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FEMALE INDEPENDENCE-THE REASON BEHIND THE INCREASING DIVORCE RATE

ADVANCED COMPOSITION COURSE: ENG 105 20TH DECEMBER, 2011.

Submitted to-

Rafia Tahseen Course instructor English Department North South University

Submitted by-

Md. Samiul Ahsan Rabbani ID: 091-0885-030 ENG105. Section - 8

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This is my humble attempt to present gratitude in writing this Research. I have truly drawn upon my own experience as a student of ENG105. I have also received help from number of persons in preparing this research and I would like to thank them all. My first acknowledge goes to the almighty Allah for bestowing me the patience and courage to finish this huge task within its deadline. I would like to express my gratitude to my honorable course instructor Rafia Tahseen, lecturer of English Department, North South University, who have supported and giving me a chance to prepare the research on this topic. Acknowledgments must go to the NSU students, whose unflagging patience and astounding capacity for creative work, and long hours made the research both possible and successful under the pressure of knocking deadline.

ABSTRACT
The most common hypothesis on the positive association between wives independence and divorce is that the wifes independence increases the risk of divorce. Critics argue that the increasing women independence is responsible for increasing divorce. This competing hypothesis was tested by me in this project. It is found that women have made a mammoth step forward from traditional times and underwent a change in their roles and responsibilities. Women have become financially independent and are able to raise their own social status. As a result, people are easily pointing out to women independence for increasing divorce rate. But the truth is that women are only asserting for their rights that they deserve and that they have been deprived of in the past. The results lend weak support for my hypothesis that women independence is responsible for increasing divorce rate.

Table of Contents

Introduction--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 02

Background--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 04

Areas of Research------------------------------------------------------------------- 05

Hypothesis---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 06

Methodology------------------------------------------------------------------------- 07

Data Presentation and Analysis------------------------------------------------- 08-25

Limitation ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 26

Conclusion--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 27

Works cited ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 28-30

INTRODUCTION
I have conducted a research on the topic Is emale Independence is the main reason behind the increasing number of divorce rate . This research was conducted in the context of Bangladesh only. The rate of divorce is rising due to increased female independence. High rate of divorce is a common problem in western countries. Most of the women in Bangladesh are now following the trends of some western countries where the divorce rates are comparatively high. It is suggested that overall improvement in womens position in terms of financial and social status has changed the scenario. Womens position is getting stronger. Now women are more conscious about their rights, education and job facilities that they are receiving these days. They have brought a revolutionary change in our culture. They now claim equal rights as men, but as a consequence it is affecting marriage relationships. This overall change in womens roles is leading to an increase in divorce rate due to inequality in acceptance of womens freedom. Changes in economic conditions, social norms, and values have contributed to an increase in married women's involvement in the work force. Married women's increased participation in the work force may have many consequences. There are some kind of correlation between divorce rates and married womens involvement in the workforce. There may be several factors with womens involvement. Some consequences that these women face are like less time of interactions with the family, lack of childs mental development, egoistic problems grow within the couple and many more. These consequences may negatively affect the marital relationship and contribute to the increasing divorce rates because some people may be reluctant to adapt their traditional beliefs about the roles they think men and women should perform. More recently, changes in economic conditions, social norms, and in values (such as an emphasis on togetherness has shifted to an emphasis on individuality) have contributed to an increase in married women's involvement in the work force. Also large societal occurrences are forcing women and men to change their roles.
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Again, all the traditional ideas about women working that are still present can directly affect the marital relationship. Many consequences follow from increased involvement of married women in the labor force, but the reason these consequences effect the family in a negative way is because the role of women has changed but traditional ideas about the role of women has not changed at an equally rapid pace. Many men still prefer a traditional marriage in which the husband is dominant and the wife play a supportive role by taking care of children, house and other family members. Typically, men who have difficulties with their wives working may be men who have been socialized to accept traditionally defined gender roles. Thus, for men, when the roles shift and values do not, their self concept and their self esteem suffer. Considering current trends in divorce rates and the increase in married women's employment are likely to continue, and understanding of their linkage may facilitate amelioration of any further negative consequences and propel future adaptation and understanding between the couples. So, in my research paper I want to find out if and how divorce is influenced by female independence. Considering all the data and information regarding divorce rates and the female independence, I have tried to figure out if and how divorce rate is influenced by Female Independence.

BACKGROUND
Number of divorce is increasing significantly in Bangladesh and the trend has been steady for the last two decades. Divorce is something that has become a dramatically more common event in our society. Women are getting better education and job opportunities and hence are gaining more confidence to stand out. They no longer want to depend solely on men, freedom of choice and speech helps them fight male dominance. They are getting more financial freedom which they could not enjoy even from husbands contribution. There is an overall change in social outlook towards the concept of marriage and divorce. It is considered that womens outside involvement is affecting marriage relationships adversely. There is an assumption that married women were not committed to working and only did it to supplement her husband's income. However, the 1970s and 1980s showed a change in attitude about women, work, and family, especially regarding the acceptance of wives working. It is expected that women's labor force participation will remain high. Keeping a marriage relationship intact is both the partners responsibility but sometimes egocentric differences create problems. Traditionally it is the husbands who are considered the head of the family. Now due to increased social awareness women are getting conscious and exposed to claiming equal rights. Financially women are in a better position and this gives them the incentive to speak up against any odds. Unfortunately, too much independence is making them overambitious and reluctant to compromise and family values are being side tracked which is affecting marriage relationships. Even if women are managing both family and work responsibilities side by side it is the men who are not being able to cope up with the upcoming role of women as an independent and equally deserving partner. Society's cavalier attitude towards marriage and divorce is not a positive phenomenon and has perpetuated a cycle of failed marriages and a lengthy list of associated social problems detrimental to children and to adults. Divorce is not a solo act, nor is it a victimless

phenomenon. There is no debate that divorce has brought enormous physical, emotional, and economic harm to families and to society at large.

AREAS OF RESEARCH
My research paper mainly focused on whether the female independence is the main reason behind the increasing number of divorce rate. It also focused on men who does not want their wife to work, how is the changes related to the previous scenarios. I tried to figure out what does the people think of female independence. In this research, I wanted to find out the relationship between the female independence with the divorce rate. My research mainly focused on these questions Is female independence the main reason behind the increasing divorce rate? Are the working women less dependent on their husbands as far as economic condition is considered? What are the general consequences that working women usually face? Perceptions regarding female independence How the role of women has evolved in recent times?

HYPOTHESIS
I think in todays world most women in our country want to work. Many of them are also working outside. Womens position is getting stronger day by day. Women now want equal rights in the society and in the family. But, a man does not want to give equal rights to a woman. These things make difficulties and conflicts in married life which are mostly responsible for the increasing divorce rate.

METHODOLOGY
I have relied on the both primary and secondary data in order to do my research. Here I tried to explain the methodology by gathering data in two different ways. Primary Research: For my research paper, I carried out a survey of a representative sample of 30 people of Bangladesh in Dhaka. There were two type of questionnaire i.e., one for male and the other for female. The representative sample was divided into two categories. i. ii. 15 male students 15 Female Students

I have conducted interview on six people which included NSU faculties only. i. ii. Secondary research: For my research, I have mainly visited many of the journals available in the web sites. Further, I took some references as my secondary data from few of the articles from newspaper & books available on the internet that supported my research topic & explain some of the issues regarding Female Independence. 3 male teachers 3 female teachers

Data presentation AND analysis Questionnaire Analysis


QUESTION 1 Do you believe that women have come a long way from the traditional repression concept? A. I think women have made a few steps forward but have a long way to go. B. I think women have made a significant step forward. C. I think the women are stuck in the same stage they were before. D. I have no idea on the topic. Explanation In order to find out the change in position/role of women from the past, the question Do you believe that women have come a long way from the traditional repression concept was asked. It will help me to find out whether women have come out of their repression or whether they have gone nowhere as far as their independence is concerned.

QUESTION 2 Many people do not support the idea of working women. Why do you think it is so? A. The idea that role of women has changed but traditional ideas about the role of women have not changed at an equally rapid pace. B. Men who have difficulties with their wives working may be men who have been socialized to accept traditionally defined gender roles. C. I dont think such people exist now-a-days. D. Other reason. Please explain________________________________________________

Explanation To understand the reasons for not supporting working women the question Many people do not support the idea of working women. The Why do you think it is so was asked. This question helped me to understand the reason for limited women participation in work place and also help me to find the causes that are affecting it.

QUESTION 3 Do you support working woman? A. Yes, because it is a source of income. B. No, I do not support this idea. C. No, because she will know more about her rights. D. Yes, because she not only help her family financially but in other ways as well like climbing up the social ladder. Explanation The question, Do you support working woman was asked in order to mainly derive the reactions of men towards women. This question would help me to identify how the values, ideals and principles have changed in the recent times as compared to the past. QUESTION 4 Would you prefer (your wife/ you) working outside? A. Yes B. No Explanation

The question, would you prefer/ your wife working outside was asked. This question helped me find out the percentage of people who do or doesnt want women working outside. QUESTION 5 Do you think female independence is increasing? A. The women have more independence than ever. B. The women independence is still limited. C. The women are still not independent. Explanation To see how the people actually feel about female independence the question, Do you think female independence is increasing was asked. This question helped me to find out the changing roles of women. This question help me identify that my assumption is correct or not and serves as a base for my hypothesis as I have considered women are more independent than before. It also helped me to identify whether women are really independent in reality or not. QUESTION 6 Do you know that the divorce rate in our country is increasing? What do you think the reason would be? A. Increased awareness among women in our society. B. Husbands inability to provide basic needs for the family. C. Lack of tolerance in women D. Problems in adjustment E. Husband/Wife gets tired of living with the same person. F. Husband & the mother in law torture in-house

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Explanation The question, Do you know that the divorce rate in our country is increasing? What do you think the reason would be was asked. This question has helped me to have an idea regarding the reasons for increasing or decreasing rate of divorce. By this question, I would be able to point out the most probable reasons for increasing divorce rate and will be able to find the answer to a large extent regarding my thesis hypothesis. QUESTION 7 Do you agree to the fact that the bond that once existed between a husband and a wife is becoming weaker because A. The wives are no more dependent on their husband in financial terms. B. Now the wives are more conscious about their rights, education and job facilities C. The bond is still the same as it was D. All of the above Explanation The question Do you agree to the fact that the bond that once existed between a husband and a wife is becoming weaker was asked in order to find out whether the bond between a wife and husband is decreasing or weakening or not. This would help me to find a relation between changing women roles and their effect in their marriage bonds. QUESTION 8 What are the consequences that working women face? A. Less time spent at home B. Less time of interaction with family
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C. Changing goals for the future D. All of the above Explanation The question that was asked was What are the consequences that working women face. This question was set up in order to in to find out the difficulties faced by working mother. This question would help me to identify the differences in role and problems in women life as compared to the traditional times and their effect in working women married life. QUESTION 9 Do you think that working women are less dependent on their husband now-a-days as far as economic condition is considered? A. Working wife/women have financial strength because of their job. So, they are less dependent on their husband B. The husband still controls the financial position of the family and everyone is dependent on him. C. The wife keeps the balance in the bank and does not want to share D. They share their financial load. Explanation The question Do you think that working women are less dependent on their husband now-adays as far as economic condition is considered was asked in order to find out whether womens dependence on men have decreased or not. This question will help me identify how a woman contributes to family in financial terms and whether a woman is economically independent or not.

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QUESTION 10 Do you think the ability of women to work, earn and raise their social status have made it difficult for women to accept inequality of womens freedom? A. They are now growing wings. B. They are claiming for their rights and what they deserve. C. They are independent, how much independence do they want. D. Other reasons. Please specify._________________________________

Explanation The question Do you think the ability of women to work, earn and raise their social status have made it difficult for women to accept inequality of womens freedom was asked in order to find out the cause behind women not accepting male dominance like they did in the past. This question was asked in order to detect any correlation between womens work and earnings on difficulty in accepting less or no independence. QUESTION 11 Do you think divorce rate is increasing due to female independence? A. Yes, it is the main reason behind divorce. B. There are many important factors than female independence. C. Why should only female be blamed? Explanation

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The question Do you think divorce rate is increasing due to female independence was asked to get a direct answer whether the respondent feel that whether women independence is the main reason behind increasing independence. This question would provide me with a direct
OPTION A OPTION B OPTION C OPTION D OPTION E OPTION F 13 14 1 2 22 4 3 1 4 2 1 23 25 5 15 11 4 0 5 2 3 14 5 0 6 18 4 1 3 7 6 13 19 6 2 3 22 1 7 0 4 16 10

QUESTION 1 QUESTION 2 QUESTION 3 QUESTION 4 QUESTION 5 QUESTION 6 QUESTION 7 QUESTION 8 QUESTION 9 QUESTION 10 QUESTION 11

answer keeping everything in mind. THIS TABLE SHOWS THE TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS THAT HAVE ANSWERED TO THE 11 QUESTIONS PROVIDED WITH.

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Graphical Analysis
Question No. 1

Have Come A Long Way From Traditional Concept


3% 7% 43% A Few Steps Forward but have a Long Way to go. Significant Step Forward. 47% Same Stage No Idea

The title of the graph is Have Come a Long Way from Traditional Concept. This is a pie chart which shows the answer in percentage form. In order to find out the change in position/role of women from the past, the question Do you believe that women have come a long way from the traditional repression concept was asked. It has helped me find out whether women have come out of their repression or whether they have gone nowhere as far as their independence is concerned. I have found out that 47% of the respondent answered that I think women have made a significant step forward. 43% of the respondent believed that women have made a few steps forward but have a long way to go. 5% believed that women are stuck in the same stage they were before. Based on the answers, I found out that women have made strive forward compared to the past. This change may have been caused by the increasing awareness among the people, especially among men, that women should be treated equally and get the right that they deserve. Moreover, increased literacy and increasing awareness have made independence of women possible.
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Question No. 2

Idea For Not supporting Working Women


10% 3% Change in roles but not ideas 14% Accept traditional gender roles Does not exist now-a-days 73% Other reason

Other Reason: "In our country, women security is not in a good stage. they face many difficulties and problems in working with men. may be thats why many people do not support this".

The title of the graph is, Idea for not supporting Working Women. This is a pie chart showing the respondents answers in percentage form. I tried to figure out the reason for limited women participation in work place and the causes that are affecting it. 73% of the respondent answered that the idea that role of women has changed but traditional ideas about the role of women have not changed at an equally rapid pace. 14% of the respondent answered that men who have difficulties with their wives working may be men who have been socialized to accept traditionally defined gender roles. Another 10% thinks that such people exist now-a-days. 5% of the respondent answered other reasons like lack of security in workplace and outdoors. Based on the response, I deduced that the role of women have changed like shifting from household work and increasingly getting involved in workplace, but our traditional ideas regarding women roles still persists. As a result, many women are still not being able to work. Moreover, there are still a lot of people who have not moved from their traditional beliefs and therefore still prefer women remaining at home.

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Question No. 3

Do you Support Working Woman


23 25 20 15 10 5 0 Yes, Source of Income Do Not Support No, Know Her Rights Yes, Climbing Up the Social Ladder 4

The title of the graph is, Do you support working women? this is a column chart showing the number of respondents that has answered among the several options. The x- axis represents the options itself and the y- axis represents the number of respondents answered to the options provided. 23 of them answered that yes, because she not only helps her family financially but in other ways as well like climbing up social ladder. 4 of the respondent answered yes, because it is a source of income. 2 of them do not support the idea of working women. Based on the response, I have deduced that people ideas have changed a lot and people are no more to the traditional beliefs as far as women independence is concerned. It is because people are being increasingly literate and this had led to changes in our views and values.

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Question No. 4 Female Male

Would You Prefer Working Outside

Would You Prefer Working Wife Outside


No 20%

13% Yes 87% No Yes 80%

The title of the graph is, Preference of women working outside. There are two different pie chart showing the number of respondents that has answered to the given options to the question Do you prefer/ your wife working outside As there were two types of respondents i.e., male and female, that is why there are two different graphs. 87% of the female respondents would prefer working outside. 80% of the male respondents answered that they would prefer a working wife whereas 20% of the male respondents do not prefer their wife working out. Based on the response I can conclude that people might have come out of the traditional concepts (proved in question1). Peoples views and beliefs over working women have changed. So it is proved that people accept women that are working outside and females have proved themselves that they would prefer working outside.

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Question No. 5

Female Independence Increasing


16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

15 11 4 Independent Than Ever Independence Still Limited Still Not Independent

The title of the graph is, Do You Think Female Independence Is Increasing this column chart shows the different options provided along with the number of respondents. The x- axis represents the options itself and the y- axis represents the number of respondents answered to the options provided. 15 of the respondents answered that women have more independence than ever. 11 of the respondent answered that women independence is still limited while the rest 4 of the respondents answered that women are still not independent. Based on the respond I can deduce that women have more independence than ever. The reason could be that may be people have come out of the stereotype traditional views.. The idea can be put in the way that the idea regarding the role of women has changed but traditional ideas about the role of women have changed at an equally rapid pace. So, women are independent.

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Question No. 6

Reasons for Increasing Divorce Rate


Torture in Law's House Tired of Living With the Same peoson Adjustment Problems Lack of Tolerance Towards Woman Husband's Inability to Provide Basic Needs Increased Awareness Among Women 0 2 4 2 5 6 8 10 12 14 3 0 5 14

The title of the graph is, Reasons for increasing divorce rate. This column chart shows the different options provided along with the number of respondents. The x- axis represents the number of respondents answered to the options provided. and the y- axis represents the options itself. By this question, I tried to point out the probable reasons for increasing divorce rate and help me prove my hypothesis. 14 of the respondent answered that there is problems in adjustment among the married couples. 5 of the respondent answered that husband/wife gets tired of living with the same person and increased awareness among women. Based on the response, I can conclude that the problem arises mainly due to the fact that the married couples have problems in adjustment. In most of the cases, none of the gender is solely responsible for the divorce. A possible factor for problems in adjustment can be increasing employment of wife, conflicting values, temperaments, and desires for socializing, values, ideals, division and may be spending of money.

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Question 7

Bond between a Husband and a Wife becoming Weaker


Wives are No More dependent On Husband on Financial terms 6

All of the Above 1 Bond is Still the Same 4

Wives are more Conscious about their Rights, Education and Job Facilities 18

The title of the graph is, Bond between husband and wife becoming weaker. This is a pie chart showing the number of respondents that has answered to the given options to the question Do you agree to the fact that the bond that once existed between a husband and a wife is becoming weaker? 18 of the respondent answered that the wives are more conscious about their rights, education and job facilities. So, they are demanding the rights that they deserve and not taking doing anything wrong to disrupt the relationship. 6 of the respondents answered that women are financially dependent. Only 1 of them has answered All of the above option. From the responses, I have deduced that women are not doing any wrong in claiming their rights that they deserve. Moreover, being financially independent can play a positive part as well because they can now share the financial load.

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Question No. 8

Consequence Faced by Working Women


All of the Above 6 13

Changing Goals For Future

Less Interaction With Family 3 0 2

Less Time Spent At Home

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12

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The title of the graph is, Consequences faced by working women. This column chart shows the different options provided along with the number of respondents. The x- axis represents the number of respondents answered to the options provided and the y- axis represents the options itself. The question was What are the consequences that working women face. 13 of the respondent answered all of the above which included less time spent at home, less family interaction and changing future goals. 7of the respondent answered less interaction with family and 6 of the respondent answered changing future goals. Based on the response, I have concluded that working women can face family problems because of her busy work life than the house wives. Working women suffers from split loyalty between her job and her family. This busy schedule often creates distance with her husband and her family.

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Question No. 9

Working Women Less Dependent on Husband on Financial Terms


7% 10% Financial Strength- Less dependent Husband Still Controls the Financial Position 63% Wife keep the Balance in bank Share Financial Load

20%

The title of the graph is, Working women are less dependent on husband in financial terms. This is a pie chart showing the number of respondents that has answered to the given options to the question Do you think that working women are less dependent on their husband now-adays as far as economic condition is considered. 63% of the respondent answered that women are now financially strong than before because of their job. As a result, they are less dependent on their husband. 20% responded that the husband is still in control over family finance though women earn. 10% think that women keep their earnings in the bank. The rest 7% of the respondents felt that wife keeps the balance in the bank. Based on the responses, I have deduced that women are now financially strong and independent. They no longer depend on their husbands for financial expenses as they used to in past. This may be because of increasing women education and employment. This correlates with my first question that women have made a significant steps forward and are independent than before.

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Question No. 10 Women's ability to work, earn made it difficult to accept Inequality of women's Freedom

Claiming their Rights that They Deserve 73%

They are Independent- How much Independence they Want 4%

Have Grown Wings 23% Other Reasons 0%

The title of the graph is, Womens ability to work made it difficult for them to accept inequality. This is a pie chart in percentage form showing the number of respondents that has answered to the given options to the question Do you think the ability of women to work, earn and raise their social status have made it difficult for women to accept inequality of womens freedom. 73% of the respondent answered that women are claiming or asking for the independence that they deserve- the freedom that has been vested on them by the Almighty the moment they were born. 23% answered that women have grown wings or have started becoming conceited and arrogant as a result of their work and personal earning and 4% answered that women have got enough independence and they cannot find any reason to give women more independence. Based on the responses, I have concluded that the traditional psychology about women have changed because people are getting more educated, there is increasing awareness about equality and men might have become more supportive and encouraging towards their wife.

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Question No. 11

Do you think divorce rate is increasing due to Female Independence?


13% 33% Yes, it is the Main Reason Many Important Factors than Female Independence 54% Why Should the Females be Blamed

The title of the graph is, Womens ability to work made it difficult for them to accept inequality. This is a pie chart in percentage form showing the number of respondents that has answered to the given options to the question Do you think divorce rate is increasing due to female independence. 54% responded that there are other reasons that are responsible for increasing divorce rate. 33% of the respondent answered that only females should not be blamed. Only 13% answered that women independence is responsible for increasing divorce rate. Based on the responses, I have deduced that only women should not be blamed for divorce. Men are equally at fault as women for divorce. Women have been stereotyped as submissive, so it is very easy for people to lay the blame on women. The emergence of other facts like extra marital affairs, problems in adjustment have also heightened. These are also responsible for increasing rate of divorce.

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LIMITATIONS
The size of the sample was a limitation to the research work. As the sample size is small there is much probability of having errors. Result of the research could have varied if we could have conducted the research on the whole population of Bangladesh. Due to the sample, size of the result may vary from the original answer which we may get from the whole population. The interview was more a survey from the teachers as they did not have enough time to spend being a part of an interview. So they agreed to fill out the survey. I was actually looking for some aged people for my research. But due to limited time, I had to conduct the survey on the teachers. Due to some silly mistake in my first 15 questionnaire, I had to make two different questionnaires. In my first 15 questionnaires, 1. I had asked in question 4; Would You Prefer Your Wife Working Outside? this question proved that it was specifically for male. So I had to create another questionnaire which was specifically for female. 2. In question 1, options of B and C were combined. In the second questionnaire it was corrected. 3. The options for question 6 have been altered as the respondents were making fun. So I had to rearrange the options. It was projected that more magazines and printed materials would be consulted for the research but enough resources were not available.

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CONCLUSION
In Bangladesh, the divorce rate has been increasing over the past few years. This is one of the major issues that the Bangladesh government is actually facing. Female independence enhances individualization which imbalances the traditional ideas of marriage and related concepts, leading to an increased divorce rate. Economic independence acts as a catalyst for divorce. Womens working connection is making them more careers oriented. As a result, they become too engrossed in official attachment, which sometimes hampers marriage and family relationships. Not all women are moving towards workingwomen status and not all workingwomen are facing divorce problem but it is creating a huge difference in the overall social outlook towards the concept of divorce. Economic independence and greater equality at work, improved birth control and smaller families, higher expectations of marital relationships, and the isolation of the nuclear family are all seen as factors, which have contributed to the rise in women seeking a divorce. But in my research, I have found out that women independence not responsible for increasing divorce rate. It is true that the changing roles of married women working produce many consequences to affect the marital relationship because men's and women's ideas about traditional gender roles have not changed as rapidly as the roles themselves. In my research, I found only weak support for the economic independence thesis. I also found out that women are seeking for their rights that are bestowed as a human being. Women are working in order to prepare for a future of their own choosing, not depend fully on their husband for financial reasons, to prepare for a career and to be fully able to function as an independent and responsible human being and free to explore other experiences. In my research, I found out that problem in adjustments, like conflicting values, temperaments, and desires for socializing, values, ideals, division and spending of money, is mainly responsible for divorce. My hypothesis therefore has been proved negative, which means that women independence is not responsible for increasing divorce.
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WORKS CITED
Bremmer. D. & Kesselring. R. (2004). Divorce and Female Labor Force Participation: Evidence from Times-Series Data and Cointegration. Atlantic Econ. J., 32(3): pp.174-189. Retrieved from http://www.iaes.org/journal2/aej/sept_04/Bremmer.pdf This source talks about the increase in divorce which is accompanied both by growing female labor force participation and rising female income. These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the birth rate for married women. This book uses time-series data and co integration techniques to determine the direction of causality between these variables. Analysis of the impulse functions show that the divorce rate will increase if either female labor force participation or income increases. Positive innovations to the divorce rate increase the labor force participation rate of married women. Rising levels of income lead to greater female participation in the labor market. This book proved to be of mammoth help in my research as I was able to get much key information how women financial capability contributed to increasing divorce. This information helped me to solidify my hypothesis. England. P. & Farkas. G. (1986). Households, employment, and gender: a social, economic, and demographic view. New York, NY: Hawthorne. This book talks about how the role of men and women within a marriage has evolved over the years. In the past the man was generally considered the breadwinner who went out to work while his wife stayed at home and looked after the children. This has changed a lot over time and there are no longer specific roles in this way. Education and employment can have a big effect on a marriage. Statistics show that women with a high quality education are more likely to get divorced. This is likely to be due to the employment opportunities that this leads to. Work brings stress, and if both halves of a marriage are working then there may be more stress within the home. It also means that each person is financially independent, so finance may not be as much of an issue if the couple were to divorce. This means they are less likely to stay together just because they cant afford not to. More working women are thought to be why the divorce rates have increased so dramatically. My research topic is Women Independence is
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the main reason behind increasing divorce rate. This source provided me with valuable information about how the role of women has changed and how these changing roles have contributed to the increasing divorce rate. Hendrix. L. & Pearson. W Jr. (2006). Spousal Interdependence, Female Power and Divorce: A Cross-Cultural Examination. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 26, 1995. This book talks how women independence is responsible for increasing divorce rate. The book talks about the balance of power shifts, womans greater earning power makes her more confident and greater financial independence clearly makes the decision to divorce much simpler. The book shows a statistics which proves that womens growing financial success has been a strong factor in the rising number of divorces. This book has been of immense important to me in my research work. It talks about the changing roles, values of women overtime. It shows the how these changing values, ideas and roles of women contributed to increasing divorce rate, which is crucial information in my research. Ludwig.F. Lowenstein, L. (2005) . Causes and Associated Features of Divorce as Seen by Recent Research . Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 42(3/4), p153-171. Retrived from http://www.parental-alienation.info/publications/23-cauandassfeaofdivasseebyrecres.htm This source points out many reasons for increasing divorce like economic factors, poor intellectual and educational and social skills, liberal divorce laws, sexual factors leading to incompatibility, role conflicts; but places women independence in top position. Regarding women independence it went to say that marital disillusion often occurred when women had the experience of working and following their own career. It women earnings however, that increases in female earnings significantly increased divorce rates. In this source a vital piece of information was also given that in a study by Finnas (2000) showed that in Finland an increasing level of income of the husband also decreased the divorce risk, whereas the trend was the opposite one in respect to the wife's income. This book proved of colossal help in my research paper. The information given in the book provided the base on which my hypothesis was built.

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This source talks about the reason why divorce rate was not in the 30's, 40's and even 50's divorce wasn't very frequent at all It went on to say how women in early times stayed at home and depended on men for money but men depended on women for home cooked food and clean clothes because women were the ones who did the laundry. Then it talks about the rise of feminism and its effects on women like the opportunity to work and being independent and don't need a man to financially support them. This book was relevant to my studies because this book provided the contrast between divorce rates in early times and in modern times and also provided the possible reasons. This information provided a valuable piece of information for my research work.

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APPENDIX
(a) RESEARCH PROPOSAL: Female independence is the reason behind divorce rate. Date: October 24, 2011. To: Rafia Tahseen (RfT) From: Md. Samiul Ahsan Rabbani, Eng: 105, Sec-8, ID: 091-0885-030 Subject: Proposal to do a research to find out if and how divorce is influenced by female independence.

INTRODUCTION: I plan to conduct a research on the topic Is emale Independence is the main reason behind the increasing number of divorce rate Bangladesh only. The divorce rate has been increasing over the past few years. This is because of the female independence. Most of the women in Bangladesh are now following the trends of some western countries where the divorce rates are comparatively high. It is suggested that overall improvement in womens position in terms of financial and social status has changed the scenario. Womens position is getting stronger. Now women are more conscious about their rights, education and job facilities that they are receiving these days. They have brought a revolutionary change in our culture. Changes in economic conditions, social norms, and values have contributed to an increase in married women's involvement in the work force. There are some kind of correlation between divorce rates and married womens involvement in the workforce. There may be several factors with womens involvement. Some consequences that these women face are like less time of . This research will be conducted in the context of

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interactions with the family, lack of childs mental development, egoistic problems grow within the couple and many more. Considering all the data and information regarding divorce rates and the female independence, I want to figure out if and how divorce rate is influenced by Female Independence.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS:

My research paper mainly focuses on whether the female

independence is the main reason behind the increasing number of divorce rate. It will also focus on men who does not want their wife to work, how is the changes related to the previous scenarios. In my research, I want to find out the relationship between the female independence with the divorce rate. Area of focuses is: 1. Is female independence is the main reason behind the increasing number of divorce rate? 2. What are the problems the husbands have been facing since their wives working outside? 3. How the roles of women have changed in the society? 4. Are the wives less dependent on their husbands? 5. What are the consequences that working women faces? HYPOTHESIS: I think most women in this country are much aware of their rights now. They brought themselves to work force. They want equal rights as men do. They also want to contribute in the earnings for the family. But, men do not want to give them equal rights. Men want their wives to stay back at home and look after their family. At least for the children, it is necessary that someone responsible and sensible should be there to take care of them and to some extent teach them good manners. But when women want to contribute, problem arises. These conflicts and difficulties in married life are basically the reason behind the increasing divorce rate.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: For my primary research, I will conduct a survey and interviews of several personnel. I will design a questionnaire that will be include several questions related to female independence and ask them what they think of it. This questionnaire will be divided among three to four sectors just to have clear understanding about the research. For my secondary research, I will focus on magazines and articles that are focused on female independence. I also plan to use the sources like library, government documents and online sources like books, several reports, journals, blogs and some other sources that would help me work on my research. Organization: my paper will be divided in several sections, the most important of which are the Introduction, Background, Data Presentation and their analysis, and summary of Findings. Within these sections my organization will be based on my research questions and hypothesis. TIME TABLE: I plan to complete my primary research by the first week of November and my secondary research by the Mid-November. After both primary and secondary research, I shall complete writing the final draft by the end of November and submit the research by the specified deadline towards the end of this semester. REQUEST FOR APPROVAL: I hereby request your approval for my research proposal. If you wish me to modify or need to make an improvement of my proposal then I shall resubmit the proposal after making necessary changes. I would also be very grateful for your advice and help in conducting my research and in completion of the research work.

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(b)

ORIGINAL QUESTIONNAIRE (male)

The following survey consists of a handful questions regarding the women independence. The findings in this survey will be incorporated into a research paper regarding the female independence in Bangladesh. I would appreciate your honest answers to the given questions. Thank you for your time and cooperation.

Gender ____________ 1.

Age:

Do you believe that women have come a long way from the traditional repression concept? A. B. C. D. I think women have made a few steps forward but have a long way to go. I think women have made a significant step forward. I think the women are stuck in the same stage they were before. I have no idea on the topic. Many people do not support the idea of working women. Why do you think it is so? A. The idea that role of women has changed but traditional ideas about the role of women have not changed at an equally rapid pace. B. Men who have difficulties with their wives working may be men who have been socialized to accept traditionally defined gender roles. C. I dont think such people exist now-a-days. D. Other reason. Please explain__________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

2.

3.

Do you support working woman? A. B. C. D. Yes, because it is a source of income. No, I do not support this idea. No, because she will know more about her rights. Yes, because she not only help her family financially but in other ways as well like climbing up the social ladder.

4.

Would you prefer your wife working outside? A. Yes B. No

5.

Do you think female independence is increasing? A. The women have more independence than ever. B. The women independence is still limited.
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C. The women are still not independent. 6. Do you know that the divorce rate in our country is increasing? What do you think the reason would be? A. B. C. D. E. F. Increased awareness among women in our society. Husbands inability to provide basic needs for the family. Lack of tolerance in women Problems in adjustment Husband/Wife gets tired of living with the same person. Husband & the mother in law torture in-house

7. Do you agree to the fact that the bond that once existed between a husband and a wife is becoming weaker because A. B. C. D. 8. The wives are no more dependent on their husband in financial terms. Now the wives are more conscious about their rights, education and job facilities The bond is still the same as it was All of the above

What are the consequences that working women face? A. B. C. D. Less time spent at home Less time of interaction with family Changing goals for the future All of the above

9. Do you think that working women are less dependent on their husband now-a-days as far as economic condition is considered? A. B. C. D. Working wife/women have financial strength because of their job. So, they are less dependent on their husband The husband still controls the financial position of the family and everyone is dependent on him. The wife keeps the balance in the bank and does not want to share They share their financial load.

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10. Do you think the ability of women to work, earn and raise their social status have made it difficult for women to accept inequality of womens freedom. A. B. C. D. They are now growing wings. They are claiming for their rights and what they deserve. They are independent, how much independence do they want. Other reasons. Please specify.______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

11. A. B. C.

Do you think divorce rate is increasing due to female independence? Yes, it is the main reason behind divorce. There are many important factors than female independence. Why should only female be blamed?

___________________________

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(c).

MODIFIED QUESTIONNAIRE (FEMALE)

The following survey consists of a handful questions regarding the women independence. The findings in this survey will be incorporated into a research paper regarding the female independence in Bangladesh. I would appreciate your honest answers to the given questions. Thank you for your time and cooperation.

Gender __________ 1.

Age:

Do you believe that women have come a long way from the traditional repression concept? E. F. G. H. I think women have made a few steps forward but have a long way to go. I think women have made a significant step forward. I think the women are stuck in the same stage they were before. I have no idea on the topic. Many people do not support the idea of working women. Why do you think it is so? E. The idea that role of women has changed but traditional ideas about the role of women have not changed at an equally rapid pace. F. Men who have difficulties with their wives working may be men who have been socialized to accept traditionally defined gender roles. G. I dont think such people exist now-a-days. H. Other reason. Please explain__________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

2.

3.

Do you support working woman? E. F. G. H. Yes, because it is a source of income. No, I do not support this idea. No, because she will know more about her rights. Yes, because she not only help her family financially but in other ways as well like climbing up the social ladder.

4.

Would you prefer working outside? C. Yes D. No

5.

Do you think female independence is increasing? D. The women have more independence than ever.
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E. The women independence is still limited. F. The women are still not independent. 6. Do you know that the divorce rate in our country is increasing? What do you think the reason would be? G. H. I. J. K. L. Husband & the mother in law torture in-house. Problems in adjustment Husband/Wife gets tired of living with the same person. Husbands inability to provide basic needs for the family. Lack of tolerance in women Increased awareness among women in our society.

7. Do you agree to the fact that the bond that once existed between a husband and a wife is becoming weaker because E. F. G. H. 8. The wives are no more dependent on their husband in financial terms. Now the wives are more conscious about their rights, education and job facilities The bond is still the same as it was All of the above

What are the consequences that working women face? E. F. G. H. Less time spent at home Less time of interaction with family Changing goals for the future All of the above

9. Do you think that working women are less dependent on their husband now-a-days as far as economic condition is considered? E. F. G. H. Working wife/women have financial strength because of their job. So, they are less dependent on their husband The husband still controls the financial position of the family and everyone is dependent on him. The wife keeps the balance in the bank and does not want to share They share their financial load.

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10. Do you think the ability of women to work, earn and raise their social status have made it difficult for women to accept inequality of womens freedom. E. F. G. H. They are now growing wings. They are claiming for their rights and what they deserve. They are independent, how much independence do they want. Other reasons. Please specify.______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

11. D. E. F.

Do you think divorce rate is increasing due to female independence? Yes, it is the main reason behind divorce. There are many important factors than female independence. Why should only female be blamed?

___________________________

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(d).

RESEARCH OUTLINE

Research Outline
Topic: Female Independence is the main reason behind the increasing divorce rate.
12/15/2011 Md. Samiul Ahsan Rabbani 091-0885-030 Section - 8

Submitted toRafia Tahseen Course Instructor ENG105

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INTRODUCTION The divorce rate has been increasing over the past few years. This is because of the female independence. Most of the women in Bangladesh are now following the trends of some western countries where the divorce rates are comparatively high. It is suggested that overall improvement in womens position in terms of financial and social status has changed the scenario. Womens position is getting stronger. Now women are more conscious about their rights, education and job facilities that they are receiving these days. They have brought a revolutionary change in our culture. Changes in economic conditions, social norms, and values have contributed to an increase in married women's involvement in the work force. There are some kind of correlation between divorce rates and married womens involvement in the workforce. There may be several factors with womens involvement. Some consequences that these women face are like less time of interactions with the family, lack of childs mental development, egoistic problems grow within the couple and many more. BACKGROUND Number of divorce is increasing significantly in Bangladesh and the trend has been steady for the last two decades. Divorce is something that has become a dramatically more common event in our society. Women are getting better education and job opportunities and hence are gaining more confidence to stand out. They no longer want to depend solely on men, freedom of choice and speech helps them fight male dominance. They are getting more financial freedom which they could not enjoy even from husbands contribution. There is an overall change in social outlook towards the concept of marriage and divorce. Traditionally it is the husbands who are considered the head of the family. Now due to increased social awareness women are getting conscious and exposed to claiming equal rights. Financially women are in a better position and this gives them the incentive to speak up against any odds. Unfortunately, too much independence is making them overambitious and reluctant

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to compromise and family values are being side tracked which is affecting marriage relationships. HYPOTHESIS I think in todays world most women in our country want to work. Many of them are also working outside. Womens position is getting stronger day by day. Women now want equal rights in the society and in the family. But, a man does not want to give equal rights to a woman. These things make difficulties and conflicts in married life which are mostly responsible for the increasing divorce rate. METHODOLOGY For my research paper, I carried out a survey of a representative sample of 36 people of Bangladesh in Dhaka. The sample was divided into two categories. Young(ages between 18-25yrs): 15 male and 15 female students Aged (ages between 35-50yrs): 3 male and 3 female. Further, I took some references as my secondary data from few of the research journals & books available on the internet that supported my research topic & explain some of the issues regarding Female Independence. DATA PRESENTATION Most of the data is presented with the help of graphs & pie charts. As a basis of measurement I have chosen the percentage form. Percentage is widely used by many researchers & I think it is easier to understand than any other statistical tool available.

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RECOMMENDATION From my research findings, I would like to recommend that Female Independence must be controlled by the family so that they do not create certain problems like family interactions, illgrowth of childs mental development and the egoistic problems they usually face. CONCLUSION There has been a considerable increase in divorce rate in the past few years. Experts say that divorce is a result of growing individualization in the society. Female independence enhances individualization which imbalances the traditional ideas of marriage and related concepts, leading to an increased divorce rate. Economic independence acts as a catalyst for divorce. Womens working connection is making them more careers oriented. As a result, they become too engrossed in official attachment, which sometimes hampers marriage and family relationships. Not all women are moving towards workingwomen status and not all workingwomen are facing divorce problem but it is creating a huge difference in the overall social outlook towards the concept of divorce. Economic independence and greater equality at work, improved birth control and smaller families, higher expectations of marital relationships, and the isolation of the nuclear family are all seen as factors, which have contributed to the rise in women seeking a divorce.

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