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Ardee Jhel Joy S. Enriquez Sheela Mae V.

Salingay BSE-ENG LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE ASSESSMENT MODULE VI- QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS Categories and Approaches: 1. Reflection - Aim at getting an insight into the thinking processes and opinion of the test taker 2. Verbal Reports - Offer an insight into the thought process of the informants. - A number of variables can be distinguished: o Talk aloud- informants voice their thoughts o Think aloud- voice their thoughts as well as other information such as physical movements o Concurrent- The verbal report is given in real time o Retrospective- the given report is given afterwards o Mediated- researcher occassionaly intervenes o Non-mediated- the researcher does not intervene some pointers when using verbal reports in test analysis 3. Diary Studies - Informants keep a diary which allows researchers to get an insight into their thoughts

TECHNIQUES IN MONITORING STUDENT PROGRESS 1. Make a video and audio recordings of a variety of formal and informal Language informants 2. Use Checklist as concisemethods of collecting information and rating scales 3. Record anecdotal comments to provide useful data 4. Interview students to determine what they believe they do well or in areas they need improvement 5. Have students keep portfolios of their dated writing sample and language abilities , checklist and records 6. Keep anecdotal records of students reading and writing activities 7. Have students write in reader response journals 8. Confer with students during the writing and reading processes

Self-assessment Promotes students abilities to assume more responsibility to identify where they have been successful and where they believe they require assistance.

Peer assessment Allows students to collaborate and learn from others.

TYPES OF QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS 1. Conversation Analysis (CA) The assumption is that every interaction is contextual and has a stable and predictable nature. a. From a transcript, the power relations can be researched by analyzing The structure of adjacency pairs Turn-taking b. Some possible pitfalls to look out for with CA Data quality Loss of data Time Limited generalizability 2. Discourse analysis (DA) Da is the analysis of text and talk as social practices and is mainly concerned with power relations gender inequalities etc. The effect of examiner The effect test taker The effect of task type Comparing task taker language ability 3. Test language analysis An analysis of test input or test taker responses for lexical richness, rhetoric, genre, discourse markers, grammatical complexity, etc. When using this type of sample analysis, pay attention to: Time Data

4. Task characteristics This type of validation research helps to examine the test tasks and to determine to which extent they correspond to the test goal. Bachman & Palmer (1996) suggest a framework of analysis which considers the ff: The setting Rubric Test input Expected response Relationship between expected and actual response When analyzing test for its task characteristics, consider the following: The framework should be adjusted to each different test. The judges have to be competent and experienced.

FEEDBACK METHODS 1. Questionnaires Questionnaires gather data such as opinions and views that can also be gathered through interviews. Two kinds of questionnaires: Closed Open Before administering the actual questionnaire, it is useful to run it through the ff. process: Consider all possible issues Write a draft Eliminate questions that do not address the questionnaire purpose Group the questions thematically Format the questionnaire and administer it to a small group of target respondents for feedback. Rewrite the questionnaire

Avoid: Double-barreled questions Unclear instructions Questions that do not apply to the respondents

Questions that rely on memory Hypothetical questions Biased options

Checklists are a way of determining whether all procedures have gone through, whether all necessary features are present, etc. 2. Interviews - They are a flexible of gathering data. There are various kinds of interview depending on the structure and the number of informants interviewed at the same time: 1. Unstructured 2. Semi structured 3. Structured 4. One on one 5. Group REFERENCING Think about the following before the interview: a. Interviewers should get the chance to practice their interview skills prior to the data collection b. Ideally, the pilot settings resemble the actual conditions as accurately as possible. c. During the interview, its useful to take note of the interview situation d. The success of an interview largely depends on the interviewer responded interaction e. Interviews are time consuming Various kinds of referencing: Norm-referencing Criterion-referencing The mastery criterion-referencing approach The continuum criterion-referencing approach