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BACTERIOLOGY - CHAPTER ONE THE BACTERIAL CELL
Dr Alvin Fox
Logo image © Jeffrey Nelson, Rush University, Chicago, Illinois and The MicrobeLibrary
READING: Murray et al., Microbiology 6th Ed., Chapter 2
it appears that the archaea and eukaryotes diverged f diverged from each other (figure 1a) and in some ways. Archaea Based on DNA sequence similarities. especially in the absence of a nucleus. and fungi) are referred to as e Members of the Archaea are not human pathogens and will not be discussed further. cell wall skeleton). although. For example. Similarity also exists between the protein synthesis suggesting that the overall protein synthesis mechanisms of eukaryotes and archaea may b eubacteria and the archaea are quite distinct in sequence. Most archaea live in enviro where they experience temperatures as high as 80 degrees C and a pH of 2. the used. Peptidoglycan. contains a unique sugar. However. they have major biochemical differences. archaea are biochemically more like eubacteria. the RNA polymerase of archaea is as complex. muramic acid. and thus prokaryotes. not Archaebacteria contain a pseudomurein that is different in structure from eubacterial murein In view of the increasing number of similarities between the archaea and the eukaryotes. All other cellular forms of life (including plants. Eubacteria (with the exception of the genera Mycoplasma and Chlamydia) possess peptidog mucopeptide.PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES KEY WORDS Prokaryotic Eubacteria (Bacteria) Archaebacteria (Archaea) Eukaryotic Plasmid Chromosome Ribosome Peptidoglycan (murein. Similarities between Archaea and Eukaryotes Eubacteria Nucleus Nucleosomes/histones Operons/polycistronic mRNAs No No Yes No No Archaea No Yes Yes No Yes Figure 1a The domains of life Introns TATA Box binding protein Organelles No No . like the eubacte transcribe these to polycistronic mRNA. These are call methane-containing (methanogens) or high salt (extreme halophiles) environments. mucopeptide) Gram stain Gram negative Gram positive Cell envelope Cell membrane Cell wall Outer membrane Periplasmic space Oxidative phosphorylation Spheroplast/protoplast Flagella Chemotaxis Axial filament Periplasmic binding protein Permeases Storage Granules Pili (fimbriae) Capsule (slime layer. in terms of numbe polymerases and there is considerable amino acid homology with some of the eukaryotic su archaea is also more similar to that of eukaryotes than eubacteria. animals. glycocalyx) Endospore "True" bacteria (which include all bacteria that infect man) are members of one kingdom (the group of organisms often found in extreme environments form a second kingdom (archaeba two kingdoms of organisms appear similar.
a ribosomes are larger (80S). whilst the 50S ribosome contains 23S and 5S RNA. Since there is no nuclear membrane. in contrast to the eukaryotic cell. the chromosome is bound membrane . Golgi body. . Prokaryotic ribosomal subunits are 30S and 50S (eukaryotic are RNA. Ribosomal RNA is larger in eukar Bacterial membranes generally do not contain sterols (e. cholesterol). 2 and 3).Chromosomes RNA polymerase Protein initiator amino acid Protein synthesis sensitivity to diphtheria toxin Peptidoglycan One Circular One (simple) N-formyl methionine One Circular More than one (complex) Methionine Insensitive Yes Sensitive No Protein synthesis initiation factors ribosomal proteins elongation factors of Archaea are more similar to those of eukaryote Unique features of Archaea DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PROKARYOTES/EUKARYOTES The prokaryotic cell. Prokaryotic ribosomes are 70S (S stands for Svedberg unit. Nuclear me reticulum. P single circular chromosome. phagosomes and lysosomes are not present (Figures 1b. is not compartmentalized.g.the mesosome.
Comparison of eukaryotes and "eubacterial" prokaryotes Despite their lack of complexity compared to eukaryotes.rod number of proteins including flagellin. Gram positive bacteria lack a periplasmic space. wall-less bacteria are often produced. the cell wall peptidoglycan layer is a much thicker layer than in Gram bacteria have an additional outer membrane. usually present in multiple copies. extend through the cell envelope and project a Figure 4. Binding proteins in the periplasmic space or cell membran (SEM x26. Figure 2. Some forms are also involved in bacterial replication. that often code for p resistance factors. The prototype bacterial cell The cell envelope Bacteria can be divided into two groups on the basis of staining with the Gram stain. coli . Usually these treatmen Wall-less bacteria that can not replicate are referred to as spheroplasts (when an outer mem outer membrane is not present). They move the cell by rotating with a propeller like act prokaryote with multiple flagella have a similar function to flagella. a number of eubacterial s bacteria possess all of these components. Ene stored when necessary in cytoplasmic "storage granules" which consist of glycogen. instead perform extracellular digestion. Digestion is needed since large molecules can not readily pa present) or cell membrane. E. polyhyd . All bacteria have a cell membrane where o there are no mitochondria). Gram negative do not. Occasionally wall-less bacteria that can replicate are gener Flagella Some bacterial species are mobile and possess locomotory organelles . Outside the cell membrane is the cell wall which is rigid and prot Gram positive bacteria. An animal cell Figure 3.730) © Dennis Kunkel and amino acids) causing methylation of other cell membrane proteins which in turn affect th Microscopy. Wall-less forms of Bacteria When bacteria are treated with 1) enzymes that are lytic for the cell wall e. Used with permission Permeases are proteins that then transport these foodstuffs through the cell membrane. Gram p crystal violet on washing.g. environment and respond to specific chemical foodstuffs or toxic materials and move toward Flagella are embedded in the cell membrane. Inc. lysozyme or 2) biosynthesis of peptidoglycan.BACTERIAL STRUCTURES Figure 1b. Plasmids These are extra-chromosomal DNA. Gra enzymes in the periplasmic space.flagella (Figure 4). The outer membrane is the major permeability The space between the inner and outer membranes is known as the periplasmic space.
Capsules vary in thickness and can easily be 2 times the volume of the organism. Endospores (spores) These are a dormant form of a bacterial cell produced by certain bacteria when starved (figu cell is referred to as vegetative. . Memphis. The capsule is composed of polysaccharides and polyproteins. Iowa City. Some are involved in sexual conjugation and others allow adhesion to host e x17. The Des Moines University Osteop B © Donald Stahly. whilst others do not. securing nutrients. Capsules have a role in adherence. The capsule is unstained and appears as a halo around the cell. They are not essential to cell viability and some strains capsule. © Judy Bowen Buckman Laboratories International. protection. Used with permission Figure 6 Capsule-producing bacillus-shaped bacteria. They usually consist of polysaccharide. the background is stained grayish blue and the cells are stained red. USA and The MicrobeLibrary Capsules and slime layers (Figure 6) These are structures surrounding the outside of the cell envelope. In a capsule stain. however of a polypeptide (polyglutamic acid). larvae sporulation in culture appears similar to that of other endospore formers. and cell-to-cell recognition.Pili (synonym: fimbriae) The types of pili (or whether they are produced at all) varies both among and between speci Figure 5. Inc. they less defined as a slime layer or glycocalyx. E. Inc. Figure 7 A MicrobeLibrary Bacillus cereus spores (green) and cells not forming spores (pink) © Ralph Van Dyke Jr. virulence. Capsules of pathogenic bacteria inhibit ingestion and killing by during in vitro culture. When more defined.250) © Dennis Kunkel Microscopy. coli with fimbriae (TEM cell (Figure 5). University of Iowa. Spores are commonly found in the genera Bacillus and Clostridium. Iowa and The MicrobeLibrary P. The spore is resistant to adverse conditions (including high The spore cytoplasm is dehydrated and contains calcium dipicolinate (dipicolinic acid . The rod-shaped v layer.figur resistance of the spore. Tennessee.
University of Iowa. Iowa and The MicrobeLibrary An immature spore is shown surrounded by the mother cell (sporangium).C Iowa City. Dipicolinic acid Return to the Bacteriology Section of Microbiology and Immunology On-line This page copyright 2010 The Board of Trustees of the University of South Carolina This page last changed on Tuesday. The outer spore coat appears thinner and less electron dense than in the mature spores. but the endospore remains endospore is released from the sporangium. 2010 Page maintained by Richard Hunt . The inner spore coat consists of a maximum of seven di Figure 8. Iowa and The MicrobeLibrary The thick spore coat indicates that endospore differentiation is complete. May 18. A copy of the bacterial D spore. © Dona D Donald Stahly. Iowa City.
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