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How to Be a Genius Your Brain and How to Train It

How to Be a Genius Your Brain and How to Train It

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(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.

b bl la an nk k p pa ag ge e
How to be a
GENIUS
Written by John Woodward
Consultants Dr. David Hardman
and Phil Chambers
Illustrated by Serge Seidlitz
and Andy Smith
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
6 Your amazing brain
MEET YOUR BRAIN
10 Mapping the brain
12 Left brain, right brain
14 Taking sides
16 Nerves and neurons
18 Brain waves
20 What is a genius?
CONTENTS
COME TO YOUR SENSES
24 Brain and eyes
26 Tricky pictures
28 How you see
30 Simple illusions
32 Impossible illusions
34 How you hear
36 Sounds like?
38 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart t
40 Taste and smell
42 Sensitive senses
44 How you feel and touch
46 Touch and tell 46 Touch and tel
e mind 48 Tricking the
Magic tricks 50
2 Sensing your body 52
4 Body illusions 5
6 Intuition io 5
HOW MEMORY WORKS
60 How you think
62 What is memory?
64 Improve your memory
66 Do you remember?
68 Paying attention
70 Making associations
72 Albert Einstein
PROBLEM SOLVING
76 How you learn
78 Mastering mazes
80 Puzzling patterns
82 Intelligence types
84 George Washington Carveer
86 Logic
88 Illogical thinking
90 Brainteasers
92 Thinking inside the box
94 Mathematical thinking
96 Think of a number
98 The magic of math
100 Spatial awareness areness
102 Seeing in 2-D
104 Thinking in 3-D
106 Invention
108 Wernher voon Braun
4
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
5
A WAY WITH WORDS
112 Learning to speak
114 Having a word
116 Using language
118 Words aloud
120 Reading and writing
122 Jean Franςois Champollion
THE CREATIVE MIND
126 What is creativity?
128 Are you a creative spark?
130 Boost your creativity
132 Creative exercises
134 Leonardo da Vinci
YOUR BRAIN AND YOU
138 Sense of self
140 Personality types
142 What about you?
144 What makes you tick?
146 Mary Anning
148 The unconscious
150 Dreams
152 Emotions
154 Mahatma Gandhi
156 Fear
158 Reading emotions
160 Body talk
162 Good and bad habits
164 Winning and losing
THE EVOLVING BRAIN
168 How we got our brains
170 Charles Darwin
172 How the brain grows
174 Brain surgery
176 Animal intelligence
178 Train your pet
180 Can machines think?
182 Program your friend
184 Glossary
186 Answers
190 Index
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
The brain is the most astonishing part
of your body. Its billions of cells control
everything you think and do, including
your actions, senses, emotions,
memory, and language. The more
you use it, the better it works.
This book is all about how to
get your brain cells buzzing and,
maybe, become a genius.
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Do you remember? you remembe
Put your brain’s memory skills your brain’s memory sk
to the test. Study the picture e test. Study the picture
shown inside this boy’s busy n inside this boy’s
head for 45 seconds, then cover r 45 seconds, then
it up and try to answer the ry to answer the
following questions. No peeking! following questions. No peeking!
1. Where does he like to sing? W
2. Name three sports that we ame
see the boy doing. boy do
3. One picture shows us inside e show
his body. Which part do we see? rt do we see?
4. What color is the terrifying What color is the terrifyi
monster he is scared of? e is scared of?
5. Who is the love of his life? s the love of his lif
6. 6. What food does the boy What food does the boy
really, really hate?
7. How many candles are andles are
there on the birthday cake? on the birthday cak
8. 8 Name three different Name three different
animals that we see.
9. What is the delicious smell ou
that we see the boy sniff? boy s
10. What injury makes injury m
him cry? him cry?
6
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Check the
puzzle answers
on page 186.
C
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D
Perfect pair
This puzzle tests your
spatial awareness—your
sense of space. Which two
pieces on the far right will
fit together to create this
hexagon shape?
How did you do? Turn
to page 186 to find out.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
A human brain A human bra rain
is the most complex is the most complex ex
structure on Earth. str tru ruct cture re on EEart rt rth.
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Memory
Every event or fact that
grabs your attention may be
stored in your memory—an
amazingly efficient library of
information that never runs
out of space.
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7
Feel lost?
Life is full of puzzling
problems—such as how
to get to the middle of
this tricky maze. It’s your
a-maze-ing brain that
helps you find the
answers.
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(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Galen of Pergamun
A Greek surgeon named Galen of
Pergamun was one of the first people
to suspect that the brain was an
important organ and that it controlled
memories and emotions. Galen lived
between 129 and 200 CE, in what is
now Turkey, where he treated the
gory injuries of gladiators.
lamus Thal
y signals mus relays sensory The thalam
rebrum ur body to your ce fromyo from your body to your cerebrum,
where they are decoded and analyzed.
Pituitary glannd
This releases chemicals calleed
hormones into your blood. Theey
control many functions, includinng
growth and body development.
Your braain is the most complex organ in yyour
bbooddyy—aaaa ssppoonnggyy ppiinnkk mmaassss mmaaddee uupp ooff bbiillions
of microoscopic nerve cells linked togetheer in an
electronnic network. Each part has its ownn job,
but it is the biggest part, the cerebrum, tthat is
responssible for your thoughts and actions.
Fish Bird Human
Origin of genius
Compared to other animals, tthe human brain
has a much bigger cerebrum (shown in orange
above). This is what makes uss intelligent, because
we use the cerebrum for consscious thought.
10
Brain stem
Connected to the spinal cord,
the brain stem links the rest
of the body to the brain and
controls heartbeat and breathing.
Men Me Mening inges es ss Th hhheese ese e
lay lay layers ers cu cushion n the th
bbra br in aga aaga ag agaainst shock.
amus ypothala Hy
of your brain is is the part Thi Thi
sleep, hunger, at regulates s tha
erature. d body tempe an
Your bbrain is 77 percent water. Yo rain is 77 percent water. Your rain is 77 percent wat u in is 77 percent water bb Yo p bb a a u t t u 77 percent wate 77 percent water r r er i i Yo Your bbbbra rain is 77 per erc rcent wwater err.
B
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Cerebellum
This complex folded This complex folded
structure helps control
balance and movement.
to 2 pints (1 litre) of Up t p Up to 2 pints (1 litre) of U o 2 pints (1 litre) o Up to 2 pints (1 litre U ints (1 litre) of Up Up to tto 2 pints ts (1 litr tre re) e) of
d fows through your blood fows through your l fows through yo ood fows through you d ws through you b ows through yo bloodd g b d f ws thr u h ur blood d fows ws thro rough your
rain every minute. brrain every minute. rrain every minute b a n every mnute r i i bra rrain eve ver ery ry minute. e.
ain Th t b The outer br T
ly The cerebrum is heavil T
ase olded in order to incre f
which he total surface area, w t
lls. It s packed with brain ce is
he left s divided into halves, th is
and nd right hemispheres, a
bes ach consists of four lob ea
ions. at have different functi tha
Blood supply The brain needs a constant supply
of oxygen to fuel its activities.
This is delivered in the blood via
the body’s circulatory system of
arteries, veins, and capillaries.
Around one fifth of the body’s
entire quota of oxygenated
blood is reserved for the brain.
11
Cor orpus ss ca ccallo ll sum sum A b bbb A aaaand and
of of ner er er ervve ve fibe fibers rs tha that l t link in nnk in th the e
two two si sides des of of th the c e cere ere e re rebbru bru b mm
Skull Forms a protective p
casing around the brain
SSSSub bara ara raachn cc oid sp space ce
This i iis fi ss lle led w d w with ith ith
sho sho ock-absorb or ing ing flu fluid. id.
Spinal al c co cord rdd rdd rd d
Frontal lobe Vital to
h h li thought, personallity,
speech, and emotion
Temporal lobe Mostly
concernedd with the
recognitionn of sound
tal lobe Parie Processes
mation from the senses, inform
cially from the skin, espec
les, and joints musc
tal lobe Occipit Receives nerve
s from the eyes and signals
rets visual information interpr
Cerebrum
The biggest part of the brain
controls all our conscious actions
and thoughts, analyzes sensory
data, and stores memories.
lum Cerebel
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
LEFT BRAIN SKILLS IN
The left side of your brain is de
responsible for the more logical, b
rational aspects of your thinking, a
as well as your verbal skills. s y
12
The cerebrum is divided into two halves, connected by a o two halve m
bridge of nerve fibers. For some functions, each half is wired ns, each rve
to the opposite side of the body, but other skills and thought and side of
processes are controlled by only one half of the brain. n. n d by only one
al cortex Left visua
ata from Processes da
ual field right vis
This scan shows brain
activity (red areas) in
the right hemisphere.
A trained musician uses
the left hemisphere more.
Rational thought
Thinking and reacting in a rational acting in a rational
way appears to be mostly a left-brain appears to be mostly a left- ears to be to
activity. It allows you to analyze a ze a activ
problem to find an answer.
Language e
Your ability to express yourself Yo
in words is usually controlled
by the frontal lobe of the left
cerebral hemisphere. ce
Mathematical skills skills them
Studies show that the left side of the es show that the left side of the
brain is much better at dealing with b
numbers than the right side, and it is
responsible for mathematical skills.
ientific thought t Sci
cal scientific thinking is the ific thinking is the e Logi
of the left side of the brain, of the left s job o job o
ough most science also science also altho
ves being creative. involv
Writing skills
Like spoken language, writing skills age, writing ski
that involve organizing ideas and that involve o
expressing them in words are largely
controlled by the left hemisphere.
Two minds?
Many mental activities involve both
sides of the brain, but the side that is
most involved may vary. These two
scans show the brain activity of two
people while listening to music. The
one on the left is using their right
hemisphere much more, indicating
a more intuitive approach, while the
other person may be more analytical.
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LEFT EFT LEFT
BRA
Left op ptic tract
Carries d data from
right vis sual field
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
13
Optic nerve
Sends visual
signals to brain

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tract Right optic
a from Carries data
field left visual fi
Right-handed world
The left brain controls the right
hand, and since most people are
right-handed, this suggests
that the left brain is usually
dominant. So do left-handers
use their right-brain skills
more? There is no proof of this,
and many left-handers have no
trouble using language and logic.
Imaginatio agination
Your creative imagination is mostly creative imag y
directed by the right hemisphere dir ,
although expressing that imaginationn
involves left-brain skills. s
Spatial skills s
Your ability to visualize and
work with three-dimensional
shapes is strongly linked to
the right side of your brain. th
Insight h
Those moments of insight when mom
you connect two very different nne
ideas probably come from the i ably come fr
right half of your brain.
t Ar Ar
sual art is related to spatial skills, Vis
nd the right side of your brain is an
robably more active when you are robably more active when you are pr pr
rawing, painting, or looking at art. dr
Music cc
Like visual art, music involves a lo olves t
of right-brain activity—but trained ained
musicians also use their left brains ns s
to master musical theory. ry. y. ry. y.
ossed wires Cro d wi os
side of each eye is The left s side o he le
he left side of your connected to t cted to nne
data a from the right brain, but it picks up ut it p but
field. Each side of the side of your head—the right visual fi —the —th
her side of the head. brain processes images from the oth es i s im im
s of the opposite hand. Each side also controls the muscles alsso
ortex Right hh visual co
a Processes data
from left
visual field
RIGHT RI IG
BRAIN
ILLS RIIGHT BRAIN SKI S
rain seems to be the focus of Thee right side oof your b ou s
ughts and emotional, intuitive youur more creati t ve thou t a
portant for spatial awareness. ressponses. It is also im o nt
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Most people are either left- or right-handed,
but did you know that you can also have a
dominant foot and a preferred eye? In both
physical and mental tasks, the left and right
sides of your brain are far from equal, and it
is very rare for someone to be able to use both
hands or feet equally well. Try the following
tests to find which side you are on tests to find which side you are on.
14
TAKING SIDES
Best foot forward
The easiest way of finding which
of your feet is dominant is to kicck
a soccer ball, but you usually taake
the first step of a flight of stairs s
with your stronger foot, too. Youur
preferred foot may not be on
the same side as your dominannt
hand—you can be left-footed annd y
right-handed or vice versa.
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.
Eye-motion
Look straight at the nose of the girl in each of
these pictures. In which one do you think she looks
happier? Most people find that she looks happier in
the bottom image, which shows her smiling on the
left side of the picture. This is because information
from your left visual field gets processed in your
brain’s right hemisphere, which is also dominant
for interpreting emotions.
BRAIN GAMES
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
15
Handy test
Ambidexterity is the ability to use both hands equally well. To
see if you are ambidextrous try the exercise below. Take a pencil
in your right hand and ask a friend to time you for 15 seconds.
Starting top right, work your way along the line, putting as many
dots as you can in the white circles. Then do the same on the
other side with your left hand and compare the results.
You will get the farthest
along the line with your
dominant hand, but you may
surprise yourself by just how
well you did with your
weaker hand. If you found
that you got just as far
with each hand, you are
probably ambidextrous.
Having one hand as strong as the other Havi ving one hand as str tro rong as the other er
can give you an advantage in some can give ve you an adva vantag age in some
sports. In baseball, for example, an sport rts rtts. In baseb eball, fo for ex example, e, an
ambidextrous hitter can switch hands ambidex ext xtr tro rous hitt tt tter er can switch hands ds
to strike the ball from the best side. to to str tri rike the ball fr fro fr rom the bes es est side. e.
Right hand
start
Left hand
start
EE ee you ye s
er which is your dominant Too discove
ye, hold up your index finger e
to eye level and look past it t
nto the distance. Then close i
ach eye, one at a time. You ea
ill see that with your weaker w
ye, your finger will appear ey
ump, whereas with your to ju
ger eye, it will stay in place. stron
tronger eye figures out the Your st
n of things, while the weaker position
ps with depth perception. eye help
The left side of your brain assigns simple shapes
to common objects—for example, an almond shape for
an eye. So if you draw a face the right way up, you
probably draw the features based on what you think they
look like rather than what you see. When you look
at a face upside down, however, the right side of your
brain works harder to understand the unfamiliar image
and you draw the shapes and lines you actually see.
Trick your brain
This exercise reveals how your brain sometimes tricks you
into taking shortcuts. First, draw this upside-down picture of
a face. Then turn the face the right way up and draw it again.
When you compare the two pictures, you may be surprised
to find that the upside-down version is the most accurate.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Broad view Broad view
Some geniuses do one thing extremely well,
but others excel at many things. Thomas
Jefferson—the main author of the U.S.
Declaration of Independence in 1776—was
a philosopher, archaeologist, architect, and
inventor, as well as a politician who became
president of the United States.
Determination Determination
Born in Poland in 1867, Marie Curie was
determined to be a scientist, even though
such a career was not considered suitable
for a woman in the 1800s. She fought poverty
and prejudice to win two Nobel Prizes for
her pioneering work on radioactivity.
Child prodigy Child prodigy
Some people just seem to be born geniuses.
Garry Kasparov was only 13 when he won the
Russian junior chess championship in 1976,
and he became the youngest-ever world
champion in 1985. He had a natural talent,
but he worked hard to make the most of it.
Encouragement
American sistterrs Venus and Serena
Williams are am mong the greatest of all ammong the greatest of all
tennis players. TThey showed amazing
talent from a young age, but they owe a
lot of their success to their parents, h i
who coached and encouraged them to
build on their skills.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Come to Your
Senses
Come to Your
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
We are visual creatures. We identify most things by sight We are visual creatures. We identify most things by sight
and we think mainly in visual terms. So for most of us,
sight is our dominant sense. This means that a lot of
the information we commit to memory is in the form
of visual images. But how do the brain and eyes
work together to create these images? wo
24
Automatic control
Each eye has two lenses. The cornea at the
front forms one lens. Behind this is another
lens made of transparent jelly, suspended
by muscles that automatically change its
shape to focus on close or distant objects.
The colored iris controls the light entering
the eye by automatically dilating (widening)
or contracting the pupil at the centre.
Image convertor
Your eye is a ball of transparent jelly lined with light-sensitive
cells. Light rays enter your eye through lenses that focus an
upside-down image on the cells. These cells respond by
generating tiny electrical signals that pass down a bundle
of nerve fibers to your brain. The cells exposed to parts of
the image that are light generate bigger signals than cells
ra exposed to dark parts, just like the pixels in a digital camera ra
sensor. The cells turn the image into an electronic code
that your brain can process.
Eye muscle One of six
muscles that rotate the
eye in its socket
Cornea “ The “ dow” at “wind
e the front of the e partly e eye
t focuses th image. the
Reflected light
Visible objects
reflect light into refleect light intoo
your eyes..
Iris n the e Muscles in
iris c si size ze change the he
of th upil e centr tral al pupil.
C
l
e
a
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v
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cte
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th
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a
ck
o
f th
e
e
ye
.
d
Choroid A network of
blood vessels spreads
through this middle
layer of the eye.
Sclera The white
of the eye forms a
tough outer layer.
Retina The inner
lining is a sheet of
light-sensitive cells.
Pupil P pening The o
llows n the iris al i
e eye. light into th l
Lens L lastic lens The el
ape to changes sha c
he image. fine-focus t fi
Dilated
pupil
Contracted
pupil
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
25
S
e
e
i
n
g

i
n

c
o
l
o
r

The cone cells in the retina respond to
different strengths of basic colors such
as red, green, and blue. The signals they
send to the brain represent m
illions of
dots of these colors. The brain com
bines
the dots to create all the other colors of
the spectrum
, as in this sim
plified diagram
.
Dark adaptation
When you turn the light off in your
room at night, you can’t see much.
However, as the minutes tick by,
yo youu ar aree ab able le t too se seee mo more re aand nd m mor oree.
This is because the sensory cells in
your eyes can adapt to the low light
level—but it takes time. If you turn
the light back on, you get dazzled
because your eyes have adapted
to the dark. They must readapt to
the light, but they do this much
more quickly.
Strange effects
Bright lights and contrasting patterns can cause strange
optical effects. For example, if you stare at something for
a minute and then close your eyes, you see a negative
afterimage. Each color is replaced by its opposite, so the
yellow and red flowers shown below appear blue and cyan.
This is a side effect of the way your brain processes color.
Visual cortex The
part of the brain that
processes visual data
Opt p ic nerve Bundle of
nerve fibers linked to
the sensory cells
S
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. T
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.
Blind spot
The point where the optic nerve leaves the eye cannot
detect light, but your brain invents information to fill the
gap. You can test this using the diagram above. Hold the
book at arm’s length, close your right eye, and focus on the
cross. Slowly move the book toward you. The center of
the wheel will disappear when it falls on your blind spot—
but your brain will fill the gap with spokes of the wheel.
There are around 126 million Th Ther ere erre are re aro round 126 million
sensory cells in each eye— sen ensory ry cel ells ls in ea each ey eye— e— e—
120 million rods and 120 million rods and 120 million ro rods ds and
six million cones. six million co cones es es.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
PICTURES
The optical illusions in this gallery all
play tricks on what your eyes and brain
think they are seeing. They stimulate
the eyes in such a way that still images
seem to move, colors change, and things
appear where they shouldn’t.
TRICKY
Did that move?
The patterns in this picture appear to be
moving, but not if you stare at any spot for
a few seconds. This demonstrates what is
called peripheral vision drift. Our brains
perceive the colors and contrasts as moving
when we are not looking directly at them,
but the effect ends when we train our eyes our eyes
on one spot.
Is it straight?
The horizontal lines in this illusion appear to be wavy,
but they are all perfectly straight—use a ruler and see
for yourself! Our brains interpret the lines as being
wavy owing to the disjointed black-and-white lines
running from top to bottom, which can also make
some horizontal bands look closer than others.
BRAIN GAMES
26
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Ouch!
If you move your eyes aroundd this pattern, called
the Ouchi illusion, the circle in the middle seems to
move or separate from the rrectangular background,
and even hovers in front of itt. This illusion is not fully
understood, but it probably aarises from the brain
being unsure of where the ci ircle ends when you
are not looking directly at it.
Jumping goldfish
Stare at the pink dot in the centre of the goldfish’s head for 15 seconds
and then look at the black dot in the empty bowl. You should see the
goldfish in its new home. This happens because an impression of the
goldfish, called an afterimage, is still left on the back of your eye.
Color contrasts
Which of these green crosses is lighter? Most people would
say the cross on the right. It might seem strange, but there is
actually no difference between them. This illusion is known as
simultaneous contrast, and it shows that the way we perceive
colors is based on their surroundings.
Seeing spots
This picture is called a scintillating grid because when
you look at it, dark spots seem to flash (scintillate) in
the intersections between the squares. The reason for
this is yet to be explained, but if you tilt your head to
either side, it seems to lessen the effect.
27
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Your eyes turn visual images intoo an
electronic code that can be processed
and stored in your brain. It is thiss mental
processing that determines howw you
see the world. Without it, you could
not make sense of all the shapes s
and colors. Your brain also
responds to some visual effects
by translating them into other
types of information. This enablees
you to judge things like depth,
shape, and distance.
HOW YOU
SEE
28
Binocular vision
Each eye sees a slightly different image of the world. Try closing
one eye and framing a distant object with your hands. Then open
that eye and close the other. You will find that your hands are
framing a different view. The images below show the different
views of the same setting seen by each eye The left eye can views of the same setting seen by each eye. The left eye can
see the palm trees behind the boat, while the right eye sees the
flowering trees. You might expect this to confuse your brain,
but it combines the images to create a 3-D view.
Parallax
If you close one eye and look at a scene
without moving your head, it looks flat
like a picture. But if you move your head
from side to side, you get an impression
of depth. This is because objects that are
closer to your eye seem to move more
than objects that are farther away, and
your brain translates the difference into
a perception of depth. This parallax effect
is obvious if you look out of the side
window of a moving car—nearby objects
like these pillars zip past, but distant
objects like the trees move hardly at all.
Perspective
Another way your brain judges distance is by decoding perspective.
A th
This is the effect you get when you look up at a tall building and
the walls seem to lean toward one another—even though you know
they are vertical. Your brain makes an automatic calculation based
on this knowledge and turns it into a perception of height.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Aerial perspective
In landscapes with long views, your brain can use another clue
to assess distance. Called aerial perspective, it describes the
way the color of distant objects is affected by moisture or dust
in the air. It is obvious in hilly regions, as seen in this picture,
where the distant hills look paler and bluer than those closer
to the camera. When astronauts visited the Moon, which has
the absence of this effect made them think that distant
no air, the absence of this ef
n they actually were.
hills were much closer than
29
Light and shade
Objects are usually lit from
above, casting shadows that vary
a
according to their shape. Your
a
brain uses this to judge shapes,
b
enabling you to tell the difference
e
between a ball and a flat disk.
b
The reaction is so instinctive that
T
even works with 2-D images.
it
hese shapes look like a dent
Th
urrounded by bumps, but if
su
ou turn the page upside down,
yo
ey look like a single bump
th
urrounded by dents.
su
Optical illu
O
tical
illusions
Information stored in your memory helps you make sens
l
ou make sense
of what you see. But it can also confuse you by applying
the wrong set of rules. In this desert mirage, the blue
“water” is really part of the sky. It appears in the wrong
place because the view is distorted by a layer of very hot
air. Since you know that it can’t be the sky, you assume
it is a reflection of the sky in a pool of water.
An average person can tell the An ave ver era errag age per ers errson can tel ell the
difference between 200 colors, diff ffe fffer ere erren ence bet etwe wee een en 200 co colors rs, s,
all forming part of the visible light all fo form rming part rt rt of the vi visible lig ight
spectrum from red to violet. spec ect ctr cttru rum fr fro frrom re red ed to to t vi violet et. t.
use up to ten different
W
e uus
p
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s
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e
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p
e
use
up
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e
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up
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use
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up
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to ten different
W
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us uuse
up p
to to to
te ten en
di dif iff ffe
fffer ere
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ys of judging distance
w
ay yy y
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ayy ys of j
w
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of
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of
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ay ys
of
judging distance
ww
ays y ys
of of j
f
jjud dg dgi gingg
di dis ist sta tance ce
d depth, show
ing how

andd
and dep
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p
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p
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de
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e
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p
n
p
n
pt
nd
dep
nd
depth, show
ing how
andd
ddep ept pth th, sh hoow
i
w
ingg
hoow
im
portant it is to us.
iim
portant it is to us.
iim
ppor ort rta
rt tant nt it it is is
to to to
us us.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Some of the most effective ooptical illusions can be
produced with simple lines and shapes. Such illusions
play with our perceptions off angles, size, and shape,
causing us to make unconsccious assumptions about
what we see. Even when wee know how they work,
the illusions are difficult to shake off.
Big and small
Psychologist Edwardd Bradford Titchener discovered that
our judgment about t the size of something is affected by
the size of other thing gs around it. The red circles in the
es in the
picture here and the oone bel
d the oone below are the same size, but the
one here looks bigger r because it is surrounded by smaller
circles. Moviemakers use this simple effect to make
monsters appear muc ch bigger than they actually are.
W
r
o
n
g

d
i
r
e
c
t
ii
o
n
t
ii
o
n
T
h
e
M
ü
lle
r
-
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y
e
r
ill
y
e
r
illu
s
io
n
mm
is
le
a
d
s
th
e
b
r
a
in

in
to
th
in
k
o
th
in
k
in
g
th
a
t th
e
m
id
d d
le
s
e
c
tio
n
o
f th
e
lin
e

o
n
th
e
le
ft is
lo
n
g
e
r
th
a
n
th h
e
o
n
e
o
n
th
e
r
ig
h
t.
T
h
is
is
b
e
c
a
u
s
e
th
e
o
p
e
n
a
r
r
r
ro
w
h
e
a
d
s
e
x
te
n
d

b
e
y
o
n
d
th
e
lin
e
, p
la
y
in
g
w
ith

h
o
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r
p
e
rc
e
p
tio
n

o
f le
n
g
th
a
n
d
d
e
p
th
.
30
BRAIN GAMES
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
This illusion w
as
discovered by Germ
an
astrophysicist Johann
Karl Friedrich Zöllner.
The four parallel
vertical lines appear
tilted. Scientists cannot
explain w
hy w
e see
tilted lines w
hen they
are perfectly straight!
o
n
e
T
w
o

i
n

o
n n
n
ta
in
s
tw
o
illu
s
io
n
s
. T
h
e

T
h
is
s
im
p
le
im
aa
g
e
c
o
n
ta
in
r
s
p
e
c
tiv
e
, s
tr
e
tc
h
in
g

b
la
c
k
lin
e
s
g
iv v
e
a
s
e
n
s
e
o
f p
e
r
s
p
e
d
illu
s
io
n

in
to
th
e
d
is
ta
nn
c
e
. T
h
is
c
r
e
a
te
s
a
s
e
c
o
n
d
il
in
w
h
ic
h
th
e
r
e
d
lin
e
a
t th
e
to
p
a
p
p
e
a
r
s
to
b
e

lo
n
g
e
r
th
a
nn
th
e
o
n
e
a
t th
e
b
o
tto
m
. T
h
e
y
a
r
e
,
in
fa
c
t, th
e e
s
a
m
e
s
iz
e
.
The concentric
circles in this
picture trick
our brains into
thinking that the
image has depth.
It also makes the
perfectly straight p y g
lines of the blue
square appear
to bend inward.
A little bitt dotty
Dots appear to join the crosses in this image, but
the dots don’t actually eexist—they’re simply gaps
in the lines. Scientists ddisagree on an explanation.
Do we see dots because the brain figures out the
boundaries of shapes from little bits of information?
Or do we see the illusioon before the brain has
processed exactly whatt it is we are looking at?
31
Is it square?
C
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s
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
32
T
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BRAIN GAMES
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
TT
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33
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!
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Can you hear something? From whispering voices
to a phone ringing, yours ears pick up all sorts of
sounds. Try the following activities and find out how
much information we process through our ears.
Noisy bottles
What was that?
You cannot hear any sounds in Yo You cannot hea ear any sounds ds in
space. This is because sound spacee. Th This is bec ecause sound
needs a medium to travel need eds ds a med edium to to tr tra ravvel el
through, such as air or water. thro rough, such as air or wwater er. r.
Test your hearing
ability by identifying
these challenging
sounds.
You will need:
ǩ3DSHU
ǩ7DSH
ǩ6FLVVRUV
ǩ7KUHHHPSW\ERWWOHV
ǩ8QFRRNHGULFH
ǩ'ULHGEHDQV
ǩ8QFRRNHGSDVWD
ǩ(PSW\EDJ
ǩ)ULHQGVWRSDUWLFLSDWH
How good is your sense of hearing?
Throughout your life, your brain stores
information it encounters, enabling you to
identify the sounds you come across.
([SHULPHQWZLWK
high- and low-
pitched sounds
when you do
this activity.
You will need:
ǩ7KUHHHPSW\
glass bottles
ǩ3LWFKHURIZDWHU
37
ep 1 Ste
each bottle with a Fill
fferent amount of water, dif dif
eaving one empty. If le
ou blow across the top y
f the empty bottle, it o
makes a low-pitched m
ound. If you add a little so
quid and then blow, the liq
ch is higher—the more pitc
liquid, the higher the pitch. liquid
ep 1 Ste
ll each bottle with a Fil
different material—the dd
uncooked rice, dried
beans, and uncooked
pasta. Let the participants
hear each shaken bottle
once. Then wrap them in
paper before placing
them in the bag. t
Step 2
Ask your volunteers ss
to close their eyes a and
pick the bottles out,
one by one. Can theey
identify what is
inside the bottles
by shaking them?
Step 2
If you tap the sides
of the same bottles,
you get the opposite
effect: the empty
bottle has the
highest pitch, while
the fullest bottle
has the lowest pitch.
There is less air when the bottle is half
full, so the air vibrates faster, with higher pitch.
When the bottle is empty, the vibration is slower
and the pitch lower. But when you tap the bottle,
it is the glass and water that are vibrating to
create the sound. The greater the amount
of water, the lower the pitch.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Some people seem to have a genius for music
and can play it superbly when they are very
young. A few are even able to compose complex
orchestral music when they are only children—
something that most people would find impossible.
The most celebrated of these musical geniuses is
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, one of the greatest
composers who ever lived.
Wolfgang
Amadeus
Mozart
38
Fun and games
Despite his musical genius, Mozart did not have a
one-track mind. He enjoyed horse riding, dancing,
and billiards. When he started earning serious
money in Vienna, he bought a billiard table as well
as a new piano. He was well known for his sense
of humor, partly because he enjoyed practical
jokes. He also liked showy clothes and was once
decribed as appearing onstage “with his crimson
pelisse and gold-laced cocked hat.”
Child prodigy
Born in Austria in 1756, Mozart was the son of
a professional musician, so he was in the right
family to learn his art. He could read music
before he could read words, and began playing
and composing music at the age of five. His
sister was also a musician, and when Wolfgang
was six, their father took them around Europe
to show them off as child prodigies.
Wolfgang at the age of six, performing with his
sister, Nanneri, and their father, Leopold, during
their first trip to Paris, France, in 1762.
I
m
p
r
o
v
i
s
i
n
g

t
a
l
e
n
t

M
ozart w
as terrific at dream
ing
up variations on a m
usical them
e
w
hile he w
as playing. According
to a w
itness w
ho saw
him
perform

as a teenager, he w
ould im
provise
like this for m
ore than an hour, w
ith
such skill that even accom
plished
m
usicians w
ere astounded. B
ut to
him
this talent for fitting m
usical
ideas together w
as just a party
trick. The real challenge w
as to
com
pose original, exciting m
usic,
w
hich took a little longer.
In 1787, Emperor Joseph II In 1787, Em Emper ero ror J r Josep eph II
of Austria made Mozart his of Austr tri ria made Moz ozart rt rt his
court composer. court rt rt composer er. r.
Perched on a thick pillow, the young
Mozart dem
onstrates his skill at the
organ to an aristocratic audience.
This portrait of Mozart at the age of around
26 shows his love for fine clothing.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
40
Simple tastes
Your taste buds can distinguish
between only five taste sensations:
salty, sour, sweet, bitter, and umani
(savory). This combination is too
limited to account for all the different li
tastes that you experience, and this is
because your sense of smell also plays an
important role in “tasting” your food. Infections
such as colds and the flu can make you
temporarily lose your sense of smell— l
and then you find that you cannot
taste much either.
Cerebral cortex
Analyzes and relates
smells and tastes
factory bulb
athers scent
and passes
to the brain
SALTY
SWEET
UMANI
BITT TER
SOURR
Your senses of taste and smell are closely connected,
and they both help you enjoy your food. But yourr sensee
of smell is vital in other ways. It alerts you to danger
and helps you recognize familiar places, things, and evven ven
people. Your brain reacts surprisingly strongly to smelll,
especially smells that you memorized long ago.
Olf
Ga
signals
them
Taste bud
Most of the receptor cells that detect taste are
concentrated on the tongue in clusters called
taste buds. There are around 10,000 of these,
each containing 50 to 100 banana-shaped
cells with tiny “taste hairs” at the top. When
you eat, saliva and dissolved food seep into
each taste bud through a tiny pore. The cells
react to chemicals in the food by sending
nerve impulses to the brain.
Taste pore
Nerve fiber
Taste
receptor cell
Taste hair
Nerve fibers
Gather data from
taste buds
Olfactory
receptors
Detect scent
mol molecu ecules les in in molecules in
the air
Nasal
chamber
Tongue
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
41
Scent siignals
red to that of many animals, compa The humman sense of smell is poor
ur sense of taste, enabling you th than you but it is much more refined t
Scent molecules are carried in scents. to detect thousands of s
the in, they are detected by two ou breat the air, and when yo
ls located high up in your nasal ptor cell patches of recep
rom these cells pass through the fibers fr cavity. Nerve fi
ry bulb, where more nerve cells olfactor skull to the
d scent signals to the brain. he coded transfer th
tinctive reaction
Inst
actory bulb is part of the limbic system at
The olf
of the brain stem. The limbic system is an
the top
the brain that plays an important role in
area of
y and emotion. This explains why scents
memory
m
ger powerful emotions and awaken dormant
an trigg
ca
s. Scent information also passes to the cortex
emories
me
n to be analyzed consciously, but this takes
the brai
of t
than the instinctive reaction.
longer
a lot
Professional senses
Some people earn a living by their noses.
They include the makers of perfumes and,
not so obviously, wine tasters and tea
blenders. The blenders of fine teas, for
may “taste” the teas, but their example, m
can barely identify them. taste buds
heir refined sense of smell They use th y
which combinations have to decide w
avor. the best fla
Thalamus Receives taste
signaals from the medulla
ex and ssends them to the cort
We all have our WWe all havve our
own unique smell own unique smel ell
identity. This is identity. Th This is
determined by factors det eter erm rmined ed by fa fact cto tors rs
such as genes, diet, such as genes, diet, such as genes es ess, diet ett,
and skin type. and skin typee.
Medulla Receives taste
signaals and relays them
to the thalamus
Brainn stem
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Unlike the other senses, smell and taste
function by detecting chemical substances.
Our sense of smell enables us to distinguish
up to 10,000 different scents, and there are
people who have an extra-sensitive sense of
smell and taste. Try these activities and find out
more about your senses of smell and taste.
42
SENSES ENSES
SEN SENSITIVE
Step 1
Ask an adult to help you
make the Jell-O. When
they have set, place
them on a plate.
Step 2
Put a blindfold on the first
person, making sure he or
she does not see the Jell-O
beforehand. Then ask your
f i d d id if h friend to taste and identify the
flavors. Record the results.
In the weightless In th the we wei eig ightl tles es ess
environment of space, en envi viro ronmen ent of space, e,
food aromas don’t fo food aro romas as do don’t
often reach the nose, oft fte ftten ten re rea eachh th the nose, e,
so astronauts miss so as astr tro trronauts ts mis iss
out on a lot of out on a lot of
favors. food favors. fo food favo vors rs. rss.
Step 1
Ask the first volunteer too sample
the food, rinsing his or hher mouth
out with water in between tastes.
Record the responses.
When you can’t sme ell what
you are eating, it is harrder to
recognize food flavorss. So if
your nose is blocked beecause
you have a cold, for exaample,
food often tastes blaand.
Step 2
Repeat Step 1 with the
second volunteer, but t this
time ask your friend to hold
his or her nose closed. . Who
had a better sense of taaste?
A blocked nose A
Can a blocked
nose affect your
sense of taste?
Follow the steps
below and find out.
You will need:
ǩ6HOHFWLRQRIIRRGV
with varying degrees
of taste and flavor
ǩ*ODVVRIZDWHU
ǩ7ZRIULHQGV
Seeing is believing!
How good are you at
identifying what you
are eating?
You will need:
ǩ6HOHFWLRQRIȍDYRUHG
Jell-O
ǩ6RPHSODWHVDQGVSRRQV
ǩ%OLQGIROG
ǩ7ZRIULHQGV
ǩ3HQDQGSDSHU
BRAIN GAMES
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
3 43
We are used to
seeing foods in
certain colors, and
this helps identify
their flavors.
Step 3
Ask the second person to
identify the flavors. This
volunteer should not be
blindfolded. Record his
or her answers, too.
Step 4
Compare the differences
between the two
experiments. Did the
blindfolded person make
any mistakes or take longer
in identifying the flavors?
Step 1
For each item, put two
samples of it in two
different bowls. Mix
the bowls around.
Our sense of smell is
much more sensitive than
our sense of taste—around
10,000 times more
sensitive. It alerts us
to danger by detecting
poisonous odors and we
can even identify whether
food is ripe or rotten by p y
smell alone.
Step 1
Pat the tongue of one of
your volunteers dry with
the paper towel so that
no part of the tongue’s
top side has saliva on it.
The second person can
taste the food as normal.
Chemicals from food
can reach your taste buds
only if they have been
dissolved in saliva.
Step 2
Ask the two subjects to
taste the dry food and then
record their responses as
t h h fl th to how much flavor they
can taste.
A child has around A child has aro round
10,000 taste buds, while 10,000 taste buds ds, s, wh while
an adult may have an adult may have ve
only 5,000. only 5,000.
Smell S
Try this test and find
out how good your
sense of smell is.
You will need:
ǩ%OLQGIROG
ǩ$WOHDVWVL[ERZOVDQG
three items with strong
smells such as a banana,
coffee grounds, flowers,
or soap
ǩ$IULHQG
The chemical factor T
Find out if saliva
helps you when
it comes to
tasting food.
You will need:
ǩ3DSHUWRZHO
ǩ6HOHFWLRQRIGU\IRRGV
such as cookies, cakes,
or crackers
ǩ7ZRIULHQGV
Step 2
%OLQGIROG\RXUIULHQG
and ask him or her to
identify which two items
smell the same. How
good was your friend’s
sense of smell?
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Your skin is the largest organ in your body. It haas
many functions, including acting as a protectivee
barrier against infection, but it also provides yoou
with vital information about your environment.
It does this by using millions of sensory receptoor
cells that detect different types of stimuli—frommm
the most delicate tap to the sharp shock of painn.
44
H
Thalamus
Sensitivee skin
Human skin has at leastt six types of
sensory receptors. Some arre branched
nnerve endings, while others are nerve fibers n
p that end in tiny disks or cappsules that psules that
detect different types of ppressure,
vibration, stretching, tempperature
change, and physical damagge. Some
nerve endings are wrapped aroound the
roots of hairs and sense their response
to touch and air moovement.
There are around Th Ther ere re are re aro round
18 million skin sensors 18 million skin sensors rs
altogether, constantly alto tog oget ether er, r, constanttly
sending information sending info form rmation
to the brain. to to the bra rain.
Fingertip control
Some parts of your skin are much
more sensitive than others. If
something touches your leg,
you can certainly feel it, but the
sensation is not very precise.
By contrast, your fingertips are
highly sensitive, giving you the
sense of touch that allows you
to feel textures and, in the case
of blind people, to read Braille.
al network Sign
y signals from the skin are sent through Sensory
nching nerves of the peripheral nervous the bran
to the spinal cord and then to the system
s. The thalamus passes them on to the thalamu
sensory cortex, which is located in the somatic s
e thalamus acts as a relay station, as it brain. Th
r all sensory information except smell. does for
Free nerve endings
Sense touch, pressure,
pain, and temmperature
i Hair root sensors
DDetect hair movement
Merkell’s disk
Responds tto light
touch and preessure
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Sensory map
This odd-looking figure
shows how your brain
reacts to touch on various
parts of your body. It looks
strange because the size of each
body part is related to the num mber
of touch sensors that it has rat ther
than its physical size. Your han nds are
shown much bigger than your feet
because they are much more s sensitive.
45
Hair shaft ects Proje
face above skin surf
ouch and reacts to to
ent and air moveme
The least tive sensit The lea sens T e leas tt t n h e e e e v i i a t t v e e e e le e e ve i i Th The lea east sensittivve
part of yo ody our bo y part of y r rt y y oo oo o u art d ur boo oo part o b d a u t u d r r f part rt rt of yoooour boooody
f is the mi of iddle f s l o the mdd h e e ii i o dd t ddle e e e i i f is the miiddle of
your bback. y k. your a u c bb o bba u k r your bbbback.
g pain Feeling
t your skin Nerve endings throughout
chemicals register pain by reacting to c
mines that called prostaglandins and histam
ells. There are released fromdamaged ce are released from damaged ce
ses. One is are two types of pain respons
u jerk your short and sharp to make you
e in a reflex hand away from a candle flam
d starts after action. The other is slower and
istent pain and the reflex, giving more pers
ble long-term harm. warning us of possib
Habituation
Although your brain
reacts strongly to new
sensory information from your skin,
it adapts to some constant or repetitive
messages to make them less distracting.
This effect happens with all the senses
but is most easily tested using touch.
If you put a pencil in the palm of your
hand, for example, you get an instant
sensation, but within seconds this wears
off to leave just a low-key awareness.
This is because some skin sensors soon
stop sending signals, but others don’t.
uscle Meissner’s corpu
A touch receptor
e found in sensitive
areas of skin
puscle Pacinian corp
Sensitive to
pressure and
vibrations
Epidermis
Outer layer
of skin
Dermis s Contains
blood vessels,
glands, and
nerve endings
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Artist at work!
Can you judge the
size, texture, and
shape of an object by
touch alone? Try this
activity and find out.
You will need:
ǩ%R[ZLWKDKROH
ǩ6RPHREMHFWVVXFK
as a feather, apple,
ERRNDQGZDOOHW
ǩ3HQFLODQGSDSHU
ǩ$IULHQG
BRAIN GAMES
46
Grab bag
+RZJRRGLV\RXUVHQVH
of touch in helping you
identify objects?
You will need:
ǩ%R[ZLWKWZRKROHVFXWRXW
RUDSLOORZFDVH
ǩ6HOHFWLRQRILWHPVLQDOOVL]HVVXFK
as a cup, spoon, ball, apple, sponge,
rock, pinecone, and feather d feather
ǩ6RFNVRUUXEEHUJORYHV
ǩ$IULHQG
Step 1
Have your friend place
a hand inside the box
DQGSLFNDQLWHP
TOUCH
Step 1
3ODFHDIHZ
LWHPVLQWKHEER[
RUSLOORZFDVHH$VN
your friend too put
his or her hands
inside the boxx and try
to identify thee objects
IURPWRXFKDORQH
SStep 2
1RZDVN\RXUIULHQG 1
o put socks or rubber to
loves on his or her g
ands and touch the h
HPV+RZGRHVWKLV LW
hange the success rate? ch
AND TELL
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aaaaaaaaaaa
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w
e e e e
r r r r r
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e e e
s s
e e
o o
n n
t t
h h
e e
b b
o o
d d
y y y y y y y
. . . .
We have different
types of receptors under
our skin. These enable
us to find out a lot about
an object just by touch
alone—whether an
object is soft or hard, its
shape, and how big it is.
By covering your hands, itt is
er to tell what you are touching. harde
is because you are reducing the This i
mount of tactile informatio on am
being sent to your brain.
Step 2
With eyes closed, ask
your friend to feel the
object and then sketch
WKHVKDSHDQGGLPHQVLRQV
RIWKHLWHP$VNKLPRU
her to describe the texture
of the object, too.
Step 3
&RPSDUHWKHȌQLVKHG
GUDZLQJZLWKWKHRULJLQDO
LW + W LWHP+RZDFFXUDWH
ZDV\RXUIULHQG"
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Follow the steps of
this experiment and
see how your thermal
receptors detect
changes in
temperature.
You will need:
ǩ Three ploslic cups
ǩ íce-cold woler, worm
woler, ond hol woler ol
104–122 °F (40–50 °C).
Ask an adult to check
the temperature with
a thermometer.
ǩ Slopwolch
Sensitive touch e touch
This oclivily d demonslroles
how some parts of your
body ore more sensilive
than others.
You will need:
ǩ l poper clip
Hot or cold?
Your forearmm is not as
sensitive as your fingers, so it
feels as if the points of the
paper clip are together—or
you might feel onlyy one point.
The finger that has been
placed in cold water perceives
the water as warm, while the
finger placed in hot water
perceives it as cool. This is
because the receptors are not
d t ti th t t t detecting the water temperature.
Instead, they are comparing it to
the previous temperatures.
Step 1
with t the Fill each of the cups w
wolerr. cold, worm, ond hol w
our leeft Place a finger from yo
r and d a hand in the cold wate
t hand in finger from your right
he Ȍnngers lhe hol woler. Leove l
er for r immersed in the wate
around a minute.
Step 2 Step 2
Remove bolh Ȍngers ond dip
them in the cup of warm water.
Does your body detect any
changes in temperature?
Your enlire body is covered wilh louch receplors,
sensing differenl lypes of sensolionsǟpressure,
poin, ond lemperolure. You con explore your
sense of louch wilh lhe following oclivilies.
47
Step 1 S
lhe poper clip. Then Slroighlen oul
the tips are around bend it so that
part. 0.5 in (1 cm) ap
Step 2
es or look owoy. Then run 0lose your eye
from the tip of your index the paper clip
your polm, ond up lo your Ȍnger, olong y
d you feel both the points forearm. Coul
lip on your forearm? of the paper c
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s
fff
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ee
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ii
ss
kk
eeee
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sss
rrrrr
..
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
48
C
r
i
m
i
n
a
l

t
r
i
c
k
s
We associate m
agic tricks with perform
ance
artists, but confidence tricksters and pickpockets
use sim
ilar techniques. If you can’t see how a
trick is done when you are watching a m
agician,
you certainly won’t recognize it when som
eone
distracts your attention in the street and his or
her partner steals your m
oney. So watch out!
Real or fake?
Anything “magical” is something that
seems to break the laws of nature,
such as making things disappear
or reading someone’s mind. Some
people really believe in magic, just
as they may believe in ghosts. Some
religious cults such as voodoo are
based on magic. But most of
us recognize that magic is
some sort of trickery, even
if we can’t see how it’s
done—and that is
part of the fun.
Illusion
A magician tosses a ball in the air twice
while following it with his eyes. But he fakes
a third toss, moving his eyes as if watching
the ball, and to you, the ball appears to vanish.
This illusion works because there is a slight
delay in visual data reaching your brain.
The brain compensates by inventing some
data to fill the gap—sometimes it’s incorrect.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
We rely on our senses to tell us about our surroundings.
However, our senses can be fooled, and we can easily
miss a trick if our brains are concentrating on something
else. Magicians distract their audiences to take attention
away from what is really going on. Try these tricks to find
out if you, too, can fool the senses.
50
Step 4 SS
Ask your friend to turn over the A
remaining card and then open r
he envelope to reveal how your tt
amazing prediction came true. a
Step 1
Secretly place the Queen of
Diamonds so that it is the third
card from the top in the deck
of cards. Write down the name
of the card on a piece of paper
and put it in an envelope.
Step 3
Ask your friend to point to two
cards. If the first two cards are
chosen, remove them and go to
Step 4. If the first and third cards
are chosen, remove the middle one.
If the second and third cards are
chosen, remove the first one. Then
ask your friend to choose another
card—whichever one is chosen,
make sure you remove the one make sure you remove the one
that isn’t the Queen of Diamonds.
C
a
n
yo
u
trick

so
m
e
o
n
e
in
to

p
ick
in
g
a

sp
e
cifi
c ca
rd

b
u
t m
a
ke
th
e
ir
d
e
cisio
n
a
p
p
e
a
r
ra
n
d
o
m
?
You w
ill need:
ǩ'
HFNRIFDUGV
ǩ3HQDQGSDSHU
ǩ(QYHORSH
ǩ$IULHQG
Step 2 Step 2
3UHWHQGWRVKXIȍHWKHFDUGV$VN
your friend to deal out the top
six cards into two rows of three.
Watch to see where the Queen of
Diamonds lands. Ask your friend
to point to a row and confidently
take away the row that doesn’t
have the Queen of Diamonds.
T
h
e

c
a
r
d

f
o
r
c
e
If you perform in a confident
manner, your friend will be
convinced that you are doing what
he or she has asked you to do.
In fact, you are doing exactly what
you need to do in order for the
Queen of Diamonds to be picked.
BRAIN GAMES
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
51
Step 3
Ask your friend to say which hand
the coin is under. Lift your hands
to reveal the answer!
Step 2
Quickly turn over both hands,
flicking the coin from under the
left hand to under the right hand.
Step 1
Place the coin on the table
and the cup over the coin.
Tell your friend you will
make the coin disappear.
Step 1
In front of your friend, place the coin
in the palm of your left hand, near p y ,
the thumb.
Step 2
Wrap the paper tightly
around the cup so that you
can see the shape of the cup
underneath the paper.
Step 3
Lift up the cup and the paper
to show that the coin is still
there. While you and your
friend are still looking at the
coin, move the paper and cup
over the edge of the table
and drop the cup out of the
paper into your lap.
Step 4
Place the paper (which is still in the
shape of the cup) back over the coin.
Then smash your hand down on the
paper to show that the cup has
vanished. Say, “Oops, I’ve made the
wrong thing disappear!” Only you
know that you made the right object
vanish after all.
Can you make
something vanish?
You’ll need to try
this a few times
before the trick
works perfectly.
You will need:
ǩ$FRLQ
ǩ7DEOH
ǩ&KDLU
ǩ3DSHU
ǩ3ODVWLFFXS
ǩ$IULHQG
Where’s the cup?
You need quick
actions and plenty
of practice to make
this trick work.
You will need:
ǩ$FRLQ
ǩ$IULHQG
The magic coin
Because you have
directed all the attention
to the coin, not the cup,
your friend’s brain isn’t
focusing on what is
really happening.
Because the coin was not seen to
move, your friend is tricked into thinking
that it is still under your left hand.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
We normally think that we have five senses: sight,
hearing, taste, smell, and touch. But we also feel
things that do not seem related to a particular
sense. They are like an awareness of your body.
Most of these sensations affect your unconscious
mind, but that doesn’t make them unimportant.
Without your sense of balance, for example, you
could not stand upright.
Balance
Your inner ear contains three bony tubes that
form loops called semicircular canals. Each
tube ends in a bulge, or ampulla, containing
sensors that detect the movement of fluid
in the loop—which depends on your body’s
movement. Similar receptors called maculae
detect how upright you are. Your brain uses
these signals to correct your balance.
M
o
t
i
o
n

s
i
c
k
n
e
s
s
Intense stim
ulation of your balance
sensors by som
ething like a
roller-coaster ride can cause
m
otion sickness. This is m
ade
w
orse if your eyes and ears
give your brain conflicting
inform
ation. W
atching the horizon
enables the brain to m
ake sense of
the m
ovem
ent, and m
ay help.
Ampulla
Contains sensors
that detect body
movement
Vestibular nerve
Delivers balance
sensor data to
your brain
Macula
Has sensors that
detect whether you
are upright
I l organs nterna
usually aware of our internal organs, We are not
l get sensations from our stomachs. b ll but we all
e vague feelings that mark the Some are
e of food, but hunger pangs are more passage
Digestive problems can cause pain, useful.
er organs may also hurt if they are and oth
ed or diseased. A disorder releases damage
als that are detected by nerve endings chemica
yed to the brain as pain. and rela
52
Semicircular canals s
Filled with fluid that
moves when your
body moves
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
54
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BRAIN GAMES
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Telepathy
Apparent telepathy is probably caused by a
combination of sensory awareness and shared
experience. Twins often seem telepathic because
they share the same history and thought patterns. a
We often believe
things without having
any idea why. You might
get a feeling that you
are being followed, or
arrive at an inspired
solution to a problem.
We call this intuition,
telepathy, or sometimes
a “sixth sense.” These
intuitive perceptions
are probably the result
of rapid unconscious
mental processes—
using either information
gathered by your senses
or data stored deep in
your memory.
I
N
T
U
I
T
I
O
N
Female and male
Women are usually thought
to be more intuitive than
men. But psychological tests
show that this is not true,
and men score just as well.
It is simply that women like
t i t iti to appear more intuitive,
especially among friends.
What’s up? There’s
something wrong! The
house doesn’t feel
right at all!
56
Sixth sense
Have you ever felt that something was wrong without
understanding how you knew it? This “sixth sense” effect
can be quite creepy, but it is probably created by your brain
picking up some clue from your other senses and alerting
your alarm response without giving you the full picture.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Benzene molecule
sstructure
Inspired thinking
An expert chess player may seem
to make the right move using
intuition rather than logic. But this
“inspired thinking” is more likely
to be the result of intense study
and experience, which enables
the player to recognize particular
arrangements of the chess pieces
on the board. This automatically
triggers a memory of the next
move, which usually turns out
to be the right one.
rk Dream wor
e may Occasionally people
tion to a even dream the solut
r of 1861, problem. In the winter
Kekulé was German chemist August G
ructure of a trying to figure out the st t
le dozing in benzene molecule. Whil
d f k ed of a snake t f th fi h d ont of the fire, he dreame fro
to Kekulé, biting its tail. According
e that the this gave him the clue
of carbon molecule was a ring o
oms. and hydrogen ato
What? A balloon?
I thought I was imagining
it, but there’s definitely
something going on!
Wait a minute! It
smells like someone
has been baking a
cake. Why would
they be doing that?
Surprise!
Woof!
Out of the blue
Sometimes someone grappling
with a problem finds that the solution
seems to come “out of the blue”
after working on something else
for a while. This is probably because
irrelevant details get forgotten, so the
main elements of the problem come
into sharper focus. The person may
also come across new information
that makes everything slot into place.
57
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
M
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(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
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60
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
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61
N
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(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Vivid memories
When you are feeling very emotional, chemical
changes in your brain boost nerve activity.
They strengthen the memory-forming process,
creating vivid long-term memories. This is
why you often have unusually
clear recall of events that
you experienced in a
state of high emotion.
Making memories
Memories are formed by electrical
signals making connections between i l ki ti b t
nerve cells so that they form a
network. The more often the network
is activated, the stronger it gets,
creating a long-term memory.
Me Memo mory ry s sto tore ress
Your meemory is divided into
three seections—sensory,
short terrm, and long term.
Only thee most important
informat tion makes it into
the finall section. All the
rest is thh t hrown out.
Input All the data
from your senses
enters your sensory
memory store.
Sensorry memory
This part oof memory
holds a lot of innformation
for a few seconds
at most.
Ignored
Any information
in the sensory in the sensory
memory that you
ignore is thrown
out right away.
Attention If you
pay attention to any
it items f of i f inform ti ation,
they pass into your
short-term memory.
Electrical signal E
Stimulus
Permanent PP
bond b
Links form
The more the linked cells
are stimulated, the stronger
the bond becomes.
Memory web
The signals continue to fire until
a web of nerve cells is formed.
This represents a single memory.
Making connect tions
When a nerve cell ll
receives a stong enough
stimulus, it fires an
electrical signal onto a
neighboring nerve cell.
Your brrain processes your experiences
and all the information gathered by your
senses. Most of this data is discarded, but
the impportant perceptions, facts, and skills
are stored in your memory. This enables
you to tthink, learn, and be creative.
W
H
A
T

I
S
Nerve cell
62
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Long-term m L memory
Any informat A tion that
ers your lo ent ng-term
memory is c m carefully
ed away so file that you
can easily recall it.
Recognition and reecall
It is much easier to recognize a memoryy you are
looking for than to recall it. Look at the picture
of the girl below for five seconds and thhen cover
her up. Now look for her in the photoo on the
right. Even thoughh you’ve g g
ry short seen her for a ver
ecognize time, you should re
describe her. But if you had to d h
obably her, you would pro
rder. find it a lot har
Involuntary recall
Have you ever found yourself smelling Have you ever found yourself smelling
something and suddenly remembering
a certain time or place very strongly?
This sensation is called involuntary recall,
because your brain has retrieved the memory
by itself, without any prompting from your
conscious mind. Sounds and sights can nd sights can
also cause this, but smells are
especially powerful, perhapps
because the part of your br rain
that processes scent is clossely sely
linked to your memory.
Where do we mber? remem
Th d hi e the main areas mpus are The cortex and hippocam
mory, but different for mem of the brain responsible
types of memories. different parts of the brain store
Prefrontal cortex
Short-term
memories
Amygdala
Unconscious and
emotional memories
Hippoccampus
Spatiall memories
Putammen
Learned skills
and pr rocedures
Cortex Memories
of personal and
life events
Temporal lobe
Learned facts
and details
or lose it Use it o
don’t think If you d
the data in about t
term memory, short-t
st after around it is los
onds. 20 seco
hort-term memory Sh
hi h li i d Th his has limited space,
annd information is soon
losst if you don’t think
abbout it enough to pass
it on to long-term memory.
63
Very f eople few pe ry p p ff ry l y o w eople few pe Ver op w p V fe ee Ve eople few pe Ve w ery f f Ve Ver ery ry ffe few peo eeople
ber can r mb rememm mem can r r r a m mem n er e e c b a e eme e e r er can rre rememmber er
anyth from hing fr y g fr fro y ro a m t n n hhi o g anyt fr fr i ff anythhing fr fr fro fr fr frrom
befor age re the g forr fo a th e e the befo ag b e t e e e e e the efor f bef efo forre rre the ag age
off e. ff tthhree ff . r o tthh e ee o t ree f off f tthhre reeee.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
65
Trip method
One way to memorize a list is to visualize a trip
that you often take. Link each landmark on the trip
with an item on your list—the stranger the result,
the easier it is to remember! Then go through the
trip in your head to remember the items.
1.Tree
The leaves of the tree
are pages from a book.
Find a good book to
read on vacation.
This is a vacation to-do list, and here
is how to picture each of the items
with a landmark on a walk to school:
1.Find a book to read
2.Pack your sunglasses
3.Mail a letter
4.Buy some toothpaste
5.Hang your laundry
6.Remember your sun hat
7.Buy dog food g food
8.Get a haircut
2.Sunfloower
A flower iss wearing
your sungllasses.
Remembeer to pack
them in yo t our bag.
3.Sign 3 Sign 3 Si
urned into The sign has t
eminding an envelope re
letter. you to mail a l
4.Bridge
There’s a tube of
toothpaste floating
under the bridge.
You need to buy
toothpaste.
6.Scarecrow
The scarecrow has your sun hat
on its head. Remember to take
your hat on vacation with you.
7.Wall
Imagine your dog running along the
wall. Remember to buy dog food.
8.Bush
The bush is getting
a haircut, and you need
to get one, too!
5.Flags
The flying flags
have become socks.
You need to hang
your laundry.
S
C
H
O
O
L
O
O
L
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
These games test your capacity for storing numbers, words,
and visual information in your memory. They also show the
two different ways we remember—recall and recognition.
Recall is finding information in your memory when you
need it. Recognition is knowing something when you see it.
66
REMEMBER?
DO YOU
You’ve done well if you
have remembered more than
half the objects. More than
12 is an excellent result.
Step 1
Starting at the top, read out loud each line of
numbers, one at a time. Cover up the line and then
try to repeat the numbers. Work your way down
the list until you can’t remember them all.
Most people can hold only seven
numbers at a time in their short-term
memory, so good job if you could
remember more.
Visual memory
How good is your memory
for visual images? Study
these 16 pictures for
45 seconds. Then close
the book and write down
as many as you can.
How well did you do?
Memory span
Your short-term memory can
store a certain amount of
information for a limited time.
This game reveals your brain’s
ability to remember numbers
and words. You may be
surprised at your own abilities.
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BRAIN GAMES
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.

67
Step 2
Now read out these words, one line at a time.
Cover up the line and try to repeat the words.
Continue down the list until your memory fails.
Most people are better at remembering
words than numbers. If you can repeat a string
of eight words you have done very well.
Step 1
Look at the picture right
and closely study it for
two minutes. You may find
it helpful to draw it. Then
cover up the picture and try
to draw it from memory.
When you think you’ve
finished, compare your
drawing to the picture and
give yourself a point for
every line you got right.
You probably did better in the second
test than the first because associating the
lines with familiar shapes makes them
easier to remember.
Recognition vs. recall
This game clearly shows you the
difference between recognizing
and recalling information.
COUNTRIES
Israel
France
India
Russia
Czech Republic
Germany
Afghanistan
Canada
Denmark
Argentina
CAPITALS CAPITALS
New Delhi
Ottowa
Berlin
Prague
Copenhagen
Jerusalem
Buenos Aires
Kabul
Paris
Moscow
Spain
Ireland
China
Sweden
Iraq
Netherlands s
Japan
Italy
Egypt
Greece
Most people get a better score for recognition than f iti th
recall. This is because having a list of possible answers
gives your brain a shortcut to finding the information
stored in your memory.
Step 1
First test your recognition
skills. Below are ten
countries and ten capital
cities. In 30 seconds, see how
many you can match up and
then turn to page 186 to
check your answers.
Step 2
Here are another ten countries, but this time you need to
try to recall their capital cities in 30 seconds. Check your
answers again and then compare your two scores.
An artistic eye
Do you have a good memory
for remembering visual detail?
Try this test and see.
Step 2
Now do the same with this
picture, left, but this time
look for familiar shapes
or patterns. For example,
does it look like a kite?
Again, after two minutes
cover up the picture and
try to draw it. Figure out
your score again and
compare it with the
previous one.
Bed, lamp, rug
Fork, plate, glass, table
Spider, tree, bird, flower, dog
Pencil, scissors, chair, book, fish, clock
Pond, moon, star, grass, worm, bike, stone
Drum, bell, ball, racket, rope, box, net, pole
Eye, leg, arm, foot, head, ear, toe, hair, nose
Bread, milk, cookie, plate, bowl, plum, spoon,
apple, banana, orange
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Spot the difference
How is your eye for detail? Look
at these two pictures and see
if you can spot ten differences
between them. Turn to page
186 to see if you got them all.
68
Do you have a good memory for detail? These games will put
your short-term memory to work, first testing how well you
remember the detail of a story and then how sharp your
eye and brain are at spotting visual differences. Remember,
none of the information will go into your memory unless you
really focus your attention
on the exercise.
ATTENTION
PAYING
At last the backyard looked
perfect. Jenny admired the orange
lanterns hanging from the trees as they
glowed in the fading light and the pretty
tables dotted around the yard, decorated
with candles and pink roses. There was
a table laden with champagne, a white
chocolate cake, a whole salmon, and
a tall pyramid of strawberries.
Jenny began to feel excited. Her parents
had no idea about the party. They thought
they were just going to the movies.
Suddenly, she heard a familiar noise
that filled her with alarm—a dog panting.
Chester! She had locked him in the
kitchen. How had he gotten out? A big, big,
muddy, wet, and very smelly dog raced
up and proudly dropped a dead fishh at her
feet. Jenny knew where that had coome ome
from—the Johnsons’ pond next dooor. She
groaned and tried to grab Chester’ss collar,
but he leaped away. Between two ta ables he ables he
shook his fur, splattering them bothh with
mud and grass. Then he spotted—oor
probably smelled—the food table and
raced up to it. Paws on the table, hee took
a bite of the salmon as a hundred
strawberries tumbled to the groundd.
Important details
How well do you focus on
details when you read?
To find out, read this story
through carefully, but only
once, then see if you can
answer the questions below.
BRAIN GAMES
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Questions
1
What time of day is it?
2

How were the tables
decorated?
3
What flavor was
the cake?
4
Who was the party
for?
5

Where did Jenny think
Chester was?
6

What is the last name
of Jenny’s neighbors?
Look back at the story to check
your answers. If you got five right you’ve done well. A good way to help remember detail is to picture what’s happening in the story in
your head.
ead.
69
Freddy, a much-loved
pet tortoise, above
right, has gone right, h
g. A reward missing
en offered for has bee
urn, and the his retu
rtoises below four tor
een handed have be
which one is in. But
? Turn to page Freddy?
find out if you 186 to fi
ht. are righ
B A
D C
Step 1
Study the 14 objects on the tray for
30 seconds, and then cover the picture.
Step 2
Now look at the tray below. Five items
have been removed—but which ones?
Uncover the picture above and see if you
were right. Did you get them all?
What’s missing?
This game reveals how quickly
information can disappear from
your short-term memory.
Who’s who?
How good are you at
spotting tiny differences in
patterns? Try solving this
problem and see.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
70
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8
3
7
1
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
71
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(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
When you think of genius, you think of Einstein. This
is partly because his ideas are beyond most people’s
understanding—the bending of light and the distortion
of space, for example. He is most famous for his theories
of relativity, which explain how the universe works, and for
the equation E=mc
2
, which has become an icon of inspired
atical thinking. Translating extraordinary ideas mathematical thinnking. Transllating e
his genius. into cclear mathemmatics was paart of h
Albert
Einstein
72
Day jobb
h i nd Einstein studdied physics and
mathematicss, and then got worrk in
the patent offifice in Bern, Switze erland, p
h le’ss decidding whether otherr people s
invenntions were worthwwhile. Meanwhile
he waas thinking hard abbout physics and
the nature of the universe in his spare i hi spare
time, as a hobby rather than a job.
The fact that he was not working at
a university, where he would have had
to focus on the ideas of the professors,
meant that he was free to come up
with his own theories.
Bright iddea
ed what it would
At the age
f
At the age of oonly 16, Einstein wondere
186,000 miles
be like to travvel at the speed of light:
ed that if you
(300,000 kmm) per second. He realize
ond. He realize
speed, and were
t
l
traveled awway from a clock at this s
clock’s hands
able to loook back and see it, the
e image of the
would neever move—because th
move—because the
never catch up
hands after they moved would
m to stand still.
wiith you. Time would seem
think like this.
It takes g
i
It takes genius to
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
i
t
y

Einstein was fascinated by the
nature of light, space, and
tim
e. His conclusions were
m
ind-boggling—
that tim
e can
slow down, space is curved,
gravity is a distortion of space
and tim
e, and nothing is fixed
except the speed of light.
These ideas form
ed the core
of his theories of relativity.
This portrait shows E
hen
Einstein in 1893 when
he was 14 and alrea ady fascinated by m
ath.
Einstein was born in Germany in 1879,
the son of an engineer.
Einstein’s fascination with physics began at the age of Einstein’s fascination with physics began at the age of Ei Einstei ein’s fa fascination wi with th physics cs beg egan at th the ag age of
fve, when he watched the twitching needle of a compass fve, when he watched the twitching needle of a compa fve ve, e, wh when en he wa watc tched ed th the twi witc tching nee eed edle of a co compass
and realized that space was full of unseen forces. and realized that space was full of unseen force and re rea ealiz ized ed th that space wa was fu full of unsee een en fo forc rces es es.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Learning is vital to survival. We often think it is all about
skills like reading and writing, but it also involves developing
life skills such as safely crossing the street, dealing with
other people, and managing money. ey.
We learn these things through a
combination of conscious effort
and unconscious reactions, and
everything we learn becomes
part of our long-term memory.
76
LEARN
HOW WE
Learning curve
When we are young, we all have to learn a huge
amount about the world in a short time. We learn
basic skills like walking, eating, and avoiding harm.
We discover that everything we do makes other
things happen, and we learn how to predict this—
and maybe avoid it. We learn much more in our first
few years than we do in all of the rest of our lives.
Association
You learn by making connections between
different experiences and skills, creating a
web of associated ideas in your brain. When
one part of the web is activated, it fires up
the rest. If you decide to buy a magazine, for
example, this idea triggers an association with
the store, the bicycle you will use to get there,
the route, the money you will need, and so on.
Association also allows you to link the abstract
ideas you learn in your classes at school.
Find wallet
How much will it cost? How much will it cost? Take money Take money
Conditioning
If an experience always follows a particularr
event, or does so only once but is very
upsetting, this can create such a
strong link in the brain that you react
automatically to the event if it happens
again. So, for example, if you have
been stung by a wasp, you get nervous
when you see another one—or any insect
with yellow and black stripes. This basic
form of learning is called conditioning.
Memory circuits
The basic “wiring” of the brain is formed at
birth, but whenever you learn something,
the wiring changes. A group of nerve
cells links together to form a network
that lets you repeat the action
whenever you want. But if you
never use it again, the network
may eventually stop working.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
77
in the practice Put
If you keep repeating something to yourself, p
you will remember it. This is because
the repetition links brain cells into a memory
circuit. You can learn a skill like playing the piano
in the same way, creating circuits in your brain that
enable you to play each tune. Repetitive practice
can be dull, but its benefits last a long time.
Musicians can stop playing for a year or more, yet
quickly pick up the skills if they start playing again.
Which store?
Go to sto st st stt st s re
Buy a magazine
Travel by bike
Which route? Take lock
Remember helmet
t of your brain triples The weight your brain trip g f your brain triples T of your brain tripl w t of your brain t t ur brain he weigh es e e in tri i of your brain trip g t of your brain t w e e we e e we r brain tri i f b i Th The weig ightt of your bra rain tr tri riples es es
r frst three years of life during your y g y frst three years of lif r rr rst three years of l y o uring you t three yea during you hree years of life i o during yo a uring you t t during you ee years of life ring your frst three year i f t th f lif duri ring yourr fr frs frrst thre ree yea ears rs of life fe
learn more skills. as you as yy skills. s learn more skill y o ou a a m u earn more ski o a a u earn more ski as yyou lea earn rn more re skills ls.
I
m
i
t
a
t
i
o
n
Children are program
m
ed to
im
itate the actions of others,
especially adults. A lot of this
m
im
icry can seem
pointless,
such as putting a doll to
bed, but we learn a lot in this
way. Eventually we graduate
from
pretend play to actually
helping perform
tasks such
as gardening and cooking.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
The brain’s ability to learn
helps us solve all sorts of
problems, including how to
find our way out of a maze.
Giant hedge mazes are
popular attractions—it
seems that people like the
feeling of getting lost for a
while, as long as they can
eventually find their way
to freedom, of course! See
if you can make your way
through this collection
of miniature mazes.
If you get lost, find the
solutions on page 186.
78
MAZES
MASTERING
The one-hand rule
To get through a maze where all the walls are
connected to the outer boundary, you can use the
“one-hand rule.” To do this, always keep a hand on
one wall as you go—it doesn’t matter which hand, but
don’t swap along the way. Try this method to make your
way to the center of this maze—and back out again.
Right or left?
You can find your way through
this more complicated maze
using the one-hand rule, too.
Once through, try again using
your other hand—which
route is quicker?
The Ancient Egyptians built mazes TThe Ancient Egyptians built mazes Th The Ancien ent Eg Egyptians built maz azes es es
4,000 years ago. One pharaoh even 4 years ago. One phar 4,000 years ago. One pharaoh even 4 000 years ago One pharaoh even 4 years ago One p 4 ears ago One pharaoh eve 4 000 years ag 4 000 years ago One pharao 4 000 years ago One pharaoh even 000 years ago One pharaoh even 4 000 years ago One pharaoh ev 44,000 yea ears rs ag ago. One phara raoh eve ven en
uilt a huge maze inside his pyramid bu lt a huge maze inside his pyr uuilt a huge maze inside his pyramid b ilt a huge maze inside his pyrami u ge maze inside his pyramid built a huge maze inside his pyrami built a huge maze inside his pyram built a huge maze inside his pyramid u nside his pyr b huge maze inside his pyr b ilt a huge maze inside his pyramid bbuuilt a hug uge maz aze inside his pyra ramid
to baffe tomb robbers. to to t baff ff ffe to to t mb ro robber ers errs.
BRAIN GAMES
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
79
Trial and error
Mazes like this one, where some of the
walls are not connected to the others,
cannot be solved using the one-hand
rule. Instead you’ll have to find your way
through by learning from your y
mistakes. Find your way to tthe
center of the maze and theen
out the other side e.
The world’s largest Th The wo worl rld’s larg rges es est
maze is the Dole maz aze is the Dole
Plantation Pineapple Pl Plantation Pi Pinea eapple
Garden Maze in Hawaii, Gard rden Maz aze in Hawaaii,
which covers an area wh which cove ver ers rs an are rea ea
of 137,000 sq ft of 137,000 sq ft ft ft
(12,746 sq m) and (12,746 sq m) and
has nearly 2.5 miles has nea earl rly 2.5 miles es es
(4 km) of paths. (4 km) of paths.
Over and under
This 3-D cube maze couldn’t
exist in real life—people would
keep falling off it! The way the
paths pass under and over
one another can make it
difficult to keep track of
where you’re going—so you’ll
have to pay attention. Using
the one-hand rule will take you
back out the way you came in,
so to find the exit you’ll have
to use trial and error.
Amazing mazes
The bigger and more complicated
a maze is, the more difficult it is
to remember all the wrong turns.
The challenge of this maze is to
figure out the route to the dot.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
ZZ ZZZLI ZLI ING ING GG ZZ ZZZLI ZLI PPPU PU
80
P NS NSSS ER ER RN RN TT TTTE TE PA PAAT AT NS NSS S ER ER RN RN TT TTTE TE PA PAAT AT
BRAIN GAMES
A face in the crowd
The more we learn, the better our
brains become at spotting even
the smallest differences between
things. See if you can find these
two musicians among the group
of rock stars below.
All alone
Without writing anything down or marking the
puzzle in any way, see if you can find the one
creature in the picture that doesn’t appear
twice. To do this you will have to learn and
remember which items form parts of a pair.
1 2 3 4 5
6 7 8 9 10
11 12 13 14 15
Thinking ahead
This batch of colorful cupcakes is
arranged in a specific pattern. Can you
figure out what it is? If the sequence
was to continue, what would be the
color of the 49th and 100th cupcakes?
e has 24 4,000 4 jigsaw puzzle w puzzle world’s largest largest j The w w p g rg jj , 24 44, s s es s T rl rg l rl l zz o u a aw a w t 000 d u w w h h eee es e i 000 o p d g g a a a u t u w w w w w www w w ww world e e e 444 e e e w w w ’ r r ji Th The wo wwworl rld’s llarg rges es est jjjig igsaww puz uzz zz zzleee has 2444,000
o complete o complete lete. lete any mont any mont onths to co onths to co ces. It take ces. It taakes many akes many pieces. ces. y p pieces.. . s es es It takk lll yyy ooo ooo oo aaaa aaaa m m m et t ttt t t nnn n hh eee et eee ees es ees e e c cc i ooo oo o p p a a t t t t t e ee e e etee e e ece kk i piec cc ec cees es es es.. It taaaaaaakkees ess es es maaaaaanyyy mooooonnntthhs too toooo coooooomplllet eeeeteeee.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
between different things are important parts of
the learning process. We use past experiences
and solutions to previous problems, stored in our
brains, to help us make sense of new ones. All of
these perplexing puzzles require you to spot new w
tt T t 187 t fi d th patterns. Turn to page 187 too find the answers.
them ftware to to help th to help the compute uter softw uter softw olice forces rces use co rces use co Polic olic p p f fo s es us r rrc r r l l Po o o o olice fo Po o u u wa m m ttt ft ft t t uu u w h h e e e er ee es ce c rc i o o o olice fo oo p p a u uu t t t t u u ware e e e e e e e e e e e e e w Po w er r r i f fff Po o Po oo Po olice fo forrc rrces es es usee compuuuter er sofft fft ft ft ft ft ft ft ftwware re tto tto hel elp lp them
als. al d catch cri d catch cri criminals. criminals. s of crime s of crime me and ca me and ca track pat rack pat patterns o patterns o tra tra ppp f . s ssss k r ra r r l o aaaa aaaa a aaa ra ra a ra m mmm t tt ttt ttt dddd n n n h eeee er ccc c c c c i ii i o ppp d aaaa a aaa ack pa aa t t ttt d e e e k r r r er i i i i f ttr ttra ra ra ra ra aaaack ppppppaaaaatttttt tt tter ern rnssss ooof cr cri rimmmmeeee and ddd caaaaaaaatch cr cccri ri ri riiiiminaaaaaaaals lls..
Spot the sequence
These flowers (left) may look
randomly arranged, but in fact
they have been laid out in a
particular sequence. See if you
can figure out the pattern. Which
three colored flowers should
finish off the sequence?
Perfect pairs
At first glance, these patterns look very similar. Give
your brain time to study them, however, and you will
begin to tell them apart. In fact, each pattern has
an exact double, except for one. See if you can
find the unique pattern among the seven pairs.
Missing pieces Mi i i
Putting a jigsaw puzzle together is a
good example of pattern recognition.
Your brain has to work out how each
small piece fits together to make
the big picture. To do this you need
to study both the contents of the
pieces and their shapes. Four pieces
from this puzzle are mixed up with
pieces from a different puzzle.
Can you find the missing pieces?
A B C
DD
EE
F
GG
HH
I JJ
K
L
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
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(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
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83
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
An African American born in the South before the
abolition of slavery, George Washington Carver fought
racism to become a respected scientist, educator, and
inventor. His main interest was agriculture, especially
promoting crops that poor farmers could grow for food
and other purposes. In the process he improved the
lives of people often too poor to help themselves. His
achievements helped undermine racial prejudice and
blazed a trail for other African Americans to follow.
84
College teacher
In 1896, Carver was invited to lead the agriculture
department at Tuskegee Institute in Alabama—
a college founded for the education of ex-slaves.
He stayed at Tuskegee for 47 years, teaching the
students farming techniques and ways of becoming
self-sufficient. The head of the institute called
Carver “one of the most thoroughly scientific
men with whom I am acquainted.”
In the early 1900s, Carver’s laboratory at Tuskegee was one of
the few places where black Americans could learn plant science.
Determined student
Carver was named after his slave owner, Moses
Carver, who raised the orphan as his own child
after abolition. Eventually, George got a place
in school and later went to college. At first
he studied art and music, but in 1891, he
transferred to Iowa State Agricultural College,
where he was the first black student.
Carver would have lived in a house like this during his
early childhood. He knew exactly what it was like to be poor.
Carver did not know the year or date of his birth, arver did not know the year or date of his birt Carv rve rv ver er did not know the yea ear or date of his birt rt rth,
so he never knew which day was his birthday. e never knew which day was his birthd so he neve ver er knew wh which day wwas his birt rt rthday.
George
Washington
Carver
Peanuts and
potatoes
Carver wanted to improve
the lives of poor farmers whose
land was exhausted by the
relentless planting of cotton—
the main cash crop of the
region. He advised his students
to alternate cotton with other
crops such as peanuts and sweet
potatoes. He also came up with
many uses for these crops,
including dyes, paints, plastics,
oil, and even explosives. He
hoped this would enable his s
students to make their ow own
products instead of buying ying the hemm. m.
Carver once said, Carv rve rv ver er once said,
““
When you can Wh When you can y
do the common things of life in an do the common things of life fe in an
uncommon way, you will command uncommon wway, you will command
the attention of the world. the att tt ttention of the wo worl rld.
””
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Everyone thinks, but some people think in a less eryone thin
ngs disciplined way than others. They say things d way than others They say things gs
might say that don’t add up. Someone might say might say that she
a hates all animals but then saay that she really
t likes her neighbor’s cat. The ttwo statements
d contradict each other, so you ddon’t know
e which one to take seriously. Peeople who
b talk like this are often said to b be
lacking in logic—they can’t lacking in logic they can t
analyze what they say and see
the flaws in it. Logic is all
about thinking clearly.
86
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Y
Use your head
Logic involves using sound reasoning to
draw the right conclusions from known
facts. If you cannot fault the reasoning,
it is likely that the conclusions are
correct. Checking the reasoning is an
important part of logical thinking.
But perfectly good reasoning is
no use if the basic facts are wrong,
so you have to check those as well.
ed reasoning
Flawe
say that all fish live in water
If you s
If you s
that sharks are fish, you can
and t
nclude that sharks live in water.
con
t if you say that penguins can
But
But
wim and, since penguins are
swi
ds, all birds can swim, this is
bird
arly wrong. The reasoning is
clea
ed because the concluding
flawe
ment isn’t a logical progression
statem
e first one.
rom the
fr
Testing the argument T
he ability to test the argument is important when you can’t test T
he conclusion. Bacteria are well known to cause tooth decay, th
o it is logical to argue that a toothpaste that destroys bacteria s
will help prevent tooth decay. You have to trust the logic, w
ecause you have no way of testing the effect on your teeth. b
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
87
Makes youur
teeth shine,, and
shiny teeth are
healthy teeth
Persuasive logic
Many people use logic to persuade
others. If someone says something
that you don’t believe but then backs
it up with a solid logical argument,
you might start to believe it. But if
there is no logical argument to back it
up, you will not be persuaded. This
makes logic very important for lawyers
and politicians such as Hillary Clinton.
Checking the facts
Very often people come up with conclusions that are based on ideas
that are wrong. If making teeth shiny really did make them healthy,
the argument in this advertisement would be fine. But simply
brushing your teeth does not prevent tooth decay, so the facts
are wrong. It’s important to check the facts as well as the logic.
Logic and philosophy
The intellectual discipline of philosophy, first practiced by the
ancient Greeks, is mostly about logic, because it uses reasoned
argument to investigate concepts such as truth, beauty, and
justice. To many people, these exercises are intellectual games,
as we believe we know the answers through common sense.
But common sense can be misleading if it is based on false
ideas. The rigorous, logical argument encouraged by the
study of philosophy has real practical value.
Computer logic
Logic is vital to computing. All
computers are controlled by long
strings of electronic instructions
called programs. These are
devised by programmers who
have to convert their ideas into
a code that a compputer can read. p
If the coded innstructions are not
logical, the program will not work.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
88
Free association
When you think logically,
you retrieve information
from your memory and
use it to solve problems.
But sometimes your
mind wanders and
makes associations
without conscious
direction. This tends
to happen when you
are very relaxed.
Ich Ichthy thyoph ophobi obia a is is the the fe fear a
of f fish fish, w , whic hich is o s one ne of of the he
rar a er e pho phobia bias. s
Instinct
We all have natural instincts
that make sure we get things
like food, water, and air.
Instincts also include
some emotions such
as the fear of fierce dogs.
These instincts are the type
of thinking that is shared
by animals, but they are
not governed by logic. This
does not mean that instincts
do not make sense—they are
essential to our survival.
Ph Phob obia iass
Ma Many ny p peo eopl ple e ar are e te terr rrifi ified ed oof
sp spidder ers. s T Thi his s ty type pe oof f fe fear ar is s
ca call lled ed aa ppho hobi b a. a. TThe here re aare re mman any y
di diff ffer eren ent ty type pes s of of ppho hobi bias as. So Some me
ar are e un unde ders rsta tand ndab able le, , li l ke ke tthe he
fe fear a o of f he h ig ight hts— s—af afte ter r al all, ffal alliing ng
fr f om om aa hhei eigh ght t ca can n ki kill ll yyou ou. Bu But t
ot othe hers s, suuch ch as s thhe e fe fear ar o of fis fish, h,
ar are e illlo loggicaal, l, iirr rrat atio ona nal, , aand nd
di diffi fficu cult t tto o ex expl plai ain. n.
Orn rnith thoph ophobi ob a a is is
the the fe fear ar of of bir birds, ds an and d
som someti etimes mes ev even en
jus just t t the he fea feathe hers. rs
Faith
All religions are based on
faith, which involves believing in
something that cannot be proved.
There is no logical reason to
believe in a god, but a lot of
people do—even if they do not
practice any religious rituals—
including many scientists who
normally rely on logical thinking.
Ara Arachn chnoph ophobi ob aa is is th the f e fear ear
of o spi spider ders a s and d is s one one of o th the e
mos most c t comm ommon n pho phobia bias. s
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
89
Dem Demoph ophobi obia is is th the e
fea fear o of b f bein eing t g trap rapped ed
in in a c a crow owd o d of p peop eople. le
Superstition
Many people are superstitious. They avoid walking under
ladders, worry about what may happen on Friday the 13th,
or believe in ghosts. Most of us try to avoid saying things like
“I’ve never been in a car accident” because we feel that we
are increasing the risk just by saying it, or “tempting fate.”
There is no logic in this way of thinking.
Tec Techno hnopho phobia bia is s
the he fe fear ar of o tec techno hnolog logy
suc such a h s c s cell el ph phone nes
and an co compu mp ter ters. s
Luck
Many people believe in good
and bad luck. Some buy lottery
tickets because they think they
might get lucky and win a big
prize. Others will avoid flying
in case they suffer “bad luck”
and the plane crashes. In
reality, the chances of both
are very small, but people
ignore the facts and act in line
with their illogical thoughts. .
Avi Aviato atopho hobia bia
is s the the fe fear ar of of flyi flying ng
and nd is is a a ver very y
com common mon ph phobi obia.
Mus Musoph ophobia a is the the
wor word u d used se to to de descr scribe
the h fe fear r of f mic mice. e
We all like to imagine that
we think logically, but this is
often far from the truth. Ideas
jump into our heads for no
obvious reason, and many
people suffer from phobias
or even serious delusions.
A lot of us are superstitious,
and all religions are based on
faith rather than actual logic.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Clear, logical thinking is the key to solving
these baffling brainteasers. They have been
designed to confuse, confound, and mislead,
so you’ll have to concentrate hard and use
sound reasoning to arrive at your answers.
T 187 if i h Turn to page 187 to see if you are right.
It might help if you make paper
cutouts of the characters to help
you visualize the solution.
Carnival money Carnival mmoney
Three boys arrive at a carnival on Sunday
morning. The man in the ticket booth tells them
that the entrance fee is $10 each—so the boys pay
$30 and enter the carnival. However, the man in
the ticket booth realizes that tickets cost less on
Sundays, so the boys should have paid only $25.
The man asks his assistant to go find the boys and
give them $5 back. The assistant can’t figure out
how to split $5 between three people, so he keeps
$2 for himself and gives the boys $1 each. This
means that the boys have now paid $9 each for
their tickets—a total of $27—and the assistant
has kept $2, making $29 . . . What happened to
the other $1?
90
The frustrat aaa ed farmer
A farmer is trying to use a small boat to row
a fox, a chicken, and a bag of corn across a river. a fox, a chicken, and a bag of corn across a river.
However, he can take only one thing at a time
in the boat. If he leaves the fox with the chicken,
the fox will eat the chicken. If he leaves the
chicken with the corn, the chicken will eat
the corn. How can the farmer get across the
river without anything eating anything else?
Find the treat
Janet wants a cookie,
but first she needs to
find the cookie jar in the
cupboard. None of thee jars
has labels, only numbbers.
She gets only one gueess.
If she’s wrong, she’ll eend up
with something muchh less
tasty than a cookie. Too help
her choose, she is given the
following clues:
BRAIN GAMES
22 1
555 44
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
The right door
A prisoner is given a chance to win his
freedom: In his cell are two doors—behind one
is a hungry lion and behind the other is the exit
to the prison. In front of each door stands a
guard—one guard always speaks the truth, the
other only lies. The prisoner is allowed to ask
one of the guards only one question. So what
question should he ask too gain his freedom?
Who passed the package?
Rob has just won a game of pass the package.
It started with nine children sitting in a circle. A
package was given to the first player, who then
passed it to the left to player number two and they
continued in this way until the package reached
the seventh player. This person then unwrapped a
layer of paper and was eliminated from the game.
The person to their left then became player
number one and the game continued until there
was only one person left to claim the prize. If
Rob won the game, who started it?
enlils ore nol on lhe ǩ The le
row and not in the middle. bottom
eons ore nol on lhe lop ǩ The b
d are not next to the rice, row and
s directly under the flour. which is
epper is nol on lhe ǩ The p
and side and has a right-ha
r that is two more than number
r and four more than the flou
tils. the lent
ar should she choose? Which j W
91
Two at a time
A group of four men—made uup of two brotheers
plus their father and grandffather—is walkiing
to a train station in the darrk and come to aan old
narrow bridge that leadss to the station. TThe
bridge can support onlyy two people at aa time, and
they have only one flasshlight betweenn them, so
after one pair has cro rossed, one of thhe men needs
to bring the flashligght back for the e next pair. The
four men take difffeerent times to ccross the bridge.
ǩ Brolher 1 loke kes one minule.
ǩ Brolher 2 lookkes lwo minuleess.
ǩ The folherr l lokes Ȍve minul ules.
ǩ The gronddfolherr lokees len minules.
Each paiir can walk a across the bridge oonly as fast
as the sslowest maann, and the next train arrives at
lhe sllolion in 17 mminules. How con oll llhe men
cros ss the bridge too the station on time??
Susan
Peter
Mary
Gary
Kevin
Rob
Annie Annie
Joe
tacey S
3
66
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Many number puzzles rely on logical
thinking rather than math skills.
Sudoku and Kakuro, for example, are
puzzles you solve by filling in blank
squares with the right numbers
according to certain logical rules.
Sudoku
The classic Sudoku puzzle consists
of a 9 x 9 grid of squares divided into
nine boxes of nine squares. Every
vertical column, horizontal row, and box
must contain the numbers 1 through 9.
Some squares already contain numbers,
and your job is to figure out which
numbers go in the empty squares.
Start with this puzzle and pick up
some tips and tricks before moving
on to try a few more on your own.
Starter Sudoku
Slightly harder
Another trick is to look for
sets of three numbers, known
as “triplets.” Look at the middle
column of three boxes, shaded
gray. The top two already
contain 1. This means that
1 must go in the right-hand
column of the bottom box.
Check the rows and you’ll
realize there’s only one place
the other 1 can go.
A good place to look first is
the row or column with the most
numbers. Here, the middle row
is missing only 2 and 8. If you
check the rest of the numbers in
the vertical columns that the
middle row’s blank squares sit
in, you should be able to figure
out which numbers go where.
Middle row
Never guess which number goes in a Neve ver er er gues es ess wh which number er er goes es es in a
square. If there are a number of square ree. If ther ere erre are re a number er er of
possibilities, write them small in pencil possibilities es, ess, wr wri write tthem em small in pen encil
in the corner of the squares and erase in the co corn rner er er of the square res es es and er era errase
them as you eliminate them. them em as you el eliminate them em.
Tips and tricks
5 4 1 6
8 7 6 4 9
4 3 5 8
7 8 5
1
3 2
6 3 4 9 1 7 5
6 5 4 3
6 9 2 4
2
1 2
5 3 2 6
8 6 4 5
1
5
3 7 6
7
1
3
6
9 7 2
5 2
9
6 8
4 5 2
5 3 8 1
7
2
1
1 4 3
6
8
4
9 5 8
1 6
5
8 9
8
9 3
7
3
8 6
1 4
7 5
6
4 8
5 1
8
3 2
4
2 5 9
1
9
1 3
8 4
6 1
7
2 5
6 3
4
9 7
BRAIN GAMES
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
The mossst logicaaal form of thinkkkking iinvolvves numberrrs.
WWWhen you do simple calculattttions, you ddon’ttt make
guesses. You figureeee outtt ttthe answers byy applying
logiical rules to the figures. Moossst peoplee worldwide
haaavve devised some way ooffff counting, annd most have
deveeloped ways of reasoning with numbers.
Geometry
Mathematics can describe shapes such
as triangles and pyramids in terms of
d angles and dimensions. This can be used
to measure things s like the heights of
mountains. If you know your horizontal m
stance (D) to a mountaintop and dista
have some way of measuring you ha h v
le as you look up at it, you the anggle
out how high (H) it is out how high (H) it is. can figuure ou
Calculllat aa
io ii
ns
icks.
You want to bu b
ild d a wall froooom br b i
brickssss
It will be be b 2 200 bricks long and 12 222 b
you
high, buuuuut how many bricks will ll y
ly
need? It’s easy—yooo yy u ju ust mul uu tippppp
wo
12 b by tw wwwo, givin i g gg 24, then a add t ttw
t
zeroes, giving 2,400 b bbricks. s Most calc l ulationss use tri iiiicks like this: they ee are re ree the bas a is of ff
ma athemat tical thi hh nkking.
,,,,,,,,,,,,
(((
systems
Counting s
Age farme
Imagine you are a
er counting
i e you are a Stone A
using the
sheep. You count to ten u
e fingers of
to ten, yo
both hands. When you get t
ou put a stone
in. If you
in your lap and start aga
reach eight,
eight fing gers: 18.
you have one stone and e
gers: 18. This
tem is ba ased on tens.
is why our counting syst
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
To find the solutions to
these puzzles, you’ll need
to use math—and a fair
bit of logical thinking.
Some of the puzzles are
straightforward and
should be easy to solve,
while others are more
difficult and will require
more thought. There are
also a couple of trick
questions to keep you on
your toes. You’ll find the
answers on page 188.
96
NUM8ER
TH1NK OF A
Puzzling pyramid
Fill in the gaps so that each box
in the second row up contains
a figure that is the sum of the
figures in the two boxes below.
Flower power
In each flower, the four
black numbers can be
added and multiplied
in the same way to
make the white number
in the center. See if
you can figure out
how you do it. What
number should appear
in the center of the
third flower?
Only one chance
Replace each of the question marks with the
numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 to make this problem
work. You can use each number only once.
120
50
44 ? ?
?
? ?
?
14
3 ? ? ?
?
4
5
6 2 30
5
8
6 7
?
6
9
2 10
50
?? x ? = ???
BRAIN GAMES
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
97
Dazzling stars
Each colored star represents a different
number from 1 to 4. Figure out which star
is which number to make this addition
problem work.
The weighing game
A pineapple weighs more than an orange, which weighs
more than an apple, which weighs more than a banana,
which weighs more than a strawberry. Study the balanced
scales above, then try to work out how many strawberries
are needed to balance one pineapple and three bananas?
How many strawberries do a pineapple, an orange, an
apple, and a banana each weigh?
Multiple fractions
What is ½ of ¹⁄
³
⁄⁄ of ¼ of ¹⁄5 ⁄⁄ of 600?
Pieces of eight
Write down eight number 8s, like this: 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8.
Now insert four addition signs between the eights in
such a way as to make a sum that equals 1,000.
Pass or fail?
To pass a test, Susan must correctly
answer 15 out of 20 questions. For each
correct answer, she is awarded ten points,
but for each incorrect answer, she is
deducted five points. She completes the
test, answering all 20 questions and
receiving a score of 125. Did she pass?
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
xx
1
/
1
3
//
1
/
1
2
//
1
/
1
4
//
1
/
1
5
//
+
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
A lot of math involves figuring out
patterns and relationships between
different numbers. Try out these
clever mind-bending math tricks on
your friends and family and find out
how math can be much more fun
than you think.
98
THE MAGIC OF
Domino divining g D m n i i i g
Use basic subtraction skills to discover the U s b a o s o i o r
total on a domino hidden in your friend’s hand. t n d m o i e o e h d
Step 1 Step 1 S e
Give your friend a set of dominoes and ask him or her to y G r e e m a a h h
choose one without letting you know what it is. c o o w y k w h t
Step 2 Step 2 S e
Ask him or her to pick one of the numbers on the domino p A h h c o e u e o h o n
and to do the following problems with it—it’s okay to use a t o e p s ’ k s
a calculator: l l a l a
ǩ Mulliply by 5 ǩ Mulliply by 5 ǩ u l y
ǩ ldd 7 ǩ d
ǩ Mulliply by 2 ǩ u l y
ǩ ldd lhe olher number ldd lh lh b ǩ d e h n m
shown on the domino shown on the domino s w n e o
Step 3 St 3 S e
Ask him or her to tell you the Ask himor her to tell you the A h h o l
answer. If you then subtract answer. If you then subtract a w I s r
14 from this, you will be left 1 o t , u
with a two-digit number, w w n m r,
which will correspond to which will correspond to w i o s n o
the very same numbers y v m u b
on your friend’s domino. o o f n d m .
The answer is “9”
T
e
a
s
e
s


This is an easy trick to start off
T
s
a
e
sy
r
k
s
r
f
with, because you are letting m
ath
w
h
e
u
e
u
r
e
n
m
t
do all the work for you. Ask your
d
a
h
w
r
o
yo
k
o
friend to exactly follow the steps
fr
n
to
x
ct
f
o
t
e
e
of the trick and the answer
of the trick and
the answ
o
h
r
k
n
h
a
sw
r
will always be the sam
e: 9.
will always be the sam
e: 9
w
w
s
e
e
a
e
9.
Step 1
Step 1
S
e
Before you start the trick, write the number 9 on
B
r
o
t
t
t
k
r
t
n
m
n
a piece of paper, fold it, and hand it to your friend,
a piece of paper, fold it, and hand it to your frie
d
a
c
of
p
d
a
h
d
to
ou
r
d
but tell him or her not to look at it.
but tell him or her not to look at it
b
e
h
o
e
o
o
k
Step 2
Step
2
S
e
Hand your friend a calculator and ask him or her
Hand your friend a calculator and ask him
or her
H
d
u
ri
d
a
l
r
d
s
m
r
r
to do the following:
to do the following:
o
o
e
lo
n
ǩ Type in his or her oge
ǩ
p
n
h
o
ǩ ldd lhe number of lheir house
ǩ
d
e
m
e
f
i
o
e
ǩ ldd lhe losl four digils of lheir phone number
ǩ ldd lhe losl four digils of lheir phone number
ǩ
d
e
s
u
i
s
lh
r
o
n
m
ǩ ldd lhe number of pels lhey hove
ldd lhe number of pels lhey hove
ǩ
d
e
m
e
f
s
e
o
ǩ ldd lhe number of brolhers ond sislers lhey hove
ǩ
d
e
m
e
f
l
rs
n
is
rs ers lhey hove
rs
e
ho
ǩ Mulliply by 18
ǩ Mulliply by 18
ǩ
ul
ly
y
ǩ ldd lhe digils of lhe onswer logelh
ldd lhe digils of lhe onswer logelh
ǩ
d
e
g
o
he
n
e
og
hher. íf lhe
her. íf lhe
h
í
e
answer is more than one digit, ask h
a
w
s
o
t
n
e
gi
s
him or her
h
o
e
to add those digits together, and to
o
dd
ho
t
o
h
a
gether, and to keep adding
k
d
them together until there is only d
them together until there is only d
h
m
g
e
n
o
y
ntil there is only digit left.
il there is only digit left
t
re
o
i
f
Step 3
S
e
Show your frie
Show
your f i
S
w
u
riend the piece of paper
end the piece of pap
d
e
c
of
p
with the answ
with the answer w
w
t
a
wwer written on it.
wer written on it
w
tt
o
t
MATH
BRAIN GAMES
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
99
All in a row
A l i
o
This is not just a great trick, it’s also a
T s
t s e t c
t a o
good way of practicing your multiplication
ood way of practicing your multiplication
g d w
o p c i
u m
t i t
skills. Once again, the number 9 is
skills Once again, the number 9 is
s l O c a
n h n m e 9
helping with the magic.
helping with the magic.
h p g i t
a c
Step 1
S e
Hand your friend a calculator, a pen, and a
H d u r d c u o
d
piece of paper. Ask him or her to write down
piece of paper. Ask him or her to write down
p e p e A h o e o r d n
these eight digits: 12345679.
these eight digits: 12345
h e g d s 2 5 9
Step 2
Step 2
S e
Ask him or her to choose one of the digits.
Ask him or her to choose one of the digits.
A h
h
o h
e n f e i
Step 3
S e
Whichever one your friend chooses, you must
W c e n y
n c
s , u u
quickly multiply it by 9 in your head. So, for example,
quickly multiply it by 9 in your head. So, for example,
q k m i
y n u e . ,
m e
if he or she picks 1, 1 x 9 = 9; if he or she picks 2,
if he or she picks 1, 1 x 9 = 9; if he or she picks 2,
f
s p s 1 9 9 h r e c 2
2 x 9 = 18; if he or she picks 3, 3 x 9 = 27, and so on.
2 8
o h i
3
7 n o .
Step 4
Step 4
S e
Now ask your friend to use the calculator to multiply
Now ask your friend to use the calculator to m
p y
N
k u i u t c u o o u l
the eight-digit figure by the number you have just
h e t g g e t
m r u v u
worked out. If your friend picked 1 in Step 3, the
rked out If your friend picked 1 in Step 3, the
w k o
o
r n
c d n e 3 e
answer will be 111,111,111; if he or she picked 2,
answer will be 111,111,111; if he or she picked 2,
a w w b
1 1
e
e k 2
the answer will be 222,222,222; if he or she picked
h a w w b 2 2 2
e
k
3, the answer will be 333,333,333, and so on.
3 e n e i e 3 3 3
n s n
Math genius Karl Gauss Math th gen enius Ka Karl rl Gauss
(1777–1855) once added the (1777–1855) once added ed d th the
numbers from 1 to 100 in seconds. number ers errs rs fr fro fr rom 1 to to to 100 in sec eco cconds ds. s.
He saw that if you add the frst and He saw th that if you add th the fr frs frrs rst and
last numbers (1 + 100), you get 101. las ast number ers er rs rs (1 + 100), you get et 101.
Adding the second and second-to-last Adding ng th the sec eco ccond and sec eco ccond-to to to-las ast
numbers (2 + 99) also gives you 101, number ers errs rs (2 (2 + 99) als lso give ves es es you 101,
and so on. So all you need to do is and so on. So So all you nee eed ed d to to to do do iis y
101 x 50, which is 5,050. 101 x 50, which is 5,050. 101 x 50, wh which h is is 5,050.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Super adder S p r a d r
Perform this trick well and you will P f m h t c w d o w
convince your friends that you are the i f i d th t th c v c y r d h u r h
world’s fastest adder. In fact, the only world s fastest adder In fact the only w s s s d e n a e
skill you need to master is how to skill you need to master is how to s l e d a e s o
multiply by 11. multiply by 11. m l l y 1
Step 1 S e
Hand your friend a pencil, a piece of paper, and Hand o r friend a pencil a piece of paper and H d u r d p c f p a
a calculator, and ask him or her to do the following: a calculator, and ask himor her to do the following: a c a k m d h w :
ǩ Wrile down lwo numbers belween 1 ond 1º, ǩ d n o u e b w n 1
one beneath the other. o b e e
ǩ ldd lhe lwo numbers logelher ond wrile lhol ǩ ldd lhe lwo numbers logelher ond wrile lhol ǩ d e w u e l e r d r l
third new number beneath the other two. third new number benea w e e a t o r o
ǩ ldd lhe second ond lhird numbers logelher ǩ d e c d n s g
and write a fourth new number below them. b b l h a w e f t e n b o h
ǩ Moke o Ȍflh new number by odding logelher lhe ǩ Moke o Ȍflh new number by odding logelher lhe ǩ o o e b b d h l
third and fourth numbers and write it below them. d u m r n w e w e
ǩ Keep going in lhe some foshion unlil lhere is ǩ e g g l s s o n l e
a column of ten numbers. l f t b a l n t m r
Step 2 S e
Ask your friend to show you the list of numbers. A y r e t h b s
Tell him or her that you can add the numbers Tell himor her that you can add the numbers T h h y m r
together quicker using a pen and paper than together quicker using a pen and paper than t r c r i a n n a r
he or she can using a calculator. h r e s a l r
Step 3
t
p
When your friend accepts the challenge, don’t
When your friend accepts the challenge
don’t
e
o
f
n
c
p
h
c
le
e
o
add the numbers together. Instead, simply
add the numbers together. Instead, simply
m
r
o
h
te
,
m
multiply the seventh number by 11—this will
lt
y
e
v
h
u
e
y

h
w
give you the sum total of all ten numbers much
e
u
e
m
ot
o
ll
n
m
e
m
h
more quickly than your friend can figure it out
more quickly than your friend can figure it out
r
u
l
ha
y
r
en
c

r
o
with a calculator.
with a calculator.
h
ca
u
o
For instance, if the ten numbers your friend
ta
e
t
t
n
m
rs
o
fr
d
wrote down were 7, 12, 19, 31, 50, 81, 131,
wrote down were 7, 12, 19, 31, 50, 81, 131
ot
o
n
r
,
3
5
8
1
212, 343, 555, all you have to do is multiply the
12, 343, 555, all you have to do is multiply the
,
3
5
al
o
a
t
o
m
t
y
e
seventh number, 131, by 11 to get 1,441, the
e
h
m
er
3
by
1
g
1
1
he
sum total of all the numbers. Don’t forget
sum total of all the numbers. Don’t forg
t
m
ta
f
m
r
D
t
rg
you can use a pen and paper for this trick.
you can use a pen and paper for this trick
n
e
pe
a
p
e
o
i
ri
+
-
×
7
8
9
4
5
6
1
2
3
A
C
0
C
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
=
.
%
÷
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
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100
Map reading
A map is like an aerial view
of the ground, but with all the
features represented by symbols.
Map reading is a very good test
of spatial awareness. Here, a boy
finds his way blocked and needs to
find a new route by reading a map
and relating it to the real world.
Thinking in pictures
If you have to pack a lot of items
into the trunk of a car, you use spatial
skills to mentally rearrange them
and decide how to make them fit
best. You also use spatial skills
when imagining how something might
look, such as a different furniture
arrangement in your bedroom.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
We usually think of spatial awareness in terms
of 3-D activities—playing sports, for example.
But spatial skills can also help us with 2-D
problems, such as making sense of patterns
on a page. Use these skills to figure out how
the 2-D objects in these puzzles interact with
one another. Check your answers on page 188.
102
2−D
SEEING IN
Up and down
Imagine the man turning the top-right cogg
clockwise. What will happen to the two
baskets of bricks? Will basket A move up
or down? Will basket B move up or down?
You will have to solve this problem stage
by stage, figuring out how the turning
of each cog, wheel, and pulley affects
how the next one will move.
You use 2-DD, and Yo , 2 , DD You us and u u n You use 2-DD, and u u d e 2- d Yo You use 2-DDDD, and
sometimes 3-DD, spatial DD 3 s s es l o atia metim t etimes i o i -DD, spatia etimes 3- i i somet etimes es es 3-DDDD, spatial
skills when yoou play y p sk s l ll y yoou w u pla ills when yoou pla k s w e i skills ls wh when yoooou play
computer ggames. puter gg es. omputer am mput es computer ga ut e e e er computer er gggames es es.
BB
AA
BRAIN GAMES
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
103
side-down triangle Ups
you figure out a way to turn the Can y
e on the left into the triangle triangl
right by moving only three tires? on the r
help if you use ten equal-size IIt might h
make your own triangle and cooins to m
oins around to find a solution. ove the co mo oluti
Five into fou ur
Here you can see five squares ma ade
out of 16 shovels. Can you figure out
a way to move only two shovels s to
turn the five squares into four?
No shovels can be taken aw way.
Equal division
The workers, wheelbarrows, The workers wheelbarrows
and piles of bricks at this
construction site look randomlyy
arranged. However, see if you can
add four lines to divide the site
into five areas, each containing into five areas, each ccontainin
w, one worker, one wheeelbarrow
and one pile of brickss.
vealed that the Scans have rev he th Scans have r aled tha ans ha tt d that n hhh h h ee eale cans have rev d ans ha aled that t ve rev d that thee e e re ealed that thee e ve reve rev Scans have ve re reve v vea ealed ed that tthhhee
ain associated area of the bra ss rea of the bra o o ain associa area of the bra t t n associated h e ea of the in associ b o of the b ain associated area a t ted ea of the e rea of the br i i f are rea ea of the b a ra a ra aain associated ed
gation, the with naviggg on, w a a tion, t t n with n h h e ith nav i vigatio avigation, t with v e with navi ith i i with navi vigg ig ggation, the
s, is enlarged hippocampus hippocampus pp pp pp s, is enlarg ss larg oo u a aamm d uu n hh enlarge cc i ii oo pp pp pp ged aa a uuu enlarged i i hhiiippppppppooooccaaaammppppuusss s, is enlarg rged ed
taxi drivers in London ttaxi drivers. in London ta . s rs LL rs r rr oo oo aaxx ttt dd dd nn nn nn er vv ii i ri ii oo oo dd dd aa tt driv d ee ee ve ver er rri i i iiinn LLoooonnddoooonn ttttaa aaxxii i dr d dri dri ri ive ve ver ers er rs rs.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Many of the things you do
each day depend on spatial
awareness skills—walking
along the street, or using the
phone, for example. You perform
these actions so often that they
feel natural, so you barely give
them a thought. You’ll need to
pay a bit more attention to solvee
these 3-D problems. Turn to
page 188 to find the answerss.
104
Four triannggles
Arrange six equal- l-size pencils
so that they makke four equilateral
triangles. If yoouu get stuck, remember
that this is a 33-D puzzle.
Diffferent angles es
Alth though these nine 3-D shhaapes
allll look very different, two o them are
iidentical—they’re just beeing shown from
contrasting angles. Se eee if you can find
the two matching shaapes. You will need
to visualize each shhape at different angles.
View from th the top
The side view above e shows four 3-D shape pes positioned on a boarrdd
(clockwise from toop left: a cube, a cylindder, a pyramid, and an
icosahedron). Caan you figure out whicchh of the six overhead vieews
below matchess the positions of the 33-D shapes in the side vi view?
BRAIN GAMES
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(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
People regularly come up with new ideas that People re
make life easier and that may even change the and the
world. Turning such inventions into practical inventions into practi racti
technology takes hard work, but the original he
idea is often the product of inspired genius. re
106
INVENT NVEN IION O
Bright ideas Br
Inventive people are often very
observant, with a talent for linking what o
hey see to other ideas. In 1948, Swiss th
ventor George de Mestral noticed a inve
of prickly plant seedpods clinging lot of prickly plant seedpods clinging
s clothes. He discovered that they to his c t they
quipped with microscopic hooks were eq roscopic
ng to the fabric, and he used his that clung e fabric,
to invent the Velcro fastener. discovery to to inv ery t
Problem solving
In 1993, British inventor Trevor Baylis was watching a TV show about the spread of AIDS in
DS in Africa. He realized that people
t pe
were dying because they could
se th
not pick up vital information
p vita
broadcast over the radio, simply
t over
because they had no electricity.
cause
He solved the problem by
inventing a wind-up radio,
powered by a clockwork
motor linked to a small
electrical generator.
Making connections
Some inventions involve luck, together
with the knowledge to appreciate it. h the know
In 1928, Alexander Fleming had been nd
trying to find ways of fighting bacterial find w
infections when he noticed that infectio
a mold growing on an unwashed
bacterial culture plate had killed the
bacteria around it—just like the white
mold on the culture plate above.
He realized he had discovered the
first antibiotic drug, penicillin.
el Prize was established The Nobel Prize was esta T s establis T Pr N l Prize was establ l Priz o was established h e was establishe e Nobe ize was establi ob b b was established e e was establishe e e e establishe e Prize was establi Th The Nobell el Pr Pri Pr riz ize wwas es es established ed
chemist Alfred Nobel, by Swedish ch Alfred Nobel, S s s lfred Nobel y o w mist Alfred wed h h chemist Alfred Nobe e cc i i b b ob b d d t wed ed e emist Alfred Nobe e Alfred Nobe w Alfr i i f by Swed edish cchhemist Alfr fre fr red ed Nobel el,
s fortune when he who made his f e fo s f fort o une w who ma rt d une when w hen h ho made h ee e whe e hi fo o mad tu w w w w w w w w who mad e when he e e when he who made w w rtune w i f wh who made his fo ffort rt rtune wh when he e
amite in 1867. invented dynamit ite in 1867 y 867. 86 ynammt ted d n 1 n nvented dyn e vente ii i i 8 d dyna t t 7 vented d 7 e e ente e ve 1188 7 it i iinve vented ed dynammite iiinn 11888667.
Known as burs, seedpods like this one have
Known as burs, seedpods like this one have
hooks that cling to animal fur, carrying the
seed away from the parent plant.
Stiff Velcro hooks (red in this magnified view) mimic
Stiff Velcro hooks (red in this magnified view) mimic
the hooks on a plant bur, and catch in the soft loops
of a woven pad.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Wernher von Braun was a visionary inventor: a man who
saw the future and made it happen. He was the scientist
behind the Saturn V rocket that carried men to the Moon, V
and he masterminded the development of the smaller
rockets that preceded it. He also had ambitious plans
for an orbiting space station and manned flights to
Mars. But all this was based on his early experience
developing the deadly V-2 missile for Nazi Germany.
Wernher
von Braun
108
Liftoff
Born in 1912, von Braun developed a
passion for astronomy when he was a child.
Inspired by the rocket-powered vehicles of
Fritz von Opel and the work of rocket
pioneer Hermann Oberth, he became
obsessed by space travel and joined the
Spaceflight Society at the University of
Berlin to assist Oberth in rocket research.
Wrong target
In the late 1930s, the German Nazi authorities
persuaded von Braun to develop the V-2 rocket as
a weapon. Yet von Braun always said that he was
really only interested in space travel. On hearing
the news that the first operational V-2 had hit
London, England, he said, “The rocket worked
perfectly except for landing on the wrong planet.”
At the age of 12, von Braun was At the ag age of 12, vo von Bra raun wwas
arrested for attaching rockets to a cart arr rre rrres es ested ed fo for att tt ttaching ro rocket ets ts to to a cart rt rt
and setting fre to them in the and set ett tt tting fr fre frre to to them in the
crowded streets of Berlin. cr cro rowd wded ed str tre reet ets ts of Ber erl rlin.
An astonishing total of 3,225 V-2s were An asto tonishing to total of 3,225 V- V-2s wer ere re
launched against Allied targets toward the aunched against Allied targets toward the launched ed ag against Allied ed targ rget ets ts to towward rd the
end of World War II—up to ten per day. end of Wo Worl rld Wa War II—up to to ten per er day.
A rocket-propelled Fritz Opel hurtles down
the AVUS racetrack in Berlin in 1928.
A captured V-2 rocket is launched by
British scientists in October 1945, soon
after the war ended.
Relaunch
In 1945, von Braun surrendered to the
American forces, who took him to the
U.S. Eventually, he was joined by a team
of 127 technicians who had worked on
the V-2 rocket program. Their task was
to develop the V-2 into a nuclear missile.
However, in 1958, one of von Braun’s
rockets was used to launch the first
U.S. satellite, Explorer 1. This marked
the beginning of the space race
between Russia and the U.S. that
was to lead to the Moon landings.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
109
Lunar landing
Von Braun’s big success was the colossal
Saturn V “superbooster” that carried the
V
Moon missions of the late 1960s. Much
bigger than any previous rocket, it had the
power to carry a heavy load into Earth orbit
and beyond. Von Braun’s dream became
a reality in 1969 when his rocket launched
Apollo 11 on its pioneer mission to land
men on the Moon. Altogether there were
six Moon landings—all using the Saturn V.
Rocket science
While he was working on the first American
rockets, von Braun came up with some
ambitious plans for space exploration.
He devised a huge manned orbiting space
station and figured out ways of mounting
expeditions to the Moon and even Mars.
He later worked as an adviser to Walt
Disney, who was making TV shows
about space travel.
Grounded
Eventually it became clear that von Braun’s
Saturn rocket was going to be replaced by
the space shuttle, which is not suitable for
missions beyond Earth orbit. Von Braun’s
hopes for more expeditions to the Moon and
planets were shattered, and in 1972, he stopped
working for the American space program. Soon
after this he became ill, dying in 1977. Yet he
had achieved his main ambition of sending
astronauts into space—and to the Moon.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Coming?
Okay?
Let’s go
Hi
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Okay
Great
Hello
Yes
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
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113
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(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
114
HAVING A
WORD
Blue Green Orange White Pink
Orange
Red
Green
Red
Blue
Green
Orange
Pink
Red
White
Blue
Red
White
Green
Orange
Pink
Orange
Blue
Green
White
Green
Red
Pink
Orange
Red
1. Sail, cone, mast, cat, deck
2. Stapler, pencil, ruler, pen, crayon
3. Moon, Earth, Mars, Sun, Neptune
4. Dolphin, sparrow, robin, crow, sea horse
5. Tree, run, flower, sky, laugh
Odd ones out
In each of the following lists of words,
three of the five are related in some way.
See if you can guess which two are the
odd ones out and why.
Quick comparisons
Figuring out the relationships between
words is the first step to correctly using
them. Choose the right word to complete
the sentences below.
ǩ%LUGLVWREHDNDVKXPDQLVWR
eye, mouth, hair, fur, crow
ǩ(\HVDUHWRVLJKWDVQRVHLVWR
smell, aroma, taste, touch, hearing
ǩ,QLVWRRXWDVRIILVWR
up, back, on, below, above
ǩ3HQLVWRLQNDVEUXVKLVWR
pencil, color, paper, paint, brush stroke
ǩ7ULF\FOHLVWRWKUHHDVELF\FOHLVWR
two, four, unicycle, five, one
When you talk or write, your brain searches
through your vocabulary to pick out the words
you need to express yourself. The following
games test your understanding of the
relationships between words and also show
how easily your brain can become confused
when you read words in a strange context.
Check your answers on page 189.
Mixed messages
The circumstances in which you see
words influence the way you read.
Step 1
Time yourself as you read out the color of
the writing, not the word itself. Look at the
15 words in the top panel.
Step 2
Next, time yourself as you try to do the
same with the panel below.
BRAIN GAMES
It is very difficult to equal or beat your
time from Step 1. For people who are
proficient at reading, it is difficult not to
automatically read the word. If the color of
the word and the word itself are not the rd itself are not the
same, we say the wword much quicker
than we can na ame the color.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Like and unlike Like and unlike
This game tests your knowledge of how words
relate to one another. In the top game, pick two p g , p
words from each line—one from the left side and
one from the right—that are closest in meaning. g g
Now do the same for the game below, but this
time pick the two words that are opposites. p pp
Like
nice, hungry, work starving, cat, strong
tired, cut, include apple, sleepy, worse pp py
scary, trash, party top, fish, spooky
friend, banana, sillyy catch, grow, foolish g
Unlike
hide, distant, praise scorn, blink, listen
sharp, chew, edge p, , g bite, center, strange , , g
twist, rational, puzzle untidy, illogical, test
crawl, leave, start crawl leave start return, walk, travel return walk travel
Rabbit
Goat
Dog Dog
Horse
Pig
Sheep
Cat
Tiger
Bird
Elephant Elephant Elephant
Rabbit
Tiger
Elephant
Horse Horse
Pig
Dog
Goat
Cat
Bird
Sheep
Colored creatures Colored creatures
Time yourself as you say out loud the color y y y
and the animal pictured behind the word for
the group of animals on the left. For example, the group of animals on the left For example
the first one is a blue rabbit. Then do the
same for the group of animals on the right
and compare the two times. and compare the two times
As in the mixed-messages g s
game, it is harder to ignore the e
word. We have to stop the word. We have to stop the
automatic reading response
in order to perform the task, in order to performthe task
and this slows us down.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
116
So So So So Soci ci ci ci ciiiiial al al all iiiiins ns ns ns nsti ti ti ti tincc nc nc ncts ts ts ts ts
We We We Wee ppppas as as as asss ss in in in i fo fo fo f rm rm rm rmat at at atioo iooon n n n ar ar ar ar arou ou ou ound nd ndd bbbbby y y yy ta ta taa talk lk lk lkin in inng gg
to to to to ooooone ne ne ne ne aaa aano no no nnothh th th ther er er e . . . Th Th Thh Thou ou ouusa sa sa sand ndd nd nds s s of of of o yyyyyea ea ea ears rs rs rss aaago go go go go, ,,
a a a lo lo lot ttt of of of of o ttttthi hhi h s sss in in info fo fo fo orm rm rm rmmat at at atio io ion n n n wo wo wo wo oul ul ul u d dd d ha ha ha ha have ve vee
he he he hhelp lp lp lpped ed ed ed e pppeo eo eoo eopl ppple eee fin fin fin finnd d dd fo fo fo foood od odd od oooor r r av av av avoi oi oi o d d ddd da da da daang ng ng ngger eer er e .
Inn In mmmmmod od oder err ern nnn cci ci ciitii tiies ees e , , wee we we sssspe pe pee pend nd nd nn aa llllot ott ot mmmmmor or orre e eee ti ttiime me me
ta ttaalk lkkin in inng g g ab ab abbou out th th th hin in ings gs gs ttt ttha ha hat t do do doon’ n’ nnn t tt af aaf a fe fe fecttt our ur ur ur
su su surv rvivvvaal—l —l —l —like th th th t es eesse eee pe pee peopppple le lee le dddis is iscu ccc ss ss s in inng ggg
th thhei ei eir vaaca caatii ti t on onns— s— s—bu bbut tt we we we s sssti till ll exc xccha hhaang nge ee
innnfo form r aat a io io ion nn al alll l th tt e time me mme.
Co Co Co Co Conv nv nv nv nver er er er ersa sa sa sa sati ti ti ti tion on on onn
So So So So S me me me me me tt ttal aal al lki ki ki ki k ng ng nng iiis s s s ea ea ea ea e sy sy sy sy s , bu bu bu bu but t t a aa a a se se se seri ri ri r ou ou ou ou ous ssss
co co conv nv nver er er ersa sa sa sati ti ti tion on n on o iiiiinv nv nvol ol ol olve ve ve ve v s s s li li li ll st st st sten en en ee in in in ing ggg ca ca caa c re re re refu ffu full ll lly yy y
an an annd d d fig fig fig fig figur ur ur urin nnng ggg ou ou out t tt ex ex exac ac ac actl tl tlly yyy wh wh wh whhat at t yyyyoou ou ouu ww wwwan an an aant tt
to to to to ss ssay ay ay ayy in n n n re re re r pl pply. yyy T TThi hi hi hi his s s is is s is mmm mor or or o e ee di ddd ffi ffi ffi fi ffi fifififificu cu cuu cult lt lt ii if fff
yo yo yo you uuuu do do do do nnnott ott kkno no now ww ww ea ea eaach ch ch chh ooth th ther er er e v vv vver eer errrrry yyy we we we wwelll ll, ,,
be be beca cc ussse ee thhhhe eee ex exxpr pres essi sssion on ons ssss an an aaa d dd bbbboody dy ddy dy
la la lang ng ngua ua uage ge ge tttha hhhat tttt he he he h lp ppp uuuus s co co coomm mm mmun uuunic ic icat at ate e
arrrre e ha hhard rd d r er e to un unnnde deers rs rsta tand dd wwwhe he he h nn n
taalkkin ii g ggg to strran annge ge ge g rs rs s.
La La La La Lang ng ng ng ngua ua ua ua u ge ge ge ge ge aaaaand nd nd nd nd lllllea ea ea ea earn rn rnn r in in in in inggggg
If If If wwwwwe e e e di di di di d dn dn ddn dn’t ’t ’t hhhhhav av av av ave e e e la la laa lang ng ng ngua ua ua ua u ge ge ge gge, we we we wee ww wwwou ou ou ou ould ld ld d
ha ha ha ave ve ve ttto o o o le le leeear ar ar arn n n ev ev ev ever er er e yt yt yt yt ythi hi hi hing ng ng ng ng bbb by y y im imm immit it itat at at at atioo ioon. n. n.
Th TTh Th This is is i mmmig ig ig ight ht ht hht wwwwor or or ork kk fo fo fo forr rrr so so soo some me me mm sssski ki kill ll ll l l ss, s, ss, bbbut ut ut
mo mo mo mo m st stt st st oooof f f ff th th thhe eee co co co coomp mp mp mple le le le lex xx th th th thin in ngs gs gs gs s tttha ha ha ha h t tt we we we e
le le eear ar arn nnnn mu mmm st st s bbbbe e e e de de desc sc sc scri ri ribe be ed. d. d. T TT The hhe he cccchi hi hildd d ld
ab ab ab bov oov ove ee do dddd es es es esn’ nn’ ’t ttt unde de ders rs rs r ta ta ta t nd nd nd t ttheeee ppppro ro ro oce ce ce c ss ss ss ss
of of of o b bbbuy u inn i g g ti ttick ck ccket et e s to to oo ssee ee ee tttheee m mov oovie ie iee, an an an and dd
wi wi ww ll not oo u uunder ee st st stann and ddd iff if i iit is n nnnot ot oot ee eexp xppla ll in ii ed ed ed edd
to h hhimmm. Yo Yo You ne n eddd l llangu gu guag agge e to to lea ee rn rnn.
Can I have
two tickets
for the movie,
please? Can
we sit where
we want?
What is he
doing?
We had a terrific
time skiing in the
Alps last year.
When did you
go there?
We went in March. I think
that’s the best time to
go because there was
a lot of snow.
We will do
the same.
The children
will love it!
hink he will Do you think
me? ever forgive me?
ANGUAGE
USING
Maybe you should
explain to him why
you did that and
see what he says.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.


4D3;@93?7E
118
Fill in the blanks
This game tests how good you are at
understanding words in context. Where
do these words fit into the story below?
Two of the words don’t belong, so choose
wisely! Check the answers on page 189.
ǩVKRFN
ǩ JULSSHG
ǩJULSSHG
ǩJOLPSVH
ǩIULHQGO\
ǩKLGHRXV
ǩEORRGFXUGOLQJ
VXUSULVH
ǩVXUSULVH
ǩFKDQFH
ǩȍHZ
ǩWDOO
ǩVHFRQG
ǩFRZ
This game is a
fun way to check
how good your
vocabulary is as
well as testing
the ability of your
brain to think
quickly and create
connections
between objects
between objects.
Coming up with
10–15 connected
words in the time
limit shows a good
level of word skill.
You will need:
ǩ7ZRSOD\HUV
ǩ6WRSZDWFK
ǩ3HQDQGSDSHU S S
X-ray almost froze when he saw the shape.
Looking up at the ________ birdlike animal,
perched at the top of a ________ building,
X-ray knew this could be a fight to the death.
When the beast spied X-ray below, it let out
a ________ shriek and, without waiting
another ________, swooped down with
terrifying speed. It ________ X-ray in its
talons and carried him away before he had
a________ to think. After the initial ________,
X-ray turned in the animal’s grip so that he
got a brief ________ of its face, and he sent
a laser beam straight into the beast’s beady
eyes. The creature shrieked in ________ and
let go of the hero, who ________ to safety,
ready for his next challenge.
Step 1
6WDUWWKHVWRSZDWFKDV\RXDVN\RXUIULHQG
to name as many animals as he or she can
in 30 seconds.
Step 2
For every animal named, mark a checkmark
on a piece of paper. If there are any words you
don’t know, check with an adult.
Step 3
This time get your friend to ask you how many
fruit you can name in 30 seconds. Next time,
use your own ideas for subjects.
Talk about it
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Step 3
Next it is the turn
of player 2 to start to
speak on a new subject.
After three turns each,
you could increase the
time to a minute for
each speech.
Step 1
The two players take
turns to talk on a topic
for 30 seconds, without
repeating words or
pausing for too long.
The topics are decided
by the quizmaster, who
also keeps time.
p 1 Step
n adult to write 12 words Ask a
ns and adjectives) on separate (noun
ces of paper. Fold each piece piec p
put them inside the box. and
Step St 2
The first player chooses a
piece of paaper and reads out
the word, annd the second
player has to ssay a similar
word. If the noun is “yacht,” y
he or she could say “ship” or if the a adjective
is “cold,” he or she could suggest “f freezing.”
Step 3
The game continues with the remaining
words until the player pauses for moore
than five seconds or is unable to thin nk nk
of a suitable word. Ask an adult to time
the answers with the stopwatch.
Step 2
At the word “go,” player 1
starts to talk. Challenges
can be made at any point
if player 2 feels a rule
has been broken—the
quizmaster’s decision is
final. If the challenger is
correct, he or she continues
the talk. The player who is
speaking when the time
is up wins the point.
Keep talking
Now it’s time to
think on your feet—
and hope those
words keep coming.
You will need:
ǩ7ZRSOD\HUV
ǩ4XL]PDVWHU
ǩ6WRSZDWFK
Every picture tells a story
Here’s a game to test your storytelling skills.
Choose five objects from the grid opposite to
create a brief story. Choose your objects from
either a straight or a diagonal line. You must
bring all five objects into your story and use
proper sentences. Try to be as imaginative as
you can, whether your story is set in a fantasy
world or is just about a day at school!
Close relatives
Your brain has an aamazing capacity to
remember words, often by linking them
with visual imagess. These games help you
practice your wordd skills to improve your
vocabulary and connfidence so that you
won’t ever be lost ffor words.
It’s not always easy
finding the word you
need. This game
tests your skill at
thinking up words
with related
meanings.
You will need:
ǩ7ZRSOD\HUVDQGDQ
adult to help out with
the game
ǩ3HQDQGSDSHU
ǩ%R[ZLWKDKROHRQWRS
ǩ6WRSZDWFK
119
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
121
As lnog as you wrtie
Ass lnogg as you wr wrt rti rtie
the frsit and lsat lttres
thhe fr frs fr rsiit and llsaat lltt ttr tttre res es es
of a wrod, you can
of a wr wro rod, you can
sitll raed it.
sitll raed it.
siitl tll ra raed ed iit t.
Words as art
Some forms of writing are so
beautiful that they are treated
as an art form. In the past, many
people in the West learned graceful
forms of handwriting—an art known
as calligraphy that is still enjoyed by
some today. In Chinese, every new
word requires a different character,
and this gives calligraphy a practical
function because the writer can invent
an entirely new character to express
a particular idea. Such characters
are works of art in their own right.
Pictures and words
Comic books have always been
popular with children, and many
adults read graphic novels that are
based on the same idea. These
do have words, but most of the
meaning is in the pictures. Pictorial
representations of words are also
used in other ways such as road
signs. Known as pictograms, these have the advantage of being
universally understood—regardless
of the language you speak and
whether you can read it.
S
p
e
a
k
i
n
g

a
n
d

w
r
i
t
i
n
g
A
lth
o
u
g
h
m
o
s
t o
f u
s
le
a
rn
h
o
w
to
w
rite
,
fe
w
p
e
o
p
le
d
o
it w
e
ll. W
e
c
a
n
te
ll a

s
to
ry, b
u
t s
o
m
e
h
o
w
w
e
lo
s
e
th
e
p
lo
t
w
h
e
n
it co
m
e
s
to
w
ritin
g
it d
o
w
n
.
W
e
o
fte
n
u
s
e
u
n
c
le
a
r la
n
g
u
a
g
e
w
h
e
n

w
e
w
rite
, w
h
ic
h
is
w
h
y s
o
m
a
n
y o
ffi
c
ia
l
fo
rm
s
a
n
d
d
o
c
u
m
e
n
ts
a
re
d
iffi
c
u
lt to

u
n
d
e
rs
ta
n
d
. L
e
a
rn
in
g
to
e
x
p
re
s
s

yo
u
rs
e
lf in
s
im
p
le
te
rm
s
w
h
e
n
yo
u

a
re
w
ritin
g
is
a
n
im
p
o
rta
n
t s
k
ill.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Some people have a flair for learning languages. They
catch on to what is being said, learn how to reply, and
are soon able to fluently read and write the language.
Jean François Champollion was a genius at this.
But he didn’t just learn the languages of his own age.
He found a way of using his skill to decipher a language
that had been long forgotten, enabling scholars to
rediscover the lost world of ancient Egypt.
Jean François
Champollion
çç
122
Sanskrit is the ancient language of
Hindu India, dating back to 1500 B.C.E.
Used to compose sacred textts, Avestan
is an old language from eastern Iran.
Keystone
In 1799, a French army captain discovered a
stone slab near the Egyptian port of Rashid,
or Rosetta. The “Rosetta stone” was covered
with writing in three languages: Egyptian
hieroglyphs, another form of Egyptian writing
called demotic, and classical Greek. But all three
were versions of the same thing—a document
issued by Pharaoh Ptolemy V in 196 B.C.E. Enough
of the writing remained to allow the hieroglyphs
to be related to the Greek and decoded—
but it would prove difficult.
Am
haric
is the language of the
Am
hara people of Ethiopia, Africa.
Master of languages
Born in F i 1790 J F i Born in France in 1790,, Jean François
came from a poor family and was
eight years old before he went to
school. He quickly discovered that he
had an amazing talent for languages,
mastering a dozen by the age of 16.
He also became intrigued by obscure
languages such as Amharic, Avestan,
Sanskrit, and Chaldean. Eventually
he became an assistant professor
of history, specializing in ancient
languages that could provide a way
of understanding the past.
Land of the pharaohs
While Champollion was a child, the
wonders of ancient Egypt were just
being discovered. The civilization that
built them was a mystery, however,
because no one could read the writing
found on the monuments—
the
symbols known as hieroglyphs.
Champollion was fascinated by
the ancient Egyptians.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
A dotty challenge
Can you draw four straight lines,
without lifting your pen from the page,
to connect all the red dots? You will need
to think outside the box on this!
Illustrated stories
Choose a painting—from an art book or from
the Internet! Study the picture for a while and
focus on the details. Let your mind wander and
then try to create a story around it.
Back to basics
What can you do with an empty
cardboard box? Use your imagination
and see if you can design something
brilliant. Of course, you could always
just copy our idea, but where’s the
fun in that?
Natural talent
Mother nature is often the best designer and
has provided inspiration for some important
inventions. See if you can match the invention
on the left with the inspiration on the right.
1. Shinkansen bullet train
2. Futuristic car
3. Swimsuit
4. Self-cleaning paint
5. Road reflectors
A. Shark’s skin
B. Lotus leaf
C. Cat’s eyes
D. Trunkfish
E. Kingfisher’s beak
Being able to understand
and interpret artwork is
a good creative exercise,
as the brain thinks about what at
the artwork is showing andd
draws on what it means.
By basing your story on
something that inspires youu,
you may create something
impressive yourself.
Some of the greatest inventors have
taken simple things and used them in
a new way. You don’t always need
elaborate materials to come up with
great ideas!
The field of science referred to above is
known as biomimicry, which means “imitating
nature.” The next time you are in a park or
garden, see if you can find inspiration or new
ideas from the things you see around you.

When taking up a
challenge such as this, you
may need to take one or two
different approaches. If you
don’t get it right the first
time, keep starting from
a different point
until it works.
128
SP SP PAA PPP RRK?
ARE YOU U A CREATIVE
BRAIN GAMES
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Something from nothing
There is great creative potential in the
bits and pieces lying around your home.
Try to find new ways to use everyday
objects such as tissue boxes, cardboard
tubes, and straws. Or maybe make
a sculpture, starting with an empty egg
carton and adding anything else that
sparks your imagination sparks yoour imagination.
Lateral thinking
ee if you can solve these riddles with a dash Se
of imagination and a lot of lateral thinking. o
le A: Riddl Romeo and Juliet
ying dead on the floor. are ly
ere are no marks on The
r of them, but they are either
ed with water, and near soake
is a broken glass bowl. them
How did they die? H
Riddle B: How do you throw
a ball and make it come back
without throwing the ball
against a wall, the ball being
attached to string or elastic,
or the ball being caught and
thrown back by someone?
Riddle C: A man rode into town on
Wednesday. He stayed for three
nights and then left on Wednesday.
How is this possible?
When presented with
riddles, we may try to find the answer
based on a straightforward reading of
the question. By trying to think what
else the riddle might mean, you will
learn to think laterally.
c Put your potential for brilliancce to the tes
Some of th with these six challenges. Some of the ga
ng, while others require lateral thinking, w s leav
in your hands. Ju the creativity entirely i Just
e in each cloud and se check the challenge se
r you qualify as a creative spark! whether you quali
find the answers on page 189. You’ll fin
You may come up with a
fantastic creation, but even if your
ideas turn out to be more silly than
st
ames
ve
ee ee
129
ideas turn out to be more silly than
splendid, you will have learned
a great deal about using your own nn
creative spark.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
BOOST YOUR
CREATIVITY
Many techniques designed to
improve creative thinking encourage
you to break away from strict logic
and fixed ideas and let your mind
wander more freely around a
problem. This is often called
“thinking outside the box.” It
helps you see things from different
angles and come up with the fresh ang
ed to be creative approaches you need to be creative.
130
Lateral thinking
Similar to brainstorming, lateraal
thinking is all about approachin ng
a problem from every possible
angle. The basic idea is to
identify the “normal” way of
looking at a problem and avoid
it. You use a random way of
triggering new trains of though ht,
such as letting a book fall open n,
sticking a pin on the page, and
seeing how the word it hits
might relate to the problem.
It sounds crazy, but it can be
surprisingly effective.
Brainstorming
This involves thinking up as many ideas
as possible without judging them. You can do
this alone, but it is usually a group activity, with yy g p y
someone writing all the ideas down. It can be fun!
When everyone has run ouut of ideas, you look at
the list and see what you hhave. Sometimes the
oddball ideas turn out to bbe the best ones.
Vissual thinking
Insteaad of making simple lists of ideas, you can t turn them
into a diagram. You start with a i t a diagram You start with a central problem, such as
global warming, and add a series of spreading branches di branches
depicting all the related facts, figures, and ideas. This can
work like a visual form of brainstorming, with new ideas
leading to more radical, creative ones.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
What if...?
One way of moving beyond fixed ideas
is to ask, “What if . . .?” You could aask,
“What if all bus travel was free?” aand
this might lead to creative thinking g
about the way we get around and t the
role of cars. It could be a negative
question, such as “What if no one
collected our garbage?” You could
then figure out ways of dealing wit th
the problem. Or the question could d
be impractical in itself, such as “W What
if our pets could talk?” This might
seem like a fantasy, but it could
stimulate useful ideas about
how we treat animals.
131
Energetic thi inking
Many people find that the ey think
more creatively about pro oblems oblems
while they are walking, ru unning,
or working out. The exerccise has
to be repetitive, so it frees your
mind to work on the prob blem.
technique of The f h i h que of T technique o h hh echnique e technique o e echnique e echnique i ff Th Thhe tec echhniique of f
g diagrams to using usingg diag gg s ss rams to uu diagrams t uu nn i ii diagrams to gg agra u t u diagr i i uussiiinnggggg diag agra rams to to
eas dates back link ideas dates ba s dates back link as dates ba nk ideas dates bac ink i dates b d as dates ba deas dates back k k k k k k k k i k i link idea eeas dates es es back
he 200s to th to th 200s oo tt tt he 200 hhe 200 o to t e to to to oo tthhhe 200s CC..EEE.. EEE , ,
n it was used when a w was us w n it was used when w h e e it was used w w w w w w w ed e e whe w w w w i wh whenn it wwas used ed
philosopher by p pp losopher y hilosopher b philosop b ilosopher by ppphilosopher er
hyry of Tyre. Porphyry of Ty rp ry of Tyre. rp r Po yry of Ty Po hyry o h of Tyre Po p e Po ry of Tyr r f Po Porp rphhyry ry of Ty Tyre re. e.
I WAALK MY
HUMANS TWICE
A DAY.
Working backw ward ward
If you know what you want but don’t
know how to get to there e, try working
backward. It’s like working back from
a winning shot in basketball: to get C
to score, A has to pass thhe ball to B
and B to C. Mentally, it caan suggest ideas
that would not occur to y you otherwise.
A
C
B
I TRAINED
MINE TO WALK
THEMSELVES.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
CREATIVE
EXERCISES
You can improve your creative
skills by following exercises
designed to make you look
at ideas and problems in
different ways. So try thesse
games and let your
imagination run free!
Novel story
Use your imagination and
think of ways of combining
all the following words into
a funny story or poem:
purple, sheep, chips, string g,
chair, summit, apple, screww,
tie, smile
Clip art
Can you think of 30 different
ways of using a paper clip
other than for holding papers
together? Write down as many
as you can in ten minutes.
The crazier, the better.
Ready, set, go!
What if...?
Exercise your creative streak and
come up with the most imaginative
story you can to complete the
following scenarios:
ǩ What if we didn’t sleep?
ǩ What if your house could speak?
ǩ What if we could go on vacation in space?
ǩ What if our eyes were in our kneecaps?
ǩ What if we could breathe underwater?
Unusual crossing!
Imagine that you are stranded on one side of a lake, your
friend is on the other, and you want to get to your friend.
Set yourself a time limit of
five minutes and write down
as many ways you can think
of to cross the lake. See what ideas your friends come up
with, too. It could make for
an interesting crossing!
BRAIN GAMES
132
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.

redentials
Green cr
often about
Creativity is
e of the world
being aware
and using it for
around us a
. When was the
inspiration.
ou really looked
last time yo
u? Pick a color—for
around you
green. How many
example, g
n you see that are
things can
ere are more than
green? Th
t think at first.
you might
Creative play
Play helps free the mind and aid creativity, so
use your visual imagination and plan a treasure
hunt for your friends. Think of some cryptic clues
to lead your friends on a journey around your
house or backyard The clues could even be house or backyard. The clues ccould even be
pictures. Each clue leads to another until you
reach the treasure. Read out thhe first clue and
let the hunt begin!
Albert Einstein cultivated his own AAlb t Ei t i ltiv t d hi w AA Einstein cultivated his Ei rt Einstein cul l ll ultivated his ow t tt tt rtt Albert Einstein cultivated d nstein cultivated his own h bert Einstein cultivated hi bbert Einstein cultivated his oww ert Einstein cultivated v Albert Einstein cultivated his ow i t ti i i AAllbbber ert rt t rt rt EEi Ei insttteiin cullttiiva vvatted edd hhiis owwn
creative exercises. These cr cre rea eative ve ex exer erc rcises es es. Th Thes es ese
““
thought thought
experiments ex exp xper eri riments ts
””
led to the development led ed to to the deve vel elopment
of his famous theories of relativity. of his fa famous theo eori ries es es of re rel elativi vity.
133
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Ahead of his time
Many of Leonardo’s inventions were
objects that could not be made at the
time but have since become a reality.
He devised a form of parachute, a glider,
a type of bicycle, a life jacket to keep a
person afloat, an underwater breathing
device, weapons that could be used to
attack ships from underwater, and an
“unsinkable” double-hulled ship. He
even came up with this pioneering
concept for a helicopter (left).
This helicopter of Leonardo’s would not have worked,
although his notes suggest that he did build flying models.
One of the most intelligent people ever to have lived,
Leonardo da Vinci is famous for the amazing breadth of
his interests. Primarily a painter of extraordinary skill,
he became fascinated by the human body and pioneered
the science of anatomy. He also became a practical
engineer and inventor, dreaming up all kinds of
astonishing devices that were way ahead of their time.
Leonardo
da Vinci
Visionary engineer
In 1482, Leonardo got a well-paid job with
the duke of Milan by describing himself as
a military engineer. Luckily he was much
more talented than most engineers of the
time. He was interested in water power
and came up with many devices driven by
water wheels. Later, he proposed a bridge
across the Gulf of Istanbul, which would
have been the longest single-span bridge
in the world, but it was never built.
Amazing artist
Leonardo was born near Florence, Italy,
in 1452. When he was 15, his father sent
him to work as an apprentice for the
Florentine painter Andrea del Verrochio.
He soon became a superbly realistic
painter of human figures, partly because
of his interest in anatomy. He worked very
slowly, and during the late 1400s, he
completed only six paintings in 17 years.
His most famous painting is the Mona Lisa,
probably painted in around 1505.
Leonardo left most of his projects unfnished, and eonardo left most of his projects unfnished, and Leo eonard rdo lef eft ft ft most of his pro roj ojec ect cts tts unfnished ed, and
it is possible that he suffered from attention defcit it is possible that he suffered from attention defcit it is possible that he suff ffe fffer ere red ed fr fro frrom att tt ttention def efcit
disorder (ADD)—a psychological problem that disorder (ADD)—a psychological problem that disord rder er (A (ADD)—a psycholog ogical pro roblem that
has only recently been identifed. has only re rec ecently been identifed ed.
Today, Leonardo’s To Today, Leo eonard rdo’s
paintings—and even paintings—and eve ven
his drawings—are his dr dra rawings—are re
among the most among the most
valuable in the world. va valuable in the wo worl rld.
The Mona Lisa is thought to be a portrait of the wife
of a wealthy silk merchant from Florence.
This Leonardo drawing shows a weapon for hurling
stones—a bombard—powered by a water wheel.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
135
te tees s an an andd d sk sk skket et etch ch ches es No No N
kkno no n w w ab ab bou ou out t Le Leon oo ar ardo do’s ’ss mmman any y ta ta ta t le leent nts ss We We kk
aaus ussse e e he hee kkep ept t no noote te te es s il illu luust st stra ra rate te teed d wi with th be be eeca cc
ailed ed sssske ketc tche he hes. ss AAAn n nn inntr trrig iggui ui uing ng ngg ffea ea eatu tu ture re r de d ta
he hese see n nottes ess iis s th that att ttthe heey y y ar ar a e e ee wr wr w it it itte te teen n n fr fr from om om of th
hht t to to to lef ef eft t in in “““mi mi mi mrr rror oo ” wr writ itin inng. g. WW We e e kn kn know ow oww righh
t LLeoona na n rd rdo o o wa wa was s le left f -hande ded, wwwhi hi hich ch chh that that
ke k s wr wr w it it ttin ing g le le le eft ft t to ri righ ght in ink nk qqui u te tee mak
ficu cult bec ecau au ause see yyyou our wr writ tin in ingg hand nd di dd ffi ff
ud udge ge g s thhhe we wet in innnk. k. H He po poss s ib i lyy ddec eecid idedd smu
gett aro rooun uu d thiss b by yy wr wrrittin ii g ba b ck ckwa wa wa ard rdd— — to g
den ennce ce ooof f his ss orriggin inal al, , lo logica c l th thinki king ng g. ev ee id
Gruesome fascination
Leonardo was fascinated by human anatomy.
He spent hours dissecting human corpses and
drawing what he saw. This gruesome activity
was considered suspicious, and was even
forbidden by the pope himself, but Leonardo was
not easily put off. He pressed on, producing many
drawings, which he considered a much better
way of describing anatomical features than
written descriptions. Many of his drawings
are remarkably detailed and accurate.
These studies of limbs by Leonardo were among
the first anatomical drawings ever made.
Sc Sc SScie ie ie ient nt ntifi ifi ific c c c pi pi pi pion on onnee ee eerrr
Le Le Le L on on on onar ar ar ardo do do wwwas asss iiint ntter er eres es e te te te t d d dd in in in aaall ll ll ffor orms ms ms oof f
sc sc sc scie ie ieenc nc nc n e, e, e, iinc nc nclu luudi di d ng ng n oooopt pt ptic ic ic i s, s, s, aaana nato tomy my m , , zo zo z ol ol olog og ogy, y, y, y,
bbo bo bota ta t ny ny ny y, , , ge ge geol olog og ogy, y, y aa and nd nd aaaaer er erod od ddyn yn ynam ammmiccs. s. MMMor orre e ee
im im im i po pport rt rtan anntl tl tly, y, y, y hhhhe ee pi pion onee eere red d d a a me me m th thod od oof f
st stud uddy y th th that at wwwe ee st st stil ill l us use e to toda da day. y. y IIns ns ste tead ad ad oo of f
ge ge gett tt tin in ing g in info foorm rm rmat atio io oon nnn fr from om c cla la lass ssic ical al a aut ut utho hoors rs r
an an an a d d d th th th he e Bi B bl b e, e, e hhhe ee us us u ed edd tthe he rrrrev ev ee ol ol lut ut utio io io i na naary ry ry
ap appr pr proa oa oach ch h ooof f ob ob ob bse se erv rv vvin in ing g na na n tu tuure re aand nd n aask sk s in in inng g g g
si simp mple e q qque uest st st tio ions nss lllik ik i e e “H “HHow oww dd do o bi biiird rd rds s s fly fly fly y?” ?” ??
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Your Brain and
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
You
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
The inner you
T
Most of us believe that we have
M
an inner “self” that defines our
a
personalities. The concept has
p
no biological basis, and most
n
scientists think it is an illusion.
s
Yet it is a very powerful idea,
YYet it is a very pow
Y
and it forms the basis of the
a
“soul” that many people believe

survives even after death.
s
138
SELF
SENSE OF
That’s me!
If you put a cat in front of a mirror, it may not
react at all. Birds don’t recognize themselves
either; instead, some see a rival and try to drive
it away. Human babies are similar, but at the
age of around 18 months, they know who they are
looking at—they have developed a sense of self.
Self-esteem
We all have an idea of how we would
like to be. If we think we don’t match up
to this ideal, we feel bad about ourselves—we have
low self-esteem. Quite often the ideal is not realistic,
but sometimes our judgment of our self is inaccurate
and we are actually closer to the ideal than we think.
You know who you are. You rrecognize
yourself in mirrors and pictuures. You
have an image of yourself that includes
your personality and your beeliefs about
how others see you. This sellf-awareness
enables you to think about yoour identity
and how you relate to other people. It is
what we call consciousness..
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
139 139
B
r
a
i
n
H
Q
?
Scans of brain activity like this one, show
ing
high activity in red, reveal that there isn’t a
single part of the brain that is the focus of
consciousness. N
o one has ever suffered
a brain injury that destroyed their sense of
self but left everything else intact. Instead, it
seem
s that consciousness depends on activity
throughout the cerebral cortex—
the part of the
brain responsible for m
em
ory and thinking.
Self-image
Your sense of self is made up of your personal history
combined with your own idea of your personality and physical
appearance, as well as how others see you. If you are lucky,
you will have a positive self-image, but some people have
negative ideas that distort their self-image. For example,
very shy people think others are judging them all the time.
Consciousness
No one really knows what consciousness is,
but we all have it. It has been described as
an awareness of our own existence and our
thought processes. So it is partly about your
identity but also about your ability to think,
plan, and analyze your thoughts and plans.
y
I look good, I look good ood,,,
and I’m looking and I’m look d I’m looking ing
forward to seeing fo forwward to see rwa rwward rd to to seei ing eing
my friends later . . . my fr fri frriends ds later er er er . . . . . .
Some people suffer from Some peo eople suff ffe fffer er er fr fro frrom
a psychological condition that a psycholog ogical co condition that
makes them think they have makes them think they have makes es es them em think they ey have ve
more than one more re than one
““
self. sel elf. f.
yy
““
On On
average, they believe they ave ver era errag age, e, they ey bel elieve ve they ey
have 13 different identities have 13 different identities. ff have 13 different identities. d d d have 13 d a have 13 different identitiess ve 13 different identities aa e e en en ee e e e e e e e fe 3 ffe v v r r es es e e e e er er e e hh n n n n d d d d have 13 different identities hhaave ve ve 1 13 3 d di iiff fffe ff fffer fer ere r eren renn ent t i iid den enn ent ti iit ti iies ess s es es es es es.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Everyone is affected in different ways by the same experiences.
Jack hates parties, but his friend Jill loves them. They have
different personalities. Yet this might not predict how
they react to other types of experiences. Jack might be
open to new ideas, while Jill is not. We are all complex
mixtures of a variety of personality traits.
140
P
E
R
S
O
N
A
L
I
T
Y
T
Y
P
E
S
In the genes
Part of your personality is inherited from your
parents, so if they are both fun-loving people,
there’s a good chance you will be the same.
However, it is not quite so simple, because
personality traits can be expressed in various
ways. A well-organized artist, for example,
might seem unlike a well-organized banker.
Getting along together
Some people are very reserved and have only a few
special friends. Others are more sociable and seem
to get along with everyone. Being open minded to the
ideas of people with different personalities helps us
develop both emotionally and intellectually. It also
helps us cooperate to achieve things.
Individuality
Western cultures tend to
celebrate the variations in
personality that make us
individuals. Some other
cultures discourage them.
However, we all seem to
be getting bolder about our
individuality, and we often
display this in the way we
dress and behave. Ideally,
we would all feel confident
as individuals while
staying responsible
members of society.
Nature and nurture
Your experiences can have a big effect on your
personality. If your best friend is run over by a bus,
for example, it affects your outlook. But although
these twins may have been affected in different
ways by their personal histories, they probably
react to new experiences in similar ways.
The ancient Greeks Th The ancient Gre reek eks ks
thought there were only thought ther ere re wer ere re only
four basic personality fo four basic per ers rsonality
types: happy, gloomy, types es es: happy, gloomy,
calm, and excitable. calm, and excitable. calm, and ex excitable. e.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
141
Five-way split
Most psychologists agree that personality
is defined by five traits, each with its own
sliding scale. For each trait, every one
of us lies at a different point on the
scale. This gives a wide range of possible
combinations and accounts for the almost
infinite variety of human personalities.
Simple systems
People often use simple ways of
defining personality. One common
system is the type A person who is
dynamic and pushy—such as the girl
in the above pictures—and the type B
person who is more relaxed. But
these simple concepts do not cover
all aspects of personality.
Neuroticism
Extroversion
Openness
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
Worried
Insecure
Self-pitying
Sociable
Fun loving
Affectionate
Imaginative
Independent
Prefers variety
Helpful
Softhearted
Trusting
Organized
Careful
Self disciplined
Calm
Secure
Self-satisfied
Shy
Serious
Reserved
Down-to-earth
Conforming
Prefers routine
Unhelpful
Ruthless
Suspicious
Disorganized
Careless
Weak willed
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
P
e
r
s
o
n
a
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t
y

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142
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p
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p
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(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
BRAIN GAMES
144
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(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Born in England in the last year of the 1700s,
Mary Anning was a self-taught pioneer of the new
science of geology. She had a genius for finding the
fossil remains of extinct animals and was considered
an expert by some of the most eminent scientists
in Europe. Yet she achieved all this at a time when
women were barred from academic life.
Mary
Anning
Fossil hunter
Mary’s father was a
furniture maker and
fossil collector who took his
children fossil hunting along
the shore. He sold his finds to
wealthy visitors from a table in
front of his store. But he died
when Mary was 11, leaving his
family with no income. His wife
kept up the fossil trade, while
Mary and her elder brother
went out to look for fossils. Mary
became an expert at finding, and
identifying, exciting fossils, and
when she was 20, she started to
run the fossil business herself.
Jurassic coast
Mary lived in Lyme Regis on the
“Jurassic coast” of southern England—
so named because the cliffs contain
fossils dating from the Jurassic period
of the age of dinosaurs. In the early
1800s, such “curiosities” were not
understood, but they were eagerly
sought by visiting gentlemen
naturalists. If they could not find
any, they could buy them from
local collectors like Mary.
An extinct relative of the modern nautilus, this ammonite
is one of many fossils found on the Jurassic coast.
In 1800, at one year old, Mary survived being 1800 at one year old Mary survived bei In 1800, at one yea ear old, Mary ry surv rvi rv vive ved ed being
struck by lightning. People believed that this truck by lightning. People believed that thi str tru ruck by lig ightning. Pe Peo eople bel elieve ved ed that this
made her unusually bright and observant. made her unusually bright and observant. made her er unusually bri rig ight and obser erv rva rv vant. t.
Marine reptiles
Mary made her first major discovery in 1811, after
her brother found the fossilized skull of what he
thought was a crocodile. It took her a whole year
to uncover the complete skeleton of an ichthyosaur,
a prehistoric marine reptile that resembled
a dolphin. It was the first ever found. She sold
the fossil to a rich local man, who sold it on to a
museum in London. She was then only 12 years old.
This view shows Lyme Regis across the bay, and the beach in
Charmouth where Mary found some of her best fossils.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
147
Ge G ological pioneerr
When Mary Anning was col lle l ct ctin ing
fossils, most scie i ntists still believeeed d
that Ear a th and its animals had been
created in six days, only 6,000 years
ago. The evolutionar a y theories of
Charles Darwin were e not published
until 12 years after M Mary died
in 1847. Her fossi iilss o f extinct t t
creatures we w re some of o tthe h most
important ge g ological a discove v ries of
all time, annd d her ideas abou o t wh w at
they meant fforce ced scientists to o look
for differennt ways of explaining g the
history of life. In 18824, it was said dd of o
Ma M ry, “. . . all ackno n wledge that t she
understands more of the scienc n e
th hhan anyone else in th this kingdom.””
Se Se Sea a dr dr drag ag agon onn
We We W al alth thy y co co ccoll lllec ectoo t r r Th Th T om ommas as B BBir irch ch w was ass ss so
im im mmpr p es esse seedd d by by by MMarry’ yy s s di di d sc s ovver r e ie ies s th that at hhe sold
hi his s ow w ownn nn fo fo fossil il cc coll o le le lectt ctiio ion innnn 1182 820 00 an an a dd gga g ve
th the e pr proc ocee eeds ds to o h the e e An Anniiing ngs. s. TThi hiss es esta tablished
Ma Ma Mary ry in he her r bu busi sine ess ss,, an andd sh she e we weent n o on to make
ot t othe he h r r am amaz azin ing g fin finds ds. . Th They ey iinc nclu lude ded, d,, iinn 1823, the
fir first st kkno nown wn s ske kele leto ton n of of o aa llon ong- gg-ne necck cked ed “sea
dr drag ag gon on ” ,” llater e dddes escrr crib ibed d aas s aa a pl ples e ioosa saur.
Renowned expert
Mary had little formal education,
but she taught herself anatomy and
geology. At an early age, she became
lifelong friends with Henry de la Beche,
who went on to become the president
of the Geological Society of London. She
knew many other eminent scientists,
either personally or through letters, and
by the mid-1820s, she was considered
an expert on most types of fossils.
Yet she rarely left Lyme Regis, and
she visited London—then the center
of the scientific world—only once.
Inspired by finds like Mary’s, this old print shows what
an ichthyosaur and a plesiosaur might have looked like.
Mary on the shore of Lyme Regis with her
geological hammer and Tray, her dog.
These illustrations from 1860 include an ichthyosaur
and a plesiosaur, probably collected by Mary.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
by the conscious part of your
brain. A lot of mental activity is unnconscious—or it is until you
become aware of it. It includes priimitive instincts and urges
inherited from our distant ancestoors but also your own
perceptions and memories. Thesee color your personality
and affect your decisions, sometimmes in strange ways.
148
Some mental probblems Some mental p lems ome mental pro m m m me ment m m e ome mental probb Some mental p e e e t s m m m n l l t b So o s m m Som ent pro e ome mental pro e e e e me m ome mental pro m ome mental prob p e Some men m m l me mental m ome mental pro m me m m m m e m e e m me m s m m ome mental pro m me m s S n r b e e e rob s m m m r s S t l l b Some men ental pro robblem ems
have an unconsccious have an uncons us u o ha e a o u v u c ci n nc n c o o u have an u u h v s s i n ncon c ous ve an uncons u n uncon o e an un o o ave an uncon o ve an unco o h e n n n u av an un n o h e an unconsc s n uncon io v s s u h e n unc n c s s h an uncons s c have an unc i have ve an unco consccious
cause. If you becoome use. If you becoo ause. If yo me cause. If you beco ause If you b e use If you e m cause If you beco se If yo m use If you becoo yo e e e o a yo e e y e e e If e m y o o m b o o e u e u e m a I m o om c c me e If you be m se If y m o o y m cause If you bec e se If you be m cause If you bec cause. e. If you bec eco coome
aware of the cause, the aware of the caus t t e, the e of the h aware of the cau , re of the c u h aware of the ca e the e of the cau h h s t o t c s t of t u e e aware of the ca e e e e e of the e ware of e the e of the h aware of the cau t ware of t h he c e the ware of the cause the re of the h s r h ware of the caus h th t f h h awa ware re of the cause, e, the
problem often goes away. p g y problem f . ro l o oes a ay em fte g e awa problem often go y p awa roblem often goes y problem often goe away em often goe y em often goe y oblem often go w problem often goes awa oblem often go w em e g e y p o m of n o s y m s w rob em ften goes w bl ft pro roblem em oft ft ften en goes es es awa way.
Carl Jung
Swiss psychologist Carl Jung believed
in the collective unconscious—a mass
of buried memories inherited from our
ancestors. He thought this explained the
ghost stories, myths, and fairy tales that
are part of every culture. However, since
Jung’s death in 1961, his theory has been
displaced by other ideas.
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(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
he brain that The part of th ra rt o rain tha a that rt of the brain he part of the brain th e brai part o brain tha a t t t t e e e par r i f Th The part rt rt of thhe bra rain that
ng emotions controls stro g emotions rols stro otio ontrols stro mot trols st ng emotion n e c otio ontrols stro g emot trols st e tr tr i contr tro rols ls str tro rong emotions
n your 20s. matures in your 20s. es r r you matu ur 0 u n es in our 20 a u tu u e r r i mature res es es inn your 20s.
Your unconscious mind can Yo Your unconscious mind can
be diffcult to control, but it be diff ff ffcult to to contr tro rol, but it
is vital to your survival. is vi vital to to your surv rvi rvviva val.
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(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
150
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151
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(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
153
Emotional
intelligence
Our ability to control and make use of
emotion is sometimes seen as a form of
intelligence. The man below is using his
emotional intelligence to recognize his
friend’s unhappiness and comfort her.
This is a social skill that also raises
awareness of your own emotions.
Coomplex emotions
As wwell as the six basic emotions, we also
expperience up to 30 complex emotions
succh as guilt, irritation, alarm, pride,
envvy, and love. Many of these are related
to the complexities of human society.
Theey are less automatic, involving more
thought—although emotions such as
lovee can still seem difficult to control.
Crying
As far as we knoow, only humans cry.
Crying in distresss produces tears
and a distinctivee facial expression.
Tears with a different expression
can also be caussed by joy, especially
among adults. TThis may indicate
that the mental wiring for distress
and joy is connected.
Controlling emotion
As we grow, the part of the brain
responsible for conscious control
grows, too, and we learn to control
our emotions. The man on the right
below is annoyed by his neighbor
eating popcorn, but he is managing to
stop himself from getting angry.
Tears seem to wash away Te Tea ears rs seem to to wwash awway
some natural chemicals some natura ral chemicals ls
that make you unhappy. that make you unhappy.
This may be why you feel Th This may be wh why you fe feel el
better after a bet ett tt tter er aft ft fter er a
““
good cry.
““
good cr cry ry.
””
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
South Africa. Here he is with his staff in 1903.
We do not often link politics with genius.
Yet some political figures have the genius
to see problems in a new way and use
this insight to change history. One of the
greatest was Mahatma Gandhi, the leader
of the Indian independence movement.
He pioneered resistance to authority by
nonviolent mass civil disobedience—an
idea that inspired movements for civil
rights and freedom across the world.
Mahatma
Gandhi
154
Nonviolent protest
In 1906, the South African government tried to
force resident Indians to carry registration cards.
Gandhi called on Indians to defy the law but not
use violence. During a seven-year campaign,
thousands were jailed, beaten, or even shot—
yet Gandhi stood firm. Eventually this harsh
treatment of peaceful protesters forced
the government to negotiate with Gandhi.
Nonviolent protest had won its first victory.
Rude awakening
Born in 1869 in Gujarat, India,
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
studied to become a lawyer. In 1893,
he went to work in South Africa on
a 12-month contract and came
face-to-face with racism when he
was thrown off a train for refusing
to give up his first-class seat. He
became a political agitator, staying
in South Africa to help resident
Indians obtain the right to vote.
Great soul
Gandhi returned to British-ruled India in 1915
and became involved in the independence struggle.
He campaigned against the unfair taxation of poor
villagers, earning the name Mahatma, or “great
soul.” He always advocated nonviolent protest,
even after the 1919 Amritsar Massacre in which
British-commanded soldiers opened fire on an
unarmed gathering, killing at least 379 people.
At the age of 19, Gandhi travelled to Great Britain
to train as a lawyer at University College London.
In South Africa, Gandhi In South Afr fri frrica, Gandhi
found racism in the fo found ra racism in the
courts, where he was court rts rt ts, s, wh wher ere re he wwas
not allowed to wear not allowed ed to to wea ear
his turban. his turb rban.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
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(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
157
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(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
159
Body language
Our body postures say a lot about how
we are feeling. Some are obvious, like
jumping for joy or slumping in defeat.
Many are harder to define and more
difficult to pick up, but we can often
read such body language anyway—
especially when someone’s expression
doesn’t match up. The confident body
language but sad expression above
gives a strange mixed message.
Faking it
We all try to conceal our emotions
sometimes. We try not to look
bored when visiting relatives or
try to look happy when we are sad.
Some people in public life make it
their business to smile all the time.
But the difference between a real
smile and a fake one is obvious if
you see them side by side—in a
real smile, the eyes smile, too.
Acting
Actors are judged by their abilityy to
express emotions that they do not
really feel. This can be difficult,
so one performance technique,
known as “the Method,” involves
actors becoming immersed in
the thoughts and emotions of
the characters they are playing.
Sometimes they do this so well that
they get completely carried away.
Lie detection Your emotions tend to trigger certain
reactions if you are lying. Your heart
rate and breathing speed up and
you tend to sweat. These reactions
can be monitored using electronic
“lie detectors”—but good liars can
stay calm and fool the system.
A real smile looks different A re rea eal smile looks ks diff ffe fffer ere erren ent
from a fake one because it is fr fro frrom a fa fake one bec ecause it is
controlled by a different co contr tro rolled ed by a diff ffe fffer ere erren ent
part of the brain. part of the brain. part rt rt of the bra rain.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
It’s not only your words that say a lot
about you—your facial expressions and
the way you move your body do, too. In fact,
your body language often reveals a lot more
than you want it to, because you don’t realize
what you are doing. Try these exercises and
then check your answers on page 189 to see
how good you are at reading emotions.
160
TALK
BODY
Fake smiles
A real smile spreads across
your whole face, while a
fake smile is often mistimed,
crooked, and leaves the eyes
expressionless. Look at these
six faces and see if you can
sort the sham smiles from
the genuine ones.
BRAIN GAMES
Figuring faces
Facial expressions often speak louder than words.
Study the faces above and then see if you can match
them to these six different emotions: anger, disgust,
happiness, sadness, surprise, and contempt.
A B
C D
E F
D
F
E
A
B
C
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
WWee aalll hhaavvee hhabbiittss tthatt hheellpp uuss ggeet throouugghh lliifffee.. WWhheeennn yyoouu wwaassshh
yyoouuurr hhaannddss, ddoo yyoou ssttoopp to tthinkk hooooww ttoo ggeettt tthheemm wweeettt,, aaapppppllyy tthhee
ssooaapp,, uuse iitt too ccllean yoouurr sskkinn, aanddd ttheenn rriinnssseee iiitt ooofffff?? PPrroobbaabbllyy
tt YY t ti lll dd iitt bb it’’ hh bbiitt Itt’ ll ff ll noott. YYouuu aauttomatiiccalllyy ddoo iitt,, bbeeccaauussee iitt ss aa hhaabbiitttt. IItt s aallsssoo uuusseeefffuulll,,
unlikee bbaadd hhabitts ssuucchh aass nnaaill bbittiinngg. AAllll hhhaabbiittss aarree fffoorrmmeedd
bbyy reeppeettiittioonn, whicch pprrooggrraammss yoour bbraaiinn ssoo tthhaaaatt yyoouu bbeehhaavvveee
likke aa roboot—and oncce formed, ttheyy ccaann bbee vvveerryyyy ddiifffificcuulltt ttoo bbbrrreeaakk.
162
Addiction
The most destructive habits are called addictions.
The addictions that get in the news involve illegal drugs,
alcohol, and tobacco, but people can also become
addicted to things like sugary foods and chocolate.
If they keep eating them, they can get sick, but despite
this, they just can’t stop—they are stuck with a bad habit.
or Programmmed behavi
atterns of behavior Habits are formmed by repeated pa
rain. These work creating nerve networks in the br
an appliance like a like the simple programs used in
ned on, the program washing machine—once it is turn
brushing your teeth, runs by itself. SSo when you start b
complete the job. the habit prograam takes over to c
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
163
Useful routine
Every day you do things without thinking much about them,
because they are part of your daily routine. If something like
washing your face becomes a habit, it helps ensure that you
do it even if you’re thinking about something else. So habits are
valuable when they make life easier and encourage you to do
the things that you need to do, which you might otherwise forget.
bit Breakingg a bad ha
ak because it is wired A bad habit cann be difficult to bre
ge to overcome a bad into your brain. Even if you manag
ng is still there, ready habit for severaal months, the wiri
trigger. Time may help, to be reactivateed by the relevant t
ace a bad habit with a but often the beest tactic is to repl
less damaging one.
Bad habits
pick up bad habits. A lot Unfortunately, it’s very easy to p
or pick their noses. They of people bite their fingernails o
doing it, because they often do not know that they are
else. Sometimes this are thinking about something e
it can be irritating for doesn’t matter much, although
an be very damaging. others. But some bad habits ca
Triggers and prompts
Most habits are triggered by external signals. When
a driver sees a red light, it makes him or her perform a
series of actions that stops the car. It is like an instinct.
You can sometimes think up your own ways of prompting
useful habits—putting your toothbrush somewhere
obvious might prompt you to use it, for example.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
164
Confidence
Confidence is vital to winning, and this
has been proved by research. In one study,
24 people had their arms strength tested
before an arm-wrestling match. The
researchers deceived the competitors
into believing that the weaker participants
were the stronger ones. In ten out of 12
contests, the weaker wrestlers won!
Setting goals
To get anywhere, you need
to set yourself goals. But
don’t go for the long-term
goal of being the champion—
you need short-term
personal targets that you
can try to hit every day. If you
are a cyclist, for example,
your short-term goal could
be to achieve a faster time
than before—regardless of
who wins the race. This will
increase your confidence.
Visualization
Get in the right frame of mind by recalling the sensation
of success. Imagine yourself accepting the prize for first
place—it feels good, doesn’t it? This feeling can help you
win. Also, before the event, visualize yourself moving
smoothly through the activity, and you are more likely
do it perfectly when it matters.
Most people who take up a sport are trying to win,
but this means that someone has to lose. The
difference is usually put down to fitness and ability,
but when physical skills are evenly matched, the
winner is often the competitor who has the
right mental attitude. The same
is probably true of life.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
i
ii
iii
iv
vi
v
vii
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
i
ii
ii ii
v iv
vi
vii
v
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
The most primitive animals do
not have brains. A jellyfish has
only a network of nerve fibers
extending over its body, with no
central control area to direct ce
its actions. But most animals t
have brains of some kind to h
process sensory signals and
enable them to respond to en
their surroundings. The part
of the brain that does this
processing has become hugely
enlarged in the human brain.
One part in particular—the
prefrontal cortex—has expanded d
to give us our capacity for
abstract thought.
BRAINS RA BRAINS
HOW WE GOT OUR GOT O G OW WE GOT GG
Super senses
For most animals, the main job of
the brain is to process data from the
senses. This function is often more
highly developed than it is in humans.
A dog has a much greater ability than
humans to identify scents, and some
owls can use sound alone to pinpoint
mice in total darkness. The brains of
these animals have a lot of mental
processing power, but compared to
us, it is used in different ways.
168
ls ads and tail Hea
do not animals like jellyfish Simple animals sh do not e animals like jellyfis Simple a
ve no have brains because they hav they have no have brains because the have brains because t
of the heads or tails. The evolution heads or tails. The evolutio
pment brain began with the develop gan with the developm
of a front end to the e body, of a “front end” to the he body
because once an animal starts mal start
using only one end of itself to nd of itself to
explore its world, its sense organs rld, its sense
become grouped at that end. ouped at that e
The sense organs need a nerve e organs nee
center to process their signals and o process t
send instructions to the rest of the f the struction
body. So even a snail has a brain. has a b even a sna
Intellect central
The part of the brain that seems to be t the
main intellectual processing centre is t the
bulge at the front, behind your forehea ad—the
prefrontal cortex. This uses informatio on from
the senses to form judgments, make c choices,
and predict future events. It has expan nded in
size throughout our evolution, pushin ng the
human forehead forward compared t to our
monkeylike ancestors. However, a stuudy of
the brains of baboons—large monke eys—has
shown that the human prefrontal corrtex is
not much bigger than theirs relative e to the
rest of the brain. So it is likely that it ts
structure has also changed.
Monkey
Human
tacles Se ensory tent enso Se
mation that Ga ather inform
cessed by a must be proc
e kind, brrain of som
mitive. hoowever prim
A large part of this owl’s brain is dedicated to
decoding the signals from its eyes and ears—
making it an extremely efficient hunter.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Intelligent ancestors
By 160,000 years ago, our own species—
Homo sapiens—had evolved in Africa, and by
60,000 years ago, humans had spread across
most of the globe. Compared to humans today, t of the globe.
these people led primitive lives, but they needed mitive lives,
to be smart to survive. Studies of their skulls their sk
show that their brains were probably just like
ours, and they would have been just as capable
of operating complex devices like computers if
they had them. They have left evidence of their
intelligence in the rock art that still survives in
the places where they lived. the places where they lived. the pla p
169
Instinct and thought
For a shark, the taste of blood in
the water means only one thing—
food! For a human, it could mean mea
several things: “Have I cut myself? my
Is it someone else’s blood? Where od
is the closest doctor? Will a shark Wi
detect it? Help!” The difference is fference is f
that a shark doesn’t give the blood esn’t giv th
much thought but acts on instinct. ought nstin
By contrast, humans tend to think ontr nk
about everything and may think so ou
much that they suppress instincts mu
that are crucial to survival.
mans The first hum r
n did we get so get so Why y and when did we g did we g
rains inteelligent? Our big br
our prrobably evolved as o
ually ssocial nature gradu
drove us to develop p drove us to develo drove us tto develo
ility language. The abi
became to talk and plan b
t people useful, so smart
were more successful were more succ were mmore suc more succ ore
ildren. en and had more ch a
ms to have TThis process seem
st human iven rise to the firs gi n rise t
pecies, sp habilis, which lis, whi Homo habil habil
e primitive volved from a more ev
around apelike ancestor a apelike ance
2.3 million years ago. ago 2.3 million years 3 million years
Hoomo habilis HH
Knnown as wn as Homo habilis Hom ,
ee orr “handy man,” because ” because
thhey were the first to
mmake stone tools.
Human creativity took Human cr cre rea eati tivi vity ty to to took
a great leap forward a gre rea eat lea eap ap fo forw rwa rw ward rd
around 40,000 years aro round 40,000 yea ears rs
ago, possibly because of ag ago, possibly bec ecause of
improved language skills. improved language skills. impro rove ved ed languag age skills lss.
These dancing or hunting figures were painted on
These dancing or hunting figures were painted on
the rocks of the northern Sahara Desert long before
the land became a desert.
rsome great white shark i
rsome great white shark is
M
t
f th
b
h
i
f thi f
Most of the behavior of this fear
ther than conscious thoughts.
ther than conscious thought
driven by inherited instincts rat
dd i
b
i h
it d i
ti
t
r t
H tivit t H tiviit t
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
English naturalist Charles Darwin revolutionizedd
the way we see the living world. His theory of
evolution by natural selection showed that
competition for scarce resources led to species
changing constantly through “the survival of the
fittest.” Published in 1859, the theory was a flash
of genius backed up by a mass of evidence—the
product of inspiration and a lot of hard work.
Charles
Darwin
170
The Beagle
voyage
The voyage lasted five
years, and while the crew
charted the coastal waters,
Darwin spent most of his
time on land. He explored
South America, where he
found fossils of giant extinct
animals. He visited the
Galápagos Islands, where
he saw that the animals on
neighboring islands were
similar but slightly different.
He wondered if they might have
changed over time—or evolved.
The Beagle was a sm
all, cram
ped ship that
had to be virtually rebuilt to survive the
roughest seas on Earth.
Distracted student
Born in England in 1809, Darwin went
to the University of Cambridge to study
for the church, but he was much more
interested in studying nature. He became
friends with John Stevens Henslow, a
professor of botany, and Adam Sedgwick,
one of the founders of modern geology.
In 1831, he was on a geology field trip with
Sedgwick when Henslow suggested that
he join the survey ship HMS Beagle as
“ship’s naturalist” on an expedition to
chart the coastline of South America.
Darwin was only 23 when he embarked on
the voyage that was to change his life and
inspire his revolutionary theory.
When Darwin’s great theory was published, en Darwin’s great theory was published Wh When Darw rw rwin’s gre rea eat theo eory ry wwas published ed,
his friend T. H. Huxley said, his fr fri frriend T. T. H. Huxley ey said,
““
How extremely How ex ext xtr tre remel ely
stupid of me not to have thought of that! stupid of me not to have thought of that! stupid of me not to to have ve thought of that! t!
””
These Hawaiian honeycreepers all
evolved from the same ancestor
through natural selection.
Natural selection Within one year of his return in 1836, Darwin was thinking
about how animals might evolve. He realized that if food
is difficult to find, animals that are less well equipped to
find it tend to starve, while more favored animals flourish.
Since all animals are slightly different from their parents,
some are born with advantages that help them survive in
particular environments. This leads to the evolution of new
species by a process that Darwin called natural selection.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Most of the development of the braain takes place before
a baby is born, so at birth the brain contains almost all the
nerve cells that it will ever have. DDuring childhood, these
cells are rearranged into increasinngly complex networks
that allow us to learn and remembber. The brain reaches
peak weight in early adulthood and then starts to shrink.
GROWS
HOW THE BRAIN
Beginnings
During the early stages of a baby’s development in the
womb, the brain forms at the end of a tube of cellls that
eventually becomes the spinal cord. At first it reseembles
the brain of a fish, with all the “primitive” parts w well
formed. But at around 11 weeks, the cerebrum sttarts
to expand, until at birth it looks like a smaller version ion
of a mature human brain.
Making connections
During the months after birth, the brain
develops fast. At first it has a simple cell
structure that can control only the basic
survival functions. But every new
stimulus to the senses triggers the
restructuring of nerve cells into the
t k th t t i f ti d networks that store information and
enable us to think. Like the girders
below, they are rearranged into
a new, more complex form.
Trimming down
Once the brain is up and running,
it starts economizing on nerve cells.
Inactivated cells are allowed to die
off—a process that starts at the age of
around four and continues for the rest of
your life. This does not affect the brain’s
efficiency, however, because inactive
brain cells have no function and simply
waste energy. So they are thrown away,
just like these spare girders being
tossed into a Dumpster.
17 72
3 weeks 7 weeks 111 weeks
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Older and wiser?
As you get olde er, you definitely know more
about the world a and are able to make better
decisions. But once you pass the age of 25, you
often become less aable to learn new skills that
are not connected to the things you
already know. This mayy reflect the
fact that, in many peoplee, the brain
gradually loses weight, mostly grradually loses weight mostly ht, mostly
throough the loss of brrain cells.
But this mental declinne is not
an inevitable pprocess.
Use it or lose it
There is plenty of evidence that intellectual
challenges help slow down the decline of the
brain during old age. People such as musicians,
scientists, and political activists who keep working
well past normal retirement age often show very
few signs of mental aging until the last few
months of life. Solving problems may seem
like hard work, but
it probably keeps
your brain fit
and healthy.
Structural failure
Some unlucky people suffer brain damage
in old age, or even younger. Some
may suffer a stroke, which cuts
off the blood supply to part
of the brain, causing some
of the brain tissue to die.
Others may get Alzheimer’s
disease, which makes brain
cells like these become
tangled up and stop
working, so sufferers can
no longer think properly.
173
At times during At times es es duri ring
the growth of the gro rowt wt w h of
an unborn baby, an unborn rn baby,
the brain develops the brain develops ppss ra r lloo a ra tt dd nn hhe eve vv ii bb oopp bb dd a the brain devee ee ee ee ee ee ve v rai tthhee bbbbra ra raaaiiinn ddeeve ve vell elooooppppss
at the rate of at the ra rate of
250,000 nerve cells 250,000 ner erv rve rv ve cel ells ls
per minute. per er minutee.
Nelson Mandela
Damaged brain cell
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Radiotherrapy
Some brain disease can be
treated by therapies that don’t
involve cutting into the brain.
They include radiotherapy,
which uses a beeam of
radiation to destrooy the
cells that cause canceerous
brain tumors. The bbeam
is precisely targeteed on
the basis of a compputer
simulation, as seen here
(right). It is painlesss but
has to be repeated
several timmes.
Surgical precisionn
Thanks to three-dimensional computer-aided
guidance systems, brain surgeonss can reach
damaged areas without harming nnearby
tissues. They can operate preciselly with
the aid of remote-controlled microoscopes—
shown in use here—and fiber-optic lighting.
ng scovery and learnin Dis
he geon operates on a patient’s brain, t When a brain surg
s a is precisely located and recorded. As area that is affected i
of rstand a lot more about the function result, we now under
he of the brain, and this has increased t various parts o
ry. acy and effectiveness of brain surge accura
175
Primary
mary
motor cortex
nsory
Primary sens
cortex
ry
Sensory
ation
associat
cortex
ual
Visu
ociation
asso
ex
corte
y visual
Primary
cortex
Wernicke’s
area area area
Auditory
c
assocciation cortex
Primary
or
auditor ory cortex
Premotor
cortexx
fr
Prefr frontal
cccortex
c Brocca’s
r arrea
Hippocrates
Ancient Greek physician Hippocrates, who
lived from around 460–370 B.C.E., wrote
many texts on brain surgery. He described
mental problems such as seizures and
spasms, recognized the symptoms of
head injuries, and operated on patients
with certain types of skull fractures.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
176
Trick and treat
Many stories of animal intelligence
involve their devising ways of i l th i d i i f
getting at food. Some people who
put out food for garden birds, for
example, find that it is often stolen
by squirrels. The squirrels show
amazing ingenuity as they
overcome obstacles to break into
“squirrel-proof” bird feeders.
Hunger is a powerful motivator.
Some insects, such as termites, Some insec ect cts tss, such as ter erm rmites es, ess,
construct amazingly complex t t i l l struct amazingly comp l ll onstruct amazingly complex t tt construct amazingly complex i constr ttru ruct ct tt amaz aziinglly compllex ex
nests using instinct alone. nests using instinct alone. nes es ests ts using instinct ct alone. e.
Toolmakers
Several animals are able to make
and use tools—a skill that was d t l kill th t
once thought unique to humans.
Chimpanzees, for example, use
carefully selected straws and
sticks to pick edible termites from
their nests. If a stick is too thick
to poke into the holes in a nest, a
chimp will carefully peel back the
bark until it is just the right size.
If you have a dog, you probably think it is
intelligent. Sometimes it will do something
that amazes you. But that is becauuse we do
not expect animals to think. We exxpect them
to use the instincts that are programmed into
their brains at birth rather than mmake use of make use of
the information in their memoriess to solve
problems. But some animals do juust that. p j
AANI A IMA I AL A
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(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
178
It’s not just dogs that can be taught new
tricks—many pets can be taught to do
something. Even your goldfish can be
coached to impress your friends if you
train it. Here are some fun activities to
try with all sorts of pets—but you must
check with an adult before you start.
Step 1
Show your hamster a treat
in your hand and then
hold it above its head.
Step 2
Say, “Stand” until your
hamster reaches up on
two legs to get the treat
and give it lots of praise
once it does. If you repeat
this often enough, your
hamster will associate
you saying “stand” with
a treat and will rise up
on command.
You can also do this
with other commands. Try
saying “paw” while holding
a treat in front of your
hamster––it will reach
a paw to get it!
Young hamsters—around one Yo Young hamster ers rs—aro round one
or two months old—are the or two wo months old—are re the
easiest to train. ea easies es est to to tr tra rain.
Ham-standing!
Hamsters can provide lots of entertainment,
but they can easily get bored. This is a good
way to spend lots of time with them, keep
them active, and teach them a cool trick.
New tricks for old dogs
If you have a dog, he or she may already
know how to sit, stay, lie down, and beg.
So here are two more tricks to add to the
collection of skills.
k 2 Trickk 2 Trick T
lso teach your You can a
alk or run around dog to wa
cles. Start by you in circ
him a treat and showing h
ing it around your then mov
hat he follows it. body so th
him with the treat Reward h
ratulate him. and congr
Trick 1 T
Next time your dog yawns,
ask him, “Are you ssleepy?”
Do this every time you y yyou y
catch him yawning and
praise him as he dooes it.
Eventually, he will yyawn
whenever you ask hhim
if he is sleepy.
Take your guinea
in
pig for a walk
your guin
y
r guin
Guinea pigs might not be
as smart as dogs, but they
are intelligent enough to
be trained to walk on a
leash. This gives you the
chance to give your pet
some exercise and to show
it off to your friends.
Step 1 SSt S
Start by getting a leash
small enough for your
guinea pig. Sit it on
your lap with its favorite
food and give it a lot of
attention. While it is
eating, slip the leash on,
and let your pet get used
to wearing it for a while.
BRAIN GAMES
s possible to teach It is
dog new tricks, but an old d
may not learn as they
kly as when they quick
were young. w
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
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181
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(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
To perform even the simplest
task, your brain weighs up a
constant flow of information
from your senses and
effortlessly decides what
to do. A machine, however,
can only follow instructions.
These games reveal how
difficult it is to give and
interpret instructions.
182
FRIEND
PROGRAM YOUR
Step 1
Using the tangram below as a guide, draw
a square on a piece of paper and divide it
into seven individual shapes. Then color
and cut out each shape.
Step 2
You are going to help your friend
make a picture. However, he or
she doesn’t know what it is. Choose
a picture from this page. Now give
your friend precise one-step
instructions as to how to arrange the
pieces. For example, say, “Take the
small brown square and place it on
its point.” This is surprisingly tricky.
Step 3
Next it is your turn to make a
picture based on the instructions
of your friend. How does it feel
to be the person receiving the
instructions? How did you
do compared to your friend?
A tangram is an
ancient Chinese
puzzle that can be
arranged in many
ways to make shapes.
Your challenge here
is to guide a friend
to make pictures
from these shapes.
You will need:
ǩ3DSHUDQGVFLVVRUV
ǩ5XOHU
ǩ&RORUHGSHQFLOV
or pens
ǩ$IULHQG
BRAIN GAMES
Puzzling time
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
183
Working in pairs, the
object of this task is to
direct your blindfolded
partner to throw the
ball and hit another
blindfolded player
using simple commaands.
You will need:
Ņ Several blindfolds
ǩ6PDOOIRDPEDOO
ǩ$WOHDVWVL[IULHQGV
ǩ6WRSZDWFK
ǩ$QDGXOWWRKHOSMXGJH
Step 1
Get into pairs and
stand in a circle.
One person in each
pair must put on a
blindfold. Set a time e
limit of ten minutess
IRUWKHH[HUFLVH7KH
game begins with o one
blindfolded player
holding the ball.
Step 2
7KHSOD\HUVZKRDUHEOLQGIROGHGDUHLQVWUXFWHGE\
WKHLUSDUWQHUVKRZWRWKURZWKHEDOO)RUH[DPSOHVD\
“Move to your right one step. Now throw.” Or tell them
when to duck so that they can defend themselves.
When the ball lands near their partner, they must give
clear instructions for retrieving the ball, such as
“Bend down and reach out with your right hand.”
Step 3
When the time limit
is up, you can switch
the blindfold to the
other player and start
DJDLQ$VNDQDGXOW
to judge on how good
you and your friends
were at either
listening or giving
clear instructions.
Step 1
Draw a picture—it can be an animal or a person
such as a clown or a queen. Place the picture in
another room so no one gets to see it.
Step 2
Pick one of your friends to recreate the drawing from
instructions given by the others. He or she is not allowed
to say anything during the activity. Set a time limit of
WHQPLQXWHVWRFRPSOHWHWKHH[HUFLVH
Step 3
One person then goes out of the room to look at
the picture and can only answer questions by saying
Ǥ\HVǥRUǤQRǥZKHQDVNHGE\WKHWHDP7KHLOOXVWUDWRU
has to listen to the questions and answers and draw
a picture of what he or she thinks is being described.
Step 4
When the time limit is up, compare the picture
with the original and see how closely it matches.
If it doesn’t, figure out where things went wrong
VR\RXZLOOGREHWWHUQH[WWLPH
How good are your
friends at giving
clear instructions to
achieve a common
goal? Find out with
this activity!
tiv y
You will need:
ǩ3DSHU
ǩ&RORUHGSHQFLOVRUSHQV
ǩ$WOHDVWIRXUIULHQGV
ǩ6WRSZDWFK
Picture this
Play time!
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
184
anatomy
The study of the structure of
living things.
association
The process by which new memories
are linked to memories already
stored in the brain.
atom
The smallest particle of a substance.
Some substances such as oxygen
contain only one type of atom, while
others like water contain more than
one type of atom.
attention
The first stage in committing
something to memory by focusing
on the moment or on the task at hand.
auditory
Having to do with hearing and sound.
axon
The long fiber that extends from
a nerve cell, or neuron. Nerve signals
pass down the axon in one direction,
away from the main body of the cell,
to stimulate other cells.
bacteria
Microscopic organisms with a simple
single-celled structure. Some types
of bacteria can cause disease.
botany
The study of plants.
brain stem
The region at the base of the brain
where it joins the spinal cord.
Broca’s area
The part of the brain that controls
speech production.
cell
The smallest unit of a living thing.
Many living things such as bacteria
consist of only one cell, but the human
body is made up of many cells,
specialized for different jobs.
central nervous
system
The brain and spinal cord.
cerebellum
A part of the brain that helps control
balance and movement.
cerebral cortex
The entire wrinkly outer part of the
brain that is responsible for sensory
processing, memory, voluntary
movement, and thinking.
cerebral
hemisphere
One half of the cerebral cortex,
or cerebrum.
cerebrum
Another name for the cerebral
cortex, the cerebrum forms most
of the human brain.
conditioning
A form of learning in which good or
bad experiences create an automatic
response to similar experiences.
conscious
Being mentally aware.
consciousness
A state of mental awareness.
dendrite
A short fiber extending from a nerve
cell, or neuron, that picks up signals
from other nerve cells.
evolution
The process by which things change
slowly into different forms, usually
applied to living things.
frontal lobe
The front part of each cerebral
hemisphere, which plays an important
role in thinking.
geology
The study of rocks.
hair cell
A cell equipped with a tiny flexible
“hair” that is attached to nerves.
hormone
A substance released into the blood by
a gland that effects change in another
part of the body.
instinct
An automatic feeling or action.
intellectual
Anything to do with thinking.
intuition
Believing that you know something
without knowing why. This is
sometimes called a “sixth sense.”
limbic system
A part of the brain that plays a role in
automatic body functions, emotions,
and the sense of smell.
logic
Sound reasoning that draws correct
conclusions from basic facts.
mimicry
Copying the appearance or behavior
of another person.
molecule
The smallest particle of a substance
that can exist without breaking the
substance into its component atoms.
A single water molecule, for example,
consists of two hydrogen atoms and
one oxygen atom.
motor area
The region of the brain responsible
for voluntary (controlled) movement
of the body.
nerve
A bundle of fibers extending from
nerve cells (neurons) that carries
nerve signals, or impulses, between
the brain and other parts of the body.
nerve cell
A specialized cell, also known as a
neuron, that carries nerve signals
from and to all parts of the body
and forms networks in the brain.
nerve impulse
An electrical signal that passes along
the fibers extending from nerve cells
(neurons) and carries coded information
to the brain or other organs.
neuron
A single nerve cell.
GLOSSARY G
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
nucleus
The control center of a cell.
olfactory
Having to do with the sense of smell.
parallax
A visual effect that makes close
objects appear to move more than
distant objects when you move your
head and eyes. It is important in the
perception of distance.
parietal lobe
The part of the brain that interprets
touch, pain, and temperature.
perception
The process of becoming aware of
something through your senses.
peripheral nervous
system
The outer network of small nerves
that are connected to the muscles,
skin, and all the organs besides
the brain. It is linked to the central
nervous system.
personality
The combination of character traits
that makes you an individual.
perspective
A visual effect that makes parallel
lines such as railroad tracks appear
to converge with distance.
PET scan
A medical scanning technique using
a system called positron emission
tomography, often used to detect
and locate activity in the brain.
philosophy
The study of the nature of knowledge.
phobia
A fear of something that has no
rational basis.
placebo effect
A psychological response to medical
treatment whereby the patient
believes that his or her health has
improved, even if the medicine they
received was fake.
prefrontal cortex
The area of the brain that is most
actively involved in thinking.
prejudice
A judgment that is made before
examining the facts.
prodigy
Someone who displays great talents
or abilities at an unusually early age.
program
A list of instructions that directs
the operation of an electronic device
such as a computer. The term is also
used to describe the code that
controls some biological functions.
psychology
The science of the mind.
recall
The process of consciously retrieving
a memory from the brain.
receptor
A structure that responds to
a stimulus such as touch, light,
or temperature.
recognition
The process of identifying
familiar knowledge when it is
presented to you.
reflex
An automatic reaction by nerves
that triggers movement—for example,
in response to sharp pain.
retina
The sheet of light-sensitive cells
at the back of the eye.
robot
A mechanical device that
automatically performs a task
under the control of a computer.
Often used to describe a machine
that resembles a human.
sensory
Having to do with the senses: sight,
hearing, taste, smell, and touch.
somatic sensory
cortex
The part of the brain that analyzes
nerve signals from the skin,
muscles, and joints.
spatial
Having to do with shape and space.
spectrum
The entire range of visible colors,
as seen in a rainbow.
spinal cord
The main bundle of nerve fibers.
It extends from the brain, down
to the lower backbone.
stereotype
A fixed idea or image of something,
often based on very little evidence.
telepathy
The ability to read the mind of another
person, probably through experience
and guesswork rather than true
mental communication.
thalamus
The part of the brain near its base that
acts as a relay station for information
from all the senses except smell.
therapy
Any treatment designed to relieve
physical or psychological illness.
3-D (three-
dimensional)
The term used to describe objects that
have volume, with the third dimension
of depth as well as the two other
dimensions of height and width.
unconscious
Having to do with mental activity that
does not involve any thought.
Wernicke’s area
The part of the brain that interprets
sound and visual data, vital to
understanding language.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
ANSWERS
6–7 Your amazing brain
Do you remember?
1. The shower
2. Running, skiing, swimming,
playing soccer
3. His lungs
4. Red
5. His cat
6. Fish
7. One
8. Cat, dog, fish, bird, snail, rabbit
9. Bacon and eggs frying
10. An injured finger
If you got more than six
answers right, your memory
is in great shape.
Perfect pair
Shapes A and F fit
together to make
the hexagon.
Feel lost?
66–67 Do you remember?
Step 2
1. Spain—Madrid
2. Ireland—Dublin
3. China—Beijing
4. Sweden—Stockholm
5. Iraq—Baghdad
6. Netherlands—Amsterdam
7. Japan—Tokyo
8. Italy—Rome
9. Egypt—Cairo
10. Greece—Athens
Who’s who?
Freddy is
Tortoise B.
78–79 Mastering mazes
The one-hand rule
Right or left?
Trial and error
Amazing mazes
Over and under
Recognition vs. recall
Step 1
1. Israel—Jerusalem
2. France—Paris
3. India—New Delhi
4. Russia—Moscow
5. Czech Republic—Prague
6. Germany —Berlin
7. Afghanistan—Kabul
8. Canada—Ottowa
9. Denmark—Copenhagen
10. Argentina—Buenos Aires
68–69 Paying attention
Spot the difference
A
F
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
80–81 Puzzling patterns
All alone
The one creature that doesn’t
appear twice is the wasp.
Thinking ahead
Each part of the sequence begins
with two yellow cupcakes and ends
with a purple cupcake, and the
number of pink cupcakes in between
increases by one each time. The
yellow cupcakes at the beginning
of the sequence are at numbers
1, 5, and 10—the difference between
the numbers increases by one each
time. This means the next yellow
cupcakes starting a new sequence
will be at 16, 23, 31, 40, 50, 61, 73,
86, and 100. So the 49th cupcake
will be purple and the 100th cupcake
will be yellow.
90–91 Brainteasers
Carnival money
The three boys initially paid $10 each,
or $30. They are then given $3 back,
which means they paid a total of $27
(the $25 entrance fee plus the $2
pocketed by the sales assistant). The
$27 added to the $3 refund equals $30,
so there’s no missing money. In the
puzzle, the $2 taken by the assistant is
added to the $27 to create confusion.
The frustrated farmer
The farmer crosses first with the
chicken and leaves it on the other
side. He then returns, picks up the fox,
and crosses again. Then he swaps the
fox for the chicken so that they are not
left together, and takes the chicken
back. He then swaps the chicken for
the grain and takes the grain across,
leaving it with the fox. He then
returns, picks up the chicken, and
takes it to the other side.
Find the treat
She should choose Jar 2.
1. Lentils 4. Beans
2. Cookies 5. Pepper
3. Flour 6. Rice
Two at a time
Brother 1 and Brother 2 cross
together, taking two minutes.
Brother 1 returns, taking one minute.
The father and grandfather cross
together, taking ten minutes.
Brother 2 returns, taking two minutes,
then Brother 1 and Brother 2 cross
together, taking two minutes.
2 + 1 + 10 + 2 + 2 = 17, so they should
get to the train just in time.
The right door
The prisoner should ask each of the
guards, “If I asked the other guard
which is the door to freedom, what
would he say?” If the door to freedom
is the red one and he asked the guard
who told the truth, the guard would say
the blue door, because he would know
the other guard would lie. If he asked
the guard who always told lies, the
guard would lie and say the blue door.
Either way, the answer would be the
same—they would both reveal the door
with the lion behind it, and the prisoner
should take the other door to freedom.
Who passed the package?
Stacey started the game.
Spot the sequence
A blue, an orange, and a blue
flower complete the sequence.
Missing pieces
The four missing puzzle pieces are
J, K, G, and F.
Perfect pairs
92–93 Thinking inside the box
3 6 8 1 9 2 4 7 5
2 7 1 3 5 4 8 6 9
9 4 5 8 6 7 3 1 2
5 8 2 9 7 6 1 3 4
4 3 6 2 1 8 9 5 7
1 9 7 4 3 5 6 2 8
6 2 9 5 8 1 7 4 3
7 5 3 6 4 9 2 8 1
8 1 4 7 2 3 5 9 6
1 7 6 4 2 8 3 5 9
2 5 4 9 3 1 7 8 6
8 3 9 5 7 6 1 2 4
7 2 5 3 8 4 6 9 1
6 1 3 2 5 9 4 7 8
4 9 8 1 6 7 2 3 5
5 4 1 7 9 2 8 6 3
9 8 7 6 1 3 5 4 2
3 6 2 8 4 5 9 1 7
3 5 6 9 1 4 8 2 7
1 4 7 3 2 8 5 6 9
2 8 9 5 6 7 3 4 1
6 7 3 1 9 5 4 8 2
9 1 5 8 4 2 7 3 6
8 2 4 7 3 6 9 1 5
5 3 2 4 7 1 6 9 8
4 6 8 2 5 9 1 7 3
7 9 1 6 8 3 2 5 4
7 8
6 9
2 3
1 5
21 17
15
15
3
5
6
8 6
7
8 7 9 6
9 5 4
9 8 2
9 8 8 1
7 8 9
15 28
3
21
17
15 15
29
9
17
17
17
9
24
4 3
3 9 8 7
6 9 3 5 6
9 7
6 8
9 8
8 7 4
4 9 8 7
3 5
16 12
7
11 28
13
14
16
18 13
14
11
8
28
19
17
17
15
25
27
Tips and tricks Starter Sudoku Slightly harder
What to do
Now try this Getting tricky
A face in the crowd
187
JJ KK
G
FF
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
FFive into four
1188
104–105 Thinking in 3-D
Different angles
The two matching shapes
are A and F.
Bottoms up
The color of the
face-down side in the
third picture is green.
Find the shape
Shape A shows the Shape A shows the
remaining pink section.
102–103 Seeing in 2-D
Up and down
Basket A will move up and Basket B will move down. Basket A will move up aand Basket B will move down.
Equal division
97 Think of a number 96–9
ing pyramid Puzzli The weighing game
Eleven strawberries balance one
pineapple and three bananas.
Only one chance
54 x 3 = 162
Flower power
Add the three
largest numbers
and then multiply
them with the
smallest.
Upside-down triangle Upside-down triangle ee
Four triangles
The pencils are moved
into a 3-D shape called
a tetrahedron (triangular
pyramid) with a triangle
at the base and three
triangular sides.
View from the top
The correct overhead
position is F.
Boxing clever
Box C shows the correct
pattern of fruit.
70
120
50
44 26 24
30 14 12 12
25 5 9 3 9
5
8
6 05 10 105 105
Pieces of eight
888 + 88 + 8 + 8 + 8 = 1,000
Pass or fail?
Susan receives ten points for each
of the correct questions, which gives
her 150 points. But she got five wrong
and five points are deducted for each,
making a total of 25.
150 – 25 = 125
Susan has passed the test.
Dazzling stars
7
444
Multiple fractions
The answer is 5.
Pineapple = 5 strawberries
Orange = 4 strawberries
Apple = 3 strawberries
Banana = 2 strawberries
333 222 111
FF A
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
189
114–115 Having a word
Odd ones out
ǩ cat and cone
The resl ore bool reloled.
ǩ stapler and ruler
You conǢl use lhem lo wrile.
ǩ Moon and Sun
lll lhe resl ore plonels.
ǩ dolphin and sea horse
They ore nol birds.
ǩ run and laugh
The olhers ore nouns.
Quick comparisons
ǩ Bird is lo beok os humon
is lo moulh.
ǩ Fyes ore lo sighl os nose
is lo smell.
ǩ ín is lo oul os off is lo on.
ǩ Pen is lo ink os brush is lo poinl.
ǩ Tricycle is lo lhree os bicycle
is lo lwo.
Like and unlike
LIKE
ǩ hungry ond slorving
ǩ lired ond sleepy
ǩ scory ond spooky
ǩ silly ond foolish
UNLIKE
ǩ proise ond scorn
ǩ edge ond cenler
ǩ rolionol ond illogicol
ǩ leove ond relurn
118-119 Words aloud
Fill in the blanks
hideous, loll, bloodcurdling,
second, gripped, chonce, shock,
glimpse, surprise, ȍew
128–129 Are you a creative spark?
A dotty challenge
Male or female brain?
íf you onswered Ǥyesǥ lo lhree
or more queslions, you hove
predominonlly femole broin skills.
Femole broins lend lo be beller ol
underslonding emolions, feelings,
ond reoding body longuoge. Mole
broins generolly hove lhe
odvonloge when il comes lo
underslonding mops ond lechnicol
mollers ond nolicing deloil. 0irls
con hove mole-lype broins, ond
boys con hove femole-lype broins,
bul mosl of us hove o unique
mixlure of skills somewhere
belween lhe lwo lypes.
Body clock
0ive yourself four poinls for eoch
l, lhree for eoch B, lwo for eoch 0,
ond one for eoch D.
6—11 points YouǢre o nighl owl, who
likes lo sloy up lole, bul moke sure you
donǢl miss oul on sleep. 0elling
enough sleep is imporlonlǟif you
donǢl, you moy be grumpy ond your
schoolwork moy suffer.
12—18 points YouǢre neilher on owl,
or on eorly bird, bul hove sensible
sleeping hobils.
19—24 points YouǢre on eorly bird ond
woke up reody lo seize lhe doyǟbul lry
nol lo dislurb lhe olhers!
144–145 What makes
you tick?
monufoclurers lo help
compelilive swimmers
shove cruciol seconds
off lheir limes.
4—B The surfoce slruclure of o lolus
leof slops woler ond dirl from building
up on lhe plonl. This hos inspired o
lype of poinl lhol is self-cleoning.
5—C lfler sludying lhe woy o colǢs
eyes reȍecled lighl, Percy Show
developed his cols-eye rood reȍeclor
in 1º35. Todoy, cols-eye reȍeclors ore
used lhroughoul lhe world.
Lateral thinking
Riddle A: Romeo ond Juliel ore
goldȌsh. They died when lheir bowl
fell ond smoshed lo pieces.
Riddle B: Throw lhe boll slroighl
up inlo lhe oir.
Riddle C: The monǢs horse wos
nomed Wednesdoy.
160–161 Body talk
Figuring faces
Aǟsurprise, Bǟonger, Cǟhoppiness,
Dǟdisgusl, Eǟholred, Fǟsodness
Sham smiles
Smiles l, 0, ond F ore foke.
Body language
A—Dishonesty
People oflen Ȍdgel when lhey ore
lying, so wolch oul if someone rubs
on eye, ploys wilh lheir honds or
feel, or pulls on eor.
B—Mimicking
When people gel olong reolly well, lhey
oflen unconsciously copy eoch olherǢs
body longuoge.
C—Dominance
l reloxed ond focused poslure oflen
meons lhol lhe person feels superior
or powerful.
D—Aggression
l Ȍghl moy be on lhe cords when lwo
people foce eoch olher ond slore while
lheir bodies ore lilled slighlly owoy
from eoch olher.
E—Defensiveness
0losed poslures ore o good indicolion
of defensivenessǟlook oul for folded
legs ond orms, crossed onkles, ond
clenched honds.
F—Submission
Shy or emborrossed slonces ore
common when someone is being
submissiveǟpeople oflen look ol
lhe ground ond somelimes hide
lheir honds.
Natural talent
1—E The bullel lroinǢs unique
nose-cone design wos inspired by
lhe beok of o kingȌsher. The design
enobles lhe lroin lo go fosler, use
less energy, ond reduce noise levels.
2—D Mercedes-Benz hos developed
o concepl cor bosed on lhe ongulor
body shope of lhe lrunkȌsh. The
shope mokes lhe cor spocious bul
lighlweighl, ond il uses less fuel.
3—A Shork skin is mode up of liny
loolhlike scoles lhol ollow shorks
lo glide lhrough lhe woler. This
feolure hos been used by swimsuil
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
192
Credits
DK would like to thank:
Niki Foreman, Karen Georghiou, Fran Jones,
Ashwin Khurana, and Eleri Rankine for
editorial assistance; Johnny Pau for
design assistance; Stephanie Pliakas for
Americanization; Jackie Brind for the index;
Stefan Podhorodecki for photography; Steve
Willis for retouching; Mark Longworth for
additional illustrations; Tall Tree Ltd for
design; Jaime Vives Piqueres for help with
the POV programme.
The publisher would like to thank the
following for their kind permission to
reproduce their photographs:
Key: a–above; b–below/bottom; c–centre;
f–far; l–left; r–right; t–top
akg-images: 108tl, 109tl; Alamy Images:
Third Cross 59cla (carousel); Paul Doyle
64br; Richard Harding 58cb (spider);
Interfoto 87tl, 122cla; Andre Jenny 85bc;
Photos 12 148cl; The Art Archive: 122ftl;
The Bridgeman Art Library: Bibliothèque
de la Faculté de Médecine, Paris, France/
Archives Charmet 10bl; British Museum,
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unconscious mind 148–149, 185
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Velcro 106
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vocal cords 112
von Braun, Wernher 108–109
W
Wernicke’s area 18, 19,
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Williams, Venus and Serena
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word games 114–115,
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David Hardman and Phil Chambers Illustrated by Serge Seidlitz and Andy Smith How to be a .GENIUS Written by John Woodward Consultants Dr.

CONTENTS 6 Your amazing brain MEET YOUR BRAIN 10 Mapping the brain 12 Left brain. right brain 14 Taking sides 16 Nerves and neurons 18 Brain waves 20 What is a genius? HOW MEMORY WORKS 60 How you think 62 What is memory? 64 Improve your memory 66 Do you remember? 68 Paying attention 70 Making associations 72 Albert Einstein COME TO YOUR SENSES 24 Brain and eyes 26 Tricky pictures 28 How you see 30 Simple illusions 32 Impossible illusions 34 How you hear 36 Sounds like? 38 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart t 40 Taste and smell 42 Sensitive senses 44 How you feel and touch 46 Touch and tell tel 48 Tricking the mind e 50 Magic tricks 52 Sensing your body 2 54 Body illusions 56 Intuition io PROBLEM SOLVING 76 How you learn 78 Mastering mazes 80 Puzzling patterns 82 Intelligence types 84 George Washington Carver e 86 Logic 88 Illogical thinking 90 Brainteasers 92 Thinking inside the box 94 Mathematical thinking 96 Think of a number 98 The magic of math 100 Spatial awareness areness 102 Seeing in 2-D 104 Thinking in 3-D 106 Invention 108 Wernher von Braun o 4 .

A WAY WITH WORDS 112 Learning to speak 114 Having a word 116 Using language 118 Words aloud 120 Reading and writing 122 Jean Franςois Champollion YOUR BRAIN AND YOU 138 Sense of self 140 Personality types 142 What about you? 144 What makes you tick? 146 Mary Anning 148 The unconscious 150 Dreams 152 Emotions 154 Mahatma Gandhi 156 Fear 158 Reading emotions 160 Body talk 162 Good and bad habits 164 Winning and losing THE CREATIVE MIND 126 What is creativity? 128 Are you a creative spark? 130 Boost your creativity 132 Creative exercises 134 Leonardo da Vinci THE EVOL VING BRAIN 168 How we got our brains 170 Charles Darwin 172 How the brain grows 174 Brain surgery 176 Animal intelligence 178 Train your pet 180 Can machines think? 182 Program your friend 184 Glossary 186 Answers 190 Index 5 .

the e. One picture shows us inside e show his body. This book is all about how to wh y sen ar. i you use it. even ain is It al when y always con so kee ou are active. How many candles are andles there on the birthday cak cake? 8 8. hing . Aut actomat i You ivit c r br y The brain is the most astonishing part of your body. 9. Al red i akes d al tas wi ich t d an ell. Name three different animals that we see. 6 . No peeking! 1. e h to s feel t d maybe. and language. p t tem rolling s you a asleep . the better it works. Study the picture e shown inside this boy’s busy n head for 45 seconds. What color is the terrifying terrifyi monster he is scared of? e 5.Do you remembe remember? Put your brain’s memory sk skills to the test. io are pt enses rain. ions an and o ger. The more er f your o your the s s you P l o nt n low te. then cover r it up and try to answer the ry following questions. Name three sports that we ame see the boy do doing. Its billions of cells control everything you think and do. joy. sm ld. Where does he like to sing? W 2. nals b ce s ig memory. o resp like auto ns might onse mati c me s. What injury makes m him cry? Fear. lov th seem er emoti e. b r heart by bea reat stio t. Emo t How did you do? Turn to page 186 to find out. n. really hate? 7. senses. bu our b n t emo rains to c we can u tal tions ontro se if we l want our . emotions. he e wor get your brain cells buzzing and. including n your actions. pera you live and dige ture. become a genius. What is the delicious smell ou that we see the boy s sniff? 10. Which two pieces on the far right will fit together to create this hexagon shape? A E C D F Check the puzzle answers on page 186. What food does the boy really. 3. Which part do we see? rt 4. Who is the love of his life? s lif 6. an B Perfect pair This puzzle tests your spatial awareness—your sense of space.

Mo Feel lost? Life is full of puzzling problems—such as how to get to the middle of this tricky maze. tru re ruct Eart rth. 7 . Your b uage ability rain gives y under to commu ou the nicate stand using comp and spe lex learn ech. It’s your a-maze-ing brain that helps you find the answers. ab ut y this th ou t it ou .You ems b s—ev your o s n f ea bl pro ent id part o huma r t ly e o diff are n ce. Lang Yo ve o ur m so rgan brain en an you izes trig t de ra yo g ha ffici ction ur m ers a pp en s a ove nd thi ens t. t exp n do ca in is a cti Th brain conne n when n w y r e ng s so ki lway ng lvin g A human bra brain rain is the most complex ex str cture structure on Earth. Mo re s me nk wit ing ho st of moo nts. On hey erien this. rt Memory Every event or fact that grabs your attention may be stored in your memory—an amazingly efficient library of information that never runs out of space. You c ideas an als by rea o din were writte g words th n long at ago.

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that is responsible for your thoughts and actions. Galen ories and em hat is mem . in w 9 and 200 CE the between 12 e he treated . This is what makes us intelligent. of gladia gory injuries Hy ypothala amus Thi is the part of your brain is tha regulates sleep. the cerebrum. including n growth and body development. AG the firs was one of an Pergamun e brain was that th to suspect it controlled gan and that lived important or otions. They e control many functions. 10 . aga aga B Your brain is the most complex organ in your a body—a spongy pink mass made up of billions a of microscopic nerve cells linked together in an o e electronic network. n n but it is the biggest part. hunger. the human brain has a much bigger cerebrum (shown in orange above). where they are decoded and analyzed. s Pituitary gland n mun f Perga Galen o n named Galen of reek surgeo t people This releases chemicals called e hormones into your blood. the brain stem links the rest of the body to the brain and controls heartbeat and breathing. wher now Turkey tors. because s we use the cerebrum for conscious thought. Each part has its own job. s Meninges hese Me Meninges These s layers cushion the layers cu n th br brain against shock.Fish Bird Human Origin of genius Compared to other animals. Thal lamus The thalam relays sensory signals mus y from your body to your cerebrum your cerebrum. at s and body tempe erature. erc wat r rcent water wate ater Brain stem Connected to the spinal cord. rai per percent water. Your rain i Your brain is 77 per t water.

and joints T The Th outer b ain t br T The cerebrum is heavil ly folded in order to increase the total surface area. It s is divided into halves. Blood ply The brain needs a c onstant su of oxygen pply to fuel its activities. and c apillaries Around on . o or fluid. Frontal lobe Vital to thought. analyzes sensory data. h h l li speech. espec cially from the skin. which w is packed with brain cells. muscles. and emotion Temporal lobe Mostly concerned with the d recognition of sound n Occipit lobe Receives nerve tal signals from the eyes and s interpr rets visual information Spinal cord al cord d Cerebellum 11 . th left s he and right hemispheres. sup Cerebellum This complex folded structure helps control balance and movement. and ea consists of four lob ach bes tha have different functi at ions. ve ins. Parietal lobe Processes inform mation from the senses. rain ery e. This is de livered in the blood the body’s via circulatory system of arteries. personality. Cor s call sum A band orpus c callo and of nerve fibers that link the erv erve fibers that link the n two sides of the cerebrum sides the cerebru reb re e Subarachnoid space b rac a sp ce This is filled with led shock-absorbing fluid.Skull Forms a protective p casing around the brain Cerebrum The biggest part of the brain controls all our conscious actions and thoughts. e fifth of th e body’s entire quo ta of oxyg enated blood is re served for the brain. U to pints litre) o Up to 2 pints (1 litre) of ts litre tre re) blood flows thr ugh your blood flows through you d ws thro rough your bra ver minute brain every minute brain every minute. and stores memories.

ds? Two min l activities involve both 12 ows brain This scan sh areas) in activity (redmisphere. and it is responsible for mathematical skills. Mathematical skills them Studies show that the left side of the es b brain is much better at dealing with numbers than the right side. d n n. ski that involve organizing ideas and o expressing them in words are largely controlled by the left hemisphere. while the e approach ore intuitiv am analytical. For some functions. Writing skills Like spoken language. It allows you to analyze a ze problem to find an answer. ed may vary o most involv ctivity of tw the brain a ns show sic. Left optic tract p Carries data from right visual field s Rational thought Thinking and reacting in a rational acting way appears to be mostly a left-brain ears leftactiv activity. b rational a aspects of your thinking. The sca to mu e listening right people whil using their left is one on the . connected by a m o halve bridge of nerve fibers. ft hem the le . d el l fi ch ua ea eft vis of l d ft de the el f Le ht si ees ual fi g s s Ri eye vi LEFT EFT LEFT BRAIN SKILLS IN The left side of your brain is de responsible for the more logical. each half is wired rve ns. but other skills and thought processes are controlled by only one half of the brain. to the opposite side of the body. ves BRA Language e Yo Your ability to express yourself in words is usually controlled by the frontal lobe of the left ce cerebral hemisphere. but th sides of the These two . indicating much more hemisphere . as well as y s your verbal skills. the right he is Many menta e side that brain. Sci t ientific thought Logical scientific thinking is the e ific job o the left side of the brain. ay be more er person m oth Left visua cortex al Processes da from ata right visual field usician uses A trained misphere more.The cerebrum is divided into two halves. writing skills age. of s altho ough most science also involv being creative.

left-hande rs have no trouble us ing langua ge and log ic.RIG RIGHT I RIGHT BRAIN SKI S I ILLS The right side of your brain seems to be the focus of e ou s your more creative thou u t t ughts a emotional. Cro os d wi ossed wires The le side of each eye is he left s o connected to the left side of your nnected brain. It is also important for spatial awareness. this s uggests that the le ft brain is usually dominant. Each side of the —th —the fi brain processes i es im s images from the oth side of the head. or looking at art. painting. her Each side also controls the muscles of the opposite hand. although expressing that imagination n involves left-brain skills. but it picks up data from the right ut p a side of your head—the right visual field. ry. also s s ded wo The left b rld rain contr ols the rig hand. y. music involves a lot olves of right-brain activity—but trained ained musicians also use their left brains ns s to master musical theory. So do left -handers use their right-brain skills more? Th ere is no p roof of this and many . Imaginatio agination Right optic tract Carries data from a left visual field fi Your creative imagination is mostly imag y dir directed by the right hemisphere. s o nt Spatial skills s Optic nerve Sends visual signals to brain R L igh ey eft s t vis e s id ua vis e e ua es of l fie l fi th ea ld eld e ch rig ht BRAIN Your ability to visualize and work with three-dimensional shapes is strongly linked to th the right side of your brain. Art Vis sual art is related to spatial skills. intuitive and responses. and ht since mos t people a right-han re ded. s Insight h Those mom moments of insight when you connect two very different nne i ideas probably come from the ably fr right half of your brain. Music c Right visual co h ortex Processes data a from left visual field Like visual art. an the right side of your brain is nd pr robably more active when you are dr rawing. 13 Right- han .

such watc with as at yo h on o your the oth r putting u hold er br y of do ain to le arm. Eye-motion Look straight at the nose of the girl in each of these pictures. Best foot forward The easiest way of finding which of your feet is dominant is to kick c a soccer ball. 14 Tr oppo y doing t s switc ite hand hings wit hing h the to no rm th your fork e hand th al. and it is very rare for someone to be able to use both hands or feet equally well.BRAIN GAMES T AKING SIDES Most people are either left. the left and right sides of your brain are far from equal. This is because information from your left visual field gets processed in your brain’s right hemisphere.or right-handed. . too. but did you know that you can also have a dominant foot and a preferred eye? In both physical and mental tasks. Try the following tests to find which side you are on on. Your u preferred foot may not be on the same side as your dominant n hand—you can be left-footed and y n right-handed or vice versa. which shows her smiling on the left side of the picture. but you usually take a the first step of a flight of stairs s with your stronger foot. In which one do you think she looks happier? Most people find that she looks happier in the bottom image. Thi our arn s for ing t new ces hing more w s the t connecti and crea ays wo s ides ons betw tes of yo e ur br en ain. which is also dominant for interpreting emotions.

15 . it will stay in place. you probably draw the features based on what you think they look like rather than what you see. you may be surprised to find that the upside-down version is the most accurate. e. ambidextro hitter ambidextrous hitter can switch hands extrous tt xtr tter ds to strike the ball from the bes side. whereas with your stronger eye. Right hand start You will get the farthest along the line with your dominant hand. Then turn the face the right way up and draw it again.Eye see you To discove which is your dominant o er eye. Havi Having one hand as strong as the other ving str tro rong er can give you an advantage in some ve adva age vantag sports. ps Trick your brain This exercise reveals how your brain sometimes tricks you into taking shortcuts. Left hand start The left side of your brain assigns simple shapes to common objects—for example. If you found that you got just as far with each hand. to ju ump. So if you draw a face the right way up. First. putting as many dots as you can in the white circles. When you look at a face upside down. hold up your index finger t to eye level and look past it into the distance. Then close ea eye. for example. draw this upside-down picture of a face. Then do the same on the other side with your left hand and compare the results. est es Handy test Ambidexterity is the ability to use both hands equally well. an almond shape for an eye. Take a pencil in your right hand and ask a friend to time you for 15 seconds. an rt rts t eball. Starting top right. To see if you are ambidextrous try the exercise below. You ach will see that with your weaker ey your finger will appear ye. baseb fo ex sports. one at a time. When you compare the two pictures. however. you are probably ambidextrous. the right side of your brain works harder to understand the unfamiliar image and you draw the shapes and lines you actually see. In baseball. while the weaker n eye help with depth perception. Your st tronger eye figures out the position of things. str tri rike fro from r best e. work your way along the line. but you may surprise yourself by just how well you did with your weaker hand.

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S. and he became the youngest-ever world champion in 1985. . architect.Child prodigy Determination Born in Poland in 1867. He had a natural talent. archaeologist. Declaration of Independence in 1776—was a philosopher. Some people just seem to be born geniuses. Marie Curie was determined to be a scientist. but he worked hard to make the most of it. even though such a career was not considered suitable for a woman in the 1800s. Garry Kasparov was only 13 when he won the Russian junior chess championship in 1976. Encouragement American sisters Venus and Serena t r Williams are among the greatest of all m tennis players. They showed amazing talent from a young age. Thomas Jefferson—the main author of the U. She fought poverty and prejudice to win two Nobel Prizes for her pioneering work on radioactivity. Broad view Some geniuses do one thing extremely well. but they owe a lot of their success to their parents. and inventor. h i who coached and encouraged them to build on their skills. but others excel at many things. as well as a politician who became president of the United States.

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Senses Come to Your .

Image convertor Your eye is a ball of transparent jelly lined with light-sensitive cells. just like the pixels in a digital camera ra sensor. sight is our dominant sense. These cells respond by generating tiny electrical signals that pass down a bundle of nerve fibers to your brain. The cells turn the image into an electronic code that your brain can process. Light rays enter your eye through lenses that focus an upside-down image on the cells. shape to focus on close ls the light entering The colored iris contro ly dilating (widening) the eye by automatical at the centre.Eye muscle One of six muscles that rotate the eye in its socket Choroid A network of blood vessels spreads through this middle layer of the eye. But how do the brain and eyes wo work together to create these images? P Pupil The opening in the iris al llows l light into the eye. . tral upil Cornea The “wind “ dow” at the front of the eye partly e e focuses t image. . of t is p This back on the down Iris Muscles in the n e iris c change the size he size of the central pupil. al by the lear optic ide ac ps form rojected u he eye. The cells exposed to parts of the image that are light generate bigger signals than cells exposed to dark parts. This means that a lot of the information we commit to memory is in the form of visual images. th the rol Automatic cont. or contracting the pupil Sclera The white of the eye forms a tough outer layer. L Lens The el lastic lens c changes sha to ape fi fine-focus the image. suspended lens made of transpare atically change its by muscles that autom or distant objects. Be nt jelly. We are visual creatures. So for most of us. u see lens to Light ing yo anyth cornea and image. We identify most things by sight and we think mainly in visual terms. Retina The inner lining is a sheet of light-sensitive cells. The cornea at the 24 Dilated pupil Contracted pupil Each eye has two lenses hind this is another front forms one lens. ew r vi m Cleareflected fro is focused Reflected light Visible objects reflect reflect light into e o your eyes.

The br the dots ain to create all the oth combines the spec e trum. w ery m e ce de h tec ile sen of t lls t c oth siti he olo er ve r. close your right eye. cones co es es. s S There There re around 126 million There are aro er r round sen ry cells ea eye— sensory cells in each eye— ensory ells 120 million rods and rods six million cones. you see a negative afterimage. as the minutes tick by. but your brain invents information to fill the gap. However. Slowly move the book toward you. if you stare at something for a minute and then close your eyes. If you turn the light back on. and blue. as in this sim r colors of plified dia gram.The tal c con ells of imag vert the re e li sign als. g color ree send to th n. you get dazzled because your eyes have adapted to the dark. The center of the wheel will disappear when it falls on your blind spot— but your brain will fill the gap with spokes of the wheel. you can’t see much. For example. You can test this using the diagram above. Each color is replaced by its opposite. Hold the book at arm’s length. but they do this much more quickly. l im age an . nsi ed ls ne gh e v So tive on a s) t. you are able to see more and more you are able to see more and more. Visual cortex The part of the brain that processes visual data Seeing Dark adaptation When you turn the light off in your room at night. Men in c The cone cells in th olor e retina re different strength s of basic spond to as red. The s s such ign e brain re present m als they dots of th ese color illions of s. This is a side effect of the way your brain processes color. Optic nerve Bundle of p nerve fibers linked to the sensory cells T e s he n ca hee im so ce lled t of age ry lls li is t to (ro he r ght. so the yellow and red flowers shown below appear blue and cyan.foc ce dim ds eti se us l (co li ) ar na. 25 . Blind spot The point where the optic nerve leaves the eye cannot detect light. and focus on the cross. ght int tina visu oe Th whi al cor ese pa lectric tex ch t al ss upr ight urns th of the to the bra me nta em into in. They must readapt to the light. This is because the sensory cells in your eyes can adapt to the low light level—but it takes time. Strange effects Bright lights and contrasting patterns can cause strange optical effects.

BRAIN GAMES TRICKY The optical illusions in this gallery all play tricks on what your eyes and brain think they are seeing. and things appear where they shouldn’t. but they are all perfectly straight—use a ruler and see for yourself! Our brains interpret the lines as being wavy owing to the disjointed black-and-white lines running from top to bottom. This demonstrates what is called peripheral vision drift. which can also make some horizontal bands look closer than others. 26 . Our brains perceive the colors and contrasts as moving when we are not looking directly at them. but the effect ends when we train our eyes on one spot. Did that move? The patterns in this picture appear to be moving. colors change. They stimulate the eyes in such a way that still images seem to move. PICTURES Is it straight? The horizontal lines in this illusion appear to be wavy. but not if you stare at any spot for a few seconds.

called an afterimage. the circle in the middle seems to move or separate from the rectangular background. This illusion is not fully t understood. This happens because an impression of the goldfish. dark spots seem to flash (scintillate) in the intersections between the squares. and it shows that the way we perceive colors is based on their surroundings. Jumping goldfish Stare at the pink dot in the centre of the goldfish’s head for 15 seconds and then look at the black dot in the empty bowl. but if you tilt your head to either side. It might seem strange. Seeing spots This picture is called a scintillating grid because when you look at it. This illusion is known as simultaneous contrast. but there is actually no difference between them. You should see the goldfish in its new home. 27 . Color contrasts Which of these green crosses is lighter? Most people would say the cross on the right. is still left on the back of your eye. it seems to lessen the effect. The reason for this is yet to be explained.Ouch! If you move your eyes around this pattern. and even hovers in front of it. called d the Ouchi illusion. but it probably arises from the brain being unsure of where the circle ends when you i are not looking directly at it.

You might expect this to confuse your brain. This enables e you to judge things like depth. It is this mental s processing that determines how you w see the world. Your brain makes an autom atic calculation based on this knowledge and turns it into a percepti on of height. Perspective 28 . shape. Your brain also responds to some visual effects by translating them into other types of information. The left eye can eye see the palm trees behind the boat. it looks flat like a picture. This is the effect you ge t when you look up at a tall building and the walls seem to lean toward one another—eve n though you know they are vertical. and distance. you get an impression of depth. Binocular vision Each eye sees a slightly different image of the world. while the right eye sees the flowering trees. Parallax If you close one eye and look at a scene without moving your head. You will find that your hands are framing a different view. A th Another way your brain judges distance is by de coding perspective. Without it. you could not make sense of all the shapes s and colors. Try closing one eye and framing a distant object with your hands. and your brain translates the difference into a perception of depth. The images below show the different views of the same setting seen by each eye. but distant objects like the trees move hardly at all.SEE HOW YOU Your eyes turn visual images into an o electronic code that can be processed and stored in your brain. But if you move your head from side to side. but it combines the images to create a 3-D view. Then open that eye and close the other. This is because objects that are closer to your eye seem to move more than objects that are farther away. This parallax effect is obvious if you look out of the side window of a moving car—nearby objects like these pillars zip past.

Your b brain uses this to judge shapes. Light and s ha e sense llusions lp ou Optical i in your memory hel s you mak ying stored by appl rmation use you Info so conf e blue e. which has ronauts visited the Mo to the camera. they look like a sin gle bump su rounded by de ur nts. In this de ars in the wro rong set of ru the w y. in hilly regions. yo at it can’t er. ectrum fro ed violet ct ctr r t. the absence of were. Th se shapes loo he k like a dent su rounded by bu ur mps. casting sh adows that vary a according to their shape. When ast think that distant ef this effect made them no air. e you know th air. It appe very hot ly part of the sk r of “water” is real orted by a laye the view is dist u assume place because be the sky. T The reaction is so instinctive that it even works with 2-D images. your brain can use another clue ws g vie In landscapes with lon ective. ortan im imp de Objects are usually lit from a above. showi g how in th and dep t it is to us. all forming part of the visible light form forming rt vi lig ight spectru from re t vi et. spectrum from red to violet. It is obvious er than those closer hills look paler and blu where the distant on. but if yo turn the page ou upside down. e enabling you to te ll the difference b between a ball an d a flat disk. ffere fference etween f een colors co rs. But it can al of what you se sert mirage. Called aerial persp to assess distan moisture or dust t objects is affected by way the color of distan n in this picture. Sinc a pool of wat n of the sky in it is a reflectio An average person can tell the average person verag ers er era er r tel ell differen betwee difference between 200 colors.ive Aerial perspect . 29 . th ng les. as see in the air. it describes the ce. than they actually hills were much closer if different p to ten tance u is We use g dis ju i judgin ways of . s.

BRAIN GAMES all Psychologist Edward Bradf ord Titchener our judgment discovered th about the size at of something the size of othe is affected by r things around it. f causing us to make unconscious assumptions about c what we see. pl open arr ne on th the line aying owh e rig and ea dept ht with h. Big and sm The ng di M into üller-Ly recti think er ill on us in on th e lef g that th ion misl t is l This eads e mi on is d t beyo becaus ger than dle sect he brain ion o e the nd th the o f of le e ngth line. but th s bigger beca r e use it is surrou circles. e the illusions are difficult to shake off. 30 . Movie nded by smal makers use th ler is simple effe monsters appe ct to make ar much bigg c er than they ac tually are. and shape. Such illusions play with our perceptions of angles. our p ds exten . size. The red circ picture here an les in the es d the one belo l w are the sa one here look me size. d erce ption Wro Some of the most effective optical illusions can be produced with simple lines and shapes. Even when we know how they work.

es d lin rossen was C io s an This illu by Germ overed disc Johann ysicist astroph Zöllner. in fa 31 . but the dots don’t actually exist—they’re simply gaps in the lines. It also makes the p perfectly straight y g lines of the blue square appear to bend inward. Do we see dots because the brain figures out the boundaries of shapes from little bits of information? Or do we see the illusion before the brain has o processed exactly what it is we are looking at? t he s. Th t the t om. T T a k an ott blac he dist red line t the b t a into ich the he one . t h e in w r than me siz nge the sa lo ct. Scientists disagree on an explanation. his lines g ce. riedrich Karl F el r parall The fou ear nes app li ot vertical sts cann ienti lted. T ng sion tretchi llu wo i ctive.Is it square? The concentric circles in this picture trick our brains into thinking that the image has depth. Sc e ti se why we ey explain when th es tilted lin traight! ctly s are perfe A little bit dotty t Dots appear to join the crosses in this image. s lusion t ne tains spe d il n o age con e of per a secon s to be i im s r s Twosimple ive a senis createop appeahey are.

This picture shows a circuit of water that seems to flow impossibly uphill before tumbling down to start its journey all over again. Escher was inspired by optical illusions.32 The water cycle BRAIN GAMES The Dutch artist M. below. C. If you look closely. you can see that the technique used is the same as that in the Penrose triangle. Deathly beauty American illustrator Charles Allan Gilbert created this famous optical illusion. What do you see in the picture? A pretty woman admiring ou s herself in a mirror or a scary grinning skull? lf .

ILLUSIONS Face-to-face? When the eyes and brain focus on an object. All three straight beams of s h m the triangle appear in front and behind one a n d another at the same time. Three round prongs m t h o at one end become a rectangular shape d g at the other. You see two different d w e perspectives at once. The brain can flip between two options as it tries to make sense of the impossible. c n e Tricky triangle c This illusion was created by mathematician r t Roger Penrose. Two or three? w e Crazy cube r y u You can see this shape in two ways—as u h a n — a small cube sitting on the inside of g h a bigger cube or as a single large cube g r u with a small cube-size chunk missing m s h n from its bottom corner. while others see two black people looking at each other on a white background. but it’s not clear which is the object in this illusion. This design first m e appeared in a floor mosaic found in the p d ancient Roman ruins of Pompeii. Some people see a white vase on a black background. What do you see? Is there one image or two? Is the water really flowing uphill? Illusions are not always as they seem at first glance. and they meet at e right angles to one another. It would be n e impossible for this object to exist in 3-D. MPOSSIBLE Look at these pictures and objects. yet it’s impossible r v s to fit them together. s o s - Like Penrose’s triangle. this object cannot e o e t be created in 3-D. they separate it from its background. Nobody is really sure who b s y first created this illusion—it’s a puzzle t s ’ from start to finish! m t 33 . Italy.

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Can you hear something? From whispering voices to a phone ringing. and uncooked pasta. ep Ste 1 ll Fil each bottle with a d different material—the uncooked rice.and lowpitched sounds when you do this activity. the lower the pitch. But when you tap the bottle. If le you blow across the top of the empty bottle. the higher the pitch. yours ears pick up all sorts of sounds. If you add a little so quid and then blow. Then wrap them in paper before placing t them in the bag. such as air or water rough. There is less air when the bottle is half full. Can they identify what is inside the bottles by shaking them? If you tap the sides of the same bottles. so the air vibrates faster. This is bec e because sound ecause need med needs a medium to travel eds ds edium tr vel tra rav thro through. Step 2 Step 2 s Ask your volunteers to close their eyes and pick the bottles out. enabling you to identify the sounds you come across. you get the opposite effect: the empty bottle has the highest pitch. it m makes a low-pitched ound. What was that? You will need: Test your hearing ability by identifying these challenging sounds. it is the glass and water that are vibrating to create the sound. The greater the amount of water. dif eaving one empty.. dried beans. 37 . er. water. with higher pitch. Let the participants hear each shaken bottle once. Try the following activities and find out how much information we process through our ears. the liq ch pitc is higher—the more liquid liquid. while the fullest bottle has the lowest pitch. How good is your sense of hearing? Throughout your life. r. When the bottle is empty. the vibration is slower and the pitch lower. You will need: glass bottles ep Ste 1 Fill each bottle with a fferent amount of water. your brain stores information it encounters. Noisy bottles high. Yo You cannot hear any sounds in hea ear ds space Th space. e one by one.

and began playing before he could read wo at the age of five. so he was in the right a professional musician He could read music family to learn his art. 38 .Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang at th sister. He was well known for his sense of humor. dancing. he bought a billiard table as well as a new piano. do ie Perche demonstr tic aud Mozartto an aristocra organ Fun and games Despite his musical genius. Mo Bo . their father too digies. ing mu he real trick. excit er. performing wi their first trip i. Fran ce. But to skill unde such al e asto ns wer g music musicia alent for fittin party t ta him this ther was jus was to ge toge ideas challen sic. in 1762. He also liked showy clothes and was once decribed as appearing onstage “with his crimson pelisse and gold-laced cocked hat. His and composing music g ian. with enager. t talen isingt dreaming prov a ung . Leopol th his d. and billiards. during Child prodigy zart was the son of rn in Austria in 1756. A perform he w aw him while s who s uld improvise witnes to a he wo r. rt composer er. w them off as child pro to sho Some people seem to have a genius for music and can play it superbly when they are very young. Mozart did not have a one-track mind. He enjoyed horse riding. rds. r. Em eror J eph II Emper Josep Emperor Joseph ror of Austr made Mozart his Austria tri ria Moz rt ozart court composer. one of the greatest composers who ever lived. se compo k a little long too which This portrait of Mozart at the age of around 26 shows his love for fine clothing. and their father. to Paris. The most celebrated of these musical geniuses is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. e than an hou as a te lished mor for omp like this that even acc d. Nanner e age of six. When he started earning serious money in Vienna. Im rific heme was ter usical t Mozart on a m ccording tions up varia as playing. and when Wolfgan sister was also a music m around Europe k the was six. A few are even able to compose complex orchestral music when they are only children— something that most people would find impossible. the yot the a k pillow n a thic ates his skillnce.” In 1787. partly because he enjoyed practical jokes. T original.

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l especially smells that you memorized long ago. saliva n and dissolved food seep into each taste bu d through a tin y pore. things. Nerve fiber Taste bud Taste hair Olfactory receptors Detect scent molecules molecules molecules in the air Taste receptor cell Nasal chamber Simple tastes Your taste buds can distinguish between only five taste sensations: salty.Cerebral cortex Analyzes and relates smells and tastes Olf factory bulb Ga athers scent signals and passes them to the brain Your senses of taste and smell are closely connected. and they both help you enjoy your food. Th lled ere are around 10. Your brain reacts surprisingly strongly to smell. The ce react to chem lls icals in the fo od by sending nerve impuls es to the brai n. But your sense r e of smell is vital in other ways. and this is because your sense of smell also plays an important role in “tasting” your food.000 of thes each containi e. Infections such as colds and the flu can make you temporarily lose your sense of smell— l and then you find that you cannot taste much either. and even ven v people. and umani (savory). sour. ng 50 to 100 ba nana-shaped cells with tiny “taste hairs” at the top. This combination is too limited to account for all the different li tastes that you experience. Whe you eat. sweet. It alerts you to danger and helps you recognize familiar places. SALTY SOUR R Tongue SWEET BITTER T 40 Nerve fibers Gather data from taste buds UMANI . Most of the re Taste pore ceptor cells th at detect tast concentrated e are on the tongue in clusters ca taste buds. bitter.

he d We have We all have our v own unique smell smel ell identity. enabling you than ur t to detect thousands of scents.. may “taste” the teas. The blenders of fine teas. This m memo en dormant l emotions and awak ge x an ca trigg r powerfu o passes to the corte ormation als s. genes. they are detected by two ou the patches of recep ptor cell located high up in your nasal ls cavity. where more nerve cells ry transfer th coded scent signals to the brain. 41 . es et s t and skin type. em me ories Scent inf takes but this alyzed consciously. m but it is much more refined th you sense of taste. This is Th determ ed fact determined by factors eter rmined factors tors such as genes. for example. wine tasters and tea blenders. The limbic sys the top of the brain an important role in t plays area of the brain tha explains why scents y ry and emotion. diet. Nerve fibers fr fi rom these cells pass through the skull to the olfactor bulb. They use th refined sense of smell y heir to decide which combinations have w the best fla avor. Scent molecules are carried in s the air. instincti a lot longer than the Thalamus Receives taste signals from the medulla a and sends them to the cortex Medulla Receives taste signals and relays them a to the thalamus Brain stem n Professional senses Some people earn a living by their noses. t of the brain to be an ve reaction. and when yo breat in. diet. not so obviously. but their m taste buds can barely identify them. type e action ti Inst nctive re the limbic system at is part of actory bulb The olf tem is an stem. They include the makers of perfumes and.Scent signals i The human sense of smell is poor compared to that of many animals.

smell and taste function by detecting chemical substances. Step 2 Repeat Step 1 with the second volunteer. for example. So if s your nose is blocked because e you have a cold. food flavors. Our sense of smell enables us to distinguish up to 10.. Who .000 different scents. Record the results. Try these activities and find out more about your senses of smell and taste. it is harder to r recognize food flavors. In th weightles the wei tles weightless eig ess environmen enviro ent environment of space.BRAIN GAMES SENSES ENSES Unlike the other senses. rinsing his or her mouth out with water in between tastes. Then ask your friend f i d to taste and id if the d identify h flavors. Step 1 Ask an adult to help you make the Jell-O. a food often tastes bland. a 42 . Seeing is believing! You will need: How good are you at identifying what you Jell-O are eating? SENSITIVE SEN Step 1 Ask the first volunteer to sample o the food. had a better sense of taste? a When you can’t smell what e you are eating. vors rs s A blocked nose You will need: Can a blocked nose affect your with varying degrees sense of taste? of taste and flavor Follow the steps below and find out. often re h th nose. fo aro as don’t food aromas do romas often rea the e. and there are people who have an extra-sensitive sense of smell and taste. place them on a plate. making sure he or she does not see the Jell-O beforehand. ft fte reach ten each t so astronauts miss astronauts iss astro ts mis tr r out on a lot of fo flavors. but this time ask your friend to hold his or her nose closed. e. Record the responses. When they have set. Step 2 Put a blindfold on the first person.

Step 2 and ask him or her to identify which two items smell the same. It alerts us to danger by detecting poisonous odors and we can even identify whether food is ripe or rotten by p y smell alone. Chemicals from food can reach your taste buds only if they have been dissolved in saliva. Mix the bowls around. an adult may have ve only 5.000. or soap T The chemical factor You will need: Find out if saliva helps you when it comes to such as cookies. or crackers Step 1 For each item. How good was your friend’s sense of smell? Our sense of smell is much more sensitive than our sense of taste—around 10. cakes. Step 1 Step 3 Ask the second person to identify the flavors. and this helps identify their flavors. The second person can taste the food as normal. tasting food. too. Step 4 Compare the differences between the two experiments. Step 2 Ask the two subjects to taste the dry food and then record their responses as to how t h much fl h flavor th they can taste. Record his or her answers. coffee grounds. flowers. 43 3 . while buds wh ds.000 taste buds. Did the blindfolded person make any mistakes or take longer in identifying the flavors? We are used to seeing foods in certain colors.S Smell Try this test and find out how good your sense of smell is. You will need: three items with strong smells such as a banana. Pat the tongue of one of your volunteers dry with the paper towel so that no part of the tongue’s top side has saliva on it. put two samples of it in two different bowls. A child has around aro round 10. s.000 times more sensitive. This volunteer should not be blindfolded.

o Merkel’s disk l Responds to light touch and pressure e Ther There re aro There are around re round 18 million skin sensors rs alto ether constantly altogether. Some g nerve endings are wrapped around the o roots of hairs and sense their response to touch and air movement. giving you the uch that a llows you to feel tex tures and . pain. you can ce rtainly fee l it. Some are branched r nerve endings.Your skin is the largest organ in your body. Finger tip . while others are nerve fibers that end in tiny disks or capsules that psules p detect different types of pressure. as it does for all sensory information except smell. It has a many functions. The thalamus passes them on to the somatic s sensory cortex. which is located in the brain. If somethin g touches your leg. By contra st. including acting as a protective e barrier against infection. your fin gertips are highly sen sit sense of to ive. but it also provides you o with vital information about your environment. to re ad Braille . n H Free nerve endings Sense touch. and temperature m Thalamus Sensitive skin e Human skin has at least six types of t sensory receptors. It does this by using millions of sensory receptor o cells that detect different types of stimuli—from m the most delicate tap to the sharp shock of pain. stretching. vibration. constantly tog er. r 44 Hair root sensors i Detect hair movement contro Some part l s of your s kin are m more sen uch sitive than others. in the ca of blind pe se ople. pressure. but th sensation e is not very precise. oget r. and physical damage. temperature p change. The thalamus acts as a relay station. bra rain. Signal network Sensory signals from the skin are sent through y the bran nching nerves of the peripheral nervous system to the spinal cord and then to the thalamus. t sending information information form to the brain.

This effect happens with all the senses but is most easily tested using touch. There are two types of pain respons One is ses. your back. you get an instant sensation. This is because some skin sensors soon stop sending signals. Your hands are n shown much bigger than your feet because they are much more sensitive. glands. and nerve endings Meissner’s corpu uscle A touch receptor found in sensitive e areas of skin Although your brain reacts strongly to new sensory information from your skin. k Habituation Dermis Contains s blood vessels.Sensory map This odd-looking figure shows how your brain reacts to touch on various parts of your body. ble 45 . for example. The other is slower and starts after d the reflex. it adapts to some constant or repetitive messages to make them less distracting. If you put a pencil in the palm of your hand. but others don’t. short and sharp to make you jerk your u hand away from a candle flame in a reflex action. giving more persistent pain and warning us of possib long-term harm. It looks strange because the size of each body part is related to the number m of touch sensors that it has rather t than its physical size. Hair shaft Proje ects above skin surf face and reacts to to ouch and air moveme ent Epidermis Outer layer of skin Th leas en tiv The lea t sensitive The least sensitive lea east e ve part of your body art art of your body rt our ody is the middle of is the middle of iddle your ack. Pacinian corp puscle Sensitive to pressure and vibrations Feeling pain g Nerve endings throughout your skin t register pain by reacting to chemicals c called prostaglandins and histam mines that are released from damaged ce ells. but within seconds this wears off to leave just a low-key awareness.

as a cup. it is t harde to tell what you are touching. its shape.BRAIN GAMES Grab bag of touch in helping you identify objects? You will need: TOUCH AND TELL Step 2 to put socks or rubber o gloves on his or her hands and touch the ch hange the success rate? By covering your hands.. ask your friend to feel the object and then sketch We have different types of receptors under our skin. spoon. ball. too. r r r e r e r e p rs e p rs e p t o rs i Step 3 ou ou ou ou ou ou ou ou ou ou n o ur e y y y y y y er y her y her y her e n y her e n ywher el n ywhere el n ywhere else on the body n anywhere else on the body. apple. sponge.. These enable us to find out a lot about an object just by touch alone—whether an object is soft or hard. r r r r r r r r an r an r an r an r an r an r an r an r an r an r han n rs n rs n rs n rs n rs n rs n rs n rs t fin rs fin rs fin rs fin rs fin rs fin rs fin rs fin rs fin rs fin rs fin rs fingers Step 1 Have your friend place a hand inside the box Step 2 With eyes closed. pinecone. rock. 46 . and how big it is. and shape of an object by as a feather.. her to describe the texture of the object. er This i because you are reducing the is am mount of tactile information o being sent to your brain. apple. texture. touch alone? Try this activity and find out. and feather d Step 1 your friend to put o his or her hands inside the box and try x to identify the objects e c c c r r r r t re to v v v have more tou We have more touch re Artist at work! You will need: Can you judge the size.

Step 1 Fill each of the cups w the with Place a finger from yo left our e hand in the cold water and a d finger from your right hand in t immersed in the wate for er r around a minute. Step 2 them in the cup of warm water.Sensitive touch e how some parts of your than others. 104–122 °F (40–50 °C).5 in (1 cm) ap part. for examp le. Hot or cold? Follow the steps of this experiment and see how your thermal receptors detect changes in temperature. Could you feel both the points of the paper clip on your forearm? Some animals have different ways of feeling. This is because the receptors are not detecting th d t ti the water temperature. while the finger placed in hot water perceives it as cool. y Step 2 the paper clip from the tip of your index forearm. You will need: The finger that has been placed in cold water perceives the water as warm. Ask an adult to check the temperature with a thermometer. You will need: S Step 1 bend it so that the tips are around 0. t t t Instead. Does your body detect any changes in temperature? 47 . Your forearm is not as m sensitive as your fingers. Cats. they are comparing it to the previous temperatures. so it feels as if the points of the paper clip are together—or you might feel only one point. use t heir w hiske rs.

If yo trick is d ckets u can’t s one whe ee how a n you are you certa watching inly won’t am recogniz distracts e it when agician. So wa tch out! 48 Crimin a . This illusion works because there is a slight delay in visual data reaching your brain. The brain compensates by inventing some data to fill the gap—sometimes it’s incorrect. just people really belie e ve in ghosts. and to you. Som as they may belie are ch as voodoo religious cults su agic.e? Real or fak something that “magical” is ything An e laws of nature. l tric We assoc ks iate mag ic tricks artists. you someone her partn r attention in the s er steals your mon treet and his or ey. even some sort of trick how it’s if we can’t see done—and that is part of the fun. moving his eyes as if watching the ball. the ball appears to vanish. seems to break th things disappear such as making ne’s mind. b with perfo ut confid rmance ence tric use simil ksters an ar techniq d pickpo ues. But he fakes a third toss. Some or reading someo ve in magic. Illusion A magician tosses a ball in the air twice while following it with his eyes. But most of based on m magic is us recognize that ery.

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Try these tricks to find out if you. too. remove the middle one. can fool the senses. and we can easily miss a trick if our brains are concentrating on something else. Step 2 your friend to deal out the top six cards into two rows of three. Ask your friend to point to a row and confidently take away the row that doesn’t have the Queen of Diamonds. If the first two cards are chosen. If the first and third cards are chosen. your friend will be convinced that you are doing what he or she has asked you to do. 50 . remove the first one. We rely on our senses to tell us about our surroundings. Watch to see where the Queen of Diamonds lands. make sure you remove the one that isn’t the Queen of Diamonds. remove them and go to Step 4. Then ask your friend to choose another card—whichever one is chosen.BRAIN GAMES force l need: card You wil The u trick Can yo ne into someo a picking ard cc specifi ke their but ma appear n decisio om? rand Step 1 Secretly place the Queen of Diamonds so that it is the third card from the top in the deck of cards. Step 3 Ask your friend to point to two cards. S Step 4 A Ask your friend to turn over the r remaining card and then open the envelope to reveal how your a amazing prediction came true. If you perform in a confident manner. In fact. However. Magicians distract their audiences to take attention away from what is really going on. If the second and third cards are chosen. you are doing exactly what you need to do in order for the Queen of Diamonds to be picked. our senses can be fooled. Write down the name of the card on a piece of paper and put it in an envelope.

Step 3 Step 2 Quickly turn over both hands. Step 1 Place the coin on the table and the cup over the coin. Step 3 Lift up the cup and the paper to show that the coin is still there. I’ve made the wrong thing disappear!” Only you know that you made the right object vanish after all. Tell your friend you will make the coin disappear. your friend is tricked into thinking that it is still under your left hand. Lift your hands to reveal the answer! he cup? : Where’s t You will need you make Can nish? something va try You’ll need to times this a few k before the tric ly. Because you have directed all the attention to the coin. place the coin in the p palm of y your left hand. Then smash your hand down on the paper to show that the cup has vanished. Say. Step 1 In front of your friend.The magic coin You will need: You need quick actions and plenty of practice to make this trick work. the thumb. Because the coin was not seen to move. While you and your friend are still looking at the coin. near . Ask your friend to say which hand the coin is under. not the cup. “Oops. 51 . works perfect Step 4 Place the paper (which is still in the shape of the cup) back over the coin. move the paper and cup over the edge of the table and drop the cup out of the paper into your lap. Step 2 Wrap the paper tightly around the cup so that you can see the shape of the cup underneath the paper. your friend’s brain isn’t focusing on what is really happening. flicking the coin from under the left hand to under the right hand.

We normally think that we have five senses: sight. Vestibular nerve Delivers balance sensor data to your brain nce si our bala otionstimulation of yg like a M s cknes Intense methin s by so n cause sensor aster ride ca e o is mad roller-c ickness. containing sensors that detect the movement of fluid in the loop—which depends on your body’s movement. you could not stand upright. s the d may enable ent.Balance Your inner ear contains three bony tubes that form loops called semicircular canals. They are like an awareness of your body. or ampulla. Your brain uses these signals to correct your balance. but b we all get sensations from our stomachs. taste. but that doesn’t make them unimportant. Each tube ends in a bulge. This ars s e motion our eyes and se if y flicting rizon wor con ur brain ching the ho f give yo . for example. but hunger pangs are more e useful. hearing. 52 . and other organs may also hurt if they are damage or diseased. A disorder releases ed chemica that are detected by nerve endings als and relayed to the brain as pain. and touch. Most of these sensations affect your unconscious mind. Similar receptors called maculae detect how upright you are. Digestive problems can cause pain. an vem the mo Semicircular canals s Filled with fluid that moves when your body moves Ampulla Contains sensors that detect body movement Macula Has sensors that detect whether you are upright Internal organs We are not usually aware of our internal organs. smell. Wat sense o ion format brain to make in help. ll l Some are vague feelings that mark the e passage of food. But we also feel things that do not seem related to a particular sense. Without your sense of balance.

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When the sensations s from touching your friend’s n nose interfere with the h messages from touching n y your own nose.y r brain begins to think your o nose has grown to where your friend’s nose is! Sometimes your brain has a mind of its own. After a short time. like t touch ro object bject ct ct. reach around to tap and rub your friend’s nose. Then ask him or her to resist you as you press down on his or her wrist with two fingers— your friend will be able to resist the force you are exerting on his or h arm. a pea and it will feel like you are pea.. her Step 2 Now ask your fr riend to put one foot on a low step (or a pile of books or magazines) and repeat the test. Exactly copy your o movements with your other hand n on your own nose. Step 1 Blindfold yourself and then r stand behind a friend. Step 1 Step 2 Ask a friend to stretch an arm out straight. s That’s one long nose! g . there is no harm at all. Here’s oldes est es wn Here er ere r how it works: cross your fingers work cro works cr ks: ross fingers er ers r and touch a small round object.54 BRAIN GAMES BODY ILLUSIONS Th Ari totl The Aristotle illusion is one of ristotle t the oldest known body illusions. you u should start to o feel that your friend’s nose is yours. ea. Try the following experiments and witness for yourself the mysterious brain at work. d With one hand. your . Your brain uses your u sense of touch to figure out where your nose is. Hard to resist This test demonstrates one of the many ways the brain defends the body from possible harm—only in this case. wi feel fee eel re t touching wo pea touching two peas! eas! Pinocchio nose Ever wondered what it would be like to have a nose as long as Pinocchio’s? Try this and find out. It can stop you from doing something that you want to do or make you feel things that are not actually there.

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or sometimes a “sixth sense. telepathy. We call this intuition. but it is probably created by your brain picking up some clue from your other senses and alerting your alarm response without giving you the full picture. a Female and male Women are usually thought to be more intuitive than men.” These intuitive perceptions are probably the result of rapid unconscious mental processes— using either information gathered by your senses or data stored deep in your memory. You might get a feeling that you are being followed. But psychological tests show that this is not true. and men score just as well. Twins often seem telepathic because they share the same history and thought patterns. Sixth sense Have you ever felt that something was wrong without understanding how you knew it? This “sixth sense” effect can be quite creepy.INTUITION We often believe things without having any idea why. i t iti especially among friends. or arrive at an inspired solution to a problem. What’s up? There’s something wrong! The house doesn’t feel right at all! Telepathy Apparent telepathy is probably caused by a combination of sensory awareness and shared experience. It is simply that women like to t appear more intuitive. 56 .

which us e. Why would they be doing that? An g ght move usin to make the ri this an logic. be the right on to What? A balloon? I thought I was imagining it. this gave him the clue that the e molecule was a ring of carbon o and hydrogen ato oms. he dreamed of a snake ed f k biting its tail. But th intuition rather likely king” is more “inspired thin udy lt of intense st to be the resu enables . Benzene molecule structure 57 . The person may also come across new information that makes everything slot into place. the next a memory of triggers lly turns out ua move. This is probably because irrelevant details get forgotten.thinking Inspired player may seem expert chess Wait a minute! It smells like someone has been baking a cake. Woof! Dream wor rk Occasionally people may e even dream the solut tion to a problem. r German chemist August Kekulé was G t trying to figure out the structure of a benzene molecule. but there’s definitely something going on! Surprise! Out of the blue Sometimes someone grappling with a problem finds that the solution seems to come “out of the blue” after working on something else for a while. Whil dozing in le fro t of th fi h d ont f the fire. In the winter of 1861. so the main elements of the problem come into sharper focus. which and experience ize particular ayer to recogn the pl eces of the chess pi arrangements matically This auto on the board. According to Kekulé.

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Memory Works .

u Peo wh Pe People who go blind eople nd d oft often continue to ften ft “see” things because ” bec ecause the bra is wire brain wired rain red ed to pro es vi process visual roces ess information. so s. leaving only the data that ort requires our close attention. p ention. a flicker of movement f in this pool catches your attention and you hes o instinctively focus on the swimming animal. information. perhaps because you are th thinking about something else. The information that we tte gather in this way is stored in our memories and is s the basis of conscious thought. Mo is irrelevant. your brain filters out n irrelevant information and focuses on the cu important data.60 Attention The data gathered by your senses passes s into your sensory memory. the information simply goes out of your head. Most our brains filter and sort it. bef before being erased if you do not pay attention to it. This is often an u unconscious process—for example. entio Attention is the vital first stage in the mental age processing of any sensory input. Visual data is ai held there for less than a second. THINK NK Filter and focus fo ocus Having paid attention. nstinctively foc ga HOW YOU Our senses are constantly receiving information eiving about the world around us. If you don’t ensory pay attention. form .

et go Conscious thought is only a fraction thoug ught fract fract r ction of what is going on inside your brain— wh bra rain— unco unconscious thought is constantly going conscious thoug ught co constantl tly on in the background. it instantly labels it as a particular type abels pa of experience or problem. Labeling NAME: Western diamondback rattlesnake LATIN NAME: Crotalus atrox HABITAT: Terrestrial When your brain registers sensory data as important. k encing your behavior. ehavi r. In this case. s social groups. which m might be dangerous. leading to social problems such as racial prejudice. This happens before you get a good view of it. and take a step back. grou People are scared of snakes because they think ople ar all snakes conform to a venomous stereotype. These are called stereotypes. some snakes are venomous. The brain’s habit of creating stereotypes can be destructive. You label it. This helps it devise a erience pro rap rapid response without getting bogged down in detail. y you don’t go through a mental checklist to al assure yourself that you are right. NOT VENOMOUS 61 . VENOMOUS NAME: Grass snake LATIN NAME: Natrix natrix HABITAT: Semiaquatic Ste Stereotypes NOT VENOMOUS NAME: Jungle carpet python Ju LATIN NAME: Morelia spilota M cheynei HABITAT: Rainforest TAT Labeling leads us to create mental models of cre all kinds of things. the animal’s th head looks familiar. so you mentally fill in the rest of ental its body as that of a snake.Joining the dots Often you see only part of the picture and have to fill in t fil the rest using data stored in your memory. from animals to people and things f ngs. A few clues are often enough. influen kgro d. After all. this is a harmless grass snake. In fact. because your brain is programmed to make sense of sketchy information that might be o important to your safety. influencing background. beh vior. So once you realize that this is a snake. showing that the stereotype is often wrong.

This enables you to think. erm mem why you o ories. emorie When you s are feelin g very em changes in otiona your brain boost nerv l. Most of this data is discarded. creating a long-term memory. . This ften have is unusually clear reca ll of events that you experi enced in a state of hig h emotion . ti they pass into your short-term memory. Input All the data from your senses enters your sensory memory store. Sensory memory r This part of memory holds a lot of information n for a few seconds at most.Your brain processes your experiences r and all the information gathered by your senses. it fires an electrical signal onto a neighboring nerve cell. Memories are formed by electrical signals making connections b t i l ki ti between nerve cells so that they form a network. r Only the most important e information makes it into t the final section. learn. and be creative. E Electrical signal WHA IS T Making memories Making connections t When a nerve cell ll receives a stong enough stimulus. Memory web The signals continue to fire until a web of nerve cells is formed. the stronger the bond becomes. e short term. and skills p are stored in your memory. The more often the network is activated. Memory stores Memory stores Your memory is divided into e three sections—sensory. but the important perceptions. Vivid m P Permanent b bond 62 Links form The more the linked cells are stimulated. facts. chemical They stren e activity. and long term. Ignored Any information in the sensory memory that you ignore is thrown out right away. h t Stimulus Nerve cell Attention If you pay attention to any items of i f it f information. This represents a single memory. gthen the memory-f creating vi orming pro vid long-t cess. the stronger it gets. All the l rest is th hrown out.

Sounds and sights can nd also cause this. 63 . Amygdala Unconscious and emotional memories Hippocampus c Spatial memories l Temporal lobe Learned facts and details Where do we remem mber? The Th cortex and hippocam d hi mpus are the main areas e of the brain responsible for mem mory. Look at the picture of the girl below for five seconds and then cover h her up. Very Very fe peo Very few peopl Very few people eop ople can remember can remember emember em anything fro anything from anything from fro rom bef r befor t ag before the age before the age efo efor f fo of ree of three. h hi has limited and information is soon n lost if you don’t think s about it enough to pass b it on to long-term memory. but smells are especially powerful. because your brain has retrieved the memory by itself. Even though you’ve g gh seen her for a ver short ry time. Involuntary recall Have you ever found yourself smelling something and suddenly remembering a certain time or place very strongly? This sensation is called involuntary recall. But if you had to describe d her. Now look for her in the photo on the o right. you should re ecognize h her. you would pro obably find it a lot har rder. Use it or lose it o If you don’t think d about the data in t short-t term memory. L Long-term m memory A Any informat tion that enters your long-term m memory is c carefully file away so that you ed can easily recall it. perhaps p because the part of your brain r that processes scent is closely sely s linked to your memory. ree. without any prompting from your conscious mind. e Sh hort-term memory This h li i d space. it is los after around st 20 seco onds. but different parts of the brain store different types of memories.Prefrontal cortex Short-term memories Putamen m Learned skills and procedures r Cortex Memories of personal and life events Recognition and recall e It is much easier to recognize a memory you are y looking for than to recall it.

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5.Flags The flying flags have become socks. You need to hang your laundry. and you need to get one. 65 .Bush The bush is getting a haircut. 8. This is a vacation to-do list. Remember to buy dog food.Tree The leaves of the tree are pages from a book. 2. 7 Buy dog food . l 4.Sunflower o A flower is wearing s your sunglasses. Link each landmark on the trip with an item on your list—the stranger the result. 2 Pack your sunglasses . 4 Buy some toothpaste .Wall Imagine your dog running along the wall. 6 .Scarecrow The scarecrow has your sun hat on its head. our 3 Sign 3. l Remember to pack e t them in yo bag. too! 7 . Find a good book to read on vacation.Sign Si The sign has turned into an envelope re eminding you to mail a letter.Bridge SCH OOL There’s a tube of toothpaste floating under the bridge. and here is how to picture each of the items with a landmark on a walk to school: 1 Find a book to read . You need to buy toothpaste. 1 . 6 Remember your sun hat .Trip method One way to memorize a list is to visualize a trip that you often take. Remember to take your hat on vacation with you. g 8 Get a haircut . 5 Hang your laundry . the easier it is to remember! Then go through the trip in your head to remember the items. 3 Mail a letter .

More than 12 is an excellent result.BRAIN GAMES Memory span Your short-term memory can store a certain amount of information for a limited time. They also show the two different ways we remember—recall and recognition. one at a time. so good job if you could remember more. Most people can hold only seven numbers at a time in their short-term memory. read out loud each line of numbers. 438 7209 18546 907513 2146307 50918243 480759162 1728406395 These games test your capacity for storing numbers. Step 1 Starting at the top. 66 . Cover up the line and then try to repeat the numbers. Recognition is knowing something when you see it. words. You may be surprised at your own abilities. This game reveals your brain’s ability to remember numbers and words. Then close the book and write down as many as you can. and visual information in your memory. REMEMBER? DO YOU Visual memory How good is your memory for visual images? Study these 16 pictures for 45 seconds. Recall is finding information in your memory when you need it. Work your way down the list until you can’t remember them all. How well did you do? You’ve done well if you have remembered more than half the objects.

If you can repeat a string of eight words you have done very well. racket. Below are ten countries and ten capital cities. book. but this time you need to try to recall their capital cities in 30 seconds. arm. flower. Cover up the line and try to repeat the words. This is because having a list of possible answers gives your brain a shortcut to finding the information stored in your memory. Most people are better at remembering words than numbers. You probably did better in the second test than the first because associating the lines with familiar shapes makes them easier to remember. Fork. rug Step 2 Now read out these words. clock Pond. does it look like a kite? Again. grass. plate. table Spider. 67 . Check your answers again and then compare your two scores. nose Bread. bike. net. compare your drawing to the picture and give yourself a point for every line you got right. plum. ear. scissors. bowl. glass. worm. orange Recognition vs. COUNTRIES Israel France India Russia Czech Republic Germany Afghanistan Canada Denmark Argentina CAPITALS New Delhi Ottowa Berlin Prague Copenhagen Jerusalem Buenos Aires Kabul Paris Moscow An artistic eye Do you have a good memory for remembering visual detail? Try this test and see. but this time look for familiar shapes or patterns. hair. In 30 seconds. after two minutes cover up the picture and try to draw it. spoon. You may find it helpful to draw it. stone Drum. dog Pencil. foot. rope. Spain Ireland China Sweden Iraq Netherlands s Japan Italy Egypt Greece Most people get a better score f recognition th for iti than recall. box. toe. left. bird. Step 1 First test your recognition skills. Continue down the list until your memory fails. pole Eye. For example. lamp. tree.Bed. Figure out your score again and compare it with the previous one. bell. one line at a time. plate. Step 2 Now do the same with this picture. Step 1 Look at the picture right and closely study it for two minutes. fish. apple. head. Step 2 Here are another ten countries. milk. recall This game clearly shows you the difference between recognizing and recalling information. banana. ball. cookie. moon. leg. When you think you’ve finished. chair. see how many you can match up and then turn to page 186 to check your answers. Then cover up the picture and try to draw it from memory. star.

she heard a familiar noise that filled her with alarm—a dog panting. a whole salmon. splattering them both with h mud and grass. There was a table laden with champagne. re ad this story through carefu lly. Turn to page between them . then se e if you can answer the qu estions below . They thought they were just going to the movies. and a tall pyramid of strawberries. and very smelly dog raced up and proudly dropped a dead fish at her h feet. Suddenly. but only once. Her parents had no idea about the party. he took e a bite of the salmon as a hundred strawberries tumbled to the ground. none of the information will go into your memory unless you really focus your attention on the exercise. How had he gotten out? A big. wet. decorated with candles and pink roses. a white chocolate cake. Remember. u got them all 186 to see if yo At last the backyard looked perfect. s but he leaped away. Important details How well do yo u focus on details when you read? To find out. d 68 . Between two tables he ables a shook his fur. e differenc Spot the ok for detail? Lo ow is your eye H e ictures and se at these two p nces t ten differe if you can spo . Jenny admired the orange lanterns hanging from the trees as they glowed in the fading light and the pretty tables dotted around the yard. muddy. Then he spotted—or o probably smelled—the food table and raced up to it. Jenny knew where that had come ome o from—the Johnsons’ pond next door.BRAIN GAMES P YING A A TTENTION Do you have a good memory for detail? These games will put your short-term memory to work. first testing how well you remember the detail of a story and then how sharp your eye and brain are at spotting visual differences. Chester! She had locked him in the kitchen. Jenny began to feel excited. She o groaned and tried to grab Chester’s collar. Paws on the table.

a much-loved pet tortoise. has bee offered for en his retu and the urn. But which one is Freddy? Turn to page ? 186 to fi out if you find are righ ht. If you got five right you’ve done w ell. A B C D 69 . above right.ssing? What’s mi kly veals how quic This game re om n disappear fr information ca . and then cover the picture. Five items have been removed—but which ones? Uncover the picture above and see if you were right. Did you get them all? Questions 1 2 3 4 5 6 What time of day is it? How were the tables decorated? What flav or was the cake? Who was th e party for? Where did Jenny thin k Chester wa s? What is th e last na me of Jenny’ s neighbor s? Look back at the story to ch eck your answers. h gone has missing A reward g. Step 2 Now look at the tray below. rm memory your short-te Step 1 Study the 14 objects on the tray for 30 seconds. problem and se Freddy. ? Who’s who e you at How good ar ifferences in spotting tiny d solving this patterns? Try e. four tor rtoises below have be handed een in. ead. A good w ay to help remembe r detail is to pi cture what’s happen ing in the stor y in your head.

because it’s more it s likely to stick in your mind. 8371 MAKING ASSOCIA IONS A T After j After just one sighting. Making links between objects— called association—is a useful way to remember things that you might otherwise forget. numbers w phone num Associating remember dlock easier to sed on a pa can make it a number u o help you nt date. Nu e technique for example his is how th lists. Then cover up the number and try to write it down. a worm drinking milk. card wi rds ds eig errors. Did you find it easy to remember using associations? Step 3 You can also use number pictures to help you with lists. ei ight errors rr rr . three cartons of milk. Bri ritish mem ry maestro memory maestro Dominic O’Brien emory estr es ro O’Brien rien rec re ed seq ence recalled a sequence of 2. Imagine you need to buy six eggs. 0 = mouth 1 1= crocodile 2 = swan 3 = worm 4 = arm 5 = face 6 = rabbit 7 = giraffe 8 = doughnuts 9 = snail Step 2 Now study this number for 30 seconds and try to “see” it in pictures. or link a person with an image so that you never forget a name. The crazier the picture. and a stamp with the picture of a doughnut on it. or res can als an importa works. British fter ft r sig ighting. for example. mber pictu . a swan with a banana in its beak. organize words into groups. T remember Step 1 Study the number pictures we’ve created below and try to memorize them. Or invent your own number pictures and learn them. two bananas. the better.70 BRAIN GAMES s tures and pic ped picture umbers similar-sha N ith bers.808 shuffled ecalled equen shuffled ffled ffl playing cards with only eight errors. The following exercises show you how to make associations that match numbers to pictures. Visualize the objects on the list with the number pictures—a rabbit eating an egg. and eight stamps.

sort the items into smaller groups.Forming a group If you have a long list of words to remember. If you find it difficult to remember people’s names. If you meet a girl named Daisy. One way would be to divide the list into two groups—big or small items. After 30 seconds. Elephant Carpet Step 2 Now look at the faces belo . Check the list and make a note of your score. recognize faces recognize fa es eco c es. you could imagine items paired together. 71 . try breaking the list down into smaller groups. This time. Mike Doug Pyramid Twig Greenhouse Insect Goldfish Tractor Nail John Lucy Louis Button If there are no obvious groups. try associating a name with a picture. Here is a new list. based on the ideas above. Can you ow remember who’s who with th help of h he your associations? Th bra The brain has a rain bui in built-in ability to built-in ability to i recogniz recog ize faces. cover the list and try to write down all ten items. Study the list of ten items below for 30 seconds. think of her holding the flower. Then cover it up and try to write down as many of the items as you can remember. you could remember a mouse with eyelashes or a ship carrying a banana. For example. Was that easier? Step 2 Names to faces Step 1 Pin Mountain Tree Eyelash Banana Ship Castle Mouse Book Airplane Mary Step 1 Look at the people above and make up your own associations for them. Or link a person’s name with an object they might have (Doug with a dog) or make up a rhyme (Mike on a bike) to help you.

iu k like this . by Einstein shows dy fascinated rtrait This po 14 and alrea he was ea At the age of only 16 . Translating e n l into clear mathematics was part of his genius. and time of lig e speed except th d the core as forme hese ide T tivity. Einstein be like to wondered travel at th e what it e speed o would (300.000 miles tr l t aveled a alized tha way from e t if you a clock at able to loo this speed o k back . watched witc eed edle compass compa and realized that space was fu of unseen forces. mind-bo e is curve e wn. where he would have had to focus on the ideas of the professors. m a h Bright when in 1893 math. He is most famous for his theories of relativity. Einstein When you think of genius. and were and see it would neve . and noth ht. Switzerland. spa nature of ns were conclusio time can time. The fact that he was not working at a university. and for the equation E=mc2. never catc Time wou h up ld seem to sta It takes ge ni s to thin nd still. rea ed re ized th ealiz wa full unsee force een forces en forces es. when he watched th twitching nee of a co ve. and light. meant that he was free to come up with his own theories. 72 vity e Relatiwas fascinated by th Einstein ce. id Day job b Einstein studied physics and d h i nd mathematics. which has become an icon of inspired mathematical thinking. His that ggling— d. for example. and then got work in s r the p patent office in Bern. fi e deciding whether other people s d h r le’s inventions were worthwhile. the clock r move—b ’s hands ecause th hands afte e image o r they mo f the ved would with you. you think of Einstein. ies of rela his theor of . engineer. This is partly because his ideas are beyond most people’s understanding—the bending of light and the distortion of space. spac slow do n of spac tortio xed ity is a dis grav ing is fi . which explain how the universe works.Einstei Ei ein’s fascination with physics beg at th ag of Einstein’s fa with cs began the age egan five when watc ed the twitching needle five. Translating extraordinary ideas atical thinking. Albert Einstein was the son of an born in Germany in 1879. e. as a hobby rather than a job. He re t: 186. Meanwhile n w he was thinking hard about physics and a b the nature of the universe i hi spare in his time.000 k f ligh m) per se cond.

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76 . ly stop working may eventual Association You learn by making connections between different experiences and skills. ey. We learn much more in our first few years than we do in all of the rest of our lives. this idea triggers an association with the store. for example. dealing with other people. you get nervous when you see another one—or any insect with yellow and black stripes. and managing money. the bicycle you will use to get there. We discover that everything we do makes other things happen. it fires up the rest. We often think it is all about skills like reading and writing. neve . A group the wiring chan rm a network ther to fo cells links toge e action you repeat th that lets t.LEARN How much will it cost? HOW WE Learning is vital to survival. eating. if you have been stung by a wasp. this can create such a strong link in the brain that you react automatically to the event if it happens again. This basic form of learning is called conditioning. creating a web of associated ideas in your brain. Learning curve When we are young. and avoiding harm. If you decide to buy a magazine. we all have to learn a huge amount about the world in a short time. and everything we learn becomes part of our long-term memory. the route. or does so only once but is very upsetting. So. Association also allows you to link the abstract ideas you learn in your classes at school. rcuits Memory ciing” of the brain is formed at The basic “wir something. and so on. We learn basic skills like walking. We learn these things through a combination of conscious effort and unconscious reactions. n never you lear birth. Find wallet Take money Conditioning If an experience always follows a particular r event. but it also involves developing life skills such as safely crossing the street. but whe of nerve ges. for example. When one part of the web is activated. and we learn how to predict this— and maybe avoid it. But if you wan whenever you the network r use it again. the money you will need.

but its benefits last a long time. y adults. g and co gardenin as Buy a magazine Put in the practice If you keep repeating something to yourself. Musicians can stop playing for a year or more. especiall n seem pointless icry ca mim doll to putting a this such as rn a lot in e lea ed. n othe Childre ctions of is ate the a imit A lot of th . This is because the repetition links brain cells into a memory circuit. yet quickly pick up the skills if they start playing again. but w lly we graduate b ntua ctually way. creating circuits in your brain that enable you to play each tune. p you will remember it. 77 . You can learn a skill like playing the piano in the same way. Repetitive practice can be dull. Eve play to a pretend such from rm tasks ing perfo help oking. ou earn a ski ls. skill ion Imitat are programmed tors.Which store? Which route? Take lock Go to store st st Travel by bike Remember helmet The weig The weig t f ur brain tr e The weight of your brain tri es weight weigh r brain triples i trip triples tripl duri g yo first three year of life during your first three years of lif uring your first three years l fe ring ri y first thre years r ee a as you learn more skills as you learn more skills.

Try this method to make your way to the center of this maze—and back out again. you can use the “one-hand rule. find the solutions on page 186. er r The brain’s ability to learn helps us solve all sorts of problems. of course! See if you can make your way through this collection of miniature mazes. too. If you get lost. including how to find our way out of a maze. always keep a hand on one wall as you go—it doesn’t matter which hand. MAZES MASTERING Right or left? You can find your way through this more complicated maze using the one-hand rule. Th The Ancien Eg The Ancient Egyptians built mazes ent mazes azes 4.BRAIN GAMES The one-hand rule To get through a maze where all the walls are connected to the outer boundary.” To do this. ffle ffl t robbers.000 years ago. as long as they can eventually find their way to freedom. but don’t swap along the way.000 years ag 4. Once through. One pharaoh even 000 ears ago pharao even phara eve p raoh ven phar built built hug maz nside built a huge maze inside his pyramid u lt uge aze ge pyram pyrami pyr pyra ramid t baffl tomb ro ers to baffle tomb robbers. Giant hedge mazes are popular attractions—it seems that people like the feeling of getting lost for a while. try again using your other hand—which route is quicker? 78 .

Find your way to the center of the maze and then e out the other side. where some of the walls are not connected to the others. Using the one-hand rule will take you back out the way you came in. Th worl largest The world’s larges world’s rges est maz maze is the Dole aze Pl Plantation Pineapple Pinea Pi eapple Gard Maze Hawaii.746 sq m) and has nearly 2. so to find the exit you’ll have to use trial and error.000 sq ft (12. The challenge of this maze is to figure out the route to the dot. Garden Maz in Hawaii. rden aze a wh covers which covers an area ver ers are rea ea of 137. Over and under This 3-D cube maze couldn’t exist in real life—people would keep falling off it! The way the paths pass under and over one another can make it difficult to keep track of where you’re going—so you’ll have to pay attention. 79 . the more difficult it is to remember all the wrong turns. Instead you’ll have to find your way through by learning from y your mistakes. cannot be solved using the one-hand rule. e Amazing mazes The bigger and more complicated a maze is.Trial and error Mazes like this one.5 miles nearly earl es (4 km) of paths.

Thinking ahead This batch of colorful cupcakes is arranged in a specific pattern.. the better our brains become at spotting even the smallest differences between things. see if you can find the one creature in the picture that doesn’t appear twice.000 worl or rld’s rgest ig rges igsaw uzz zzle pieces takes many mont pieces. See if you can find these two musicians among the group of rock stars below. what would be the color of the 49th and 100th cupcakes? Th world arge ji aw puz The world’s largest jigsaw puzzle has 4. To do this you will have to learn and remember which items form parts of a pair.000 The world’s largest jigsaw puzzle has 24. akes complete let lete ete te 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 80 12 13 14 15 .BRAIN GAMES P TTERNS A TERNS TTERN A face in the crowd The more we learn. Can you figure out what it is? If the sequence was to continue. PU Z I G PUZZLING ZLI ING All alone Without writing anything down or marking the puzzle in any way. t takes many months to complete pieces. It takes many months to complete. ece eces take any o ces..

See if you can figure out the pattern. each pattern has an exact double. Four pieces from this puzzle are mixed up with pieces from a different puzzle. Turn to page 187 to find the answers. cri als ri als Perfect pairs At first glance. Which three colored flowers should finish off the sequence? . Can you find the missing pieces? Police forces u e computer software to help them Police f rces use computer software to help them olice rce olic forces olice forces us co uter software hel th computer f ware e ftware ftw elp the lp track patter track patterns of crime and catch criminals. Spot the sequence These flowers (left) may look randomly arranged. and you will begin to tell them apart. All of these perplexing puzzles require you to spot new w patterns.A between different things are important parts of the learning process. See if you can find the unique pattern among the seven pairs. Your brain has to work out how each small piece fits together to make the big picture. We use past experiences and solutions to previous problems. ra rack pat ern ack tter rns cr me cri rim catch cr minals. tt T t to fi d th B C D E G F H I J K L Mi i Missing pieces i Putting a jigsaw puzzle together is a good example of pattern recognition. In fact. To do this you need to study both the contents of the pieces and their shapes. except for one. these patterns look very similar. track patterns of crime and catch criminals.. stored in our brains. to help us make sense of new ones. however. but in fact they have been laid out in a particular sequence. Give your brain time to study them.

such as architecture and sculpture. but it also includes the ability to use language to express yourself and communicate complex information. Linguistic intelligence Mathematical i t lli h ti l intelligence This is when someone has the ability to logically analyze problems. and rhythms and is similar to linguistic intelligence. It may enable people to easily learn languages. and carry out mathematical calculations.82 Musical intelligence This type of intelligence involves a sensitivity to written and spoken language. so it may also apply to people who rarely use mathematics. It enables you to give good advice to friends who may have problems but also allows you to work effectively with others. . but it does involve intellectual skills. It also covers the skills involved in sports like tennis and many forms of art. You need certain mental abilites to coordinate the movements that are essential to sports and other physical activities. perform. and compose musical patterns. Interpersonal intelligence Bodily intelligence The ability to effectively use your body is not normally associated with intelligence. This is a form of intelligence that gives a person the ability to appreciate. This covers the sympathetic understanding that is vital if you are to relate to the motivations and desires of other people. It involves recognizing and working with musical pitches. Spatial intelligence p Anyone with the ability to navigate accurately and yone visualize things in three dimensions is using their spatial intelligence. It covers both scientific and mathematical thinking. detect patterns. tones.

It could be described as knowing how you “tick” and being able to use that information to regulate your life. think. fears. puzzle solving. According to psychologist H Howard Gardner. reasoning. Howard Ga rdner American psychologist H oward Gardne began to ques r tion the notion of a single type of intelligence in the 1970s. h how would you describe yourself? Intrapersonal intelligence Naturalist intelligence This type of intelligence enables you to recognize. while some perform very w well in only a few. arithmetic. Looking at the intelligence types above. you can be intelligent in eight ways. understand. and analyzing shapes. Intelligence can a also be described as the ability to e experience. IQ tests usually involve general knowledge. an d he published his theory of m ultiple intellige nces in 1983.W What about you? A All of us have different abilities. learn. but it may also affect how you respond to any environment. or IQ. memory. this idea o of “multiple intelligences” is only one o of many theories about intelligence. and use various features of your environment. decoding. However. Although his th eory has been hotly debated. Most people combine s m many skills in varying degrees. it has helped un dermine the cr ude idea that intelligenc e can be accura tely measured by IQ tests. and motives. It covers your ability to make sense of the natural world. One aspect of intelligence is the ability to understand yourself and appreciate your own feelings. But they do not rate things like interpersonal skills and may not be fair to people from different cultural backgrounds. 83 . and multiple intelligences is just one way of describing them. combining different d degrees of each. The results are given a numerical value called an intelligence quotient. INTELLIGENCE TYPES Intelligence quotient Various tests have been devised to measure intelligence. and adapt t to the world. W We usually rate people’s intelligence b by their ability to explain or use c complex ideas.

” to Carver wanted ers whose es of poor farm the liv ted by the us land was exha ting of cotton— relentless plan crop of the the main cash ts sed his studen region. Carver’s laboratory at Tu where black Am ericans couldskegee was one of learn plant sc ience. George got a place in school and later went to college. Moses Carver. “ When you can rv rve v Wh y do the common things of life in an fe uncommon way. who raised the orphan as his own child after abolition. His achievements helped undermine racial prejudice and blazed a trail for other African Americans to follow. He plosives oil. but in 1891. rth. rthday. and even ex le his is would enab hoped th e their own ak students to m he . paints. of buying them oducts instead pr 84 . you will command way. .” att ttention tt worl world. Eventually. nd Peanuts a s potatoe improve In the early 19 the few places 00s. rt George Washington Carver during his house like this to be poor. the attention of the world. At first he studied art and music. where he was the first black student. and inventor. teaching the students farming techniques and ways of becoming self-sufficient. have lived in a like Carver would knew exactly what it was . The head of the institute called Carver “one of the most thoroughly scientific men with whom I am acquainted. uses for these many s. An African American born in the South before the abolition of slavery. In the process he improved the lives of people often too poor to help themselves. He early childhood Determined student Carver was named after his slave owner. plastic including dyes . he transferred to Iowa State Agricultural College. educator. His main interest was agriculture. He stayed at Tuskegee for 47 years. College teacher In 1896. Carver Carver once said. He al crops. rt so he never knew wh day was his birt e neve ver er which was birthd birthday. George Washington Carver fought racism to become a respected scientist. He advi her tton with ot to alternate co d sweet as peanuts an crops such me up with so ca potatoes. especially promoting crops that poor farmers could grow for food and other purposes.Carver Carver did not know the yea or date of his birt arver rv rve v year ear birth. Carver was invited to lead the agriculture department at Tuskegee Institute in Alabama— a college founded for the education of ex-slaves.

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this s can ds. They say things d others ngs gs that don’t add up. The two statements contradict each other. ro fr m the fi Use your head Logic involves using sound reasoning to draw the right conclusions from known facts. THE DESTROYS CAUSE THAT BACTERIA ECAY TOOTH D T Testing the argument The ability to test the argument is important when you can’t test th conclusion. If you cannot fault the reasoning. all bird ing is bir ason ng. he so it is logical to argue that a toothpaste that destroys bacteria w will help prevent tooth decay.Everyone thinks. Checking the reasoning is an important part of logical thinking. because you have no way of testing the effect on your teeth. so you don’t know which one to take seriously. but some people think in a less eryone thin disciplined way than others. it is likely that the conclusions are correct. ing reason r Flawed that all fish live in wate n a If you say fish. You have to trust the logic. But perfectly good reasoning is no use if the basic facts are wrong. so you have to check those as well. you c harks are ter. The re ding clearly wro the conclu ause ion flawed bec l progress logica ent isn’t a statem rst one. swim. Logic is all about thinking clearly. t and that s s live in wa t shark nclude tha ins can co ngu say that pe s are But if you ce penguin sin is i swim and. Bacteria are well known to cause tooth decay. Someone might say that she hates all animals but then say that she really a likes her neighbor’s cat. People who e talk like this are often said to be lacking in logic—they can’t logic they can t analyze what they say and see the flaws in it. 86 .

beauty. you will not be persuaded. All computers are controlled by long strings of electronic instructions called programs. Makes your u teeth shine. But if there is no logical argument to back it up. so the facts are wrong. The rigorous. because it uses reasoned argument to investigate concepts such as truth. first practiced by the ancient Greeks. But common sense can be misleading if it is based on false ideas. these exercises are intellectual games. If making teeth shiny really did make them healthy. the argument in this advertisement would be fine. Computer logic Logic is vital to computing. This makes logic very important for lawyers and politicians such as Hillary Clinton. you might start to believe it. as we believe we know the answers through common sense. If someone says something that you don’t believe but then backs it up with a solid logical argument. is mostly about logic. the program will not work. To many people. 87 . But simply brushing your teeth does not prevent tooth decay. p If the coded instructions are not n logical. logical argument encouraged by the study of philosophy has real practical value. and justice.Persuasive logic Many people use logic to persuade others. and . shiny teeth are healthy teeth Checking the facts Very often people come up with conclusions that are based on ideas that are wrong. Logic and philosophy The intellectual discipline of philosophy. It’s important to check the facts as well as the logic. These are devised by programmers who have to convert their ideas into a code that a computer can read.

This tends to happen when you are very relaxed. and difficult explain. Ichthyophobia Ichthyophobia is the fea fear of fish. and sometimes even sometimes even just the feathers just the fea hers. are llog a rrat onal. But sometimes your mind wanders and makes associations without conscious direction. There is no logical reason to believe in a god. a e phobias Instinct We all have natural instincts that make sure we get things like food. This does not mean that instincts do not make sense—they are essential to our survival. l are understandable. which involves believing in something that cannot be proved. you retrieve information from your memory and use it to solve problems. s h fear fish. Arachnophobi Arachnophob a is the fear the fear o spiders and s of spiders a d is one of the o the most comm n phobias most common phobias. whic is one of the f fish. irrationa . which one he rarer phobias. such as the fear of fish. and air.Free association When you think logically. Faith All religions are based on faith. fal i fea of heights—after al falling f from a height can kill you But eight can kill ou. There are many hobi There any differen types different types of phobias Some hobias. his type fear s sp ders This type of fear is called called a phob a. These instincts are the type of thinking that is shared by animals. but a lot of people do—even if they do not practice any religious rituals— including many scientists who normally rely on logical thinking. water. Orn thophob a is rnithophobi the fear of birds and fear birds. but they are not governed by logic. But othe s u others. 88 . like the fear h ights—after all. difficu t to explain. Instincts also include some emotions such as the fear of fierce dogs. Phobias Phobias Many eople are terrified of Many people are terrified o spiders. are illogical. Some are understandable.

Demophobia the Demophobi is the fear being trapped fea of being trap ed in a c owd of people crowd o eople. Most of us try to avoid saying things like “I’ve never been in a car accident” because we feel that we are increasing the risk just by saying it. Technophobia s Technophobia is the fear of technolog he fear o technology such such as cel phone cell ph nes an comp ters. and computers Superstition Many people are superstitious. . Aviato hobia Aviatophobia is the fear of flying s fear flying and is a very nd very common phobia. Ideas jump into our heads for no obvious reason. A lot of us are superstitious. Some buy lottery tickets because they think they might get lucky and win a big prize. In reality. Others will avoid flying in case they suffer “bad luck” and the plane crashes. Luck Many people believe in good and bad luck. 89 . and many people suffer from phobias or even serious delusions. They avoid walking under ladders. or believe in ghosts.” There is no logic in this way of thinking. worry about what may happen on Friday the 13th. and all religions are based on faith rather than actual logic. or “tempting fate. the chances of both are very small. common phobi We all like to imagine that we think logically. but people ignore the facts and act in line with their illogical thoughts. but this is often far from the truth.Musoph a Musophobia is the word used describe word use to descr the fear of mice h fe r f mice.

However. . so the boys should have paid only $25. How can the farmer get across the river without anything eating anything else? It might help if you make paper cutouts of the characters to help you visualize the solution. he can take only one thing at a time in the boat. she is given the following clues: 1 2 4 5 90 . the fox will eat the chicken. but first she needs to find the cookie jar in the cupboard. logical thinking is the key to solving these baffling brainteasers. the chicken will eat the corn. They have been designed to confuse.BRAIN GAMES Clear. The man in the ticket booth tells them that the entrance fee is $10 each—so the boys pay $30 and enter the carnival. This means that the boys have now paid $9 each for their tickets—a total of $27—and the assistant has kept $2. What happened to the other $1? Find the treat Janet wants a cookie. Turn to page 187 to see if you are right. making $29 . and mislead. a chicken. she’ll end up with something much less h tasty than a cookie. The assistant can’t figure out how to split $5 between three people. only numbers. and a bag of corn across a river. so you’ll have to concentrate hard and use sound reasoning to arrive at your answers. The man asks his assistant to go find the boys and give them $5 back. confound. However. Carnival money money Three boys arrive at a carnival on Sunday morning. If he leaves the fox with the chicken. e If she’s wrong. b She gets only one guess. To help o her choose. If he leaves the chicken with the corn. None of the jars e has labels. so he keeps $2 for himself and gives the boys $1 each. the man in the ticket booth realizes that tickets cost less on Sundays. T i h The frustrated farmer a A farmer is trying to use a small boat to row a fox. .

who then passed it to the left to player number two and they continued in this way until the package reached the seventh player.Two at a time A group of four men—made up of two brothers e plus their father and grandfather—is walking f i to a train station in the dark and come to an old r narrow bridge that leads to the station. It started with nine children sitting in a circle. The prisoner is allowed to ask one of the guards only one question. So what question should he ask to gain his freedom? o Each pair can walk across the bridge only as fast i as the slowest man. one of the men needs h to bring the flashlight back for the next pair. s right-ha side and has a and number that is two more than r the flour and four more than the lent tils. so s n after one pair has cro rossed. d which is directly under the flour. Mary 3 row and are not next to the rice. The person to their left then became player number one and the game continued until there was only one person left to claim the prize. the other only lies. A package was given to the first player. The g e four men take different times to cross the bridge. and y they have only one flashlight between them. This person then unwrapped a layer of paper and was eliminated from the game. The s bridge can support only two people at a time. and the next train arrives at a cross the bridge to the station on time? s o ? Who passed the package? Rob has just won a game of pass the package. who started it? Susan Joe bottom row and not in the middle. f The right door A prisoner is given a chance to win his freedom: In his cell are two doors—behind one is a hungry lion and behind the other is the exit to the prison. If Rob won the game. W Which jar should she choose? Peter Kevin 6 Gary Annie Stacey Rob 91 . In front of each door stands a guard—one guard always speaks the truth.

the middle row is missing only 2 and 8. and box must contain the numbers 1 through 9. The top two already contain 1. Tips and tricks 6 2 4 Sudoku The classic Sudoku puzzle consists of a 9 x 9 grid of squares divided into nine boxes of nine squares.” Look at the middle column of three boxes. Check the rows and you’ll realize there’s only one place the other 1 can go. 8 1 3 5 6 9 1 4 2 4 6 3 5 5 2 2 4 6 9 5 8 4 6 7 4 8 3 5 5 A good place to look first is the row or column with the most numbers. 4 9 8 6 8 . 4 9 6 Slightly harder 5 7 3 5 1 2 6 7 3 8 2 6 1 1 3 5 7 1 5 2 9 3 9 4 9 4 3 4 Neve gues wh Never guess which number goes in a ver es er ess er es square there re square. Sudoku and Kakuro.BRAIN GAMES Many number puzzles rely on logical thinking rather than math skills. Some squares already contain numbers. and your job is to figure out which numbers go in the empty squares. you should be able to figure out which numbers go where. If you check the rest of the numbers in the vertical columns that the middle row’s blank squares sit in. This means that 1 must go in the right-hand column of the bottom box. known as “triplets. Start with this puzzle and pick up some tips and tricks before moving on to try a few more on your own.. write them small in pen es es. em el them em.. Here. If there are a number of re e er ere r er possibilities wr them possibilities. wri s em pencil encil in the corner of the square and erase corner corner squares res es era erase r them as you eliminate them. horizontal row. are puzzles you solve by filling in blank squares with the right numbers according to certain logical rules. Every vertical column. for example. 4 1 6 3 6 7 Middle row 9 5 3 7 1 8 2 Starter Sudoku 1 5 8 7 6 4 5 8 3 6 9 9 5 2 8 1 2 8 1 9 1 4 5 3 7 8 3 8 1 6 4 1 7 2 6 5 3 6 7 8 2 7 5 1 Another trick is to look for sets of three numbers. shaded gray.

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When . you pu sheep. then i add two zeroes. bricks long and 12 bricks high. and most have e developed ways of reasoning with numbers. but how 2b u s many bricks will you need? It’s ea l y sy—you just yo u mu 12 by two. Calcu Geometry Mathematics can describe shapes such as triangles and pyramids in terms of angles and dimensions.400 bri cks. If you know your horizontal dista stance (D) to a mountaintop and you have some way of measuring h hav the angle as you look up at it. you don’t make y e t guesses. you g can figure ou how high (H) it is u out is. If you reach both hands. . e stone and ased on ten you have on te syst m is b r counting is why ou ms g syste Countin ne Age farmer counting u are a Sto ngers of lations You want to b build a wall from bricks It will be 200 b i b . This in your lap eight finge s. You figure out the answers by applying o i logical rules to the figures. This can be used d to measure things like the heights of s m mountains. t t When you do simple calculations. fi i Imagine yo n using the t a stone count to te o ten.r v k a s The most logical form of thinking involves numbers. You t you get to eight. gi ltiply w ving 24. givi ng 2. Most people worldwide n a have devised some way of counting. start again and rs: 18. Most s calculations l use tricks li ke this: they ar e re the ba e asis of f mathematic t al thinkin h g.

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5. ? NUM8ER Only one chance Replace each of the question marks with the numbers 1. the four black numbers can be added and multiplied in the same way to make the white number in the center. while others are more difficult and will require more thought. Some of the puzzles are straightforward and should be easy to solve. 120 ? 44 ? 14 ? ? ? ? 3 50 ? ? ? To find the solutions to these puzzles. you’ll need to use math—and a fair bit of logical thinking.BRAIN GAMES Puzzling pyramid Fill in the gaps so that each box in the second row up contains a figure that is the sum of the figures in the two boxes below. 3. See if you can figure out how you do it. 4. You’ll find the answers on page 188. What number should appear in the center of the third flower? 4 2 30 5 6 6 10 50 9 2 7 5 ? 8 6 96 . TH1NK OF A ?? x ? = ??? Flower power In each flower. 2. and 6 to make this problem work. You can use each number only once. There are also a couple of trick questions to keep you on your toes.

answering all 20 questions and receiving a score of 125. 88888888 Pass or fail? To pass a test. she is deducted five points. she is awarded ten points. Figure out which star is which number to make this addition problem work. then try to work out how many strawberries are needed to balance one pineapple and three bananas? How many strawberries do a pineapple. x + The weighing game A pineapple weighs more than an orange. like this: 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8. For each correct answer. Study the balanced scales above. but for each incorrect answer. an orange. Now insert four addition signs between the eights in such a way as to make a sum that equals 1. which weighs more than a strawberry. which weighs more than a banana. Did she pass? Dazzling stars Each colored star represents a different number from 1 to 4. which weighs more than an apple. an apple. and a banana each weigh? Multiple fractions What is ½ of ¹⁄⁄³ of ¼ of ¹⁄⁄5 of 600? 1 1 2 1 / / 1/ 4 3 / 5 97 . Susan must correctly answer 15 out of 20 questions.000. She completes the test.Pieces of eight Write down eight number 8s.

fold mber 9 on d it.BRAIN GAMES MA TH A lot of math involves figuring out patterns and relationships between different numbers. t ep 3 98 . ask him git h se digits or her t togethe o h r. choose o w y k w h t S e Step 2 A h Ask him or h to p c one o the numbers o the domino her pick of e u e on h o n a t o e and to do the following p problems with it—it’s okay to use s ’ k s a calculator: l la s w n e o shown on the domino S Ste Step 3 A h Ask him or her to tell you the h o l a w If answer. ft St Show your friend the frie i piec of pa with the an ce t per swer writt en on it. I you then s r subtract 1 o this. S e Step 1 G your e Give y r friend a set of dominoes a a h or h to e m and ask him her c o one without letting you know what it is. answer is s more t a th n one d to add tho o igi . As friend to e k your xact f of the trick tly follow t e steps th h r e and the an h swer will alway w s be th e same: 9. on your f n d m . Hand your friend a ca ri alcul tor a to do the fo la o nd ask him llowing: lo n m or her Step 2 Before you r o st rt ta t e t ic th tr k. w which will correspond to i o s n o the v y same numbers very m u b o o friend’s domino. and h but tell him e and it to yo or her not our friend r to look at o . it. The ans wer is “9” This is an s easy trick r to start of with. Step 1 THE MAGIC OF D m n Domino divining i i i g U Use basic subtraction skills to discover the s b a o s o i o r t total on a domino hidden in your friend’s h d n d m o i e o e hand. you will be left w with a two-digit number. w n m r. w a piece of ri th r te t e nu c paper. a them toge h nd to keep ther until adding il t ere is th only digi le y it f . Try out these clever mind-bending math tricks on your friends and family and find out how math can be much more fun than you think. u 14 from t . beca ff use you ar re letting m e n do all the h work fo at th or you.

wh h is 5. e third new number benea t o r two. you must n ch ses u u e n y W c Whichever one your frie mp e exam le. w e beneath the other o e a a w e f t e n b b lo h and write a fourth new number below them. a piece of paper. + S ep Ste 3 nd c oos . if he or h a w wil be 22. he r x 9 = 9 if h or sh s pic s f if he or she p ks 1. 50.333. third and fourth numbers and write it below them. and so on.111 ke she pick d e 2 222. 343. for q k m i quickly multiply it by 9 c 2. 9.o in A All i a row trick t als eat t c . it’s a o a s T s This is not just a gre tip i t ur you mult lication good wa of pr c ing good w y o p actici er 9 is nu n mbe s l Once ag n h skills. simply m v nth num h give you th ber by 11— e sum tot this will h otal of all mor quic re ten numb kl than y ly h yo ers much ur friend c with a calc e an figur ulator. h p g i th helping with t e Step S e 1 u or. if t e t th ten nu wrote dow ot mbers you n wer 7. or h i o she picks 3. l n f ten mb r When you o r f iend fr accepts th add the nu he challen mber tog le ge. e world’s fastest adder In fact the only d e a s l skill you need to master is how to e d a e s o m l l y 1 multiply by 11. O c a ain. S e Step 1 H d our r d p Hand your friend a pencil. er ers rs r also gives lso ves es and so on. b s T him her Tell h or h that y can add the numbers you m r together quicker using a pen and paper than t r c r i n n a r h r e he or she can using a calculator. if he or she pick d 1 1 . 5 56 h e g dig s 2 these eight d its: 1234 22222 = 7 4 1 AC . Step 3 S e Step 2 A y r e t h Ask your friend to show you the list of numbers. Ask him or her to p e p piece of pa 9 79. ast er ers rs r et Adding the second and second-to-last ng th second eco c second-to ast eco to c to-las numbers numbers (2 + 99) als give you 101. 131. D you can u rs on’t fo se a pen a t rget nd paper for thi tric o is ri k. and pencil c f paper a p a calculator. o r friend re 12. all yo 81. He saw that if you add th first and th the firs firs rst r las numbers last numbers (1 + 100). s a l r 99 . and ask him or her to do the following: c a k m d h w : o b e one beneath the other. 1 7 n o 27. 31. o re it out For instan ce. e picks 2 9. the ag c ma ic. er r ers fro rs r seconds eco ds. 555. e 1 in Step 3 the r nd c o t. and a H d u r d cal Hand your friend a c d n rite down e A h o e o wr per. 131. which ÷ × - S ep Ste 2 3 0 A him he o h Ask h or h r to choo its e n f e se one of the digi . 8 5 2 C 22222 % 9 6 22 Math gen Karl Gauss th genius Karl enius (1777–1855) once added the ed th d numbers from numbers from 1 to 100 in seconds. Instea multiply th y e seve d. you get 101. 3 x 9 = 8 2 x 9 = 18. So. culato a pen. if he S ep Ste 4 ply ultiply us the cal u or o m u e t c culato to mu k u i N Now ask your friend to u ve u r you hav just t num er the mb h eig t g g e the e ht-digit figure by n e 3. 1 212.2 the answer w l b 22 so n n s on. e 3. l ou have seventh n e h um t to do is m ber. d u m r n w e w e a column of t numbers. n u e y in your head.050. the answe wil 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 S p r adder Super a d r P f m h t c w Perform this trick well and you w d o will c vi c your friends that u r the convince y r f i d th t you are th h h w world s s s adder. n fact. b ultiply the r t y sum total y 11 to ge t 1.11 a w wil be answer w l b 111. So all you need to do is y need eed ed is 101 x 50.441.3 3 3 i l be 333 33. c s. don rs o ethe ’t h r. ke 2 e 1.222. t If your frien picked w k ou worked o 2. th of all the n he umber . and 3 e n er 3.

Map reading is a very good test of spatial awareness. Your ability to think in three dimensions u k s is called spatial awareness. a boy finds his way blocked and needs to find a new route by reading a map and relating it to the real world. d s d e Map reading A map is like an aerial view of the ground. you use spatial skills to mentally rearrange them and decide how to make them fit best. It enables you s a b to visualize shapes and imagine what things lz h might look like from different angles.Thinking in pictures If you have to pack a lot of items into the trunk of a car. Here. It also g k i n t gives you a sense of direction. and is useful in many sports. helps you n e r n read maps. but with all the features represented by symbols. You also use spatial skills when imagining how something might look. such as a different furniture arrangement in your bedroom. 100 .

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Check your answers on page 188.BRAIN GAMES SEEING IN 2−D We usually think of spatial awareness in terms of 3-D activities—playing sports. You use 2-D nd You use 2-D. omputer ga es. Use these skills to figure out how the 2-D objects in these puzzles interact with one another. for example. What will happen to the two baskets of bricks? Will basket A move up or down? Will basket B move up or down? You will have to solve this problem stage by stage. and pulley affects how the next one will move. A Up and down Imagine the man turning the top-right cog g clockwise. spatial etimes 3-D spatial ti skills wh yo pl y skills w e you play kills when ls pla computer games. But spatial skills can also help us with 2-D problems. such as making sense of patterns on a page. and u 2 someti sometimes 3-D s atia sometimes 3-D. wheel. mpute ames puter ames uter e B 102 . figuring out how the turning of each cog.

one wheelbarrow e w.Ups side-down triangle Can y figure out a way to turn the you triangle on the left into the triangle on the r right by moving only three tires? It might h help if you use ten equal-size coins to make your own triangle and o m mo the co ove oins around to find a solution. w Scans have revealed that the cans h ve r vealed tha the ans ha e revealed h th n reve e ea ed ealed he are of th brain associate area of the brain associated rea ea brain associated a sso i ed with navigation. avigation. i enlarged hippocampus. vig hippocampus. Equal division The workers wheelbarrows workers. and piles of bricks at this construction site look randomly y arranged. However. is enlarged s enlarged nlarg arged ged in London taxi drivers in London taxi drivers. Can you figure out a way to move only two shovels to s turn the five squares into four? No shovels can be taken away. s 103 . the with navigation. the th navigation navigation. ta dr vers axi drivers driver drivers. vig ion. and one pile of bricks. wheelbarrows. ri er rs. oluti Five into four u Here you can see five squares made a out of 16 shovels. each containin containing one worker. see if you can add four lines to divide the site into five areas.

a pyramid. If you get stuck. You will need a to visualize each shape at different angles. a cylinder. so you barely give them a thought. You’ll need to pay a bit more attention to solve e these 3-D problems. Turn to page 188 to find the answers. or using the phone. s View from th top the A B C The side view above shows four 3-D shape positioned on a board e pes r (clockwise from top left: a cube. and an o d icosahedron). h F D E 104 .BRAIN GAMES Four triangles n Arrange six equall-size pencils so that they make four equilateral k triangles. Can you figure out which of the six overhead views a c e below matches the positions of the 3-D shapes in the side vi s view? D E F A G H I B C Different angles f es Alth though these nine 3-D shapes h all look very different. See if you can find e the two matching shapes. for example. You perform these actions so often that they feel natural. two them are l o identical—they’re just being shown from e contrasting angles. remember o that this is a 3 puzzle. 3-D Many of the things you do each day depend on spatial awareness skills—walking along the street.

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In 1948. Problem s olving . Swiss hey inve ventor George de Mestral noticed a lot of prickly plant seedpods clinging to his clothes. but the original he idea is often the product of inspired genius. Turning such inventions into practi practical racti technology takes hard work. e this one have . He real ized that peop t le were dying be cause they co se uld not pick up vi p tal inform ation broadcast over the radio. together with the knowledge to appreciate it. and he used his ng e discovery to invent the Velcro fastener. fr fre ob who mad hi fortune when who made his fort e when he who made his fortune whe he rtune wh tu invented dynamite in 1867. He discovered that they sc t were eq quipped with microscopic hooks roscopic that clung to the fabric.INVENTION NVEN O People regularly come up with new ideas that re make life easier and that may even change the world. seedpods lik the Known as burs to animal fur. 867 106 In 1993. sim ply because they had no electr icity. invented dynamite in 1867 nve ted dy ve te ynamit vented dynamit vented dynamite 1867. carrying ng hooks that cli m the parent plant. and catch the of a woven pad. h know In 1928. Swedish ch mist lfred Nobe wed edish ist fr d obel. with a talent for linking what th see to other ideas. ery t inv Th Nobel Priz The Nobel Prize was es b ed The Nobel Prize was establishe obe Pri rize s established establis establi establ esta by Swed chemist Alfred Nobel by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel. He realized he had discovered the first antibiotic drug. penicillin. ente ed 867. powered by a clockwork motor linked to a small electrical gene rator. Britis h inventor Trevor Baylis was watching a TV show about th e spread of AI DS in Africa. Inventive people are often very o observant. Alexander Fleming had been nd trying to find w ways of fighting bacterial infectio infections when he noticed that a mold growing on an unwashed bacterial culture plate had killed the bacteria around it—just like the white mold on the culture plate above. re Making connections Some inventions involve luck. He solved the problem by inventing a w ind-up radio. seed away fro Br Bright ideas ified view) mimic Stiff Velcro hooks (red in this magn in the soft loops hooks on a plant bur.

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This marked the beginning of the space race between Russia and the U. On hearing the news that the first operational V-2 had hit London.wer tonishing total V-2s were ere re launched against Allied targets toward the aunched ag ed ed targets tow rd rget toward ts end of World Wa II—up to ten per day. England. Their task was to develop the V-2 into a nuclear missile. Yet von Braun always said that he was really only interested in space travel. Eventually. Worl War World er 108 . von Braun surrendered to the American forces. However. Wernher von Braun was a visionary inventor: a man who saw the future and made it happen. von Braun developed a passion for astronomy when he was a child.” An asto astonishing to of 3. he became obsessed by space travel and joined the Spaceflight Society at the University of Berlin to assist Oberth in rocket research. crowded str ets of Ber rowd reet erl rlin. soon after the war ended. vo Bra was age von Braun was raun arrested for attaching ro ets to a cart arres ed fo att rrested rre r ttaching rocket tt rockets ts rt and set setting fire to them in the ett fire tting r tt cro ed tre ts cr wded streets Berlin. But all this was based on his early experience developing the deadly V-2 missile for Nazi Germany. “The rocket worked perfectly except for landing on the wrong planet. the German Nazi authorities persuaded von Braun to develop the V-2 rocket as a weapon. Explorer 1. He also had ambitious plans for an orbiting space station and manned flights to Mars. in 1958. Relaunch In 1945.Wernher von Braun les down Opel hurt 28. 19 lled Fritz et-prope ack in Berlin in A rock racetr the AVUS Liftoff Born in 1912. Inspired by the rocket-powered vehicles of Fritz von Opel and the work of rocket pioneer Hermann Oberth. At the ag of 12. Wrong target In the late 1930s. he said. one of von Braun’s rockets was used to launch the first U.S.S. he was joined by a team of 127 technicians who had worked on the V-2 rocket program.S. A captured V-2 rocket is launched British scientists in October 1945 by . He was the scientist behind the Saturn V rocket that carried men to the Moon. satellite. who took him to the U. and he masterminded the development of the smaller rockets that preceded it. that was to lead to the Moon landings.225 V.

it had th Moon mis vious rock it Earth orb an any pre ad into bigger th e a heavy lo m arry ream beca power to c Braun’s d hed eyond. Saturn e ns of the la sio et. who was making TV shows about space travel.Rocket science While he was working on the first American rockets. Altog the Satu n the Moo men o ll using ndings—a six Moon la g landin was the colossal success the ig Grounded Eventually it became clear that von Braun’s Saturn rocket was going to be replaced by the space shuttle. He devised a huge manned orbiting space station and figured out ways of mounting expeditions to the Moon and even Mars. Von Braun’s hopes for more expeditions to the Moon and planets were shattered. Lunar ’s b at carried Von Braun ooster” th Much V “superb te 1960s. von Braun came up with some ambitious plans for space exploration. Von en his rocket launc and b land 1969 wh to a reality in er mission were n its pione ether there rn V. dying in 1977. Apollo 11 o n. Soon after this he became ill. and in 1972. Yet he had achieved his main ambition of sending astronauts into space—and to the Moon. He later worked as an adviser to Walt Disney. 109 . which is not suitable for missions beyond Earth orbit. he stopped working for the American space program.

Hi Okay? Coming? Let s go ’ .

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at the age of four. but we keep adding to our verbal skills throughout our lives. We learn this when we are very young. They start linking them together until. and may understand when to say particular phrases.LEARNING TO ne ky y is o oms Chomsk cs (the is h m C oam isti rh Noa in 1928. This skill is uniquely human. You can teach a parrot to speak. Parrot fashion Second language Words and sentences Babies are very sensitive to words and speech patterns. and by two years old they know around 300 words. because at this age our brains respond to every new stimulus. most children can say simple sentences. N es in lingu famous fo ctive Born key figur e). But it becomes harder with age. but it cannot put together its own sentences. ways erited pa inh an SPEAK Our complex language is one of the features that makes humans different from other animals. Some children even pick up two languages at once. A parrot may be able to talk. Learning another language is easy when we are very young. Speaking is not just about making the right sounds—it is about using sounds to communicate. but it cannot use language to explain what it is thinking. can I have some ice cream? cat bag more I want some chocolate! Pretty Polly! 113 . but you can’t teach it to have a real conversation. sen uag put lang es that t atur v rent diffe He belie t of our n r . By age five or six they can put together more complex sentences. and many adults find it is almost impossible (unless they live for a while in a country where the language is spoken). possibly because the language-processing areas of their brains are bigger. If I am very good and eat my cabbage. He is an instin to g e of th of langua ren have learn how h d tudy that chil and and ven thoug s t ory erst ther—e d feren e the ge to un r in dif bility tences to es work e skills a a hes e. The parrot just learns to repeat the sounds. Some people do better than others.

hearing up. cat. crayon 3. Tree. See if you can guess which two are the odd ones out and why. brush stroke two. your brain searches through your vocabulary to pick out the words you need to express yourself. it is difficult not to automatically read the word. hair. sparrow. unicycle. crow smell. below. not the word itself. ruler. Earth. three of the five are related in some way. time yourself as you try to do the same with the panel below. Choose the right word to complete the sentences below. one Mixed messages The circumstances in which you see words influence the way you read. mouth. five. cone. flower. Dolphin. If the color of the word and the word itself are not the rd same. above pencil. Sun. we say the word much quicker a than we can name the color. Stapler. Quick comparisons Figuring out the relationships between words is the first step to correctly using them. color. on. sky. 1. Check your answers on page 189. For people who are proficient at reading. aroma. Moon. crow. Blue Red White Green Orange Pink Orange Blue Green White Green Red Pink Orange Red Step 2 Blue Red White Green Orange Pink Orange Blue Green White Green Red Pink Orange Red Next. Step 1 Time yourself as you read out the color of the writing. The following games test your understanding of the relationships between words and also show how easily your brain can become confused when you read words in a strange context. 114 . Neptune 4. touch. sea horse 5. eye. back. paper. taste. mast. It is very difficult to equal or beat your time from Step 1. run. fur. robin. Look at the 15 words in the top panel. pen. laugh HAVING A When you talk or write.BRAIN GAMES WORD Odd ones out In each of the following lists of words. Sail. Mars. four. pencil. paint. deck 2.

For example. g untidy. sleepy. left example the first one is a blue rabbit. illogical. edge p. p pp Like nice.Colored creatures Time yourself as you say out loud the color y y y and the animal pictured behind the word for the group of animals on the left. distant.p words from each line—one from the left side and one from the right—that are closest in meaning. cut. work tired. listen bite. Sheep Rabbit As in the mixed-messages g s game. worse pp py top. g g Now do the same for the game below. blink. foolish g scorn. trash. rational. hungry. travel . cat. leave. it is harder to ignore the e word. . g twist. center. Horse Sheep Goat Cat Pig Tiger Dog Tiger Cat Elephant Horse Goat Bird Bird Pig Elephant Rabbit Dog Like and unlike This game tests your knowledge of how words relate to one another. start starving. pick two pg . but this time pick the two words that are opposites. banana. fish. test return walk return. party friend. Then do the same for the group of animals on the right and compare the two times times. puzzle crawl leave crawl. . We have to stop the automatic reading response in order to perform the task task. silly y Unlike hide. spooky catch. strong apple. In the top game. chew. and this slows us down. include scary. walk. grow. praise sharp. strange .

Thousands of years ago. I think that’s the best time to go because there was a lot of snow. Can I have two tickets for the movie. and cket e ovie and e w will not understand if it is not explained o e stand f n ot pl i d to him. but ht om ll m t most of the complex things that we h omple thin s tha e lex n h learn must be described. USING What is he doing? Langu Language and learning ngua earning rn If we didn’t have language we would d dn ave langu ge. Yo need language to learn. a lot of this information would have lot o hi info matio o ion ou have e helpe eople n o d avoi a ger helped people find food or avoid danger. a earn everythi e hing mitat o atio This ight ork for some kills. please? Can we sit where we want? We went in March. When did you go there? We will do the same. but a serious alk ng is e s but serious r conversation nvolv l stening carefully conversation involves listening carefully nversation olve e full and figur ng out exactly what you want n figur urin out exac l h t ou ant actl to say in reply This is more difficult if y r ply. his s o d ficult if u you you do not know each other very well. but Thi This might work for some skills. we spend a lot more time n oder ci ies e pend ern r en t r ti ta k n bout hings hat on affect talking abou things that don’t affe t our surv v —l survival—l —like these pe ple disc ssing t es peop e iscus n e thei vacations—but we stil exchange heir a ati ns—but till xchange c infor ation all the time nform ion l t me. a ki r ng s .ANGUAGE We had a terrific time skiing in the Alps last year. nothe Thousand o ears ago ther h u nds h d s go. e er l beca s h xpression a bec use the expressions and body ons dy language hat h p language that help us communicate ngua ommunicate icat are harder to understand when r harde rd n ersta d h talking to strangers. The children will love it! Do you think he will hink ever forgive me? Maybe you should explain to him why you did that and see what he says. The child earn m s describe scri e he hild d above doesn’t understand the process bov d esn’ ove ders der t e oc s o u in ticke o of buying tickets to see the movie. t now a h ther ver well. me Conversation Conversation nversati n S Some talking is easy. e ould dn’t angua d have to learn everything by imitation. m You n d guag gu g e n 116 Soci l nstincts Social instincts i tinc c We pass information around by talking e pas i f rmat o arou d talk n s atio ound alkin to one another. p o o In modern cities.

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perched at the top of a ________ building. ts ks Fill in the blan how good you are at This game tests context. swooped down with terrifying speed. It ________ X-ray in its talons and carried him away before he had a________ to think. Looking up at the ________ birdlike animal.Talk about it This game is a Coming up with fun way to check 10–15 connected how good your words in the time vocabulary is as limit shows a good well as testing level of word skill. X-ray almost froze when he saw the shape. Step 2 For every animal named. ready for his next challenge. The creature shrieked in ________ and let go of the hero. Next time. After the initial ________. If there are any words you don’t know. X-ray knew this could be a fight to the death. it let out a ________ shriek and. and he sent a laser beam straight into the beast’s beady eyes. Where understanding words in story below? do these words fit into the long. so choose Two of the words don’t be on page 189. who ________ to safety. Step 3 This time get your friend to ask you how many fruit you can name in 30 seconds. wisely! Check the answers Step 1 to name as many animals as he or she can in 30 seconds. 118 . When the beast spied X-ray below. without waiting another ________. check with an adult. X-ray turned in the animal’s grip so that he got a brief ________ of its face. mark a checkmark on a piece of paper. use your own ideas for subjects. the ability of your brain to think You will need: quickly and create connections between objects.

” f Step 2 At the word “go.” he or she could suggest “freezing.Your brain has an amazing capacity to remember words. This gam l at tests your skil up words thinking with related meanings. Ask an adult to time the answers with the stopwatch. who also keeps time. St Step 2 The first player chooses a piece of paper and reads out a the word. You will need: Step 1 The two players take turns to talk on a topic for 30 seconds. wh ative as ether your s tory is set in world or is ju a fa st about a d ay at school! ntasy atives : Close rel You will need ways easy It’s not al d you adult to help out with finding the wor e the game need. Fold each piece and put them inside the box. Step 1 p Ask an adult to write 12 words (noun and adjectives) on separate ns p ces piec of paper. Yo bring all five u must ob proper sente jects into your story an d use nces. The player who is speaking when the time is up wins the point. Step 3 The game continues with the remaining words until the player pauses for more o than five seconds or is unable to think nk n of a suitable word. Step 3 Next it is the turn of player 2 to start to speak on a new subject. you could increase the time to a minute for each speech. 119 . After three turns each. without repeating words or pausing for too long. often by linking them with visual images. he or she continues the talk. and the second n player has to say a similar word. Try to be as imagin you can. Cho ose your ob either a stra jects from ight or a dia gonal line. The topics are decided by the quizmaster.” y he or she could say “ship” or if the adjective is “cold. If the noun is “yacht. These games help you s practice your word skills to improve your d vocabulary and confidence so that you n won’t ever be lost for words. If the challenger is correct. objects from the grid opp create a bri osite to ef story.” player 1 starts to talk. Challenges can be made at any point if player 2 feels a rule has been broken—the quizmaster’s decision is final. Every pi ct Here’s a gam ure tells a st ory e to test you r storytellin Choose five g skills. Keep talking Now it’s time to think on your feet— and hope those words keep coming.

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you can it i sitll raed it. These do have wor ds. In the past. which i ar langua n. many people in the West learned graceful forms of handwriting—an art known as calligraphy that is still enjoyed by some today.Words as art Some forms of writing are so beautiful that they are treated as an art form. and many adults read graphic nov els that are based on th e same idea . Altho king ug a few p h most of nd wr eople iti us lea do it story. every new word requires a different character. and this gives calligraphy a practical function because the writer can invent an entirely new character to express a particular idea. Le are d yours cial arn iffi e are w lf in simpl ing to exp cult to re e riting is an terms wh ss en yo impo u rtant skill. these have the advanta ge of being universally understood —regardless of the langu age you spea k and whether yo u can read it. rn how to ng but s We ca write omeh when . Picture and wor Comic books ds have always been popular wit h children. In Chinese. s ri g As lnog as you wrtie tre lsa lttr s h rsi the frsit and lsat lttres r of a wrod. n ow w it e lose tell a We of comes to the p ten u writin lot se un we w g it d cle ow rit forms e. but mos t of the meaning is in the pictu res. Spea 121 . well. Pictorial representati ons of word s ar used in oth er ways such e also as road signs. Know n as pictogra ms. Such characters are works of art in their own right. s ge a unde nd docum why so ma when rstan ny offi ents d.

a French army captain discovered a stone slab near the Egyptian port of Rashid. Jean François Champollion was a genius at this. 122 Land o f the pharao While Cha m Keystone In 1799. He also became intrigued by obscure languages such as Amharic.Jean François ç Champo l l ion A e e of tha. and Chaldean. or Rosetta. ion was fa scinated b the ancie nt Egyptia y ns. He found a way of using his skill to decipher a language that had been long forgotten. learn how to reply. Master of languages Born in F France i 1790. The “Rosetta stone” was covered with writing in three languages: Egyptian hieroglyphs. uage of e ancient lang Sanskrit is th g back to 1500 B. enabling scholars to rediscover the lost world of ancient Egypt. wonders the of ancient Egypt were being disc just ove built them red.C. another form of Egyptian writing called demotic. Avestan. howe because n ver. Eventually he became an assistant professor of history. specializing in ancient languages that could provide a way of understanding the past. and are soon able to fluently read and write the language. o one cou ld read th found on e writing the monu ments—th symbols k e nown as h ieroglyph Champoll s. J in 1790. mastering a dozen by the age of 16.C. The civilization was a mys that tery. datin Hindu India. t A nguage fr om easter vestan n Iran.E. Afr ric is Amhapeople of E a mhar Some people have a flair for learning languages. He quickly discovered that he had an amazing talent for languages. But he didn’t just learn the languages of his own age. and classical Greek. But all three were versions of the same thing—a document issued by Pharaoh Ptolemy V in 196 B. They catch on to what is being said. Enough of the writing remained to allow the hieroglyphs to be related to the Greek and decoded— but it would prove difficult.E. Jean F François i came from a poor family and was eight years old before he went to school. hs pollion wa s a child. ic nguag the lathiopia. Used to co m is an old lapose sacred texts. Sanskrit. .

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BRAIN GAMES

A dotty challenge Can you draw four straight lines, without lifting your pen from the page, to connect all the red dots? You will need to think outside the box on this!
When taking up a challenge such as this, you may need to take one or two different approaches. If you don’t get it right the first time, keep starting from a different point until it works.

Natural talent Mother nature is often the best designer and has provided inspiration for some important inventions. See if you can match the invention on the left with the inspiration on the right.
1. Shinkansen bullet train 2. Futuristic car 3. Swimsuit 4. Self-cleaning paint 5. Road reflectors A. Shark’s skin B. Lotus leaf C. Cat’s eyes D. Trunkfish E. Kingfisher’s beak

The field of science referred to above is known as biomimicry, which means “imitating nature.” The next time you are in a park or garden, see if you can find inspiration or new ideas from the things you see around you.

Illustrated stories Choose a painting—from an art book or from the Internet! Study the picture for a while and focus on the details. Let your mind wander and then try to create a story around it.

Being able to understand and interpret artwork is a good creative exercise, as the brain thinks about what at the artwork is showing and d draws on what it means. By basing your story on something that inspires you, u you may create something impressive yourself.

Back to basics What can you do with an empty cardboard box? Use your imagination and see if you can design something brilliant. Of course, you could always just copy our idea, but where’s the fun in that?
Some of the greatest inventors have taken simple things and used them in a new way. You don’t always need elaborate materials to come up with great ideas!

ARE YOU A CREATIVE U
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SP RK? P A

Lateral thinking Se if you can solve these riddles with a dash ee o of imagination and a lot of lateral thinking.
Riddl A: Romeo and Juliet le are ly ying dead on the floor. The are no marks on ere either of them, but they are r soake with water, and near ed them is a broken glass bowl. H How did they die? Riddle B: How do you throw a ball and make it come back without throwing the ball against a wall, the ball being attached to string or elastic, or the ball being caught and thrown back by someone?

Riddle C: A man rode into town on Wednesday. He stayed for three nights and then left on Wednesday. How is this possible?

When presented with riddles, we may try to find the answer based on a straightforward reading of the question. By trying to think what else the riddle might mean, you will learn to think laterally.

Something from nothing There is great creative potential in the bits and pieces lying around your home. Try to find new ways to use everyday objects such as tissue boxes, cardboard tubes, and straws. Or maybe make a sculpture, starting with an empty egg carton and adding anything else that sparks your imagination your imagination. o

You may come up with a fantastic creation, but even if your ideas turn out to be more silly than splendid, you will have learned a great deal about using your own n creative spark.

Put your potential for brilliance to the tes c st with these six challenges. Some of th ga the ames require lateral thinking, while others leav ng, w s ve the creativity entirely i your hands. Just in Ju check the challenge in each cloud and se e ee whether you quali as a creative spark! r qualify You’ll find the answers on page 189. fin
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global warming. you can turn them a i t into a diagram You start with a central problem. CREATIVITY Many techniques designed to improve creative thinking encourage you to break away from strict logic and fixed ideas and let your mind wander more freely around a problem. creative ones. It sounds crazy.BOOST YOUR Brainstorming This involves thinking up as many ideas as possible without judging them. ed creative Visual thinking s Instead of making simple lists of ideas. but it is usually a g p activity. but it can be surprisingly effective. The basic idea is to identify the “normal” way of looking at a problem and avoid it. such as diagram. and add a series of spreading branches di depicting all the related facts. with new ideas leading to more radical. You can do this alone. Lateral thinking Similar to brainstorming. This is often called “thinking outside the box. 130 .” It helps you see things from different ang angles and come up with the fresh approaches you need to be creative. you look at u the list and see what you have. and ideas. figures. lateral a thinking is all about approaching n a problem from every possible angle. n sticking a pin on the page. This can work like a visual form of brainstorming. You use a random way of triggering new trains of thought. and seeing how the word it hits might relate to the problem. Sometimes the oddball ideas turn out to be the best ones. with y group y someone writing all the ideas down. h such as letting a book fall open. It can be fun! When everyone has run out of ideas.

B 131 . Porphyry of Tyre Porphyry of Tyre rph rp ry Tyre. but it could stimulate useful ideas about how we treat animals. Or the question could d be impractical in itself. “What if all bus travel was free?” and this might lead to creative thinking g about the way we get around and the role of cars. Mentally. I TRAINED MINE TO WALK THEMSELVES. Energetic thinking i Many people find that they think e more creatively about problems oblems o while they are walking.. u or working out. so it frees your mind to work on the problem. Th echnique The technique of The technique of ech i using diagr s to using diagrams t diagrams iagra link ideas dates back ink ideas ink ideas k deas eas es ba k b bac to the 200 to the 200s C. It’s like working back from a winning shot in basketball: to get C to score. . b A Working backward ward w If you know what you want but don’t know how to get to there.What if. “What if . . re. it can suggest ideas a that would not occur to you otherwise.E. such as “What W if our pets could talk?” This might seem like a fantasy. h wh whe when i was use when it was used a ed by philosopher by philosopher philosop er ilosopher losopher Porphyry Tyre. A has to pass the ball to B h and B to C. I WALK MY A HUMANS TWICE A DAY. running. such as “What if no one collected our garbage?” You could then figure out ways of dealing with t the problem. The exercise has c to be repetitive.? One way of moving beyond fixed ideas is to ask. try working e backward..?” You could ask.. It could be a negative question.

So try these s games and let your imagination run free! Novel story Use your imagination and think of ways of combining all the following words into a funny story or poem: purple. and yo u want to get to your friend. Ready. g chair. your friend is on th e other. summit. apple. It co uld make for an interesting crossing! 132 CREATIVE . screw. smile What if. sheep. set.. the better.? Exercise your creative streak and come up with the most imaginative story you can to complete the following scenarios: What if we didn’t sleep? What if your house could speak? What if we could go on vacation in space? What if our eyes were in our kneecaps? What if we could breathe underwater? EXERCISES Clip art Can you think of 30 different ways of using a paper clip other than for holding papers together? Write down as many as you can in ten minutes. go! Unusual c rossing! Imagine that you are stran ded on one side o f a lake.BRAIN GAMES You can improve your creative skills by following exercises designed to make you look at ideas and problems in different ways. string. Set yourself a time limit of five minutes a nd write down as many ways you can think of to cross the lake. The crazier. chips.. w tie. too. See wha t ideas your frie nds come up with.

so use your visual imagination and plan a treasure hunt for your friends. theories rel eories relativity. gre are u see that things can yo are more than green? There k at first. W d o really looke last time you color—for ick a around you? P y en. Each clue leads to another until you reach the treasure. These creative exer es. Thes creative exerc es Thes “thought rea rcises ese exp riments ed ex eri experiments” led to the development xper ts deve vel elopment of his fa famous theories of re vity. How man example. you might thin Albert Einstein cultivated his own Albert Einstein cultivated his own lbert Einstein ultivated hi w bert rt ti ltivat d ltiv cre ve exercises. elativi Creative play Play helps free the mind and aid creativity.dentials Green cre ften about Creativity is o e f the world being aware o d using it for around us an hen was the inspiration. Think of some cryptic clues to lead your friends on a journey around your house or backyard The clues could even be backyard. could pictures. Read out the first clue and h let the hunt begin! 133 .

He devised a form of parachute. ed. and during the late 1400s. it is possible that he suffered from att suffered fro attention defi ffere r ffered from tt f ttention deficit eficit disorder (ADD)—a psycholog pro disorder (A rder psychological problem that ogical roblem has only re rec recently been identified ecently identified. weapons that could be used to attack ships from underwater. Leo rdo lef Leonardo left most of his pro ects unfinished and eonard ft eonardo eft projects unfinished. in 1452. dreaming up all kinds of astonishing devices that were way ahead of their time. His most famous painting is the Mona Lisa. Later. He even came up with this pioneering concept for a helicopter (left). Amazing artist Leonardo was born near Florence. is thought to The Mona Lisa k merchant from Florence of a wealthy sil One of the most intelligent people ever to have lived. uld not have wo els. roj cts oject ed. probably painted in around 1505. He worked very slowly. He was interested in water power and came up with many devices driven by water wheels.Leonardo da Vinci the wife be a portrait of . Leonardo got a well-paid job with the duke of Milan by describing himself as a military engineer. his father sent him to work as an apprentice for the Florentine painter Andrea del Verrochio. . a life jacket to keep a person afloat. When he was 15. a glider. He soon became a superbly realistic painter of human figures. Ahead of his time Many of Leonardo’s inventions were objects that could not be made at the time but have since become a reality. Italy. but it was never built. which would have been the longest single-span bridge in the world. He also became a practical engineer and inventor. worl world. Leonardo’s Leo rdo’s eonard paintings—and eve even ven his dr dra drawings—are rawings—are re among the most va valuable in the world. partly because of his interest in anatomy. he became fascinated by the human body and pioneered the science of anatomy. an underwater breathing device. he completed only six paintings in 17 years. Luckily he was much more talented than most engineers of the time. This Leonardo stones—a bom drawing shows a weapon for bard—powere d by a water whhurling eel. he proposed a bridge across the Gulf of Istanbul. Leonardo da Vinci is famous for the amazing breadth of his interests. Visionary engineer In 1482. and an “unsinkable” double-hulled ship. rked. Leonardo’s wo ing mod is helicopter of est that he did build fly Th tes sugg although his no To Today. Primarily a painter of extraordinary skill. a type of bicycle.

erodynam c d m r i port ntly. geology. including optics. n r guing feature g eatur of th se notes is that they are written from hese he e t s that e a w itte from t e right to left in “mirro ” writing. Instead of d still use today Instead day. This gruesome activity was considered suspicious. he pioneered a method of rtan y pioneered m thod of stud that study that we still use today. lo c l th king. which he considered a much better way of describing anatomical features than written descriptions. and was even forbidden by the pope himself. producing many drawings. importantly. Many of his drawings are remarkably detailed and accurate. and aerodynamics. He spent hours dissecting human corpses and drawing what he saw. He pressed on. Scientifi pioneer Scientific pioneer ientific n L onar Leonardo was interested in all forms of ardo s interest t e forms scien science. s getting informatio from lassical uthor getting information from classical authors t o o o a and the Bible. but Leonardo was not easily put off. e inc ud n ptic nclu i natomy z olog m ogy. anatomy. hich h mak s writing left to right in ink quite k ke w ting e righ nk u e d fficu ecau e our writing nd difficult because you wr ting hand ause smu ges the we ink. zoology. he used the revolutionary h Bbe u d the e lutio a i approach approach of observing nature and asking proa h b e ving n u and ask n n s simp e uestions i simple questions like “How do birds fly?” t s H w irds y? 135 . More ogy. logica thinking g These studies of limbs by Leonardo were among the first anatomical drawings ever made.N e and ketch Notes and sketches ches We know about Leo ardo’s many talents n bout Leonardo’s any t ents s because he kept notes illustrated with eca s e kept o e illustra e with u rate d ailed ketche deta ed sketches An intriguing feature hes. bota bot y geology botany. n s r ginal. We know h eft ef m rror writin n know w that Leonardo was lef -hande which t on rdo was left ded. Gruesome fascination Leonardo was fascinated by human anatomy. He pos ibly decided udge h wet n udg possi y ecid d to get around this by writing backward— g t rou o s r ti b ckwa d a e den evidence of his original.

Your Brain and .

You .

and m n no biologic an illusion. is a very power Yet Yet it e basis of the a and it forms th y people believe “ “soul” that man ter death. Quite often the ideal is not realistic.SELF You know who you are. it is s scientists think ful idea. SENSE OF you The inner that we have us believe of Most r that defines ou a an inner “self” has e concept p personalities. Th ost al basis. Human babies are similar. . instead. but at the age of around 18 months. This self-awareness l enables you to think about your identity o and how you relate to other people. You recognize yourself in mirrors and pictures. . Birds don’t recognize themselves either. some see a rival and try to drive it away. it may not react at all. It is what we call consciousness. 138 Self-esteem We all have an idea of how we would like to be. You u have an image of yourself that includes your personality and your beliefs about e how others see you. s survives even af That’s me! If you put a cat in front of a mirror. If we think we don’t match up to this ideal. they know who they are looking at—they have developed a sense of self. but sometimes our judgment of our self is inaccurate and we are actually closer to the ideal than we think. we feel bad about ourselves—we have low self-esteem.

Consciousness No one really knows what consciousness is. they believe they verage. average.. very shy people think others are judging them all the time. and I’m looking d looking forward seei forward seeing forward to seeing rw w eing my friends later . it brain re out the cerebr al corte ends on activit sponsib x—the y le for m pa emory and thin rt of the king. ey bel ve ey average. fe ent ent es. It has been described as an awareness of our own existence and our thought processes. For example. elf.“ On re self. So it is partly about your identity but also about your ability to think. plan. s red. Brain H Some people suffer from peo suffer from eople ffe fro ff r f a psychological condition that psycholog co ogical makes them think they have es em ey ve y more than one “self. . fer eren ere I look good. but some people have negative ideas that distort their self-image. Inste ess dep ad. good ood. single p art of th reveal that th howing er e brain conscio that is th e isn’t a us e focus a brain ness. as well as how others see you. but we all have it. If you are lucky. 139 .Q? Scans o f brain activity high ac like this tivity in one. er era elieve have 13 different identities have 13 different identities ve fferen en es fferen identities. you will have a positive self-image. fri ds friends er r Self-image Your sense of self is made up of your personal history combined with your own idea of your personality and physical appearance. and analyze your thoughts and plans. . No one of has eve injury th r suffer at self but ed left eve destroyed the rything ir seems else inta sense of th through at consciousn ct.

well-organiz nized banke ways. It helps us coop also erate to achiev e things. Ye diffe s. op pe oving pe t of your Par th fun-l if they are bo the same. They ha s. we would all feel confident as individuals while staying responsible members of society. gloomy. they probably react to new experiences in similar ways. it is not How expressed in traits can be example. If your best friend is run over by a bus. because there’s quite so sim various ever. it affects your outlook. parents. so ce you will be a good chan ple. and excitable. ur enes In the grsonality is inherited from yole. W open to new idea personality traits. 140 .LITY TYPES PERSONA ces. However. Nature and nurture Your experiences can have a big effect on your personality. A a well-orga seem unlike might ong toget Some people her are very reserv ed and have on special friend ly a few s. Jack might be r types of experience they react to othe e are all complex s. while Jill is not. for r. and we often display this in the way we dress and behave. we all seem to be getting bolder about our individuality. tures of a variety of mix Th The ancient Greeks Greeks reek ks thought ther wer only there were ere ere re re fo four basic per personality ers rsonality types types: happy. for example. Some other cultures discourage them. es: es calm. by the same experien ed in different ways ve Everyone is affect loves them. ex e. B eing open min ideas of people ded to the with different personalities develop both em helps us otionally and in tellectually. but his friend Jill Jack hates partie ict how t this might not pred rent personalities. Ideally. Getting a l Individuality Western cultures tend to celebrate the variations in personality that make us individuals. Others are more sociable to get along w and seem ith everyone. But although these twins may have been affected in different ways by their personal histories. personality ed artist.

But person who is more rel cepts do not cover these simple con lity.ree that personality Most psychologists ag . One com defin A person who is system is the type uch as the girl dynamic and pushy—s and the type B in the above pictures— axed. every one sliding scale. For each ferent point on the of us lies at a dif e range of possible scale. all aspects of persona Conscientiousn ess Organized Careful Self disciplined Disorganized Careless Weak willed 141 . each with its own is defined by five traits trait. infinite variety of huma t Five-way spli Neuroticism Worried Insecure Self-pitying Calm Secure Self-satisfied Extroversion Sociable Fun loving Affectionate Shy Serious Reserved Openness Imaginative Independent Prefers variety Down-to-earth Conforming Prefers routine Agreeableness Helpful Softhearted Trusting Unhelpful Ruthless Suspicious Simple systems ys of wa People often use simple mon ing personality. This gives a wid t counts for the almos combinations and ac n personalities.

But how well do you know yourself? Take this personality test and find out more. white-water rafting? BRAIN GAMES For each ques tions. answer “yes. orbungee jumping. and traits— put them all together and you get your own unique personality. like to try 22 Would youskydiving.” “no.” There a r “not re no right or wrong answe choose the an rs—just swer that you think best des you and then cribes follow the ins tructions belo up your score w to and see what your results re add veal.142 WHA ABOUT YOU? T Everyone is a mix of emotions. Personali ty test 1 Do you like doing things that are a bit dangerous? tell someone 2 Are you afraid tolike them? when you don’t 3 Do you enjoy having long phone conversations? 4 Are you good at remembering birthdays? Would you rather hang out 5 in a large group than with one or two good friends? you very 6 Arecriticism? sensitive to Do easily 7newyou get boredkeep with hobbies and st tarting new ones? 8 Do you enjoy meeting new people? Do you usually do your homework y on time? t find 23 Do yousmallthat you often get angry about things? Does your music and fashion taste 24 change often? Do you trust people easily? 25 26 Do you enjoy any artistic or creative hobbies? speak up if you 27 Would you with someone? disagreed e 28 Do you think you are carefree and relaxed? 29 When you start a book. habits.” o sure. do you usually finish it? 30 Do you feel anxious easily? 10 Do you feel sorry for people who are unhappy? 11 Do you usually manage to stay calm under pressure? 12 Would you usually “forgive andyou? forget” when someone upsets think 13 Do youshy? others would describe you as have a plan 14 Do you usuallyweekends? for what you will do on Do you make sure your room is 15 neat and clean? Do you rarely have arguments with 16 other people? 17 Do you like exploring unfamiliar places? scared of 18 Are youthink aboutwhat other people might you? 19 Do you ever offer to help with the laundry? you 20 Dorebel?consider yourself to be a 21 Do you usually do things to the best of your abilities? .

and 9 or questions 4. 16. A low score usually means you are a calm and relaxed type who rarely gets emotional. You might get worried. you are likely to be emotionally sensitive and high strung. 9. you may be a little disorganized and find finishing homework. They crave excitement and fun and are often thrill seekers who like danger. 3. Each of the five traits is independent from the others. e low.” to questions ure out y “not g you answered How to fi and 1 point if ered “yes” to Personality types Openness If you are very open. perhaps you can be argumentative or too outspoken. Neurotic . 12. Agreeableness A high score means you are easy to get along with and very cooperative. very dull. Openness: Sc 26. 5. you probably prefer to be in familiar surroundings and like routine. and . Scor descri to question 13 d 22. 28 “not sure” to cientiousness ot sure. 5. 23. Extroversion Extroverts love talking to people and are very confident. and you probably have a number of hobbies that you dip in and out of. and hard working. 8. upset. and ts if you answ answered “n . and 22. 1. Scor ered to questions . 17 ints if you answ 14 and 1 point ered “no” ism: Score 2 po o” to question 26. and e 1 point if yo answered “not 11 or 28. . If your score was low. and 30. You prefer spur-ofthe-moment decisions to making plans. ore 2 points if ints if you 2. and 29.swered “yes. 21. or doing chores. 19 more = high. You may have one hobby that you are absorbed in. the bett Extroversion: Score 2 points ore for each on 3. 13. 11.” to Cons ered “n ity trait: int if you answ each personal “yes. ered “yes” to if you questions 7. 25. you answ and 27. 4–8 = med ality traits—th “yes” 3 or less = erent person you answered about the diff ore 2 points if er it should Sc if you Now read e. higher your sc e 1 point if you be you! to questions 1. Score 2 po 20. 20 30 sure.” and 1 po ur scores for . Everyone has a little of each of the five personality types. Introverts prefer to be socialize with one or two good friends rather than a big group of people of people who they might not know.” u answered 6. 24. Most people become more agreeable as they get older. you like to experience new things and you welcome change. Conscientiousness A high score means that you are sensible. 14. an answered “no” ” to questions sure answered “not 143 . They can also be a little fussy. reliable. Introverts can often be shy.” if you an our scoreAgreeableness: Score 2 points sure. 23. 24. or excited more easily than others do. 18. but in varying amounts. Add up yo ium. Neuroticism If your score was high. 15. ts if you answ : Score 2 poin 6. The opposite of an extrovert is an introvert. People who are conscientious try to do their best in everything and are often very neat and organized. You can be open as well as neurotic or a conscientious extrovert. 18. If your score was low. 10. If your score was low. Score 2 poin to 7. 8. 17.

to draw a bicycle from memory in 30 seconds. and you’re more likely to have a male br brain. frame and saddle. If you had a high level of testosterone before you were born. your ring finger is usually longer than your index finger.or female-type skills. Do you understand written information more easily than maps and diagrams? The bike test People with predominantly male brains are better at noticing small details than those with female brains. Do you pay attention to someone’s body language when they’re talking to you? 4. A good way to demonstrate this is to ask a selection of friends. do you feel upset. Compare their drawings. Have you also noticed that some people are full of energy when others are thinking of going to bed? Why is this? Find out more about how your brain affects your behavior with these exercises. Those with a female brain are more likely to draw something that could never work as a bike but may include a rider. When a friend is upset. both male and female. Do you notice the big picture rather than the little details? 3. too. People with a male brain tend to draw bikes that are fairly close to the real thing.144 WHA MAKES YOU A T Check your fingers Testosterone is the male sex hormone (a body chemical that causes changes in the body). Ring finger Index finger Male or female brain? Answer these quick questions and then turn to page 189 to find out whether you have male. BRAIN GAMES TICK? We all behave in different ways. but it is present in girls. Some psychologists believe that there are two main types of brains—male and female—each with different skills. Are you happier when you are talking about people you know rather than about television and computer games? 5. too? 2. with a ng. and one important influence is the brain. 1. .

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Jurassic coast Mary lived in Lyme Regis on the “Jurassic coast” of southern England— so named because the cliffs contain fossils dating from the Jurassic period of the age of dinosaurs. such “curiosities” were not understood. kept up the fo her her elder brot Mary and y r fossils. She sold the fossil to a rich local man. rig ight observant. In 1800. identifying. she when she was herself. they could buy them from local collectors like Mary. fossil business run the nter Fossil hu a was y’s father Marine reptiles Mary made her first major discovery in 1811. If they could not find any. this ast. after her brother found the fossilized skull of what he thought was a crocodile. erv t. an ere Mary foun d d some of her the beach in best fossils. She had a genius for finding the fossil remains of extinct animals and was considered an expert by some of the most eminent scientists in Europe. Pe Peo bel ved eople elieve ed thi made her unusually bri er bright and observant. a prehistoric marine reptile that resembled a dolphin. and pert at finding became an ex and citing fossils. Mar ok fo went out to lo . In the early 1800s. who sold it on to a museum in London. He so th e in rs from a tabl wealthy visito he died ore. His w family with no while ssil trade. ex started to 20. She was then only 12 years old. Mary Anning was a self-taught pioneer of the new science of geology. People believed that this tru truck lig ruck ightning. But front of his st leaving his Mary was 11. Yet she achieved all this at a time when women were barred from academic life. It took her a whole year to uncover the complete skeleton of an ichthyosaur. rv rva Mar er and furniture mak ok his llector who to fossil co nting along hu children fossil ld his finds to e shore. . Mary survived being 1800 yea old ear ry survive bei rv ed rvived v str struck by lightning. but they were eagerly sought by visiting gentlemen naturalists. when ife income. This view show s Lym Charmouth wh e Regis across the bay. of the modern tinct relative ils found on the Jurassic co An ex y foss is one of man Born in England in the last year of the 1700s. at one year old. It was the first ever found.Mary Anning ammonite nautilus.

This established Mary her busi ess. Sea drag n Sea dragon agon W althy collecto T m Wealthy collector Thomas Birch was so l irch s impressed by Mary’s discoveries that he sold mp esse e ry d s veries that his own fossil ollecti his own fo il collectio in 1820 and gave w tion n 1820 a the proceeds o he Annings. her dog. all acknowledge that she n t understands more of the science n than anyone else in th kingdom. . probably co ich llected by Ma thyosaur ry. her eminent sc knew many ot h letters.” h this ” 147 expert Renowned rmal education. This esta the proceeds to the An ings. and her ideas about what n o w they meant force scientists to look ced o for different ways of explaining the n g history of life. first known keleton o long-nec first known skeleton of a long-necked “sea cked drag ” e escribed as ples osaur. m geological ha G Geological pioneer r When Mary Anning was collecting ll ctin fossils. . They ncluded. ost types an expert on m Regis.000 years ago. At la Beche.” later describ d as a ple iosa g r gis with her ore of Lyme Re Mary on the sh mer and Tray. and ally or throug either person nsidered 0s. and she en Mary in her business. They included. s with Henry de lifelong friend president become the who went on to London.Inspired by fin ds an ichthyosaur like Mary’s. in other amazing finds. she was co by the mid-182 of fossils. and she went on to make othe amazing finds. the th . “. it was said of 8 do M Mary. this old pr int sh and a plesiosa ur might have ows what looked like. The evolutionary theories of a Charles Darwin were not published e until 12 years after Mary died in 1847. and rely left Lyme Yet she ra e center ndon—then th she visited Lo once. She ical Society of the Geolog of ientists. c world—only of the scientifi These illustra and a plesiosations from 1860 include an ur. . Her fossils of extinct is t creatures were some of the most w o h important geological discoveries of g a v all time. in 1823. fo d Mary had little elf anatomy an hers but she taught she became an early age. only 6. dragon. geology. most scientists still believed i e that Earth and its animals had been a created in six days. In 1824.

However. Sce rce n p un t is a ti con po on of gra sciou werf the ss r s m ul tr ha coun emin emor igger infl s als try. ause use use e. aft e i t ffec tive iev bel no ac cebo e la as it h the p lled ca ss ve a ne ll can ha . It includes primitive instincts and urges i inherited from our distant ancestors but also your own o perceptions and memories.. Im e unconl influen rom ps caused n the o over h s ec . even his is a m d T han taking re the ients. ds y ies— of in uen o sh for e ou of the pr a roo ce b own xam a d sme to oduc m sm ehavi that ple. peop “med . rob roblem oft goes away o oblem f ften fte oes way. since Jung’s death in 1961. A lot of mental activity is unconscious—or it is until you n become aware of it. m Some men Som ment problem Some ment l pro lems Some mental problems me me ental ent rob ems have have an unconscious have an unconscious av ve unc unconscious unco ious unc uncon nconsc ncon cause. These color your personality e and affect your decisions. myths. P sme ese e l n a e ni f th up a muc g fai ople ls can rch e r fter h m ntly wh oom th oe or of ha ey ha e like clea at sn nin ve ly os g cen eaten t.by the conscious part of your brain. er will cu ngred . his theory has been displaced by other ideas. Some i nd lth tic l d ne ious mi on hea osoma menta er h y gi sc b ce th a yc 148 . If you become ause.O rf fu T er ffe sse ay r ess pow ple su —illne as str ick m hey o s s h tt h pe esse are suc tha illn blems le who icine” thoug pro . the ware th cause re he cau cause c pro l m of en goe away problem often goes away problem often goes away. Pe Carl Jung Swiss psychologist Carl Jung believed in the collective unconscious—a mass of buried memories inherited from our ancestors. yo becom cause I you become cause. e beco eco aware of the cause. and fairy tales that are part of every culture. sometimes in strange ways. the aware of the cause. R ay in ll tha clean ts ar elli or. He thought this explained the ghost stories..

make enabl ome Such thei es and t his is r unconsc people to ious u an i civiliz rges. v I st of ctivi nct. vital surviva rv rvival. dve adv the u hed m ass or ex ream y tun g A s tr iou s. atures ue our 0 u ur Peop sciou l s c ment e being te al act sted f ontro going l ivity a or un them on.Yo Your unconscious mind can be difficult to control. r g to in in ies s m d. unco w a bra ther a sti or sho he h o Mo al t f l t i unc em n s ous y st our ty se Brai nsci ctivit in— n t sc b s nc on s to can iou s e . T nc g e ur n th par als sti i he m t ni sic in a a b e ert nco es ocia am e. ice catc buy ear S ue e s ga jec for a ut u h fl in ay u r slo y ob ent to a abo r yo a e d m o k It gs. h in s om nce fla ns o ts. soci ety m ntrolling t ight f h all ap em art. ryd isem nke hin nev n eve ert li u t he so th dv be yo w wi an a ight king eam m ma cr ice The part of the brai th t The part of the brain that he art the brai tha h ra t r rain contr ls strong emot controls stro g emoti controls str ng emotions ntrols tr tro tro emotion tr rols otio mature matures in your 20 matures in your 20s. s prim s th hes ts s t . o en by sted reed ts o re w ontr peti m ed te r s g pa sha s c ap id e gu eopl ch a itive we area h as u p at e uc of es. becau re never t conscious se thi old w contr consc hat is s wou ol the iou ld ir overc s control reactions. Con . i in t f te. r F c it. but it diffi fficult contr ffi tro rol. s tiising nsc sage tion ple. If we el instin follow ement of cts at all without co ed our . ation mportant . is vi to your survival.

it might be because you want to escape from your normal life. . This idea was once an important part of a therapy called psychoanalysis. Your brain seems to have a large collection of images. Dreams usually link together a whole series of strange events. you might dream about someone singing really badly! In one test.150 Scrambled events Links with reality A dream often turns out to be your sleeping brain’s explanation of something that is really happening. One minute you are riding through the house on a horse and the next minute you and the horse are having lunch. but there is no evidence that dreams really work like this. You realize how crazy the story is only when you wake up. Hidden meanings The images that appear in dreams may be g symbolic of something else. If you were to dream of being on a desert island. If a cat is yowling outside your bedroom window. which it uses to form a story. or rain. sleepers sprayed lightly with cold water said they dreamed of bathing. floods.

Prophetic dreams
Some people suffer from a sleep disorder where they get up and do things such as dressing, bathing, or even using the vacuum cleaner— but without waking up. Afterward, they cannot remember what they have done. Sleepwalking is not a form of dreaming, because it occurs during a different phase of sleep.

Sleepwalking

Mental housekeeping
Most scientists now agree that dreams are part of the brain’s housekeeping activities. As you sleep, your brain sorts out the events that have happened during the day and commits many of them to long-term memory. In the process, it triggers other memories, and these get knitted together into dreams.

Some people believe that dreams predict the future. In fact, most dreams simply reflect our concerns, and sometimes these coincide with real events. If you are worried about being told off by your teacher, you are likely to dream about it. So if your teacher does tell you off the next day, your dream has come true!

Some of our strangest experiences happen in our dreams. We all have dreams—even if we don’t remember them very well—so we know how illogical and strange they can be. Yet dreams also conjure up people and events that we recognize from our normal waking lives. Scientists are still trying to understand the meaning of dreams and why we have them.

ud und Fre s nd logist Sigm s expres in u igm s psycho at dream desires ng. S eani ed t h and mou

m ts Fa iev nflic their l d b el Freu scious co masking th menta . , wi on ms unc olic form people rea eir d p symb ed to hel lyzing th eory of a i d h He tr ms by an t of his t develope oble med par hich he s. pr ,w 1890 for This oanalysis ia, in the r h psyc na, Aust Vien in

151

Emotional intelligence
Our ability to control and make use of emotion is sometimes seen as a form of intelligence. The man below is using his emotional intelligence to recognize his friend’s unhappiness and comfort her. This is a social skill that also raises awareness of your own emotions.

Controlling emotion
As we grow, the part of the brain responsible for conscious control grows, too, and we learn to control our emotions. The man on the right below is annoyed by his neighbor eating popcorn, but he is managing to stop himself from getting angry.

(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.

Tea Te rs Tears seem to wash away ears wash away w some natural chemicals natura ral ls that make you unhappy. Th This may be wh you feel why feel bet er after better after a “good cry.” ett tter ft tt fter cry cr ry.

Complex emotions o
As well as the six basic emotions, we also experience up to 30 complex emotions p such as guilt, irritation, alarm, pride, c envy, and love. Many of these are related v to the complexities of human society. They are less automatic, involving more e thought—although emotions such as love can still seem difficult to control. e

Crying
As far as we know, only humans cry. o Crying in distress produces tears s and a distinctive facial expression. e Tears with a different expression can also be caused by joy, especially s among adults. This may indicate that the mental wiring for distress and joy is connected. 153

Mahatma

Gandhi
Rude awakening

We do not often link politics with genius. Yet some political figures have the genius to see problems in a new way and use this insight to change history. One of the greatest was Mahatma Gandhi, the leader of the Indian independence movement. He pioneered resistance to authority by nonviolent mass civil disobedience—an idea that inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world.

Born in 1869 in Gujarat, India, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi studied to become a lawyer. In 1893, he went to work in South Africa on a 12-month contract and came face-to-face with racism when he was thrown off a train for refusing to give up his first-class seat. He became a political agitator, staying in South Africa to help resident Indians obtain the right to vote.
in at Brita n. o ed to Gre i travell y College Lond , Gandh niversit U ge of 19 At the a as a lawyer at ain to tr

In South Africa, Gandhi Africa, fr fri r fo found racism in the ra courts, wher courts, where he was rt rts where was t re not allowed to wea ed wear ear his turb turban. rban.

(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.

Nonviolent protest
In 1906, the South African government tried to force resident Indians to carry registration cards. Gandhi called on Indians to defy the law but not use violence. During a seven-year campaign, thousands were jailed, beaten, or even shot— yet Gandhi stood firm. Eventually this harsh treatment of peaceful protesters forced the government to negotiate with Gandhi. Nonviolent protest had won its first victory.

South Africa.

Here he is with

his staff in 19

03.

Great soul
Gandhi returned to British-ruled India in 1915 and became involved in the independence struggle. He campaigned against the unfair taxation of poor villagers, earning the name Mahatma, or “great soul.” He always advocated nonviolent protest, even after the 1919 Amritsar Massacre in which British-commanded soldiers opened fire on an unarmed gathering, killing at least 379 people. 154

156
Prefro nta cortexl Thala Sendsmus to am signal ygdala

The

When faced with dangerous situations, it is important to feel some level of fear. If you were not afraid of road traffic, for example, you might get knocked down by a car or truck. Fear triggers physical reactions that give you superpowers, so you can run away from a fierce dog and even jump over a fence to escape. However, many of the situations that frighten us in modern life do not require this type of physical response, and the fear can lead to stress-related illnesses.
Amyg a Triggedala respo rs fear nse

When wiring yo thalam u are frigh of fea ten r us inform , which pro ed, the cesse ation, ss se to a p art of nds a nerve ensory the br signal amygd ain c a adren la. This ale alled the rts al chem glands to p your icals t roduc hat pr e body f ep o sends r action. M are your eanwh prefro another me ile, it nt ss that y al cortex of age to the ou can y analyz our brain s o e t he threat .

Supercharged
When the fear response is activated, your adrenal glands release chemicals such as adrenaline into your bloodstream. These chemicals combine with nerve signals to push up your breathing rate, increase the blood supply to your muscles, and intensify your awareness. You are briefly supercharged with the strength you need to survive.

Fight or flight
Fear is related to anger, and between the two they trigger the “fight or flight” response. This might give you the strength to wrestle a crocodile, but if you didn’t have faith in your chances, it would also enable you to run away. The same response might also prompt you to rescue someone trapped in a burning building.

meditation. so he just gets more upset. Caught by his enemies. Working it off When you get stressed. There is nothing he can do. They include deep breathing exercises. Relaxation Many people use relaxation techniques to reduce the effects of fear-related stress. and yoga. These can trigger a relaxation response. one way of dealing with the problem is to work it off with physical exercise. which works like an antidote to the fear response and helps you calm down.Wound up Many of the events that frighten us in modern life cannot be easily resolved. This type of stress can cause serious illness. 157 . our hero is more worried about how his boss will react than anything else— and he cannot fight or run away from his boss. Exercise also encourages other parts of the brain to produce chemicals called endorphins that improve your state of mind and combat the effects of stress. This uses up the chemicals that are supposed to help you fight or escape and makes you feel better.

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so one performance technique. This can be difficult. the eyes smile. Some people in public life make it their business to smile all the time. The confident body language but sad expression above gives a strange mixed message. but we can often read such body language anyway— especially when someone’s expression doesn’t match up. Acting Actors are judged by their ability to y express emotions that they do not really feel. Some are obvious. But the difference between a real smile and a fake one is obvious if you see them side by side—in a real smile.” involves actors becoming immersed in the thoughts and emotions of the characters they are playing. Faking it We all try to conceal our emotions sometimes. Many are harder to define and more difficult to pick up. Lie de tectio n Your emo tions tend to trigger reactions certain if you are lying.A real smile looks different rea re eal ks differe fferent fferen f fro from fa from a fake one bec r because it is ecause contr co tro ed controlled by a different rolled differen ffere fferent f part of the bra rt brain. Body language Our body postures say a lot about how we are feeling. You rate and b r heart reathing s peed up a you tend to nd sweat. We try not to look bored when visiting relatives or try to look happy when we are sad. like jumping for joy or slumping in defeat. Th ese reacti can be mo ons nitored us ing electr “lie detec onic tors”—bu t good liars stay calm can and fool th e system. Sometimes they do this so well that they get completely carried away. 159 . known as “the Method. too. rain.

In fact.BRAIN GAMES BODY TALK A B It’s not only your words that say a lot about you—your facial expressions and the way you move your body do. your body language often reveals a lot more than you want it to. and leaves the eyes expressionless. sadness. too. C C D D E Figuring faces Facial expressions often speak louder than words. Try these exercises and then check your answers on page 189 to see how good you are at reading emotions. disgust. F E 160 F . Look at these six faces and see if you can sort the sham smiles from the genuine ones. crooked. while a fake smile is often mistimed. surprise. Study the faces above and then see if you can match them to these six different emotions: anger. and contempt. B A Fake smiles A real smile spreads across your whole face. happiness. because you don’t realize what you are doing.

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All habits are formed e t l t by repetition. and then rinse it off? Probably o o n d e not. o u t ti ll i l i t’ It unlike bad habits such as nail biting. It’s also useful. If they keep eating them. do you stop to think how to get them wet. but people can also become addicted to things like sugary foods and chocolate. You automatically do it. use it to clean your skin. So when you start brushing your teeth. apply the k o soap. they can get sick. a c . and tobacco. but despite this. they can be very difficult to break. because it’s a habit. the program ned runs by itself. b the habit program takes over to complete the job. These work like the simple programs used in an appliance like a washing machine—once it is turn on. 162 Programmed behavior m Habits are formed by repeated pa m atterns of behavior creating nerve networks in the br rain. they just can’t stop—they are stuck with a bad habit.We all have habits that help us get through life. The addictions that get in the news involve illegal drugs. alcohol. When you wash l b t o your hands. k o c y Addiction The most destructive habits are called addictions. which programs your brain so that you behave e o c o a like a robot—and once formed.

ready a to be reactivated by the relevant trigger. So habits are valuable when they make life easier and encourage you to do the things that you need to do. an Triggers and prompts Most habits are triggered by external signals. A lot p of people bite their fingernails or pick their noses. Even if you manag to overcome a bad ge habit for several months.Useful routine Every day you do things without thinking much about them. for example. it helps ensure that you do it even if you’re thinking about something else. 163 . it’s very easy to pick up bad habits. When a driver sees a red light. It is like an instinct. If something like washing your face becomes a habit. Sometimes this e doesn’t matter much. But some bad habits ca be very damaging. You can sometimes think up your own ways of prompting useful habits—putting your toothbrush somewhere obvious might prompt you to use it. Bad habits Unfortunately. Time may help. because they are thinking about something else. because they are part of your daily routine. although it can be irritating for others. They o often do not know that they are doing it. Breaking a bad habit g A bad habit can be difficult to break because it is wired n into your brain. the wiring is still there. it makes him or her perform a series of actions that stops the car. which you might otherwise forget. e t but often the best tactic is to replace a bad habit with a e less damaging one.

Imagine yourself accepting the prize for first place—it feels good. The same is probably true of life. for example. This will increase your confidence. your short-term goal could be to achieve a faster time than before—regardless of who wins the race. the weaker wrestlers won! Setting goals To get anywhere. and you are more likely do it perfectly when it matters. Confidence Confidence is vital to winning. 164 . The researchers deceived the competitors into believing that the weaker participants were the stronger ones. Visualization Get in the right frame of mind by recalling the sensation of success. and this has been proved by research. you need to set yourself goals. If you are a cyclist.Most people who take up a sport are trying to win. Also. doesn’t it? This feeling can help you win. 24 people had their arms strength tested before an arm-wrestling match. but when physical skills are evenly matched. The difference is usually put down to fitness and ability. the winner is often the competitor who has the right mental attitude. In one study. before the event. visualize yourself moving smoothly through the activity. In ten out of 12 contests. But don’t go for the long-term goal of being the champion— you need short-term personal targets that you can try to hit every day. but this means that someone has to lose.

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i i i ii i iv v vi vii .

i ii ii ii iv v vi v vii .

A dog has a much greater ability than humans to identify scents. The part of the brain that seems to be the main intellectual processing centre is the bulge at the front. The most primitive animals do not have brains. behind your forehead—the a prefrontal cortex. The brains of these animals have a lot of mental processing power. One part in particular—the prefrontal cortex—has expanded d to give us our capacity for abstract thought. but compared to us.HOW WE GOT O OW G OUR BRAINS RA Sensory tent enso e tacles Gather inform a mation that must be proc cessed by a brain of some kind. A jellyfish has only a network of nerve fibers extending over its body. This uses information from o the senses to form judgments. But most animals t h have brains of some kind to process sensory signals and en enable them to respond to their surroundings. It has expanded in n size throughout our evolution. make choices. However. a study of u the brains of baboons—large monkeys—has e shown that the human prefrontal cortex is r not much bigger than theirs relative to the e rest of the brain. pushing the n human forehead forward compared to our monkeylike ancestors. The evolution of the evolutio brain began with the develop gan developm pment of a “front end to the body front end” he body. Human Hea ads and tail ls Simple animals like jellyfis do not ea jellyfish sh have brains because they hav no t the have ve heads or tails. ouped e The sense organs nee a nerve e need center to process their signals and o t send instructions to the rest of the struction f body. The part of the brain that does this processing has become hugely enlarged in the human brain. 168 . and predict future events. So it is likely that its t structure has also changed. and some owls can use sound alone to pinpoint mice in total darkness. it is used in different ways. the main job of the brain is to process data from the senses. become grouped at that end. its sense organs rld. with no ce central control area to direct its actions. e because once an animal start mal starts using only one end of itself to nd explore its world. This function is often more highly developed than it is in humans. sna b dedicated to A large part of this owl’s brain is and ears— decoding the signals from its eyes r. So even a snail has a brain. r however prim o mitive. making it an extremely efficient hunte Monkey Intellect central Super senses For most animals.

Instinct and thought
For a shark, the taste of blood in the water means only one thing— food! For a human, it could mea mean several things: “Have I cut my myself? Is it someone else’s blood? Where od is the closest doctor? Will a shark Wi detect it? Help!” The difference is fference f that a shark doesn’t giv th blood esn’t give the much thought but acts on instinct. ought nstin By contrast, humans tend to think ontr nk about everything and may think so ou mu much that they suppress instincts that are crucial to survival.

Most of th t driven by e behavior of th i i is in it i i herited instincts f arsome great i ti t fe r w r t rather th an conschite shark i ious thou is ghts t

H Human creativity took cre tivity t creativity to reativit it a great lea forward gre leap forward rea eap forward eat ap rw w aro around 40,000 years round years ears ag ago, possibly bec because of ecause improved language skills. improved languag skills. rove ed age ls s
.

mans r The first hum
g n y Why and when did we get so rains e intelligent? Our big br o r probably evolved as our ually social nature gradu to develop drove us to develop ility language. The abi b to talk and plan became t useful, so smart people successful more suc were more succ en a and had more children. ms This process seem to have st t iven gi n rise to the firs human lis, habil whi pecies, Homo habilis, which sp e volved from a more primitive ev a ance apelike ancestor around ago 3 2.3 million years ago.

ed on ures were paintg before or hunting fig lon These dancing e northern Sahara Desert the rocks of th e a desert. m the land beca

Intelligent ancestors
Ho Homo habilis Known as Homo habilis, n wn Hom or “handy man,” because r ” e they were the first to h make stone tools.

By 160,000 years ago, our own species— Homo sapiens—had evolved in Africa, and by 60,000 years ago, humans had spread across most of the globe. Compared to humans today, t these people led primitive lives, but they needed mitive to be smart to survive. Studies of their sk skulls show that their brains were probably just like ours, and they would have been just as capable of operating complex devices like computers if they had them. They have left evidence of their intelligence in the rock art that still survives in the p pla places where they lived. 169

Char les

Darwin
embarked on ly 23 when he d Darwin was on was to change his life an ge that the voya nary theory. volutio inspire his re

English naturalist Charles Darwin revolutionized d the way we see the living world. His theory of evolution by natural selection showed that competition for scarce resources led to species changing constantly through “the survival of the fittest.” Published in 1859, the theory was a flash of genius backed up by a mass of evidence—the product of inspiration and a lot of hard work.

Distracted student
Born in England in 1809, Darwin went to the University of Cambridge to study for the church, but he was much more interested in studying nature. He became friends with John Stevens Henslow, a professor of botany, and Adam Sedgwick, one of the founders of modern geology. In 1831, he was on a geology field trip with Sedgwick when Henslow suggested that he join the survey ship HMS Beagle as “ship’s naturalist” on an expedition to chart the coastline of South America.

When Darw When Darwin’s great theory was published rwin’s gre theory was published, rw rea eory eat ed, his friend T. H. Huxley said, “How extre ely fri friend r ey extremel extremely xtr stupid of me not to have thought of that!” ve t!
The Beagle voyage
The voyage lasted five years, and while the crew charted the coastal waters, Darwin spent most of his time on land. He explored South America, where he found fossils of giant extinct animals. He visited the Galápagos Islands, where he saw that the animals on neighboring islands were similar but slightly different. He wondered if they might have changed over time—or evolved.

The Be agle had to was a small ,c be virtu ally reb ramped ship rougheuilt to survive that st seas th on Ear e th.

all ycreepers aiian hone stor These Haw the same ance om evolved fr tural selection. through na

lection Within one ye ar of his return in 1836, Darw about how an in was thinking imals might ev olve. He realiz is difficult to fin ed that if food d, animals th at are less wel find it tend to l equipped to starve, while more favored Since all anim animals flour als are slight ish. ly different from some are born their parents, with advantag es that help th particular envi em survive in ronments. Th is leads to the species by a pr evolution of ne ocess that Dar w win called na tural selectio n.

Natural s e

170

Inactivated cells are allowed to die off—a process that starts at the age of around four and continues for the rest of your life. more complex form. with all the “primitive” parts well formed. these cells are rearranged into increasingly complex networks n that allow us to learn and remember. But every new stimulus to the senses triggers the restructuring of nerve cells into the networks that store i f t k th t t information and ti d enable us to think. During childhood. Trimming down Once the brain is up and running. just like these spare girders being tossed into a Dumpster. the cerebrum starts t to expand. the brain develops fast. At first it has a simple cell structure that can control only the basic survival functions. The brain reaches b peak weight in early adulthood and then starts to shrink. because inactive brain cells have no function and simply waste energy. Making connections During the months after birth. 172 7 . This does not affect the brain’s efficiency. Beginnings During the early stages of a baby’s development in the womb. So they are thrown away. But at around 11 weeks. Like the girders below. however. until at birth it looks like a smaller version ion of a mature human brain. so at birth the brain contains almost all the nerve cells that it will ever have. At first it resembles e the brain of a fish.GROWS 3 weeks 7 weeks 11 weeks HOW THE BRAIN Most of the development of the brain takes place before a a baby is born. they are rearranged into a new. the brain forms at the end of a tube of cells that l eventually becomes the spinal cord. it starts economizing on nerve cells.

causing some of the brain tissue to die. Nelson Mandela Structural failure Some unlucky people suffer brain damage in old age. which cuts off the blood supply to part of the brain. and political activists who keep working well past normal retirement age often show very few signs of mental aging until the last few months of life. mostly r weight ht. so sufferers can Damaged brain cell no longer think properly. Use it or lose it There is plenty of evidence that intellectual challenges help slow down the decline of the brain during old age. People such as musicians. scientists. you definitely know more e about the world and are able to make better decisions. which makes brain cells like these become tangled up and stop working.. through the loss of brain cells. in many people. rn the brain develops the brain develops rai eve ra deve vel ve elo at the rate of ra 250. Solving problems may seem like hard work. Some may suffer a stroke.000 nerve cells nerve cells erv ells rv rve per minute. you often become less able to learn new skills that are not connected to the things you already know. er minute e As you get older. o r But this mental decline is not n an inevitable process. 173 .Older and wiser? At times during es duri ring the growth of growth rowt w an unborn baby. but it probably keeps your brain fit and healthy. or even younger. the brain e gradually gradually loses weight. This may reflect the y fact that. But once you pass the age of 25. Others may get Alzheimer’s disease.

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Surgical precision n Thanks to three-dimensional computer-aided guidance systems. The beam is precisely targeted on e the basis of a computer p simulation. They include radiotherapy. He de texts on brain many ures and s such as seiz ental problem m mptoms of gnized the sy spasms. who ek ph ient Gre wrote Anc 0 B. and operated head injuries l fractures. and this has increased the o accura and effectiveness of brain surgery. It is painless but s has to be repeated several times. reco on patients . we now under rstand a lot more about the function of various parts of the brain. which uses a beam of e radiation to destroy the o cells that cause cancerous e brain tumors. as seen here (right).E. m tes Hippocra ysician Hippocrates. brain surgeons can reach s damaged areas without harming nearby tissues. acy Radiotherapy r Some brain disease can be treated by therapies that don’t involve cutting into the brain.C. the area that is affected is precisely located and recorded. As a i s result. ound 460–37 scribed lived from ar surgery. They can operate precisely with l the aid of remote-controlled microscopes— o shown in use here—and fiber-optic lighting. Premotor cortex fro fr Prefr ntal cortex m Primary motor cortex ory Primary sens cortex ry Sensory at association rtex co ua Visu l oc asso iation ex corte l Primary visua cortex c Broca’s r area Primary x or auditory corte Auditory rtex association co Wernicke’s area Dis scovery and learnin ng When a brain surg geon operates on a patient’s brain. pes of skul with certain ty 175 ..

ects cts ter es. a chimp will carefully peel back the bark until it is just the right size. ju Trick and treat Many stories of animal intelligence i involve their devising ways of l th i d i i f getting at food. use carefully selected straws and sticks to pick edible termites from their nests. Chimpanzees. for example. Sometimes it will do something that amazes you. the ok. The squirrels show amazing ingenuity as they overcome obstacles to break into “squirrel-proof” bird feeders. erm es rmites s constr ct amazingly compl construct amazingly complex onstruct struct tru t ruct azi l complex nests nests using instinct alone. We expect them x to use the instincts that are programmed into their brains at birth rather than make use of make the information in their memories to solve s p problems. Some insects.. 176 Cr ow A c s ar r e pa ow o very ck ffe ca age red brigh p of able in a a sm t bir ho wire of p glas all ds. ull . you probably think it is intelligent. ests es ct e.ANI AL I A IMA If you have a dog. find that it is often stolen by squirrels. But some animals do just that. w and icki s tu food foo hic ben ng u be i d f h it din p a s rom us g p the es t it int iece op oa tub e. Hunger is a powerful motivator. insects. But that is because we do u not expect animals to think. Some people who put out food for garden birds. such as termites. If a stick is too thick to poke into the holes in a nest. Toolmakers Several animals are able to make and use tools—a skill that was d t l kill th t once thought unique to humans. for example.

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Sit it on your lap with its favorite food and give it a lot of attention. but d they may not learn as quick as when they kly w were young. and te them T Trick 2 k You can also teach your dog to wa or run around alk you in circ cles. Take your pig for a guinea walk Guinea pigs mig ht not be as smart as dogs . You can also do this with other commands. Start by showing h a treat and him then moving it around your body so th he follows it. This gives you the chance to give yo ur pet some exercise an d to show it off to your frie nds. est tr tra rain. but they are intelligent en ough to be trained to wal k on a leash. and let your pet get used to wearing it for a while. way to spen ach them a co active. If you repeat this often enough. This is can easily get ep but they with them. While it is eating.BRAIN GAMES New trick s for old dogs If you have a d og. slip the leash on. It is possible to teach s an old dog new tricks. So here are tw o more tricks to add to the collection of sk ills. Here are some fun activities to try with all sorts of pets—but you must check with an adult before you start. Step 1 Show your hamster a treat in your hand and then hold it above its head. stay. o Eventually. . and beg. Try saying “paw” while holding a treat in front of your hamster––it will reach a paw to get it! 178 Yo Young hamsters—around one hamster ers round rs—aro or two months old—are the wo re easies ea es easiest to train. lie do wn. ke d lots of time ol trick. T Trick 1 It’s not just dogs that can be taught new tricks—many pets can be taught to do something. Even your goldfish can be coached to impress your friends if you train it. he or she may already know how to sit. hat Reward him with the treat h and congr ratulate him. Ham-stand e lots of entert ers can provid a good Hamst bored. Next time your dog yawns. ask him. ing! ainment. “Are you sleepy?” Do this every time you y you catch him yawning and praise him as he does it. Step 2 Say. he will yawn whenever you ask him if he is sleepy. “Stand” until your hamster reaches up on two legs to get the treat and give it lots of praise once it does. your hamster will associate you saying “stand” with a treat and will rise up on command. St Step 1 Start by getting a leash small enough for your guinea pig.

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n Tireless robots Many factories now use robots to o work on production lines. because they don’t know how to do anything else. Yet it’s e not the robot’s fault—it’s the way it’s been programmed. and this is enabling some machines to display a form of intelligence. The computers never forget anything vital and the robots never get tired. This makes them ideal for complex p but repetitive jobs. Computer power If you program a computer or robot to play chess. They work fast and they always do it right. it runs through a hundreds of thousands of options before making each move. It does this in seconds. A better program might enable it to work more intelligently. n . but it’s inefficient compared to an intelligent human a player who. But can these machines think? o Mostly they can’t—they simply follow instructions that have been programmed into them by people e e who do the thinking for them. They are controlled by computers that are programmed with all the instructions for the task. will explore only the best moves. But we are finding h n ways of making computers and robots learn from y g p n their mistakes.180 Most of us use machines such as computers and s calculators that seem to be able to do things better than we can. and they can’t learn. with experience. But they only y do what they are programmed to do. Many products such as cars are even r made by robots.

and we cannot replicate something that we do a not understand. which can then be used as an electronic expert. One really useful application is to make use of their excellent o memories. Intelligent machines can do more than h play chess or make cars. The machine processes all the facts about the patient’s problem. This means they can “learn” and display what is known as artificial intelligence. But part of the problem is that we do not really know how human intelligence works. We might be able to e get simple computers to think intelligently if we only knew how to program them. This has already been tried for medical conditions. Engineers have found ways of making computer circuits automatically do the same thing in response to good or bad results. Getting machines to act intelligently is proving very difficult and demands immense computing power— m which just shows how complex our brains are. figures out what it is. 181 . We could end up in a world in which machines are much smarter than we are. Useful applications p Understanding intelligence e Thinking about thinking One day a device with artificial intelligence might be able to find ways of programming itself to think more efficiently. and comes up with the right treatment.Artificial intelligence t When we learn. Everything we know r about a subject can be programmed into a machine. nerve cells in our brains are rewired into new networks. This would then lead to even better programming and therefore even smarter thinking.

For example. however. These games reveal how difficult it is to give and interpret instructions. A machine. can only follow instructions. say. he or she doesn’t know what it is. “Take the small brown square and place it on its point.” This is surprisingly tricky. Step 3 Next it is your turn to make a picture based on the instructions of your friend. Now give your friend precise one-step instructions as to how to arrange the pieces. How does it feel to be the person receiving the instructions? How did you do compared to your friend? 182 . draw a square on a piece of paper and divide it into seven individual shapes. time : Puzzling You will need is an A tangram e ancient Chines n be puzzle that ca or pens any arranged in m es. However.BRAIN GAMES PROGRAM YOUR To perform even the simplest task. from these sh FRIEND Step 2 You are going to help your friend make a picture. Step 1 Using the tangram below as a guide. Choose a picture from this page. your brain weighs up a constant flow of information from your senses and effortlessly decides what to do. Then color and cut out each shape. shap ways to make nge here Your challe iend is to guide a fr s to make picture apes.

” Or tell them when to duck so that they can defend themselves. When the ball lands near their partner. You will need: Several blindfolds Step 1 Get into pairs and stand in a circle. compare the picture with the original and see how closely it matches. Now throw. If it doesn’t. Step 4 When the time limit is up.” Step 3 One person then goes out of the room to look at the picture and can only answer questions by saying has to listen to the questions and answers and draw a picture of what he or she thinks is being described. Step 1 Draw a picture—it can be an animal or a person such as a clown or a queen. such as “Bend down and reach out with your right hand. Place the picture in another room so no one gets to see it. Step 2 Pick one of your friends to recreate the drawing from instructions given by the others. figure out where things went wrong Step 3 When the time limit is up. they must give clear instructions for retrieving the ball. Set a time limit of Step 2 “Move to your right one step. He or she is not allowed to say anything during the activity. Set a time e limit of ten minutes s game begins with one blindfolded player holding the ball. the object of this task is to direct your blindfolded partner to throw the ball and hit another blindfolded player using simple command s.Picture this How good are your friends at giving clear instructions to achieve a common goal? Find out with y this activity! You will need: Play time! Working in pairs. you can switch the blindfold to the other player and start to judge on how good you and your friends were at either listening or giving clear instructions. 183 . One person in each pair must put on a blindfold.

184 . to stimulate other cells. cerebral hemisphere One half of the cerebral cortex. for example. but the human body is made up of many cells. and the sense of smell. Broca’s area The part of the brain that controls speech production. limbic system A part of the brain that plays a role in automatic body functions. away from the main body of the cell. neuron A single nerve cell. intuition Believing that you know something without knowing why. that carries nerve signals from and to all parts of the body and forms networks in the brain. or impulses. cerebellum A part of the brain that helps control balance and movement. logic Sound reasoning that draws correct conclusions from basic facts. geology The study of rocks. bacteria Microscopic organisms with a simple single-celled structure. which plays an important role in thinking.G GLOSSARY anatomy The study of the structure of living things. and thinking. consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. or neuron. emotions. or neuron. botany The study of plants. instinct An automatic feeling or action. Anything to do with thinking. mimicry Copying the appearance or behavior of another person. that picks up signals from other nerve cells. Many living things such as bacteria consist of only one cell. This is sometimes called a “sixth sense. frontal lobe The front part of each cerebral hemisphere. Some types of bacteria can cause disease. central nervous system The brain and spinal cord. brain stem The region at the base of the brain where it joins the spinal cord. hair cell A cell equipped with a tiny flexible “hair” that is attached to nerves. dendrite A short fiber extending from a nerve cell. molecule conscious Being mentally aware. memory. Some substances such as oxygen contain only one type of atom. hormone A substance released into the blood by a gland that effects change in another part of the body.” atom The smallest particle of a substance. axon The long fiber that extends from a nerve cell. attention The first stage in committing something to memory by focusing on the moment or on the task at hand. or cerebrum. The smallest particle of a substance that can exist without breaking the substance into its component atoms. cell The smallest unit of a living thing. voluntary movement. Nerve signals pass down the axon in one direction. nerve A bundle of fibers extending from nerve cells (neurons) that carries nerve signals. specialized for different jobs. between the brain and other parts of the body. motor area The region of the brain responsible for voluntary (controlled) movement of the body. while others like water contain more than one type of atom. cerebral cortex The entire wrinkly outer part of the brain that is responsible for sensory processing. the cerebrum forms most of the human brain. nerve impulse An electrical signal that passes along the fibers extending from nerve cells (neurons) and carries coded information to the brain or other organs. evolution The process by which things change slowly into different forms. intellectual association The process by which new memories are linked to memories already stored in the brain. A single water molecule. also known as a neuron. usually applied to living things. auditory Having to do with hearing and sound. cerebrum Another name for the cerebral cortex. nerve cell A specialized cell. consciousness A state of mental awareness. conditioning A form of learning in which good or bad experiences create an automatic response to similar experiences.

somatic sensory cortex The part of the brain that analyzes nerve signals from the skin. parallax A visual effect that makes close objects appear to move more than distant objects when you move your head and eyes. 3-D (threedimensional) The term used to describe objects that have volume. robot A mechanical device that automatically performs a task under the control of a computer. and joints. psychology The science of the mind. recognition The process of identifying familiar knowledge when it is presented to you. and touch. perception The process of becoming aware of something through your senses. in response to sharp pain. often based on very little evidence. . skin. receptor A structure that responds to a stimulus such as touch. perspective A visual effect that makes parallel lines such as railroad tracks appear to converge with distance. prefrontal cortex The area of the brain that is most actively involved in thinking. It is important in the perception of distance. as seen in a rainbow. Often used to describe a machine that resembles a human. program A list of instructions that directs the operation of an electronic device such as a computer. smell. or temperature. It extends from the brain. even if the medicine they received was fake. and temperature. philosophy The study of the nature of knowledge. prejudice A judgment that is made before examining the facts. phobia A fear of something that has no rational basis. taste. pain. The term is also used to describe the code that controls some biological functions. thalamus The part of the brain near its base that acts as a relay station for information from all the senses except smell. unconscious Having to do with mental activity that does not involve any thought. hearing. placebo effect A psychological response to medical treatment whereby the patient believes that his or her health has improved. therapy Any treatment designed to relieve physical or psychological illness. personality The combination of character traits that makes you an individual. sensory Having to do with the senses: sight. reflex An automatic reaction by nerves that triggers movement—for example. often used to detect and locate activity in the brain. peripheral nervous system The outer network of small nerves that are connected to the muscles. telepathy The ability to read the mind of another person. probably through experience and guesswork rather than true mental communication. spatial Having to do with shape and space. Wernicke’s area The part of the brain that interprets sound and visual data. and all the organs besides the brain. recall The process of consciously retrieving a memory from the brain. muscles. light. PET scan A medical scanning technique using a system called positron emission tomography. parietal lobe The part of the brain that interprets touch. down to the lower backbone. prodigy Someone who displays great talents or abilities at an unusually early age. with the third dimension of depth as well as the two other dimensions of height and width. spectrum The entire range of visible colors. olfactory Having to do with the sense of smell. vital to understanding language.nucleus The control center of a cell. spinal cord The main bundle of nerve fibers. It is linked to the central nervous system. stereotype A fixed idea or image of something. retina The sheet of light-sensitive cells at the back of the eye.

ANSWERS 6–7 Your amazing brain Do you remember? 1. Afghanistan—Kabul 8. Germany —Berlin 7. Iraq—Baghdad 6. bird. 78–79 Mastering mazes The one-hand rule Perfect pair Shapes A and F fit together to make the hexagon. skiing. China—Beijing 4. Czech Republic—Prague 6. Over and under . Cat. swimming. His lungs 4. Running. recall Step 1 1. France—Paris 3. your memory is in great shape. Greece—Athens Amazing mazes 68–69 Paying attention Spot the difference Who’s who? Freddy is Tortoise B. Netherlands—Amsterdam 7. Fish 7. An injured finger If you got more than six answers right. Japan—Tokyo 8. Ireland—Dublin 3. Bacon and eggs frying 10. India—New Delhi 4. fish. Red 5. Sweden—Stockholm 5. Italy—Rome 9. Russia—Moscow 5. A F Right or left? Feel lost? Trial and error 66–67 Do you remember? Recognition vs. dog. Argentina—Buenos Aires Step 2 1. rabbit 9. playing soccer 3. snail. His cat 6. One 8. Spain—Madrid 2. The shower 2. Israel—Jerusalem 2. Egypt—Cairo 10. Denmark—Copenhagen 10. Canada—Ottowa 9.

He then returns. A face in the crowd Find the treat She should choose Jar 2. 2 + 1 + 10 + 2 + 2 = 17. 73. and takes the chicken back. Spot the sequence A blue. They are then given $3 back. This means the next yellow cupcakes starting a new sequence will be at 16. Rice Who passed the package? Stacey started the game. then Brother 1 and Brother 2 cross together. Brother 2 returns. Brother 1 returns. Cookies 3. and the prisoner should take the other door to freedom. The frustrated farmer The farmer crosses first with the chicken and leaves it on the other side. Beans 5. The $27 added to the $3 refund equals $30. He then swaps the chicken for the grain and takes the grain across. taking two minutes. 5. K. G. which means they paid a total of $27 (the $25 entrance fee plus the $2 pocketed by the sales assistant). 92–93 Thinking inside the box Tips and tricks 3 6 2 7 9 5 4 1 6 7 8 4 8 3 9 2 5 1 8 1 5 2 6 7 9 3 4 1 9 2 3 5 4 8 9 2 4 5 6 7 6 7 1 3 8 4 2 7 6 8 5 1 9 3 4 7 8 6 3 1 9 6 7 2 5 1 3 5 2 4 8 9 5 9 2 4 7 8 3 1 6 Starter Sudoku 1 2 8 7 6 4 5 9 3 7 5 3 2 1 9 4 8 6 6 4 9 5 3 8 1 7 2 4 2 8 3 5 9 9 3 1 7 8 6 5 7 6 1 2 4 3 2 1 7 6 8 8 5 6 9 1 4 4 9 2 3 5 6 9 1 3 5 3 2 7 4 7 8 8 6 5 4 9 1 Slightly harder 3 5 1 4 2 6 9 8 5 4 7 8 7 1 2 3 6 9 6 7 9 3 5 4 2 8 1 9 1 4 3 2 8 5 1 8 7 4 2 6 6 9 4 3 7 5 8 7 5 2 6 1 9 3 8 2 7 5 6 9 3 4 7 9 6 1 2 4 1 8 2 3 6 1 5 9 8 7 3 5 4 Missing pieces The four missing puzzle pieces are J.80–81 Puzzling patterns All alone The one creature that doesn’t appear twice is the wasp. and 10—the difference between the numbers increases by one each time. the guard would lie and say the blue door. Pepper 6. 40. taking two minutes. the $2 taken by the assistant is added to the $27 to create confusion. and takes it to the other side. and F. picks up the chicken. The right door The prisoner should ask each of the guards. Then he swaps the fox for the chicken so that they are not left together. Two at a time Brother 1 and Brother 2 cross together. So the 49th cupcake will be purple and the 100th cupcake will be yellow. If he asked the guard who always told lies. taking ten minutes. leaving it with the fox. Either way. taking one minute. and the number of pink cupcakes in between increases by one each time. 61. an orange. 31. and crosses again. the answer would be the same—they would both reveal the door with the lion behind it. so they should get to the train just in time. He then returns. The yellow cupcakes at the beginning of the sequence are at numbers 1. so there’s no missing money. 86. “If I asked the other guard which is the door to freedom. taking two minutes. Flour 4. or $30. and 100. and a blue flower complete the sequence. In the puzzle. 50. Lentils 2. what would he say?” If the door to freedom is the red one and he asked the guard who told the truth. because he would know the other guard would lie. the guard would say the blue door. 1. The father and grandfather cross together. picks up the fox. 23. 90–91 Brainteasers Carnival money The three boys initially paid $10 each. Thinking ahead Each part of the sequence begins with two yellow cupcakes and ends with a purple cupcake. J K 7 2 G What to do F 21 15 17 Now try this 16 7 27 25 15 17 17 19 12 Getting tricky 15 21 11 28 28 4 3 9 13 3 9 14 Perfect pairs 3 5 7 15 8 9 17 13 8 7 9 17 6 15 29 7 9 4 8 9 17 8 16 18 7 9 8 15 8 9 6 3 6 3 5 6 8 3 5 6 7 5 6 7 9 8 28 5 9 8 7 2 6 7 4 4 9 8 14 11 2 1 17 8 3 9 24 8 9 1 8 187 .

A F Four triangles The pencils are moved into a 3-D shape called a tetrahedron (triangular pyramid) with a triangle at the base and three triangular sides. which gives her 150 points. Only one chance 54 x 3 = 162 Flower power Add the three largest numbers and then multiply them with the smallest.96–9 Think of a number 97 Puzzli pyramid ing 120 70 44 30 25 5 14 9 26 12 3 50 24 12 9 The weighing game Eleven strawberries balance one pineapple and three bananas. But she got five wrong and five points are deducted for each. 150 – 25 = 125 Susan has passed the test. Equal division Boxing clever Box C shows the correct pattern of fruit. and 104–105 Thinking in 3-D Different angles The two matching shapes are A and F. 102–103 Seeing in 2-D Up and down Basket A will move up and Basket B will move down. 188 . Bottoms up The color of the face-down side in the third picture is green. Five into four View from the top Upside-down triangle e The correct overhead position is F. Find the shape Shape A shows the remaining pink section. Pass or fail? Susan receives ten points for each of the correct questions.000 Multiple fractions The answer is 5. 5 105 05 7 10 6 8 Pineapple = 5 strawberries Orange = 4 strawberries Apple = 3 strawberries Banana = 2 strawberries Dazzling stars 1 2 3 4 Pieces of eight 888 + 88 + 8 + 8 + 8 = 1. making a total of 25.

128–129 Are you a creative spark? A dotty challenge 4—B Natural talent 114–115 Having a word Odd ones out cat and cone stapler and ruler Moon and Sun dolphin and sea horse run and laugh 1—E 5—C 2—D Lateral thinking Riddle A: 3—A Riddle B: Riddle C: Quick comparisons 144–145 What makes you tick? Male or female brain? Like and unlike LIKE 160–161 Body talk Figuring faces A D B E C F Sham smiles Body language A—Dishonesty UNLIKE B—Mimicking C—Dominance Body clock D—Aggression 118-119 Words aloud Fill in the blanks 6—11 points E—Defensiveness 12—18 points F—Submission 19—24 points 189 .

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White cr (hands). 185 soul. 100–105.166l (brain). Mwproductions 58cla (class). Paris. France/ Archives Charmet 10bl. 108bl.C. Martin Dohrn 53cl. Christian Darkin 87ca. Steve Willis for retouching. Popperfoto 155tl. V&A Images. with kind permission of Garry Kasparov: 21tr. Victoria c e and Albert Museum: 135tl. Anna Yu 97tl. 73ftl. 84crb. Interfoto 87tl. 82. Dndavis 58ca (keys). Kmitu 59fcla (maths). Bernard Annebicque 107clb. 185 universe 95 V Velcro 106 visual skills 66. Brooks Kraft 13br. 104–105. CGIBackgrounds.com 28cl. 13. 36 stereotypes 61. Fox Photos/ 154bl. 170tl. 185 sports 82. T. Escher Company. Premium RM 151cra (Freud). concept of 138 sounds 34–37 space conditions in 37. 140. Digital Vision 121fcr. Josh Gosfield 140bl. 63. Michael Nicholson 171 (background). 60l. The Art Archive: 122ftl.Holland: M. 112. 26cr. 177 sixth sense 56–57 skin 44–45. t–top akg-images: 108tl. naturepl. Tony Hallas/Science Faction 95cla. 85cr. Ury 69bl. Godfer 59clb (teens). Chillmaid 45br. 155c (background). 61bl. Dale C. 123bc. Anatomical Travelogue 53cra. London 146bl. 60clb. 42 rocket science 108–109 spatial skills 6.com. invention of 107 Williams. Upimages 125bc. 94–95 in pictures 100 rational 12 scientific 12. DK Images: Geoff Brightling/Denoyer-Geppert 52bc. r–right. Derausdo 125clb. DLILLC 95tr. 109tl.com 32t.com 192 . Siloto 125ftr. American Images Inc. EPA/MAST IRHAM 21crb (Venus & Serena). Dreamstime. Ejla 59bc (dog). New Vision Technologies Inc 121cr. 53. 147cl. John Bavosi 11cr. Waltraud Grubitzsch/epa 53bl. 130 logical and illogical 86–91 machines and 180–181 mathematical 12. Harry Taylor/Courtesy of the Natural History Museum. 130 see also eyesight visualization 164 vocal cords 112 von Braun. 112 toolmakers 176 touch 44–47 treasure hunt 133 triggers 163 tumors 174. 74-75 (gears). Yun Shouping/Bridgeman 121ca. George W. 27tl. 82. Emilio Segre Visual Archives/American Institute Of Physics 72tl. Frank Siteman/Science Faction 146tl. Richard Harding 58cb (spider). Still Pictures: Ron Giling 120crb. 73tr. Steve Gschmeissner 106fcl. 185 tire. Yang Liu 56bc. 185 wheel.sandlotscience. 101. 82 self-awareness 138–139 of animals 177 semicircular canals 35. Winterling 124-125 (jigsaw).

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