Setting Out References

How to reference using the American Psychological Association (APA) style of referencing 5th Edition

Authored By Lorraine Nielsen
Subject Librarian: Medical & Health Sciences (Nursing and Allied Health) Email: lm.nielsen@auckland.ac.nz Phone: 09-373-7599 ext. 86158 and Stephanie Cook

Philson Library Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland August 2007

Table of Contents
Introduction....................................................................................................................5 Basic Rules for layout of your document ......................................................................5 Basic Rules for formatting citations in your text ...........................................................6 Standard Citation: One author ......................................................................................6 Standard Citation: Two authors ....................................................................................6 Standard Citation: Three to five authors.......................................................................6 Standard Citation: Six or more authors.........................................................................7 Standard Citation: No author ........................................................................................7 Groups as authors..........................................................................................................7 Citation of a work discussed in a secondary source .....................................................8 Direct Quote..................................................................................................................8 Several works by the same first author and with the same publication date: ...............8 Several works within the same parentheses:.................................................................8 Personal Communication ..............................................................................................9 Your Reference List:....................................................................................................10 Abbreviations:..............................................................................................................11 Publisher’s Locations:..................................................................................................11 Order of References: ....................................................................................................13 Several works by the same first author:......................................................................13 Several works by the same first author and with the same publication date: .............13 Works by groups (agency, association, or institution):...............................................13 If there is no author:....................................................................................................13 How to reference a Periodical/Journal Article.............................................................14 Journal article - one author .........................................................................................14 Journal article - two author .........................................................................................14 Journal article - three-six authors................................................................................14 Journal article - more than six authors........................................................................14 Journal supplements....................................................................................................15 Citation of a work discussed in a secondary source ...................................................15 Journal article in press ................................................................................................15 How to reference a Magazine Article ..........................................................................15 How to reference a Newspaper Article........................................................................16 How to reference a Book .............................................................................................16

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Single author ...............................................................................................................16 Single editor ................................................................................................................16 Two authors ................................................................................................................16 Corporate Author ........................................................................................................17 Author/Publisher are Identical ....................................................................................17 No author/editor ..........................................................................................................17 How to reference a Brochure/Pamphlet.......................................................................17 How to reference a Book Chapter................................................................................18 Chapter in an edited book ...........................................................................................18 Chapter in an unedited book .......................................................................................18 Entry in Encyclopaedia/Dictionary.............................................................................18 How to reference Technical Reports............................................................................19 How to reference a Conference Proceeding.................................................................19 Doctoral Dissertations and Master’s Theses................................................................20 How to reference a Thesis............................................................................................20 How to reference a Personal Communication .............................................................20 How to reference Lecture Notes ..................................................................................21 How to reference Video Recording, Motion Pictures and Television Series ..............21 Video or motion picture with international or national availability ...........................21 Video or motion picture or with limited availability ..................................................22 Motion picture (movie/film) with international or national availability.....................22 Television broadcast ...................................................................................................22 Television series..........................................................................................................22 Single episode from a television series.......................................................................22 Electronic Media..........................................................................................................23 How to reference a Web Page......................................................................................23 Stand alone Webpage (no author, no date) .................................................................23 How to reference part/section of a Web Page..............................................................23 Part/section of a webpage ...........................................................................................24 How to reference an Electronic Publication of Limited Circulation (Intranet not Internet)........................................................................................................................24 How to reference an Electronic Journal article............................................................24 Electronic journal – Internet Only ..............................................................................25 How to reference a Cochrane Review .........................................................................25 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Ovid version) .......................................26 3

.....................................................................................g.......26 How to reference an electronic book retrieved from a database e...................................................................................................................................... Wiley Interscience...........................26 Electronic book retrieved from a database............. Ebrary..........27 How to reference an ACT ..The Cochrane Library.. netLibrary..................................................................32 4 ........26 How to reference an electronic book retrieved from a database e...................30 Electronic Media.......................................................27 Reference ....................................................................26 Electronic book retrieved from a library catalogue ............28 Personal Communication ...........................................32 Cochrane Review ............................................................................................................................................................... Books@Ovid.............................................................................................................................................27 In text ................................................................g........ Ebrary............ Books@Ovid.....................................................................27 Quick Guide to APA Referencing ...................................................................... netLibrary..26 Legal Material.................................................................................................................................................

..Call Number: 808..Call Number: 808..... and acknowledges the author from which the information was taken......nz/Docs/sa/postgraduate/download/thesisguide.....06615 A51 2001 Tamaki Library Reference.............. (5th ed..... This is known as referencing.auckland.. research paper. There are many styles of referencing...... Call Number: WZ345 A512p 2001 General Library ...... DC: American Psychological Association.. (2001).............06615 A51 2001 Short Loan – Kate Edgar Information Commons........)............ Copies are held in the following Libraries (for more details check Voyager): Philson Library Reference Collection .. dissertation or thesis in a way that identifies the original source.06615 A51 2001 Introduction It is important to acknowledge all sources of information and ideas that you have used in your essay...... Referencing enables you to avoid plagiarism. For University of Auckland theses and dissertations you should consult the Guide to Theses and Dissertations http://www......................06615 A51 2001 North Shore Campus Library .American Psychological Association (APA) Style of Referencing Guide This guide is only an introduction to The American Psychological Association (APA) style of referencing.pdf for details on general layout.......Call Number: 808........... This guide shows you one way – The American Psychological Association (APA). Washington......ac........ Otherwise the basic sections............ of your document are as follows (in the following order and starting on a separate page): • • • • • Title Page Abstract Text References Appendices NB: Please check with your department as they may have other requirements or guidelines...Call Number: 808........... if applicable... allows the reader to consult the original source of your information. This style is an author-date method of referencing. For more comprehensive information please refer to the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association.... 5 ........ APA is a common reference style used in psychology and nursing.......................... Basic Rules for layout of your document The first chapter of the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (APA manual) covers the general format for manuscripts/documents.................

1993). 6 . Korner. OR A growing body of research is emerging on palliative care (Froggatt. At the end of the document full details of the in-text citations are given in a reference list. For example: Herth et al.. 2003).Basic Rules for formatting citations in your text The following are some general guidelines for referencing works in the text of your document. and the year of publication. (2004) stated that…. OR It was observed during the interview that patients responded well to drug therapy (Jowett & Shanley. For more information on in-text citations consult the APA manual (pages 207214). Standard Citation: Two authors For example: Jowett and Shanley (1993) observed during interviews that patients responded……. only the surname of the first listed author is used followed by et al. 2004) NB: In the second example ‘&’ is placed before the last author. Standard Citation: One author For example: According to Froggatt (2003) a growing body of research is emerging on palliative care…. and McGee (2004) documented their experiences as patients…. The author/s surname and year of publication are used within the text of a document (commonly referred to as in-text citations) when you are quoting. OR Their experiences as patients was well documented (Herth. Standard Citation: Three to five authors The first time the citation is referred to give all the authors surnames: For example: Herth. NB: If you refer to the same citation a second time within the same paragraph you may omit the year of publication as long as it cannot be confused with other studies cited in that paragraph.. & McGee. Korner. Subsequently. paraphrasing or summarizing someone else’s ideas.

periodical/journal. 1999). For example: Benzein et al. italicize the title. or report.. and the year of publication. an anonymous work is alphabetized by the word Anonymous. 7 . For example: In the chapter “Thoughts on integrated care” (1999) it discusses… OR … it was discussed (“Thoughts on integrated care”. 2001). In the reference list.g. (2001) conducted narrative interviews…. The general rule in deciding to abbreviate is that you should provide enough information in the in-text citation for the reader to easily locate the entry in the reference list. cite only the first author followed by et al. corporations.. For an article or chapter title use double quotation marks around the title. For a book. OR Narrative interviews were conducted over two weeks (Benzein et al. OR There was no compensation for these kinds of injures (Accident Compensation Corporation [ACC]. brochure. 2003). associations and government agencies) are normally spelled out every time they appear as an in-text citation. Subsequently ACC (2003) does not consider injuries of this nature…. for the first and subsequent citations. cite in the text the first few words of the title and the year. 1980). Standard Citation: No author When a work has no author. In the book Social learning theory (1980) evidence is… OR … the evidence was presented (Social learning theory. However the names of some group authors are spelled out the first time they are cited and abbreviated thereafter. NB: When a work’s author is designated as “Anonymous” cit in the text the word Anonymous followed by a comma and the date. Groups as authors Group authors (e. For example: The Accident Compensation Corporation [ACC] (2003) would not cover injuries ….Standard Citation: Six or more authors When a citation has six or more authors.

J. The suffixes reflect the order in which the references are arranged in the reference list i. 228-230. & Lynch. Meek. 311). Separate the citations with semicolons 8 . R. Meek. b. Meek. Direct Quote For example: The author stated. & Aurell’s work is cited in Olson. For more information see the APA manual. NB: Quotations that are 40 words or longer should be placed in a free standing block of type written lines and omit quotation marks. & Lynch and you did not read the work cited. Several works within the same parentheses: List two or more works by different authors who are cited within the same parentheses in alphabetical order by the first author’s surname. 1993. p. D. “The effect disappeared within minutes” (Lopez. L. Accurate patient history contributes to differentiating diabetes insipidus: A case study.. Several works by the same first author and with the same publication date: Within the text the publication date is followed by the suffixes a. Sjodin. In the Reference List Olson. & Aurell. Meek. 36(4). & Lynch. (2004). & Lynch. after the year.. For example if Bendz. 2004). For example: In-text citation Bendz. list the Olson. etc. in-text. Meek. Sjodin. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing. but she did not say which effect. and give a citation for the secondary source. 2001b). as cited in Olson. 1990. name the original work. For example: Cook (2001a) found that the control of …. The roles were reversed (Cook. alphabetically by the title (excluding ‘A’ and ‘The’) that follows the date. & Lynch reference in the Reference list. 2004) showed… OR …showed in the study (Bendz. 311). G. c. as cited in Olson.Citation of a work discussed in a secondary source Give the secondary source in the reference list. and Aurell’s study (1990. repeat the year. OR Lopez (1993) found that “the effect disappeared within minutes” (p.e. Sjodin. M.

In the body of your text you need the following: Initials and Surname of communicator. Wilson. For example in-text reference would look like this: P. Cite personal communications in the text only. Kilpatrick. 2000). they are not included in the reference list. Cook. personal interviews. some electronic communications.For example: Several trials found inconsistencies in the results (Brown. and provide an exact a date as possible. May 23. 2006. Gluckman (personal communication. D. memos. 2007. 2004) 9 . November 7. telephone conversations and the like. personal communication. 2004) OR (J. Personal Communication Personal communication may be letters.

likewise. NB: The School of Nursing accepts 1.5 spacing to save paper!! References cited in the text must appear in the reference list. at the top of the page and not underlined). each entry in the reference list must be cited in the text. In this guide I have used 1.5 or double spacing. NB: A Reference list cites works that specifically support a particular article whereas a Bibliography cites works for background or for further reading and may include descriptive notes.e. 10 .Your Reference List: Formatting your reference list is covered in Chapter 4 of the APA manual. What follows are some general guidelines for formatting your reference list. starting on the 5th space). and entries should have a hanging indent of 5 spaces (i. Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper and should begin on a separate page from the text of the essay under the heading References (centered. The references should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.

do not repeat the name in the publisher location. rev. para. and the name of the state (or province) is included in the name of the university. Page Pages paragraph Part Supplement Technical Report Translator(s) Publisher’s Locations: Give the location (city and state for U. Tech. Suppl. No. use New Zealand not NZ. Volume (as in Vol. The following locations can be listed without a state abbreviation or country because they are major cites that are well known for publishing. Baltimore Boston Chicago Los Angeles New York Philadelphia San Francisco Amsterdam Jerusalem London Milan Moscow Paris Rome Stockholm Tokyo Vienna 11 . ed. Trans. no date Number Vol. brochures. if specified. ed. pp.d. state or province if applicable. Eds. 4) Volumes (as in 4 vols. Rep. Pt. and country for publishers outside of the United States) of the publishers of books. et aliae) n. Ed. reports.) p. non-periodical publications. city. give the location listed first in the book or. et al. chapter edition revised edition second edition Editor Editors and others (from Latin et alii.Abbreviations: Acceptable abbreviations in the reference list for parts of books and other publications are: chap.g. vols. If the publisher is a university. If two or more publisher locations are given. 2nd ed. NB: Do not use abbreviations for the name of the Country e. and other separate. publishers.S. the location of the publishers home office.

Location Alabama Alaska American Samoa Arizona Arkansas California Canal Zone Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Guam Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Abbreviation AL AK AS AZ AR CA CZ CO CT DE DC FL GA GU HI ID IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA MI MN MS Location Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Virgin Islands Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Abbreviation MO MT NE NV NH NJ NM NY NC ND OH OK OR PA PR RI SC SD TN TX UT VT VA VI WA WV WI WY 12 .S states and territories are abbreviated in the reference list.The names of U.

Use the full name. (2001a). 13 . S. For example: Surveillance and control notes. (2001b). New Zealand Public Health Report. The control of …. Several works by the same first author and with the same publication date: Arranged alphabetically by the title (excluding A and The) that follows the date. 4(6).04 pg 219 of the APA manual References are arranged in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author Several works by the same first author: Arranged by year of publication. Cook. 43-45. (not APA) University of Auckland. association. the earliest first For example: Hobson. M. If there is no author: The title moves to the author position and the entry is alphabetised by the first significant word of the title. For example: Cook.Order of References: For more detailed information see Section 4. Where to … Hobson. S. (2004). Roles of the…. J.. Works by groups (agency. Maori nursing…. For example: American Psychological Association. (2000). M. Department of Medicine. J. or institution): Alphabetise group authors by the first significant word of the name. (1997).

(followed by a full stop) 4. of article – Surname. MacDonald. C. Baker. 57(4). randomized.. (2004). M. of article (followed by a full stop) Journal article . et al.only needed if issues are individually paginated (followed by a comma) 7. Year. Rosen. Foliaki. in parentheses . of article. Page Numbers.How to reference a Periodical/Journal Article The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1... Agitation: How to manage behaviour disturbances in the older patient with dementia. D. 1(1). 4.. (2002). Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 20. rhinitis. & Cannavo. Diabetes Primary Care. (1999). S. Changing times in diabetes care. Journal title.two author Hughes.more than six authors Cohet. J. S. Liporace.three-six authors Ilan. C. Author/s.(comma) Initial(s). and the prevalence of symptoms of asthma. Geriatrics. double-blinded clinical trial. Journal article . (followed by a full stop) 3. Infections. D. of publication in parentheses. J. Huntington. J..one author Neugroschl. 813-818. A. Journal article .. Journal article . medication use. & Rodgers. 14 ... Issue/part number. N. in italics (followed by a comma) NB: Journal Title must be in full 5.. Cheng. I. Volume number in italics (followed by a comma if no issue number is given) 6.. E. and eczema in childhood. 852-857. Efficacy of rofecoxib for pain control after knee arthroscopy: A prospective. 33-37. 58.(full stop) 2. Title. (2004). Arthroscopy. F.

Cutting back on obesity. OR if the supplement has a number. Add (in press) after the author/s name. Volume number in italics (followed by a comma if no issue number is given) 6. & Kenward. Stjernholm. Title. S. Magazine title must be in full 5. S. Alonso. Author/s. 2-15. Page Number/s.(full stop) 2. 438. Roose. (2000). Validation of surrogate markers in multiple randomized clinical trials with repeated measurements. or page numbers until the article is published. Magazine title. Aspects of temporal bone anatomy and pathology in conjunction with cochlear implant surgery. G. Acta Radiologica . 430).Supplementum. Considerations for the use of antidepressants in patients with cardiovascular disease. D. (followed by a full stop) 4.(comma) Initial(s). S84-S88. (followed by a full stop) 3. in italics (followed by a comma) NB. the journal issue number is included in parentheses before Suppl. M. in parentheses only needed if issues are individually paginated (followed by a comma) 7.Journal supplements If there is no supplement number. Molenberghs. vol. March). B. New Zealand Woman's Weekly. 44(Suppl. Citation of a work discussed in a secondary source See page 7 of this guide for details.). of article – Surname. For more details see page 241 of the APA manual. (2003). 95-96. OR Fleming. Journal article in press A paper that has been submitted to a journal and accepted for publication but not yet published is considered in press. How to reference a Magazine Article The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. Consumer. American Heart Journal. 15 . of article. Biometrics. C. March 8). (in press)... the number is included in parentheses after Suppl. The food fight. Geys. of article (followed by a full stop) Allan. Do not give a year. 8-11. of publication in parentheses. G. Issue/part number. P. (2004. Year. 140(4 Suppl. H. (2004..

(comma) Initial(s). of publication in parentheses. M. A1.) 5. of author(s). (followed by a full stop) 3. 16 . New Zealand: Oxford University Press. of publication in parentheses. (followed by a full stop) Single author Durie. (in parentheses) if other than the first (followed by a full stop) (edition always abbreviated to ed. NB: If an article appears on discontinuous pages.) If there is no reporter the work goes under the Title of the article. p. (1999). (2003. Philadelphia: Lippincott. Year. Autoimmunity: Methods and protocols. (followed by a full stop) 3. P. Title. Month Day.(comma) Initial(s). Totowa. of article (followed by a full stop) Brooker. (Ed.). Mauri ora: The dynamics of Maori health. Year. Auckland. Place of publication: (followed by a colon) 6. Publisher. of publication in italics. Nursing research: Principles and methods (6th ed.(full stop) 2. editor(s) – Surname. NJ: Humana Press. (2001). of article.How to reference a Newspaper Article The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1.. How to reference a Book The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. B3. Edition. Meningitis scare swamps hospital. (followed by a full stop) 4. July 14). Two authors Polit-O'Hara.g. (followed by a full stop) 4. give all page numbers and separate the numbers with a comma (e. A. in italics (followed by a comma) 5. of article – Surname. Reporter/s. & Hungler. B1. Section Page Number/s. B. Name/s.(full stop) 2. NB: For books that have 3 to 5 authors see in-text citation information on page 6. D. M. Single editor Perl. Title. pp. The Press. B5-B7.). Newspaper title. (2004).

Author/Publisher are Identical When the author and the publisher are the same. 17 . No author/editor Australian medicines handbook: AMH. (2003). How to reference a Brochure/Pamphlet Format references to brochures/pamphlets in the same way as those to entire books (see page 15). New Zealand: Author. New Zealand: Author. Adelaide. New Zealand: Department of Labour. Wellington. follow the rule for journals (see example on Page 12) and abbreviate remaining authors as et al. (1996). Wellington. identify the publication as a brochure. Approved code of practice for the management of noise in the workplace. (2004). Guideline for specialist health services for older people. Diabetes New Zealand. Corporate Author New Zealand Occupational Safety & Health Service. New Zealand Ministry of Health. For intext citation information see page 6. In brackets. South Australia: Australian Medicines Handbook. use the word Author as the name of the publisher. (2004). Occupational Safety & Health Service. (not italicized and with a full stop after “al”). Wellington. Cardiovascular risk and diabetes [Brochure].For books that have six or more authors.

Anderson (Ed.(full stop) 2. Title. In D. Chapter title. 757-775). E. MO: Mosby. (2007). In Palliative care (pp. Citation of a work discussed in a secondary source See page 7 for details. Louis. C. Place of publication: (followed by a colon) 8. Roberts (Eds. New York: Blackwell. pp. of chapter in parentheses (followed by a full stop) NB: If there is an edition. Cook. volume number or report number this information precedes the page numbers within the parentheses and is followed by a comma. St. In C. 7. S. (followed by a full stop) 3. (followed by a full stop). (followed by a full stop) 4... G. Page Numbers. M. Aarons. & Abrantes.). include the word In before the book title 6. (2001). A. include the word In before the book title. S. Entry in an online Encyclopaedia/Dictionary See page ?? for details. & allied health dictionary (p. Adolescent alcohol and drug abuse.). Chapter in an unedited book For a chapter in a book where the author has written the whole book. A. nursing. M. 826). (followed by a full stop) Chapter in an edited book Brown. 23-45). Mosby's medical. Entry in Encyclopaedia/Dictionary Follow the format for book chapters (see above). (2002). of author(s) of chapter – Surname.(comma) Initial(s). A. place the entry title in the author position Hordeolum. 5. Year. 18 . Name/s. Publisher. Note if an entry has no author. Walker & M. Palliative care of the elderly.How to reference a Book Chapter The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. of book in italics. New York: Wiley. of publication in parentheses.. Handbook of clinical child psychology (3rd ed. Editor/s of book preceded by “In”. NB: For a chapter in a book that is not edited.

(followed by a full stop) Eagle. Department of Commerce. Conference Proceedings that are published in any form (e. World Health Organisation mandate for women and heart diseases. NB: If there is no report number treat the item as a book and reference as such (see pg 14). Rep. of publication in parentheses. the following fields need to be filled in . The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1.(full stop) 2. New Zealand: Massey University at Albany. as a chapter in an edited book. Name/s.(comma) Initial(s). of author(s). City. controversial cures: Implications for marketing communication (Tech. of publication in italics. J. Publisher.Author. Name/s. If using EndNote and you have selected Reference type .g. (followed by a full stop) For an unpublished paper Bonita. Year. Report No. in a journal. R. 19 . Year. (followed by a comma) and Month. Title. (2003).. (followed by a comma) Insert the following text before Name of Conference – Paper presented at the 5.(full stop) 2. Paper presented at the International Conference on Women. editor(s) – Surname. Type.). Auckland.Report.How to reference Technical Reports The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. L. (in parentheses. The 'obesity epidemic': Complex causes. Canada. Name of Conference. Place of publication: (followed by a colon) 6. Victoria. Institution (for publishers name). editor(s) – Surname.(comma) Initial(s). Report No. & Hawkins. of publication in parentheses. Place of conference. May 8-10).. (followed by a full stop) 4. S. of publication in italics. (followed by a full stop) 3. Year. of author(s). (followed by a full stop) 4. Heart Diseases and Stroke.03. followed by a full stop) (edition always abbreviated to ed. No. Title.. Bulmer. (followed by a full stop) 3.) 5. Title. (2000. How to reference a Conference Proceeding NB: Treat regularly published Conference Proceedings as journals (see pg 12). 03. or as contribution to a symposium) should be treated in the same way as a chapter in a book (see pg 16).

(followed by a full stop) 3. 20 . (2001). Year. See page 8 for in-text citation details.Doctoral Dissertations and Master’s Theses How to reference a Thesis NB: The American equivalent of a master’s thesis is a doctoral dissertation The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. S. (followed by a comma) Country. of publication in parentheses. OR Spernak.(comma) Initial(s). S.Unpublished doctoral dissertation 5. You will need to type the following text into the Thesis Type field . (followed by a full stop) Unpublished Thesis Grayson. of author(s). Name of University. Washington. New Zealand. Name/s. Nursing management of the rheumatic fever secondary prophylaxis programme. J. City.(full stop) 2. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. editor(s) – Surname.either master’s thesis or doctoral dissertation. (followed by a comma) Insert the following text before Name of University – Unpublished master’s thesis OR if from an American University . How to reference a Personal Communication Personal communications are not included in the reference list. M. of publication in italics. Auckland. George Washington University. (followed by a full stop) 4. Unpublished master's thesis. (followed by a comma) State. University of Auckland. Title. The impact of constructive thinking and doctor-patient relations on cardiac patient adherence. (2001). NB: If you are using EndNote select the Reference type – Thesis. DC.

(Producer). (followed by a full stop) 4. Insert the following text after the title – Unpublished lecture notes. (followed by a full stop) 4. (followed by a comma) 5. (comma) Initial(s). Primary health care patterns in New Zealand. (comma) Initial(s). Park Ridge. NB. Country of origin: (followed by a colon) 8. of lecture. Name of University. followed by a comma and then an ampersand & 2. Title. Director/s. (followed by a full stop) Video or motion picture with international or national availability Roston. I. Use square brackets – (followed by a full stop) 7. Year. provide the distributors name and complete address in parentheses at the end of the reference. Studio or distributor. New Zealand. J. How to reference Video Recording. (followed by a comma) 6. (2007. Name. of publication in parentheses. (followed by a comma) Country. Unpublished lecture notes. (full stop) 2. Title. City. February 27). (Year). (Director). (followed by a full stop) 3. (1987). Month Day. of lecturer(s). NB: If the lecture does not have a title. of video in italics Insert the following text after Title of video [Motion picture]. (followed by a full stop) Sheridan.How to reference Lecture Notes The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. provide a brief description of the lecture material within square brackets (not in italics). Motion Pictures and Television Series The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. & Haberman. Producer/s. of video – Surname. Auckland. (comma) Initial(s). University of Auckland. 21 . of video – Surname. (full stop) Insert the following text after directors name – (Director). Physical examination of the musculoskeletal system: Program 2: Foot and ankle [Motion picture]. (full stop) Insert the following text after producers name – (Producer). Ill: The Academy. (followed by a full stop) 3. of publication in parentheses. NB: If video recording or movie is not available for wide distribution. N.Surname. .

Private Bag 92019. Television series Bennett. Bennett (Producer). Motion picture (movie/film) with international or national availability Shadyac. OR Crichton. CA: Warner Bros. (Director). Burbank. Episode 16. Williams (Producers). Single episode from a television series Booton.101 [Television series episode]. Auckland. H. In S. Television. & Innes. 22 . Universal City. (Producer). NB: If video recording or movie is not available for wide distribution. (Producer). (1993). (2006). September 1). (1998). Wells (Producers). M. New Zealand: South Pacific Pictures. New Zealand: South Pacific Pictures. (Director). & Maser. (Available from University of Auckland. Shortland Street. Television broadcast Māori Television (Producer). Tell me no secrets [Television series episode]. Shortland Street [Television series]. ER. (2007). (Director). CA: Universal Pictures. & M. Auckland. S. New Zealand). Patch Adams [Motion picture]. K. (Writers). S. (1992). T. Breast examination [Motion picture]. L. In M. provide the distributors name and complete address in parentheses at the end of the reference. T. Te kāea: News [Television broadcast]. L. G. (2006. New Zealand: Māori Television.Video or motion picture or with limited availability Roberts. Crichton & J. & Shadyac. & Bennett. (Writer).

no date) Te Kaunihera O Nga Neehi Maori O Aotearoa [National Council of Maori Nurses]. Title. (followed by a comma) Insert the following text before Month .d. Year.In 5. Author/s.Retrieved 6. of section of web page. Title. URL (web address) Insert the following text before URL – from (dependent on type of webpage) 23 .html How to reference part/section of a Web Page The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. Date Retrieved Month Day. (followed by a full stop) 4. Retrieved November 25. 2006. (followed by a comma) Insert the following text before Month . (n. (followed by a comma) Year. Of web page in italics. URL (web address) Insert the following text before URL – from (dependent on type of webpage) Stand alone Webpage (no author. (followed by a full stop) 3. Provide addresses (URL) that actually work How to reference a Web Page The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. Title. (followed by a full stop) Insert the following text before Title .(comma) Initial(s). of web page in italics. (followed by a full stop) 3. Date Retrieved Month Day.).nz/hauora_maori/ncmn/in dex. Author/s. Direct readers as closely as possible to the information being cited – whenever possible reference specific documents rather than home or menu pages 2. Year. of publication in parentheses. (followed by a comma) Year.(full stop) 2. from http://www. Two key guidelines to follow when referencing electronic media are: 1.co. of publication in parentheses.(full stop) 2.(comma) Initial(s).Electronic Media NB: There are new rules just released which have not been implemented into this section please check the APA style guide to electronic references by doing a title search in Voyager There is a variety of material available on the web and this can present challenges when referencing these sources. of section of web page – Surname. (followed by a full stop) 4.healthsite. of web page – Surname.Retrieved 5.

(followed by a comma) Insert the following text before Month – Retrieved 5. B.(comma) Initial(s). of publication in parentheses.net. September) Cytotoxic therapy administration. Building families.Month Day.html How to reference an Electronic Publication of Limited Circulation (Intranet not Internet) Note: The Electronic Publication of Limited Circulation example below has been provided by Philson Library Staff. Year. from http://www. Author/s. (followed by a full stop) 4. in italics (followed by a comma if no issue number is given) 24 . in italics (followed by a comma) NB. Journal title. as APA 5th ed.(full stop) 2. of publication in parentheses. 2004. following APA principles. does not provide any exact examples for this type of publication.nzhistory. Volume number. (followed by a full stop) 3. In We call it home: A history of state housing in New Zealand. Retrieved May 1. Title. (followed by a comma) Year. Polices and Procedures Web site: http://adhbintranet/ADHB%5FPolicies%5Fand%5FProcedures/Clin ical/ADHB_Board/cytotoxic_therapy_administration. Title. Year.(comma) Initial(s). Date Retrieved . Author/s.). Also. (Location of Publication) In parentheses insert Available from the (host organisation and the relevant programme or department). of electronic publication – Surname. (n. (followed by a full stop) 4.d.nz/Gallery/housing/ family. of article. (2002.(full stop) 2. of article – Surname. Journal Title must be in full 5. Retrieved June 24. the MS Word formatting adds a carriage return before the URL whereas APA have a simple space. 2007 (Available from the Auckland District Health Board. URL (web address) Insert the following text before URL – Web site: (dependent on type of webpage) Auckland District Health Board.followed by the web address (url) 6. The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. (followed by a full stop) 3.htm) How to reference an Electronic Journal article The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1.Part/section of a webpage Schrader. of publication in italics.

(followed by a full stop). (followed by a full stop) Insert the following text before Month – Updated. (followed by a comma) Insert the following text before Month . following APA principles. M. Type.. from http://www.In Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. (2004. – Month Day. of article. Updated Date. Insert following text . of article – Surname.Month Day. of article in square brackets. (followed by a comma)..htm NB: For an Internet article based on a print source see APA Manual pg 271 How to reference a Cochrane Review Note: The Cochrane examples below have been provided by Philson Library Staff. Foster. Database name. NB: Insert following text – from Ovid Evidence Based Medicine Reviews: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.. in italics (followed by a comma) NB. 3. Software Provider. OR from The Cochrane Library. Stephens. 25 . NB: Use ‘Date of Most Recent Update’ from the review. in parentheses only needed if issues are individually paginated (followed by a comma) 7.Retrieved 9. Issue/volume. Page Numbers of article (followed by a full stop) NB: If no page numbers given disregard 8. Issue/part number. 10(12).. K. J. 2004.(full stop) 2. 8. 6. Date Retrieved . does not provide any exact examples for Cochrane Databases. as APA 5th ed. of review in parentheses. Insert the following text before Month – Retrieved 9. R. Year of database (followed by a space) 7. 4.cdc. Retrieved November 25. Date Retrieved Month Day.. (comma) Year. Alligators as West Nile virus amplifiers. URL (web address) Insert the following text before URL – from Electronic journal – Internet Only Klenk. Snow.6. December). (followed by a full stop) NB: Insert the following text [Cochrane Review] or [Cochrane Protocol]. (followed by a comma) Year. (followed by a comma) Year. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 5. The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. K. in parentheses (followed by a full stop). Author/s.. Title.gov/ncidod/EID/vol10no12/04-0264. Morgan. Wiley Interscience.(comma) Initial(s). Bowen. F. et al.

Books@Ovid. Telephone consultation and triage: effects on health care use and patient satisfaction.. Year. from University of Auckland Library Catalogue. 5. netLibrary The following details are needed (if available) in this order: 1. How to reference an electronic book retrieved from a database e. & Cummings. W.auckland. C. M. 2004 (4)..(full stop) 2.(comma) Initial(s). Oxford. Edition. (Updated February 25. (2000). J. Retrieved February 5. Oxford Textbook of Surgery (2nd ed. Software Provider. The Cochrane Library. Wiley Interscience Bunn. Reilly. Retrieved February 11. 2004. (2006).wiley. Wiley Interscience: http://www3. Place of publication: (followed by a colon) 6.). Publisher.Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Ovid version) Sultana. (followed by a full stop) – NB: Insert the following text – from Books@Ovid database OR from netLibrary database OR from Ebrary database.. 2005. of publication in italics. England: John Wiley & Sons. (followed by a comma) Year. [Cochrane Review]. & Wood. 2003). editor(s) – Surname. Electronic book retrieved from a database Morris. K. – Month Day. M. Retrieved September 1. from The Cochrane Library.). from Books@Ovid database. Thioridazine for schizophrenia. of publication in parentheses. Wiley Interscience. (followed by a full stop) 7. F. Electronic book retrieved from a library catalogue Shaw. & Kendall.nz/cgi-bin/bookhome/112510904?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0 26 .ac. (followed by a full stop) 4. England: Oxford University Press. (Eds. (Updated March 22. (followed by a comma) Insert the following text before month – Retrieved 8. Title. from Ovid Evidence Based Medicine Reviews: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2005 (1). 2007. G. & Fenton. Chichester.. In Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Retrieved March 1. In Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. S. A. 2004). P. J. Byrne. [Cochrane Review].. of author(s).).com ezproxy. M. Date Retrieved. Ebrary. (in parentheses) if other than the first edition (followed by a full stop) NB: edition always abbreviated to ed. Name/s. Diabetes: Chronic complications (2nd ed.. H. (followed by a full stop) 3. 2005.interscience.g.

NB: The § number is only required when you are not referencing the whole act. Brit. For states within Australia and the U. (followed by a full stop) Whole Act Misuse of Drugs Act. N. Title of the Act. United States of America – U. 1975). (full stop) (followed by a space) NB: Abbreviate source. c. 5. (1975)..S.Z. United Kingdom – U. N. Other Country Codes: Australia – Austl. OR ……. Source. § number (followed by a space) NB: You will need to copy and paste the section number symbol from the Character Map (this is located under your Accessories Menu).Z. Great Britain – Gr. 43 Stat.K. normally includes the country where the Act originates from 4. 27 . England – Eng. § 267 (1961).Legal Material How to reference an Act The following are some general guidelines for referencing acts both in the text of your document and in your reference list. of publication in parentheses. Reference Basic Details required are: 1.K. OR Section of an Act Crimes Act. particular class of specified drug offence (Misuse of Drugs Act. The details needed to reference an Act will vary according to the country from where the Act originates. Note: According to the APA manual p.(followed by a comma) 2. Year.S. consult your subject librarian for the abbreviated code. In text According to the Misuse of Drugs Act of 1975 it was….42 U. Consult with your subject librarian. 403 you do not need to italicize the name of the Act in either the reference list or in text. (1998). OR Human Rights Act. Volume (followed by a space) NB: Number assigned to the Act 3. 116 Stat.

H. Molenberghs. Diabetes Primary Care.. Hughes. A. C. MacDonald. Aspects of temporal bone anatomy and pathology in conjunction with cochlear implant surgery... Geys. S. Considerations for the use of antidepressants in patients with cardiovascular disease. D. (2004). et al. C. (1999). OR Stjernholm. 430). (in press). Journal article in press Alonso. E.. American Heart Journal. J. 813818. 33-37. More than Six Authors Cohet.. Geriatrics. 140(4 Suppl. knee arthroscopy: A prospective. Cheng. 57(4).. S. p. (2002). Baker. double-blinded clinical trial. S. & Cannavo. p. 14 EXAMPLE FOR MORE DETAILS SEE . Agitation: How to manage behaviour disturbances in the older patient with p. D.. 20. Foliaki. Acta Radiologica . (2004). S. 1(1). Infections.. Biometrics. 14 dementia. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 4. (2003)... M. rhinitis.. and eczema in childhood.. Validation of surrogate markers in p. J. Arthroscopy. Rosen. randomized. (2000). 14 medication use. & Rodgers. N. G. Huntington. M. Efficacy of rofecoxib for pain control after p. 58..). S84-S88. 44(Suppl. 2-15. 15 p. C. Changing times in diabetes care. G. Liporace. I.Quick Guide to APA Referencing TYPE Journal Articles One Author Two Authors Three – Six Authors Neugroschl. 14 Ilan. F. 852-857 Journal supplements Roose. J. and the prevalence of symptoms of asthma. P.Supplementum. 15 multiple randomized clinical trials with repeated measurements. & Kenward.

Approved code of practice for the p. Brooker. Australian medicines handbook: AMH. 17 Wellington. Nursing research: Principles and methods (6th ed. Mauri ora: The dynamics of Maori health. A1. Perl. (2001). (2004. (Ed. 438. 16 Author/Publisher are Identical No author/editor New Zealand Ministry of Health. M. p. March 8). 17 Handbook. The food fight. 16 Press. New Zealand: Author. South Australia: Australian Medicines p. (2003. Adelaide. New Zealand Woman's Weekly. Guideline for specialist health services for older people. 95-96. 16 Polit-O'Hara. Philadelphia: Lippincott. Cutting back on obesity. Diabetes New Zealand. 15 Newspaper Article Books Single author Single editor Two authors Corporate Author p. New Zealand: Oxford University p. (2004).Magazine Article Allan. (2004). D. (2003). Autoimmunity: Methods and protocols. New Zealand: Department of Labour. Auckland. p. B. 17 Author. D. B. (1996). Wellington. p. (1999). Consumer. Brochure . July 14). Totowa. (2004. Occupational Safety & Health Service.). 16 Durie. NJ: Humana Press. p. M. (2004). OR Fleming. P. p. New Zealand Occupational Safety & Health Service. March).. 8-11. The Press. A. 17 management of noise in the workplace. & Hungler. Wellington. Cardiovascular risk and diabetes [Brochure]. New Zealand: p.). Meningitis scare swamps hospital.

In C.. p. A. 826). S. Aarons. 187 p. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. (2003). Unpublished master's thesis. 20 Conference Proceeding Thesis Personal Communication . Handbook of clinical child psychology (3rd ed. & Abrantes. M. J. p. 19 presented at the International Conference on Women. University of Auckland. Adolescent alcohol and drug abuse. 18 Brown. Mosby's medical. (2001). (2000. 23-45). 8 p. 18 Entry in Encyclopaedia/Dictionary Citation of a work discussed in a secondary source Technical Reports Hordeolum. S. Bulmer. Victoria. (2007). (2001).. New Zealand: Massey University at Albany. Washington. (2001). M. No. New York: Wiley. p. C. World Health Organisation mandate for women and heart diseases. Paper p. George Washington University. S. S.Book Chapter Chapter in an edited book Walker & M..). 7 Eagle. A. & allied health dictionary (p. G. Auckland. pp. Roberts (Eds. (2002). Louis.03. Grayson. nursing.. Anderson (Ed. The impact of constructive thinking and doctor-patient relations on cardiac patient adherence. New York: Blackwell. 03. R. Canada. Auckland. Palliative care of the elderly. Department of Commerce. A. St.). The 'obesity epidemic': Complex causes. Nursing management of the rheumatic fever secondary prophylaxis programme.). & Hawkins. May 8-10). Heart Diseases and Stroke. S. Chapter in an unedited book Cook. OR Spernak. Bonita. In D. Rep. 19 Implications for marketing communication (Tech. MO: Mosby. p. New Zealand. DC. E.. 757-775). In Palliative care (pp. J. controversial cures: p. M. L. 18 p.

New Zealand. J. Primary health care patterns in New Zealand. H. Booton. Tell me no secrets [Television series episode]. Breast examination [Motion picture]. K. ER. New Zealand: Māori Television. (Director). February 27). Universal City. T. 22 p. Te kāea: News [Television broadcast]. (Producer). (Writers). (1987). 22 p. (2007). Auckland. University of Auckland. p. New Zealand: South Pacific Pictures. Shadyac. Unpublished lecture notes. 22 p. S. Television. 21 p. Motion Pictures and Television Video or motion picture with international or national availability Video or motion picture with limited availability Motion picture (movie/film) with international or nation availability Television broadcast Television series Single episode from a television series Sheridan. (Producer). (Director).101 [Television series episode]. N. Auckland. G. Patch Adams [Motion picture]. In M. 21 pp. & Shadyac. (Director). Bennett (Producer). New Zealand). 21-22 Roston. & Haberman. CA: Universal Pictures. (1993). (2007. Shortland Street [Television series]. L. M. I. & Bennett. & M. Physical examination of the musculoskeletal system: Program 2: Foot and ankle [Motion picture]. p. Ill: The Academy. Bennett. T. Roberts. CA: Warner Bros. (1992). 22 . OR Crichton. Episode 16. S. Williams (Producers). (2006). September 1). Burbank. & Innes. New Zealand: South Pacific Pictures. Wells (Producers). L. (Writer). & Maser. In S. Crichton & J. 22 p. Auckland. (Producer).Lecture Notes Video Recording. Private Bag 92019. (Available from University of Auckland. (Director). (2006. Shortland Street. Māori Television (Producer). Park Ridge. (1998).

Retrieved May 1.nzhistory. from http://www. (n. J. K. 2004)... 25-26 p.nz/Gallery/housing/family. The Cochrane Library. 23-26 pp. [Cochrane Review]. Retrieved June 24.net. Reilly. Bowen. In Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. (Updated February 25. et al. Stephens. Alligators as West Nile virus amplifiers.co. December).). September) Cytotoxic therapy administration.. R. 2004. 26 . Retrieved November 25. 23 pp. from The Cochrane Library. Retrieved November 25.cdc. K. M. 2004. 10(12). Polices and Procedures Web site: http://adhbintranet/ADHB%5FPolicies%5Fand%5FProcedures/Clinical/ADHB_Board/cytotoxic_th erapy_administration. B. G.nz/hauora_maori/ncmn/index.html Auckland District Health Board.Electronic Media Webpages Stand alone Webpage (no author. J. from http://www. 2006. & Kendall. (2004. Telephone consultation and triage: effects on health care use and patient satisfaction. In Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 23-24 p.htm) Klenk. & Fenton. 2007 (Available from the Auckland District Health Board.gov/ncidod/EID/vol10no12/04-0264. Building families. 2005..d. S.. no date) Part/section of a webpage Te Kaunihera O Nga Neehi Maori O Aotearoa [National Council of Maori Nurses]... (2002. 24-25 Cochrane Review Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Ovid version) Sultana.. 2003). F. F. from http://www. M. Retrieved February 11. Snow. Thioridazine for schizophrenia. [Cochrane Review].htm pp. pp.d. Wiley Interscience Bunn.healthsite. 2005 (1). 26 p.. Morgan. 2004 (4).html Schrader. 23-24 p. (Updated March 22. Retrieved February 5.. 2005. In We call it home: A history of state housing in New Zealand. A. Wiley Interscience.). 24 Electronic Publication of Limited Circulation (Intranet not Internet) Electronic journal – Internet Only p. Byrne. Foster. (n. from Ovid Evidence Based Medicine Reviews: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Oxford Textbook of Surgery (2nd ed. W. Chichester. England: Oxford University Press. M.. J. 2007. 27 p.interscience. 26 p.ac. 116 Stat. § 267 (1961). K.Electronic Books Electronic Book retrieved from a database Electronic book retrieved from a library catalogue Morris. C. Oxford. Diabetes: Chronic complications (2nd ed.K. 26 p.com ezproxy. (2006). M. c. Retrieved March 1.). 27 . H. England: John Wiley & Sons.Z. 43 Stat. 26 Legal Material Act in text Whole Act Misuse of Drugs Act. 27 p. from Books@Ovid database. p.nz/cgibin/bookhome/112510904?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0 p. Retrieved September 1. Wiley Interscience: http://www3. from University of Auckland Library Catalogue.). OR Human Rights Act. 2004. Shaw. N. P.wiley.).auckland. & Cummings. & Wood. (1998).. 27 p. N. Section of an Act Crimes Act. (Eds. (1975).42 U. (2000).Z.

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