαν ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον let the least numbers. Β μετρεῖται. ἔστωσαν πρότερον οἱ Α. ὁ Γ ἄρα ἐλάχιστος ὢν ὑπὸ τῶν Α. 7. the greater (measuring) the lesser. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ε. 7. Β πρῶτοι. Thus. And as many times as B measures D. Thus. and the least (numbers) measure those (numbers) having the same ratio (as them) an equal number of times. μετρεῖ δὲ ὁ Β τὸν Ε· μετρεῖ ἄρα καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Δ ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. and the lesser the lesser [Prop. Thus. B measures E. so many units let there be in E. The very thing is impossible. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. οἱ δὲ Α.19]. καὶ ὁσάκις ὁ Α τὸν Δ μετρεῖ. A and B (both) measure C.17]. first of all.20]. Β ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Γ. Thus. μετρήσουσί τινα ἀριθμὸν οἱ Α. be prime to one another. F and E.21]. C also measures D. οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὁ Β ἄρα τὸν Ε μετρεῖ. Β Ε A F C D G Θ B E H Μὴ ἔστωσαν δὴ οἱ Α. So let A and B be not prime to one another. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. and B has made D (by) multiplying F . 7. Α Ζ Γ ∆ Η B F For A and B are either prime to one another.16]. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ζ. λέγω δή. So I say that (C) is also the least (number which they both measure). Ε· ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Α. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 ὃν ἐλάχιστον μετροῦσιν ἀριθμόν. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. Thus. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. μετρείτωσαν τὸν Δ. καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω· καὶ ὁ Β ἄρα τὸν Α πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν. B has also made C (by) multiplying A [Prop. Α Γ ∆ Ε quired to find the least number which they (both) measure. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Α τοὺς Β. 221 .33]. so C (is) to D [Prop. the (number created) from (multiplying) A and E is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) B and F . οἱ Α. have been taken having ἐχόντων τοῖς Α. C is the least (number) which is measured by (both) A and B. as the following (number measuring) the following. οἱ δὲ πρῶτοι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι. Δ πεποίηκεν.

Thus. And since A has made C and D (by) multiplying E and G (respectively). Thus. 7.STOIQEIWN zþ. A and B do not (both) measure some (number) which is less than C. Β μετρήσουσί τινα ἀριθμὸν ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Γ. 7. Thus. For if E does not measure CD then let E leave CF less than itself (in) measuring DF . Thus. leþ. ὁσάκις δὲ ὁ Β τὸν Δ μετρεῖ.20]. Thus. so F (is) to E.19]. A and B will thus also measure DF . And let A make C (by) multiplying E. Thus. so many units let there be in H. B has also made C (by) multiplying F . καὶ ὁ ἐλάχιστος If two numbers (both) measure some number then the ὑπ᾿ αὐτῶν μετρούμενος τὸν αὐτὸν μετρήσει. and the lesser the lesser [Prop. so C (is) to D [Prop. so H (is) to G [Prop.17]. and B has made D (by) multiplying H. Thus. And (A and B) also measure the whole of CD. ὁ Ε τὸν ΔΖ μετρῶν λειπέτω ἑαυτοῦ ἐλάσσονα τὸν ΓΖ. And as many times as A measures D. μετρήσουσί τινα ἀριθμὸν οἱ Α. Δ πεποίηκεν. also. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Η. Η πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Γ. The very thing is impossible. Thus. and (let) E (be the) least (number measured by both A and B). so many units let there be in G. ὁ δὲ Ε τὸν ΔΖ μετρεῖ. οὕτως ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Ε· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Ε. and E measures DF . And as A (is) to B. ὁ δὲ Ε τὸν Η μετρεῖ· καὶ ὁ Γ ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. οὕτως ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Η. μετρείτωσαν τὸν Δ. least (number) measured by them will also measure the same (number). Proposition 35 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ ἀριθμόν τινα μετρῶσιν. as F (is) to E. thus as E is to G. Thus. I say that E also measures CD. which is less than E. Εἰ γὰρ οὐ μετρεῖ ὁ Ε τὸν ΓΔ. ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Α. C (is) the least (number) which is measured by (both) A and B. so H (is) to G. So I say that (C) is also the least (number which they both measure). ὁ μὲν Α ἄρα τὸν Η πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. οἱ δὲ Ζ. ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστον. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.19]. καὶ οἱ Α. οὕτως ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Η. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 ἐκ τῶν Β. Ζ. οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Η μετρεῖ. (both) measure some number CD. For let two numbers. (E) measures 222 . Η τῷ ἐκ τῶν Β. And F and E are the least (numbers having the same ratio as A and B). Thus. οὐκ ἄρα οὐ μετρεῖ ὁ Ε τὸν ΓΔ· μετρεῖ ἄρα· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. λέγω δή. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Θ. Β ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Γ. οὐκ ἄρα οἱ Α. Θ· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. εἰ γὰρ μή. C also measures D. And as many times as B measures D. καὶ ὁσάκις μὲν ὁ Α τὸν Δ μετρεῖ. Let them (both) measure D (which is less than C). The very thing is impossible. the greater (measuring) the greater. the (number created) from (multiplying) A and G is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) B and H. E measures G. Β τὸν Ε μετροῦσιν. Β ἀριθμόν τινα τὸν ΓΔ μετρείτωσαν. ὅτι καὶ ὁ Ε τὸν ΓΔ μετρεῖ. καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. And since A and B (both) measure E. A has made D (by) multiplying G. Thus. Thus. A and B (both) measure C. the greater (measuring) the lesser. ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Θ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. Thus. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Η. ὡς δὲ ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. 7. Β ἄρα τὸν Γ μετροῦσιν. the (number created) from (multiplying) A and E is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) B and F [Prop. they will also measure the remainder CF . as A is to B. ὁ Γ ἄρα ἐλάχιστος ὢν ὑπὸ τῶν Α. μετροῦσι δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸν ΓΔ· καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸν ΓΖ μετρήσουσιν ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Ε· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. and the least (numbers) measure those (numbers) having the same ratio an equal number of times. And E measures G. Β μετρεῖται· ὅπερ ἔπει δεῖξαι. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. A and B will (both) measure some number which is less than C. Ε ἐλάχιστοι. Β ἄρα τὸν ΔΖ μετρήσουσιν. Thus. 7. For if not. ἐλάχιστον δὲ τὸν Ε· λέγω. A and B. καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω· καὶ ὁ Β ἄρα τὸν Ζ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν· οἱ Α. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Α τοὺς Ε. E cannot not measure CD. Α Γ Β Ζ A C ∆ Ε B F D E Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α.

Since A. measure (D). For if not. μετρείτωσαν τὸν Ζ. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὁ Γ [τὸν Ε· καὶ] οἱ Α. B. Γ ἄρα τὸν Ζ μετροῦσιν· ὥστε καὶ ὁ ἐλάχιστος ὑπὸ τῶν Δ. μετρήσουσί τινα οἱ Α.35]. And E 223 . Thus. Thus. and C (all) measure F . Γ ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Ε. Β ἄρα τὸν Ε μετροῦσιν. Thus. καὶ εἰλήφθω ὑπὸ τῶν Γ. B. and C will (all) measure [some] number which is less than D. Let them measure E (which is less than D). again. A. B. λέγω δή. and C). μετρείτωσαν τὸν Ε. καὶ οἱ Α. and D measures E. καὶ οἱ Α. and C cannot (all) measure some number which is less than D. the greater (measuring) the lesser. lþ. Let it. οὐκ ἄρα οἱ Α. ὁ δὴ Γ τὸν Δ ἤτοι μετρεῖ ἢ οὐ μετρεῖ. and C (all) measure the least (number) D. μετρείτω πρότερον. Β μετρούμενός ἐστιν ὁ Δ· ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Ε μετρήσει ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. So C either measures. D. And D is the least (number) measured by A and B. A and B thus also measure E. Β τὸν Δ μετροῦσιν. Γ· δεῖ δὴ εὑρεῖν. ὃν ἐλάχιστον μετροῦσιν ἀριθμόν. 7. Γ ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Δ. ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. Β. Γ τὸν Ζ μετροῦσιν. B. Δ μετρούμενός ἐστιν ὁ Ε· ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Ζ μετρεῖ ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. and C will (all) measure some (number) which is less than E. Γ τὸν Ε μετροῦσιν. Let A. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B C D E F Εἰλήφθω γὰρ ὑπὸ δύο τῶν Α. measured by C and D have been taken [Prop. Β. D will measure E. Β τὸν Δ· οἱ Α. Β μετρούμενος [τὸν Ε] μετρήσει. B. εἰ γὰρ μή. And D is the least (number) measured by A and B. let C not measure D. So I say that (D is) also the least (number measured by A. Β ἄρα τὸν Ζ μετροῦσιν· καὶ ὁ ἐλάχιστος ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Α. Thus. B. Γ μετρήσουσί τινα ἀριθμὸν ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Δ· οἱ Α. B. the least (number) measured by A and B will also measure [E] [Prop.34]. Β.STOIQEIWN zþ. B. Γ ἄρα τὸν Ε μετροῦσιν. 7. Thus. μετροῦσι δὲ καὶ οἱ Α. the least (number) measured by D and C will also measure F [Prop. D and C (both) measure F . ὁ δὲ Δ τὸν Ε μετρεῖ. Proposition 36 Τριῶν ἀριθμῶν δοθέντων εὑρεῖν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστον. 7. λέγω δή. For let the least (number). ὃν ἐλάχιστον μετροῦσιν ἀριθμόν. For if not. And A and B also measure D. ῎Εστωσαν οἱ δοθέντες τρεῖς ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. Μὴ μετρείτω δὴ πάλιν ὁ Γ τὸν Δ. Β. and C be the three given numbers. Thus. Let them measure F (which is less than E).34]. Β ἄρα τὸν Ε μετροῦσιν. And let the least number. Β. A and B thus also measure F . 7. Β. Hence. ἐλάχιστος δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. measured by the two (numbers) A and B have been taken [Prop. Thus. Γ ἄρα τὸν Δ μετροῦσιν. ὁ Ε ἄρα ἐλάχιστος ὢν ὑπὸ τῶν Α. Since A.35]. the least (number) measured by A and B will also measure F [Prop. D measures F . Β.35]. ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. Β μετρούμενός ἐστιν ὁ Δ· ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Ζ μετρεῖ. Β ἐλάχιστος μετρούμενος ὁ Δ. A. ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστον. And C also measures [E]. ἐλάχιστος δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. The very thing is impossible. and C). εἰ γὰρ μή. Thus. D. and C (all) measure D. B. καὶ οἱ Α. So I say that (E is) also the least (number measured by A. οὐκ ἄρα οἱ Α. Β μετρούμενος τὸν Ζ μετρήσει. ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. B. Γ ἄρα ἐλάχιστον τὸν Δ μετροῦσιν. or does not measure. 7. Β. Β. first of all. Γ μετρεῖται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὁ δὲ ἐλάχιστος ὑπὸ τῶν Γ. E. Γ μετρούμενος τὸν Ζ μετρήσει. μετρήσουσιν [τινα] ἀριθμὸν οἱ Α. Β. And C also measures F . So. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Ζ· οἱ Δ. καὶ ὁ ἐλάχιστος ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Α. and C (all) measure E then A and B thus also measure E. Δ ἐλάχιστος μετρούμενος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Ε. A. A. Since A and B measure D. and C [also] measure E. A. To find the least number which three given numbers (all) measure. A. B. Thus. Γ μετρήσουσί τινα ἀριθμὸν ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Ε. Β. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 (CD). So it is required to find the least number which they (all) measure.

And the unit D is a part of the number B called the same as it (i. lhþ.. Proposition 38 ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμος μέρος ἔχῃ ὁτιοῦν. a Bth part). A.. ἡ δὲ Δ μονὰς τοῦ Β ἀριθμοῦ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁμώνυμον αὐτῷ· καὶ ὁ Γ ἄρα τοῦ Α μέρος ἐστὶν ὁμώνυμον τῷ Β. ὅτι ὁ Α ὁμώνυμον μέρος ἔχει τῷ Β. Thus. For let the number A be measured by some number B.e. And μέρει ὁμώνυμος ἔστω [ἀριθμὸς] ὁ Γ· λέγω. B is the Cth part of A). ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἰσάκις ἡ Δ μονὰς τὸν Β ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Α· ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ἡ Δ μονὰς τοῦ Β ἀριθμοῦ. Thus. I say that C measures A. the unit D measures the number B as many times as C (measures) A [Prop. καὶ τῷ Β For let the number A have any part whatever. and the unit D also measures C according to the units in it.15]. alternately. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 is the least (number) measured by C and D. Thus. B. ὁ μετρούμενος If a number is measured by some number then the ὁμώνυμον μέρος ἕξει τῷ μετροῦντι. Since B measures A according to the units in C. C is the Bth part of A). ὅτι ὁ Γ τὸν Α let the [number] C be called the same as the part B (i. The very thing is impossible. Thus. Hence.e... ἐπεὶ ὁ Β τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Γ μονάδας. ἔστι For since B is a part of A called the same as C. Proposition 37 ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ὑπό τινος ἀριθμοῦ μετρῆται. Α Β Γ ∆ A B C D ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ Α μέρος ἐχέτω ὁτιοῦν τὸν Β. (number) measured will have a part called the same as the measuring (number). ὃ ἄρα μέρος the unit D is also a part of C called the same as it (i.e. I say that A has a part called the same as B. and C. so many units let there be in C. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and C cannot measure some number which is less than E. 224 . the unit D thus measures the number C as many times as B (measures) A. C is also a part of A called the same as B (i. ῾Οσάκις γὰρ ὁ Β τὸν Α μετρεῖ. Thus. Α Β Γ ∆ A B C D ᾿Αριθμὸς γάρ ὁ Α ὑπό τινος ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ Β μετρείσθω· λέγω. the greater (measuring) the lesser. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὁ Β τοῦ Α μέρος ἐστὶν ὁμώνυμον τῷ Γ. A has a part C which is called the same as B (i. For as many times as B measures A.e.. E measures F .STOIQEIWN zþ. 7. B. ὑπὸ ὁμωνύμου ἀριθμοῦ If a number has any part whatever then it will be meaμετρηθήσεται τῷ μέρει. which(ever) part the unit D is of the number B. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Δ μονὰς τὸν Γ ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Β τὸν Α. C is also the same part of A. A has a Bth part). μετρεῖ. lzþ. B. ὥστε ὁ Α μέρος ἔχει τὸν Γ ὁμώνυμον ὄντα τῷ Β· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. E (is) the least (number) which is measured by A. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Γ.e. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Α. sured by a number called the same as the part. and δὲ καὶ ἡ Δ μονὰς τοῦ Γ μέρος ὁμώνυμον αὐτῷ. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἡ Δ μονὰς τὸν Γ ἀριθμὸν κατὰ τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας.

Thus. Β. B. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Β τοῦ Α· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Δ μονὰς τὸν Γ ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Β τὸν Α. ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστος ὤν. B is also the same part of A. H is measured by D. and F . Β. and F be numbers having the same names as the parts A. and F [Prop. Γ μέρη. thus which(ever) part the unit D is of the number C. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Β. B. and C. G has parts called the same as D. C measures A. For let D. So it is required to find the least number which will have the parts A. Thus. Thus. Since H has the parts A. E. E. and F are numbers called the same as the parts A. and C). and C are parts called the same as D. Ε. οὐκ ἄρα ἔσται τις τοῦ Η ἐλάσσων ἀριθμός. B.. Ζ ἐλάχιστος μετρούμενος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Η. a Bth part. τοῖς δὲ Δ. an Ath part. 225 . and a Cth part). B. B. 7. ἐπεὶ ὁ Θ ἔχει τὰ Α. Let A. 7. Γ μέρεσιν. ἔστω ὁ Θ. ῾Ο Η ἄρα ὁμώνυμα μέρη ἔχει τοῖς Δ. Γ A Ε B D Ζ C E F Η G Θ H ῎Εστω τὰ δοθέντα μέρη τὰ Α. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἰσάκις ἡ Δ μονὰς τὸν Β ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Α. Β. For if not. ljþ. measured by D. D is the Cth part of C).e. Γ μέρη. and C. B. and C (respectively). ὁ Θ ἄρα ὑπὸ ὁμωνύμων ἀριθμῶν μετρηθήσεται τοῖς Α. Ε. there cannot be some number less than G which will have the parts A. καί ἐστιν ἐλάσσων τοῦ Η· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Proposition 39 ᾿Αριθμὸν εὐρεῖν. τοῖς δὲ Α. have been taken [Prop.STOIQEIWN zþ. ὃς ἐλάχιστος ὢν ἕξει τὰ Α.38]. and C. Ε. So I say that (G) is also the least (number having the parts A. Β. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Ε. Thus. The very thing is impossible. ῎Εστωσαν γὰρ τοῖς Α. Γ μέρη. ὃς ἕξει τὰ Α. Ζ. Thus. the unit D measures the number C as many times as B (measures) A. ὁ Γ ἄρα τὸν Α μετρεῖ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεὶξαι. Γ μέρη· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. and C (i. And D. G. Β. and F . λέγω δή. Β. and C. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 ἐστὶν ἡ Δ μονὰς τοῦ Γ ἀριθμοῦ. Ζ μετρεῖται. Α Β ∆ To find the least number that will have given parts. there will be some number less than G which will have the parts A. alternately. καὶ εἰλήφθω ὑπὸ τῶν Δ. E. 7. E. Γ μέρη. E. And (H) is less than G.37]. Γ· ὁ Η ἄρα ἔχει τὰ Α. Ε. and F (respectively). B. Β. ὃς ἐλάχιστος ὢν ἕξει τὰ δοθέντα μέρη. Ε. B. E. And let the least number. εἰ γὰρ μή. Ζ· ὁ Θ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Δ.15]. and C be the given parts. Β. B. ἔσται τις τοῦ Η ἐλάσσων ἀριθμός. And A. and C (respectively). Let it be H. B. Thus. and C [Prop. ὃς ἕξει τὰ Α. Γ μέρεσιν ὁμώνυμοι ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Δ. Ζ ὁμώνυμα μέρη ἐστὶ τὰ Α. B. Γ μέρεσιν ὁμώνυμοι ἀριθμοί εἰσιν οἱ Δ. 7. G has the parts A. H will thus be measured by numbers called the same as the parts A. Β.36]. Ζ. the unit D measures the number B as many times as C (measures) A [Prop. Γ· δεῖ δὴ ἀριθμὸν εὑρεῖν.

226 .

227 .ELEMENTS BOOK 8 Continued Proportion† † The propositions contained in Books 7–9 are generally attributed to the school of Pythagoras.

καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος [τῶν Α. further. Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Ζ. A and D. the leading (measuring) the leading. Η. Θ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ὄντες αὐτοῖς. οἱ Α. (so) E (is) to H [Prop. Δ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσὶν αὐτοῖς. Proposition 2 Αριθμοὺς εὑρεῖν ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον ἐλαχίστους. Β. For if not. H be less than A. Θ. ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι proportional numbers. ᾿Επιτετάχθωσαν δὴ τέσσαρες. οἱ δὲ Α. ὅσους ἄν τις ἐπιτάξῃ. (expressed) in the least numbers. and the multitude [of A. Γ. C. Η. thus. Β. The very thing is impossible. D are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them.20]. οὐκ ἄρα οἱ Ε. Thus. Εἰ γὰρ μή. G. F . Θ ποιείτω. the greater (measuring) the greater. A. And the least numbers measure those (numbers) having the same ratio (as them) an equal number of times. be that of A to B. Β. ἐν τῷ δοθέντι λόγῳ. and let it make D (by) multiplying B. And let B make K (by) multiplying E. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Ζ. D are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them.21]. C. Δ. καὶ ἔτι ὁ Α τοὺς Γ. ELEMENTS BOOK 8 aþ. Let A.STOIQEIWN hþ. G. let E. Η. B. (which are) in the ratio of A to B. So it is required to find the least numbers. Δ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσὶ τοῖς Ε. Δ. Γ. 7. H]. prime to one another. A measures E. C. Proposition 1 ᾿Εὰν ὦσιν ὁσοιδηποτοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον. Γ. Β. let B make E (by) multiplying itself. Β. And. G. Γ. H. B. E. further. C. ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Κ ποιείτω. Η. E. To find the least numbers. via equality. D. Γ. bþ. And A and D (are) prime (to one another). and the outermost of them are τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. D] is equal to the multitude [of E. τουτέστιν ὅ τε ἡγούμενος τὸν ἡγούμενον καὶ ὁ ἑπόμενος τὸν ἑπόμενον. And let A make C (by) multiplying itself. Ζ. I say that A. Δ] τῷ πλήθει [τῶν Ε. B. And since A. as many as may be prescribed. And prime (numbers are) also the least of those (numbers having the same ratio as them) [Prop. μετρεῖ ἄρα ὁ Α τὸν Ε ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Θ]. (which are) continuously proportional in a given ratio.14]. B. πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἔστωσαν· λέγω. H (by) multiplying C. D. καὶ ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω. the greater (measuring) the lesser. F . being less than A. then the (numbers) are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. F . Δ οἱ Ε. Let the given ratio. and the lesser the lesser—that is to say. Δ πρῶτοι. Β. B. D be any multitude whatsoever of continuously proportional numbers. And let the outermost of them. being in the same ratio as them. And. Θ ἐλάσσονες ὄντες τῶν Α. Δ. 7. ὅσους ἂν ἐπιτάξῃ τις. Ζ. H. Ζ. C. ὅτι οἱ Α. are not in the same ratio as them. οἱ δὲ πρῶτοι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι. as many as may be prescribed. Let four (numbers) have been prescribed. οἱ δὲ ἄκροι αὐτῶν οἱ Α. let A make F . 7. Thus. ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Θ. Thus. be prime to one another. D are in the same ratio as E. F . G. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Δ. καὶ ἔτι ὁ Β ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε ποιείτω. Β. οἱ δὲ If there are any multitude whatsoever of continuously ἄκροι αὐτῶν πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὦσιν. ἔστωσαν ἐλάττονες τῶν Α. Ε Ζ Η Θ Α Β Γ ∆ A B C D E F G H ῎Εστωσαν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον οἱ Α. Γ. Δ ἄρα ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 228 . G. ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς λόγος ἐν ἐλάχίστοις ἀριθμοῖς ὁ τοῦ Α πρὸς τὸν Β· δεῖ δὴ ἀριθμοὺς εὑρεῖν ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον ἐλαχίστους. C. and the following the following [Prop. Δ ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. C. καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. D (respectively). οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα. Γ. τὸν δὲ Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ ποιείτω. as A is to D. B. B. ἐν τῷ τοῦ Α πρὸς τὸν Β λόγῳ. Η.

18]. οὕτως ὅ τε Η πρὸς τὸν Θ καὶ ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Κ· οἱ Γ. Again. ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. as A (is) to B. Ε πεποίηκεν. (so) C (is) to D. ἐπεὶ γὰρ οἱ Α. and G to H. πάλιν. E and F . H (by) multiplying D. 7. B have made C. And thus as C (is) to D. Θ πεποίηκεν.27]. so F (is) to G. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. E. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. But. thus as D is to E. 229 . C. And thus as F (is) to G. so D (is) to E [Prop. thus as A is to B. and H to K. B have thus made D. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Α τοὺς Γ. K (by) multiplying E. Ε ἄρα καὶ οἱ Ζ. (so) F (is) to G. ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι. Ε ἄρα καὶ οἱ Ζ.17]. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. A and B are thus prime to one another. K are the least of those (continuously proportional sets of numbers) having the same ratio as A and B. 8. Again. since A has made D (by) multiplying B. as A (is) to B.22]. τὸν δὲ Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. 7. ἐπεὶ ὁ μὲν Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. (so) D (is) to E. ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Η. [so] C (is) to D [Prop. Η πεποίηκεν. so G (is) to H. 7. K by multiplying C. καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. Ε πολλαπλασιάσας ἑκάτερον τῶν Ζ. And if there are any multitude whatsoever of continuously proportional numbers. οἱ Γ. Κ ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν ἐν τῷ τοῦ Α πρὸς τὸν Β λόγῳ. ἐπεὶ ὁ Α τοὺς Δ. and has made D (by) multiplying B. Β τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας ἑκάτερον τῶν Δ. C. and the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio are prime to one another [Prop.17]. Thus. But. Η. οὕτως ὅ τε Ζ πρὸς τὸν Η καὶ ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Θ. G. since A has made G. Θ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. And A. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. Β ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λ