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Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi - 110016.

SANJAY KUMAR

LEAD-AUDITOR

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**Six Sigma Green Belt Training Quality
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The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. Two Aspects of Quality 1. The External Aspect ⇓ Meaning fitness for use. The Internal Aspect ⇓ Meaning compliance with specifications.

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“Quality then was to satisfy to satisfy customer needs it is in fact to delight customers” External Aspects (Customer’s Voice) ⇓ QFD, FMEA, DOE & TAGUCHI METHODS DESS, BENCH Marking, Tolerance Design ⇓ Internal Aspects ⇒ Specifications ⇓ Compliance with Specifications Quality Guru – Deming, Juran and Shewhart We are in Business to Earn Profile Today Tomorrow All Time to come In an ethical and socially useful way Equation Then: Cost + Profile = Price Equation Now: Profit = Price – Cost

Reduction in cost is essential for survival

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**Bill Smith, Father Of Six Sigma
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Smith introduced his statistical approach aimed at increasing profitability by reducing defects. His approach was, “ if you want to improve something, involve the people who are doing the job.” He always wanted to make it simple so people would use it. The origin of six sigma can be traced to the 1970s when Motorola faced with serious quality – related problems, embarked on ambitious journey to achieve “ Zero defects” in its products. This project was named “ Six Sigma” by Mikel Harry, then a senior staff engineer with Motorola’s Government Electronic group. Six Sigma is a highly disciplined approached used to reduced the process variations to the extent that the level of defects are drastically reduced to less than 3.4 per million process, product or service opportunities (DPMO). This is termed as 3.4 defects Per Million opportunities (3.4×10⎯6 DPMO) Sigma (σ) is Greek letter that is used in statistic to describe variability of a process. This means “standard deviation”. Most of us may be familiar with the normal distribution and its properties. We are aware of the properties of normal distributions. 99.73% of the area lies within means µ ±3σ 95.73% of the area lies within means µ ±2σ 68.26% of the area lies within means µ ±σ PPM ( Part Per Million ) : How many out of million (10,00,000 = 106) Percentage (%) How many out of 100 0.01% = 0.01 x 10,00,000 = 100 PPM 100 SIX SIGMA PROCESS CAPABILITY Sigma Defects per million opportunities 6 Sigma 3.4 (World Class) 5 Sigma 230 4 Sigma 6,200 (Average) 3 Sigma 67,000 (Non-competitive) 2 Sigma 310,000 1 Sigma 7,00,000

**Sigma Quality Level:
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0.8406 + 29.37 – 2.221× ℓn (ppm) The sigma quality level can be approximately determined using the (Schmidt and Launsby1997) equation: 0.8406 + 29.37 – 2.221× ℓn (ppm) ⇒ this is called Sigma Scale

Six Sigma

• • • A top Driven, Disciplined Step By Step Approach (DMAIC) for Continual Improvement of Quality for Benefit to all concerned. A system of practices to improve processor by eliminating defects. A disciplined data driven approach and methodology for eliminating defects in any process. 3

services and process really are. On the other hand. For example: Critical bugs will be fixed within a stipulated time.The other measures are cost (CTC) and Delivery (CTD). Critical to Satisfaction (CTS): Critical to satisfaction of Customer. Six Sigma: Problem-by-Problem Approach. It is a statistical measurement.in -Class. four-sigma process is average. Usually external customer specifies product / service CTQ. This helps in translating Broad Customer requirement in specifics. In this sense. A Six Sigma process is process is Best . Critical to Quality (CTQ): It is a parametric Representation of the voice of the customer. Medical productivity in terms of Number of Transactions per unit time is at least0.What is Six Sigma Six Sigma means several thing. Customers requirements may be in the form of LINGALOR SPECIFICATIONS. risks. What is Critical To Quality Characteristics (CTQ): • The requirements of the output of the process and measures of Critical process issue are called a CTQ. the sigma scale of measure provides us with a “goodness micrometer” for gauging the adequacy of our products. The Six Sigma method allows us to draw comparisons to other similar or dissimilar products. CTQ Tree is a tool that aids in translating customer Language into Quantified requirements for products or services. For example call center application the maximum time for waiting for response is 60 seconds. services and process and help us in bench marking and plan for improvement. It tells us how good our product. services and process. Voice of Customer: An organization going in for Six Sigma must listen to the customer. regulations and process / product FMEAs. economics.85. 4 . Critical Business Issue To Critical Process To Critical To Quality Characteristics To Defining The Problem Terminologies in Six Sigma Customer: Anybody who is Recipient of a product of service is called a customer. He may be external or internal.90. Hence customers requirements have to be translated into criteria’s to be incorporated in the development of a process leading to product or service. Call Quality rating is at least 0. • CTQs have to be derived from customers requirements. Ensures all aspects of customer needs are identified. The aspects which will give him sufficient confidence on the party.

5 . Higher process capability indices increase Six Sigma rating and reduce DPU. Key process in input variable (KPIV): The input variable. All these costs are called components of cost of it is the hidden cost of failing quality to meet customer requirement. ANYTHING THAT DISSATISFIES YOUR CUSTOMER Process capability: Process capability is defined as the ability of your process to satisfy customer requirement. External failure cost: The External failure cost includes all costs incurred due to nonconforming or suspected nonconforming product or service after delivery to the customer. Internal failure costs: Internal failure costs is defined to include basically all costs required to evaluate. loss on productivity etc. which influences the performance of Critical to Quality (CTQ). III. and either correct or replace non confirming products or services prior to delivery to the customer and also to correct or replace incorrect or incomplete product or service description. It is a WIN –WIN approach for all Cost of poor Quality: The cost of poor quality is defined as those costs associated with the non-achievement of product or service quality as defined by the requirements established by the organization and its contracts with customers and society. Key process output variables (KPOV): The output variables. appraisal. Note: I. i. Internal failures like re-design of modules. The time and Temperate are key input variables for Heat Treatment process. Quality in Six Sigma: A state in which value entitlement is realized for the customer as well as for the provider in every aspect of the business relationship covering the entire supply chain. A process is said to be not capable if it fails to meet customer requirement. II. Each category contains elements and sub elements. Lower DPU increase customer satisfaction and decreased warranty cost. Cost of poor Quality categories and Elements: There are four categories – prevention. customers dissatisfaction etc.e. Appraisal cost like inspection and testing. Process: Process is the requires of activities which result in a product or service.Quality: It is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or services that satisfy the customers stated and implied needs: ISO Definition. which influences the output of a process. Appraisal Cost: The appraisal cost is the assurance that the product or service is acceptable as delivered to customers. External failures like Delayed submission of developed modules. Defects: A feature in a product / service that causes dissatisfaction to a customer is called a Defect. internal failure and external failure. reworking on effort estimation. Lower DPU reduces COPQ and decreased manufacturing cost per unit. dispose of. Prevention cost like planning and training. Prevention: The prevention is defined as the experience gained from the identification and elimination of specific causes of failure cost to prevent the recurrence of the same or similar failure in other product and services.

Defects per unit: Total Number of defect in a sample divided by Total number of unit in the sample. ii. Calculation of DPU.43%.95 If there are four process and each process is having 95% YIELD.045) = 0. II. a line of software. A watchcase may have pits. DPMO. Let us assume that a part goes through ten operations.81. of opportunity per unit V. Throughput Yield: Output divided by Input VI. I. 0. a transaction etc.956 = 95. Defects per opportunity: DPO = DPU / No.43% parts at the end of the tenth stage.0045 Yield = e (-DPU) = 2. Yield & Sigma level.95)4 = 0. 3. 5.611 6 . In a letter of credit (L. address.6% DPMO = DPO × 106 = 4500 Sigma Level = 2. Unit = 750. Defect = 34. are different opportunities for getting a defect. We do not know our status. DPO = D /(U × O) = 34 / 750 × 10 = 0. If we do not measure.7183(-0. we get good 90. DPO. the RTY of the process is 90. currency etc.) opportunities are name. III. Defects per Million opportunities (DPMO): DPMO = DPU × 10⎯6 No. Opportunity: A unit may have more than one type of defect. shipping instructions.93⇒ 0. Burr etc.Unit: It may be a product or process. of opportunity × unit IV. Metric: Metric is a representative indicator of performance of a process.C.045 2.95⇒ 0. Each is an opportunity. At each stage 99% parts are good and 1% are reject. product or services. A “ Unit” may be as diverse as a: • Piece of equipment • Lien of softare • Order • Technical Manual • Medical claim • Wire transfer • Hour of labour • Billable dollar • Customer contact.95⇒ 0. If we start with a batch of 1000 parts we get 904 good parts and scarp or rework 96 parts. 4. For other examples: i. so we cannot improve. Rolled throughput yield: Rolled throughput yielded is the product of yields of all sub process. Opportunities per unit = 10 1. The rolled throughput yield (RY) = (0. DPU = D/U= 34/750 = 0.

service or service step or time period to be studies with a Six Sigma project). Defect: A defect is a non-conformance on one of many possible quality characteristics of a unit that causes customer dissatisfaction. if a process has three independent steps and the yields from the first step (Y1) is 99. Defective: A non-conforming unit is a defective unit.Technical terminology of Six Sigma Management CTQ: A CTQ is a measure or proxy of what is important to a customer. The number of car accidents per month on a particular stretch of highway. I. For those steps in which the number of opportunities is equal to the number of units. RTY = Y1 × Y2 × ………… Yk where K = number of steps in a process or the number of component parts or steps in a product or service. 4. then the yield is 20/25 = 0.00 pm. Defects per unit (DPU): Defects per unit refers to the average of all the defects for a given number of unit. DPU is 150/50 = 30. Unit: A unit is the item (e. If there are 150 spelling errors. Each yield Y for each step or component must be calculated to compute the RTY. the total number of defects for units divided by the total number of opportunities. If you are producing 50-page documents the units is a page. product or component. II. the total number of defects for n units divided by n. that is.995 × 0. For example.00 pm. Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY): Rolled Throughput Yield is the product of the yields forms each step in a process. Defects per Opportunity (DPO): Defects per opportunity refers to the average of all the defects for a given number of unit. III. For example.7% then the RTY is 88. a service has four component parts. that is.98% (0. RTY is the probability of a unit passing through each of K independent steps of a process the first time without incurring one or more defects an each of the K Steps. office for forum patients selected each at 10.80. Example of CTQ are the mean and range of the waiting times in a physician. The percentage of error in ATM transactions for bank’s customers per month. Six Sigma projects are designed to improve CTQs.897) 7 . DPO = DPU / Total number of opportunities. 2. If 25 units are served to customers and 20 are good.00 am. then the service has 12 defect opportunities in which a CTQ can fail to be met.7% the yield from the second step is (Y2) is 99. Defect Opportunity: A defect opportunity in each circumstance in which a CTQ can fail be met.g. Y= 1 – DPU. There may be many opportunities for defects within a defined unit.997 × 0. Where Y = e-DPU. Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO): DPMO equals DPO multiplied by one million. the number of units. If each component part contains three opportunities for a defect.5% and the yields from the third step (Y3) is 89. Yield: Yield is the proportion of units within specification divided by the total number of units.

but high levels of performance create feelings of delight to the features. services.KANO MODEL: Kano surveys embrace a set of market research tools used for three purposes: • To improve existing products. services. KANO CATEGORIES: There are six KANO category classifications for cognitive images. or processes called Level A surveys. However. • Alterative (A): Again. or processes called Level B surveys. and the more performance. • Must –Be (M): User satisfaction is not proportional to the performance of the feature. Customer satisfied Completive Pressure Expected Quality One-Dimensional Attractive Product (Exciting Quality) Dysfunctional Must-Be (Basic Quality) Dissatisfaction Region Satisfaction Region Product Fully Functional (Quality) Customer Dissatisfied Kano Features categories of Quality 8 . the less user satisfaction to the feature. low level of performance creates feelings of indifference to the features. the less user satisfaction. or processes is called Level C surveys. the less performance. • Indifferent (I): The user is indifferent to the presence and absence of the feature. • One Dimensional (O): User satisfaction is proportional to the performance of the feature. • To invent and innovate an entirely new product. user satisfaction is not proportional to the performance to the feature. • Questionable (Q): There is contradiction to user’s response to the feature. services or processes or to create less. the more user satisfaction. • Reverse (R): The researcher’s a prior judgment about the user’s view of the feature is the opposite of the user’s view. • To create major new features for existing products. but high performance creates feelings to indifference to features. services. in this case.expensive version of existing products. the less performance.

MSA.Do. Map the process.Act). Develop the charter. and try out and implement solutions that address the root cause. C&E. 6. I: Improve. Define phase: A. Multi-vari Design of SPC. Control Plan Six Sigma Approach: A five phase approached called DMAIC is followed: D: Define project’s purpose and scope and get background on the process and customer. Define Project All possible Xs Measure Analyze Improve Few ‘x’s Control Process map. 5. C: Control. B. Identify project CTQs. 9 . Cpk FMEA. focus the improvement record by gathering the current information. C. and process. Understand the voice of the customers. M: Measure.The Six Sigma Methodology: The Six Sigma methodology also uses a modified Shewhart cycle PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) Deming’s PDSA (Plan.Study. which is called the DMAIC (Define. This is something called the breakthrough strategy. Define the team and training needs. standardizing and documenting work methods. 2. 4. Choose Critical Business and process Issue. identify the root cause and confirm them with Data. Define scope and opportunities of the project. Define process Map. A: Analyses. anticipating future improvements. Develop team charter. 1.Measure –Analysis –Improve –Control) The variation is getting reduced as it passes through a funnel of the six methodology. 3. Define the process and CTQs. Evaluate the solutions and maintain the gains by setting up controls. fail-safing. Develop. 7.

2. 2. 3. Identify success factors. Product. Establish the optimum solution. Create detailed process map. Verify performance improvement and evaluate benefits. Gap analysis & Root cause analysis C. 1. Select the variable for establishing controls. Create possible solutions for root cause. 5. Summarize and communicate results. Define performance goal. B. B. Fix owner ship. 2.Measure Phase: A. C. Establish process capabilities. 6. Establish control system. Establish performance capabilities. 4. B. B. 5. Control Phase: A. 10 . Define performance variables and measurement process. Benchmark performance metrics. 3. Define – validate – Implement. Improve Phase: A. Establish the tolerance on X’s. Select & measure performance variable carry out MSA. 1. C. Recommend future plan. Identify sources of variations. Monitor performance metrics. C. 4. 1.Monitor control system. 1. Select CTQs (Customer. 4. Analysis Phase: A. Select & diagnose the performance variable. 3. Discover Best in class performance. 4. 6. Select solution – Reduction of process variations. 6. Select the key product. Propose and confirm casual variables. Create product tree. Determine Data type and create check sheets. 5. Conduct Gap Analysis. 5. 3. 2. Train teams. Evaluate the control system. Bench marking & Goal setting. Create and implement plans. Process) Establish and validate measurement system.

• Summarization of data.Statistical methods in Six Sigma: • Planning and collection of Data. • Helps identify where improvements is needed. • Provides a general approach to take. • Analysis of data and • Drawing valid inference from data. which are usually subject to variation. The way we think Organizational Impact Organizational Improvement Product process Improvement Problem Solving Time 11 . Deming Once Said “ If I had to reduce my message for management to just a few words I had say it all had to do with reducing variation. Process → Variation → Data → Statistical Tools Statistical Thinking Statistical Methods Benefits of statistical thinking: • Provides a theory and methodology for improvement. A complete improvement approach includes alls elements of satisfied thinking. Process ⇒ Variations ⇒ Data Expanding world of statistics. What is statistical thinking? Statistical thinking is a philosophy of learning and action based on the following fundamental principles: • All work occurs in a system of interconnected process. • Presenting data. • Variation exits in all process and • Understanding and reducing variation are keys to success.” Relationship: Between satisfaction thinking and statistical methods. • Suggests tools to use.

and Data • Improvement activities focus on the process. not blaming employees.Use of statistical thinking Depends on level of activity and job responsibility Where we’re Headed Managerial process to guide us Where the work Gets done Strategic Executives Managers Managerial Operational Workers Examples of operational processes • • • • • • • Manufacturing Order Entry Delivery Distribution Billing Collection Service Examples of Strategically thinking at the operational level Work process are mapped and documented Key measurement are identified . Examples of Managerial process: • • • • • • • • • • Employee Selection Training and Development Performance Management Recognition and Reward Budgeting Setting objectives and goals Project Management Communication Management Reporting Planning • • 12 .Time plots displayed • Process management and improvement utility Knowledge of variation.

Design a project system that is insensitive to o Personal Changes o Changes in project scope o Variations in business conditions. Employee. Both project process and results are reviewed. A variety of communication media are used. Strategic direction defined and deployed. Measurement system is place. Core processes have been flow charged. Responds to differing employee needs Adopt flexible work hours. Measurement is viewed as a process. Process variation is considered when setting goals. Ensure meeting effectiveness is not dependent on facilities.Examples of Strategically thinking at the Managerial level • • • • • • • Managers use meeting management techniques. Examples of Strategic Processes • • • • • • • Strategic plan development Strategic plan development Acquisitions Corporate Budget development Communications – Internal and External Succession planning and Deployment Organizational Improvement Examples of Statistical Thinking at the Strategic Level • • • • • • Executives use system approach. equipment. and benchmarking studies are used to derive improvement. customer. Experimentation is encouraged. The number of suppliers is reduced. or participants. • • • • 13 . Enable personnel to adopt to changing business needs. Standardized project management systems are place. Robustness in Management • • Develop strategies that are insensitive to economic trends and cycles.

Understanding Human Behaviour • Different people have different methods and styles of working. learning and thinking. • People vary – they are different. o Age of Equipment • Design the process to be insensitive to the uncontrollable variants in the factors. Day to day Person to person Group to group Organization to organization Three ways to reduce variations and improve quality: Control the process Eliminate special Case variation. • Different people take in process and communicate information in different ways. Quality Improvement 14 . Anticipate variation Design Robust Process and Products Process Robustness Analysis • Identify those uncontrolled factors the affect process performance o Weather o Customer use of products o Employee knowledge. experience work habits. skills. Improve the system Reduce common Case Variation.

Sample: A subject of the element selected from a population with a view to draw inference about the population characteristics. Population elements may be: • Objects • Entities • Units • People ……… etc. Simple Random Sample: All samples of the same size are equally likely. • Total enumeration may not also be free from errors (Inspection Fatigue). • • Assign a number to each member of population number table. Software program or a calculate Data from members of the population that correspond to these numbers become members of the sample. Generally each has one or more characteristics (attributes) of interest when a particular characteristic is measure we obtain a value. Types Sample Random Sample: Each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. • A sample is part of population.Population: Collection of all elements under consideration and about which we are trying to draw conclusions. • When inspection is destructive. 15 . • Sampling inspection may have relatively less inspection error and sampling error can be estimated. Recording the value of a variable for each case amounts to collecting data. sampling is the only way. which varies from case to case – hence each characteristics is termed as variable. Population Sample A portion or subset of the population Sample data should be • Relevant • Representative • Adequate • Reliable Advantages of sample • Sampling is less costly (cost effectiveness). • Objective of statistics is to drawl conclusion about the population using sample data.

X. The sample consists of all members from selected units (s). X.Simple Random sample: • Each pollution element has an equal change of being selected. Descriptive statistics • Collect Data e. X. X. X.g. X. vendors or process. X. Cluster samples Systematic Samples: Choose a starting value of random. • Selecting 1 subject does not effect selecting others. Estimate the population mean weight using the sample mean weight • Hypothesis testing (Assumption) e. • May use random number table.g. X. Stratified Random Samples: Divide the population into groups (strata) (layers) and select a random sample from each group. survey • Present data e. sample mean Inferential statistics (Conclusion) • Estimation e. X We say we choose every Kth member. X. Tables and graphs • Characterize data e. every 5th member of the population selected. For example Sample Cluster Samples: Divide the population into individual units or groups and randomly select one or more units. X. X. and then choose sample members at regular intervals. • Inferential statistics .g. X. X.Collecting and describing data. X. Strata could be raw material.g. Statistical Methods • Descriptive statistics . X. lottery. Test the claim that the population mean weight is Drawing conclusions and / or marking decisions concerning a population based on sample results. Convenience Sample: Choose readily available members of the population for your sample. X.Drawing conclusions and / or marking decisions concerning a population based only on sample data. in this example K=5. 16 . X.g. X.

• Improve future performance. production process Types of Data Data Categorical (Qualitative) Numerical (Qualitative) Discret Continuous 17 .g. e.DATA SOURCES Primary Data Collection Secondary Data Compilation Observation Experimentation Survey Print or Electronic Statistical Studies: Statistical Studies Enumerating Study Analytical Study Enumerating Study • Involve decision making about a population 1. • No identifiable universe or frame. Frame is listing of all population units Examples: Name in telephone book Example: Political Poll Analytical Study • Involves action on a process.

000 & over) Use categories: Y = use credit cards. Residence: C C O O C C O O C O Gender: M F F M M M F M MF Where C = on campus. • Numerical Indices. Contingency table • Shows # observations jointly in two categorical variables. • Used widely in marketing. Example. O = off–campus.000.Male employee Gender variable and major variable • May include raw. 1. N = don’t use Income Under $25 K Total No 2 (67) 3 (38) Yes 1 (33) 5 (62) Total 3 (100) 8 (100) Residence On – campus Graphical Tools • • • • • • • Bar Chart Pie Chart Histogram Frequency Curve Scatter Diagram Control Charts Box Plots 18 . M = Male. You are a marketing research analysis for visa. • Tabular summarization.Data summarization methods: • Graphical Methods. You want to analyze data on credit card users annual income Income: 12 20 32 45 72 46 18 55 Use: Y N N Y Y Y N Y (Income categories: US $25. $25. column or total % • Helps find relationship. Graphical Methods: Graphic displays provide better in sight that often is not possible with words or members. F = Female Male Female Total 4 1 5 (80) (20) (100) Off – campus 2 3 5 (40) (60) (100) Total 6 4 10 (60) (40) (100) 2.

Useful for showing relative difference. Numerical value is located by a dot on horizontal axis. Data: 21. Condenses data by grouping the same values together. Angle size – (360° x percent) = 360° x 10% = 36° Econ Mgmt Acct Example: You are on analyst for IRI.27. you want to show the market shares held by windows program manufactures in 1992. Share (%) Lotus 15 Microsoft 60 Word perfect 10 Others 15 Dot plot: 1.27. Econ.24.32.Bar Chart: Bar length Frequency 150 100 50 0 Acct.26. Construct a BAR graph & PIE chart to describe the data.24. 3. ο οο οοο ο ο 20 25 30 35 35 40 45 Stem -and leaf display: 1. Divide each observation into step value and leaf value.41 2 144677 3 028 4 1 19 . 2.42.Leaf value defines frequency 2.38.27.30.30.24. Data: 21. Mgm t.24. Mfg. Mkt. Equal Bar width Zero point Pie Charge: • • • Shoes breakdown of total quantity into categories. – Stem value defines class .27.38.26.32.

The graph of figure use smooth curves rather than the rectangular shapes associated with the Histogram. It highlights the center and amount of variation in the sample of data. Median. Many problems in quality control have been solved with this one elementary tool alone. Compare with specification. A measure of central tendency of a distribution is a numerical value than described the central position other data or how the data tend to buildup in the center. LSL Tolerance USL Capability Frequency A typical histogram show in the above fig. and 5. It is used to 1. A smooth curve represents a population frequency distribution. 3. There are three measures to common use 1. 3. Solved problems. 2. 2. The Histogram described the variation in the variant in the process. Mode. 20 . Suggest the shape of the population. Mean. whereas the Histogram represents a sample frequency distribution. Determine the process capabilities. The simplicity of construction and interpretation of the histogram makes it an effective tool in the elementary analysis of data. 4.Histogram: It is bar chart of frequency distribution. Indicate discrepancies in data such as gaps.

07 Xf 50 72 128 406 21 .. • Measure of dispersion. Xi = Cell midpoint or an observed value.Mean: The mean is the sum of the observation divided by the number of observations. Group data: X X1 X2 …………. Xk Frequency f1 f2 …………. It is the most common measure of central tendency. k = number of cell or numbers of observed values. Numerical Indices: Data can be summarized using • Measure of central tendency. which is representative of the set up of data as most of the data is centered around the value. Ungroup data: Mean (X) = X1+X2……………….. fi = frequency in a cell or frequency of an observed value.°C (X) No. • The most common measure of central tendency • Affected by extreme value (outliners) Measure of central tendency: A value. Important measures of central tendency Mean (Arithmetic Mean). fk Where n = sum of the frequencies.Xn = ∑ Xi i=1 n Where X = Average n = number of observed value. of days (f) 25 2 26 3 27 4 28 3 29 1 30 2 Total 15 _ Average Temp (X) = 406/15 = 27. 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 Mean = 5 5 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 12 14 _ n 6 7 Mean = 6 Temp.

100. 420 and 430 to find the median of this data.77. 450. • In an ordered array. • Not affected by extreme values. the median is the average of the two middle numbers (n.88.Medium (M) The median is defined as the value. (82 + 88) = 85 2 The median has several advantages over the mean the most important is that extreme value do not affect median as strongly as they do the mean. the median is center value in the ordered list. Cfm = cumulative frequency of all cell below Lm fm = frequency of median cell.g. which divides a series of ordered observation so that the number of items above it is equal to the number below it. the median is the “middle” number. 2 Consider the data set: 490. 400. 75. 490 The median is in the position (n+1) = (5+1) = 3 2 2 a. 450. We first arrange the data from the smallest to largest value e. the median M is given by the average of the two center observations in the ordered list. Arrange all valued in order of size from smallest to largest 2. • Robust measure of central tendency.g 70.82. 22 . n = total number of observations.105. 400. The location of median is obtained by counting (n+1) observations from the bottom of the list. Lm = lower boundary of the cell in the median. 2 II. If the number of values (n) is odd. Group data: n _ Cfm M = Lm + 2________ × i fm Where M = Median. the median is middle number (n+1). i = cell interval The median of grouped data is not used to frequently. That is the mean is much more sensitive to outliner value as compared to the median. e.108 the median is the average of the 4th and 5th value i. 430. If n or N is even no. 420. n+1) 2 2 1. If the observation is even. Ungrouped data: I. If n or N is odd.e.

You have collected the following closing stock prices of new stock issues: 17. (n+1) = 1.5 6 Median (M) Raw Data: 16 16 21 18 13 16 Ordered: 11 12 13 16 16 17 Position 1 2 3 4 5 6 Position Point: ( n and n+1 ) 2 2 Median (M) = 16+16 = 16 2 Mode Mid range = X smallest + X largest = 11+21 = 16 2 2 Q1 Position = 1. • There may bee no mode • There may be several modes.Mode: The mode of set of numbers is the value that occurs with the greatest frequency.3 Q3 Position = 3. median and mode are Mean – Mode = 3 [mean – median] Percentile: The pth percentile of data is the value such the P percent of the observations fall at or below it.(8+1) = 6.(8+1) = 2.5 4 4 Q1 = 12.13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Mode = 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 No Mode The empirical relationship among the mean.16. (n+1) = 3.18.12. Mean (X) = ∑Xi /n = X1+X2……………+X6 i=1 6 17+16+21+16+13+16+12+11 = 15.21. • Used for either numerical or categorical data. Example: You are a financial analyst for a Bank. • Value that occurs most often • No affect by extreme values. The median is the 50th percentile the first quartile is 25th percentile and the third quartile is the75th percentile.75 = 7 4 4 Q3 = 18 23 _ n 12 18 7 11 21 8 . • A measure of central tendency.11 Describe the stock prices in terms of central tendency. 16.

Range = X largest – X smallest 7 8 9 10 11 12. Measure of variation: Variation Range Variance Population Variance Sample Variance Standard and Deviation Population standard Deviation Sample Standard Deviation Interquartile Range In summarizing data. the variability in the values is often an important feature of interest.Dispersion: Variation is a fact of nature and in industrial life too. Range = 12-7 = 5 • • 7 8 9 10 11 Range = 12-7 = 5 12. major measures of dispersion are: Range (R): The range is the difference between the largest and smallest value in a data set. variation in test environment conditions or due to difference in the skill of chemists or testing variation in the test result adds to the uncertainty of decisions and hence it is important to measure variation and control. Used for small samples. Test done on the same samples may vary from chemist to chemist or from laboratory to laboratory. That is range (R) = Largest value – Smallest value Range is • Measure of variation • Difference between the largest and the smallest observations. No two items produced by same process are exactly the same. 24 . This is true whether the test equipment involved is automatic or manually operated. Ignore the way which data are distributed. Variation can be because of lack of complete homogeneity of chemicals used in test.

………………….Standard deviation and Variance: The most commonly used measure of dispersion is called the standard deviation. Population standard deviation: It is denoted by the Greek symbol σ and given by root means squared deviation from the mean µ Suppose the best result values are X1. X3.µ)2 i=1 N Where σ = Population standard deviation. It takes into account all the values in set of data. A large standard deviation shows greater variability of the data than does a small standard deviation. XN N σ = ∑ (Xi . X2. Sample standard deviation (S): If the sample results values are X1. The standard deviation is a numerical value in the units of the observed values that measure the spreading tendency of the data. …………………. X3. • Has the same unit. Xn It is given by Ungroup data: _ n S = ∑ (Xi − X)2 i=1 n Group data: σ = ∑ (fiXi2 ) −∑ (fiXi)2 i=1 i=1 h h n(n−1) Variance: Population variance (σ2) σ2 = i=1 ∑ (Xi − µ)2 N n Sample variance (S ) S = n _ ∑ (Xi − X)2 i=1 2 n-1 25 . N = Number of observe value. X3. Xi = Observed value. Standard Deviation • Most important measure of variation • Shows variations about the mean. µ is the population mean.

they will all be positive and this sum will be greater then zero. Same facts about standard deviation formula The above table will be used to explain the standard deviation concept. if the deviations are squared. thus. In such cases. It relates the standard deviation and the mean and expresses standard deviation a percentage of mean. • However. Sample standard deviation (S) = 4. It is a relative measure of variations. • The average of the squared deviations can be found by dividing by n.4% Laboratory 2 has less relative variation. S = _ ∑ (Xi − X)2 n-1 S = √ 66/4 = 4.062. It is colleted the variance and is given the symbol S2. 26 . If we sum the deviation (0).Standard deviation of the sample test values: Xi Xi – X (Xi-X) 2 15 -5 25 18 -2 4 20 0 0 21 1 1 26 6 36 X=10 ∑ 0 ∑66 _ X = 100/5 = 20. Where as laboratory second can complete 160 analyses per day with a standard deviation of 15. Which laboratory shows more consistency? Lab 1: Coefficient of variation 5 / 40 x 100 = 12. which is always the case. Coefficient of variation: The standard deviation is an absolute measure of dispersion that expresses variation in the some units as the original data. _ • The second column (Xi – X) is the deviation of the individual observed values from the average. • The first column (Xi) gives five observed value and from these value the average X = 10 is obtained.062 and Sample variance 66/ 4 = 16.5% Lab 2: Coefficient of variation 15 / 40 x 100 = 9. The formula for coefficient of variations Coefficient of variation (CV) = Standard deviation (σ) ×100 Mean (µ) Example: laboratory one can complete on an average 40 analyses per day with a standard deviation of 5.5. however. This result is not acceptable as a measure of the dispersion but is valuable as a measure of variability for advanced statistics. we use coefficient of variation. for theoretical reasons we divide by n-1. but it will not lead to the measure of dispersion. which gives an answer that has the units squared. It cannot be sole basis for comparing two distributions especially if the data are measured on different scales or if larger mean has larger variation.

The third quartile in the median of the observations above the median of the observations. Inter quartile Range (IQR): It is the difference between the third and the first quartiles of a set of values. Each part contains 25% of the values Q1 is called the first or lower quartile and Q3 is called the third quartile higher quartile Q2 is the median. That is Inter quartile range IQR = Q3 – Q2 Inter quartile range is a simple measure of speed that gives the range covered by the middle half of the data.Example: You are a financial analyst for a bank you have collected the following closing stock prices of new stock issue 17.5)2 +(16-15.12.(11-15.34 Coefficient of variation (cv) = (S/X)×100 = 3.15.11.4×100 = 21. It reflects the variability of the middle 50 per cent of the data.11.14 = 3. S = n _ ∑ (Xi − X)2 i=1 n-1 Mean (X) = ∑Xi /n = X1+X2……………+X8 = 15. 16.5 i=1 8 S2 = (17-15.15.14 8-1 S = √11.5)2 +…………….34/15.2118. The first quartile in the median of the observation below the location of the median.2118.13. Inter quartile range ¼ of values Min value Q1 Ist Quartil Calculation of quartile: • • • Arrange the data in the increasing order and locate the median.13. Q2 IInd Quartil ¼ of values Q3 IIIrd Quartil Max value _ n 27 . 16.12. Data 17.5)2 = 11.5% Quartile: Quartiles divide the data into four equal parts. Describe the volatility of the stock price. The quartiles and the IQR are unaffected by extreme values.

4 17.8 17.9.5 15.9 24.skewed Mean Median Mode Mode Mean Median Mean Mode Median 28 . X smallest Q1 Median Q3 X Largest 4 6 8 10 12 Relationship among the measures of central tendency.2 12. 26.5 = 10.8 7. Difference among mean. It is used when an exact midpoint of a distribution is desired.7 23. median and mode are shown in the above figure.8 22.1 22. The median is the most commonly used measure of central tendency.8 16.2 23.e. 16.8. The mode is used when a quick and approximate measure of the central tendency is desired.9 23. median. and mode are identical.skewed Left.2 13. It is used when the distribution in symmetrical.2 11.5 18.7 28.5 23.2 13. 7. the mean will be adversely affected while the median will remain unchanged. The median becomes an effective measure of the central tendency when the distribution is to the right or left skewed.3 11.4 28.Example: Data below given the daily emission of Sulphur oxide of an industrial plant 15. the values for the mean.5 Determine the quartile and Inter quartile range Arrange the data in increasing order i. when the distribution is skewed the values are different.3-13. Symmetrical Right. Q1= 13. When the distribution is symmetrical.5 and Q3 = 23.8 Q2 = Median = 17.3 26.1 17.9 24.9 18.8. When a distribution has extreme values.9 Inter quartile range (IQR) = Q3 – Q1 = 23.2 17.4 Box and whisker plot Graphical display of data suing 5 – number summary.

Median and More are identical 2. mean and standard deviation. Symmetric about the mean 4. median and mode having the same value. The curve starts from –∞ to +∞ 5. The normal curve is a symmetrical.71828 2π² Z = Xi − µ σ Properties of Normal distribution 1. bell-shaped distribution with the mean. 29 . the cell interval is very small. It is a bell shaped curve. the histogram will take on the appearance of a smooth polygon or a curve representing the population is called Normal curve or Gaussian distribution. Z = Xi − µ σ The formula for the standardize normal curve is: Z2 Z2 where = 3. f(z) 00 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Z All normal distributions of continuous variables can be converted to the standardized normal distribution by using the standardized normal value Z.THE NORMAL CURVE: A population curve or distribution is developed from a frequency histogram as the sample size of a histogram gets larger and larger. The curve represents a population of infinite size.e.14159 Z = 1 e¯ 2 = 0. Mean. unimodal. It is defined by two parameters i.3989 e¯ 2 e = 2. 3.

the standard deviation and the normal curve σ =1. If the standard deviation is zero. the flatter the curve data are widely dispersed. 2. greater than particular value and between the two specified limits.26% 95.46% 99. It is base for control charts. all valued are identical to the mean and there is no curve.5 X Above figure show three normal curves with the same mean but different standard deviations. i.0 σ = 4. 30 . 3.e.73% of the area covered between – 3 to + 3 limits.46% 99.73% 100% -3σ -2σ -1σ µ 1σ 68. which are less than the particular value. A relationship exists between the standard deviation and the area under the normal curves shown in figure. there is definite relationship among the mean. The main application is 99. Limits µ ±1σ µ ±2σ µ ±3σ µ±∞ % Area covered 68. larger the standard deviation. It is possible to find out the percentage of the data.73% 2σ 3σ Application: 1.5 σ =3.26% 95. the more peaked the curve data are normally dispersed.Relationship to the Mean and Standard Deviation we have seen by the formula for the standardized normal curve. and the smaller the standard deviation.

999865 = 0. meeting that 99. if the USL for process is 16.00135 or 0.135% of the process exceeds this X value i.e. a Z value of 3 equals a probability of 0.5 Z= ±3 0. That implies that Measured process 1-0.00135 x 106 = 1350 DPMO thus the sigma level is = 4. For example. and the process average and standard deviation are calculated as 10.0 and 2.135% Mean 99.Sigma Level: Calculate normal value Z Where Z = Xi . 0.865% 31 .µ σ The Z value indicates how many sigma (σ) units the X value id from the mean (µ).99865.0 respectively then the Z value corresponding to the upper specification is Z = (16 –10) =3.0 2 Using the normal tables.865% of the process distribution is less them than the X value that is there sigma units above the mean.

Sources of variation: There is variation in all parts produced by manufacturing process. Assignable cause: A cause of variation that is large in magnitude and easily identified. Natural variation Chance causes present management system. Chance Causes. • Monitor a process and signal when it goes out of control. • Establish state of statistical control. Chance variation is random in nature and cannot be entirely eliminated. UCL _ X LCL Subgroup Unnatural variation Assignable causes present operations. 2. 1. • Determine process capability. 32 . Chance cases: A course variation that is small is magnitude and difficult to identify. also called random or common cause. Assignable causes. also classed special cause. Subgroup average Unnatural variation Assignable causes present operations. • A methodology for monitoring a process to identify special causes of variation and signal the need to take corrective action when appropriate. Assignable variation is not random in nature and can be reduced or eliminated by investigating the problem and finding the cause. Variation: Types of variation: Variation Cause Process Normal or Chance Common or Natural In control Unusual or Abnormal Special or Assignable Out of control Cause of variation in Quality: In a manufacturing process the quality of any product will vary from product to due to various causes. • SPC relies on control charts.Statistical process control: A collection of strategic. techniques and actions taken by an organization to ensure they are producing a quality product or providing a quality service.

agent availability and responses time. • The null hypotheses Ho is formulated in terms of production process being in control. packaging. • Control charts provide a basis for deciding whether the variation in the output is due to common cause (in control) or assignable causes (out of control). The process does not need to be adjusted. procedures and guild lines established by an organization to achieve and maintain quality. • The goal of SPC is to determine whether the process can be continued or whether it should be adjusted to archive a desire quality level. SPC applied to services • Nature of defect is different in service.Quality terminology: Quality Assurance refers to the entire system of policies. food quality. Service quality examples: Hospitals Timeliness. • As with other hypothesis – testing procedure. The objective of Quality Engineering is to include quality in the design of products and process and to identify potential quality problems prior to production. responsiveness. both a Type I error (adjusting an in – control process) and a Type II error (allowing an out of control to continue) are possible. courtesy Fast food restaurants Waiting times. operator knowledge and courtesy.testing methodology. • The alternative hypothesis H1 is formulated in terms of the process being out of control. Catalog-order companies Order accuracy. Insurance companies Billing accuracy. cleanliness. phone order waiting time. waiting times. • Quality control consists of making a series of inspections and measurements to determine whether quality standards are being met. cleanliness Airlines Luggage handling. • Service defect is a failure to meet customer’s requirements. stocking. 33 . delivery time. • SPC uses graphical displays known as control chart to monitor a production process. timeliness of claims processing. • SPC procedures are based on hypothesis . accuracy of lab tests Grocery stores Checkout time. • IF the variation in output is due to common cause which the manager cannot control. customer satisfaction. • If the variation in the quality of the production output is due to assignable cause the process should be adjusted or corrected as soon as possible. employee courtesy. • Monitor times.

It has an upper limit. • You must understand the generic process for implementing process charts. • You need to know how to compute limits for the different types of process charts. The event may be a shift in a process mean or some unexpected occurrence. Control chart (Shewahrt control chart-3σ) Upper Control limit Each point represents data UCL from a sample that are plotted Sequentially. The figure on the following slide shows a process control chart.Process charts: Tools for monitoring process variation. CL Centerline LCL Lower Control Limit Variables: A variables is a continuous measurement such as weight. 34 . and a lower limit. Understanding process variation: • Random variation is centered around a mean and occurs with a consistent amount of dispersion. Hence. • The type of variation cannot be controlled. • You need to know when different process charts are used. • Non-random or “special causes” variation results from some event. we refer to it as “uncontrolled variation”. Central requirements for property using process charts. height or volume. a centerline. The most common types of variable and attributes charts . • The statistical tools discussed in this talk are not designed to detect random variation. Attribute: An attribute is the result of a bionomical process that results in an either -or situation. • You must know how to interpret process charts.

Systematic sample: Systematic samples have some of the benefits of random samples without the difficulty of randomizing. To determine process stability we use process charts. these are the attributes of the product that will result in either good or poor function the product. • Select the appropriate process control chart from among the many types of control charts. This decision process and types of chart available are discussed later. • Identify critical product characteristics. To randomize means to sample is such a way that every piece of product has an equal chance of being selected for inspection. • Update the limits when changes have been made to the process. if the operation is performed improperly. data are gathered in sample. 35 . the product will be negatively affected.Process stability: Means that the variation we observe in the process is random variation. Sampling Methods: To ensure that processes are stable. variation within the data can provide a yardstick for setting limits on the standard variation between subgroups. Sampling by Rational subgroup: A rational subgroup is a group of data that is logically homogenous. . A generalized procedure for developing process charts • Identify critical operations in the process where inspection might be needed. Random samples: Randomization is useful because it ensure independence among observation. • Establish the control limits and use the chart to continually improve. • Determine whether the critical product characteristic is a variable an attribute. These are operations in which.

A defect is an irregularity or problem with a larger unit. _ X chart control limits = _ = k UCLX = X + A2R Where X = ∑ Xi i=1 = _ LCLX = X − A2R R chart control limits _ UCLR = D4R k Where K is not sub group. collect samples from the process and organize them in to subgroups. Control charts for Attributes: Sample Rang _ k Where K is not sub group.X-bar and R Charts: The X-bar chart is a process chart used to monitoring the average of the characteristics being measured. Then plot the R values on the R-Charts. LCLR = D3R X. The R Chart is used to monitor the variability or dispersion of the process. compute the range. I. Next. It is used in conjunction with X-bar chart when the process characteristic is variable. Control charts for variables: .We now shift to charts for attributes. 36 . .A defective is a unit that. find the average value of each sample by dividing the sums of the measurements by the sample size and plot the value on the process control X-bar chart.X-bar charts track process means. _ k Where R = ∑ Ri i=1 Mean LCL Sample II. is not acceptable or does not meet specifications. usually of three to six items. .chart UCL LCL .Range charts track process variation. next. Then from the samples into rational subgroups.We will now be thinking in terms of defects and defectives rather than diameter or widths. These charts deal with binomial and poison processes that are not measurements. To set up an X-bar chart select samples from the process for the characteristic being measured. R by taking the difference of the high value on the subgroup minus the low value. To develop on R chart.Bar chart UCL R. as a whole. . .

and clerical errors on written forms. The np-chart requires that the samplings of each subgroup be the same each time a sampling drawn.P) n Proportional Defective p-Charts for proportion Defectives: . They are essentially the same chart. p-Chart._ LCLP = P − 3 _ _ P(1 .Typical applications of the P-chart include things like late deliveries. n = sample size. CL = np N n 37 .p) _ _ _ _ n p = ∑ np . Z= 3 d _ = ∑d P = n .P) UCL n CL LCL Sample Number np-Charts: . _ Centerline (CL) = n p _ _ _ UCLnp = np + 3 np(1 . either the p or np-chart can be used.p) _ _ _ LCLnp = np − 3 np(1 . _ UCLP = P + Z σP _ LCLP = P − Z σP _ _ ∑ P(P − P) σP = n _ P = average % defective in sample. P = Total defectives_______ Total sample observation ∑n _ _ _ UCLP = P + 3 P(1 .When subgroup sizes are equal. . incomplete orders.The P-chart is a process chart that issued to graph the proportion of items in a sample that are defective (Non confirming to specifications).Some people find the np-chart easier to use because it reflects integer number rather than proportions.P-charts are effectively used to determine when there has been a shift in the proportion defective for a particular product or service. . .The np-chart is graph of the number of defective (or non confirming units) is a subgroup. . The uses for the np-chart are essentially the same as the uses for the p-chart. p = np .

which shows the actual number of defects per standardized unit.Charts: . of defects UCL Total no. The uses for the u chart are the same as the c-chart. height. this includes size. length.The u-chart is a graph of the average number of defects per unit. and allows for different numbers of units in each sample space. This is contrasted with the c-chart. Typical applications of the c-chart include number of flows in an auto finish. Number of defective 38 . . This means that the “area of opportunity” for finding defects must be the same for each unit several individual units can be grouped as if they are one unit of a larger size.c. number of flaws in a standard typed letter. volume and so on.The c chart is graph of the number of defects (Nonconformities) per unit.Like other process charts. s-chart The s (standardized deviation) chart is used in place of the R-chart when a more sensitive chart is desired.The u-chart allows for the units sampled to be different sizes. the c-chart is used to defect nonrandom events in the life of a production process. These charts are commonly used in semiconductor production when process dispersion is watched very closely. of sample _ Sample standard deviation σc = c CL _ _ _ UCLc = c + Zσc = c + 3 c _ _ _ LCL LCLc = c + Zσc = c − 3 c Sample Number u-charts: . and number of incorrect responses on a standardized test. The units must be of the same sample space. . _ UCL Process average c = Total no. area. heights and so on.

2204) = 0 Range 0.822 10.802 10.749 10.838 10.2 Obs.724 6 10.07 7.606 10.75 10.727 5 10.671 10.88 5.856 = _ LCLX = X − A2R = 10.644 10.11)(0.5 Avg.894 39 .812 10.727 10.28 2.79 10.727 10.06 5.171 0.79 10.759 4 10.274 0.34 6. 1 10.544 10.732 11 10.2204) = 0.78 10.70 4.779 10. 6.75 10.601 10.701 10.77 10.98 7.61 5.81 10.764 10.50 5.70 2.708 10.705 7 10.74 10.735 8 10.85 10.713 10.259 0. 2.73 10.2204 # You’re manager of a 500-room hotel.221 0.20 8.3 Obs.10 5.80 5.90 5.667 10.21 4.50 1.728 − 0.641 10. and mean of ranges.85 4.60 4.66 10.747 10.733 14 10.723 10.2204) =10.669 0. mean of means.04 4.62 5.10 3.689 10. sample ranges.603 10.624 9 10.775 10.46 6.681 10.10 4.710 10 10.738 10.714 10.75 10.50 8.99 3.877 10.692 Averages 10.92 5. For 7 days.745 10.872 10. Is the process in control? Day 1.58(0.10 4.179 0.776 10.708 10.2204) =10.00 10.725 10.658 10.893 10.153 0. You want to analyze the time it takes to deliver room service food orders to room.798 10.11 10.158 0.69 10.72 10.755 3 10.758 10.708 10.30 Average Mean 5.728 + 0.79 10.728 _ X chart control limits = _ UCLX = X + A2R = 10.818 10.719 10. 7.116 0.20 4.732 2 10.94 9.748 12 10.22 3.20 5.671 10.821 10.103 0. you collect data on 5 deliveries per day.45 7.60 5.08 Delivery Time 6.712 10.55 7.768 13 10.1 Obs.59 4.783 15 10.77 4.143 0.132 0.801 10. Sample Obs.689 10.601 R chart control limits _ UCLR = D4R = (2.859 10.737 10.30 4.79 10.773 10.62 10.90 6.20 4. 5.119 0.4 Obs.66 10.714 10.644 10.785 10.10 6.58(0. 4.86 10.779 10.89 6.43 6.Example X-Bar R chart # Calculate sample means.79 Range 3.32 6.250 0.349 0.728 10.46504 _ LCLR = D3R = (0) (0. 7.59 10.27 3. 3.19 6.68 10.

0 2 4.24 LCLR = (2. 33 29 30 30.35 + 0. 23 24 28 25.8) =22.5) = 9. Every 15 minutes.0 1 5.729(5.575)(3.282)(5.0125 LCLR = (3. 29 28 28 28. for a five-hour period.8 6 3.0 5 Average 27. 23 28 21 24. Hour # mm. 25 24 25 27 25.3 3 Average 26. a wheel is selected and the diameter measured.3 1 6.02(3. 25 27 25 25.8) = 13.3 5 2.67 LCLX = 27.02(3.1 + 1.35 5. 26 24 30 27 26. 24 28 31 26 27.5) = 30. Sample Quality Variable Mean Range 1.12 R chart control limits UCLR = (2.729(5. 28 30 29 29.0 7 2.58 LCLX = 26.5) = 23.7 4 3.5 _ X chart control limits UCLX = 27. Given are the diameters (in mm.8 _ X chart control limits UCLX = 26.1 − 1.) of the wheels.282) (0) = 0 # A restaurant is interested in detecting changes in the number of minutes from a party’s sitting down to getting the bill.53 R chart control limits UCLR = (2.35 − 0.# A manufacturer of chair wheels wishes to maintain the quality of the manufacturing process.3 7 5.1 3. Mean Range 1. 24 32 26 27 27. 23 24 26 28 25.8) =30.5) (0) = 0 40 .3 8 4.

Ten samples of 400 shoes revealed the mean percent defective was 8. 20..08 − 3 0.Example p.P) = 0.0 4. 36 yes 0. 3. 3 no.08) = 0.034 40 41 . 4 no.chart # 20 samples of 100 pairs of jeans Sample 1. Where should the manufacturer set the control limit? _ _ _ UCLP = P + 3 P(1 .08(1 − 0..00 0. 0 no.10 + 3 0.0%.P) n = 0.10 Total sample observation 20(100) _ _ _ UCLP = P + 3 P(1 .10(1 − 0.06 0.05 _ P = = 0.075 6.10 5.05 .38 yes 0.05 2.121 n 400 _ _ _ P(1 .95 = 0. 40 yes 0.P) = 0.10) 100 = 0.10(1 − 0. 2.04 18 _ P = Total defectives_______ = 200 = 0.08 + 3 0.10 − 3 0.010 # A manufacturer of running shoes wants to establish control limits for the percent defective.08(1 − 0.39 yes 0.. 1 no. 37 yes 0. σP = 12 6(40) 0.. 38 yes 0..10) n 100 _ LCLP = P − 3 _ _ P(1 .025 3. Sample Result of Inspection p 1. 2 no. Defective 6 0 4 18 200 Proportion Defective 0.039 UCLP = P + 3 n 400 # A restaurant is interested in detecting changes in the percentage of parties leaving less than a 10% tip..P) = 0. 2 no.190 = 0.08) = 0.05 × 0.

Example c-chart # Count of defects in 15 rolls of Denim fabric Sample 1. 2. Day No. 1 4 2 2 3 5 4 3 5 4 6 5 _ Process average c = 23/6 = 3.67 + 3 √ 12.83 − 3 √ 3.83 = 9.67 − 3 √ 12.83 = -2.83 + 3 √ 3.6 + 3 √ 2.67 Total no.08 > 0 42 . 3 and 2. 2.6 − 3 √ 2.6 10 _ = √ 2. 3. 15 Defects 12 8 16 15 190 _ Process average c = Total no. UCLc = 3.6 Sample standard deviation σc = c _ _ _ UCLc = c + Zσc = c + 3 c = 2. 0. _ Process average c = 26 = 2. of defects = 190 = 12.83 .6 = 7.67 = 1.66 LCLc = c + Zσc = c − 3 c # A restaurant is interested in detecting changes in the number of parties per day that are larger than 6 people. 1.44 _ _ _ = 2. 4.67 = 23.35 UCLc = c + Zσc = c + 3 c _ _ _ LCLc = c + Zσc = c − 3 c = 12. The number of defects obtained per circuit board were 5. 4. 2.6 = -2. Construct the appropriate control limits.68 LCLc = 3. 3. of sample 15 _ Sample standard deviation σc = c _ _ _ = 12.99 # A manufacturer of computer circuit boards tested 10 after they were manufactured.

_ σ = R/d2 5. It is equal to six-standard deviation when the process is in a sate of statistical control. Procedure for process capability: 1. Take 25 subgroups of size 5 for a total of 100 measurements. Calculate the range.00 which is desirable 6σ LSL CP = USL − LSL = 6σ = 1. If the capability index is 1. It is equal to six standard deviations when the process is in a state of statistical control. Process capacity will equal 6σ ratios. Process capability: The spread of the process. Tolerance: – The permissible variation in the size of quality characteristic. Calculate the estimated of the population S.Process capability: Control limits: -The limits on a control chart used to evaluate the variations in quality from subgroup to subgroup (Non be confused with speciation limits). Process capability: The spread of the process. R for each subgroup. The different between specifications is called the tolerance. Case-I.D.00 6σ 6σ 6σ USL 43 . Process capacity ratio Cp = Tolerance range Process range = Upper specification – lower specification 6σ Where Cp = Capability index. _ 3. Calculate the average range R = ∑ R/25 4. 2. 6σ0 = Process capability.

The process is just capable. If the capability index is less than 1. Case-III. then CPK has no meaning.If the process is not under control. the process is not capable. = = = Min {(upper specification limit −X) or ( X−lower specification limit)} _ _ 3σ or X − USL Min USL − X 3σ 3σ Interpretation of index values: Case-I.00 which is desirable 6σ LSL Process capability index: CPK = 4σ USL i.00 which is desirable 6σ LSL 8σ CP = USL − LSL = 8σ = 1.Case-II. the process is highly capable of meeting customer specification. Note: .e. If CPK =1. 44 .33 6σ 6σ USL Case-III. If CPK <1. Case-II. If the capability index is greater than 1. If CPK >1. then the natural control limits and customer specification are exactly equal.

Cp = Tools and Techniques: I. X15 = R3 X1. Says X1. Take a lot size of 25 pcs. d2 = 2. Measurement System Analysis. II. Take a sample of 5 pcs. X3. i. X3. Calculate. cause and effect diagram. d2 Tolerance d2 = 8. …………………. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) III. Histogram and control charges stratification. X20 = R4 _ X1. X3. X10 = R2 X1. …………………. Quality Function development (QFD) IV. Process capability (CPK) = Lower of upper Lower CPK Process capability for Qualitative (CPK) = u (1 − p) 3 Where p is the estimated share of nonconforming units and u is the quantile function of the normal distribution. …………………. 4. 45 . X25 = R5 5. X5 = R1 X1. X3. X3. X3. Find Rang of each sample. process flow diagram. X1. X3. Calculate R as per following formula. X3. …………………. Scatter diagram. check sheets. Upper CPK = (Upper specification limit −X) = 3σ Lower CPK = ( X−lower specification limit) 3σ 9. X3. X3.326 for rang of 5 pcs. _ R = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + R5 _ 5 6.e. σ = R . X3. X25 3. X3. 7. …………………. Statistical process Control (SPC): Seven tools ⇒ Pareto diagram. …………………. Measure dimensions of all the pcs. 2.Calculation of process capability (CPK): 1. This formula typically produces the same value for CPK as with normally distributed characteristic with the same fraction of nonconforming units (single-side).

• Decide of dollars (belt). and so forth. • Compute the cumulative percentage if it is to be used. Dr.Joseph Juran recognized this concept as a universal that could be applied to may filed. cause. • Summarize the data and rank order categories from largest to smallest. Types of field failure Construction of a Parato diagram is every simple There are steps: • Determine the method of classifying the data. • Ranks data classification in descending order from left to right. The unequal distributions of wealth become an integral part of economy theory. He found that there were a few people with a lot of money and many people with little money. • Collect data for an appropriate time intervals. Pareto diagram. Pareto Diagram: Alfredo Pareto (1848-1923) conducted extensive studies of the distribution of wealth in Europe. Scatter diagram. • Construct the diagram and find the vital few. Process flow diagram. Cause and effect diagram. It is applicable to problem identification and measurement of progress. by problem. He coined the phrases “vital few and useful many”.Statistical process control (SPC): SPC is comprised of seven tools. 80% of total results from 20% of the items. 1. Check sheets. 46 Percent . type of non-conformity. Histogram & control charts and Stratification. Frequency 0 F C A E B D Types of Field Failures O Pareto diagram are used to identify the most important problems. weighted frequency or frequency is to be used to rank the characteristics. Usually. The Pareto diagram is a powerful quality-improvement tool.

The effects the quality characteristics that need improvement. Next.Kaoru Ishikawa in 1943 and also called as on Ishikwara diagram. C&E diagram also called. and so forth. ability. physical characteristic. The figure shoes the C&E diagram with the effect on the right and causes on the left. Management and maintenance are also sometimes used for major cause is further subdivided into numerous minor cause. It was developed by Dr. Causes are usually broken down into the major causes of man. Cause and effect diagram (Why – Why Analyze): A cause and effect (C&E) diagram is a picture composed of lines and symbols designed to represent a meaningful relationship between an effect and it causes. work method and environment. It is placed on the right side of a large piece of paper by the team leader.suited to the C&E diagram. we might have training. Brainstorming is an idea .2. It uses the creative thinking capacity of the team. Determining all the minor causes requires transforming by the project team. knowledge. C&E diagram are used to investigate either a “bad” effect and to take action to correct the caused for “good” effect and to learn those cause responsible. measurement. the major causes are identified and placed on the diagram.generating a technique that is well . machine. “Fish bone diagrams” because of their shape of the complete structure. 47 . material. Man Machine Material Quality characteristic Environment Work Methods Cause Measurement Effect The first step in the construction of a C&E diagram is for the project team to identify the effect or quality problem. For example. under work methods.

3. Check sheets:

The main purpose of check sheet is to ensure that the data is collected carefully and accurately by operation personnel or process control and problem soling. Data should be presented in such a form that it can be quickly and easily used and analyzed. Product: XYZ Date: Jan. 21 Stage: Final inspection Id: Paint Number inspected: xxx Inspector / operator: ABC Nonconforming Type Check Total 21 Blister 38 Light spray 29 Drips 11 Over spray 08 Splatter 47 Run 12 Others Total 159 Number Nonconforming 113

Check sheet for paint nonconformities. The figure shows a check sheet for paint non-confirming for bicycles.

Hot Tub Chemical Test (Add if needed) PH/Chlorine Temperature Add water (if needed) Clean Deck around hot tub Pool Chemical Test (Add if needed) Add water (If needed) Check Temperature Vacuum pool (if needed) Filter back wash (20lb.) Lint Filter Sweep and Hose off Deck General Cleaning Vacuum Carpets Vacuum and sweep building B Clean Tables Sweep and mop wooden deck Clean outside deck, bring in chair Take out trash Empty building B Trash cons. Wash windows Bathrooms Scrub sinks, toilets and showers Sweep and mop floors Empty trash and check lockers Cover Hot Tub (at end of the night) Check pool fitters – be sure it is on

D D D D D D D A A D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

Mon 7.4 810° √ 7.6 300 780 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Tue

Wed

Thu

Fri

Sat

Sun

D=daily, A = As needed List any and all deviation from this work schedule on observes side, date it and initial it.

Check sheet for swimming pool. 48

4. Process flow diagram: It is a schematic diagram that shows the flow of the product or service as it moves through the various processing operations. The diagram makes it easy to visualize the entire system, identify potential trouble sport, and locate control activity. Many standard symbols are used by Engineers and Scientifics. The common symbols and their significance given below: An ellipse A rectangle A diamond Arrow Start or the end of the process. A step or a task in the process A decision point. To shows the direction of flow from one activity to the next one in a sequence.

The diagram shows who is the next customer in the process¸ thereby increasing the understanding of the process. Flow diagrams are best constructed by a team, because it is rare for one individual to understand the entire process. Improvements to the process can be accomplished by eliminating steps, combining steps, or making frequently occurring steps more efficient.

49

Recruitments of supervisor Start

Sort applications and short-list for interview First interview to select The best five candidate Second interview to select Final interview and medical check-up

Call the next Candidate

No

Candidate approved?

Yes Negotiable terms and Prepare offer letters.

Make offer after receiving approval.

End.

50

The figure shows the relationship between automotive speed and gas mileage. At (e). The independent variable is usually controllable. and the other cause is plotted with a solid triangle. y decreases. we have a positive correlation between the two variables because as x increases. there is no correlation. variable. 51 . but it is not too strong. At (a). and the other cause is plotted with a solid circle. Figure shows different patterns and their interpretation. and this pattern is sometimes referred to as a shotgun pattern. or a response. Further statistical analysis is needed to evaluate this pattern. The relationship or correlation between the two variables can be evaluated. Variable. The figure shows that as speed increases gases mileage decreases. At (d). there may or may not be a relationship between the two variables.5. y increase. Automotive speed is plotted on the x-axis and is the independent. we have a curvilinear relationship rather than a linear one. At (f). there is a negative correlation between the two variables because as x increase. At (b). There appears to be a negative relationship between x and y. When the data are separated. One cause is plotted with a small solid circle. At (c). we have stratified the data to represent different causes for the same effect. Scatter Diagram: A tool to study the cause and effect relationship between two variables is known as scatter diagram. Gas mileage is on the y-axis and is the dependent. we see that there is a strong correction.

RPF = Severity of Failure X Probability of Failure Occurrence X Probability of Failure Detection The value points of those three factors are contained in the following table. Estimate the probability of occurrence of the failure. 4. targets and completion dates for those changes. etc. Evaluate the probability of the failure detection. etc. 2. Re-iterate the FMEA based on the changes and calculate the new risk priority figure. deficiencies. define sound proposals relative to design. service. 3. manufacturing and/or inspection and testing. FMEA should be applied as early as possible in the design process and definitely before starting the manufacturing process. Risk Priority Figure (RPF): The result of the FMEA is the risk priority figure. 8. Evaluate their effects and potential impact on the product. 9. • Document the process. The FMEA is a relatively simple multi-step process consisting of the following tasks: 1. 7. FMEA Principle.FAILURE MODE AND EFFECT ANALYSIS (FMEA): Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is an analytical techniques (a paper test) that combines the technology and experience of people in identifying foreseeable failure modes of a product. process or customers. Based on these results. etc. Perform an evaluation of the product specification and/ or process monitoring with regard to failure detection and avoidance. service. or process and planning for its elimination. Classify the severity or importance of the effect. The FMEA is a formal and systematic method to analyze and eliminate potential failure cause in the design and manufacturing phase. or process and its effects. FMEA can be explained as a group of activates indented to. omissions. • Identify actions that could eliminate or reduce the chance of the potential failure occurring. Assign the responsibilities. • Recognize and evaluate the potential failure of product. It is calculate based on three factors according to the following formula. There are two types of FMEA: Design FMEA and process FMEA. List all reasonably possible failure. 5. systematically. Identify causes of the potential failures. 6. 11. unintended influences. 52 . 10. Calculate the risk priority figure (RPF). FMEA is a “before-the-event” action requiring a team effort to alleviate most easily and inexpensively changes in design and production.

5. Productivity impacted by scrap or rework levels.00) 1 in 2. 3. Customer will probably experience slight annoyance. 9. 10. 8. 7.00) 1 in 500 1 in 100 1 in 50 1 in 20 1 in 10 1 in 2 53 . OCCURRENCE Likelihood 1 in 106 (CPK > 1. 4. Customer dissatisfaction due to reduce performance. Customer is made uncomfortable or their productivity is reduced by the continued degradation of the effect. Customer will experience annoyance due to the slight degradation of performance. Customer endangered due to the adverse effect on safe system performance with waiting before failure or violation of government regulation. Customer endangered due to the adverse effect on safe system performance without earning before failure or violation of governmental regulation.000 (CPK = 1. Warranty. OCCURRENCE RATINGS KNOWN CAPABILITY: Numerical Ranking 1.000 (CPK ~ 1. DEGREE OF SEVERITY Customer will not notice the adverse effect or it is in significant. 7. 6.STANDARD SEVERITY RATINGS: RATING 1. 2.33) 1 in 5. 3. 6. repair or significant manufacturing or assembly complaint. 9. High degree of customer dissatisfaction due to component failure without complete loss of function. 4. 5.000 (CPK < 1. 10.67) 1 in 20. Very high degree of dissatisfaction due to the loss of function without a negative impact on safety or governmental regulation. 2. 8.

95% 1 in 5000 CPK ∼1. 100% 1 in 106 CPK > 1. 6. 54 . Controls are unlikely to detect or prevent the potential failure from reaching the next customer. 1 in 20 60% 9. Almost certain that the potential failure will be found on prevered before reaching the next customer. Will delivering perceived needs yield a competitive advantage? 4. 1 in 100 80% 7. 9. Are all wants equally important? 3. 10 Absolute certainty that the current control will not detected the potential failure. Very poor likelihood that the potential failure will be detected or prevented before reaching the next customer. Controls may detect or prevent the next customer undetected. What is the relationship to parts development process planning and production planning? QFD products start-up costs.DETECTION RATINGS KNOWN CAPABILITY: Numeric Ranking Occurrence Like hood Detection Certainty 1.00 4. 3. The QFD process answers the following questions: 1. How does an engineering change affect other technical description? 7.00 5. 1 in 2 < 50% DETECTION RATINGS CAPABILITY UNKNOWN: RATING ABILITY TO DETECT 1. changes and most important. service and process improvement opportunities that lead to increase customers satisfaction. Sure that the potential failure will be found or prevented before reaching the next customer. Moderate likelihood that the potential failure will reach the next customer. How can we change the product. Low likelihood that the potential failure will reach the next customer undetected. What do customers wants? 2. It ensures the accurate deployment of the “voice of the customer” throughout the organization from product planning to field service. 2.33 3. reduced engineering design. 7. 1 in 50 70% 8. 90% 1 in 2000 CPK < 1. Poor likelihood that the potential failure will be detected or prevented before reaching the next customer. 1 in 500 85% 6. Quality function deployment (QFD): QFD is a system that identifies and sets the priorities for product. 5. 1 in 20000 CPK = 1.67 99% 2. Current controls probably will not even detect the potential failure. 4. leads to increased customers satisfaction. 1 in 10 50% 10. How does an engineering decision affect customer perception? 6. 8. service or process? 5.

all data have measurement errors. appraisers. Calculations: While the order of taking measurements is random.Measurement system analysis (MSA): SPC requires accurate and precise data. 1. however. Xb. The average and range are calculated for each part by an appraiser. = = UCLR = D4 R . and from this information. Rc. or the readings should be retaken for that appraiser and part and the above calculations repeated where appropriate. Thus. The values in step 1 are averaged to obtain: _ _ _ = = = Ra. Variation: It is called Gage Repeatability (GR) and Reproducibility. has two components: Observed value = True value + Measurement error And also variation occurs due to other process and the measurement. thus Total variation = Product variation + Measurement Measurement variation is divided into repeatability. the calculations are performed by part and appraiser. Xc 3. calculate the range. Analysis of Results = 1.05 for 3 trials. The UCL and LCL for the range are determined. Calculations are as follows. and reproducibility. and two three trials are considered optimum. LCLR = D3R Where D3 and D4 are obtained from table for subgroup sizes of 2 or 3.− XMin. Repeatability: which is due to equipment variation. Rb or Rc) that is out of control should be discarded and the above calculations repeated where appropriate. Reproducibility: which is due to appraiser (inspector). Xa. 2. Determine X for each part.56 for 2 appraisers and 3. = = Rp. Data Collection: The number of parts. or trails can vary but 10 parts two or three appraiser. 4. Any range value (Ra.− XMin. Rb. The value in step 2 are used to obtained: _ = = = = R and XDiff. = XMax. a observed value. Where XDiff. = XMax. Repeatability EV = k1R Where EV = Equipment variation (repeatability) k1 = 4. = 5. 55 .

The clamping or location for gauging needs to be improved.65 2.93 1. 3.70 2. 3.70 for 3 appraisers n = number of parts r = number of trial.65 for 2 appraisers and = 2. 4.82 1. 56 . lost of gage. the reasons may be 1.2. Guidelines for acceptance GR&R (% R & R) are: Under 10% error – Gage system is satisfactory. Over 30% error – Gage system is not satisfactory. j = dependent on number of parts. 2. 10% to 30% errors – May be acceptable based upon importance of application. Identify the causes and take corrective action. The percent of total variation is calculated using the equations below. A fixture may be needed to help the operator use the gage consistently. Rp = range of the part averages. The operations needs to be better trained are how to use and read the gage. Calibrations on the gage are not legible.74 9 10 1. The gage needs maintenance. the AV value defaults to zero. Part j 2 3 4 3. Repeatability and Reproducibility R & R = EV2 + AV2 Where R & R = Repeatability and Reproducibility. If reproducibility is large compared to repeatability the reasons may be 1.62 5. Total variation TV = (R&R)2 + PV2 Where TV = Total variation.30 5 2. The gage should be designed to be more rigid. 3. 4. Part variation PV = j Rp Where PV = Part variation. 2.08 6 7 8 1. Reproducibility AV = = (k2 XDiff)2 − (EV2/nr) Where AV = Appraiser variation (reproducibility) K2 = 3. If a negative value occurs under the square root sign. There is excessive within – part variation. cost of repairs etc.67 1. %EV = 100 (EV/TV) %AV = 100 (AV/TV) %R&R = 100 (R&RV/TV) %PV = 100 (PV/TV) Evaluation It repeatability is large compared to reproducibility.

0 7.2 7.9 7. XB = 6.2 Where n = number of parts/ sample.29 × 100 = 5.03 7.93 0.2 7. = XMax − XMin = 0.8 6.2 7.2 7. 7.0 7.8 6.2 7.03 7. 7.9 2.6% Tolerance 5 Equipment variation more than 10% Thus.5 is out from bigger logs.002 .51 = Equipment variation (EV) = k1R = 0.2 6.2 × 3.0 7.1 3.08 .05 EV2 + AV2 (0. 6. 57 .9 0.17 0.8% 5 Observer 2 k2 3. Data collected is as follows: A-Inspector B-Inspector T1 T2 T3 Avg.2% 5 = 0.1 0.61)2 + (0.1 7.65)2 − (0.1 6.93 0.3 7.29 Sample T3 7. Trials k1 2 4.0 5.9 _ _ = = = XA = 7.70 Total R &R = Total R &R = EV% = EV × 100____ Total tolerance AV% = AV × 100___ Total tolerance EV% = R&R × 100_ = 0.9 7.7 6.1 7.612/3×5) = 0.1 6. r = number of trials.65 3 2.0 + 2.03 7. UCLR = D4R = 0.0 7.05 = 0. on basis of R&R we do calibration or replace.09 _ _ = = RA = 0.61 = Appraiser variation (AV) = (k2 XDiff)2 − (EV2/nr) AV = (0.99 .1 7.61 × 100 = 12.13 0.3 6.9 Avg.68 × 100 = 13. XDiff.2 7. 7.9 7.09 × 3.18 .Example: A log of length specification 7.0 6.29)2 = 0.1 0.03 6.1 7.3 7. 7.23 0.1 6. R =0. Range T1 T2 1.83 Range 0.1 4. RB = 0.56 3 3.29 = 0.3 7.22 .2 0. 6.

5 11.8 1.2 7.5 5.2 7.00 5.8 10 6.0 6.05 = bias.0 7.Linearity: Reference value 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Range 2.2 10.5 9.10 2.4 & A = 0.0 10.9 3.0 2.5 9.6 Linearity X Avg.0 10.5 6.49 2.1 4.0 11.5 3.5 10.2 6.7 1.2 7.2 7.0 7.5 2.2 9.7 5.0 8.50 May 9.2 10.0 10.5 Feb 9.0 7.00 2.3 = 10A + 12B 23 = 0. Range .0 11.0 58 Mar 10.9 6.48 2.7 10.5 1.8 4.0 11.5 6.0 6.8 3.91 5.2 1.8 10.00 4.5 5.0 1.2 8.0 10.5 7.5 6.0 7.5 10.5 9.0 7. A = 0.6 7.1 4.8 3.07 5.0 3.00 4.1 4.4 = linearity Bias Yi = A + BXi + Error δL = 2 [ ∑ ( Yi−A−BXi)] = 0 i=1 δA ⇒ ∑Yi = nA + B∑Xi () δL = i [ ∑ ( Yi−A−BXi)Xi] = 0 δA ⇒ ∑XiYi = A∑Xi + B∑Xi2 Stability: Jan 7.7 2.5 10.5 6.05 2.5 8.5 1.5 8.5 8.0 Apr 11.0 Y To fit a straight line Y = A + BX Normal equations are: ∑Y = nA + B∑X ∑XY = A∑X + B∑X2 5.7 10.0 10.1 10.5 3.0 7.5 8.5 10.05 B = 0.2 6.2 5.0 6.8 6.5 10.0 8.7 4.4 9.

08 Appraiser B Trial 1 0.56 Trial 3 0.32 0.04)/5 = Rb = (0.44 0.56 = 9.43 + 0.43 + 0.07 + 0.48 0.08 = 0.36 0.08 + 0.38 = 0.46 0.44 _ 0.10 = Xa = (0.06 5 0.21.26 0.49 + 0.10 + 0.08 + 0.38 = 0.38 + 0.08 0.46 0.8 / 5 = 3.44 0.308 × 3.41 = 0.38 0.34 0.08 4 0.28)/5 = Xb = (0.38 0.34 0.42 0.30 0.08)/5 = X = 0.32612.49 X R 0.50 Trial 2 0.08)/2 = 0.30 0.38 0.308 × 3.31 0.28 0. This say setting of Machine.24 0.43 + 0.43 0.08 0.08 + 0.51 + 0.07 = 0.51 X R 0.04 0. _ LCL R = D 3R = 0.70352 These calculations help to comment that the data is not stable with respect to setting of the process.38 + 0.8 − 0.48 Trial 3 0. LCLR = 0 Part Number 3 0.08 59 .10 0.28 0. Appraiser A 1 2 Trial 1 0.06 0.38 0.43 0.08 + 0.777 ×3.10 + 0.79388 = X = 8.56 = 7.28 0.223 ×3.89648 LCL X = 8.42 0.56 _ UCL R = D 4R = 1.8 + 0.28 0.08 =0.31)/5 = Ra = (0.40 0.28 0.43 0.06 + 0.54 Trial 2 0.60 + 0.56 = 0._ R = 17.41 − 0.56 = 6.8 = _ UCL X = X + A 2R = 8.42 0.03 = R = (0.574 × 0.28 + 0.40 0.48 _ 0.38 0.08 UCLR = 2.

43)/2 = 0.20 = 0.49)/2 = 0. As an example.05 × 0.03)2 − (0. physical sciences.24 AV = R &R = (3.51 + 0. life and biological sciences.38)/2 = 0.08 = 0.30 Rp = 0.09)2 = 0. One may be interested to find out whether they are related and if so.38 + 0.26)2 + (0.50 = X3 = (0.28 + 0.31)/2 = 0. and the relationship between them is 60 . social sciences etc.242/5×3) = 0. %PV = 86% The Gage system is not satisfactory. The equipment variation in (repeatability) is quite large is relation to the appraiser variation (reproducibility). Regression analysis is a statistical technique for investigating and modeling functional relationship among these variables in such situations. %R&R = 53%. what is the form of relationship. including engineering. quality control.65 × 0. one dependent variable and one independent variable.None of the range values are out of control.20 EV = 3. In scientific research and industrial problem soloing often a situation is encountered where in a number of variables are involve with possible interactions or relationship among themselves.42)2 = 0.09 (0.50 − 30 = 0.49 %EV = 49%. Regression analysis Relationship among variables. consider the family income and age at marriage of the girl.43 + 0. The relationship may be expressed in the form of an equation or model connecting one of the variables known as response or dependant variable with one or more other variables known as the response or the dependant variables with one or more other variable know as explanatory or predictor or independent variables.24)2 + (0. The simplest case of the regression analysis is the one where there are only two variables.42 TV = (0. = X1 = (0.26 PV = 2. economics management.33 = X2 = (0.41 = X4 = (0.08 × 0.43 = X5 = (0.43 + 0. %AV = 18%.28)/2 = 0. Applications of regression analysis are numerous and occur almost every filed.

multiplicative model etc. Model validation and criticism. to determine the levels of the process parameters which optimizes the yield or any other response of interest. height. This kind of graphical representation of the data will help to from ideas about the appropriate model to be chosen. for prediction and estimation purposes etc Steps in Regression Analysis. Model specifications. 2. especially about the linearity of the relationship.00 85.15 79. 4. The variables can be either quantitative or qualitative.linear. region etc. Examples of qualitative variables are good / bad. sex. 8. age at birth of the first child etc.65 61 . Examples of the quantitative variables are measurable variable like hardness.40 78. Statement of the problem. religion. 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 X 163 150 175 166 158 168 160 188 171 179 Y 81. Graphics representation of the data (scatter plot) 5. S.60 82. Regression analysis include the following steps: 1. This is known as simple linear regression.90 85.25 76. 6. When there are more than one independent variable and the relationship considered is linear we have what is known as multiple regression. tensile strength.00 77. Hardness (X) and Tensile strength (Y) of 16 specimens of annealed steel. 3. Data collection. Model fitting and calculation of indices like correlation coefficient etc.84 80.85 93.15 83.No. Choice of fitting method.10 71. When the relationship is not liner we may have to consider a nonlinear model like polynomial regression model.No.20 S. 9.60 79. Regression analysis may be carried out for various purpose like (a) summarize / describe data in multiple variable set. defective / non-defective. 7.50 72.35 76. Graphical Representation of the data: If there is only one predictor variable then the data can be plotted as a scatter diagram to get an idea about the type of relationship. Selection of potentially relevant variables.25 83. Using the chosen model (s) for the solution of the posed problem. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 X 144 171 164 155 180 167 165 169 150 155 Y 70.60 81.10 85.80 80.

Additionally.1) times variance of Y i=1 62 . That is there is probability distribution (usually normal) for Y at each possible value of X.The scatter plot can indicate that 1. We are interested. There is a linear relationship between X and Y. the relationship here can be expressed as a linear equation of the form. It is calculated as: SXY r = SXX SYY _ _ n Where SXY = ∑ (yi − y)(Xi − X) = (n. There is no relationship between X and Y. where Y increases with X. The errors are assumed to have mean zero and unknown variance σ2. Let these be denoted by X and Y respectively. we usual assume that the errors are uncorrelated. It is convenient to view the regressor X as controlled by the data analyst and measured with negligible error. Correlation coefficient: Correlation coefficient denoted by r (or rXY).1) times covariance between X and Y i=1 _ n SXX = ∑ (Xi − X)2 = (n. The parameter a is the intercept of the regression line and b is the slope of the line. This means that the value of one error does not depend on the value of any other error. while the response Y is a random variable. the next task is to estimate the parameter estimation or model fitting. Further the relationship is assumed to be linear. the ridge method and the principal component method. Thus. 2. Method of fittings: After the model has been defined and the data have been collected. 3.linear. A regression equation containing only on predictor variable is called a simple regression equation where as if there are more than one predictor variable the equation is known as a multiple regression equation. There is a linear relationship between X and Y. The parameter a and b are usually called regression coefficients. Often the actual relationship may be non – linear for the wider range of the predictor variables but it can be considered to be linear in the range of the predictor variables. Others are the maximum likelihood method. where Y decreases with X. y = a + bx + ε Where a and b are unknown constants and ε is a random error component. measures the degree of linear association ship between two variables.1) times variance of X i=1 n SXY _ = ∑ (yi − y)2 = (n. Simple Linear Regression: In simple linear regression we have only one independent variable and one dependent variable. X and Y are related but the relationship between them is non. 4. The most commonly used method of estimation is called the least squares method.

obtaining two equations.2041 = 0. In such cases.2041 b = Sxy = 1054. The equation so established.4744.Fitting the best line: Least squares For fitting the best line through the points (x1. we differentiate with respect to x and y and equate to 0. However. which can be used for prediction of x for given values y. X = 165. When r = ±1. We can use the some data to fit a regression of x on y. Such regression models are known as multiple regression analysis. can be used for predicting y for giving values of x. the regression of y on x can also be used for prediction of x for given values of y. known as Normal Equations.71 Multiple Regressions: There are situations when one dependent variable may be related with more than one independent variable. Minimise S = ∑ εi2 = i=1 n i=1 ∑ (yi − a − bxi)2 n To minimize the above. (x2. _ _ We have. y2)………………………(xn.0197 ∧ _ a = y − β1X =80. we try to develop a model /equation relating the dependent variable with the independent variable. Sxx = 2717. is know as regression of y on x. That is. If y be the dependent variable and x1. y = a + b1x1 + b2x3 + e 63 .9 × 0. x2 and x3 be the independent variable then the linear regression equation fitted may be of the form. Sxx are as defined earlier. this equation can’t be used for prediction for x forgiven value of y. y1). Example For the data given in the above table find out the least square estimates of the regression parameters a and b.388 Sxx 2717. Sxy = 1054.388 = 15. On solving these two equations.90 y = 80.0197.2125 − 165. Sxy .2125 Syy = 554. the values of a and b are obtained as: _ _ a = y − b X and b = Sxy /Sxx where. yn) least squares method is adopted where in the squared deviations of the points from the fitted line is minimized.

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