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MEN ARE NEIGHBOURS
THE LOST PHAROAHS
LIFE UNDER THE PHAROAHS
ONE MAN'S JOURNEY
THE MOUNTAINS OF PHAROAH THE ANVIL OF CIVILISATION
THE BULL OF MINOS
BULL OF MINOS
by Leonard Cottrell
M.A., L1TT.D., F.B.A., F.S.A.J Professor of Classics and Archaeology,
I University of Alexandria,
Rinehart ir Company, Inc.
First Published in the
United States in 2958
Copyright, 1953, by Evans Brothers Limited 1958 by Evans Brothers Limited Printed in the United States of America All rights reserved Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 58-11633
is expressed to the following agents, authors and for permission to reprint copyrighted material from their publipublishers cations:
ANTIQUITY, London, England,
for brief extracts
from "Greek Records in
by Michael Ventris and Alan Wace, which the December 1953 issue of Antiquity.
PRESS, Oxford, England, for a brief quotation from THE CREEK EPIC, by Professor G. Murray.
M, DENT & SONS LTD., London, England, for brief Quotations from HISTORY OF GREECE, by George Grote (published in the Everyman's Library in the U. S. A. by E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc.).
PRESS, Cambridge, Massachusetts,
from APOLLODORUS, by
G. Frazer, published in the Loeb
D. HOGARTH, London, England, for a brief extract from an article by D. G. Hogarth, which appeared in the Monthly Review, Jan.-March 1901, FRANZ HORCH ASSOCIATES, New York, N. Y., MRS. EMIL LUDWIG,
and LITTLE, BROWN & COMPANY, Boston, Massachusetts, extracts from SCHLIEMANN OF TROY, by Emil Ludwig.
THE LONDON ELECTROTYPE AGENCY
the September 27, 1952 issue of
LTD., London, England,
short quotation from the article, "Overlords of Mycenae Before the Days of Agamemnon," by Dr. J. Papadimitriou, which was first published in
LONGMANS, GREEN &
CO., INC., New York, N. from TIME AND CHANCE, by Joan Evans.
Y., for brief extracts
CO., LTD., London, England, and ST.
York, N. Y., for illustrations and short quotations from
PALACE OF MINOS, bv Sir Arthur Evan^ and OF GREECE, by J. JB. uury.
THE NEW YORK TIMES, New
CO., LTD., London, England, ARCHAEOLOGY OF CRETE, by John Pendlebury.
an extract from THE
York, N. Y., for a brief quotation from an of London on August 10, 1900.
Rieu's translation of
LTD., Middlesex, England, Homer.
from E. V.
SOCIETY FOR THE PROMOTION OF HELLENIC STUDIES, London,
Michael Ventris and Mycenaean Archives/' by John Chadwick, as first published in the Journal of Hellenic Studies, and quotations from the Obituary Notice on Sir Arthur Evans published by the
To my friend Pola Brandeis .
to the Clarendon Press and to Messrs. gratitude is. my gratitude for the help given by who kindly read my manuscript. do not affect the historiimpossible properly to apthe significance of the new developments until one has preciate studied the conclusions reached by Schliemann and Evans. tion with mann and my Sir radio documentary programs on Heinrich Schlie- Arthur Evans. chief debt of of Minos. though they have opened up new and exciting vistas. While it was in the press. but not least. in fact whose works form the principal basis of this book. who made it possible for me to visit Greece and Crete in connec- unique illustrations of Minoan culture in which it is so rich. It remains for me to express my gratitude to the authors it is I have taken the opportunity of bringing the book up to date the addition of two Appendices. there were several remarkable developments in Aegean archaeology which it was not possible to include in the former edition except in the form of a brief Appendix. The new discoveries. At the same time the body of the book re- cal part of the narrative. and making sundry revisions by in the rest of the text. and last.PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION THIS book was planned in 1951. I would also like to express the late Professor Alan Wace. to Sir Arthur's literary executors. therefore. ix . Any author attempting to write a book on the rise of the Minoan civilization must inevitably draw deeply from Sir Arthur Evans's great work. These were the discovery at Mycenae of an entirely "new" Grave Circle containing rich treas- other noteworthy finds by the late Probeyond the walls of the Citadel. for allowing me not The Palace My only to quote from the book. ures of fessor Wace Mycenaean art. the partial decipherment of the Minoan/Mycenaean "Linear B" script by Michael Ventris. based as it was on a visit I made to Greece and Crete in the Spring of 1951. written in 1952 and 1953 and published at the end of that year. in the area mains much the same. but also to reproduce some of the I am also grateful to the British Broadcasting Corporation. Macmillan.
and published towards the end of the Second World War. Dr. and to the Edith Clay." Special thanks are also due to the staff of the British School at Athens. With two exceptions. all the quotations from the Iliad and . Next to The Palace of Minos. who had dug with Pendlebury on the site of Akhnaten's city of Tell-el-Amarna. it became my ambition to visit Knossos. When I realized that ambition and studied the Palace of Minos with Pendlebury's Guide in my hand. Joan Evans. Had he lived. with fascinating autobiographical details and the works of Schuchhardt. its from Schliemann's own works especially Ilios. Michael Ventris. The late Sir John Myres was kind enough to welcome me to his Oxford home. Fairman. and gave me a first-hand impression of his lifelong friend such as I could never obtain from the printed word alone. Dorpfeld.X PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION and for writing the Introduction. Professor of Egyptology at the University of Liverpool. had been one of the leaders of the Cretan Resistance and had died in the struggle. who helped London to arrange my visit to Knossos. I gained special pleasure and benefit from for his valuable suggestions Emil Ludwig's life of Schliemann. Since these lines were written. where Pendlebury was Curator for a number of years. I was first brought into contact with Pendlebury's work by H. it was with some sadness. for the young scholar. John Pendlebury's Archaeology of Crete remains the most complete and readable survey of the prehistoric civilization of Crete. who liked and respected him. Frank Stubbings. I am also particularly grateful for the professional guidance of Dr. W. and Karo. who loved the Cretan people. For the personal background to Sir Arthur Evans's life the most complete and authoritative source is Time and Chance. After visiting Tell-el-Amarna myself in 1947. Among the many literary sources listed in the Bibliography at the end of this book. in Egypt. University Lecturer in Classics at Staff of the School. written by his half sister. he might have become a worthy successor to Evans. Miss Cambridge. whose brilliant decipherment of the Minoan "Linear B" script has been truly described as "the Everest of Greek Archaeology. especially its able Secretary. I have sadly to record the death of another friend and helper.
self-denying work which de Jong and his wife carried out to efface the results of wartime neglect of the Palace and its estate was not the least of his achievements. with the Villa Ariadne. who had to cope with postwar difficulties which Sir Arthur was happily spared. was largely due to this modest Yorkshireman and his wife. Had Sir Arthur himself lived. as a disinterested outside observer. Finally. V. its sound condition. but the hard. May I. record the fact that when the Palace of Minos was finally handed over to Greece. E. de Jong was the last British Curator of Knossos before it was handed over. therefore. Piet. published in the Penguin series. to the Greek authorities in 1952. He had been appointed by Sir Arthur Evans as his architect in 1922. and that of the Villa Ariadne and its accompanying estate. Ket de Jong for their help and hospitality. Rieu.PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION Xi the Odyssey are from the translation by Mr. he would have been the first to congratulate his former architect. LEONARD COTTRELL . and Mrs. I wish to thank Mr.
describing some of the most recent finds at Mycenae. The Appendices.PREFACE TO THE AMERICAN EDITION ALTHOUGH France and I have made certain alterations and additions. thif made after the events of book LEONARD COTTRELL xii . and the late Michael Ventris's decipherment of the Minoan "Linear B" script. Germany. Italy during the past three years. the is present edition substantially that published in Britain. remain with but present position text. which they describe discoveries is a record. since They have been left in their and not incorporated in the main body of the little alteration.
INTRODUCTION by PROFESSOR ALAN WAGE ONE of the great discoveries of the last eighty-five years has been the discovery of the civilization of prehistoric Greece. His collaborators and his followers gradually began to fill in the details. that the creators of the great prehistoric culture of Greece which Schlie- to this by his conviction that a culture so brilliant as the aean could not have been dumb. from the echoes of his schooldays dreamt always of finding Troy and proving that there was a solid base of history behind Homer. as it is sometimes called. He was not able in his lifetime to see the full extent of the new world he had opened up. Schliemann. Everything before that date was legendary and mythical. Olympiad was not even at the opening of the Iron Age. Before 1870 the history of Greece began approximately with the First Olympiad in 776 B. to the dawn of First civilization. Mycenae and Tiryns revealed an almost limitless field for research. He had been led Mycenhe knew. He constantly said that he had discovered a new world for archaeology. ten years after Schliemann's death. the Aegean Civilization. Heinrich Schliemarm and Arthur Evans. This knowledge is the fruit of the work of many scholars of many nations. but it is in the main due to the inspired research of two men. unveiled another aspect of this new world. Evans.C. Then. the penniless errand boy who became a merchant prince. an aspect of unexpected splendor. Greek history has been traced by archaeology back to the very beginning of the Iron Age. . The story of their work reads like a romance.C. by his excavations at Knossos. back through the whole length of the Bronze Age and back into the Neolithic Age. and a romance it really is. but his excavations at Troy. in Crete. The Now classical fairyland. The age of Homer and Homer's heroes and their cities was also re- garded as belonging to a kind of archaeological research has carried back the history of Greece beyond the beginning of the third millennium* B. xiii He felt.
so this Middle Bronze Age people.. but in view of the excavations of the last thirty-five years on the Greek Mainland. who seem to have been the first Greeks to enter Hellas. Whence they came we do not the solution of the the dawn of know. with a great number of inscribed clay tablets. problem of the Coming of the Greeks and Greek and European civilization must be sought on the Mainland of Greece itself where. the main archaeological stratification is now clear. Not long after 2000 B.C. Just as the Early . -ssos. the end of the Middle Bronze Age soon after 1600 B. must have been able to write and to read. although probably by the incoming of fresh drafts of Greek tribes the proportion of Greek was steadily increased. This people apparently was not Indo-European and introduced into Greece many place and plant names which end in -nthos. a generation older than the rich royal graves found by Schliemann in 1876. -ene.. Bronze Age people seem to have coalesced with the Neolithic people. Mykene. the first Greeks. when a bronze-using people akin to early inhabitants of Crete and of the Cyclades entered Greece from its southeastern coasts. a new people entered Greece. which shines in the Homeric poems. and in recent years the Greek Mainland has again become the center of interest. Follow- mann had been ing the great work of Evans at Knossos others have excavated in Crete. This was succeeded by the Early Bronze Age. though many details await elucidation. In former days first Troy and then Crete were treated as our earliest sources for the history of Greece. Places with such names are Korinthos.C. the by population of Greece was already a mixed race. also coalesced with the previous inhabitants. The summer of 1952 saw the excavation of another circle of royal graves at Mycenae.XIV INTRODUCTION found. and there are yet other names like labyrinthos and asaminthos.C. but it is possible that they came by way of the Dardanelles. Parnassos. and plant names are terebinthos and kolokynthos. Between the Middle Bronze Age and the Late Bronze Age. must have literate. with renewed excavations at Tiryns and Mycenae and with the discovery of the House of Cadmus at Thebes and of the Palace of Nestor at Pylos. Thus. The history of Greece begins with a Neolithic Age which ended about 3000 B. and the discovery of inscribed tablets in a large private house. which confirms yet again the correctness of Evans's conviction.
) Mycenae and the Mainland succeeded to the leadership of the Aegean world. At the end change of the twelfth century there age of bronze to the age of iron. During the Middle Bronze Age there seems to have been little direct contact between the Mainland and Crete.C. and with the beginning of the Late Bronze Age the culture of the Mainland had adapted and adopted much of the Minoan culture. This is the time traditionally to have entered Greece. misleading to assume. began to develop. but there are equally many land origin. which was then in its culture noticeably different from the rest of Crete. The history and culture of Greece were in a state of continual evolution from the Neolithic Age onwards. towards the end of the Middle Bronze Age.. The culture of the Iron Age evolves naturally from that of the last phase of must not assume that with the coming the Bronze Age. the influence of Crete became stronger. With the beginning of the second phase of the Late Bronze Age ( Late Minoan II and Late Helladic II. but merely a steady evolution from one phase to another. The principal feature which marks the beginning of the Late Bronze Age is the influence which the Minoan civilization of Crete then exerted on the culture of the Mainland. the Hellenes. Gradually. Since we believe that there were Greeks in Greece from the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age onwards. and it is .C. there was no break. when was a transition from the marked by a gradual the Dorians are said of the Dorians We there was a racial or a cultural change in Greece. It is true that there is much that is of Cretan mean origin in the culture of the Mainland at this time. and there is a fairly broad period of transition from one to the other. as some scholars do. 1500-1400) the relations between Knossos. and the Mainland seem to have been close. elements in the culture of Knossos that are of Main- With the last phase of the Late Bronze Age ( 1400 to the latter part of the twelfth century B. From the opening of the Middle Bronze Age the Greek race. that the history and culture of Greece begin only with the Iron Age. and this is in the pottery. after the destruction of the Palace of Minos at Knossos about 1400 B.C.INTRODUCTION XV which began about 1580 B. This must not be taken to that Knossos colonized or exercised political domination over the Mainland. The exact relationship which then prevailed between Knossos and the Mainland remains for later investigation and definition.
One. wide learning and experience. Cottrell tells the story of the two men tremendous expansion of knowledge. Early in life he showed that he had a remarkable talent for exploratory travel. has been increased extent far an re- beyond our dreams. and its record should be exploration told in a corresponding manner. The results of it he was able to put before the world. This continuity of the development of Greece from the earliest times is one of the many things we have learned by following in the footsteps of Schliemann and Evans. In this book Mr. All this Mr. for in sponsible for this his much day archaeological excavation was in its infancy. development of the Greek race. For a time he was almost a lone prophet crying in the wilderness. the Early Bronze Age people and the successive waves of Greek-speaking peoples who began to enter Greece in the Middle Bronze Age. Thus the work he carried out at Knossos was the more remarkable. which ranged far and wide. to to at least and that our knowledge which our civilization owes so much. but he had had no training in excavation. through the work of two inspired explorers. Cottrell makes clear to the reader. had never enjoyed any real education. His archaeological instincts came to him partly by inheritance from his distinguished father and partly from his own exploring mind. Like many pioneers. two millennia have been added of the to the history of Greece. Evans had enjoyed the advantages of the usual English public-school and Oxford education of his day and had also been able to undertake advanced study at a German university. and he has cast it in the form of a romance. This form of learned is an adventure in itself. in such a form that all could understand the importance of his discoveries and appreciate their full implications. which it truly is. but was selfSchliemann. We see thus that. thanks to his education.XVi it INTRODUCTION was a mixed race composed of the Neolithic people. As an excavator he was a pioneer. taught and self-trained. Now the truth of his discoveries and their overwhelm- ing importance are universally recognized and the feeble voices of dissent can be rightly disregarded. Schliemann had to struggle against misrepresentation to obtain recognition for his great discoveries. Let us hope that what Mr. Cottrell has written so attractively will inspire young men and .
but if much has been learned.INTRODUCTION women XVii of this and future generations to imitate these two great Schliemann and Evans. ALAN WAGE . to whose genius the whole of mankind is eternally indebted. archaeology and for classical studies. The greatest representative of that genius is Homer. The recent decipherof the inscribed clay tablets written in the script called "Linear B" has proved that the language was an early form of Greek. much still remains to be learned. has unveiled for us an entirely new aspect of the MinoMycenaean world and of the beginnings of Greek and of the ment Greeks. whose immortal poems shine with even stronger brilliance in the light of the really epoch-making achievements of Schliemann and of Evans. They revealed a new world for men. the supreme poet of the world. due mainly to the late Michael Ventris. This brilliant achievement.
" THE "EVEREST" OF GREEK ARCHAEOLOGY 210 BIBLIOGRAPHY 225 227 INDEX XIX .CONTENTS PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION ix Xii xiii PREFACE TO THE AMERICAN EDITION INTRODUCTION PROLOGUE I 3 the Historians Homer and 8 20 ii 1 1 1 Schliemann the Romantic The "Treasure of Priam" 30 42 56 iv v vi "Golden Mycenae" Pause for Reflection "Here Begins an Entirely New Science" 69 vii The Quest Continues Prelude to Crete Island of 82 91 vin I x Legend Cave the of Zeus 102 110 x xi A Challenge Accepted Birth Still The 120 123 131 141 x11 xiii "And Wonder Grew" Into the Labyrinth xiv xv The Villa Ariadne The Palace EPILOGUE of the Sea Kings 155 169 xvi "The Old Traditions Were True" 180 196 Appendix "A:" MYCENAE'S SECOND GLORY Appendix "B.
THE BULL OF MINOS .
PLUTARCH (North's translation) . after he (Theseus) was arrived in Crete. he slew there the Minotaur (as the most part of ancient authors do write) by the means and help of Ariadne. easily by the help whereof she taught him. did give him a clue of thread. how he might wind out of the turnings and cranks of the Labyrinth. who being fallen in fancy with him.Furthermore.
which shadows impartially the tense. near which the hero Jason kicked the giant Sciron into the sea (where he turned into a tortoise). cloth-capped and collarless. wishing either that could have visited the country in happier times. which trundled along for four hours beside the sun- the dark spearlike cypresses. or that I had the temperament of a contemporary reporter who could apply himself fearlessly and frankly to her present-day problems. What else had I any right to expect occupation in postwar Greece? Invaded in turn by Italians and Germans. paper-littered platform sat sad-eyed women and a few listless men. slowed and stopped at New Corinth. Greece was now impoverished and exhausted. and then.PROLOGUE I glittering Gulf of Salamis. among her I Another train took me southward again. after miles of gnarled olive trees. and a small in drab. crawling slowly round the skirts of the two-thousand-foot mountain on which 3 . I had over an hour to wait at the squalid railway station. which seemed designed to destroy all romantic preconceptions of Greece. then. was Greece. who looked older than his years. Was this a time for half-baked romantics to come poking about So this ruins? So I reproached myself. subjected to a bitter Civil War. The light was white and inthe magical light of Hellas. through pale green valleys hemmed in by low. A few meagre-looking fowl pecked between the tracks. He had lost a leg in the Civil War and hobbled painfully on crutches. fluting of a Doric column or the hard lines of a peasant's face. handsome face. shapeless clothes. It served me right for my selfish prewith the past. when other countries had gained peace. ragged boy moved along the platform with a trayful of "souflakia" fragments of meat on wooden skewers but he had few cus- tomers. past dust-grey villages set LEFT Athens at midday in the Automatrice. treeless hills of grey limestone. On the dirty. a reasonably fast Diesel train. Among them was a sullen youth with a strained. among We passed Megara.
In fact. My fellow passengers were mostly peasants. a dome of limestone capped by the ruins of the Temple of Athena. and dark eyes beneath round black turbans would resume their detached but unhostile contemplation of the stranger. Some way off a dog barked and another answered. a brief men remark would accompany a flash of strong white teeth. The houses lay on the left of the full A moon was rising. Dramatically it rose from the darkening plain. two miles away. The hills were quite close now. And there was I. and only an occasional cluster of lights revealed a village among the folded hills. It was Mycenae. rich in gold. then the pipe would be replaced. contemplative faces that I almost forgot to get out at my destination. They chatted. the arms folded. and I could see the scattered houses of the village clustered on the lower slopes. I began to believe that Mycenae would not disappoint me. watching the red rear light of the little train as it slowly receded into the night. . I happened to see a station name board in the yellow light of an oil lamp. It was not there. the women usually in black. olive-bordered lane towards the hills which showed clearly in the moonlight.4 PROLOGUE stands the Acrocorinthus. Occasionally a from beneath a curled moustache. but the suntanned pipe would be removed usually sat silent. Without knowing why. To see the name of Agamemnon's proud citadel. hitching my bag on my shoulder. And yet there it was. and the citadel from which the ancient Corinthians commanded the Isthmus. As I walked I felt happier. I looked around for the car which my friends in Athens had told me might be waiting to take me to the village inn at Charvati. Glancing up when the train had been halted for nearly a minute. I set off along the straight. stuck on a station platform. the absurdity of the situation struck me. with head scarves. A few lights gleamed through the trees ahead. so fascinating were those grave. my spirits rose a little. As I watched them. which brought with thyme. and laden baskets resting on their broad laps." the scene of Aeschylus's epic tragedy. the sun had set. was too bizarre. my bag from the rack and scrambled out of the sole occupant of the platform. Even as I snatched the carriage. and the groves of olive trees rustled it the faint scent of gently in the night wind. Homer's "Mycenae. So. By the time its black silhouette had passed out of view.
I knew was only a few miles away. then the owner of the arm. dark eyes under a smooth brow. had sent a telegram to the proprietor certainty that it would arrive. Eviarrival had taken them dently the telegram had not come and my unawares. and deep. waited. although I could not see it. first a slim white arm holding aloft an oil lamp. was by the roadside. lean and dark. There was no sound within. with a wide. with stubble on his long chin. eager to make me comfortable. up and down the stairs. set back in the trees. they bustled about the house. I felt curiously elated and read. The inn. there was the from a tree by the roadside. She stood for a moment on the top step. firm mouth. there was no Then came a light step crossing the hall. It the Homeric In the inn there were two men. and not a light showed. I knocked. although they of the inn. this small. Acropwas too absurdly romantic the plain of Argos Helen of had been called "Argive Helen" the name on the inn sign. The older of setting. the door opened. My all cast down by this apparent indifference to Athenian hosts had warned me that. the inn's sign would have seemed smart aleck and vulgar. in and out of dining room and kitchen. fair-skinned. and there emerged. Troy olis." If it had adorned a large. 5 the right the plain of Argos stretched open to the sea. dark. not at my arrival. tall. a simple cream-colored frock with a scarlet jacket careface was like one of the sculptured lessly thrown over it. She was about twenty-three. appeared to be in charge. recovering from their surprise. I had been told. The dog barked again. and again came that faint. rounded chin. On behind a break Could this be it. hung in front of this unpretending house in an unpretending village. but not as it was. fresh smell of thyme. a long way off. lamps were . looking down at me. and an older woman who seemed to be the mother of the girl who had admitted me. hung "La Belle H^lene de Menelaiis. the two men. I shone torch and sign. knocked again. but the house seemed deserted. Her dress was that of a peasant. flat-fronted building without a light showing? Yes. neon-lit hotel with a car park and a gold-braided porter.PROLOGUE road. but now. strong. but her maidens of the porch of the Erechtheum on the Athenian. my expectant. As he shouted orders. The oleanders stirred in the slight breeze. which.
my host. pointing with a brown finger at an entry on a page dated 1942. from gen- erals to privates. down and many scores of officers and men of Panzerdivizionen. with its Lion Gate.6 PROLOGUE warm my feet. examining the photographs on the walls: pictures of the citadel of Mycenae. while her mother hurried upstairs to prepare my bed. said to me. with a start. "Agamemnon!" We all bowed and of the girl. This he placed beneath the table so added. "Orestes!" And then. together with host flicked the pages and pointed to another signature Hein- rich Himmler. Then. It would been named Helen or Andromache. read through the names entered during sat carefully the early years of the war. What had attracted the Nazi chiefs and so many German tribute to the soldiers to this spot? They had come to pay of Heinrich Schliemann. Wace. I also found Goebbels. the girl spread a cloth and laid the table. filled me with excitement. difficult to read at first. Now she entered again. Eighty years ago that great memory German . its Cyclopean walls and the huge beehiveshaped "tholos" tombs which I had studied so often in weighty volumes at home. I did not dare inquire the name have been too disappointing if she had not year while superintending his latest "dig" at Mycenae. awaiting exploration tomorrow. On a table lay a copy of Professor Wace's book on Mycenae. indicating himself. then entered carrying a three-legged shallow brazier filled with glowing coals. he that I might brought into the stone-flagged dining room. a fine cheese and a bottle of pale golden wine the familiar resin-flavored retzina which is drunk all over Greece. his brother caught him by the arm and. He held it under the light. The other man. I recognized it Hermann Goering. pointing to him. with his written greetings to my cheerful hosts. Dinner over. bearing my meal a superb omelette. My I took the book from his hand. While turning Wace's pages I found Agamemnon. they had told me in Athens. To think that these glories lay only a mile away in the dark hills. who seemed to be the brother of the first. standing at my elbow with the inn's Visitors' Book. Somewhat shaken. It was a foreign signature. As the brazier carrier was hurrying out again. had stayed here during the previous smiled. I wandered around the room.
that exasperating. reading Wace's book by candlelight. Schliemann had died more than sixty years ago. yet his influence was still felt. Was it not a habit of Schliemann to call his workmen by Homeric names. bewildering. yet likable mixture of shrewdness and naivety Doctor Heinrich Schliemann. the self-made merchant turned archaeologist whose instinct proved more accurate than the learning of scholars. But before we can understand what Schliemann did to the historians. From Schliemann my thoughts turned to Homer. had come here sored. it is necessary to know something of the academic world into which the eccentric German erupted. the poet whom he idolized and by whom he was led to make those discoveries which set up such a fluttering in the academic dovecotes. To that world. . listening to the faint sound of the night wind. When I snuffed the candle. and its view of Homer.PROLOGUE archaeologist 7 and dug from beneath the citadel treasures which proved that Homer's "golden Mycenae" had been aptly named. and the occasional croak of a frog. I devote my first chapter. Again and again my thoughts kept returning to I For a time and the parson's son from Mecklenburg who believed in the literal truth of Homer. and often to stand godfather to their children? No doubt the Agamemnon who stood watching me now had been so sponafter his triumphs at Troy. lay awake. I was too excited to sleep.
which Homer wove into his poems." If only the facts were as published in the Penguin series). all these are part of Europe's rich heritage of legend. This is. Hector. has entered to some extent into the thought and speech of every one of sciously read a line by him. they may know I AM Homer. even readers who have not yet read the have heard how the Trojan Prince. us. either in the original or in one of those excellent modern translations (such as that made by Mr. the slaying of the Trojan hero. they of Greek classical history simple as thatl But. On the other hand." led the Achaean host to Troy and laid siege to it for ten years. They Achilles. planned by the cunning Odysseus. the stratagem of the Wooden Horse. even those 8 who have never con- . Rieu and their may have a working and may recall that at some knowledge time in the last century someone dug up "Homer's Troy" and "Homer's Mycenae" and thus proved to everyone's delight that the Iliad and the Odyssey were "true. father of European literature. they aren't. alas. the long return home of the muchenduring Odysseus. In England alone poets from Chaucer to Louis MacNeice have drawn upon the Homeric themes and characters.CHAPTER I HOMER AND THE HISTORIANS going to assume that not all readers of this book will be specialists in Greek epic poetry or the prehistoric civilizations of the Aegean. which led to the sack of Priam's city. will be in that vague but happy state of half knowledge which I enjoyed before I was drawn down into the vortices of Homeric research. The wrath of will great epic poet of Greece will be familiar with the stories. "King of Men. as no doubt will writers yet unborn. Many. Menelaiis of Sparta. E. of how Menelaiis and his brother Agamemnon. perhaps. V. the Wanderer. For Homer. be they history or legend. Paris. stole the lovely Helen from her husband.
. 1200. For though the classical Greeks B. and justly. in 900.C. first recorded For the truth is. even to the map Hades itself. to the island of Circe. was regarded as legend. Of course the Odyssey the "first novel of Europe" being . where only our imaginations can follow him. Practically everything before about 800 B. . 1000. the epics justified in regarding described individuals who supernatural happenings as to make it almost impossible to recognize where legend ended and reality began. Olympiad. could write in his Preface: . island by island. whose monumental History of Greece was published in 1846. in the light what was known at that time. is. nor will any man properly who candidly considers the extreme paucity of attested facts for two .C. To confound together these disparate matters. . The historian George Grote. poetry . 1300. True.. yet they as evidence. which a modern historian would be sometimes could have been credible historical took place in a precise geographical figures. Odysseus.. whose actions often were so intermixed with obvious myths and setting. so called. that historical records. and which proves Homer's knowledge of Aegean topography.C. on a modern map. follows a route which can be traced. the Wanderer. to the home of the hideous Lestrygonians and the land of the Cyclopes.. 1100. do not begin until after this date. But after a while the Wanderer wanders off home from into fairyland.) (600-300 there regarded in much was nothing them of their epics as literal history. I thus set apart from the region of history that of epic are discernible only through a different atmosphere and legend. be astonished 1400 to learn that the state of B. the Iliad and the Odyssey. centuries after 776 B. The times which in my judgement. during the earlier part of his journey Troy. . too. of Thus sternly wrote Mr. etc.HOMER AND THE HISTORIANS Less than a hundred years ago the only knowledge could be called tainable from 9 if it such-of the early history of Greece was that ob- Greek mythology. Greece or any earlier century which dence . please chronologists to include in their computed genealogiescannot be described to him with anything like decent eviit may . I begin the real history of Greece with the . essentially unphilosophical.C. . or 776 B. and especially from the great epic poems of Homer. . For instance.C. . Grote.
Tradition is insistent that he was an "Ionian" Greek that is. and which the Greeks of classical times regarded as authentic history. but the last has the strongest claim. One fact is certain: that Homer. whose works were thought by the Greeks to embody their early history? The historian Herodotus (c. This can be proved by the fact that several legends and which Homer only glanced at were used by later poets and dramatists as fully developed epics or plays. is the daughter of Zeus himself. and could only have been written by one who was per- sonally familiar with the Trojan Plain. that he belonged to those Greeks who were driven out of the mainland by the invading Dorians (circa 1000 B. We also know that much of this epic material which Homer used into classical survived.10 THE BULL OF MINOS an obvious romance.C. whether he created his epics in the eighth. appear to the heroes. times. the sea nymph. or tenth centuries before Christ. classical was this great poet. might be expected to contain many elements of fairy tale. But admittedly these are subordinate elements in the story. though many legends grew up around his name. Some of the heroes Helen his are god-descended.C. legends and folk tales which had come down to him from a remote past. and fight in both armies though usually disguised as human warriors. which in the main is grimly and brilliantly realistic. ninth. Historians call this material. But even the sterner Iliad.) believed that Homer had lived about four hundred years before his own time. Salamis. and Khios. Achilles is the son of Thetis. in about Who far the ninth century B.C. Xanthus. compete Athens. one of Achilles' horses. that is. The gods take sides in the war. Argos. was making use of much more ancient material a store of myths. which tells of the siege of Troy. on which both Homer and later Greek poets drew. Although I would not dare attempt to summarize the whole . though later authorities placed his date back in the twelfth century (present-day opinion on the whole favors Herodotus' date). has its mythical ingredients..) and founded the Ionian colonies on the west coast of Asia Minor. the Epic Cycle. side stories by side with the Homeric poems. No real stories of his life existed. has the power of human speech and warns his master of impending death. 484-425 B. Several places for the honor of being his birthplace Smyrna.
) Agamemnon. Its opening is tremendous: I * and the Odyssey. leaving their my theme. Briseis. near of the entrance to the Dardanelles. in ful- bodies as carrion for the dogs and passing birds. and the greatest Iliad. . and the great Achilles son of Peleus. the Locrians from Locris. e. King of the Myrmidons. ." he deall How . Before them lies King Priam's city of Troy. The Wrath of Achilles is filment of the will of Zeus. It lies on the coast of Asia Minor. The Iliad.g." is the leader of the Achaean Middle Ages. Let us begin. which is generally supposed to be the earlier poem. deals with an episode in the Trojan War the Wrath of Achilles and its tragic consequences. warrior in the Achaean host. brought the Achaeans so much suffering and sent the gallant souls of so many noblemen to Hades. cried. though occa- sionally he calls them Danaans. that fatal wrath which. Often they are described by the name of the district or island from which they come. They have never "You shameless schemer. heaps abuse on him for threatening is when to take from Achilles his slave girl. which they have unsuccessfully When peak" and so on.HOMER AND THE HISTORIANS of the Iliad 11 think it might help those who have not read these epics to describe briefly those episodes which have a bearing on Schliemann's discoveries.. comparable a loose suzerainty over his subordinate chiefs (though exercising they also are called kings). (Troy can easily be identified on a of Turkey. or Ilium. . Men. "King host. the Arcadians "from the lands where Mount Cyllene lifts its the Iliad opens. goddess of song." This is name he most often uses to describe them. modern map besieged for nine years. the Achaeans are encamped beside their ships on the edge of the Trojan Plain. with the angry parting that took place between Agamemnon King of Men. the Notice that Homer calls his Greeks "the Achaeans. but not having complete authority. part of his legitimate spoils of war. is He to a feudal overlord of the In fact his authority challenged in the very first book of the Achilles. "always aiming at a profitable can you expect any of the men to give you loyal service when you send them on a raid or into battle? It was no quarrel with the Trojan spearmen that brought me here to fight.
The legendary cause Helen of Sparta. and to take her with him only glances lightly at it. . son of King Priam of Troy. from Eionae. promised him as a reward the loveliest woman in the though Homer to Troy. day. was Aphrodite. the men of Hermione and Asine. were led by Diomedes of the loud war-cry. mere ruins. rather tedious hearers it was of great importance. to get satisfaction from the Trojans for Menelaiis and yourself a fact which you utterly ignore. having been chosen by Paris as the most beautiful of the goddesses. came from. nor ravaged any crop that the deep soil of Phthia grows to feed her men. The Second Book of the Iliad contains the famous Catalogue of Ships. a there though to Homer's is an interesting point concerning this catalogue. most important of all: troops that came from the great stronghold of Mycenae. Most of the towns and puzzled citadels which Homer describes as of great wealth and power were. Agamemnon. The truth is that we joined the expedition to please you. who. if they The citizens of Argos and Tiryns of the Great Walls. and. of this. Corinth and the good town of Cleonae.12 THEBULLOFMINOS done me any harm. King of Sparta. Entertained in Menelaiis's home at Sparta. and the ostensible cause of the war was the outrage offered to Menelaiis by Paris (sometimes called Alexander). from . and from vine-clad Epidaurus. and in For example: classical times. . you unconscionable cur. describing in considerable detail where the Achaean world contingents list. the lovely Helen. towns that embrace a deep gulf of the sea. for the roaring seas and many a dark range of mountains lie between us. to sail under his leadership to Troy and win Helen back. daughter of Zeus. and those from Troezen. yes. in his existed at long. called upon the Achaeans from many parts of Greece. and from the islands. The . They have never lifted cow or horse of mine. one which an earlier generation of scholars. . But own all. . determined to avenge the insult to his brother and his family." Menelaiis. And. with the Achaean youth of Aegina and Mases. wealthy . Paris had seized the opportunity of his host's temporary absence to steal the affection of his wife. was Agamemnon's brother. to our minds.
but Hector. Yet. the poet tells us: 13 . The quarrel between Agamemnon bitter rancor. according to the legends. killer of is That day one and men. So was "MinOrchomenos. King Agamemnon son of Atreus led. whilst refraining from a direct attack on Agamemnon. in their hundred ships. in virtue of his rank and as commander of by far the largest force. takes Achilles's slave girl to replace the girl he has been forced to return to her father. who had let loose a plague on the Greeks." all will In the Third Book the armies advance to meet each other. Paris. the greatest captain of all. in support of the legend that Agamemnon had lived at Mycenae. because Agamemnon had stolen Chryses' assert his authority. in the ninth century. little knew and recited Homer. His following was by far the finest and most numerous. Agamemnon. determined to Chryses." and "Tiryns of the Great Walls. was once rich and schoolboy great." he tells Agamemnon. and in later classical times. because there were. when every Greek This fact puzzled some scholars. Chryseis. He was a proud man as he took his stand with his people. great which a later generation thought had been built by giants the Cyclopes.HOMER AND THE HISTORIANS These. Achilles. Nevertheless most scholars inclined to the belief that the walls Homeric stories were in folk To return to the Iliad: and Achilles ends myths and nothing more. armed in gleaming bronze. whom daughter. This aged man was a priest of Apollo. and you in your despair will be powerless to help them as they fall in their hundreds to Hector.. when Homer wrote. it was a ruin. principal warrior on the Trojan side. whoever wins being entitled to Helen. similarly at Tiryns there were these Cyclopean walls." and many yan another city which. coming. and others. Mycenae was of importance. should meet Menelaiis in single combat.. retires with his Myrmidons to their tents and refuses to take any further part in the battle. "when the Achaeans miss me sorely. A truce is declared and the two armies sit down opposite each other to watch . steps forward and proposes that his brother.
and Thermopylae (480 B. helmet. Greek Epic: . of metal. line behind in bronze. line. Pandarus. men slaying The Greeks of classical times. and greaves. but his guardian goddess. and the valiant Diomedes. in such battles as Marathon (490 B. Now it is true that the Iliad is full of references to the round shield "plated in bronze/' to "the clash of men in bronze breastand men slain. small round shield. as Murray points out. flashing The Trojans came ." and "the flashing of bronze. tempted by the goddess Athene. breastplate. fighting breaks out in earnest. In the period of classical Greece.. e. besides Achilles continues to sulk in his tent. of the tactics described suggest the close-formation. together with their commanders. wounding him and so breaking the truce. hearing such descriptions. Meanwhile war god. on. even succeeds in felling the But the gods are adamant and. and spirits him back to the city. though not all. since Paris is as unpopular with his own countrymen as he is with the Greeks. would armor of the hoplitae. The gods themselves join in the battle. in Rise of the hoplite.C.C. Paris saves is THE BULL OF MINOS him in the nick of time defeated. such as you can the typical imagine heavy often see represented on classical vase paintings or groups of classical statuary.). an Achaean hero. Not only that.. It is worth bearing in mind the methods of fighting described in the Iliad because they have a considerable bearing on the archaeological discoveries to be described later. but. Aphrodite. and ends with the combatants chivalrously exchanging gifts. like lines of waves on the sea.) the typical Greek soldier was the as Professor Gilbert Murray says. some. Ares. in solid metal from head to foot.g. clad. The great Telamonian Aias accepts the challenge. but the fight is indecisive. one of the Trojan allies. though tough. tightly disciplined manoeuvres of the fifth-century warriors. and all backplate." plates. This time wounding Aphrodite when she tries to rescue her son Aeneas.. shoots an arrow at Menelaiis. Hector and Paris return to the battlefield and Hector issues a challenge to any Greek to meet him in single combat.14 the duel. much to the disgust of both sides.
HOMER AND THE HISTORIANS But there are other descriptions of 15 methods of fighting which bear no resemblance to those of classical times. or even to those of Homer's own period. Tychius. slays many Greeks. Telamonian Aias went right up to Hector before halting to defy him. Evidently he was wearing a large body shield slung over his shoulders by means of a leather baldric. . with an eighth layer of bronze. Evidently this shield 'like a tower" covered the entire body. made this glittering shield for him with the hides of seven big bulls. the master-currier. and was quite unlike any type of shield depicted in classical times. . when Homer lived. and as he reached the ground his helmet rang loudly on his temples. . . Hector's notice. at once attracting Thrown off his balance. made of bronze and seven layers of leather. like a tower. which he overlaid . who lived at Hyle. Nor was this the only reference to a leather body shield. which was too bad for Periphetes. If he had been carrying a small round shield of the classical type or even of the ninth- . For example. just turned to to fly when he he fell tripped against the rim of his which he carried keep missiles off and which came down to backwards. among Obviously this He had shield his feet. or even in the ninth century. As he walked. Holding this shield before his breast. Where did the poet get his description? Scholars were puzzled. In Book Four there is a passage describing Hector walking from the battlefield back to the town. And to take one final example. which the besiegers have built to protect themselves. goes to meet Hector in the above-mentioned duel. on the ankles and on the back of the neck. Telamonian Aias. a Mycenaean. when the Greek hero. would have been impossible if the hero had been carrying an ordinary round shield with an armband. Here Hector them one Periphetes. there is a scene in Book Fifteen when Hector and his followers have forced the Achaeans and are threatening to storm the wall right back to their ships. so far as these can be ascertained. he carries a shield . the dark leather rim of his bossed shield tapped him above and below.
such an accident could not have happened. He honors his dead friend with a great funeral. Patroclus. the aged Nestor. Again. did Homer get the idea of these big cumbersome leather shields? And why were they mixed up with much more frequent references to shields of the more familiar type? There were other anachronisms. were almost invariably of iron. the Homeric heroes use chariots. It is the assistance of the hard-pressed Greeks. whether swords or spears. together with an enormous gift. archery. but is used almost entirely for tools. Achilles fight with his Myrmidons. with its burden. in Homer's time and afterwards. The heroes contend with each other in running. Iron is known. wrestling and javelin throwing. In the Iliad and the Odyssey. duelling with the spear. It is one of the most moving . own new The greatest moment of the Iliad is undoubtedly the end. after which games are held. For instance. he only permits his beloved friend and squire. The Trojans are in single combat. boxing. slays him beneath the walls of meets Hector Troy and then drags the body in the dust. and the redoubtable Telamonian Aias. as compensation for the insult Achilles has been offered. It consists of the wily Odysseus. to return They convey Agamemnon's promise Briseis. with one or two insignificant exceptions. too. Agamemnon. when the aged King Priam comes at night to the Achaean camp to ransom the body of his dead son. Even then. weapons are of bronze. In bitter rage. Where. chariot racing. round the pyre on which lies the corpse of Patroclus. to borrow his armor and go out to ous answer. Patroclus and strips him of his armor. weapons. King of Ithaca and hero of the Odyssey. he of the great shield.16 THEBULLOFMINOS century pattern. he returns to the hurled back. asked the scholars. worried by the Trojan success. but the hero returns a contemptu- not until the Trojans threaten the ships that Achilles takes notice. which do not seem to have been widely used in Homer's day and had passed out of fashion in classical times. behind his chariot Every morning he drives the chariot. sends an embassy to Achilles. King of Pylos and "elder stateman" among the Achaeans. and re-equipped with dazzling armor made by the god Hephaestus himself. To complete our very rapid review of the story. But Hector kills Only then does Achilles realize the tragic result of his intransigence.
* we learn what happened to Agaon his return to Mycenae. Priam says: and be merciful to me. and for quoting again I 17 from Mr. a pair of three-legged cauldrons. Alcippe brought a rug of the softest wool. with the repentant Helen beside him. the slayer of his son. wept bitterly for man-slaying Hector. some of the other Achaean heroes who figure in the meet Menelaiis. I own am to the edge of tears. The house was filled with sounds of their lamentation. while he was 1 Agamemnon's away at Troy. before Achilles. other great epic. home after the sack of Troy. This man had given Menelaiis two looking like perfumed made of silver finished with a rim of gold. Adreste drew up room. for her a comfortable chair. and then again for Patroclus. crouching at Achilles' feet. while Phylo carried her silver work-basket. where houses are furnished in the most sumptuous fashion. In the Odyssey we also learn what The We she is now . wife of Polybus. who seduced Clytemnestra. and Achilles wept for his father. son of Odysseus. happened to Iliad. while in addition his wife gave Helen beautiful gifts for herself." . remembering your even more entitled to compassion. back again at his palace in Sparta. King of Men. Priam had set Achilles thinking of his own father and brought him Achilles. . and overcome by their memories they both broke down. . Rieu's make no apology Kneeling effective translation. No longer the ferrune fatale. who lived in Egyptian Thebes. Helen with her came down from her lofty silver baths. though have brought myself to do a thing that no one else on earth has done I have raised to my lips the hand of the man who killed my son. Of this passage a sceptical archaeologist friend writes: "I know people often say that Helen in die Odyssey is reformed and domesticated but she seems to need an awful lot of handmaidens to bring in her knitting. It is in the Odyssey that the King's wife. describes the treachery speaking to Telemachus. that ran on castors and was including a golden spindle and a basket Artemis with her golden distaff. the perfect housewife: ladies . . describes the long-dearduous return of the "much-enduring" Odysseus to his layed. a gift from Alcandre. Old Nestor. Priam. . . of Aegisthos. fear the gods. he gently put him from him. . Taking the old man's hand. cousin.HOMER AND THE HISTORIANS passages in the literature of the world. . and ten talents in gold. since I father. the Odyssey. memnon.
At first Queen Clytemnestra turned a deaf ear to his dishonourable schemes. though I hope it may at least tempt others to enjoy the full so-called Homeric feast. less Before ending this chapter I must apologize to all lovers . fond lover. . and as he touched it. and Aegisthos feasted and killed him as a man might fell an ox manger. left him there as carrion for the birds of prey. whom Aegisthos had had the Aegisthos set his brains to work and laid cunning to post there.of Homer for making such a scanty offering from the great man's table. Such was the tragedy enacted at Mycenae. They were killed in the palace to a man. The warm tears rolled down his cheeks. Not a single one of the King's following was left. left them in ambush. its another part of the building set out in a horse-chariot to bring home the King. Aegisthos merely her accomplice. never guessing that he was going to his doom. Agamemnon. coast. and carried Clytemnestra off to his own house. She was a sensible woman. he was so glad to see his land again. nor of Aegisthos' company either. . He selected twenty of his best soldiers from the town. willing dame. But when the fatal day appointed for her conquest came.18 THEBULLOFMINOS While we that were beleaguering Troy toiled at heroic tasks. or represent the work of generations of poets working within a I common tradition. Agamemnon set foot on the soil of his father with a happy heart. she had a man with her. right in the heart of Argos where the horses graze. According to his version. Agamemnon. Aegisthos took this minstrel to a desert isle. whose superb tragedy. But his arrival was observed by a spy in a watch tower. All wish to emphasize now is the extraordinary realism of Homer. to whom Agamemnon when he left for Troy had given strict orders to watch over his queen. he spent his leisured days. and beside. with his heart full of ugly thoughts. . came up with him from the in The classical poet Aeschylus. . is based on the same theme. In another part of the Odyssey. Menelaiis completes the tale of his brother's doom. besieging Agamemnon's wife with his seductive talk. makes the guilty Queen even sympathetic. and after ordering a banquet to be prepared in . Clytemnestra was herself the slayer of the King. a by profession. minstrel . kissed his native earth. a clever trap. I shall not attempt at this stage to discuss the "Homeric Problem" whether the poems are the conscious and deliberate creation of one man. .
too. We possess nothing but the more. If we are asked whether of historical matter.HOMER AND THE HISTORIANS and the problem which 19 this set the scholars of the last century. of capes. of houses (from palaces to a swineherds hut). of warfare. apart from these topographic details. Homer's geography. . piece of pottery. of Syria and Asia Minor.2 where Zeus sat. harbors and sea routes. the fig tree near the Scaean Gate. . a legend and nothing it is in the eyes of modern enquiry essentially it be not a legend embodying portions and raised upon a basis of truth . there was. when they read Grote's grave summing up of the Tro- Though literally believed. he makes the reader see its physical features: the winding river Scamander and its companion. not only of mainland Greece. the two springs near the city. are so intensely real that even the most sceptical professors of the early nineteenth century found it hard to understand how the poet could have imagined them all. jewellery. Yet the fact remained that when George Grote published his History of Greece in 1846.. so neither can the reality of it be affirmed.. the epics. who was destined to the great scholar's words irrevocably out of date. and numbered among the gigantic phenomena of the past. but of the Aegean islands. dominating it all. by the Grecian public. of the domestic occupations of women. And the academic world nodded their heads approvingly jan War. their descriptions of everyday life. if we are asked whether there was not really some such historical Trojan war as this. of farming and seamanship. ancient epic itself without any independent evidence. or armor to prove that the world which Homer described had ever existed outside his imagination. not a scrap of material evidence not one fragment of a building. watching the battle. contain much that is Although magical and supernatural. reverentially cherished. But make * working Not in the year Grote's book appeared there was a young man in a shipping office in Amsterdam. . to be confused with the other Mount Ida in Crete. especially the Odyssey. . our answer must be. towering Mount Ida. that as the possibility of it cannot be denied. one cold. shows a detailed knowledge. the Simois. In describing the Trojan Plain. and. of clothes and jewellery and works of art. one warm.
a disillusioned man. hidden under the ground. Some must still be there. in the dress of 1829. did you turns to his father. the Protestant parson of a little town in Mecklenburg. bearing on his back his aged father. and says. The work Jerrer's Universal History is almost A he is as heavy as the child. tell me that Troy had completely gone?" it left "And that there's nothing of at all. where he will find it described by the great man himself." closely at the drawing. some day shall I go and dig them up?" The elder Schliemann. It is a Christmas gift from the boy's father. Anchises." Anyone who is inclined to regard that incident as too fanciful need only turn to page three of Schliemann's llios. that The boy looks satisfied. North Germany. sits at a table in a heavily furnished room. did Troy have great walls like these in the picture?" "Then" triumphantly "they can't all have gone. Father. I'd love to dig them up." "Father. "I shouldn't be surprised. I want to sleep. There is no need to 20 . but that does not worry him as he pores over an engraving which shows the walls of burning Troy. And now be quiet. Through the Scaean Gate comes Aeneas." at all?" "Nothing "But Jerrer must have seen Troy. half dozing by the fire.CHAPTER II SCHLIEMANN THE ROMANTIC SEVEN-YEAR-OLD boy. A large book lies before him. more simply a fanciful picture. or how could he have drawn it here?" is "Heinrich. Still he is not "Father." "Probably. in which completely absorbed. nods wearily. The boy "I did.
I did not un- . indeed I never lost it. and although he taught Heinrich Latin. be it joy or sorrow [he writes in his portentous way]. however: Protes- had not made him forget his Homer. always finds utterance from our lips. He often told me with warm enthusiasms of the tragic fate of Herculaneum and Pompeii. . . observing the rhythmic cadence of the verses. From I that moment I never ceased to pray to might yet have the happiness of learning made a deep Greek. whose name was Niederhoffer. Although derstand a syllable. What weighs upon our heart. love of learning. which.SCHLIEMANN THE ROMANTIC doubt its 21 essential truth. a sceptic and took only a sporadic interest in his six children. and complete literal-mindedness. tant clergyman . especially in childhood. characteristics which reveal themselves throughout Though my father was neither a scholar nor an archaeologist he had a passion for ancient history. Moreover I rapidly forgot the little that I had learnt in childhood. as long as I live. was a failed who had taken to drink. the boy had to leave school at the age of fourteen and become an apprentice in a grocer's But Schliemann the elder was a lecher. for on the evening that he entered the shop he recited to us about a hundred lines of the poet. and seemed to consider him the luckiest of men who had the means and the time to visit the excavations that were going on there. . He seems to have inherited the first trait from his father. God that by His grace . . also a drunkard. for it has the unmistakable Schliemann his life: a romantic preoccupation with the past. but I did not lose the I at night. I shall never forget the evening when a drunken miller came into the shop. the melodious sound of the words impression on me. . inflexible determination. The miller. and so it happened that I talked of nothing else to my . was engaged [he wrote] from five in the morning until eleven and had not a moment's leisure for study. Troy and Homer became an obsession with him. and. . who shop in the small town of Furstenburg.
where a robber knight named Henning all von Holstein was said to have buried treasure.. I only implored God to grant that she might not marry before I had attained my an independent position. and this stimulated ambition [he wrote]. he carried on a curious childhood romance which seems to have consisted mainly of visits to the antiquities in the neighborhood. just before he left Ankershagen to work in the grocer's shop. I was continually laughed at by everyone except two young girls. as we were grown up we . nor could until he begin his great archaeological work he had found one. and the extraordinary couple (both only fourteen) burst into floods of tears and fell into each other's arms. With one of these girls. Schliemann meant every word of it. but five years later. Louise and Minna Meincke. At them her again. . the daughters of a fanner in Zahren. a village only a mile distance from Ankershagen [Schliemann's home]. But real and permanent. thirty years later. but of Troy and of the mysterious and wonderful things in which our village abounded... he spent more than half his life looking for a substitute. the vast treasures hidden by Henning. sympathy and entered into all my was agreed between us that as soon would marry. Fantastic childhood ambitions are forget among ordinary to Heinrich Schliemann they remained the age of nine he lost touch with Minna. greatest It Minna showed me the vast plans for the future. and then at once set to work to explore all the mysteries of Ankershagen. I was now sure that Minna still loved me. excavating . and lastly Troy. And though he lost his childhood Minna. then Henning's sepulchre. even as they grow older. Nay. such as the medieval castle of Ankershagen. and was sure that with unremitting zeal I could raise myself in the world and show that I was worthy of her.. nay we could imagine nothing pleasanter than to spend all our lives in digging for relics of the past. This would have been sheer rhodomontade in most men. Minna. he met men who common enough. from that moment I felt withiri me a boundless energy.22 THE BULL OF MINOS playfellows.
as "correspondent and booksailing brig. He tried another job but his weak lungs forced him to give it up. While working as a messenger boy for Quien.. Heinrich and his eight companions were thrown by the surf onto a bank close to the shore of the River Texel. Still determined not to return home." From the moment he entered Schroder's office. he next became a boy on a small impossible. explaining his situation. Mr. the Homer-loving grocer's ered that he had a brilliant flair for business. now he exercise his talents. After tossing for nine hours in a small open boat in a fierce storm. stamping bills of exchange and carrying letters to and from the post office. Quien. C. but the ship was wrecked off the Dutch coast. A subscription was immediately raised and the delighted Schliemann received the sum of 240 florins (20 pounds). he had applied himself to the of his annual salary of thirty-two study of modern languages. Schroder & Co. exhausted and starving. Before. Out He for books and lessons. One day. a post in which he could ing. trying to shift home between Hamburg and Venezuela. Soon after. trading keeper. such as only a romantic novelist could have invented. . he devoted half to payments lived on the remaining half "in a wretched garret without a fire. he feigned illness and was taken to a hospital. the Dorothea. B. discov- did not come to Schroder's unprepared. and pounds. and an employer who had the wit to perceive and make use of them. assistant.SCHLIEMANN THE ROMANTIC In the meantime he lived a life 23 of fantastic adventure. through the help of the Prussian Consul General. he injured his chest and spat blood. Heinrich broke away and got a job in as a grocer's assistant at nine pounds per annum. and while there wrote to a shipbroker friend. For the shy young amateur antiquarian to improve. In Amsterdam. The letter arrived when Wendt was entertaining friends. his fortunes he had been stumbling and flounderbegan had two valuable assets. but Hamburg his weak frame was unequal to the work. from Ankershagen. F. From Quien he joined the office of an old-established firm of merchants. H. His father's never-ending amours and his outbreaks of drunken violence made life at a heavy cask. Wendt in Hamburg. he found a situation in the office of an Amsterdam merchant.
of course. Schliemann. not for their own sake. the seven did not include Greek. no longer a clerk. Schroder & Co. He was promoted rapidly. not for ostentatious display. he could return to Mecklenburg and marry Minna. Elated with his success. was sent by his employers to St. however. tireless qualities. Within a few months of his arrival Schroder saw that young Schliemann had all the makings of a first-class merchant. H. once he had acquired wealth. Afterwards he would be free to pursue the passion of his life. had comof seven languages. And. At the age of twenty-four he decided to learn Russian and within ness letters in that language. When he applied for a post with B. correcting these under the supervision of a teacher. but because they could give him security. he was registered as a merchant in the First Guild and the banks had six weeks was writing busiand was able to talk in their own Russian indigo merchants visiting Amsterdam. In Russia he throve so successfully that. and endowed with a prodigious memory and great capacity for detail. which consisted in reading a great deal aloud. Deliberately he left that to the last for fear that mand "the powerful spell of this noble language might take too great endanger my commercial interests. and constantly heat in summer. tongue to der's did a large trade as indigo exporters." First he must make money. was a consuming ambition rich. to become supplying the driving force. Behind these a hold on me and shrewd.. with his large head perched on his small body. awkward youth of twentytwo. Riches he must have. Oddly. especially with Russia. and repeating in the next lesson what had been corrected on the previous day. leisure and freedom to pursue his chosen interests. he saw clearly.24 THE BULL OF MINOS I where shivered with cold in winter and was scorched learned each language by a unique method of his own. taking a lesson every day. He was in pursuit of business. within two years of his arrival. Schro- advanced him amounting to fifty-seven thousand roubles. Petersburg and later to Moscow as their representative. he wrote to a friend of the Meincke family asking him to see Minna on his behalf and ask for her in credits marriage* . they were astonished to find that this pale." He by the writing essays on subjects which interested him. without making a translation.
. By the time he was and began to consider thirty he had acquired a huge fortune. I now saw such a brilliant chance before me. Occasionally he sought solace in the past. He loved machines and speed fascinated him. but how could I think of realizing it without her participation? It was only one way an emotional wound by work. the marriage soon proved a failure. there of dealing with such To was twelve years since he had seen her. impatient spirit. though even the new railways were too slow for his restless. Paris. He capital (though in the cheapest rooms). and was approached by one of the richest businessmen in St. but . while it could not kill the pain. I considered this disappointment at the time the greatest disaster which could have befallen me. he married Katherina. Schliemann was extremely awkward in his relations with women. and I was for as some time utterly unfit for any occupation and sick in bed. man declined. was just married. "I saw the Egyptian things. traveling from capital to Berlin. marriage. Petersburg. While in London on business he would take a continued to amass money. with good cause then doubting his judgment. And when. Soon he had become a merchant in his own right. For the moment Schliemann a of Schliemann's type. would at least dull it. fascinated by the new industrial age which he saw growing up around him.SCHLIEMANN THE ROMANTIC that she 25 But to my sorrow.. for his money. London always staying at the best hotels few hours off to visit the British Museum. which interested me more than anything I have ever seen. He was always imagining him- But though shrewd and practical in his business affairs." Then back to indigo shipments and order books. I received a month later a heartrending answer. niece of a business acquaintlove ance. of the handsome young officers who danced attendance jealous on the women whom he favored. She was intelligent. which. and the life of hotels.. finally. He could afford to bide his time. who offered to put his nephew into partnership with the German. with a backing of one hundred thousand roubles. He feared many him self in that women might now seek to he was conscious of his plainness. packet boats and railways. "I only see the virtues and never the failings of the fair sex/' he wrote to his sister.
Meanwhile. "You do not love me. Schliemann also caught typhus. opened a bank in California during the Gold Rush.28 practical THE BULL OF MINOS and unimaginative. His main purpose in visiting the United States was to settle the financial affairs of his brother Louis. he recovered and returned to Europe. To this to the test. who had died of typhus in Sacramento City." he wrote to her only eighteen months after the marriage. from early morning night translating Sophocles into modern Greek. . Danish." Yet after the week's work in his office up." he wrote despairingly. he paid his first visit to America. If Homer said so. and modern and ancient Greek. he would sit till late at now at last The vision of his childhood never left him. Although his life was despaired of. Yet he despaired of ever enjoying the life of scholarship and learning which he had longed for as a very young man. almost without meaning to. "I am lacking in the grounding and fundamentals of learning. while hatred. And he could read his beloved Homer in the original. he was still determined to dig at Troy. acquired American citizenship. bought gold dust and casually scooped another fortune. the prospectors queued up with their bags of dust in the front. Latin. But many years were to pass before he could put his beliefs Homer's city. nor do you share my joys and his impetuous. Swedish. the gold-dust fortune was incidental. on Sundays. it was so. quite incapable of understanding romantic nature. Norwegian. now had Polish. partings. reading them as history rather than as poetry. "I can years earlier. in addition to the seven with which he had equipped himself ten never become a scholar. and believed that there he would find end he studied and memorized the great epics. Schliemann approached Homer with the same unquestioning faith with which the literalist regards the Bible. and directed the affairs of his bank from a bed in the backroom. sorrows. in 1851. in which there was still so much of the ardor of a boy. but think of nothing but die gratification of your own desires and caprices. Slovenian. and therefore have no sympathy for my good fortune. Yet this unfortunate union survived fifteen years of quarrels. he By the age of thirty-three he was master of fifteen languages. reconciliations and violent outbursts of and Katherina bore him a son and two daughters.
Although he had come to Ithaca at the height of that. But something very essential was missing the companionship of the woman with whom he "could imagine nothing pleasanter than to to retire cavation. But this time he which were yielding turned to Greece. even buying and furnishing for her a magnificent house in Paris. homeless man set off on another of his restless journeys across Europe. . him there. . reading in the Odyssey the the splendid panostirring scenes enacted there. These visits. His second six visit to America was in 1868. and even had himself circumcised as an this On extra precaution. travelling across the desert from Cairo to Jerusalem. From Ithaca he went on to the Peloponnese. paid a brief visit to Mycenae. He went away quite happy. spend all our lives in digging for relics of the past. in his summer. visiting Petra in Trans-Jordan and learning yet another language Arabic. Katherina stayed in return he after and already thinking of giving up On fortyhis Russia and sent only bitter replies to his pleading letters. the and delight came to on Homeric soil. had been enough to whet his appetite.SCHLIEMANN THE ROMANTIC Seven years later 27 he made an extensive tour of the Middle East. now admiring was rama/' And." . and supported her in opposing his plan to give the children a German education. made yet another attempt to be reconciled to his wife. and set foot for the first time Ithaca. on the rocky island of Wanderer. Now I investigating the neighbourhood. "I forgot heat and thirst. then crossed over to the Dardanelles and rode across the Plain of Troy. one of their periodic estrangements. journey he is believed to have visited Mecca disguised as an Arab. In despair the unhappy. though brief. the leisure and the opportunity. home Peace of Odysseus. Her family disliked him. own words. of course he had to dig. believing he had found the ashes of Odysseus and Penelope and their descendants. Visiting the so-called "Castle of Odysseus." he hired workmen and dug up vases containing human ashes. together with a sacrificial knife and a few clay idols. From then onwards he began to make plans from commerce and devote the rest of his life to exHe had the money. when he was his business affairs. being Schliemann. journeys him less and less delight. But it was in vain. so great was his enthusiasm .
Vimpos's reply arrived. . I entreat you. I swear to you. much farther advanced than she. For in it. but well educated.. but letter under no illusions. I however. in that winter of company but lonely at heart. me a wife of the same angelic character as your married sister. my friend.. with black hair. beautiful. . . surrounded end of the year.28 THE BULL OF MINOS When he returned to Paris his last it made up mind to obtain a divorce.. I intend. But my main requirement is a good and loving heart. would be best to go to was simpler than that obtaining 1868. while Schliemann was in Indianapolis waiting for his divorce. he remem- and was now To Vimpos. a priest named Vimpos Greek in St. that I will direct my Here whole mind and energies to making my future wife happy. . In the spring of the following year. It does not matter whether she knows foreign languages or not. . . lest I should be unlucky once again. . with a of a classically beautiful girl of sixteen named Sophia Engastromenos. where the divorce procedure America. the forty-six-year-old millionaire. choose fo. asked the Archbishop to find him a Greek wife. by the bones of my mother. There is a lovely humility in the wrote to his sister concerning his plans. he had at To do so. who had his heart in what must have been the strangest and most moving letter that reverend gentleman had ever received. he decided. wherein he is shall. But. Schliemann opened taught him Archbishop of Athens. Petersburg. she must be enthusiastic about Homer and about the rebirth of my beloved Greece. in Europe. The German was photograph entranced. . the flesh is weak. and I am afraid to fall in love with a Frenchwoman.. I am constantly in the of witty and beautiful women. She should be poor. only marry her if she is interested in learning. if he everything goes well. for I think that it is only possible for a beautiful young girl to love and honour an old man if she is enthusiastic about learning. Schliemann. But. and. Therefore I beg you to enclose with your answer the portrait of some beautiful Greek woman. But she should be of the Greek type. . who company would be very willing to heal my sufferings and make much of me if they knew I was thinking of a divorce. if possible. at the by gay bered an old friend. to go to Athens in July.
she has a kind of divine reverence for her husShe loves me as a Greek. and on his honeymoon the bridegroom wrote: is a splendid wife.SCHLIEMANN THE ROMANTIC 29 But in August. "In what year did the Emperor Hadrian come to Athens?" and. in the world. and a year later his eighteen-year-old wife joined him at his camp near the hill of Hissarlik. I speak only Greek to her. Minna Meincke. but she was modest and sweetnatured. Greek women. In the following spring he was making preliminary excavations at Troy. for. with passion. "What passages of Homer have you by heart?" They were married. and I love her no band. . dream which had haunted Schliemann at Ankershagen. was coming true. like all . less. and which he had wanted to share with his childhood sweetheart. who could make any man happy. which included such questions as. any such doubts were set at rest. After forty years the . Their joint adventure had begun. besides being able to answer satisfactorily his catechism. Not only was Sophia more beautiful than her photograph had suggested. which is the most beautiful language Sophia . when he arrived in Athens.
The only place at which two springs of differing temperatures could be found was the village of Bounarbashi. even in summer. and the rocky heights behind it do strongly suggest at first sight the obvious place for a citadel. and even there the difference was only a matter of a few degrees. and so came to the two lovely springs that are the sources of Scamander's eddying stream. steam rises from it and hangs about like smoke above a blazing fire.CHAPTER III THE "TREASURE OF PRIAM" Passing the lookout and the windswept fig-tree and keeping some way from the wall. were considered to be the site of Homer's Ilium. Bounarbashi stands at the southern extremity of the Plain of Troy. 1 The Iliad. and from 1820 onwards a number of scholars supported its claim. In one of these the water comes up hot. for some time this village. But the other. From the eighteenth century onwards the inhabitants had become accustomed to the sight of learned gentlemen from Europe plunging thermometers into the hillside springs in the hope of finding the two which Homer had described. But there was another possible site. the hill of Hissarlik. and it did not possess the "hot and cold" springs. much nearer the sea. 30 . they sped along the carttrack. . but the results had not been very satisfactory. and the rocky hill of Bali Dagh behind it." described so minutely by Homer. . gushes up as cold as hail or freezing snow or water that has turned to ice. l THOSE "two lovely springs. intrigued and puzzled nineteenth-century visitors to Troy long before Schliemann came. . None the less. though it was much less spectacular than the towering Bali Dagh. Book XXII. For he was far from being the first to seek the site of Priam's city.
geography and. eight miles. while all the indications of the Iliad seem to prove that the distance between Ilium and the Hellespont was very short. Other investigators had scratched its surface. Near it. to make maps and plans. Remember that when Schliemann began this monumental below the surface of the hill. had stood the "New Troy" lieved Hellenic. to November. the distance of Bounarbashi from the Hellespont is. 1871." No. in a straight line. of London. Iliad in hand. eighty workmen. town of Novum Ilium ruins of which still survived. for the first time. and this time he increased his labor force to 150. had not Homer described Achilles's chasing Hector three times round the wall of Troy? an impossible feat if the town had been perched on the edge of Bali Dagh. but in March he was back again with Sophia. drove a deep trench into the face of the steep northern slope. After all." Alexander the Great himself had offered at its temple before marching on to conquer the East. Historical tradition. . pickaxes. and dug down to a depth of thirty-three feet From September . . As for the hot and cold springs. under Schliemann's direction. In addition to this [he wrote]. had decided against Bounarbashi and for Hissarlik. but now. John Henry Schroder & . the testimony of the poems themselves all combined to convince the German that under Hissarlik lay Homer's Troy. who had been over the ground in 1868." together with "three overseers and an engineer. with three rooms and a kitchen. Winter compelled him to give up. in historic times. rising 162 feet above the scanty ruins of the classical city. hardly exceeding three miles. the mysterious mound. Heinrich Schliemann was going to attack it. This was the city which the later Greeks and Romans had built on what they bewas the traditional site of Priam's "sacred Ilios. and spades vided by my honoured friends Messrs. not two. and brought with him "the provery best English wheelbarrows. he had tested those at Bounarbashi and found. above all. but thirty-four. "all at a uniform temperature of 62 degrees Farenheit. Co. There it stood. and later Roman. Hissarlik must be the place. but feasible at Hissarlik.THE "TREASURE OF PRIAM" 31 Schliemann." He also built on top of Hissarlik a wooden house.
fragments of weapons and tools. in their hut on top of the mound. For. Summer brought malaria. The modern archaeological student. and at night. shudders when he reads of Schliemann's methods. dreamed dust. his only late date. because nothing on this scale had ever been attempted. but demolished it forthwith. His great trench drove through the successive strata of the mound. . "The leaves are already in our house-walls . down through the strata like taking a slice out His young wife was at his side during the long days when he toiled in the trench. though Sophia escaped it. It was a far more difficult. and a sultry heat. as he dug into the mound. clay idols. which they had sifted from the soil. as would a modern excavator. long before he is allowed near a site. and below them older walls still. Dorpfeld. in the evening. he discovered that there was not only one Troy but many Troys. trained. At that time there was no recognized technique of excavation. there is no doubt that his instinct was right. snakes slid down from the roof of the hut and had to be killed.32 THE BULL OF MINOS work he had no previous experience to guide him. her delicate fingers helped him to sort out and classify the fragments of pottery. and when he came to a building of relatively impeding access to the lower levels. He could not have hoped to have uncovered the whole of each city in turn before digging down to the next Believing that the Troy he sought Homer's Troy must lie very deep. walls stood upon earlier walls. to photograph and record it. At a later date. yet lamps the thermometer showed nine degrees of frost. he learned to be more patient and scientific. The next winter a freezing blast from the north "blew with such violence through the chinks that we were not even able to light our and although we had fire on the hearth. in the careful methods which have left even Hogarth and Pitt-Rivers far behind. yet ruthless though his methods were at first." In the spring of 1873 he wrote. course was to cut of a layer cake. nor could he draw upon the experience of other field archaeologists. perplexing and unrewarding task than Schliemann had of. . nor did the climate make it easier. . mosquitoes put Heinrich down with flies. which alone interested him. he did not wait. under the guidance of his brilliant young assistant.
were the ruins of Priam's Palace. There. .C. but they were Trojan sitting there on the speakers. chirping dethose counsellors." beginning to burst on the trees. surely. cians had given him when he went to them on an embassy. was round about 1180 B. Surely he would recognize it from Homer's own description? He must look for the remains of the Scaean Gate above which the aged King Priam had sat with his counsellors: Old age had brought excellent their fighting days to an end. . four cauldrons and . as calculated by the ancient writers. lightfully. weighed and took ten talents of gold. too. of course. and the Trojan plain is covered with spring flowers. wherein had stood the coffers from which the old King had taken the precious objects to ransom his son's body. By now several huge cuttings and platforms driven into the hill and thousands of tons of earth This was the beginning of the Schliemanns' third season had been had been removed. He . recognize that pottery which was unlike any belonging to the historical perioos must almost certainly be prehistoric. 2 and Schliemann had no means of telling which of the cities had been destroyed in the twelfth century. There is it is unbear- at Troy. Somewhere. which the Thrashining tripods. were the remains of several prehistoric and later cities Schliemann discerned seven but which was Priam's Troy? The excavator knew that the traditional date of the Trojan War.THE TREASURE OF PRIAM" 33 something weird and horrible about their screeching. undoubtedly. like the cicadas perched on a tree in the woods. and he took two a very lovely cup.. some separated by layers of debris lay the city he had sought so long and painfully. 1 . middle or kte he had no means of knowing. . He could. especially at night. but in 1873 there was no convenient system of comparative dating by pottery. somewhere in that bewildering tangle of walls some built on top of each other. and the storks returned a week ago. but whether early. able. For the last fortnight we have been hearing the croaking of millions of frogs. Yet he firmly believed that." And he complained of "the hideous screeching of the innumerable owls that nest in the holes of my trenches. tower. also .
on the south side of the hill. who argued that. then . and this perplexed and saddened Schliemann. In one place.34 THE BULL OF MINOS But did any of the walls he had uncovered look as if they had belonged to the mighty city the poet had described? Only those in the higher strata. during the same excavation." Though the bastion was of Homeric proportions. composed of large blocks of limestone. each about fifteen feet broad and twenty feet h>gh. However. which I expected to find in was forced to demolish many interesting ruins upper strata. running down abruptly in a southwesterly direction towards the plain. (Lysimachus was one of Alexander's generals. Schliemann began a large excavation to the west of this so-called "Great Tower. seventeen feet wide. much of them con- and mean dwellings containing and sometimes stone implements.C. These he called "the Great Tower. I object to excavate Troy. consisting of two distinct walls. 1872. which may date from the And time of Lysimachus. who could not conceive that it was earlier than the third century B. at a depth of twenty feet below the surface. but overlapped in different parts of the site.). 1873. As in the it was my one of the lower cities.C. the fact that it was near the surface damned it for Schliemann. Schliemann had made a more promising discovery. a great mass of masonry. as. the workmen uncovered what appeared to be a well-paved street. Yet the lower strata were disappointing. it must lie near the bottom of the mound. in May. as Homer's city was so ancient. he had "brought to light. ill-built walls by their builders for a different purpose. This In the middle of March." though admitting that "they may originally have been intended sisted of rough. the ruins of a prehistoric building ten feet high." through a layer of debris. the poor pottery layers were not clearly defined. near the surface." After digging down through the remains of a late Greek house. for example. built close together and founded on the rock at a depth of forty-six feet below the surface. so it was not always easy to decide which were the earlier strata and which were the later. again. a pretty bastion. the walls of which consisted of hewn blocks of limestone perfectly smooth and cemented with clay. 360-281 B.
in a northeasterly direction. from seven to ten feet deep. had fallen from the burning walls of his Great Tower "which must once have crowned the gates. . over the probable site of Troy. standing twenty feet apart. must at one time have led to a large building within the city: I therefore immediately set 100 men to dig through the ground lying in front of it in that direction. . he brought to light two large gateways. For more than a century they and their predecessors had theorized. Schliemann thought.* The impatient child in Schliemann was always stronger to find. I found the street covered to a height of from 7 to 10 feet with yellow. . . in front of which lay a mass of calcined rubbish. Academic pens were dipped in acid. or to consult the opinions of other scholars. Worst of all. it had been justified. . . but sensational journalism. hasty and inexact in his methods.THE "TREASURE OF PRIAM" street. Nearby. he announced to the world that he had discovered the Scaean Gate and the Palace of Priam. Without pausing to check his deductions. had been opposed to Schliemann's excavations. a lover of publicity (which. or black wood-ashes. as scholars. behind his apparent triumph. from the depth of their study chairs.000 cubic metres of . red. but not one had gone out to dig there. 35 the excavator decided. without academic training. Schliemann. And now. mixed with thoroughly burnt and often partly-vitrified fragments of bricks and stones. what he wished seemed that his He had tried hard to find and now. particularly the Germans. his naive belief in the historicity of Homer had led him to announce that he had found the Palace of Priam there whose historical existence was not scholarship. here was this audacious merchant. which. In May he wrote to his brother: a King for was not a shadow of proof! This We fifty have been digging here for three years with a hundred and workmen and have dragged away 250. they pretended to hate). ruthlessly tearing down the remains of classical which had probably never buildings in an insane search for a city existed outside a poet's imagination. Many of the professional scholars. faith than the cool-brained archaeologist. was secretly discouraged by these attacks. after three arduous years. Above this thick layer of debris I came upon the ruins of a large building composed of stones cemented with earth.
since the wall of fortification. who discovered Tutankhamun's Tomb half a century later. beneath which I had to dig. digging out from the hard-packed earth object after object of gleaming gold or dull silver. have been impossible for me to have removed the treasure threatened every moment . Schliemann. events occurred which were strangely like those in the life of Howard Carter. after six years of unsuccessful digging." he instructed her. together with the overseer. something bright and gleamfortification wall. crouched beneath the wall in the bright sunlight. he was standing. and since life. It workmen. had decided to end his Trojan excavations and pay off his workmen on June fifteenth. every ogy. . The first of these parallels was to occur now. But the sight of so one of which is of inestimable value to archaeolmany objects. Keeping quite calm. made me reckless. above which stood a Looking more closely. Readers who it recall the great Egyptian discovery in 1922 will remember that was not until Carter had begun what was to have been his fare- Pharaoh. attained our goal and realized the great ideal of OUT shall finally cease our efforts in Troy on June 15th. Sophia returned and stood near her husband as he at his looked like gold. . Now. Twice in Schliemann's career as an archaeologist. as we have seen. and I never thought of any danger. This required great exertion and involved great risk [he wrote afterwards]. however. Then followed a piece of Odyssean cunning. to fall down upon me." when he noticed a large copper object embedded under a layer of red and calcined ruins. It would. that he came upon the intact tomb of the One day of his before this date. They had noticed nothing. ing. and northwest of the "Scaean Gate. near the circuit wall close to the ancient building which he believed to be Priam's Palace.36 THE BULL OF MINOS we we have debris and have collected in the depths of Ilium a fine museum of very remarkable antiquities. he called Sophia to him and told her quietly to have the paidos called the time of rest. "and that they 11 get their wages without working!" When the workmen had dispersed. the excavator's sharp eyes noticed. we are weary. however. behind the copper. "Tell them it is my birthday. Schliemann glanced . well season in the Valley of the Kings' Tombs. accompanied by a few workmen.
But Schliemann's eyes kept returning to the shining diadems. as a child. were two magnificent gold diadems. and from which hung seventy-four short. had dreamed of Trojan treasure. and then spread out the treasure before them. and lancetshaped leaves. small perforated gold bars and other trinkets. perforated six There were also gold buttons. when the last object had been taken to their hut.353 separate gold pieces. walked with careful unconcern to their hut atop the mound. watched by the lovely Greek girl who was his wife. The largest of these consisted of a fine gold chain. prisms. trembling." hung down to her shoulders. The second diadem was similar. double rings. and evidently meant only to cover the temples. In the first diadem alone there were 16. as. the two discoverers. and the side chains were shorter. sixty gold earrings. feeling like naughty children on some conspiratorial adventure. eighty-seven hundred small gold rings. but the chains were suspended from a narrow band of sheet gold. beside the diadems. who. each ending in a small Trojan idol. gold bracelets. . a gold goblet weighing 601 grams. each made up of tiny heart-shaped plates of gold. she seemed at that moment the embodiment of the "white-armed Helen" for whom Greeks and Trojans had joined in battle near this very spot. Vases of silver and copper. sat running the golden chains through his fingers. completed the hoard. The sixteen longer. chains. and loveliest of all the objects. locked the door. and weapons of bronze. Thus her face would be framed in gold (see Plate 3). and to pack cany them away. a goblet of electrum and a large vessel of silver which contained. the longer chains. The "fringe" of shorter chains rested on the wearer's brow. So his imagination raced on. Finally. who stood at my side. a gold bottle. Sophia was twenty now. consisting of tiny rings.THE without the help of * TREASURE OF PRIAM*' 37 my dear wife. and her dark beauty had reached maturity. and surely this was none other than Priam's treasure. ready to the things I cut out in her shawl. far outshining the rest. he placed This fifty-year-old merchant. In both articles the workmanship was rare and delicate. intended to be worn round the crown of the wearer's head.
bears a very marked resemblance to the big key of an iron safe. It seems all the more certain. about two inches in length and breadth. and allowed a number of responsible people to inspect stones of the neighbouring Palace/* . of the kind mentioned in the Iliad as having been in Priam's Palace." ( This "key. was later found to be a bronze chisel. and without much difficulty the excavators managed to smuggle the whole of the Trojan Treasure away from the Turks to Athens. where it was immediately covered to the depth of five or six feet with red ash and the Having explained. He announced his discovery. but how could he enjoy the glory of his discovery unless the learned world was told? And if the scholars knew. he was convinced that Homer would lead him to the treasures of the pre-Hellenic world. and had to leave the chest behind.38 on his wife's THE BULL OF MINOS brows the glittering diadems which. to his own satisfaction. it seems certain that they lay in a wooden chest. but was overtaken on the wall by the enemy or the fire. at that he wrote. his next problem was to get it out of the country. Admittedly. but would almost certainly melt them down for the sake of the gold.) And he continued: "Since/* From now on. T found all the objects together or packed into one another on the circuit wall. But now an aggravating problem arose. "Some member of Priam's family packed the treasure in the chest in great haste and carried it away without having time to withdraw the key. the building of which Homer ascribes to Neptune or Apollo. then so would tiie Turks. the head of which. had once adorned Helen herself. let the scholars scoff." the copper object which had first attracted Schliemann's attention. permission to dig had only been granted him on condition that half of everything he found be handed over to the Turkish Government. Schliemann made his plans. He had the treasure. he could not bring himself to hand over even a part of them to people who he believed would not appreciate their unique archaeological value. how the treasure got there. since I found close to them a copper key about four inches long. But now that he had these precious things in his hands. he believed moment. But customs examinations were less rigorous in those days.
He would leave Greece. The Greek Government. he threatened. so that there could be no doubt that he was telling the truth. Schliemann and his wife paid a two-day preliminary visit to Mycenae to survey the site. He would dig in Italy. even for life. he apologized. When the official found nothing in Schliemann's suitcase but a few potsherds. not under the soil of the Troad. or gling them out of the country. the Director of the University Library denounced him as a smuggler. in barns and stables. He offered to give the whole of his discoveries. First he was told that under Greek law no one was allowed to keep Greek antiquities. The authenticity of his Trojan discoveries was doubted. nothing was found. and even went so far as to accuse him of obtaining his finds. sycophantic towards the Turks. But when the inevitable happened.e. gave him no support. but the great man was furious. It homes was a stratagem worthy of Odysseus. "Alter the law. Then. "This man is a swindler. in 1874. But so alarmed were the officials at the German's alleged powers as a discoverer of treasure. Sure that the Government would accept this offer. Indeed.THE "TREASURE OF PRIAM" 39 the objects. difficulties were placed in his way. including Trojan treasures. a suggestion which was coldly received. Still the authorities were adamant. . that a local busybody from Nauplia was sent hotfoot after the couple to examine their luggage and see that they had spirited nothing away. in the Peloponnese. and his house in Athens was searched through the agency of the Turkish ambassador. and when he applied to the Greek Government for permission to dig at Mycenae. adding that Schliemann was quite capable of without digging for finding treasures at Mycenae (presumably then mixing them with his Trojan discoveries and smugthem).. then!" said Schliemann." said the Director of the Archaeological Service. The treasures were safely hidden away in baskets and chests. but from the antique dealers. But for the time being it put a stop to his archaeological work. he made a compromise suggestion offering almost the same terms. to the Greek nation after his death if he could keep what he found during his lifetime. in the and on the farms of Sophia's many relatives. everything to go to Greece after his death provided he could keep part of his finds during life. i.
. on the other hand. The sole concession would grant was exclusive right of reporting on his discovthey eries for a period not exceeding three years. a firman (permit) to re- . where he would be treated with honor and dignity. though at that time one can hardly blame them for refusing to change their opinions. Bounarbashi. hoping thereby to win over the authorities into allowing him to continue his Trojan excavations. However. and that Homer exaggerated everything with a poet's freedom. and eventually the Government concluded an agreement which allowed Schliemann to dig at Mycenae under the supervision of the Archaeological Society of Greece. Through influential friends in Constantinople. 1876. now But Schliemann's sanguine belief that he had found the Palace of Priam and the Scaean Gate had aroused the scepticism of professional scholars." As we shall see later. consider that Troy must. until further excavations should take place. Schliemana eventually obtained. . and was too small for the great deeds of the Iliad. . must still be accepted as Troy. prefaced by the brave but over-optimistic announcement that: condition that he the people are disappointed in their expectations . Hissarlik could scarcely have been the capital of the land. For the time being there was no response. and his services to archaeology would be appreciated. in April. pleaded with him to stay. He had to accept. Sophia. and therefore. Meanwhile his book Trojan Antiquities was published. "the final conclusion of sober thinkers was that even if a primeval settlement did exist on Hissarlik. and on hand over all he found. find a great satisfaction in the certainty established that the Homeric poems are based on actual facts. defined by such acute and varied arguments. the "sober thinkers" were wrong. and as Schuchhardt said later in his authoritative work on the excavations. and was ordered to pay ten thousand francs compensation. anxious to remain in her own country. its ruins did not correspond to the great period de- picted by Homer. two years were to pass before he was ready for the attack on Agamemnon's citadel.. at his own expense.40 THE BULL OF MINOS in Russia. which he lost. but Schliemann could afford to wait. they if . He had first to fight a lawsuit with the Turks. Instead he sent five times that amount to the Ministry at Constantinople.
THE "TREASURE OF PRIAM" commence 41 his excavations at Troy. This time even the most sceptical scholars were forced to take notice. 1876. another Homeric was name had become the focus of interest Mycenae. one more example of the petty persecution which. in learned journals and famous newspapers alike. Very soon Ibrahim found himself removed to another province. he had just made a discovery so important that it transcended his Trojan triumphs. . Ibrahim Pasha. in October. For. in just every age. under the pretext that the firman required confirmation. sent along to Hissarlik a commissioner It who did all in his power to annoy him. in university combination rooms. When at last he was allowed to begin. but he had not reckoned with the Oriental genius for organizing delay. in a lonely valley in the Peloponnese. the local Governor. For two months he was detained at the town of Dardanelles. Throughout the civilized world. Schliemann retaliated by giving up his excavations and writing a violent letter to The [London] Times to show how the attitude of the Pasha conflicted with the interests of culture. he was no longer interested in Troy. Schliemann received this pleasing intelligence. But when. genius has to suffer from Jacks-in-office.
I have kept. . and those bright regents. and the watchman hails it wildly. who is sovereign . So begins Aeschylus's great tragedy. that wings a voice from Telling of capture. . the circling the celestial signs." "The Atridan" here referred to is Agamemnon. tired watchman gazes down the dark valley to the sea and the mountains beyond. thus I serve her hopes. High-swung in ether. Since the strong Atridan pair Menelaiis and Agamemnon Sceptred kings by Jove's high grace Sailed for Troy. sing the Chorus. . Then the beacon is seen shining. The masculine-minded here.CHAPTER IV "GOLDEN MYCENAE" Watchman: I pray the gods a respite from these toils. l High on the Atridan's battlements. From those distant peaks he waits for the gleam of beacon fires by which the Greeks had arranged to signal to their homelands the fall of far-off Troy. hence they were often called "the Atridae. . winter. . 1 Agamemnon and Menelaiis were the sons of Atreus. . the Nine years have rolled. From his lookout point high above the citadel of Mycenae. beholding The nightly council of the stars. . Of This long year's watch that. Agamemnon surely one of the most dramatic beginnings ever devised by any playwright. dog-like. that bring mortal men Summer and Troy. 42 . the tenth is rolling. Here The appointed flame I watch the torch.
saw Mycenae and has left a description. Another is the at a banquet. Of these "Returns" the most famous was that of Agamemnon. There is a tomb of Atreus and there are also tombs of all those whom tomb of Agamemnon. parts of the wall are still preserved as well as the lions stand. "King of Men. one of Eurymedon the charioteer. . Clytemnestra and Aegisthos were buried a little outside the wall. fountain called Perseia and underground buildings of Atreus and his sons where their treasures were. he took his plots from that ancient Epic Cycle mentioned in an earlier chapter. but as authentic his- Agamemnon in his bath. when the anwere regarded. she laid her plans to destroy Agamemnon.. . For example. empty "beehive" tombs. . and one of Teledamus and Pelops for they say Cassandra gave birth to these twins and that while they were still infants Aegisthos killed them with their parents and one of Electra.GOLDEN MYCENAE" AD hail.C. in particular from the cycle which went by the popular name of "The Returns" describing the adventures of the Achaean heroes when they Greece. who lived in the second century after Christ. Mycenae was confidently accepted as the scene of the murAlthough it had fallen into ruin. and her lover. . These also they say are the work of the Cyclopes who built the wall for Proteus at Tiryns. . In the times of the later Greeks and Romans. hail! all hail! gleam bright father sought to return home after the sack of Troy. who was murdered by the treachery of his Queen. . 43 them cresset of the dark! fair Of day through midnight shed. Aegisthos. ders. which were oc- casionally visited by Greek and Roman travellers. to the gods to obtain fair winds for Troy. On their return the unsuspecting King and his companions were killed at a banquet. Clytemnestra. for they were not deemed worthy . the Greek historian Pausanias. it still retained its "Cyclopean" walls and huge. in revenge for his having sacrificed their daughter." and Although Aeschylus was writing in the classical period of fifth century B. all haill Of joy and dance in Argos. from Troy after entertaining them Aegisthos murdered on their return . not as legends. the gate over which . in the watchman Mycenae. In the ruins of Mycenae there is a . Warned by the Lord of Iphigeneia. temnestra slew cient epics tory. though one version of the story states that Cly- of her lord's return.
which stand two rampant famous Lion Gate. . the ring of walls." Homer's conventional epithets "golden" of the Atridae. saw them. he appeared in that remote. Heinrich Schliemann would find it. but precisely describes the way this knob of a hill "wears" the walls like a crown on a human head. this is the (d) Part of the valley to the south of the Citadel and a large area to the southwest of it contains "tholos" tombs. So. He. is a much but steep-sided and crowned with the ruins of a massive ring of walls. (fe) Near the top of the lower hill. was minutely it whenever Homer mentions Mycenae. centers. recruited his work- The main elements today. THE BULL OF MINOS lies where Agamemnon dered with him [my italics]. in August. noticed. between two high hills. He had . "Crowned" in this case is not a cliche. Therefore. 1876. are these: (a) Mycenaean scene. Schliethe west side. or Acropolis.44 of burial within it. is broken by a magnificent gateway above On mann regarded as the Citadel. steep. for example. . I and those who were mur- have italicized the last phrase because familiar with Schliemann's triumph at Mycenae. that . if made his headquarters men and began to dig. of all the epical and classical references to the citadel was the crux of course. Through these hills passed roads to Corinth and other northern sea. "Treasuries" the largest of which is the so-called "Treasury of which will be described in more detail in the . the poet had called Mycenae "golden. and if the gold was still there. which are built of huge (c) unmortared stones. to a chain of hills on the north. he usually accompanies it with an epithet which has been variously translated as "rich in gold" and "opulent. windswept valley which slopes down to the plain of Argos. Schliemann saw them and as we can of the as Pausanias still see them A narrow valley. lions carved in stone." These. as in the nearby village. . a familar feature of epic poetry are extremely well chosen (Schliemann had had good reason to remember "windy Troy").** he must have had good reason. valley. sloping up from the plain of Argos and the which is to the south. The small area within the walls. . but with the top shaved off almost flat. sometimes called Atreus.
in their imaginations. then."GOLDEN MYCENAE" 45 next chapter. Although no professional scholars shared Schliemann's belief in the literal truth of the Homeric poems. No doubt the tombs which Pausanias saw were the empty "tholos tombs" which had been despoiled centuries before his day. are large. each approached by a straight-sided entrance passage called a "dromos. did they square this assertion with the last phrase of Pausanias's description which we quoted previously? Clytemnestra and Aegisthos were buried a little outside the wall. first man to dig at Mycenae. so had Lord Sligo. But when the scholars of Schliemann's day were asked where these tombs could have been. Clytemnestra and the rest. or at any rate sacred areas. they all located them. outside the walls of the Citadel." This large area in which the "tholos" tombs occur also contained the homes of the humbler Mycenaeans who lived outside the Citadel. he had visited Mycenae thirteen hundred years after the traditional date of the Trojan War. and carried off part of the pillared entrance to the "Treasury of Atreus. the wall which Pausanias saw must have been a . the shrewdness of Schliemann's judgment will be better appreciated." which can still be seen in the British elements are borne in mind. which local tradition ascribed to Agamemnon. True. said the scholars. Why second wall enclosing a much larger area outside the Cyclopean walls. Lord Elgin had been there before him. But they had all and a Turkish gentleman named Veli dug in the wrong places. they took the guidebook of Pausanias more seriously. most of it bare rock and steeply sloping. totally unsuited for a cemetery. when Mycenae was a legend-haunted ruin. were not deemed worthy of burial within it. because he If these was not the Museum. Still. where Agamemnon lies and those who were murdered with him. No. Pasha. and which had since disappeared. not? Because these walls enclosed only a relatively small area. How. for they Pausanias. beautiful. could not have meant by "the wall" the so-called Cyclopean walls crowning the brow of the hill. stone-lined chambers hollowed out of the hillside in the shape of gigantic beehives. there was no reason to doubt that he had been shown tombs.
an unsculptured slab resembling a tombstone. who wrote: that he [Pausanias] had solely in view the walls of the Citadel. and not those which he did not see . Even so. 2 cisive reasons I have always interpreted the famous passage in Pausanias in the sense that the five tombs were in the Acropolis. and they had under their his excavations in the He began supervision only sixty-three workmen at first. him dig at all. . and a numbecause test shafts sacked by the Argives in 469 B. the Society appointed an when ploy only a limited number of men at a time. there cannot be any doubt that he had solely in view the huge Cyclopean walls as he saw. they smiled behind their hands and gave him permission. one Stamatakis. to watch over him see that he kept to the Society's conditions that he should and em- neighborhood of the Lion Gate. fearing that he might rob them of the glory which should be theirs... The Greek Archaeological Society. because it had been originally only very thin. which advised the Government. It is true that he afterwards speaks of the ruins of Mycenae. and hand over everything he found. which is indeed in the lower city. See Appendix "A". ephor (superintendent). in which he saw the fountain Perseia and the treasuries of Atreus and his sons.46 THE BULL OF MINOS But this explanation did not satisfy Schliemann. . and perhaps some of the small treasuries in the suburbs. But as he again says further on that the graves of Clytemnestra and Aegisthos are at a little distance outside the wall where Agamemnon and his companions reposed. and it For these dehad been demolished 638 years before his time. . he shows by saying that in the wall is the Lion's Gate. . he had struck two Cyclopean house walls. he could not see the wall of the lower city. . by which latter he can only mean the large treasury described above. and besides. . 3 . . He chose this area he had previously sunk there showed a good depth of soil. But to let well have been Schliemann's decision to dig in such apparently barren ground that persuaded the Greek Government It may the crazy foreigner showed that he was going to dig where nothing could possibly be found. has since been discovered that there is another Grave Circle outside the wall. . Sophia was with him. 1 9 When Mycenae was It . of course. was known to be jealous of him. so that the ephor could watch what was going on.C.
the cphor complained to Sophia. and would be well advised to keep his mouth shut. The ground within the circle had been levelled in ancient times. . vases. and that he.. began. some evidently of late date. stones.."GOLDEN MYCENAE*' On 47 her of female idols and cows of terra-cotta. and he stopped. was not a learned man. 87 square." within the Citadel behind the Lion Gate. Greek or Roman . and wanted to pull down the upper one. . Stamatakis. it also meant that Stamatakis could not see what was going on everywhere at the same time. . . which was obstructed by heavy the inside. when I was not there. in his ruthless way. If . When . A few days ago he found a wall superimposed on another wall. against the rules laid down by the Society. Then he began the ephor. and being unknown it was unmissed. he had the wall pulled down and the lower one exposed. and not far covery. At a distance of 40 feet within the from the encircling Cyclopean walls. which. but in the heroic age. Next morning. and within this space the excavators found an upright stone stele like a gravestone. . but was so badly damaged that the subject of the sculptured re- . "undoubtedly the ancient doorkeeper's habitation . The latter *s letters to his superiors were full of pathetic complaints. I beg to be recalled. I forbade it. he unearthed walls. particularly to slaves. he wanted to clear away to get at the older structure. them He treats the Ministry is not satisfied he looks at them in disgust and if I were a barbarian. only 4J feet and it would not be to the taste of our present doorkeepers. to the left. she told him sharply that her husband was a learned man who knew what he was doing. he had dug a trench 113 feet of upright slabs. as me . he found a small chamber. His letters become more and more agitated. comfort was unknown. More workmen were enrolled. This slab had been carved. . and had begun to disclose a circle feet in diameter. with me. . If lets we find fall. At this point the battle with Stamatakis. He had a hard job getting through the Lion Gate. . high. to dig in the area itself. and though this enabled the work to proceed more rapidly. But by now Schliemann had made a most significant disLion Gate.
From now on the three of . Eef could not readily be made out. though perhaps at some depth. each shovelful of which was examined for any telltale sign. Still more gravestones were unearthed. the solid rock. the level at which the gravestones had stood. that the circle of stone slabs had enclosed the agora (town meeting place) and that below the stelae. others these were removed as the earth and without a doubt. and clearly showed warriors in chariots. with dust in their nostrils and sweat in their eyes. so they It was too risky to let the were immediately dismissed. and triumph. They had found the of the shaft graves. half dead with fatigue. must be graves. then. . . as the toiling workmen dug deeper. By this time they had dug through the thick layer of surface and were down to and his wife. watched them as they moved down the valley road. But soon another sculptured and yet another. below battle. Sophia. the workmen toiled on. Soon afterwards. The men were out of sight. Schliemann found a circular stone altar. It was a gold ring. She picked up a tiny object and wiped away the clay. or decorative designs. the workmen carefully removed the soil. when Sophia's sharp eyes caught a bright gleam in the soil. Carefully loose rock were dug away from them. And while Heinrich and Sophia watched their men. was the beginning of a vertical shaft going down into the rock to what depth they did not yet know. some sculptured offered to the with scenes of hunting or quite plain. Stamatakis. provided with a large opening in the form of a well. fifteen feet below the level of the rock and still digging. and the ephor. Watched anxiously by Heinrich. and the two discoverers. They looked at each other in excitement first And then came a thrilling moment for Schliemann At one point the edge of a cutting was revealed. with the ephor. workmen dig any further. tried to keep an eye on them all. These were in gravestone was unearthed better condition. Under the fierce July sun. He also announced that the scenes of the stelae represented Homeric warriors. and there. Spades cleared away the last remnants of surface soil. They shambled out through the Lion Gate. Schliemann decided that this was intended to allow the blood of sacrifice to be dead below.48 THE BULL OF MINOS . chattering and speculating among themselves. they found still earlier stone monuments. the aggrieved little ephor.
The two children were wrapped in sheetgold. it far certainly was. women. . cuttle fish. varying in depth from approximately three feet to fifteen feet. and in length off from approximately nine to twenty feet. but which was in reality a "Grave Circle" specially built to mark the cemetery as a holy place. This was indeed one of the richest archaeorosettes. logical of gold . Many of these bodies were quite literally laden with gold. Mycenae and Tiryns. Rich cence. discoveries ever made. which is fascinating in both its archaeological detail and its wealth of personal anecdote. Schliemann and his wife found five graves in all. men. Those who wish to enjoy the full flavor of Schliemann's Mycenaean saga must read his great book. in his Mycenae: On the faces of the golden breast plates. but from barbaric in its magnifi- More remarkable than mere weight it the brilliance of the art which of precious metal was the treasures revealed. They worked on their knees with pocket knives. By the men lay their swords. magnificent gold diadem. when the educated world followed Schliemann at Mycenae with as at of this task fell to his much avidity as a later generation followed Howard Carter Tutankhamun's tomb. daggers. and Stamatakis a sixth all contained within the ring of stone slabs which Schliemann had thought was an agora. and spirals. and as Heinrich was now in his middle fifties much young wife. an art of such vigor and maturity that by a long-established civilization. Here I can only dwell on the more dramatic moments of those few weeks in the summer of 1876. Each of these graves was a rectangular shaft. drinking cups of gold and silver and other equipment. could have been produced only Among the most lovely objects . To quote Professor Wace's summarizing description. and two small children. In these sepulchres were the remains of nineteen people. delicately scraping away each layer of soil. The women had their toilet boxes men lay golden masks and on their chests Two women wore golden frontlets and one a and dress pins of various precious materials and their clothes were decked with golden discs ornamented with bees."GOLDEN MYCENAE" them had to 49 work alone whenever they came to the final clearing of a grave (for this was only the first of several). .
Goths. flounced skirts like Victorian crinolines. and the signal which warned Clytemnestra and her paramour of his . probably the Nile. Besides these particular blades. and wearing full. bracelets. on the reverse side. . . tramplings" of five conquests. inlaid in gold with designs in intaglio. while above fluttered the startled wild fowl. abided for a little time. the Acropolis of Mycenae has a garrison. including a bronze sword blade with running horses.C. and tiny human and animal figures in gold.50 THE BULL OF MINOS were two bronze dagger blades. The Dorians. intricately embossed with circles. hairpins. One showed a lion hunt. and the craftsmanship of the gold inlay work was superb. spirals and conventional patterns. did not realize just objects were. Another showed a conventionalized river scene. In the women's graves were golden diadems. The hilts were richly ornamented with gold leaf. on bead seals and signet rings. On both these dagger blades the artist had shown effortless mastery in fitting his intricate design into the narrow space. For him a moment of supreme romance. the triumphant justification of his faith. slim-waisted women with elegantly coiffured hair. whose [he wrote]. wild cats slunk through the papyrus plants which grew beside the winding river. bodices of the turies but there the resemblance stopped. watch-fires seen by night throughout the whole plain of Argos carry back the mind to the watch kept for Agamemnon's return from Troy. There were also. But Mycenae had kept secret for thirty-five hundred years. there were gold leaves arranged like stars (for dress ornaments). To him they were indisputably it Homeric. a dagger blade with lions and. at the how old these moment of discovery. then gone under that barren hillside. and fixed to the blades by rivets of gold. as the tight women seem to have left their breasts bare. and he revelled in it. tiny scenes in which women appeared. with a wounded beast turning on a group of spearmen carrying huge "figure-eight" shields. gold and electrum lilies. its their way. Schliemann. there were many others equally beautiful. All these precious things had lain hidden for thirty cen- undisturbed by the "drums and the Romans. Venetians and Turks had come. . earrings. was For the first time since its capture by the Argives in 468 B.
In an earlier chapter I drew attention to the big Homeric body shield. shaped tire body (see Plate 13). Even scholars who had been sceptical before now confessed that the German dilettante treasures of the shaft graves had a strong case. . Generations of scholars had been puzzled by these descriptions in Homer of shields for in sical times. of peculiar form. From the bottom of each handle a flat sidepiece was joined to the round base. which if body being the man were standing upright would cover his whole body from head to foot." Now his faith in the accuracy of Pausanias had led him to the bodies of Agamemnon and his companions. On the gold-inlaid dagger blades the lion hunters were shown holding like a figure eight and covering the enjust such shields. For when the were examined more closely. Schliemann pointed out another example on a gold signet ring with a design representing a battle The third warrior seems to scene. had four handles. and to prevent them from making clandes. Book XI)."GOLDEN MYCENAE" 51 approach. Schliemann found a gold cup of most unusual shape: a stemmed goblet with two handles on which were two doves facing each other.C. some of them seemed to have an unmistakable connection with the Homeric poems. in Grave IV.). But this time the object of the occupation by soldiery is of a more peaceful character. His belief in Homer's Troy had led him to discover the "Treasure of Priam. facing one another. for it is merely intended to inspire awe among the country people. For such he was convinced they were. It top of each. nor was he alone in this belief. or even which there was no parallel in clasHomer's own period (900-800 B. and on were two doves feeding. which Aias held before him "like a tower" and which tapped Hector's neck and ankles as he walked. Then. . [my italics]. Now they were revealed for the first time. Each was supported by two legs. have taken to flight. the rest of the hidden by an enormous shield. Then the discoverer remembered the description of the golden cup into which old Nestor pours Pramnian wine for Machaon and himself (Iliad. tine excavations in the tombs.
under which a felt cap had been sewn in. exactly as found in the graves. perhaps on horse-trappings. Molus. It occurs in Book X. while Schliemann . Their comrades lend them arms and armor: Meriones gave Odysseus a bow. is provided by the Boars' Tusk Helmet. archaeologists and also small ivory plaques showing warriors wearing helmets . Autolycus gave it to Amphidamas of Cythera to take to Scandaea. the cup described by Homer has four handles. (probably of leather or hide) covered with slivers of boars' consider the following tusks. in his turn. and leather helmet on his head. there Evidently the helmet was a curiosity even in the time of the Trojan War. Later. Inside it set a was a strong lining of interwoven straps.g. "of all of which the reverse side is cut perfectly flat. The outer rim was cunningly adorned on either side by a row of white and flashing boars tusks. and old Pylian chiefis much larger. gave it to his son Meriones to wear. that he had found many things of a type never mentioned by Homer. But we see in the Iliad that they were . Among these were three characteristic types of object which. in the Iliad. But to Schliemann it was the tain's cup (see Plate 17)." also used on helmets. for the poet says: This helmet originally came from Eicon. that wonderful night passage Now piece called the "Doloneia..52 THEBULLOFMINOS The arguments over "Nestor's Cup** have continued to this day. where Autolycus stole from Amyntor son of Ormenus by breaking into his well-built house. Schliemann and other found many more examples of these ornaments. The parallel is close. and Amphidamas gave it to Molus in return for hospitality. parallel of all." in which Odysseus and Diomedes "of the loud war-cry" disguise themselves and set out to spy on the Trojan camp. which must have served to fasten them to another object. In the Fourth Grave were found sixty boars' teeth. and now it was Odysseus's it head that it served to protect Schliemann had to admit. and yet there are important differences. . of course. a quiver and a sword. and has two borings. e. The most remarkable and one that no sceptic can disprove.
body we see a round shield with a circle of small points. First. is Here he The intaglio on the following smaller ornament represents two warriors fighting a deadly duel. the most beautiful man in the Greek army. when the day's excavation was over. .. powerful. vividly drawn was mainly these miniature scenes which later excavators a clue to the life of the gave Schliemann and ancient people. cowheads of very thin gold plate tween the horns. description Some We describing another seal. just as we see represented on this bead. It has a splendidly ornamented golden sun. whose leans with loins only are covered. and with his uplifted right hand he has just plunged his double-edged On the wounded man's sword into the throat of his antagonist. sometimes flattish beads of semiprecious stone (some scholars refer to them as "gems"). A cow's head 4 . .. for. I ask whether we do not see here in the young. I shall therefore mention them briefly here. Hector was slain by Achilles by a stab in the throat [see Plate 6]."GOLDEN MYCENAE" 53 merely notes them along with others. which have a double axe be- The third and more numerous type of object were seals. . others have noted Schliemann's depicted hunting and fighting. these were sometimes in the form of signet rings. often It engraved with tiny. . with two long golden horns. He advanced left leg. . "Hector of the dancing helmet-crest". Night after night. in which he fancies he sees the fight between Hector and Achilles in Book XXII of the Iliad.. Schliemann found: of silver. handsome man. See Cretan chapters. . . the rest of the all the weight of his body on his body being naked. of such a scene in which the "body shield" occurs. scenes in intaglio. . . The one to the left of the spectator is a tall. scenes were manifestly religious. beardless young man with an uncovered head. on its forehead [see Plate 11]. were very important in relation to later discoveries in Crete.. of two and a fifth inches in diamThere were also found two eter. 4 Subsequently recognized as a bull. . Achilles. the shields were of leather]. and the soldiers' watch fires gleamed on the Mycenaean Acropolis. and in his antagonist. probably intended to represent the glitter of the brass [here he was wrong. . powerful. in the Fourth Grave.
the bodies of two infants. should have been huddled together in the same tomb. as at Troy. their very close proximity. weighing the heavy golden goblets. wrapped in gold. were found in one their companions. banquet by Aegisthos? Who could doubt it? Eurymedon had been a charioteer. who had died a natural death at long intervals of time.. When the mask was removed from the face of the first man. puzzling scenes on the seal stones. three women. with all its flesh. his skull crumbled away on being exposed to air. After Schliemann's departure Stamatakis discovered and excavated a which contained two bodies. the impossibility of admitting The that three or even five royal personages of immeasurable wealth. And there. Cassandra.54 THE BULL OF MINOS Heinrich and Sophia would be poring over that day's discoveries. had been wonderfully preserved under its ponderous golden mask. the round face. the perfect similarity of all the tombs. scrutinizing through magnifying glasses those fascinating. slain at that fatal For Schliemann there were no doubts that it was Homer's world he had found the world of the Iliad. but both 8 sixth grave. he found what he ardently wished to find. But the third body. Schliemann had found five graves. which lay at the north end of the tomb. Eurymedon and of the graves. all these facts are so many proofs that all twelve men. Had he not discovered the tombs of Agamemnon.] It was the fifth in this spirit of passionate faith that he excavated 5 and. Cassandra was said to have given birth to twins who were killed with their mother. Three male bodies lay in the tomb. there was no vestige of hair. finally. chariots were represented on the grave stelae. golden breastplates on their chests and golden masks on their faces. [the had been murdered simultaneously and burned at the same time graves showed signs of fires having been lit within them. and perhaps two or three children. identity of the mode of burial. . for him. the last grave. Pausanias had mentioned five graves. and. admiring the vessels of silver. the same thing happened with the second body.. alabaster and faience. trying to understand this long-dead world which they had rediscovered. the great resemblance of all the ornaments the . their richly inlaid weapons beside them.
a bench near a low-hanging pepper tree sits Orestes. and not as we now understand them in the light of later knowledge. and showed thirty-two beautiful teeth. And ahead lies the narrow winding road to Mycenae. also the mouth."GOLDEN MYCENAE" 55 eyes were perfectly visible. all the physicians who came to see the body were led to believe that the man must have died at the early age of thirty-five. We have seen Mycenae through Schliemann's eyes. owing to the enormous weight that had pressed upon it. therefore. the discoverer sat down and wrote And the gold face mask from the soil and a telegram to the King of Greece. to call our first halt. sometimes of a lost his We to look way. behind at the ground we have covered and ahead at the hills we have still to cross. to our let us look at it for ourselves. front of "La Belle On own time. lifted that evening. have followed Heinrich Schliemann from the obscurity Mecklenburg parsonage to his finest hour in the citadel of the Atridae. while the news spread like wildfire through the Argolid that the well-preserved body of a man of the heroic age had been found. Now Back. looking out towards the Vale of Argos. was wide open. Schliemann kissed it. But this book is the story of a journey in search of truth. to see them as he saw them. to the gravelled space in Hlene" on the morning after my arrival. like all pioneers. which. In describing his successive discoveries I have tried to be faithful to his interpretation of them. "I It read: have gazed on the face of Agamemnon" [see Plate 12]. From these. then. from whence blows the faint smell of the sea. and Schliemann. The time has come. .
At a turn in the road I met a ring of shepherd boys. The bones of the hill showed through their thin covering. a great stone gateway.CHAPTER V PAUSE FOR REFLECTION ALTHOUGH February was not quite over. the sides of which were also of finely I recognized it. dancing rather solemnly Ahead rose the twin hills of Elias sharp against the archaeologists perhaps that Mount Zara and Mount Hagios Wedgwood-blue sky. on Hagios Elias have found remains of a Mycenaean watchtower." I paused beneath the great doorway and masoned stonework. opened into the hillside. called the "dromos. from the triangular over the gate. it weighs a hundred and twenty tons. it is over sixteen feet wide and Carved from a 56 . here was no soft meadowland but naked limestone. but at that distance it was disappointto see great walls clearly outlined against the ing. looked up at the lintel. where it curved round a buttress of the valley. Army overcoats. three times as high as a man. in ragged ex-American to the sound of a pipe. approached by a deep cutting. Between these two peaks I could see the lower hill on which stood the Citadel. rock and surface boulders merged into one. but this was not Warwick Castle or Kenilworth. as the largest of the "tholos" or "beehive" opening tombs. the air full of the scent of thyme and the tinkle of sheep bells. On the left of the road. I had expected green earth. But near at hand there was wonder. from which Clytemnestra's watchman saw the beacon fire. single piece of limestone. the morning was clear and sunny. walls. at a distance. and the spring grass was only a faint mist of green above the grey." Entering the cutting. Five tall men lying heel to head in a straight line would just cover its length. so that. the famous "Treasury of Atreus.
But no one standing within that lovely building could help but endorse his judgment on its unknown architect. the accuracy of the building. all show that an intellect at work. and reverberant. it is now known that they were tombs. exactly like the interior of a huge beehive. a smooth. And though Sir Arthur Evans believed that they were older than the shaft graves. where has stayed for over three thousand years (see Plate 1). and none are so perfectly preserved as this one. This great chamber diameter at floor bigger when is nearly fifty feet in over forty-five feet high. This unknown master of the Bronze Age who designed was and built the Treasury of Atreus deserves to rank with the great architects of the world. Pausanias and other classical writers called them "Treasuries. there is a definite plan showing that before a stone was cut or excavation begun a trained brain had considsingle ered the problems involved and found a solution. and fitted it accurately into position. Before coming to Greece I had read Professor Wace's book on Mycenae. one is inside it. that. though in most the roofs have fallen in. comparable to the Pyramids of Egypt. they date from between 1500 and 1300 B. The purpose of the tremendous hundred-ton lintel. The plan of the Here. tomb reveals clear thinking it and a definite intention as well as bold imagination. But from interments found in similar tombs in other parts of Greece. Indeed." in which it was believed the ancient lords of Mycenae had kept their wealth. Inside the tomb it was dim.PAUSE FOR REFLECTION has a thickness of more than three Mycenaeans had manoeuvred it onto it 57 feet. its Yet somehow the stone jambs without cranes or lifting-jacks. and seems even level. I had begun to suspect that his fondness for the place might have led him to overpraise its monuments. in fact. first of all. the oblique jointing system in the setting of the threshold. the excavations of Professor Wace and others have shown conclusively that they are later. . Furthermore had also calculated weights and thrusts reveals that the mind behind the plan and stresses and taken the necessary steps to counteract them. There are numbers of these "tholos" tombs in and near the valley. cool. the fruit of many years' patient study and excavation of a site which he clearly loves. circular cave. rising in courses of beautifully cut blocks which curved inwards till they met in the center.C.
someone had produced a building I had come to regard grand in conception. After a few yards I paused and looked down at the space on my right. between the ramp and the western wall of the fortress. superb in construction. unmistakably European in spirit. Passing through the gate and over the threshold. At close quarters on which the Acropolis stands is much more steep than appears from a distance. like the enceinte of a medieval castle. two rampart lions.58 THE BULL OF MINOS To which I would add a personal observation. But here. . unmortared blocks so huge and heavy that thirty centuries of wind. on European soil. called that I was not to be disappointed. I climbed the steep ramp on the left. earthquake. which wound upwards towards the peak of the Acropolis. whipping the helmet crests of the warriors as they marched down the winding valley to the ships. to my eyes. as Oriental. built of unhewn. In all the world walls. Immediately below me lay six open. worn by chariot wheels. while the women watched them go. Above the big square portal. This was perhaps a sacred symbol of the Great Earth Mother. nearly a thousand years before the Parthenon. headless but still magnificent. with its great monolithic lintel stone. for what it worth. and I realized with a the it "Cyclopean" by the later Greeks. Travel in Egypt and the Near East had familiarized me with many ancient buildings. There they stand. almost encircle only the hilltop. Returning to the road. so that almost automatically is any great structure earlier than 1000 B. especially on the east. square shafts. graceful in proportion and. on the by the proud Gate of Lions. pierced. surrounded by a circle of stone slabs standing to a height of several feet. as now. battle and pillage have not been able entirely to dislodge them. Then. As I drew hill nearer. rain. support a central pillar. The lions are the oldest monumental statuary to be found in Europe. who thought that the Cyclopes ( giants ) could have built them. through which passed Agamemnon and his men on their way to Troy. I was looking at the graves discovered by Schliemann and Stamatakis west side. the walls thrill became more distinct. I climbed towards the Citadel. the wind blew in from the sea.C. The fortress there are few sights so stirring as these dark ramparts. goddess of fecundity and source of all life.
After a short horizontal section the passage turned at right angles to the west ) and descended by about twenty more steps until it ( itself and plunged steeply into the earth. apart subterranean reservoir makes a greater its supplies is still impression than anything else in Agamemnon's fortress. there. Perseia. on this side the steep rocky sides of the ravine made it impregnable. and I counted over sixty steps as I felt damp. The secret cistern from which the Mycenaean garrison drew this from the Lion Gate. while on the remaining sides the huge walls must have been impassable in the days when spears and arrows were the most powerful weapons (see Plate 9). How. I asked myself. The water is fed to it by earthenware pipes from the same spring. as the flames leaped up saw the glistening. where the sentries pacing the wall looked northwards up the pass to Corinth. not far from the Postern Gate a "sally port. my way downward. Near the bottom I lit a heap of dried sagebrush and. arched walls of the tunnel. probably used as On this side. brought me to the eastern limits of the fortress. Only a military people would have chosen such a site. was the secret water supply of the garrison. This cistern. the Mycenaean sentry had a fine view down the ravine and towards the sea. and right at my feet a square-shaped stone shaft. Water it did not lack. I found the entrance to it on the north side. nearly twenty feet deep. where a pointed arch in the mighty wall overlooked the ravine." a smaller entrance than the Lion Gate. and. But properly victualled it could have withstood a long siege.PAUSE FOR REFLECTION some eighty years 59 now open to the sky and choked with prickly oak and asphodel. which they could use in time of siege. ago. which the Greek traveller Pausanias saw seventeen hun- doubled back on . I came to a triangularheaded arch from which a steep flight of steps began to descend into the earth (see Plate 10). through rooms an obvious lookout point. It was and pitch black. From this place. First they passed obliquely through the great wall. Then a laborious scramble over low walls. filled to the brim with clear water. could such a place be taken? Perhaps by surprise or treachery. as in the case of Troy. Grass and spring wildflowers grew where once lay the royalty of "golden Mycenae" (see Plate 5). until they were outside the wall and underground.
Within the hall itself. pracof the Great Hall or tically all that remains are a few walls "Megaron. . . the site of the Palace itself. now a platform of stone open to the sky. according to the story as told by Aeschylus. I found the four bases of the pillars which had supported the roof. but the cistern and its approach tunnel. according Wace's estimate. were fifteen hundred years old when Pausanias came still here. to the highest point. And so Prince Telamachus and Nestor's royal son spent the night there in the forecourt of the palace. Spread purple where he treads! the Queen commands. alas. But it was possible to make out the foundations of the Outer Court. It was the floor of this courtyard and hall which Clytemnestra adorned with royal purple in honor of her husband's return. and between them was the hearth on which the fire burned in winter. the King had his High Seat. till I came. of which. room which the far side of the court are the foundations of a small may one be allowed to fancy was the bathroom . Menelaiis's royal brother. while Menelaiis slept in his room at the back of the high buildings and the lady Helen in her long robe by his side." The rest has slipped down the hillside. Whom On Fitly the broidered foot-cloth marks his path justice leadeth to his long-lost home train. I climbed higher still. With unexpected . up steep winding paths past ruined walls. Just such a porch and forecourt lay before the Hall of Agamemnon. Mycenaeans vati. breathlessly. on one side of which was the entrance porch leading to the Megaron Readers of the Odyssey will remember that when Telemachus pays a visit to Menelaiis to discover news of his father. according to Homer. near these pillars. the same spring which supplied the provides water for the modern village of Char- And Returning to the surface.60 THE BULL OF MINOS to Professor dred years ago. he sleeps under the porch: itself.
At my feet the land fell away gently in terraces. Here. Behind me Mount Hagios Elias stood grandly against the pale sky. I take my rooted stand. dead. where I struck. warmed by I the first Resting there. . such bathrooms existed. I had reached the end of the first part of climb. Thus it stands. beyond the Bay On bands of trees terra-cotta. But every . reflected breath of spring. Tired after Among the spring grass and the worn grey stones grew tiny down and my my looked around me. And beyond lay the fertile Argive Plain "Argos. which the delicate green of vetch alternated with Here and there. husband. Far off to the south. He knew that archaeological truths must inevitably be expressed in theories which represent the most feasible explanations from available evidence. or the sound of his pipe. not suspecting her long-maturing hate. But from old Hate. Some of his early views he corrected himself in his own lifetime. save for an occasional puff of wind which brought with it the song of a shepherd boy on one of the far-off slopes. Agamemnon was struck down: Not with a random inconsiderate blow. the work of this right hand My . of Argolis. Agamemnon Upon the finished deed. beyond range upon range of intervening peaks. like splashes of fresh blood. we know. home of lovely women/' as Homer described it. and with maturing Time. . Schliemann would have been the first to approve of these changes. a giant in a land of great mountains. when new knowledge had been gained. rose the snow-crested ridge of Mount Parnon. Here was the landscape of the Peloponnese at its loveliest. on the many developments in Greek archaeology since Schliemann dug there so many years ago." The air was still.PAUSE FOR REFLECTION 61 in which the King was done to death? At Knossos. Here. Lured by her flattery of the purple cloths. accented in places by the darkly vertical cypresses. lies The hand of a true workman. I sat pilgrimage. Others had to be modified after his death. symmetrical rows of olive marched along the lower slopes. when he was not calling it "horse-rearing Argos. in every side rose mountains. scarlet anemones.
C. Once having been able to date certain layers by the presence of pottery found in "datable" Egyptian tombs. read? Fortunately for archaeology some of this early Aegean pottery found its way into Egyptian tombs. but at the risk of oversimplification as possible in a few sentences.C. a dated inscription here. discoveries on scores of "Mycenaean" sites in Greece and the islands have enabled scholars to develop a system of "sequence dating" principally by means of pottery. new facts are disclosed. or perhaps the result of a piece of solid reit still search between four study walls. if one particular type of pottery is always found within the same strata. since Schliemann's day. have been the center and many have been unearthed. and the highest the most recent. then it clearly belongs to one chronological period.62 THE BULL OF MINOS year. the lowest obviously being the For example. and does not appear in lower or higher strata. be- tween and below the dated evitably far less precise than layers. If the theory is soundly based. stands. it was possible to date. But it is that the shaft-grave interments were much earlier. Mycenae seems to of an empire extending over a large part of the Aegean. or has to be modified. Even so. the traditional date now known of the Trojan War (since confirmed by archaeology). no! Assuming Agamemnon to have been an historical personage. . But how can one apply a date to such a period. he would have lived round about 1180 B. It would take too long to explain exactly how this is done. a piece of potsherd there. Was Schliemann right in believing that the bodies in the shaft graves were those of Agamemnon and his companions? Alas. I will try to get as near the truth As we shall see later.. on dozens of different sites. it collapses. the objects found in layers above. it is possible to trace the development of a culture by studying the pottery and other objects found in successive layers. But there is always a gain in truth. the dating is in- Egyptian chronology. If not. roughly between 1600 and 1500 B. when the people of prehistoric Greece left no dated inscriptions which can be earliest. We know this because. very approximately. "Mycenaean" and "proto-Mycenaean" sites Where a site has been in long occupation. which can be dated.
"The sides of each grave were lined with a wall of small quarry stones and clay. noticed the reference to the "slate slabs" which Schlie- mann had found leaning against the wall. the brilliant young Professor Dorpfeld. But in certain of the graves Schliemann found what he described as "little boxes of stout sheet copper. Dr. who did so much to bring more scientific methods into Schliemann's later excavations. man began to reflect on the still-unsolved problem of young Years the the shaft graves. and he asked the Doctor a few questions." filled with wood in fair preservation. "Several slate slabs were leaning against this were lying crossways or slanting over the bodies. each laden with and surrounded by arms and ornaments. and fastened all round by a number of strong wall. and which he thought had been "the revetment of the clay walls. The error might have been detected by the master himself if he had not been so passionately anxious to prove that the bodies had all been buried at the same time. They must all have been buried at the same time.PAUSE FOR REFLECTION 63 But Schliemann's mistake was revealed long before this system of comparative dating had come into general use. These slate slabs were to prove very important later. . argued Schliemann. which has been preserved up to different heights. They finally suggested that they might were put into the Museum at Athens with the rest of the treas- copper nails. others out what these had been. later. since it would have been impossible to dig down through the superincumbent earth to introduce a later burial without disturbing those already lying there. it was discovered by his own assistant. and have been headrests. Schliemann saw in them the revetment of the clay walls" (my italics). That seemed logical enough. The bodies lay within a few feet of each other. Did the bodies represent a simultaneous interment or the successive burials of a dynasty? He read and reread Then he Schliemann's descriptions of the graves as he had found them. He found the corpses lying on beds of pebbles at the bottom of the shafts." A thought struck him. covered with a mass of clay and stones which he naturally assumed had been thrown into the graves after the burials. in the fifth grave it still reached seven feet eight inches/' writes Schuchhardt. He could not make ures. when Dorpfeld was working for Schliemann. In fact.
that "Treasury of Atreus" which is sometimes called himself is more likely to have in the valley. after the last of the dynasty had laid in this tomb. He been buried in one of the great one likes to think he lay in the "Tholos* tombs finest of all. the members. This had not been noticed by Schliemann. He went again to the Museum and examined those "little boxes of sheet copper" which Schliemann has thought were headrests. Originally those slabs of slate had served to roof the graves. they would have been as ancient as the Tudors are to us. where indeed they were found? I think the answer is that there was in Pausanias's time a strong Agamemnon. make been a number others. some were leaning against the sides. Certainly they were royal. pressed down by the earth which had accumulated above. Later." One was lying he became more suspicious. anxious as he was to believe that all the bodies had been buried simultaneously. and crushed condition of several). of separate interments without disturbing the perhaps centuries. so that originally each grave had been a family vault. in which it would have been quite possible to When Dorpfeld heard this. perhaps. across a body. which had not been filled in with earth. crashed down onto the bodies (which accounted for the had rotted away. Baulks of timber had been laid across the lip of each tomb. . the timber baulks the slabs. the Tomb of But what of the tradition cited by Pausanias. it Minoan over roughly a century." The slabs of slate had rested on top of the baulks. Then he realized what had happened. in fact. that." he asked. "how were they placed when you found them?" "Against the sides of the graves. when more had been became learned of Mycenaean and clear that the objects found in the shaft graves did not all belong to the same period." "Flat against the sides?" "No. Years. of an entire dynasty.64 THE BULL OF MINOS "Those slabs. who said the tombs lay within the Citadel. But to Agamemnon. They were full of decayed wood held in place by copper nails. the ends resting on the ground being strengthened by copper sheaths Schliemann's "boxes. had he lived. there were subtle differences indicating that the burials had extended art. but the "boxes" gave the game away.
though their memory graves. hidden under the stone chippings thrown down from a later sepulchre excavated at a higher level.PAUSE FOR REFLECTION 65 Mycenae.** However. Keramopoullos all of whom made their contribution to the rev"A. half a century later. but 1 it seems to me unlikely that he ever saw their gravestones.500 years old when he came to have been there still it likely that the gravestones could visible in classical times and remain unrobbed? But lingered in the vicinity of Mycenae an ancient folk of the kings who had been buried there. found his tomb at the foot of a slope. and Rodenwaldt. happily inspired by the most fruitful version of the old tradition." leaving it as we see it today. 1 Then came Tsountas (1862-1902). Carter. see Appendix . and during much of that time it had been a deserted ruin. which did something to restore the amour-propre of the Archaeological Society of Greece. such as is formed by the deposit of earth and debris washed down lay. He also cleared the debris from the "Treasury of Atreus. is the second interesting parallel (the first was the of the Trojan treasure) with the finding by Howard discovery Carter of the tomb of Tutankhamun. the Shaft-Graves had been sunk answered to in fact. its or fallen at the foot of a declivity. as Sir Arthur Evans pointed out later in to Emil Ludwig's biography of the excavator. that and he dug with such dramatic results. It was this circumstance which favored Heinrich Schlie- mann. his introduction Excavators learn by experience that the best chance indeed the only chance of hitting on an unplundered tomb is by digging into a natural talus. And it was thus. were buried under the tons of loose earth and rock washed down from the steep slopes of the Acropolis above. dominated by the steep above. The shaft graves were more than 1. After Schliemann's departure the much-enduring Stamatakis like found the Sixth shaft grave. Is local tradition that royal personages lay within the Citadel. But the area in which all these conditions. Here Schliemann. In all parts of the world neglected tombs have invariably attracted the plunderer. It immediately beneath the ascending ramp of the Acropolis inner wall. and even their gravestones.
As in were made to the illustrious Is there still any support for Schliemann's belief that the The most dramatic 1952. See Appendix "A. have disclosed facts able to Schliemann or his successors. was and within the be poured circle. Of this epoch Wace says: ishing state. and were contemporary with these kings of the early Eighteenth Dynasty in Egypt Amasis and the early Tuthmoses. up to and since the war. princes and princesses of the royal family were buried in that part of the cemetery which now comes within the walls. the evidence indicates that princes before Troy Zeus. held in great veneration. From 1920 onwards British excavations.. It corresponds admirably with our idea of the stronghold which was the capital of Agamemnon.. probable that regular offerings dead. with the circular well-like altar the gravestones were through which the blood Egypt. and holder of the supreme sovereignty granted by It was during this latter period that the Mycenaeans built the Cyclopean Walls with the Lion and Postern Gates. about 1400-1150 B. The slope of the ground levelled off. Wace has shown that the prehistoric cemetery of which the shaft graves form part originally extended beyond the line of the Cyclopean walls. west of the Lion Gate. At the same time the burial place of the earlier kings. it is of sacrifice could to the heroes below. Mycenae's greatest period was that of the last phase of the Late Bronze Age. raised. when the citadel fell into ruin. represented by the British School at Athens. King of Men.. Mycenae was a strong and flourthe seat of a powerful dynasty with a wide dominion. was surrounded by the circle of stone slabs which Schliemann had mistaken for the agora. soil washed down from the slopes above gradually covered both the Grave Circle and the memorial stones with their sculptured charioteers. 2 These and published in the which were not avail- For example.C. scholarship. sealing them from curious eyes for more than thirty centuries. They seem to have belonged to one dynasty." discovery since Schliemann's time was made in . primus inter pares of the Greek all . continued to excavate at Mycenae.C. Later.66 elation of THEBULLOFMINOS Mycenaean civilization. Between approximately 1600 and 1500 B. directed by Professor Wace Annual of the School.
and. But in the remains of a late Mycenaean house near the Lion Gate was found a fragment of a vase the famous Warrior Vase which clearly shows Mycenaean soldiers carrying smaller. Homeric swords were sharp-edged for a slashing Eventually even Schliemann himself was forced to admit Homer who composed the Iliad could not have lived at that the the time of the Trojan War. round shields with a "bite" out of the bottom. stroke. The arguments on behalf of the "eight-shaped" shield.C. civilization a thousand years older than the Greek. Homer understood the use of iron. Mycenaean bronze swords are rapiers designed for thrusting. perhaps. The indigo up a new world for archae- Minds accustomed to the cautious scepticism of Grote on European soil. the Homeric heroes burned theirs. the Boars' Tusk Helmet. It is true that the shields shown on the shaft-grave daggers are large and shaped like a figure-of-eight. nor has it ceased even today. Even the objection that some of Homer's shields are round can be met by those who support a Mycenaean origin of the poems. To take a few examples: the Mycenaeans buried their dead. Yet even Schliemann had to admit that there were many elements of Mycenaean life which were quite unlike that which Homer describes. So. Hundreds of books and articles in many languages poured from the presses of Europe and America. The Mycenaeans were a Bronze Age people. said the believers. and learned gentlemen fought their wordy battles with the vigor of Achilles and Hector themselves. and the discoveries which followed soon after at Tiryns. the use of bronze for weapons. or lack of resemblance. This vase is believed to be of the thirteenth century B. was not in their resemblance. Homeric poems.PAUSE FOB REFLECTION 67 Mycenaean civilization was the one described by Homer? Answer: yes and no. the period of the Trojan War. Nor was high . indeed they are irrefutable. "Nestor's Cup" are still accepted. a suddenly realized that there had existed. to the merchant turned scholar had opened ology. But the real significance of Mycenae. Yet he had started a controversy which was to rage for more than half a century. the round shields mentioned in Homer do not in themselves prove that he lived in post-Mycenaean times.
on the mainland and in the islands. Orchomenos. confined to Mycenae. for he himself was able to follow the trail of discovery a good deal further before it was taken up by others. In a way to and military structure of Greece it was exasperating. which I will try to summarize at the end of this book. In most of the places which Homer described as having sent contingents to the Trojan War. Gradually the Homeric side of the question less important as the further excavations proved became less and and how long established this ancient culture had been. Amyclae tlements. With the other. The there were remains of Mycenaean setCatalogue of Ships in the Iliad seems to give a hand Homer seemed fairly true picture of the political in Mycenaean times. made a significant dis- Lacedaemon. With one betray his devotees. Archaeologists who investigated other sites. Some have remained unanswered. But for the present we are going back to take up the thread of Schliemann's story after his Mycenaean glory. and which were therefore important political centers places such as Tiryns. he magnificently supported them.68 it THEBULLOFMINOS covery. To others partial replies can be given. But who were these people? Where did they come from? What language had they spoken? What could be learned about their religion and customs? Had they a system of writing and could it be deciphered? What was their relationship with other Mediter- how widespread ranean peoples? These were some of the questions to which archaeologists and historians had to apply themselves during the coming years. .
it rides the peaceful fields like a battleship long and low and outline like a gun turret. the mightiest surviving example of a Mycenaean fortress. The resemblance to a medieval castle is even more marked than at those Cyclopean walls. Although the site has not the romantic setting of Mycenae. From close at hand all up to ten tons each. the land rises gradually towards the hills where lies Mycenae. a few low houses of mud brick and terra-cotta tiles. from outside the fortress. Beyond them. from 200 to 250 feet broad. the place has a grim splendor which still justifies the name which Homer gave it Tiryns of the Great Walls. to the north. There is a caf with a few wobbly iron tables. a jail from which. with its Acropolis breaking the It is 900 feet long. their old. barking dogs and a general air of polite decay. and there in front of you stands Tiryns next to Mycenae itself. grey. On one side of the road is an arm of the Bay of Argolis. go past the prison. nor the glamour of its legend. stands a village. a trumpet sounds. walk a few steps along the village street. at intervals. and from 30 to 50 feet high.CHAPTER VI "HERE BEGINS NEW AN ENTIRELY SCIENCE" A FEW miles from the town of Argos. unwrought or roughly blocks. and have within them long galleries. vaulted at the top and pierced on the outer side by triangular embrasures which. gnarled feet gripping the brown. crumbling earth. made hewn other impressions are crushed by of ponderous. weighing these walls varies from 69 . On the other are the inevitable rows of dusty olive trees. The total width of between twenty-five and fifty feet. on the road to Nauplia. look like black. Some are hollow. donkeys. You climb off the ramshackle bus. gaping mouths." From a distance.
the brillant young architect whom Sir Arthur Evans.70 THEBULLOFMINOS Mycenae. and a few clay cows and terra-cotta "idols" similar to those he later discovered at Mycenae. the cautious Dorpfeld pointed out. now aged sixty-two." It says much for Schliemann's vision and essential humility that he appreciated Dorpf eld's genius and accepted (with occasional rebellious outbursts) his . two men in shirt-sleeves." It was Dorpfeld who gradually introduced the discipline of science into the older man's investigations. wise guidance. The apertures were probably intended for archers. If you could have been at Tiryns in 1884. accuracy in publication and temperateness in controversy. as ." In classical times it had. described as "Schliemann's greatest discovery. The other older man was Schliemann. "cannot be settled by abuse but only by objective proof. . Now and again he would make a note. Heracles is also supposed to have con- quered it and lived within its walls for a long time hence he is sometimes called "The Tirynthian. just before beginning his Mycenaean excavations. In 1876. and taught him the value of care and patience in excavation. was talking rapidly and making energetic gestures built calmly eating. "Scientific questions. . a balding.) Traditionally the fortress had been built by Proteus. you might have seen." he would tell his angry employer. then return to his meal. yet Tiryns was more than twelve hundred years before Christ. in later years. who into his companion's monologue. exaggeration. or taking an occasional satisfied gulp from his glass of resinous wine. The elder. sent four hundred men to the battle of Plataea. Pausanias had described the walls of Tiryns as "composed of unwrought stones. with Mycenae. Once again Schliemann had followed his ancient authors." (An cannot even shake the smallest one. whilst the galleries themselves must have served for covered communications leading to armories. spectacled gentleman with a high forehead and thick moustache. . guard chambers or towers. The was Dorpfeld. each of which is so large that a team of mules . Schliemann had sunk a few test pits there and brought to light "Cyclopean" house walls at considerable depth. the embrasures resembling gun ports. or interject a few words to his sat much younger companion. sitting under the shade of a wall and munching cheese and corned-beef sandwiches. .
that building had been in Ithaca. . they had removed hundreds of tons of earth from the middle and upper citadels and revealed. and carefully measured and drawn by Dorpfeld. twenty large iron crow-bars fifty pickaxes. as described in the Odyssey. with the Palace of Odysseus. as I am not the right man for it. though when he read the German's book. pillar bases were laid bare. porch. thresholds. True. Already."HERE BEGINS AN ENTIRELY NEW SCIENCE" 71 But that was eight years ago. Schliemann was in his element. fifty large shovels" and other formidable equipment. and he renewed acquaintance with Gladstone. But what years they had been! First there had been his triumphal tour of England in 1877. scene of his greatest triumph only eight years ago. after cautious consideration of the available facts.about it. and now he had returned. he came out in support of Schliemann's view: that the shaft graves had contained the bodies of Agamemnon and his murdered companions. Walls. summer of 1884. he confessed to Murray. Gladstone's interest in Homeric and Schliemann asked him to write a preface to his forthcoming Prime Minister to Mycenae. not. There. this time. the clear ground plan of an Homeric palace. the publisher. seventy workmen." Nevertheless he contributed a lengthy and wellreasoned introduction in which. in that . The aging merchant-scholar with his rapidly thinning hair and thick spectacles had reason to feel content as he leaned his back against the ancient wall and looked across the sunny plain of Argos. but with a skilled architect. . when thirty learned societies had vied with each other to honor him. and "forty English wheelbarrows with iron wheels. This was an age when it was still not unusual for a combine statecraft with classical scholarstudies was well known. with Madame Schliemarm. but this was so similar to it that it was even possible. ship. but enough had been done to give Schliemann its Megaron. The excavations were not complete yet. that he was "quite worried . if one allowed for a few discrepancies. rose the hills which hid Mycenae. For the plan of the Palace. courtand adjoining rooms. The Liberal leader could hardly refuse. . doorways. to 'visualize the fight in which Odysseus slew the suitors. on the northern skyline. whom he had first met in 1875. for the first time. bore unmistakable resemblances to yards great satisfaction.
. Yet. 1878. on the plat- some fair and unbiased. he brought in trained of the specialists to help him. . were to continue through Schliemann's life. while Sophia told them how for twenty-five days she and her husband had knelt almost in the soil of the shaft graves and lifted from them. Convalescing in Athens. in the me her seat. How very different it . and he often had reason bitterly to regret Criticisms. responsible opinion came to place an ever-higher value on the German's discoveries. has been after for weeks to paint me life-size for the Royal Academy. jealousy and never ceased to cause him pain. she was able to join him. one by one. gradually. is in Germany. and that "Hodge. Those had been heart-lifting moments. Both made speeches in English.. who had carried off her photograph "so please bring others with you" that the London Photographic Society had paid him forty pounds for permission to take and sell his photograph. attacks which had made Schliemann write: In London. But the legend publicity-seeking mountebank died hard. . summer. and fashionable ladies listened. others prompted by and malice. Schliemann had christened AndromBut now his dearest hopes were ful- . they were each awarded a special diploma by the Archaeological Institute. the painter." Finally. There I met only with abuse. before a distinguished audience of over a thousand people. the too precipitate publication of his early finds. In the following year. she wistfully read her husband's enthusiastic letters. especially when.72 THE BULL OF MINOS When Heinrich went to England in 1877. moments which almost compensated for the bitter attacks of the German critics. whom earlier. been born whom ache. he named naturally Agamemnon. and took a grave and lovely woman of twenty-eight. the golden treasures of the Atridae. Seven years when he had first begun to dig at Troy. fascinated. Sophia presented him with a son. a daughter had to them. telling her that ten societies had asked him to lecture. . that yesterday he had had dinner with Gladstone. his English triumphs were crowned by an even greater joy. There. form of the Royal Society. Sophia was ill and unable to accompany him. after Hector's wife. in later years. I was received for seven weeks as if I had discovered a new part of the globe for England.
Here Schliemann and his wife would receive their distinguished guests from many parts of the world. Schliemann the practical revealed himself at the solemn Orthodox christening. there were others digging and unearthing the rich treasures of Mycenae and Troy. just as the priest was about to im- merse the mometer infant. Then. That was Schliemann the romantic. On the roof marble gods and goddesses stood against the blue sky. and who was this. Meanwhile. was the golden "Treasure of Priam'' which Heinrich and Sophia had un- earthed from beneath the walls of Troy. the difficulties concerning the firman having been temporarily solved. and a particularly splendid ballroom where guests who cared to examine the frieze of putti round the walls could see that these tiny figures represented the principal activities of the host's life. gazing across the landscape why. it was the most palatial building in the capital. 1S78. remain outside.''HERE BEGINS AN ENTIRELY filled. within and without the house. while. in September. But all . were the words "Iliou Melathron" Palace of Ilios. When completed. and throughout the whole of Greece few equalled its magnificence. in Athens. Schliemann himself! On walls and staircases. that was to come later. climbed Mount Aetos. In the same year he began to build for himself a mansion on what is now University Street. where he thorbuilding. opulent but chilly. the entranced father held a copy of Homer above his head and read aloud a hundred lines from the poet. NEW SCIENCE" 73 Before the child was more than a few hours old. and on the ground floor. a figure in black. sank a few experimental shafts at various places. plunged a therinto the font and checked the temperature. his parent darted forward. with horn-rimmed spectacles. carved on the front of the palace. in Greek letters. as the house was Schliemann paid another visit to Ithaca. Other walls bore the verses of Homer and Hesiod. a few years later. were inscriptions from the ancient Greek authors. Above the great man's study were the words of Pythagoras: All who do not study geometry. displayed in glass cases. Within were pillared halls and marble staircases. oughly explored the island. but found nothing of great interest. when. Here some of the figures were reading Homer and Pausanias. he returned to Troy. above doors.
A month later he was joined by one of the most distinguished scientists of Europe. . Virchow. Mr. but this was the moment when their association became close and intimate. Emil Ludwig. . he uncovered another smaller treasure of golden objects. impelled by he had become a member of the humane German Parliament. Monarch.. . education. in the presence of seven officers of H. or relationship of an independent mind about whom . scientific . by-paths into the world ing. He was distinguished port from other German university professors by an unbiased outlook. . during the closing years of his life. the large building west and northwest of the Gate. religion. . Intrepid.74 THEBULLOFMINOS though they were soon to crop up again. so Schliemann went to Europe for a few months. Both men had in youth stepped beyond the bounds of their calland struck out.. was almost the same age as the archaeologist. a man who was to have a strong and beneficial influence on Schliemann . returning to the Dardanelles in February. which always ruled out personal questions about the origin. contained in a broken terra-cotta vessel "in a chamber in the north-west part of the building . . Virchow was the man to supnew discoveries whatever their source.M. . the one out of revolutionary sympathy. controversy raged.. the other from ambition and an impulse towards higher tasks. this time as a politician. in- They had already corresponded. . happily why these two very dissimilar spirits were drawn together. It friend was these qualities which made Virchow such a valuable and ally for the impetuous excavator. had voluntarily and disinterestedly assumed a second both burden. 1879.S. or at least prospected. humane. pathological system. to whose Schliemann of Troy all later writers explains the reasons on Schliemann are bound to be indebted. He had gained fame in his thirties as the founder of a new and liberal convictions. . Later. . a brilliant doctor of medicine. . He recommenced digging near the point at which he had found the "Treasure of Priam. where he had again distinguished himself. and cool. ." i. /' Winter rains stopped work at the end of November.e. Less than a month after he had begun excavating. Professor Rudolf Virchow had come out at Schliemann's vitation. His cool.
its like. Schliemann directing the excava- Burnouf making plans.. forming for realistic contemplation a phenomenon quite as unique as "Sacred Ilios" for poetical . . untroubled by scruples concerning his unacademic background. while he had the discernment to recognize and encourage the natural genius of the man. not concerned as Schliemann was with a desperate search for Homeric parallels. Never feeling. in his view. Virchow. which plays such a vital part in the topography of the Iliad. it hundred-page volume the preface. was still perplexed he had uncovered. They climbed Mount Ida together. possibly be Homeric. any other heap of ruins is a world by itself. and when. and Virchow studying the flora. . But Schliemann. It has not which to judge standard by once it. who had hollowed out an enormous crater in the centre of the hill. With Virchow came M. in the following year. and found the source of the river Scamander. in This excavation has opened given like a for the studies of the archaeologist a completely new theatre . could see the greater significance of his friend's discoveries. Here begins an entirely new science. he avoided the imputation of being influenced by the millionaire's wealth.. as Virchow was a man of means."HERE BEGINS AN ENTIRELY NEW SCIENCE" 75 brain restrained Schliemann's wilder impulses. and Heinrich was delighted when his friend agreed that the difference in temperature between one spring and another was almost imperceptible. and together the three worked throughout the summer season. They went to the discredited site of Bounarbashi and took the temperature of the springs around which so much controversy had raged. He now put by the seven strata . Honorary Director of the French School at Athens. Schliemann published his eightwas Virchow who contributed there stands the great hill of ruins. as well as the conditions of the ruins and debris brought to light in the tions. Emile Burnouf. By the end of the season the exindigo merchant and the great scientist had become close friends. course of the "dig. And." Schliemann was also able to make several excursions with Virchow into the surrounding country. Ilios. and of which only the lower layers could. fauna and geological characteristics of the Plain of Troy.
this time with young Dorpfeld. but only after strings had been pulled by that adroit politician to ensure for Schliemann the Freedom of Berlin and. following Pausanias." was Priam's Troy. he was persuaded by Virchow to present his Trojan collection to the German nation. the city which had existed in 1180 B. .. Had he known. In 1881. cenaean "tholos" tomb which. he was also able to exercise a reDorpfeld later identified Homeric Troy as the Sixth Stratum from the bottom. Dorpfeld. Tins was accepted until Professor Blegen dug at Troy immediately before the Second World War. where at Orchomenos. . was able of the complicated strata clearly to distinguish and draw plans of Hissarlik. the walls of Homeric Troy were in the upper layers as massive as those of their contemporaries at Mycenae and as satisfying to his romantic imagination. he need not have looked at the miserable prehistoric settlement which lay at the bottom l of his crater. . 7A is believed to be the flios of the Trojan War.000 men? . . Like Virchow.78 THEBULLOFMINOS forward the belief that the Third Stratum (from the bottom). Only the absence of any reliable system of comparative dating by pottery prevented him from seeing that his "Homeric" Troy. this petty little town. with its brick walls. he thought was a Treasury. . another Homeric site.e. . with his architect's training. was there in front of his eyes. 1 .. he had uncovered a My- He had discoveries at Troy. Schliemann could not easily forgive the sneers of the German scholars first and the scornful press attacks which had followed his spent the 1880 season digging in Greece. which can hardly have housed 3.C. who had asked for the honor of working for him. but his doubts and perplexities are pathetically evident in the book. . . the so-called "Burned City.C. i. Blegen recognizes nine layers of strata. the Pour la Merite.000 inhabitants could [it] have been identical with the great Homeric Ilios of immortal renown. which withstood for ten long years the heroic efforts of the united Greek army of 110. He knew and admired the walls had he not spared them when digging for deeper remains? but he thought they were of the time of Lysimachus a mere three hundred years B." But in the ensuing year he was back at Troy. of which No. among other honors.
where he made a discovery which. Within the citadel of Tiryns he and Dorpfeld uncovered woman. with its pillared porch and courtyard. while it pleased the scientific side of his nature. where. the Turkish Army. as the current one was inhis behalf! In the meantime he made a sentisufficiently active on mental journey to his childhood home at Ankershagen. So was Minna Meincke. save. he was prevented for the time being from making further investigations by the Turkish Government. whereas your light it up. in the first years of their marriage. dealt yet another blow to his faith in his Third Stratum. "Only means of a correct plan/' he advised. Sometimes she paid him brief visits. which had now thought of a new way to annoy Schliemann. and forbade him to make further plans. and for his own good and yet. they had found the ancient gold. The Government decided that the archaeologist must be a spy. now a fat and tearful old at Tiryns."HERE BEGINS AN ENTIRELY NEW SCIENCE" straining influence on Schliemann. one suspects. perhaps. Life without you is unbearable. ing into print with a very inexact 77 and prevented him from rushplan of the excavations. British and American to work through their Embassies in Istanbul for the downfall of the obstructive Turkish officials. and would write from his hut on the Trojan I hill: eyes would burn four candles. at the cost of much of his earlier enthusiasm. but the room is still dark. taking Sophia and the children with him." Gradually the old lion was being tamed for the good of science." which. "shall we be able to by silence our adversaries completely. Sophia did not accompany him during these later seasons at Troy. Schliemann returned to Athens and again enlisted the help of his powerful friends German. Then. two seasons' work came the foundations of a "Megaron. as we have seen. The miller who had recited Homer was still alive. when he was alone he missed her greatly. He even suggested that Bismarck should appoint another German Ambassador to Turkey. and had to be introduced. Not far from Hissarlik was a decrepit fort of no interest to anyone. was so like that described in the Odyssey as to be . Still struggling with the eternal problem of the Trojan strata.
new were far older than Homer or even the Trojan War. Meanwhile the learned world examined and re-examined the precious things from Mycenae. But who were they? Schliemann believed them to have been Phoenicians. Theories were advanced and demolished. One savant said that the socalled "gold mask of Agamemnon" was a Byzantine mask of Christ.78 THEBULLOFMINOS unmistakably Homeric. Others scholars. For at Troy. what interested him most were the golden objects from Mycenae. especially the tiny engraved bead seals politely while and signet rings. Tiryns and theories put forward in their place. The Englishman listened Schliemann talked of Homer. they pored over the hundreds of steel engravings in Schliernann's bulky volumes. but to some nameless barbarian who had lived centuries before him. . the pottery and other objects found at Tiryns were so like those found at Mycenae as to make it certain that the two cities were inhabited by the same race. These objects so unlike the art of classical . in the Sixth Stratum the layer which Schliemann had considered to be of the third century Dorpfeld had excavated a similar Megaron. but seemed only mildly interested. then the treasure he had found could never have belonged to Priam. a well-known antiquarian whom Schliemann had met in England. asserted that the objects Troy or if they could not get to the objects themselves. One fact was clear. but tried to dismiss the problem from his mind. Priam's Troy but what about "Priam's Treasure. Recently married. but it raised a difficult problem. which he examined minutely through his keen but shortsighted eyes. Others disagreed. For a time he would not commit himself. This was great news." which he had found far below in the Second Layer the ornaments which his imagination gave to Helen herself these wonderful . he had come to Athens with his wife and obtained an introduction through his father. One such believer was a young Englishman of thirty-one who came to see the Schliemanns in Athens in 1882. . while paying tribute to Schliemann's intuitive genius. golden diadems which had hung on the brow of his young wife on that memorable day in 1872? If this Sixth Layer was Priam's city. For a moment Schliemann was on the brink of discovering the truth that one of the upper layers did represent Priam's Troy.
then ruling Also. from Gortyn of the Great Walls. and was the first colonizer of most of them. 79 some ways they and yet there were designs that included the octopus. course. Naturally his request did not have an easy passage. which was undoubtedly Aegean. restless as ever. . In 1886. The young man's name was Arthur Evans. Mycenae had yielded up its gold. was still seeking fresh Homeric sites to explore. from Lyctus. Where else? There was "hundred-citied Crete. In of Assyrian or Egyptian gems. so far as he Minos is the earliest ruler could. to secure his own revenues. offering thanks for safe guidance to die prayer the devout Moslems and was one spot. which he disliked reminded him controlled most of we know of who possessed a fleet. and Rhytion. all of them. fine cities . Orchomenos had been dug. In all probability he cleared the sea of pirates. Sir John Myres once told me that when he visited Crete as a young man.written. Odyssey contains many Cretan stories. Knossos. . installing his own sons as governors. there was a story that Schliemann. chalky Lycastus. after being directed to the site of Knossos legendary had sunk upon his knees and sent up a capital of King Minos to Idaean Zeus. after he had finished he arrived in Crete. for permission to dig there. This profoundly shocked the German enthusiast had such difficulty in obtainreason his work at Tiryns.. leader Of of the Cretan contingent at the siege of Troy. the Crete. Schliemann. Where could he go now? He had torn open the mound of Hissarlik. story. with Arthur Evans. and what are now Greek waters.ha d . It was puzzling.. And Homer had sung of the valiant spearman Idomeneus. Greece. why . when he was sixty-four.t < HERE BEGINS AN ENTIRELY NEW SCIENCE*' fascinated him.. Phaestus. the men from . Thucydides had only been repeating a legendary but Schliemann had great faith in legend and folk tradition. of whom the historian %Taucyjji$&& ." the domain of King Minos. but three years later. He ruled the Cyclades. Sir John does not vouch for ing permission to dig in the island. In 1883 Schliemann applied to the Turkish Government. Miletus.
the criticisms of much the English architect Penrose. he continued his journey. leaving the peasant owner in suspense.612 fewer olive trees than had been stipulated. so he returned to Athens. with Virchow. who asserted that Tiryns was of later date than Schliemann had claimed. If the wanted it. A few miles from Herakleion. when he was informed thousand francs.80 THE BULL OF MINOS ft the truth of the story. Here. but accords well with Schliemann's in a valley rising towards the mound of Kephala. and discovered that the owner of the land was trying to cheat him there were 1. Schliemann was pleased but wary. This was too much. he must buy the whole estate with all for a hundred thousand francs. He arrived unexpectedly in Crete. that there was no need for him all This was sufficient to bring out A deposit would be enough. But Schliemann longed to be home in his great house in Athens with Sophia and the children. the Spanish Consul had sunk five shafts and established the existence of a building 180 and 140 feet broad. but at very great depth. in public debate. Germany. the site of Knossos was still included. the second in 1888. to apologize. after an operation on his ear in Halle. The negotiations were complicated. tradi- known character. True. and the doctors had warned him against travelling. Meanwhile England saw the great archaeologist again. in 1877. This was the site which Schliemann now sought to buy. He broke off . mountainous interior of Crete. and there are several conflicting stories about them which are unimportant to our story. when he came to London to answer. olive trees Schliemann knew that in any case he would have to hand over all he found to the Turkish authorities. The Englishman was defeated and had the grace made two When. the old merchant's commercial cunning. Next Schliemann to Egypt. But the owner of the feet long site millionaire its refused to agree to the sale of only part of his land. negotiations and never reopened them. but this time Schliemann the business man triumphed A year later. the Cretan landowner offered the site for forty especially to visit the island to clinch the deal. Although often in pain. getting out of the train at inter- over Schliemann the archaeologist. he was hurrying across Europe to be home for Christmas. The winter of 1890 was bitterly cold. trips in the following year. rises the tional site of Knossos.
"HERE BEGINS AN ENTIRELY NEW SCIENCE" vals. The next day.. He must be home in time. when in the full tide own triumph. . and obtained some Then. and then conhad been spent in ships and tinuing trains. But his discoveries the full significance of which he had not understood had launched other minds on a voyage which even Schliemann could hardly have imagined. One of these minds perhaps the greatest was that of the young Englishman who had been so absorbed by Schliemann's Mycenaean treasures when he and his wife had visited him eight years of his sor: before. Something of the romance of his earlier years still seemed to cling to his personality. paralyzed and unable to speak. . slightly wearof sallow complexion and somewhat darkly clad so fancy took me he of foreign make.. feeling better. to make his acquaintance on the fields of his glory. At Naples the pain returned. still unconscious. Many years later. The weather was cold. Sir Arthur Evans wrote of his great predeces- had the happiness . and I built man . known money could be found in Eventually the doctor who had treated him was traced through a paper in the sick man's pocket. He saw a doctor. he collapsed in the street. he decided to visit the ruins of Pomabout which his father had spoken to him sixty years ago peii. so ferociously that he was doctor who would Much of his life forced to cable Sophia. Boxing Day. Heinrich Schliemann quietly died. which were his greatest scenes of triumph. and I still remember the echoes of his visits to England. while doctors in an adjoining room debated what should be done. finding a local on his way. when he was on foreigner to hospital. asking her to postpone the Christmas celebrations until his return. and Schliemann. where a surgeon discovered that the inflammation had spread from the ear to the brain. Police took the un- again felt mas Day. he was refused admission. Next day. Christhis way to the doctor. but as no his clothes. in Ankershagen. 81 treat him. through which ing spectacles had looked deep into the ground. I . mann the return of that fierce pain. but he had the German's sentimental love of Christmas. His journey was ended. have myself an almost uncanny memory of the spare. was moved to a hotel. and on his return Schlierelief. travel was a tedious necessity.
and they had kindly invited me to stay at the Villa Ariadne. on the same page. . with one of those topographical details of which he is so fond. after my return from Mycenae and Tiryns. His wife. later given to the British School a quietly spoken Yorkshireman of about Jong with a lean. as voluble of the Palace to anyone whose and vivacious as he is shy. a rich and lovely land. observant and wickedly intelli- gent. he tells us. friendly and willing to give the benefit of his vast practical knowl- edge than interest goes a little deeper tourist level. she has an unending stock of 82 stories. . where the cave of Eileithyia harbour to make. in that famous passage from the Odyssey in which the "Cunning One" pretends to Penelope that he is the grandson of Minos. at Athens.CHAPTER VII THE QUEST CONTINUES "Out in the dark blue sea there lies a land called Crete. for ninety nine years. which he had is De turn until he has decided whether he likes you or not." So Homer makes Odysseus describe Crete. was Curator of the Palace of Minos at Knossos. Homer had almost certainly visited Crete.One of the densely peopled and boasting ninety cities. Piet de Jong. Sir Arthur's former that cave shortly after I landed in Crete with the de Jongs. but kind. that his hero put in at Amnissus. towns is a great city called Knossos. former architect to Sir Arthur Evans. and there. is a Scotswoman. about archaeology . washed by the waves on every side. for. . the storm nearly wrecked him. to which he and his I visited home fifty. We had met in Athens. Effie. . witty. . King Minos ruled and enjoyed the friendship of . he is a little taci- at Knossos. is a difficult wife were returning after their overseas leave. almighty Zeus. tanned face and steady eyes.
still Schliemann's marble statues fret the they look down on a street crowded with shining American motorcars and the noisiest tramcars in the world. even I remembered for walks! that Schliemann used to bathe there before breakfast in the when he was fat. . but complex. Arthur Evans was born in 1851. lliou Melathron. about Crete and the Cretans. at the age of much more ninety. As we flew south over the many-islanded Aegean. And both became 1 in other archaeologists in the middle age. He built on foundations which Schliemann had laid. Yet. quite old. When sophisticated and Sir Arthur Evans died. whom they had both known well and greatly admired. outside his fantastic palace. At Mycenae and Tiryns I had almost felt his physical archaeologists. Both what I knew of Evans's career.THE QUEST CONTINUES and 83 I was regretfully leaving the ghost of Heinrich Schliemann behind. they were in three ways alike. in 1941. he had done that which no one to achieve before man had ever been able written. his work was complementary to that of Schliemann. opposite the airline company's had waited with the de Jongs for the airport bus. and about Sir Arthur Evans. As the plane droned on over the sea. after successful careers fields. And even as now Athenian sky. as strong as that of Schliemann. in a sense. "Go Bathe!" he would say to red-necked men. I felt that personality associated with those places. so vividly is his which stands office. a new chapter in the history of civilization. he did not excavate on a large scale until Although Evans had been keenly interested in he dug archaeology since his at Knossos. coldest weather. I looked through my notes and began to recall and temperaBoth were rich men. though our aircraft soared above the beach of Phaleron. the great scholar and excavator of the Knossian Palace. were egotists of genius. presence. where I in University Street. and for all their many differences in character ment. "or youll die of apoplexy!" Now I was passing into the orbit of another personality. accustomed to getting their own way and using their wealth to achieve great ends. alone. the year in which twentynine-year-old Heinrich Schliemann was buying gold dust from 1 early youth. But in Athens I said farewell to his lively shade appropriately enough.
John Dickinson. Joan Evans's sensitive portrayal of her with Lewis than with Norman. little manufacturing works of John Dickinson & Company. tinglasses. antiquarian and collector. went for a time to America. But both Lewis and Arthur inherited their father's scholarly interests. Here stood the long-established paper- was and. Arthur's father. at a place called Nash Mills. John Evans.84 THE BULL OF MINOS the "forty-niners" of California. was a distinguished geologist. whose father. and both had produced a number of distinguished scholars. Of his two brothers. to some degree. to talk and discuss and prepare their papers for presentation to the learned societies. for him than . flint collecting in Britain or France. so had his great uncle. In Time and Chance. "a leading member of that group of men including Lubbock. was then head of the firm. In the summer Arthur and his brothers. and early in life Arthur acquired the habit of collecting. by a physical handicap. John Dickinson. Coins especially fascinated him. to quote Sir John Myres. had married his cousin. The Evans and Dickinson families were closely linked by marriage. occurs this passage: Evans was extremely short-sighted. Tylor. and who established the new studies of anthropology Pitt-Rivers ciety. Fellow and Treasurer of the Royal Sothur's great grandfather. his father's scholarly friends met often in the comfortably ugly house beside the river. Consequently the details he saw with microscopic exactitude. while everything else was a vague blur. Lewis and Norman. Harriet Ann Dickinson." Arthur grew up in an atmosphere heavy with Victorian scholarship. John Evans. and a reluctant wearer of Without them. Dr. irresponsible and and who eventually quarrelled with his father and charming. had a greater significance italics]. Francis Galton. strong. Arthur had more in common and who was gay. he could see small things held a few inches from his eyes in extraordinary detail. In his father's study at Nash Mills were cases of flint and bronze implements. His own father. had been a member of the Royal Society. Ar- prehistoric archaeology on a scientific basis in this country. went on excursions with their father. half brother. and in this study he was helped. distracted for other men [my by the outside world. Lewis Evans. the tradition of learning in the family The child grew up near the sedate town of Hemel Hempstead in Hertfordshire.
Arthur's antiquarian interests diverged boldly from those of his father. he read history. swam and rode well. It is typical upper part of the Tower with a friend. He had courage. however. But as he grew older. in Worcestershire. They were both antiquarians. At Harrow he tied with Frank Balfour for the Natural History Prize. looked after father's Stone Age implements and weapons. a hot temper and a determined will. in the more primitive parts of eastern Europe. he set about being as different from him as possible. But he had a wiry. the study of which brought him at that last to the Palace of Minos. he was short in stature and nearsighted. energetic frame. and varied his Long Vacations between adventurous trips to eastern Europe and periods of intensive study in of all places Broadway Tower. the two young men. Arthur shared the while the caretaker and his wife. Evans was able to do this because of his minute. and enabled him to reveal and interpret a civilization as highly developed as that of Egypt. obstinacy. who lived below. This extraordinary "Folly" of one of the eighteenth-century Earls of Coventry stands on the northwestern fringe of the Cotswold Hills. Huxley was assessor. which bored him. His chief interest at the time was in Evans that. and enjoyed strong physical effort provided it did not take the form of organized games. adventurous journeys. overlooking seven in counties. to imagine the young Evans as a timid. and they were both collectors. interested only in anthropology and numismatics (the study of ancient coins). But comes later in the story. and when in later life old John Evans left him his enormous and bulky collection of of mind to his . recognizing how similar was his own. At Oxford.THE QUEST CONTINUES It 85 was this seeming handicap of short sight which even- tually led Arthur Evans to Crete. mainly on foot or on horseback. He loved travel especially "travelling rough" and throughout his youth and early middle age delighted in long. myopic youngster. almost microscopic vision of the tiny Cretan bead seals and signet rings. True. the younger man was more embarrassed than grateful. It would be a mistake. and at Harrow he took no interest games (he lampooned the "hearties" in his own satirical magazine The Pen-Viper which was suppressed after publication of the first number). where he was a member of Brasenose College. H. for which T.
because. In Lapland no ghosts though perhaps it would be fairer to say that there were no ghosts with whom Arthur Evans felt any sympathy. Next year he obtained a First in Modern History. At period Bosnia and Herzegovina were under the heavy. He signalized his arrival in Paris by buying a magnificent black cloak lined with smoke of the Franco-Prussian War had blown away. as the put the cloak away. but. Eighteen seventy-four saw him back in his lofty eyrie in Broadway Tower. the architecture the fascinating mixture of cultures Roman. lootings. and a sense of the in strangeness he needed to find there a complex historic past. this the tough. In the following year he spent his vacation mountaineering in Roumania with his brother Norman. The landscape. he might be shot as a spy. especially the glorious Dalmatian coast. hardly who warned him that. He scarlet silk.86 THEBULLOFMINOS It is the Balkan countries. hand There were Balkan insurrectionary movements. he took the advice of a friendly douanier. after which he went to Gottingen for a further year's study. and from there moved Next year. flights of refugees the same sickening pattern with which our own age has made us familiar. not an exaggeration to say that Arthur Evans fell in love with the South Slav countries. tortures. Finland and Lapland. liberty-loving people. before applying himself to 9 Incorporated after the First World War into the new state of Yugoslavia. he toured some of the ScanSweden. 1873. bloody repressions. But to young liberal intellectuals of Evans's type such outrages were a challenge to action. looking down on the rich summer wealth of the Vale of Evesham. He was not impressed. brutal of Turkey. but it came in useful later. an interest which grew into an ardent passion after his first visit to Bosnia and Herzegovina 2 in 1871. as Joan Evans comments: into Bulgaria. if he wore it. . burnings. above all. dinavian countries To walked feel at home civilization. all took his young heart. Byzantine. Arthur (he was then twenty) became a convinced Liberal. and working hard for his Finals. Moslem. Venetian. a follower of Gladstone whom his Conservative father detested and a champion of the oppressed minorities of eastern Europe.
1877. He returned to Bosnia with his brother Lewis. goods for the refugees. an academic career seemed the only alternative. partly.O. But the young firebrand who had lived among these peoples. At Brood they had both been arrested as Russian spies. He was in Bosnia during the insurrection of 1875. the insurgent leader. sent a copy to Gladstone (who acknowledged it) and was delighted when the G. with notebook and pencils stuck in his hat. by this time. Scott. He had no interest in paper making. a situation in which him and treated him well. perhaps. and they are fully described in Joan Evans's Time and Chance.THE QUEST CONTINUES 87 the problem of earning a living. This was a job after the young man's heart. Next year. wearing . because his intransigent nature and unpopular opinions were not acceptable to the more conservative Arthur s pugnacity did not help matters. had no patience with the subtleties of Great Power diplomacy. of Arthur exploring.M. the country occupied insurgents. C. He tried for vacant Fellowships at Magdalen and All Souls. seeking out and interviewing Desptovitch. It was not unnatural that British and other European statesmen were reluctant to jeopardize the peace of Europe for the sake of the oppressed peoples of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Both Moslem and Christian insurgents liked elements of Oxford society. The next few years were the peak years of Evans's youth. naked. For. he was in Sarajevo when Herzegovina revolted against Turkey. He produced a book on Bosnia and Herzegovina. We catch glimpses some personal risk. at Here we only have time for the highlights. steeped in Balkan politics. plunging depths of sordid horror in the in- by the fested refugee camps. but failed to get either. Arthur Evans was developing into an enfant terrible. seen their sufferings and identified himself passionately with them. the great editor of the Manchester Guardian pro-Gladstone and anti-Turk appointed Arthur as Special Correspondent happy Bosnians found based in Ragusa. P. in his stronghold. however heroic and deserving. the Great Powers again shuffled the cards and Evans's untheir country occupied by Austria. but his letters home were full of biting criticism of the British Government's lukewarm attitude to the cause of Balkan freedom. quoted his evidence on Turkish atrocities. swimming a flooded river. contributed by British sympathizers. He set off enthusiastically with a sum of money and in the Balkans.
" Ragusans soon became familiar with Evans and Prodger the "mad Englishman with the walking stick" who was believed to carry with him a bag of gold. Evans went out to get evidence it was on one of these dangerous journeys that he swam an icy river." were published as a book. just missed the steamer at a vital ferry. tained their hold Then began a personal conflict between the young journalist and Holmes. and sending back dis(trying patch after brilliant dispatch to his delighted editor. "tell Pa and numismatics still reArchaeology upon him. to which his family gave the name "Prodger. the British Consul at Sarajevo. more in love with the Balkans than ever. evidence which even the British Consul could not discredit. In his anxiety to get to Ragusa before the Freemans left. was visiting Ragusa for a short time with his two daughters. sometimes on foot. Again the young correspondent went out on his journeys. . Freeman. . Evans won his battle. in the midst of he found time to excavate medieval Roman buildings. swollen with rain and melting snow. always returning with vivid dispatches. he rode nonstop for seven hours. While in the Montenegrin highlands. Evans heard that an old Oxford friend. and lists of victims' names. to visit an insurgent outpost. Arthur greatly admired Freeman. the historian. castles. took a Because of his short sight he carried throughout his life a stout walking stick. . After his adventures in the hinterland he returned to Ragusa. Nevertheless. eccentric figure in that lovely city. took a small boat and rowed himself across the sea channel. his political and journalistic as a postscript to an adventure-packed letter IVe got a new home. explore out old Bosnian inscriptions and to add. copy flat celt. Soon the Guardian began to receive fully documented evidence of burned-out villages. He soon became a familiar. Later these his red-lined cloak inside out "Letters to the Manchester Guardian' activities. . sometimes on horseback. who had taken a leading part in organizing Balkan relief in England.88 THE BULL OF MINOS when visiting a Moslem stronghold to look as Oriental as possible). who advised his Government not to accept stories of Turkish atrocities. covering this story. horse on the other side and rode all through the next day to reach Ragusa. Then war broke out between the Turks and Montenegro.
active. like Homer. "And in any case added Effie." Margaret fell in love with him. waving off he's gone. too. . Schliemann. . he liked flying. also a scholar). when the place was crammed with cars and he's seen a friend on the other side of the road or a window with something which interested him. "I've been walking down Piccadilly with Sir Arthur in the middle of the day. yes. "a slightly insurgent expression. . of The de Jongs and I were about halfway between Athens and Our aircraft rumbled drowsily on above the wintry blue the Aegean." in Herakleion. He used to fly regularly even as far back as the 'twenties. But Evans had Evans flown? I turned in my seat to ask Piet "Oh. ill. brought to Crete. ." his point. "it was a part Sir of him. A tiny ship drew a broadening line of white across the misted. met a lithe." laughed Piet." wrote his sister cautiously. they became engaged. when both were back in England. "He was something of an autocrat?" I asked. was just can't without I tell way to him! And if "Just as he was they did. middle of the traffic. Characteristically (Margaret was London by Dr. when flying wasn't as safe and as . "That stick of It his." Margaret Freeman. Prodger. de Jong. . He'd try anything new.THE QUEST CONTINUES 89 "He has acquired. and." I showed them the passage in my notes describing Evans's famous walking stick. and in February. . Heinrich Schliemann. sunlit water. by gum." wrote Evans's sister about this time. the two celebrated their engagement by going to see the exhibition of antiquities from Troy. who had not seen the young scholar since she knew him several years earlier in Oxford. "without charm. had travelled to Crete in a ship." But flying never upset him. "so that sea travel always made him horribly a long sea trip was agony for him. leaning forward to emphasize you. slap-bang into the over his head and expecting the cars to give that darned stick like a staff of office it. 1878. Arthur you imagine he went on. They both smiled at the recollec- tion." commonplace as it is now. bronzed young man "not." added Effie.
de Jong. And all that was long before he came to Crete. "They both had successful careers long before they took up excavation/' She and her husband returned to their books. No. But he was a of the Cretans kind of benevolent despot." some "Of course/' Piet went on. "we only knew him well in later life. with an effort. And he loved a fight. what does he do but go home and begin another fight with the University authorities over the Ashmolean Museum. ." Then. I turned again to my notes. Look at the way he fought the Austrians on behalf of his beloved Bosnians until he was deported." added Mrs. and settled in his ways. ." "He was like Schliemann in that way. . . But even as a young man I think he must have had an iron will. not really.90 ''Call THE BULL OF MINOS him that if you like. . to the world which Arthur Evans knew when he was young. . And then. half hypnotized by the endlessly moving pattern of waves which creased the surface of Homer's "wine-dark sea. But he loved Crete. when he was rich and established. a grand seigneur were afraid of him. . I looked down for a while.
in which every Austrian reverse was delightedly ac- claimed. but devoted himself principally to the history. the flies. antiquities and politics of the Southern Slav people and their countries. This was too Austrian authorities at Ragusa. eventually. over the superb Venetian buildings of Ragusa. We see him excavating burial mounds. In the following year a fresh insurrection broke out against the Austriaris. and soon readers of the Man- chester Guardian were again reading dispatches from his brilliant pen. could not accommodate herself to Ragusa. his servants 91 marked man. Evans became a much were hoping for the His house. The climate. Immediately Evans left for the insurgent citadel at Crivoscia. They bought a particularly beautiful Venetian house. fleas and mosquitoes. in lyrical letters to his family. And there were other troubles. In 18SO she returned home to undergo an operation. and the Illyrian landscape.CHAPTER VIII PRELUDE TO CRETE marriage to Margaret Freeman in 1878. and made their home there. Meanwhile. he continued to archaeologize. and when it . She had no taste for the picturesque. and rhapsodizing. all distressed her until. were watched. though as devoted to him as he was to her. passion- ately believing in the insurrectionary movement. her health broke down. He still continued to act as correspondent for the AFTER his his bride to his Manchester Guardian. It was no secret that Evans and his English friends. for a rising of all the Slav peoples. But Margaret. and dirt worried her. would enable her to bear children. buying Greek and Roman coins. seat of the rebellion. Arthur took beloved Ragusa. the strange food. his wife. in the hope that it in this it was not successful. the Casa San Lazzaro. studying Dalmatian history.
One of them wrote: Arthur has been capering in and out of the house all day. . who shared his views: . but he had no sympathy with the way archaeology was taught at Oxford." was soon dashed. found guilty. to be met by a relieved and delighted family. and I understand that the Electors.92 THEBULLOFMINOS became evident (for he had little skill in subterfuge) that meetings were taking place at the Casa San Lazzaro between people known to be sympathetic to the insurgents. But travel. unless I see any real prospect of getting it. knowing that his heart was in Ragusa. But any hope which the more timid members of the family entertained. there ogy. I do not think I shall. the ViceChancellor. released and immediately expelled from the country. Restless. Another letter says: He has had a lesson which will keep him at home I hope. . he longed to go abroad again. . and to say the truth I see very little. nor with the "classical" outlook of such men as Jowett. On April 23. it is to be called the Professorship of Classical Archaeology. as he wrote gloomily to his friend Freeman. adventurous mind had made Arthur Evans difficult to accommodate in a conventional university professorship. to confine a ogy. When he took no action. He was an archaeologist. but for the time being he knew he must find a niche in academic Oxford. dissatisfied. is going to be established a Professorship of Archaeolhave been strongly advised to stand. Evans and his wife were given notice to quit. and I professorship of archaeology to classical times seems to me as reasonable as to create a chair of "Insular Geography" or "Mezozoic Geol- getting the Archaeological Travelling Studentship of old) regard "archaeology" as ending with the Christian Era. . that Arthur would at last "settle down. They arrived back in England. 1881." . study and a questing. with his wife. To begin with. was examined. he was eventuhe ally arrested and lodged in Ragusa jail. bearing Prodger and visiting the raspberries. including Jowett and Newton of the British Museum (who prevented me from . Anyhow. Thus.
while Margaret talked as will to Sophia Schliemann. At the end of April. He visited Tiryns and Mycenae scene of Schliemann's tri- fascinated. There was something nor Oriental sponded. to represent self-satisfied ignorance against you. fundamentally unaesthetic. . ments on the university have been noticed in his com- authorities. a eventually in just to tell set off "classical** archaeologist after of Greece. Mycenae? In Greece? Or elsewhere? Evans won- Returning to Oxford. but not because he shared the German's view that they were Homeric. Arthur and Margaret on a tour was during manns. individual and sensitive. though more than a decade was to pass before he discovered the answer. suspending all sound learning at the end of his crooked nose. nor Egyptian. and to him the so-called "Mycenaean" art vigorous yet controlled.PRELUDE TO CRETE 93 Freeman. He in their style neither Hellenic. It was a problem to which he was to re- turn again and again during the coming years. at . tional obeisance to "classical" Greek art. Evans was fascinated by the Mycenaean gems. yet humane had a far greater appeal. advised Evans to apply. especially by the Lion Gate with its umphs headless lions supporting that strange central column so dif- and was ferent from Greek "classical" architecture. as described this trip that they called on the Schliein an earlier chapter. enlivening the somber Victorian rooms with bright Dal- . His mind was free-ranging. Where had it origi- nated dered." went to Percy Gardner. refused to make the conven- important than old Heinrich's endeavors to relate Mycenaean art to the world of Homer. It satisfied yet puzzled him. To the Englishman they seemed far older. He detested the type of narrow academic mind. It Newton's own heart. Where had it originated? To what culture or group of cultures was it related? This problem seemed to his sophisticated intelligence far more For Arthur Evans. in a sympathetic reply to this letter. arms and ornaments found in the shaft graves. while warning him that "they will have some narrow Balliol fool. aristocratic in spirit. which would not admit of other standards. . but I would go The chair them a thing or two. to which his fastidious mind immediately re- spent hours examining them. the Evanses set up house in Broad Street.
In high spirits he went to Jowett to obtain his approval of the plans. in his combative spirit. original function. He was very busy. He set about. to fight for the Ashmolean as a revived center of archaeological studies. . Fihe drew up detailed plans for a revived and glorified nally." writes Sir John Myres. In 1884. But the ViceChancellor asked to be excused. at the age of thirty-three. The Bodleian had taken the had they? Right. "stripped of its coins and manuscripts by the Bodleian. but he knew a distinguished collector of Renaissance art. Drury Fortnum. and its natural history collections for the New University Museum. this Museum. not only that. abused and mutilated by later generations that it had almost ceased to have any practical value. its condition accurately reflected the indifference with which archaeology was regarded by ViceChancellor Jowett and other high officers of the University. at first sight.94 THE BULL OF MINOS . In fact. there was disorder and neglect within. Old Tradescant's gallery had been gutted and turned into an examination room. together with that of He found He restored them both to a place of honor. . He had not time to look at the plans because he was about to leave Oxford Bethlen Gabor. And what could be more suitable than the Tradescant Gallery? the death mask of old Tradescant rolling about in the dust of the Ashmolean's cellar. impetuous spirit. to hold little promise for his ardent. who was only wait- to its ing to hand over his magnificent collection to the University if suitable accommodation was provided for it. and it had a rival in the University Galleries since Ruskin's tenure of the Slade Chair of Fine Art. Ashmolean. matian fabrics which reminded them of the sunlight and color of Ragusa. it was embarrassed with by the 'Oxford Society for the study of Gothic Architecture'. would restore it coins. restored. Arthur Evans. had it? Then. Curator of the Ashmolean Museum. He became. . he. it was enclosed by other buildings which precluded enlargearchitectural casts collected ment. then they must hand them back. "After long neglect. Next year Arthur obtained a university appointment at last but one which seemed." But to Arthur Evans all this was a challenge. founded in the seventeenth century by Elias Ashmole. had been so neglected. improved. modernized.
"I don't know what I should have done without my 'bug-puzzler'. manoeuvre and bargain. nights we killed 221 plus 118 plus ." This was 90 equals 429." was long and hard. and Margaret wrote. The family held its breath. his recognition. But uniand administration bored him. on tiny Sicilian Arthur's other interest coins. . enabled test of styles and of political relations between Sicilian cities.. For example. in archaeological research (at Aylesford he dug a late Celtic urn field) and in foreign travel with his wife. finding himself in a minority of one. "snuffing up the tainted breeze and pawing like a warhorse. Kertch. of artists' signatures so small that only his microscopic him to establish a chronological sight could detect them. Arthur returned to the house in Broad Street. Evans. in all its subtle ramifications. . which . Even then he had to for the revived funds lief. "I can see him/' wrote a relative. and Arthur dearly loved a fight. They visited the Crimea. fuming. The governing body of the Museum was easily won over.PRELUDE TO CRETE for a month. on the frontier of which they were arrested on suspicion of being spies. One day trousered or not wonders if the young girl students of towould equal Margaret's equanimity. in which he brought imagination to bear on what might appear to the layman to be an arid study. Evans's report was adopted. . provided the University would consider the creation of a Central Museum of Art and struggle The pelled to become Keeper of the Ashmolean. he was forced to agree. Greece and Bulgaria. versity politics struggle for years to obtain adequate and reconstituted Ashmolean. Tiflis. Drury Fortnum again offered his collection to Oxford with a handsome endowment. reluctantly coma politician. he pointed out. . disciplined himself to wait. . the University could not afford to spend money on the Ashmolean at present because much was needed for the new professorships. in the year 1890. Batum. was in numismatics. It was this feeling for style. In 95 any case. In two . and he sought re- whenever possible.. There was going to be a fight. at last. if faced with a similar situation. Yalta. but Jowett held out until. He celebrated the occasion by giving a party tor two hundred guests in the limelit Upper Archaeology under tJie Gallery of the Museum.
and in 1893 Solomon Reinach brought out a book called Le Mirage Oriental. And in July and August. and said that he would see me when I came back. "He encouraged me to go ahead. while Evans was usually travelling abroad. and I told him of my project of going to Greece and doing some work on prehistoric civilization there." Sir John went on. shown a large measure of originality and genius of its own. in his quiet. "At that time. "It is. Evans. old-fashioned . which made a formal challenge to all Orientalizing theories. came to be so closely associated with Crete. "a pecularity of Ashmole's that its conditions of residence are so liberal that Keepership travel is possible and presumed. 1892. whose background was mainly in the Balkan countries and whose principal interest lay in numismatics." writes Sir John Myres. to interpret the details of civilization as revealed in the miniature seals of Crete. was greatly impressed with this alternative point of view. for it was early in that year that he first visited While gathering material for this book. We had a little talk. travelling over a good part of the west of the island. "I was still an undergraduate." crisis. Reinach contended that the West had." Sir John told me. marks a Crete.96 enabled him. "Continental opinion had attributed most of the characteristic features of Greek civilization to Egyptian and Mesopotamian influences. on the other hand the Keeper is studies expected to give occasional public lectures on the progress of which concern the Museum. throughout. I went to Crete. I had the good fortune and privilege to meet the late Sir John Myres. in THE BULL OF MINOS Minoan later life. as shown from his studies in Celtic archaeology which he had just completed. I first met him at a party in North Oxford. But in about 1890 there was a reaction. and was able to settle a question which had puzzled me for some time: how Sir Arthur Evans. and it is to the of his learned outyears of his Keepership that the greater part But between the earlier and later activities 1894 put belongs. For a man of Evans's qualifications and temperament it was the ideal post." Sitting with Sir John in his study. "For more than a generation. and I didn't actually meet him until I had finished my examinations.
Typically. and without consolation. but he has been finding it at different spots for and Burdett glad to find Myres here. Yet here. Evans wrote home I to his wife: who is at once Craven Scholar. grubbed under the Telasgian" wall of the Acropolis. "I do not think anyone can ever know what Margaret has been to me. white-bearded face (like an old Norse king). I will try to call up her brave. prac- but one must have time to recover strength. . she was accompanying her husband on one of his Mediterranean journeys. "All seems very dark. seen under Evans's intense. watching his fine." he wrote to his father. His stay in Athens in February and March had confirmed his interest in Mycenaean art.. I could not help thinking of the "young black-bearded Ulysses" with whom Arthur Evans. Athens.. Of the young Myres. a tragic year for Arthur Evans. picked up fragments of pre-Mycenaean vases. Of course. in these tiny seals and signet rings. . Her health had never recovered completely after her breakdown at Ragusa. Working over the tiny from Schliemann's discoveries he had an intuition of discovery. . familiar with Egyptian hieroglyphic writing. and is combining geology and archaeology in a useful way. most antiquarians were. . Heard Dorpfeld lecture on his discovery of the fountain of Enneakrounos." But 1893. brilliant assistant was In the following year Margaret died. It was at Alassio that she was suddenly seized with violent spasms of pain and died within a few hours. . engraved with symbols which seemed to belong to some hieroglyphic system. We worked at Mycenaean rings.and four-sided stones drilled along the axis. but that such a system had once existed in Europe seemed inconceivable. by this time. . Schliemann's Tempora mutantur no longer the power he had been. tical spirit. he small three. am months.PRELUDE TO CRETE 97 house near the Woodstock Road. . Coutts. In that year. was also a turning point in his life. holding Arthur's hand. while searching among the trays of the anand Myres came across tiquity dealers in Shoe Lane. only ten years older himself. objects at Mycenae and Tiryns. micro- . grubbed for Mycenaean fragments beneath the "Pelasgian" wall of the Athenian Acropolis in 1892.
and. King of Gods. From the moment he landed at Herakleion. Hellenes. one could still find the sacred . who to excavate Cretan sites a year before. and Joubin. Arthur Evans set foot in Crete for the time. the Lion of St. of the French School at Athens. Mark was carved on the battlements of the great Venetian wall which surrounded the city. Yet. beaches of white sand gleaming through a sea of deep. Franks. And above all. On the north of the island rose snow-capped Mount Ida. translucent blue. impermeable sense of hisall tory. plished. Here. Homer had known it. he felt at home. He had considered the had begun the gentle. at Herakleion.98 THE BULL OF MINOS scopic gaze. valleys of an idyllic greenness in spring. At Ragusa he had loved Venetian architecture. Venetians. precipitous ravines. and the discreet use . mosques stood side by side with Christian churches. Evans asked the dealer where these seals had come from. Here was the legendary home of King Minos and his daughter. They also had wished to dig in Crete but had been prevented by the Turkish authorities. He had alconsidered Crete. of cash. Cretans. ready He pondered practically equidistant from Europe. Then there was Stillman. Asia and Egypt. first . an of the Ancient Egyppossibility that some tian reliefs depicting invaders of the Nile Valley might represent among them peoples of the Aegean islands. "From Crete. Zeus. lovable Italian archaeologist. something might be accom- In the spring of 1894. where. as a convenient stepping stone. Romans. . there appeared to be tiny symbols which might represent writing. which." he was told. Turks had left their mark on the island. for a long time on this problem. had been born here. there was an all-pervading. it was said. since Crete was still under Turkish rule. There were noble Venetian buildings. There was a dramatic landscape of jagged limestone peaks. the Princess Ariadne. Frederico Halbherr. might have provided a stage in the diffusion of a hieroglyphic script. with care and patience. who gave to the hero Theseus the precious thread which guided him to her arms after he had slain the Minotaur. There was a blending of European and Oriental races. He had already met American journalist.
under Ottoman law. traditions and people had won his heart. Italy and Russia Evans returned. alone and with his friend Myres. whose landscape. they climbed up onto the Lasithi highlands. legendary tomb of the god. he would find the clue to that world to which Schliemann's finds at Mycenae had pointed the way. G. exploring. on the north. Perhaps he might find engraved tablets at the Egyptian "Rosetta Stone/' with a bilingual inscription to the primitive Cretan language. A Cretan gentleman. This was not much use to him at all. pre-Hellenic occasion. and digging Even before the first spade was thrust in the soil of Knossos." writes Myres. it gave him a veto on excava- by anyone else. Evans was convinced that in Crete." came in. Here. "in the person of its Director. had already dug trenches at Knossos and revealed massive walls. Five years later. On one earlier. This was more than enough to whet Evans's appetite. subscriptions began in the winter. Hogarth. Why. surely. he acquired a share of the site from the local Moslem landowner. said the inhabitants. with Prince George of Greece as at Athens was also patron.PRELUDE TO CRETE 99 cave in which Zeus had been born. Sir John told me. the length and breadth of the island. associated with the work. Boldly announcing that he was acting on behalf of the "Cretan Exploration Fund" (at that time non- existent). he returned to Crete again and again. This time the Cretan Exploration Fund actually came into existence. Evans made his way to the legendary site of Knossos. lay Mount Jukta. acquired the freehold of the remainder of the site and prepared to dig. and explored the great sanctuary cave of Zeus at . a few miles from Herakleion. he might find further examples of his bead-seal "pictographs" and much more. France. when the Turkish forces and Prince George of Greece became High Commissioner of the Powers Great Britain. you could see the recumbent profile of Zeus himself! Like Schliemann. and like the which might give the clue a store of huge pithoi (stone jars). whose experience of excavation on a large scale was invaluable. In the years before he began to dig. D. if you only looked mountain from a certain angle and in a certain light. except for the vital fact that. "The British School of Archaeology tion left Crete. appropriately named Minos. And immediately behind the port of Herakleion. thought Evans.
Evans returned to Crete in the middle of one of the worst storms in human memory. The ancient Cretan people wore them round their necks or on their wrists. to would fain attach the name "Mirioan" . many of them in the wildest and most inaccessible places. and are perforated from side to side for suspension from a thread. only displays within the three seas a uniformity never afterwards attained. The golden age of portance of the relics of the historic period. bridges. remains of palaces and cities. fascinated Evans. Minos].100 Psychro. in fact. or sometimes oval. plorer of ancient remains than the comparative paucity and unim. usually pictorial. . He was able to write. Each was engraved with a design. He brought with him D. its culture not . They were property as a mark or seal. are lens-shaped. but often with hieroglyphic the owner's badge. And that. appears to have been their function the ancient equivalent of an identity card. much more experienced in the technique of excavation. but it is practically identical with that of the Peloponnese and a large part of the Aegean world. a soft-spoken Scotsman with "a brush of red hair. 1899. G. Nothing more continually its strikes the archaeological ex- . who was eleven years younger than himself. Hogarth. and came back by another route. with embankments. round. visiting many villages. like the modern identity bracelet. and inquiring everywhere for engraved seal-stones. These tiny seals. . "we travelled along a great Minoan prehistoric road. and forts. an uncertain temper. THE BULL OF MINOS "From there. even before he dug at Knossos: The great days of Crete tion in the Homeric poems which here [after were those of which we still find a reflec- at least we the period of Mycenaean culture. which he could put on his signs. These were greatly valued by the Cretan women as charms when they were nursing " their babies they called them 'milk-stones/ These "milk-stones" of which many fine examples can be seen today in the Ashmolean Museum. and Duncan Mackenzie. But hardly anywhere did he find evidence of Hellenic or "classical" remains. Crete lies far beyond the limits of the historical period. a great command of languages and but In March. with their miniature scenes. everywhere he found signs of a once-flourishing civilization. and his search for them led him into the remotest parts of the island." he went on. .
" Losing . Nay. Almost at once a great labyrinth of buildings was revealed. a flourishing Knossos existed lower down." Evans had come a month had to decipher a passed.C. Mijcenaean period. By March twenty-seventh. its great period goes at least well back to the pre.PB ELUDE TO CRETE 101 no time. Arthur Evans was able to note in his diary: "The extraordinary phenomenon nothing Greek nothing Roman perhaps one single fragment of late black varnished ware among tens of thousands. Even Geometrical (seventh century B. great experience in keeping the records of an excavation. . they recruited Cretan workmen and set them to work digging into the mound of Kephala at Knossos. . but before he had discovered a civiliza- tion. he knew that system of writing. ) pottery fails us though as tholoi ( tombs ) found near the central road show.
so clear the atmosphere that the islet of Dia a nymph. the low. Thousands of years ago there had been a port at its mouth. favored by Zeus. in A came pared them to the gibbering shades of the slain suitors Hermes drove down to the gloomy halls of Hades: whom He his roused them up and marshalled them gibbering like bats that squeak . far below. . Though quite near the road twists side a which cave I is up half hidden if doubt we into the hills. which Odysseus had known "he put in at Amnissus. The last time I had seen the creatures in such numbers was inside the Pyramid of Snofru. some twenty-seven hundred years ago. summons. The from a side valley and emptied itself unobtrusively into the Aegean. where the cave of Eileithyia is" but it had silted up long ago. should have found three of us. beetling entrance to the by a fig tree. and and they obeyed the depths flutter in 102 . and when Piet and I explored its in childbirth with a bundle of burning brushwood. sat on the slope above the cave. the de Jongs and myself. whom angry Hera had turned into a sea monster looked only a stone's throw from the height where we sat. But just so Homer had seen them. looking down the bracken-covered slopes to where the waves broke on the beach. in Egypt. . a colony of bats depths squeaked and fluttered in the dark crevices of the roof.CHAPTER IX ISLAND OF LEGEND THE ancient cave of Eileithyia is a black hole in the bare hillfew miles east of Herakleion. five years ago. the Amnissus. So calm was the afternoon that their murmur reached us. so that without our driver's help it. and Herakleion had long since taken its place as the principal harbor of northern Crete. and comsmall river. But the sacred cave of the nymph Eileithyia protector of women was still there. like a soft whisper.
l Crete There are many such sacred caves in the limestone hills of and they still bear witness to the crowds of pilgrims who there centuries past. His intention to dig in Crete may have been prompted by the same belief. the soldiers at battle practice near the airport." he commented and threw it away. dark sea. especially in the Odyssey. all these were forgotten. the jostling. 1 Babyand to Odyssey. Near the sacred stalagmite a dwarf pillar in the depths of Eileithyia. had been guided by an unsophisticated belief in the literal truth of the Homeric poems. friendly shops of ramshackle Herakleion. for Homer mentions Crete many times. atmosphere of remoteness. The story of the unfortunate Dia brought to mind the other myths and legends which cling to this lovely island. "Roman. almost equidistant from Europe. noisy. round which de Jong pointed out to me the remains of a sanctuary wall there were scores of such potsherds. .ISLAND OF LEGEND of 103 fallen some mysterious cave when one of them has . . lying far. Schliemann. Asia and Africa. "Mycenaean. Roman. Prankish. He had by scientific curiosity traced to Crete the mysterious hieroglyphic writing neither Egyptian nor lonian and his ambition was to interpret that writing." he said. had been drawn to the island first rather than by belief in legend. Their rocky floors are littered with broken scraps of pottery remains of the votive vessels left by the came worshippers. I put the sherd in my pocket as we scrambled out into the sunlight again. the largest in the Greek archipelago. In such an atmosphere it is easy to slough off the present. when he dug at Troy and Mycenae. He picked one up and held it towards the light of the burnbrushwood. as we have it still keeps its seen. and other memories began to steal in to take their places. ing He searched again in the mud of the cave bottom and produced a fragment of a thin-walled goblet such as I have seen at Mycenae. where Greek Effie had been greeted like an old friend. from the rock roof. Hellenic. Book XXIV. But Arthur Evans. The plane from which we had landed an hour or so before. Turkish and yet. losing hold of his clustered friends. dusty. Venetian. Crete has been for three thousand years a meeting place and a battleground of cultures Minoan. far to the south in the deep. .
with the intent. For he learned from Earth and starry Heaven that he was destined to be overcome by his own son. was left he did not know that in place behind. . . . the youngest of her children. . . took him in her arms and hid him in a remote cave beneath the secret places of holy earth on thick-wooded Mount Aegeum. mistaking it To Cronos Earth gave a born son. wretch! of the stone his son bled. as these legends have a great bearing on what follows. . who was said to have been born in a cave in southern Crete. . bore him several daughters Hestia. Some said this cave was in the central peak of Mount Ida. So when she was that the birth of her dear child might be conthey sent her to Lyctus. others that it was on a lower but still majestic easterly mountain. that office So. called Dicte by the old Cretans. Rhea. to the rich land of Crete. through the contriving of the great Zeus. it is worth while to recall some of them. she came . unconquered and untrou- . to bear Zeus. ." At the same time he was thoroughly familiar with the stories which Homer and the classic authors had told about Crete. .. and "gold-shod" Hera but whenever she bore a son. Rhea had to devise . . and. goes on to tell how Earth . The oldest tradition was that of Zeus. the jealous Cronos swallowed the child.104 THE BULL OF MINOS prove his thesis that "Throughout what is now the civilized European area there must have once existed systems of picturewriting such as still survive among the more primitive races of mankind. says the poet Hesiod: no other of the proud sons of Heaven should hold kingly amongst the deathless gods. stone which. strong though he was. ready to bear great Zeus. wife of Cronos. And Hesiod . . . when . the Father God of the Greeks. Demeter. . the god . some plan cealed. for his new- thrust down into his belly. Lasithi..
overcome his father and reign It that Zeus as was able of Gods. that no man. The legend is worth quoting. by historians such as Thucydides. was numbered among those to be Crete . as we have seen.ISLAND OF LECEMD to 105 to survive. And when he came to Crete. was thus.. Minos. The traditions relating to Minos are various. (the father) charged his son. and in some ways conflicting. but the spoken tradition was strong. could ever hope to find his way its out again unaided. met their within it And death in this Then came the year when the hero Theseus. offered to help him if he would agree to carry her away to Athens and have her to wife. of old sent to but. the story of Theseus and the Minotaur. men and maidens.. according the the legend. son Aegeus. waiting to devour its victims. Every year. he offered himself voluntarily. writes Appollodorus: some affirm . lurked the Minotaur. King Another long-established tradition concerned Minos. King Minos had. with many twisting passages. beneath his great Palace at Knossos. a nymphomaniac whom only a bull could satisfy. In some he was respected as a great lawgiver. This was the monstrous progeny of Minos 's wife. Aegeus. and accepted. become overlord of Athens and as tribute demanded each year twelve noble Athenian youths and maidens whom he could sacrifice to the Minotaur. having once entered. Theseus having agreed on oath to do so. said the Greeks. And as the ship had a black sail. Daedalus." or. embodied in that most imperishable of legends. if he returned alive. his friend and chosen companion. Pasiphae. There were no records or monuments to support such a belief. So tortuous was this maze. was a mighty lawgiver and founder of the first great naval power in the Mediterranean. King of Crete. she besought Daedalus to disclose the way out of the Labyrinth. having fallen in love with him. way. twelve of the flower of Athenian youth. . lord of Athens. Ariadne. in another version. But there were also traditional memories of Minos the Tyrant. It was kept by Minos in a Labyrinth designed by his chief craftsman. All agree that he controlled a mighty fleet which ruled the eastern Mediterranean. as related by Appollodorus. daughter of Minos. to spread white sails on the ship. through conquest. . said to have been "the son of Zeus. blind alleys and false turnings. it was said.
from the Acropolis the ship with a black had perished. three thousand years before Leonardo da Vinci. In his grief on account of Ariadne [continues the poet]. entered he killed and having brought her to Lemnos he enjoyed Staphylus. for. . drawing the clue after him made his way out again. ated Icarus. anc? perished. was a combination of artist. But the infatuhis son.. says Appollodorus: . Theseus forgot to spread the white sails on his ship when he stood for port. in the Labyrinth.106 THE BULL OF MINOS Daedalus the Smith. (his father) seeing and supposed that Theseus . And by night he arrived with after rinth. her. .. soared ever higher. another great figure of legend. neither to fly high. At any rate. . and begot Thoas. a practical mechanic. and enjoined when he took flight. . died. lest the pinions should be detached by the damp. in. in. . Daedalus constructed wings for himself and his son. Then followed the invention of the first flying machine. and. And at his suggestion she gave Theseus a clue [thread] when he went it to the door. Daedalus. the glue melting. so he cast himself down But that was not the end of the story. . though they may be imagined. nor to fly too near the melt sea. H< had suffered enough already through towards th< . with his son Icarus. craftsman and engineer whom Minos employed as a kind of Master of the King's Works. made no such his indulgence mistake. her wiles were successful. drawing it after him. King Minos. when he learned about the connivance of Daedalus in his daughter's escape. and Aegeus sail. There Dionysus fell in love with Ariadne and carried her off. Oenopion and Peparthus. till. having found the Minotaur in the last part of the Labyhim by smiting him with his fists. What methods the "brown-haired Ariadne" used to persuade the ingenious smith to give her his help are not mentioned. he fell into the sea called after him Icarian. . lest the glue should in the sun and the wings should drop off. It was Daedalus who had made for Pasiphae the dummy cow within which she hid herself when she wish to allure the bull. imprisoned the guilty engineer. . disregarding his father's instructions. and. Theseus fastened Ariadne and the children [presumably by this the writer means the rest of the twelve Athenian men and girls destined for sacrifice] at Naxos.
court of Cocalus. and promised to thread to it and gave to Daedalus. But he seemed have a contempt for the lay mind akin to that with which the modern engineering draughtsman regards the glossy young gentleman from the sales department. and in every country he searched he he should discover Daedalus. so he gave to the King of Sicily a method of threading the shell which was brilliant in its simplicity. Such a challenge was irrestible to Daedalus. and made an entertainment for Minos. just as he had provided Theseus with the clue of thread which even he could not misunderstand. he perceived that Daedalus was with Cocalus. He knew well that his new lord. allowed the ant to pass through it. to the whom Daedalus was concealed. unscathed. Minos evidently knew human nature. having bored a hole in the spiral shell. and promised to thread it . with Camicus in Sicily [writes Apollodorus]. he showed the Cocalus (Lord of Sicily) took it. . says Apollodorus. And then chronicle: follows one of the most mysterious records in the . and..ISLAND OF LEGEND 107 King's dark-haired daughter and her handsome though nonetoo-intelligent Athenian wooer. it. and at once demanded his surrender. believing that by that means Minos pursued Daedalus. Cocalus. carried a spiral shell and promised to give a great reward to him who should pass a thread through the shell. would have been as incapable of mathematically working out the curves and convolutions of the shell as was Ariadne's handsome but stupid lover in memorizing the twists and turns of the Labyrinth. . Having come spiral shell. But. and Daedalus fastened a thread to an ant. Anyone who has encountered the vanity and self-satisfaction of certain modern scientist-engineers will recognize the cunning with which the King baited his hook. So. in Sicily. . to Cocalus took it. to the court of King Cocalus.. He flew on. But when Minos found the thread passed through the shell. Cocalus promised to surrender him.
. Your room's all read . "But where is the Palace?" I asked. . "that these are the vineyards belonging to the School. smiling Cretan servant with flood of Creek. a legendary chapter in the prehistory of the eastern Mediterranean ends. THE BULL OF MINOS . on one of its downward slopes. . de Jong pointed to a cluster of houses at the past us in a cloud of dust. The houses were left behind. "Hell show you to the Villa. crossed by many old. I expect." "Youll be wanting a bath. "are our vine"is yards. and out again past the somber Venetian ramparts to the winding valley road which leads towards Knossos." she said. as mysteriously as it began." The car stopped in front of a pleasant limewashed cottage behind a stone wall. we drove back along the rough. through Herakleion with its narrow.108 ." said his wife. But why? and how? Both history and legend are silent here. trees." interjected her husband. "Here' Manoli" greeting a dark-faced. "half as old as Time/' attached to one of the ramshackle Cretan buses which rattled The sun sank behind the headland to our left as The valley's sides grew steeper." wife means. Mrs. . ancient streets. For several miles the road rose and fell. trim ranks of vines which climbed the slopes. behind those Piet "You'll see in the morning. It was strange to see that name. but after his bath Minos was undone by the daughters of Coca." said "Away it to the left. lus. the great King of Crete passes into oblivion. Whatever the means of his death. . done And to death by the young daughters of the King of Sicily. . for you/ ." pointing to "That. arched bridges. until. . and a small stream accompanied us on our left. The land surrounding the "My Palace was given by Sir Arthur to the British School of Archaeology at Athens. twisting road. . and we look after it. our village and these. . bottom of the hill.
2. Sophia Schliemann. wearing the "Jewels of Helen. Heinrich Schliernann." . John Murray 3.
Minoan "figure-eight" body shields. showgem Design ing warrior with eight" shield. "figure- Macmillan 8. Note "Homeric" body shield.6. Mycenae. . on sardonyx from Mycenae. "Armed Combat in Mountain Glen": Gold signet from fourth shaft grave. Macmillan 7.
Mycenae: Entrance to the secret underground cistern.Mycenae: Postern Gate. 10. .
Ashmolean Museum (thought by Gold face mask from shaft graves. Mycenae ) Schliemann to be that of Agamemnon 2. . Ashmolean M .
Macmillan Scene apparently illustrating the murder of Aegisthos and Clytemnestra by Orestes. Mycenae The Citadel crowns the hill in the middle foreground.14. on gold bead seal of elongated class: Thisbe. . . 15.
" . 17. The "Cup of Nestor. Tiryns: Cyclopean masonry.16.
Ashmolcan Mus L8. Tru . with the Palace Knossos in background. of Portrait of Sir Arthur Evans.
20. Palace of Knossos: the "horns of consecration" which originally surmounted the south side of the Palace. Restored West Portico. Mount Jukta. Palace of Knossos with "Cup-bearer" frescoes. . Be- tween the horns can be seen the little "caravanserai" and.19. Travellers from the south (from Egypt) came this way. in the distance.
This is the oldest throne in Europe. 22. with oil jars in their original and "floor cvsts" for precious articles. . Palace of Knossos: position. Palace of Knossos: "The Room still of the Throne" with restored frescoes. in its original place.Macmttlan 21. One of the great storerooms.
Note his "iden- .Macmillan 23. the first example of a Minoan to he found in Crete. Palace of Knossos: The "Cup-bearer" fresco.
A Minoan vase. .Macmillan 24.
.25. Knossos: A typical light well." Note tapered columns. Knossos: The North Portico. 26.
of Egyptian tombs. . probably Cretans) on walls Compare with "Cup-bearer" fresco (especially loincloths) . Examples of Keftiu (sea peoples.I ft Afefhuen 27.
C o ]_ 0. H T3 i O I cc 06 CvJ .
restored by Gilli6ron. Macmillan 30. . Palace of Knossos: flights The Grand Staircase leading to the Royal Apartments five below. The "Ladies in Blue" fresco (Minoan Court ladies).Macmillan 29.
oJ C s o.ill w D ~ ill fil U ** a. ^ .
32. Palace of Knossos:
ladies at a public function.
The Snake Goddess
Mirioan amphora showing octopus and marine growths on rocks.
cup Scene showing the hunting of wild bulls.
olden "Vapheio" cup showing bull and decov cow.
1 1 Iff
The Minoan "bull-leaping" sport. A fresco from the Palace of Knossos showing the acrobat somersaulting over the bull's back. The "matador" on the right is a girl.
QomKaf-s nprfnrmed the feat ^see above)
38. Fresco of the
Young Prince (sometimes
called the "Priest King"), Palace of
standing at the northern entrance to the which he excavated. Sir Arthur Evans in later life. Palace. .Aahmolean Mf* 39.
41. Steatite rhv ton with boxers.
Palace of Phaestos:
The "Theatral Area."
44. Palace of Phaestos:
The Grand Entrance Staircase,
45. Palace of Phaestos:
of Phaestos, with
of Phaestos, with the Plain of Messara behind.
49. The author at Herakleion. .
Piet. He built it in 1912 as a permanent base for his work. "Is that a hotel?" spring and summer at the Villa for many years. "The Villa Ariadne is home. and to entertain his friends. This" indicating the "No. or only friendly ones! Look."Villa?" I asked. "February is too early for students. what a wonderful moon. He used to spend every Sir Arthur's old creepered. and I sensed the coming of spring. de Jong. he handed over the house to the School. to the Villa Ariadne. comfortable cottage "is our house we call it the Taverna. no. as a rest house for students." replied Mrs. But you'll be staying at the Villa up there. oleander trees. through calling out to . here it was already comfortably mild. the scented dusk. Although I had left England locked in the grip of February frost. no. when he got too old to come out regularly. Then. A little "Is anyone else staying there?" "No." She chattered on without pausing for breath. Do you see it?" She indicated a stately fagade behind a screen of palms and path wound up the slope between clusters of bougainvillaea. You'll have the whole place to yourself. "Dinner's at eight!" as I followed Manoli." said Mrs. finally me. But don't worry there are no ghosts. de Jong.
(d) ahead. the right-hand side (c) of the valley (looking south). In one of these valleys. and become progressively steeper as they cut into the mountains. is a long. much wider from east to west (160 miles) than from north to south (35 miles at its broadest point ) The country is ribbed by bare. narrow island. (To find topographical description as boring as I do. (a) Evans began to dig there in the first year of our cen- he saw before him: a valley.CHAPTER X A CHALLENGE ACCEPTED CRETE .e. left of the road. 110 may I . i. a large. (b) a modern road following the western. to the east.. into a deep gully at the foot of which ran the river Kairatos. the remaining sides being more or less on a level with the surrounding terrain. another steep-sided gully. They begin as shallow troughs near the coast. with the town of Herakleion behind him to the north. But here and there deep gaps break the mountain chain from north to south. at a point near the north coast a few miles from Herakleion (formerly called Candia) lies Knossos. It must not be imagined as a lofty citadel crowning a steep all hill. cutting off the mound of Kephala from the valley road to the south. When tury. falling away steeply on the eastern. fairly shallow. Thus one must think of the site of Knossos as roughly a quadrangular mound.882 feet which run approximately east and west..e. almost treeless mountains of great magnificence the highest is 7. in line with the island's longest dimension. the left-hand side. which crossed the gully by a bridge. to the south. and running roughly north and south. fairly level-topped mound called Kephala. bounded on two sides the east and south by steep downward slopes. i. as at who Mycenae.
There was a suavity of style. of European history. just women depicted on even the now famous eight-shaped shield frescoes. The style was. had struck them years before. who at forty-nine was almost the same age as Schliemann when he dug at Troy. Apart from these facts there were only myths and legends from the dim beginnings Yet. ) Virchow.A plead that if CHALLENGE ACCEPTED more comprehensible and. Yet their original thirty make another tremendous conwhen he. 111 to the south and they grasp the orientation of the site steep-sided east. his Scots assistant and the first workmen sank shaft into the mound. which Schliemann had triumphantly declared to be Homeric. subtlety and refinement as could have been produced only by a civilization of great age. And yet there were differences. in the main. They knew that substantial walls existed at one point the Cretan amateur. was to tribution to that science.) now appeared almost modern compared with these people! The treasures of the shaft features seals with the stern citadel of Mycenae that baron's stronghold frowning from its hilltop. a skill and an architecture of such splendor. Minos Kalokairinos. uninterrupted development which in engineering. enjoyable." because at Mycenae had been found the first objects with the characteristics neither Egyptian nor Oriental which had so fascinated Evans when Schliemann showed him his treasures. But Homer (between 900-700 B. that which had hitherto been called "Mycenaean." Now Evans. an assurance.C. and of long-continued. Above all there was an impression of tremendous age. And yet here at Knossos were the familiar "Mycenaean" did not fit the bell-like crinoline skirts of the and . mound almost from the start of the excavations. the great began to reveal its secrets not material treasures of gold and precious stones. had stated: "Here begins a new science. even a hint of decadence in Cretan art. such as Schliemann had found at Mycenae but evidences of a mature. There were also. called pithoi rather like those in which Ali Baba found the Forty Thieves. sophisticated art. they had only a vague idea of what it might hold. writing of Schliemann's discoveries at Troy thirty years earlier. flatter to the west and north they will I find the following chapter hope. they knew. some huge jars of baked clay.
at first. also broken. . was in the prehistoric picture . It gradually became clear that the mound of Kephala concealed a great Palace. first Theodore Fyfe. Yet it now became increasingly clear that those kings and queens with their golden breastplates and rich jewellery. must have come long after the Evans and his combuilders of the first Palace of Knossos. and on the surrounding hillsides. Theodore Fyfe. perhaps at first a little bewildered by the magnitude of his discovery. some six acres in extent or rather the remains of several Palaces. . others usually contented themselves with bringing one in at the end to make plans. .C. .112 graves of THE BULL OF MINOS Mycenae dated from about 1600 B. continued to search for his hieroglyphics. But everything to long and comparatively uninterrupted habitation. Human beings had lived continuously on that spot. . until over one hundred were digging into the mound under the careful direction of Evans. and found them. . architect of the British School of Archaeology at Athens. for more than a score of centuries. Duncan Mackenzie and a new arrival. More men were engaged. . . Although the architectural revelations of Knossos astonished Evans. though broken at one end. then Christian Doll and finally Piet de Jong. Evans had found what he had come to find. also found at Knossos about these. panions patiently followed Ariadne's thread. . a kind of baked clay bar. . We have found [he announced in a letter written at the time]. not neatly stratified one beneath an- some extent jumbled together. his main interest. rather like a stone chisel in shape. always on the site. There is something . . It at once recalled a clay tablet of unknown age that I had copied at like cursive writing Candia. But Evans kept a series of first-class architects in constant attendance. unsolved mysteries. while comtestified pletely gutting and rebuilding others. Meanwhile Arother but to thur Evans. The Labyrinth seemed to have no end. as later builders had utilized some of the structures of their forefathers. Evans was one of the first archaeologists to employ a professional architect. with script on it and what appear to be numerals. but each discovery seemed to bring with it new.
I deposits. . "the cry is still they come. some hundreds of pieces. 1900: the most important discovery is the prehistoric Cretan which proves that writing was practised. of Babylonian but with inscriptions in the must have about seven hundred pieces by extremely satisfactory. It is together. .A clay tablets CHALLENGE ACCEPTED come to find. gradually. With regard I have . came a remarkable discovery the finding of April the first picture of a "Minoan. the legendary ruler of Crete. to prehistoric inscriptions. he began to realize that whether glory or not he succeeded in deciphering the mysterious script. and was equal to it. after Minos. bearing the 113 writing which he had As more of these precious same mysterious hierowhich he had recognized on the tiny seal stones. And the Athens correspondent of The Times wrote on August 10. . as it is what I came to Crete [somel to find. . the opportunity of writing. accepted the challenge. entire or fragmentary. ( It was Evans who invented the name Minoan. first." one of the mysterious people who had inhabited the Palace of Knossos more than fifteen hun- He On fifth dred years before Christ. ." struck the largest deposit yet. just . . to sight. But. there This was also Evans's view at had come him an opportunity which had never before been one man. glyphic writing he wrote delightedly to his family: came The great discovery is whole clay tablets analogous to the prehistoric script of Crete. Early in the morning the gradual surface uncovering of the Corridor to the left of the "Megaron" near its south end revealed two . and it is the coping-stone to what I have already put years ago now. . . script. the history of the first two thousand years of European to granted to civilization. and his diary reveals his excitement. almost singlehanded.) This was a great day for the discoverer. as the full of the Palace was unveiled. . .
though they were convinced that the figure was that of a Chris- stian saint. . . yet here. the lower showing a slight peculiar. Those familiar with Egyptian inscriptions had known for many years of the "Island People" from the "Great Green Sea. full lips. . At night [wrote Evans in his diary]. ." with whom the Pharaohs were alternately at war and at peace. . the "people of the islands. . curling black hair. Egyptologists were particularly excited. and the local inhabitants of Knossos were equally impressed. . Manoli wakes and hears lowing and neighing. . the first example of a well- Crete and beyond. . The waist is of the smallest it is far and away the most remarkable human figure of the Mycenaean . . . but of ghostly kind. below. Has troubled dreams. The figure. . figure seemed to have formed part of a mural reprea procession of young men. believed by him to be Saint with halo. the other the waist and part of the figure of a female [later recognized to be a male] figure holding in her [his] hand a long The figure is Mycenaean "rhyton" or high. Manoli set to watch the fresco.114 THE BULL OF MINOS . contemporary with the Middle Empire of Egypt caused a great sensation in Schliemann would have loved to have seen that fresco! The discovery of this figure. for here. and muscular thighs. At night a guard was set. each carrying a tall. How preserved painting of a man of that far-remote age. funnel-shaped cup. was one of the so-called Keftiu. forehead. One represented the head and large pieces of Mycenaean fresco. Something about. ity of curve The arms are beautifully modelled. age that has yet come to light. bronzed shoulders. life size. The profile of the face is a noble type. Saint wrathful. the flesh colour of a deep reddish hue like that of figures on . artificially slim waist encircled by a tight girdle. was the a young Cretan of the prehistoric age which human eyes had seen for at least two thousand years. in his own locale. . The eye is dark and slightly almond shaped. conical senting "rhyton" in some ceremonial observance. Etruscan tombs and the Keftiu of Egyptian paintings. with its The broad. Their pictures had been seen in clearly represented . . The world's press printed news of its finding." who can be seen on the walls of Ancient Egyptian tombs bearing tribute to the Pharaoh or his officers. clearly. was first representation of clearly stylized.
for official . Beyond that was a further chamber. a large central courtyard. each containing great earthenware storage jars for oil (the pithoi). rambling building seems to have been used. . these Keftiu enough. overlooking a rectangular pit. full of clerks and civil servants of varying degrees of importance. Cretans? of the Throne. Buildings of vary- it was not). and by the handsome vessels they carried vessels of a recognizably non-Egyptian type. until it was discovered that there was no provision for the escape of waste water. one imagines a kind of Cretan Whitehall. At first it looked very much like a bath. And here. On the west side of this courtyard was what seemed at first to be the eastern entrance to the palace (though . recognizable by their blue and gold loincloths of non-Egyptian shape. and under the floor beneath. with seats on three sides. First he had discovered. Now. among up from the depths of Kephala were fragments of vases. were revealed in their own land and. for the first time. Were these. at any rate during the later period of the Palace's history. But it was the room above and overlooking the so- surrounded it. with broad steps leading down into it. like modern from the fact that fragments of gold foil were found among them. sure the pottery which Evans and his assistants dug . narrow. and here lived those responsible for its collection and safekeeping. quite early in the exEvans and his friends found the Room of the Throne. on top of the mound.A CHALLENGE ACCEPTED 115 Egyptian tombs. "rhytons" and other ritual vessels such as could be seen clearly depicted in the tomb paintings of Egyptian Thebes (see Plate 27). to the east of the corridor and magazines. on what was evidently the ground floor of the Palace. First there was an antechamber opening on to the central court. a long corridor off which led a series of magazines or storerooms. cavations. but it was much longer on its east and west sides than on the north and south. seem to have been used for the storage safe deposits. quarters. then. which. Then ing sizes there lay." of Then came the dramatic discovery of the so-called "Room Evans had begun excavating on the west side the mound. the mysterious Keftiu? Were they . Here was kept the royal wealth (of which oil formed an important part). stone-lined cysts small chambers. of precious objects ( see Plate 22 ) All the lower part of this west side of the great.
116 called "bath" THE BULL OF MINOS which most interested Evans and his colleagues. Not only there. which gave the actual tradition of the Bull . Now. the oldest in Eutwo thousand years (see Plate 21). Inevitably. here was the animal again. but in other places. still But there. extensive and complicated . Here is Sir Arthur's diary Duncan Mackenzie and Theodore entry for April 13. and as this was filled with charred wood cypress these openings were evidently for columns. in a magnificent stucco relief. On the other side of the north wall was a short bench like that of the outer chamber. stands his staff explored the site. which evidently had once adorned the north portico of the Palace. "An Egyptian statue of diorite. at Knossos. among die objects which Schliemann had found in the Mycenaean shaft graves. Evans named "The Council Chamber of Minos. in his report to The Times. a fine silver head of a bull. stood rope by the noble throne of Minos. . another of a boy [later discovered to be a monkey] gathering saffron. a great relief in . and frequently on seals. in frescoes and reliefs. a covery. not some one or other of these creatures visible on the ruined site in Dorian days. in its original position. the legend of Theseus and the Minotaur returned to Evan's mind. It was raised on a square base and had a curious moulding below with crockets (almost Gothic). of gypsum." was recognized later to have had a and religious purpose. day was the result of the continued excavachamber [my italics]. It had a high back. and then separated from it by a small interval a separate seat of honour or Throne. with a rosette between its horns (see Plate 11). the it The more Evans and more became. like the seat. 1900. The parapet of the bath proved to have another circular cutting at its east end. chief event of the tion of the bath The This room." great paved area with stairways. appeared the bull. a fresco of olive sprays in flower. which. Fyfe. Already he had seen. . a fresco of people in solemn procession. "Was "What a part these creatures play here!" he wrote. . which was partly embedded in the stucco of the wall. of Minos?" Later came the most remarkable of all the discoveries made ." painted stucco of a charging bull It was this latter discovery which gave Evans the greatest excitement. "Discovery followed diswrote Joan Evans.
A CHALLENGE ACCEPTED 117 at Knossos: the remains of a spirited fresco depicting. were sent each year as tribute to the Minotaur? Who were these people? Were they "Mycenaean" contemporary with the people whose bodies Schliemann had found in the shaft graves at Mycenae? Or were they even older? Although the civilization revealed at Knossos was akin to that of Mycenae. isolated in a waste of waters.e. nor was the in wall paintings. which ended at about 3000 B. bull killed. without a shadow of doubt.C. But again and on seals. Contact between Egypt and Crete had been cultural and commercial. Egypt. Gradually Crete had built up naval power. In an attempt to establish just how long civilization had existed at Knossos. There were evidences of one or two breaks.. some kind of ritual sacrifice? Were these young men and girls the Athenian hostages who. Civilization had been a long Then Evans underprocess of growth.C. In that remote age when sea power did not exist. similarly dressed in "toreador's" costume. while a young girl. the New Stone Age. waited behind the animal's flank to catch him (see Plate 36). proving that doubtedly existed a form of sport in which the bull played a prominent part. In none of these scenes was any contestant among these ancient people there had un- shown carrying a weapon. ) up to and including the penultimate development of Cretan civilization the period to which Evans later gave the name Late Minoan III which ended in approximately 1200 B. Everywhere Cretan stock). Soon other examples of the same scene came to light. had been safe from invasion. according to tradition. a blossoming and a decay. The nearest power. had no great naval strength. Had there been. and that what had been regarded hitherto as "Mycenaean" was in fact derived from Crete (although the Mycenaeans were not necessarily of everything indicated that mound of Kephala. Crete. agile figure of the youthful "bull leaper" in the act of somersaulting over the horns of the charging beast. Evans sank test pits deep into the . The strata thus revealed proved beyond doubt that there had been almost continuous human settlement at Knossos from the Neolithic period (i. stood why this had been possible. the slim. but none of long duration. in a delicate ivory statuette again the same incredible scene was repeated. after all. a young man in the act of somersaulting over the back of a charging bull. it was far more ancient.
118 THE BULL OF MINOS Evans and his associates found evidence of the close ties between the lords of Knossos and the surrounding ocean. supthe great pressing piracy. maritime empire. It was fortunate for the world that this great opportunity of digging down to the very roots of European culture came . . The makers of the lovely Cretan pottery. and the starfish (see Plate 33). which like those of Moses and Numa Pompilius were derived from a divine source.. by legend as holding the foremost place. Here Daedalus constructed the Labyrinth. the capital tory is indicated of Minos. Here . and the birthplace of Zeus himself. . . the refuge of Europa. civilization? Was Crete. . repeatedly used marine emblems and. appeared the trident emblem of sea power. the dolphin. the earliest artificers in iron and bronze. especially in its middle and late stages of development. most unfortified. on painted frescoes and engraved seals. the abode of Daedalus.. lawgiver (Minos) promulgated his famous institutions. here was established a . the sea urchin. then. he had written The Times in August of that year: . Knossos. It did not unlike the grim fortresses of Mycenae and Tiryns. On walls and pillars. of architecture and plastic arts. was alneed walls the ocean was sufficient protection. as decorative motifs. the great conqueror and lawgiver who at the close of his temporal reign took his seat on the dread tribunal of the netherworld. the haunt of the mysterious Dactyls. the father . . the starting point of Aegean Was this the answer to the riddle which old Ilein- rich Schliemann it. and imposing a tribute on subjected Athens. the realms of the legendary Minos. in one of those bold imaginative flights which dis- tinguished to him from the mere scholarly pedant. a highly developed culture which vanished before the dawn of hisamong the prehistoric cities of Crete. conquering the islands of the Archipelago. and determined to prove Already. Crete was in remote times the home of . had sought to understand? Arthur Evans believed that it was. The Palace of Knossos itself. Again it seemed that the ancient tradition was true of King Minos as founder of the first great naval power in the Mediterranean. the den of the Minotaur. sea creatures such as the octopus. and fashioned the wings-^-perhaps the sails with which he and Icarus took flight over the Ae- gean.
my way may not be the best but it is the only John Evans knew his son s temper and agreed. * . It is difficult to arrive at an accurate estimate of the total cost. but was probably in the region of a quarter of a million pounds.A to a truth. it The Palace of Knossos [he wrote]. inspiring sanctuaries in the world. or in If many lifetimes. it was not only Evans who was making great discoveries in Crete in the spring of 1900. unhampered by committees and official bodies. whose family was hereditary friends of the Evans family. there was little money to spare for archaeology. you like to give acceptable. and now that the South African War had broken out. another British archaeologist. . I quite resolved not to have the thing entirely "pooled" for many reasons. While Evans dug at Knossos. CHALLENGE ACCEPTED 119 man who combined a scholar's patience with devotion to knew he must tackle it in his own way. But he November. reconstruction and publication of the Palace of Knossos. was my idea and my work. working on the other side of the island. of the famous publishing house. work which continued intermittently for more than thirty years. . and responsible to no one but himself. was borne first by John Evans and afterwards entirely by Arthur Evans himself. from his private fortune. Partly by chance. 1900. Fortunately he was a rich man. There was a suggestion of making a fresh appeal for funds under the direction of George Macmillan. but I personally undertaking. but largely because I must have sole control of what I am it may be different. succeeded in penetrating into one of the most aweit But the birth cave of Zeus. me the money personally that also would be quite But we may as well keep some of Knossos in the family! know it is way I so with me. can work. sensibility and poetic imagination. With other people am That the Fund should help me is another thing." but the expense of excavating such a site was very great. From this point onwards the cost of the monumental work of excavation. But Arthur Evans made his own views quite clear when he wrote well to his father in intuition. At first the excavations had been partly financed by the "Cretan Exploration Fund. and turns out to be such a find as one could not hope for in a lifetime. Evans had found in middle life a task for which he was supremely fitted. but chiefly through good judgment.
he had not forgotten the great cavern in the mountainside. some seven hundred years or more before Christ. Hogarth. that no other of the proud sons of Heaven should hold kingly office amongst of gods and men. the deathless gods. setting down in stirring verse the traditions which he had inherited from a far earlier age. although fallen rocks had prevented him from penetrating deeply into the cave. as it is sometimes had every advantage called. where. But now there arrived on the scene the redoubtable D. He who had previously been suspicious of foreigners. father by whose thunder the wide earth is shaken. Hestia. in 1896. and gold-shod Hera and strong Hades. for at last peace had come to the island. and the local inhabitants. who dwells under the earth. There. and wise Zeus. far up on the heights of Lasithi. 120 . . Now. Demeter. . Hogarth made a determined attack on the Dictean Cave. pitiless in heart. although Evans was absorbed in his newfound Palace of Knossos. "the cave-sanctuary of Psychro. then Director of the British School of Archaeology in Athens. it was said.CHAPTER XI THE BIRTH CAVE OF ZEUS But Rhea was subject in love to Cronos and bore splen- did children. and the loud-crashing Earth-Shaker. in the spring of 1900. 1900. called by the ancients Dicte. or. he had discovered an inscribed libation table. while Evans and Mackenzie worked on the mound of Kephala. . he had explored the mountain of Lasithi. These great Cronos swallowed as each came forth from the womb of his mother's knees with this intent. In May. and well seasoned (as Evans was not) in excavation in the Middle East. Zeus was born. Some years before Arthur Evans finally obtained the concession to dig at Knossos." on his side. G. So the poet Hesiod had written.
and Dr. another Moses. has remained less known than any part of the classic world. was the sacred cave. and thence she set forth by night to lay her newborn babe on the neighbouring hill. such as miniature "double axes" (the symbol of Zeus). have kept most of Crete virgin soil to our own day. he would give a Law to the Cretans. and there the son [Minos] whom she conceived that day. but inside the cave they could do little or nothing. Minos descended into the grot. In his article in the Monthly Review January to March. the great Italian archaeologist and friend of Evans. as he wrote: This the upland fastnesses of Crete have not. and the Lasithi region. for. from the local peasants. and in later days still resorted to his birth cave..THE BIRTH CAVE OF ZEUS 121 were now favorably disposed to the British. the head of the Candiote Syllogos (Cretan Archaeological Society). which excluded the Venetians and only once admitted the Turks in arms. had made tentative attempts to penetrate He had had the cave. 1901 he wrote: Thither the pregnant Queen [Rhea] was sent by the kindly Earth Mother at the first. predecessors. hillmen in the inner country. he led the maiden Europa. . reappearing at last with the Code. he was ity. They had recovered. certain bronze objects. Joseph Hazzidakis. jealous and nervous officials on the coast.. who had helped to deliver them from the Turks. and. Hogarth. Frederico Halbherr. was a man of imagination and sensibilWhen he began to explore the birthplace of Zeus. . flushed and halfsuspecting. knives and other weapons. of course. . so runs the story. While the Cretans waited above. these many centuries past. . so deep was the cumber of fallen rocks in its upper hall. which and his assistants were now to examine. like Evans. never fully explored. He knew how Hogarth privileged he was. been any place for the scholarly explorer. when. sought his Father. zestfully aware of its mythological associations. That babe grew to be the Immortal One [Zeus] before whom old Time himself was forced to bow. Indeed. For thither. gave out that he had got it from the hands of Zeus himself. as Lucian tells us in his best manner. jealous and arrogant .
Breasted. on the third morning. is very amusing on labor recruitment. . . The rock at first breaks down groped thus far. as To me. diligent at their sieves. . Hogarth.* but this He . method. came the There is a shallow hall to the right and an abysmal chasm to the left. already trained at Knossos. and the after-cult of a Chthonian god. Evans. ". Having falls sheer. . . of the most engaging qualities of the great nineteenth-century archaeologists such as Hogarth is their vigorous literary style. But they were also men of action and makes clear in his next paragraph. he states. watching from a disgirls.. . as . Arthur Evans garth writes. I left Mr. mixing more willingly for the emulation of the women. Petrie. to his fortunate labours in the Knossian Palace of Minos. seemed at first to be a failure in Crete. . and . and. blasting charges made short work of the boulders in the up. An slope. applied successfully in Cyprus and Turkey. He believed in the men labour the the sexes because. began. . they could decision. where rock and water meet. unruffled floor. luckily the threatening roof held good. behind and far above a spot of faintly luminous haze. the Lasithi maidens were very coy.122 THE BULL OF MINOS Then at last Hoin May. An impassable labyrinth before. who had But. the last not matched in Crete for grandeur. takes an outward steeply still for two hundred feet into an inky dark- . Hall opens from hall with fretted roofs and the same black. nor unworthy of a place among the famous limestone grottoes of the world. . and betook myself to Psychro with a few trained men. and the rest of a digger's plant" Then he describes the cave: liberation of the island. one Ho- Our hill. blasting powder. but as the light grows dim. Crowbars and per Then the real dig stone-hammers finished the powder's work. . Fit scene for Minos' mysterious colloquy with his father Zeus. first At tance two . . stand and burn a powerful flashlight. doubling the torches you and your guides must bear. ". stone-hammers. 1900 . mining bars. and so ness. garth all write. stalacicy pool spreads from your feet about the bases of fantastic tite columns on into the heart of the hill. a more cosmopolitan villager..
. .C. The men clambered down pectant. Quickly the word was passed round. and aunts. who brought up the mid-day meal. part of which had already been plundered by the local peasantry. wedged vertically. men in the mud of the pool and began to girls. ceased groping those pendulous columns in the crevices of the stalactites search and . . Fished out with the fireknife." which had been inaccessible until Hogarth arrived with his blasting powder and mining bars. With this picturesque labor force Hogarth made one of the most sensational discoveries in Crete. cousins. except by human agency. i. onward. . . and the workers. . and began to grope in the mud left exposed by the water. . sent up an aged wife and daughter to help his son. The till their distant lights showed like glow-worms to the men ness. to their final moaned not a little must now stand and [he writes]. above. and the ice was broken.e. reluctant diggers worked lower and lower into the dark- And then something wonderful happened. they made the terrace before the Cave the gayest spot in Lasithi.. But then came the exploration of that "abysmal chasm to the left. .THE BIRTH CAVE OF ZEUS The laughing mob brandished and demanded 123 fought or looted as a volunteer on the French side in 1870. There were. from about 500 B. this proved a perfect "Mycenaean" But. zealous groper. it could hardly have come into the crevice. unwilling and not exand the girls the dank abyss at the sight of the clammy mud in which they task in . and remains of Hellenic pottery. and with their sisters. grain-sieves all to be written [recruited] at once. two chambers within the sacred grotto. wishing to put both hands to his work. there were found small objects of bronze. . and therein espied the guttering candle into a slit of A edge of a bronze blade. But these were fairly late in date. as he described. they belonged to "classical" Greek or Roman times." knives. search. stuck his stalactite column. . such as small "double axes. tongs from the camp above. all originally proffered as votive offerings to the god. bracelets and so forth. . In the Upper Hall.
124 THE BULL OF MINOS ings: knives. Zeus. . was held most self. Among holy caverns in the world. . has no sanctuary approaching the mystery of this. wedged in the crevices. in niches made by Nature her- objects fashioned expressly for the God's service. In this most awful part of the sacred grotto [wrote Hogarth]. and rings. . three. . It was the Holy of Holies. The Cave of Ida. For the lower grot suits admirably the story as the rationalizing Dionysius tells it the primeval king leaving his people without and descending out of their sight. that of Psychro. pins. It was the innermost sanctuary of Zeus himself. And there they found. perhaps. as the knives. miniature double axes. the products of aeons of natural growth. perhaps four thousand years ago. . it profitable to dedicate. must stand alone. women's ornaments. fibulae all offerings to the god. That here is the original Birth Cave of Zeus there can remain n^ shadow of doubt. The fact does honour to the primitive Cretan imaginastatuettes. like the axes or from the person of the worshipper. or taken In these pillared halls of unknown extent and abysmal gloom undoubtedly was laid the scene of Minos' legendary converse with tion. man for. . however rich it proved in offerings when explored some years ago. placed there by worshippers who had of glistening limestone which hung from the roof of the cave. two mil- . hundreds upon hundreds of votive offer- penetrated to that gloomy hall two. in virtue of its lower halls. unseen by lennia. to reappear at last with the credit of having seen and talked with God himself.
However. mule. where he rented a Turkish house as a permanent base. in the south. Together father and son made a strenuous and adventurous journey across the island to Gortyna. they had to cease. Halbherr was beginning to excavate another Minoan palace at Phaestos. an antiquarwas almost overjoyed at his son's achievement. and in that year. through a tunnel-like gate over the town moat. 1901. The weather had become unbearably hot. until he finally acquired a fast Turkish cob of his own. that yet another of the ancient traditions Meanwhile. Evans was back in Herakleion (then called Candia). Old John Evans. and besides. writes Joan Evans: to dig at Knossos until.CHAPTER XII "AND STILL THE WONDER GREW" HOGARTH had proved had a solid basis. 125 . Here was the time Evans had begun to realize the magnitude of work of a lifetime. even on a gated to beg outside. . managed to get out to Crete himself. 1901. and was always envious of Halbherr's fine horse. He was also conscious of the world publicity which had been focussed upon him report in The Times. the Italian archaeologist who had always been a staunch friend of Arthur Evans. . where Frederico Halbherr. although he was then seventy-seven years of age. Mackenzie and Fyfe used to ride out to Knossos on mules. Every day. by February. . some- thing which could not be hurried or scamped. Evans and Mackenzie continued on June 2. By this the task ahead of him. warmly welcomed them. Evans. the valley had proved malarial. and even superior to it in the splendor of its since his first ian himself. second only to Knossos in size and beauty. past the lepers congreArthur Evans loved to go fast. 1900.
and a votary in front. and the Goddess. two American scholars. who may well have been Rhea. R. Gournia. stands above them. Later.126 site. . set with crystal It was and ivory mosaic. More important still. It is evident [he wrote]. and gold settings. but overlapping have been able to reconstruct a wonderful religious scene. at Boyd and Mr. It is not impossible that originally such a figure surmounted the central pillar between the Mycenaean lions. "It gives. away the leisure hours of King Minos himself. Evans now began to excavate the east side of the central court- yard. bases approached by a quadruple flight of stairs. under We . Later." Evans. THE BULL OF MINOS Further to the east. but. and French scholarship was to make its contribution by excavating the small but very rich "Palace" at Mallia. I . He began to find tiny clay seals which his phenomenal eyesight enabled him to interpret. as we shall see.with her typical Minoan flounced skirt and bare breasts. a goddess on a sacred rock or peak with two lions in heraldic attitudes on either side of it. he not only revealed it. . . "an extraordinary idea of magnificence. And here he revealed the Grand Staircase. "Out of five different impressions." wrote . Miss were excavating a Minoan town. which may once have whiled . by the most skillful and imaginative restoration. Architecturally the Palace continued to reveal fresh marvels. . ijeus. Halbherr unearthed the beautiful "Royal Villa" of Hagia Triadha. for the two lions on this tiny seal are identifiable with those flanking the Lion Gate at Mycenae. the mother of one another in design. Seager. her temple behind. that we are only just coming to the real have now a hall with two columncentre of the Palace buildings. where the ground fell away steeply towards the river Kairatos. also in the early part of this second season that he discovered the beautiful inlaid gaming table. saved it from inevitable destruction. the most impressive architectural achievement of that four-thousand-year- old civilization which has come down to us (see Plate 29). Two of these. Evans was able to make a profoundly imaginative interpretation of Minoan religion and its Mother Goddess. But Arthur Evans's greatest discoveries in 1901 took place after his father had returned to England in April. B." Even the layman can appreciate the fascination of this discovery.
Oxford. greatest glory. as Evans named it. All the objects found were. The latter were removed to the doubtful security of the Candia Museum. It will probably prove to be the principal megaron (hall) Above the stairs are traces of a further higher having existed. with more column bases. in the position of the originals. during the period of . A gallery with a wooden colonnade ran round the west side of this room in two stages. . Beyond the hall is a larger room. of the Palace. the coni- Evidently. they can be seen. How they did this will be described later. of which three still exist. as nearly as possible. and he also had the wisdom to engage a remarkable Swiss artist. but most were so small that restoring the original picture was like solving a complex jigsaw puzzle with the added complication that much of the puzzle was missing and therefore had to be guessed. have had to be tunnelled out. flight It now became clear to Evans that. strengthen and partially restore these high. As they dug into the shelving hillside. and in parts we find evidence of two storeys above the basement. and then making accurate reproductions which were then hung."AND STILL THE WONDER CREW" 127 the others. Gillieron. the property of the Cretan authorities. of course. It is altogether unexampled and unexpected. while the buildings around the upper courtyard. These Evans was able to take to England. and the suite of noble apartments to which it leads. more and more fragments of painted frescoes came to light. sensitively and accurately restoring what was missing. originally of five flights. M. Yet this was just the kind of imaginative reconstruction which Evans loved. which otherwise would have collapsed into a heap of rubble. overlooking the river valley. possessed an extraordinary gift for patiently fitting together the tiny fragments. its Ashmolean Museum. they had to support. were used mainly for official purposes. . As the work went on. only partly excavated. who for this Hence the need cut out of the steep eastern slope. except for a few articles of which duplicates existed. with some of at the Gillieron's lovely fresco reproductions. The Grand Staircase. on top of the mound. . are themselves a monument to the skill of Evans and his architectural team. toppling walls. the spacious domestic quarters of the Royal Family were built much lower down on a platform monumental staircase.
presumjust ably of wood. with butterflies flitting the double axe. final disaster.C. as recognize clearly how the shield was made of a bull's hide. hierarchical conventions of Egyptian art suddenly broke down. It is tempting to believe though it is by no means proved that refugee Cretan artists may have fled to Akhnaten's court at about this period. birds. and the royal artists ( it is believed under the direct guidas they ance of Akhnaten himself) painted and flowers saw them and beings. others were decorative motifs. The Minoans may have but in style copied this method of decoration from the Egyptians. when for the first and only time the rigid. They can be seen on Plate 40. "with most paratively speaking) of the Minoan Egyptian wall paintings. because there is one and show remarkable only one period of Egyptian art which does to that of Crete. the generally accepted date on which earthquake or foreign attack or both struck the Palaces of Crete. full size. which Evans named represented on tiny seals and signets. occurred frequently." he believed that actual shields had hung on the wall as part of the decoration. I say. porches THE BULL OF MINOS and rooms of state of the Palace of Minos had glowed with rich and sensuous color." advisedly. The significance of this departure that it occurred round about the year 1400 B. which we have among them. Some charming of the frescoes represented human scenes. there is no resemblance between the stiff. often drawn from nature flowers and grasses. and so did our old friend.128 dors. But the most fascinating of all these colored frescoes were those representing Minoan men and women especially women. At Mycenae Schliemann Mycenaean grave it had found employed. The symbol of already encountered among the treasures. delicate blues and greens and russet painted on smooth plaster. . This was the famous "heresy period" similarity under the Pharaoh Akhnaten. and strengthened with crosspieces. but here it was a wall decoration. including Knossos. In one of the rooms of state. the figure-of-eight shield. highly conventionalized art of most Egyptian wall paintings and the naturalism (comfrescoes. so he had replicas made of painted metal and hung in place. beasts not according to an accepted is human religious tradition. as Homer said. It was now possible to 'The Hall of the Double Axes.
unlike any ancient people whose painted or sculptured representations had survived from the remote past. A narrow band appears across the chest which suggests a diaphanous chemise. manner and style of hairdressing. and the constricted girdles and flounced skirts equally recall quite modern fashions. broke into the incredulous exclamation: "Mais. At a glance we recognize Court ladies going elaborate toilet. . a display of that strange. twisted round with strings of beads and jewels sleeves are puffed. and white collars. unlike the Babylonians.. unlike the Egyptians. on first seeing them.. gaily dressed in the height of fashion. The prevailing colors are rust-red and buff. it is confined by a band over the forehead and falls down the back in long separate the tresses. They are fresh from the coiffeur's hand with hair jris6 and curled about the head and shoulders. Here is Evans's detailed analysis of these scenes. the nearest comparison which the astonished scholars could make was to the fashionable beauties of their own time 1900! One savant. a tightly packed crowd of faces. either side of the miniature shrine are groups of ladies seated chattering. . As far as the Minoan women were concerned in their dress. ce sont dcs Parisiennesr An examination of Plates 30 and 32 will explain his astonish- ment. .. or. These highly bred Minoan ladies are evidently attending some court function perhaps the reception of some foreign ambassador. are shown on what seems to be a "grandstand".. with elaborately . But on either side of this central shrine are groups of ladies. they caused wonder and astonishment throughout the world. . which the young white dots for eyes. more likely. and figures in the background are sketched. the breasts are indicated beneath these . sinister sport The "bull leapers" exhibited their desperate skill. much more carefully drawn. distin- guished by the "horns of consecration" which decorate its roof (another allusion to the bull). with black in hair. in engaged apparently in gay chit-chat and ignoring what on before them. on and is coiffured hair. in the economical method of a modern cartoonist. . And no for they classical Greeks. In the center of the "grandstand" is what Evans believed to be the shrine of the Minoan goddess."AND STILL THE WONDER GREW" When these wonder were quite unlike the 129 were first discovered and restored by Gilli&ron. [giving] a dtcottett ef- . and it is these which form the subject of Plate 32. but the nipples of .
It was a bold. dividing Minoan To devise such a system was in itself no small achievement for one man. . These scenes of feminine confidences. synchronous with the Old. 1901. pottery and fragmented frescoes. As one by one these marvels were told to the world in Evans's vivid reports to The Times and various periodicals. . (also in 1901). When he returned to England in June. red low. . yel- . 1901). and diplomas from foreign Then. masterly solution. he had first to see that his foundations were firm. take us far away from the productions of Classical Art in any age. . of tittle-tattle and society scandals. genre and rococo atmosphere bring us nearer to quite . is still accepted today. Middle and Late Minoan. and though in later years Evans himself had to modify and extend it. Evans announced. showing white stripes and at times black striations. recognition of the importance of the Cretan discoveries was general and immediate: Fellowship of the Royal Society (June 6th. his proposed solution to the problem of dating the successive Knossian strata. The lively lady to whose coiffure the net belongs) nature of the conversation between No. THE BULL OF MINOS The . and New Empires of Egypt. the full grandeur of Evans's achievement and the immensity of the task which lay ahead of him became apparent. dresses are gaily coloured with bands of blue. honorary degrees at Edin- burgh and Dublin societies. in the main his principle of difficult culture into three broad periods of development Early. Middle. The latter by thrusting forward her right arm so as almost to lay her hand on the other's lap while her confidante raises hers in amazement "You dont say so!" . 3 (the and her neighbour at once points her statement strikes the eye. . and.130 feet. and . and were supplemented by the comments of other visitors. . in an address to the British Association in Glasgow. following this up. . but Evans recognized that in the years ahead of him it would be his task to build a structure of sound knowledge from an amorphous mass of stone. Such lively . modern times. like an honest builder.
Director of the British School at Athens. trouble arose over finances. museums and other learned institutions with more ample resources. but there are also universities. who had excavated the cave sanctuary of Zeus. as in collecting are a rich man's son. of which the following letter from Hogarth must serve as example: far These expensive methods are yours and in ordinary life. which. You in digging. most of the subscribers are people of moderate means. which. There was plain speaking on both sides. Hogarth. and Evans. ings.CHAPTER XIII INTO THE LABYRINTH IN 1902. who was "comfortably circumstanced" to put it mildly could not understand this. while greatly benefiting went beyond what was archaeologically necessary. with whom Hogarth At this point a was now working in close collaboration at Knossos. could sometimes expect a proportion of the finds for their own collections. sharp disagreement broke out between D. more than half of which was his own money. to him it seemed like making money out of religion. and have probably 131 . especially the expensive reconstruction of buildthe lay visitor to the site. it should be said that it is usual for funds to be raised by a society or group of societies interested in the project. Hogarth. On Hogarth's side and they were both men of strong character there was irritation at Evans's de luxe methods of excavation. Already he had spent some forty-five hundred pounds. as a professional archaeologist. But these people naturally want to see that they are getting value for their money. in the early days. G. For the benefit of those unfamiliar with the financing of archaeological work. Evans. when Evans returned for his third season's digging at Knossos. especially* the museums. but the rest of which had been raised by the Cretan Exploration Fund. naturally took a salary and expenses.
and explains why Evans eventually deup cided to shoulder the whole financial burden of excavation himself. continually chaffed about the "princely" way things are done and I have lately heard that reports of our Cretan houses. and the public will not be convinced. If you spend much more lished form. in the long run. for thirty years. For those houses I am. There is no doubt that unless you sue in forma pauperis public subscription will not follow you.. In the same letter from Hogarth occurs a passage which sums the whole problem. and his wife. You are well known as a collector of rare and costly things. reconstitution of the greatest Minoan Palace in Crete. I and by public subscription we should have my . am as much dogs live me responsible as you. back I suppose by the big tourist parties. how- ever ancient. All P. beautiful or revered.. will probably outlast even the stronghold of Minos himself. over a number of years. you produce far worthier results in puband one feels that nothing has been spared to obtain expert accuracy. a work of literary scholarship which. But to to! .. for I in Crete. The drawback of your method that it does not appeal to peo- "cave-man" plan of life has been deliberately ple's pockets. Arthur his life to the excavation and. and as your father's son.132 never been at a I THE BULL OF MINOS loss for see advantages in the money. in part. and perhaps others (the subscribers to the Excavation Funds) can hardly be expected to pay for. but of the gratifying of a desire to reconstruct tangibly what must otherwise only be imagined. Restorations like the Throne Room are not a question of methods. 1902 onwards. At the other pole to you stands Petrie methods of both. I am not talking in the air. illustrations. But you justly admit that it is a luxury which everyone cannot pay for. 1 know.. and he also prothat date From Evans devoted duced.'s adopted to convince the subscriber that every penny goes into the earth. have decided some brought old subscribers not to pay up again. safe. That you cannot do. are at the . to the lasting benefit of all visitors to Knossos. all. For in this fevered world which we have inherited (and how Evans hated itl) no monument is of stone. In a less degree the same difficulty wife do not look like P. in proportion than Petrie. One can't feel that with Petrie's site so that nor again does he leave a is rough plans and it is a gain for the spectator [my italics]. equally.
know as much about the prehistoric civilization of the Aegean as we do. the great volumes of Evans's Palace of Minos. Seager found at Gournia. These are John Pendlebury's ( are four outstanding works which have given me pleasure not only for the information which they contain. Hogarth. R. it is easy to fall into the mistake of im- when peaceful conditions made a succession of scholars explored and excainvestigation possible. there may survive. in some remote place. Marinatos achieved in Crete during the first twenty years of our century. Soon it became clear that there were many tion. and. in the . indeed. agining that only one archaeologist Evans discovered the prehistoric civilization of Crete. a fine sarcophagus. he was the master discoverer. All I can hope to do is to direct the reader's attention to the books which tell the whole story. Seager. at Phaestos in the south. and here some of the finest examples of Minoan art were found. and the steatite "rhyton" with boxers. though not one stone of the Palace itself should remain. and before approaching it I would recommend three smaller works. In a book of this scope it would be impossible and. he revealed a "Royal Villa" with superb frescoes. and H. to give a taste of their quality. M. impertinent. our surviving descendants can. Boyd. including the famous "Harvester" vase. Halbherr. The full list be found at the back of this book.INTO THE LABYRINTH mercy of "a boy in a 133 bomber/' But perhaps. and the most money to spend on excava- but from 1900 onwards. First. he had the finest site. And if that should happen. Joan Evans's Time and Chance useful for Evans's family background and early years ) especially and Crete. excavated a palace second only to Knossos and grandeur. to try to explain in detail all that Evans and his professional colleagues on other sites such as Halbherr. Hawes. if they wish. the Forerunner of Greece. in a few brief extracts. W. vated in the island. B. Miss Boyd and Mr. scores of in size "Minoan" sites only awaiting the spade. but as a starting point for anyone wishing to learn more about the Minoan civilization. illustrated in this book (see Plate 41). of course. The Archaeology Without reflection. there will extremely well written. by B. True. comes Evans's own Palace of Minos but this is monumental. but because they are of Crete. even after the holocaust of an atomic war. at Hagia Triadha. Nearby.
. double-axe. In less than three days they had opened houses. . and other unmistakably Minoan designs. Crete. were following paved roads. . with the help of Cretan peasants. To quote just one paragraph from the Hawes book. with the amphorae and stamni before them to catch the liquid. Boyd and Seager at Gournia. the Forerunner of Greece. bearing octopus.500 years ago. . to make it certain that they had found an important settlement.134 east. Miss Wheeler. and on this housewife's shelf fourteen loom-weights of and stone were ranged in order. year later. Here Evans had given the due. A . . perhaps. two thousand feet above the isthmus. supported and demolished. Hazzidakis and Zanthoudides at point after point the rich soil of Crete yielded its archaeological treasures to the questing Edwardian scholars. . Gournia is especially interesting because. she and her colleague. down Within twenty-four hours the carobs . . Was it deliberately hidden ander the kit lay by its owner. Carr . Mean- . . and were in possession of enough vases and sherds. ivy-leaf. thirty men were at work cutting and digging trial trenches. were produced the superb examples of pottery and faience which have been unearthed in the Palaces. Other houses contained vats for washing oil. it seems to have been an artisans' town where. originally published in 1909: In a well-built house on the top of the ridge a whole carpenter's concealed in a cranny. . . . just as they were left 3. An . theories were propounded. when the ships of the destroyers hove in In an adjoining room a horizontal black streak in the earth sight? showed where there had been a wooden board. she became convinced that there had once been a Bronze Age settlement somewhere in the vicinity. standing on stone benches. Halbherr at Phaestos. interesting contrast to the Court ladies of Knossos. now long burned or corridor floor clay rotted away. unlike the princely palaces of Knossos and Phaestos. He had told Miss Boyd that there were Iron Age tombs on the heights.. . found the site. Articles appeared in newspapers and learned journals.. Bosanquet and Dawkins at Praesos and Palaikastro. and while excavating them in 1900. the extensive THE BULL OF MINOS remains of a Minoan town.
was the founder of the First Dynasty.C. however. There were. even claimed that the Mycenaean graves were post-Christian. he combined for the first time the hitherto-separated Kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt. Egyptian kings before him. beginning in about and ending with the start of the "Graeco-Roman period" it is how Evans dated the Mi- noan civilization. then were Evans. Evans believed. Mycenae and Tiryns.C. it is worth while trying to memorize these. but that was about all." for example. as they help in understanding divided into thirty Dynasties. Menes. at Troy. Yet without positive proof of date it was impossible to disprove even such absurd theories as this one. is called for Then came of the three great epochs into which .C.) is divided for convenience into three main periods of development: the Old. they knew that the lowest layers or strata of a long-occupied site must clearly be the oldest. Halbherr and the other archaeologists in Crete able to establish accurate dates? The How is answer It through the Egyptian objects found on the sites. It is usually difficult for the layman to on the island. was fortunate for archaeology that the Minoans had had cultural and commercial contact with the Egyptians from very early times from the pre-Dynastic period. It is very important to understand his dating system. Schliemann and his successors had not been able to fix even an approximate date became the leading authority on Minoan civilization. to whom other workers gladly came for advice and help. The period of twenty-five hundred years from the first to the end of the Twenty-fourth Dynasty (712 B. This gave ammunition to those who wished to discredit the German's discoveries one "authority.C.). in 332 B. Those who have read something of Ancient Egyptian history will know that 3200 B. but the period before 3200 convenience Pre-Dynastic. the first B.C. securely possessed of the 135 finest archaeological site appreciate how an archaeologist can "date" a site when no written records or positively dated monuments are available. The almost legendary and Second Egyptian as Amelineau and Petrie discovered. At the beginning come the First figure. Dynasties (circa 3200-2780 B. We to their discoveries. Middle and New Kingdoms. which was sound and scholarly.INTO THE LABYRINTH while Evans. Hogarth. have already seen how.
This episode.C." who raised its military glory to its highest point. the "Napoleon of Egypt. It was the age of Tuthmoses III. It was to have been a land invasion. nearly lost to his Twentieth. Harnesses III. several of whom bore the famous name Harnesses. saw a succession of powerful kings." both north and south. who began a religious revolution.136 THE BULL OF MINOS is This period includes that of the great pyramid builders who ruled from Memphis in Lower Egypt. of the powerful Amenophis III. After 1090 B. Next comes the Middle Empire (2100-1700 B. an empire.C." Asiatic monarchs. as we shall see. and by naval forces. recorded on Egyptian temples as having won a great victory over the "sea peoples" who tried to invade Egypt round about the year 1200 B. covering the Eleventh to the Thirteenth Dynasties. Egyptian history divided the Old Kingdom (2780-2100 B. while accompanied them along the coast.). the first part of the so-called years until B. and one of whom. as after that the ancient civilization of Crete passed into oblivion. and as the work . This has been called and was one of considerable expansion to Egypt's "Feudal Age. known as the who controlled the country for about a Hyksos or "Shepherd hundred and fifty thrown out by a resurgent Egypt Then followed the period of Egypt's greatest imperial exNew Empire (1555-712 pansion. and may well have welcomed Cretan artists court The following two Dynasties.C.). from the Eighteenth to the Twentieth. At the end of this period a time of weakness and anarchy was followed by an invasion and occupation of Egypt by Kings. has great relevance to the history of the Aegean civilization especially of The land armies moved down from Syria.C. the rest of the history of Egypt does not affect our In an early stage of the excavations Evans had discovered in the Knossian Palace "an Egyptian statue of diorite" which was identified as belonging to the Twelfth Dynasty. need concern us. but somewhere between Syria and Egypt Harnesses met and defeated both. supported is their navies Mycenae. enigmatical son Akhnaten.). the end of the Twentieth Dynasty story. from the Third to the Tenth. Only its first three Dynasties. It covers eight Dynasties. the Nineteenth and the invasion never took place. But this was the period of Egyptian history of which most is known.C. and his fascinating.
originating in Crete. at Knossos. so that the closing date of the 1790 B. Why? At the certain risk of being little accused of vulgarity by scholars. then it is safe to assume that such objects belong to a period between the years 2000 and 1790 B. Egyptian objects came to articles A objects were found. X was seen leaving the victim's parallel Mr.C. of a similar type. As the work went on. could spread to the outer fringes of the Minoan Empire. at Knossos and at other Minoan sites.C. . architectural remains B. He then knows beyond a pottery.C. Of course a single statue might be by some odd chance a shadow of doubt that no object found in that stratum survival from an ( Twelfth Dynasty earlier age. ) cance of such finds. painted frescoes and architecture of a particular kind. or an even more exact the fact that.INTO THE LABYRINTH 137 went on. Phaestos. . other examples of undoubted Egyptian manufacture were discovered. logically and naturally. detected under the nails of the dead man. other Egyptian objects of same Dynasty are found in strata containing Minoan objects of similar type. but their importance figure to the scholars was inestimable.C. But if. other datable the and with each of such discoveries it became possible to establish earliest and latest dates for the Minoan pottery and other objects among which the Egyptian light. at Knossos. when Mr. or a tiny bronze of the god Amun were valueless. then. all "Minoan" objects wherever they were found in Cyprus or in the Cyclades must belong broadly to the same period (allowing for the fact that time must elapse before a fashion.) embedded in one of the strata of the Palace of Knossos. teen P. In themselves these objects a clay statuette. Y happened to notice that it was exactly eleven thirhouse. faience. . Let us suppose that Evans finds as he did an Egyptian statue of the Twelfth Dynasty (2000-1790 B. moment's reflection will make clear the tremendous signifi- Eighteenth Dynasty Egyptian were always accompanied by Minoan pottery. or at another Minoan site. If. ) might not be the latest possible date for the archaeological strata in which the clue was found. perhaps. . Mallia. Gournia. I am going to compare these Egyptian trivia with the vital clues which the hero discovers in a detective story the few threads from the suit of the murderer.M. for instance. can possibly be earlier than 2000 faience.
In Egyptian numerous articles needed by the dead man in the Underworld furniture. and the coast of Asia Minor. which would now be identified unmistakably with the Minoan ware now being brought to light in Crete. especially pottery.) Now Egyptologists began to examine afresh to the aid of their colleagues tombs it was customary to bury them was pottery not of Egyptian provenance. which Evans believed had originated in Crete. A need arose for a set of terms which would differentiate the characteristic cultures of the different areas of the Aegean. his finds were regarded as Mycenaean.C. For. Incidentally. Whereas. as the work proceeded. though not identical with. So another check on dating could be made. archaeologists came to recognize that this civilization. Then the Egyptologists came working in Crete. and vessels for food and drink. so.. re-examined. at the beginning of Evans's digging. I introduce these technical terms only so that readers who wish to follow this subject the objects found in Egyptian tombs. progress showed that there were real differences from what had been found at Mycenae. gradually.138 THE BULL OF MINOS By such methods Evans and other archaeologists in Crete of the Minoan deposits dated as history ( i. Among be confused by the varying ( as I hope they will ) will not names used by scholars to describe this prehistoric civilization of further the eastern Mediterranean.e. and northward to the mainland of Greece. In all these areas pottery was found similar to. Hence "Minoan'* came to be used to describe prehistoric Cretan objects. "Cycladic" for the islands and "Helladic" for the mainland.). discussed and correlated. that found in Crete. Arthur Evans was able to draw up his Grand Design his chronoof dating Minoan objects and similar objects found logical system in the other islands of the Aegean and the mainland. And as these finds both in Egypt and Crete were examined. But the archaeological value of pottery is . non-archaeologists sometimes laugh at the attention which experts pay to what appear to be uninteresting fragments of pottery. far were able to establish that some back as the pre-Dynastic period of Egyptian be- fore 3200 B. had spread to other Aegean islands and even further eastward to Cyprus. clothing. ( We have already noted the pictures of the mysterious Keftiu on the walls of Egyptian tombs.
it coveries of Schliemann . were demonstrably Minoan in type. In every characteristic phase of culture we note in fact the period of rise. jewels. vases and cups? They remain scattered. indeed. etc. Objects of gold and silver. extending over some two thousand years. For it was recognized that some of Orchomenos the pottery. arms. the Middle and the earlier part of the New The Kingdom in Egypt. maturity. and elsewhere." "Middle" and "Late" Minoan. Tiryns. Even within the limits of many of these or its periods are such distinct ceramic phases that it has been found convenient to divide them into two sections (a) and (b). any young student who has gone through his course can do it. and decay.INTO THE LABYRINTH 139 precisely that it has no monetary value. at last. for each period an average duration of nearly two centuries and a half. will not be thought too minute. Even I amateur as I am reached a stage when I could pick up a fragment of a Mycenaean goblet and say nonLate Helladic III. . . each in turn with three periods of its own. the earlier periods being naturally die longer. But to the modern archaeologist they provide a definitive method of dating a site. whether we regard the course of Minoan civilization as a whole threefold stages. the divisions here adopted into three main sections.. on ancient sites for thousands of years as I have seen them in Egypt as well as Greece." without causing raised eyechalantly. One no longer needs intuition or judgment to achieve this. though some were pretty certainly made by mainland Now. the "Early. the Middle Empire and the New Empire. Evans's achievement was to mark off the three great periods of which could be correlated with the three great periods of Egyptian civilization the Old Kingdom. This triple division. "Ah brows among my archaeological friends. It allows. unheeded. found in the shaft graves at Mycenae and at Tiryns. three main phases of Minoan history roughly correspond with those of the Early. was possible to establish dates for the disand Dorpfcld at Troy. . ornaments. Mycenae. or even of bronze and iron. But who cares about heaps of broken fragments of pots. is in its very essence logical and scientific. He wrote in The Palace of civilization Minoan Minos: For this considerable space of time. in fact. will be stolen.
his torch held aloft to penetrate the darkness of the labyrinth. . And yet. . Deeper and deeper went the bewildered but fascinated archaeologists. strode Arthur Evans. only two hundred years before the catastrophe which overtook Knossos in 1400. and could not very late. groping among the very roots of European prehistory. circa 1600 B. they were late craftsmen following a Cretan model.C. in the scale of Minoan civilization. proving that they were far older than the Trojan War. And in the lead. .140 THE BULL OF MINOS possibly have belonged to Agamemnon and his companions. Yet Crete could boast a highly developed civilization more than a thousand years earlier than that. Thus it was established that the treasures found in the Mycenaean shaft graves were dated from a late period of Minoan civilization. .
There stood the Emperor. but fancied movement in the garden outside brought me to my feet. look- 141 . the intermittent fluting of some creature in the dark garden outside. while sitting alone at night in Evans's former home. had gone to bed. the man who had built the of the found great wall from the Tyne to die Solway in my own country. made me start. after piling on the winding path until it disappeared behind the cypresses. The Palace of Minos. and the palms stood quite still and black against the luminous sky. comfortable drawing of the Villa Ariadne. with the Palace waiting in the darkness outside. and I fancied that I alone was awake. Evans had it had it in the ruins of a Roman villa near the Palace of the garden ornament of some Roman probably formed part official had dug it up and made it serve the same purpose in his garden. I had On my read the volumes before. the edges of their leaves tipped with silver. In fact I had never felt more intensely awake. Manoli. the slightest creak from the wainscoting. It was two hours since I had watched the yellow light from Piet's torch moving slowly down I SAT before a blazing fire in the big. About five hundred feet away stood a statue the concentrate on the page before me. The de Jongs. in far-off London. with the head of the Minoan Priest King embossed in gold on the cover. had returned to their cottage. just moving shadow of Emperor Hadrian. Now my hosts too were in bed and probably asleep. blanched by the moonlight.CHAPTER XIV THE VILLA ARIADNE room more sweet-smelling logs. It was nothing. but I had to go to one of the tall sashed windows and look out. who had joined me for dinner. richly bound in blue. There was a full moon. but to hold one in my hands now. produced an excitement which was almost too intense. I tried to itself one of the cypresses. knees lay one of the heavy volumes of Evans's great work.
red-rimmed eyes. those little red eyes seemed to follow me. Hadrian had lived some eighteen hundred years before our time. to the fire went back and then noticed. of the house a severe "institutional" appearance. with gold horns. in incongruous contrast. sentimental landscapes of a type which I had hung pleasantly seen in many ex-German messes during the war relics of the the headquarters of the walls. a plaster cast which hung on the wall to the right of the fireplace. . dry. . the man was . firelit drawing room. restless elation. had built it of concrete on a framework as a protection against earthquakes. with his toga draped gracefully Hadrian over one arm. Here and there lay cardboard boxes filled with fragments of broken potsherds. Greedily I took down book after book and. I moved from room to empty room. And nearby. . I left the drawing room to explore the rest of the empty villa. . ing rather splendid on his plinth. occupation. he his tour of the Roman Empire in when was it. switching on the naked electric lights which . I found the library. I known a civilization in for the first time. It was black. left by the students of the British School at Athens. returned along the echoing corridor to the warm. for Sir Arthur. white nostrils and bright. who gave to much steel had planned the Villa Ariadne. and as I moved around the room. 120- the last pale flame of Cretan civilization had guttered out more than a thousand years before. Some were new to me. almost made 125? my contemporary compared with the Minoans! When A. A curious. Yet eighteen hundred years before Hadrian's time. Here were hundreds of books bearing on almost every aspect of Aegean and Egyptian archaeology. . taking out books from the shelves.D. Crete had many respects finer than that of Rome. the formidable head of the Minoan Bull examining pictures and ornaments. And yet really. spread . when the villa had been German High Command. Filled with a strange. Others were old friends. antiseptic smell permeated the air. . staggering under my load. Plaster casts of treasures found in the Palace hung on the dis- tempered fresco" across a pale blue ground. There I sat on the rug before the fire.142 THE BULL OF MINOS . and my footsteps gave back ringing metallic echoes. in the hall was a fine copy of the "charging-bull a massive relief of a red bull with lowered head hurtling Returning to the first floor.
to go for long journeys in it. was rarely without the sound of children's voices. and called it Youlbury.. took out my notebook and once again to focus my mind on the story of Arthur Evans and his colleagues from the point at which I had left them in 1903. He city. as or. work bought sixty acres of land on Boars' Hill. From 1903 onwards.. once put it. after the piece of heathland which it overlooked. tern hills splendid In the woodland fringe of the opposite Cotswold and Chilis the impression left by the acres of rose willow- herb spread along the slopes. and Knossos. built the Villa Ariadne for him. "to make his bit of Berkshire look as much like Bosnia as possible. So. wherever a vista opens. the following quotation from one of his letters is typical: . Now that he could foresee many years of work ahead of him. stretching between the oaks. the Turkish house he had taken in Herakleion was no longer practicable. who had succeeded Theodore Fyfe as Evans's architect. Christian Doll. as a child though some mirage had reversed the blue of heaven. and. he loved to have them around him. spring. "as if a bit of the sky had fallen down/' One child at Youlbury made a good excuse for inviting and the big house above the "dreamy haze of bluebells" others. and loved brother." As an illustration of his intense love of natural beauty. at a time when it was adventurous to possess one. It embodied many . he adopted Lancelot Freeman. the young son of Margaret's preferably as fast as possible. in 1906. He also bought a car. Denied children himself. in his leisure hours in England. But no sight surely in Nature's wild garden can excel the view near at hand of Hen Wood in May with its dreamy haze of bluebells. Soon he had decided to build another Youlbury for himself in Crete. exercised his imagination by creating a romantic landscape garden. outside the built himself a house there. "trying. Oxford. being too far from Knossos.THE VILLA ARIADNE the books around tried 143 me on the floor." in the words of a relative. A few years earlier he had given up his home in Holywell. Evans divided his time between Oxford He would come out to Crete in late winter or early until the summer heat made further excavation impracticable and return to England in summer or autumn.
plans and drawings.g. Egyptian or Babylonian. This became his spring and summer residence for many years. embodying the extensive ruins of several palaces. with every down to the smallest fragment of pottery. the uncovering of the site itself. planning. Hogarth and others. arguing and preparing for the enormous task of "publishing" the finds. and steel and concrete construction for strength. Duncan Mackenzie. and the many distinguished visitors attracted to Crete by the fame of his discoveries. . in The Palace of Minos: . Here he entertained fellow-scholars... To the archaeolwork is almost valueless unless every part of the ogist such site has been "published" i. the widespread hopes of . and here. but Evans was faced with the accumulation of more than two thousand years' continuous habitation of one place. may take years to publish adequately. Only a few months later intuition the death of a cousin brought to him the Dickinson estate. and with a complete set of photographs. In 1908. from which he ruled his domain like a grand seigneur. he eventually had to write. At richer man than even fifty-seven. in the evening after the day's work. . his father. Around it he formed a pleasant Mediterranean garden of palms and cypresses and purple-flowered bougainvillaea. The layman might is think that the principal justification for excavation tions of their position and relation to other objects. leaving Arthur the bulk of his fortune. basement bedrooms for coolness in sum- mer. died at the age of eighty -five. Even a modest site belonging to a known culture.144 of Evans's THE BULL OF MINOS own ideas. After more than thirty years of wrestling with the problem. fully described. . he would sit with Doll.e. fied. discussing. One of Evans's greatest disappointments was that he never succeeded in deciphering the mysterious Minoan script which had first attracted him to Crete. . and belonging to an unknown civilization which he could interpret only in the light of his own and judgment. e. John Evans. Arthur Evans found himself a his father had been. its early interpretation were not verito every indication such as that supplied by According . with indicaobject. The villa was both his home and his workshop. such as Halbherr.
600 documents of which the whole or some material part has survived .THE VILLA ARIADNE 145 the local and personal names of pre-Hellenic Crete. The phonetic value of the signs themselves was itself unknown. even this only exists in a limited degree. the brilliant young scholar and friend of Evans who was Curator of Knossos in the thirties. "these little intaglio types often serve as an epitome of more whether in relief or fully elaborated works of the great Art. in Asia Minor]. iginal . And John Pendlebury. Unable suspected. might forced to interpret the its to decipher the writing which in any case. . is of a most preliminary nature. 1 "Linnar B" was deciphered in 1952. it appears that the documents in an overwhelming degree refer to accounts and **. ." he wrote.. . decipherment. perhaps one day a bill of lading in Egyptian and Minoan will be found at Komo. and though light on them might be obtained from the early Cypriote sylAll I labary. were merely inventories. "Complete in themselves. excited decided that the numerous clay tablets.. . . Scripta Minoa.. He lists and possessions" and he managed to decipher the numerals. had to admit in his ArcJuieology of Crete that: of persons ." . after optimistically persuading the Clarendon Press to cast a complete fount of Minoan type.e.. 1 Some of the material is contained in Evans's book. which he published in 1909. See Appendix "B. through the tiny engraved seal stones and found in such abundance and of which he had now signets amassed a large collection. Even then it may turn out to be a dead language which has left no descendant behind to help in its . remains of which have been prepainting. which had so him when he found them near the western storerooms of magazines. . We can only hope for a bilingual clue. . what the language of the Minoans was is as yet impossible to say except that it was not Greek . have been able here to attempt after copying over 1. he not include historical records Evans was Minoan civilization through its buildings. it would be a profitless task to guess at it. and even the appreciable verbal survival in Greek itself the root affinities of the or- language lay on the Anatolian side [i. only fragmentary art and. . The material is there and is arranged. above all.
with lion supporters." Occasionally she is accompanied by what appears to be a male deity. the reason for this insistence on the propitiation of the Earth became clear to him later. and and trained through stylistic development. what did the Minoans believe? What deities did they worship? Evans discovered. and was the boy god her son. with tight-waisted bodice and naked and a crown or tiara (see Plate 32a). Sometimes she is bareheaded. Professor Nilsson. It is in this imaginative.146 served. for example. more sophisticated "Palatial" period she wears the fashionable dress of the Minoan court lady. or in still other instances the snakes were wreathed tightly around her arms. and occasionally in seals and statuettes belonging to the later. sometimes alone. as we shall see. Could this Mother Goddess. anthropologists and students of have observed that the cult of the snake is often primitive religion associated with the propitiation of an earth deity. who was clearly a goddess. Evans suggested that the Minoan Snake Goddess was the Mother Goddess in her On today the snake is aspect as "Lady of the Underworld". . be associated with Rhea. the Minoan goddess was shown holding a snake in each outstretched hand (see Plate 32a). ivory statuette of this "boy god*' (now in the Ashrnolean Mu2 seum) is shown on Plate 42. aided him greatly. Zeus? other seals and later-discovered statuettes. A delightful breasts. each with her own attributes. sometimes with acolytes and adorers. matic study. thought Evans. that there appeared again and again a female figure. After close study of Minoan scenes. chiefly through the tiny scenes on the bead seals. but he is never in a position of equality. We 1 have mentioned the "Room of the Throne. Evans called her the "Minoan Mother Goddess. together with those from other ancient cultures in which snake cults were practiced. be- Some lieves that the figures which Evans thought represented one goddess actually represent several. Among primitive peoples often revered. he may be considered her son. Sometimes she stands on a peak. For example. yet exact and scholarly." which scholars disagree with Evans. interpretation of tiny objects that Evans's genius his feeling for style long years of numis- appears most clearly." THE BULL OF MINOS Here again his microscopic sight.
with a throne in the middle of the broadest wall. approached by flights of steps. much half. unlike the Egyptians and the blood-lusting Assyrians. 3 Instead they painted delightful scenes from nature. and that. All were approached by pillared flights of steps. indeed. on the fresco paintings and elsewhere. flowers and birds and trees. some He became more and more conpurpose. at Mallia. Had . in miniature statuary. sport or ritual at which the Court ladies prinked and chattered and. was devoted to a In fact Minos borne that name had or a race of kings who probably been Priest Kings. Then. Had they. processions of Unlike their cousins. not have omitted had the mysterious pits been certainly baths. the bull. came reports of similar of waste water lustral areas" Halbherr found them in the Palace of Phaestos. battles.e. treaties and conquests. especially the western religious cult. and there were others connection with the earth cult? vinced that they had a religious of the Palace. too. a place in which some ritual of anointing took place. more of these "lustral As areas" came to light. All were elaborately built. flanked by stone benches on each fronted and overlooked a rectangular pit. nor had the noble youths like the Cup-bearer and the even lovelier fresco of the Priest King. It i. none of them had been area" built to retain water. the archaeologists of Crete had no written documents to guide them. expert hydraulic engineers. but which Evans later decided was a "lustral side. and on the tiny bead seals bull. They seemed quite uninterested in recording triumphs. appeared the conventionalized symbol of the bull's horns.THE VILLA ARIADNE 147 was a chamber rather like a cathedral chapter house. from other parts of Crete. which at first the excavators took to be a bath. the Egyptologists. that on the seals *This is all the more remarkable as the Minoans were in contact with Egyptians for more than a thousand years. some religious significance? Evans noted and signets. again and again. discovered near the southeast entrance scenes of public ceremony. he dug in other parts of the Palace.. nor was there any provision for the release would which the Minoans. mused Evans. may have Minoans been as obliging as the Ancient Egyptians who used the walls of their temples to preserve pictures and written records of historic events. on corridor the walls.
the too. armpit. The Minoan goddess (as shown in the wall paintings) at the "bull-leaping" sports seemed to suggest that this ceremony. and presence of the tion? may have been considered a favorite animal of the The limited bull-leaping frescoes fascinated people far circle of professional archaeologists. such as is purchase . In the design . both wearing the same scanty costume they aroused controversy. Theseus and the Minotaur twelve Athenian youths and maidens was there some connecearth god. showed . The second female performer behind as if stretches out both her hands to catch the flying figure or at least to steady him when he comes to earth the right way up. . Nevertheless. Evans pored over the pictures. Some was authorities refuse to believe that such a performance possible. The stationing of this figure handily for such an act raises some curious questions as to the arrangements within the arena. Was such a fantastic feat possible? In the Villa Ariadne and in his study at Youlbury. beyond the Wherever these extraordinary pictures were reproduced. On the south side of the Palace he found remains of a huge specimen of these "Horns of Consecration" which at one time had evidently surmounted the roof of the Palace. . . as his researches continued. the girl acrobat in front seizes the horns of a coursing bull at full gallop. for instance. so that all approaching from the southern road could see it. he decided that the bull had not been worshipped as a diety. with their slim-figured Minoan acrobats dark-skinned men and pale-skinned girls. The object of her grip clearly seems to be to gain a for a backward somersault over the animars back. trying to penetrate the mystery.148 THE BULL OF MINOS it appeared as a frieze above the roof of a shrine of it appeared in conjunction with that other familiar Minoan symbol. one of which seems to run under her left . Evans reinstated it near the same Sometimes the Mother Goddess. the double axe. At others position (see Plate 20). being performed by the boy [identified conventionally by his darker skin]. may have been a sacrifice. Here he is describing the fresco reproduced on Plate 36. but that it was therefore sometimes sacrificed to him. Professor Baldwin Brown.
In another Vapheio relief a bull is shown but in the scene we have shown. throwing down one hunter. in spite of the sinewy limbs it displays. "You couldn't catch hold of the bull's horns for the start of the somersault. who the falls helplessly on his back. the two famous golden cups found at Vapheio and first published more than ten years before Evans dug at Knossos. said Evans. probably imported on the mainland by Cretan artists. This fact.. who refused to believe that it could be done." he said. thus desperately at grips with the horns of the great beast. the animal's horns in an effort to bring him down. is a girl. It was while studying the Minoan cult of the bull that Evans made a discovery which perfectly illustrates his imaginaone among many such extive interpretation of a tiny detail On Plates 34 and 35 are reproduced two scenes from amples.THE VILLA ARIADNE 149 the pictures to a veteran "steer wrestler" from the American Far West. "raises his head sideways and gores anyone in front of him. And the figure on the horns. "She has locked her legs and arms around the monster's horns in such a way that it is im- possible for him to transfix her. in the present . is certainly that of a girl. or alternatively produced style. not apparently noted in any declear to any one intimate with scription of the scene. should be Minoan iconography who remembers the parallel wall paintings in which the sex is declared by the white skin color ." After Evans's Knossian finds they were recognized to be Minoan in from Crete. is three times as strong as a steer.. he added. as no one has so far offered to put the matter to a practical test. A net was stretched between two trees and the bulls driven towards it." The bull. These richly wrought vessels were thought at first to be "Mycenaean. In the topmost picture. The discovery of the bull frescoes at Knossos aroused new as the subject of their lively reliefs bulls." So. interest in the slim-waisted young Minoans are trying to catch a bull in a wooded glade." The figure on the Vapheio Cup. the mystery remains a mystery. and when running. was the trapping of wild which shows one side of a cup. Vapheio cups. while the other desperately grasps firmly meshed in the net. "for there's no chance of a person being able to obtain a balance when the bull is charging full against him. animal has evaded the trap.
case the luxuriance of the locks fallen youth in front. of which her raised tail shows the sexual reaction. The bull is seen with head raised. . .150 THE BULL OF MINOS is . had to find some means of indicating its sex. The Minoan artist. Yet. . women These scenes. Later they were made to perform for more sophisticated audiences in the In each case the young men and bullring of the Knossian Palace. For season after season he continued his patient excavation. . In the third scene (out of sight): the herdsman takes advantage of his dalliance to lasso the mighty beast by the hind leg. paralleled the "bull-leaping which adorned the walls of the Palace of Minos. to each other is very characteristic of the Minoan artistic spirit. . clearing. indeed. These reliefs had been known to archaeologists for more than twenty years before Evans pointed out their true meaning. Evans thought. the animal on the left is a decoy cow. apart from their faces they look very similar. engages him in amorous converse. But the most interesting illustration of Evans's observation is in the other scene we have illustrated. realizing that the body of the cow would be almost entirely hidden by that of this the bull. The three scenes on the cup became perfectly Evans The the bull's treacherous companion [writes Evans]. reconstituting the Palace of Knossos. He did by showing it with raised tail the normal reaction of a cow when clear. First the animals were hunted and trapped in the open. frescoes" pitted their skill against the animals. which comes from the second Vapheio cup (Plate 34). and. which have in striking contrast to those of the a short appearance. The extraordinary human expressiveness of the two heads as they turn . The two animals were thought by earlier archaeologists to be two bulls. introduced by the wily hunters to entrap the bull. . bellowing . Unreflecting visitors to Knossos have sometimes criti- . where necessary. with impotent rage. as Evans discovered. In the second (illustrated): nosing sexually roused. It was this tiny detail which gave the clue. . . first (not visible in our picture) now shows the bull the cow's tail. .
of which. or by similar material imported from over sea. while brickwork arches and girders supported the upper pavements. At the same time. floors. columns. but they tended to rot rapidly. held approximately at their levels by the rubble formation that had insinuated itself below due largely to the falling of bricks of unburned cky partly dissolved from the upper walls. which is very strong. feared? Why this apparent insistence on the propitiation of the earth? Why the cult of the snake emblem of the earth? areas" the steps leading down Why the mysterious "lustral into the earth? . hoped. In this he lay visitor could feel and respond succeeded beyond measure. The upper stories [he wrote]. What had this ancient people believed. whenever this intrusive material was removed there was nothing to prevent the remains of the upper fabric from crashing down to a lower level. but Evans was determined that die Palace should be presented to the world in a form that not only the archaeolso that even the least imaginative ogist could appreciate. were either supplied by the cypress forests. The reduction. The upper floors had indeed. then existing in the neighbouring glens. and therefore more attractive. But physical restoration of walls. The cost of excavation and restoration became greater every year. together with the shafts of the columns. three successive stages were encountered had not. then pieces of masonry and shafts and capitals cut laboriously from stone. as in the parallel case of other ancient buildings. porticoes. and can be erected rapidly." Evans for his "reinforced concrete Such criticisms are unintelligent. to discover the moral and spiritual bases of the Minoan civilization. he had no alternative. They had been held up in a principal degree by a timber framework the huge posts of which. It was more difficult.THE VILLA ARIADNE cized 151 restoration. looks well. been supported by solid pieces of masonry or brickwork. or by stone columns. in a manner that sometimes seemed almost miraculous. but to its wonder. in the Domestic Quarter. First Evans tried wooden beams and posts. of these wooden supports had thus left vast voids in the interspaces. Finally he decided to use reinforced concrete. but this was not satisfactory and cost too much even for Evans. either by chemical powers or by actual burning. satisfied only a part of Evans's nature.
but generally speaking. Three especially severe disasters seemed to have occurred round about 1700 B. he noticed that although Knossos had been almost continuously occupied since the New Stone Age (circa 4000 B.C. Or. could they have quakes? He had pondered upon this possibility for some time. In some cases there would be a drain near the pillar presumably to take the blood of sacrifice. lay the answer to the mystery of those Tbstral areas" tion? perhaps they had been used of steps leading into the earth itself for some ceremony of earth propitia- During his later excavations Evans had a curious and . beneath surface buildings.152 THE BULL OF MINOS Further evidence of mysterious religious practices came also linked with earth worship.C. the central feature of to light Sometimes these crypts pillar. to 3000 B... and he consulted the medieval and modern history of the island to see if the shocks appeared to follow a definite cycle.C. and often inscribed with ing. the central lay substantial than was needed to support the pillar was far more no superincumbent buildsuperstructure. Evans called these chambers ''Pillar crypts. the sign of the double axe. Sometimes there was but the pillar was still as massive. and we are almost bound to infer that the largely account for the signs of ruin stages of the building..C. been caused by earththought Arthur Evans. These could have been caused strata : When by civil war.C. and again in about 1400 B. by local insurrection or its corresponds with the duration of the great Minoan Palace into successive phases. perhaps." he wrote. there had been breaks in the chain of development marks of catastrophe in the form of broken walls and charred timbers." that here same natural forces must mark successive flights Here. between the end of the Middle Minoan period and the beginning of Late Minoan. He found that six especially destructive earthquakes had taken place in Crete in six and a half centuries. and there were signs of others. At Knossos.) until about 1100 B. "almost exactly by foreign attack. "That space of time. Phaestos and elsewhere in Crete the archaeologists came upon subterranean crypts dark underground chambers." which was always a heavy stone Evans was able to date more accurately the successive under the mound of Kcphala. He knew that Crete lay in a seismic area.
'* The little house appeared to have belonged to an artisan a lamp maker and a number of unfinished lamps were found among the ruins. 153 slightly sinister experience. "The methodical filling in of the building and its final relinquish- base. on April 20. says Evans.THE VILLA ARIADNE "earthquake" theory. was filled of feet . which seems to have been damaged at the same time. sufficient to throw one of my men backwards. As they examined the remains. which strengthened his belief in the had been digging outside the Palace . which were carefully placed near tripod altars. He wall on the southeastern side. . 1922. . just as the workmen completed the task of clearing this "House of Sacrifice" at 12. forty- mcnt eight hundred years ago. Homer In Bulls does the Earth-shaker delight.m. of the Third Middle Minoan period this little house had been ruined by huge blocks hurled . It The was two in the morning. accompanied by a deep rumbling sound. Near this "House of the Fallen Blocks" was been two large oxen of the urus breed. I felt cold pile of books. have only one significance.. and here the excavators made a significant discovery. the set the heads of ". by what could have been no The house was never less than a violent earthquake shock.15 p. as a scene of human habitation had been preceded by a solemn expiatory offering to the Powers below.. sharp shock. some them over twenty . . another. I placed cramped." These sacrificial relics. . . . struck the corner of a small house . . fire had sunk into a mass of red embers. And he remembered had written: that in the Iliad. Book Twenty. was expe. could. said Evans. . rebuilt but." rienced on the site. Then." Bulls had been sacrificed to the Earth God. In the northwest and southeast corners of the southern basement had with materials derived from the contemporary ruin. horn-cores of one of which were over a foot in girth at the . and throughout the region. like another in the adjoining area west. Gathering together my and them . against all who might attempt to undo his work. . . when his workmen *. the excavators found it easy to imagine the solemn warning which may have been issued by the Minoan priest. "a short.
the profile of the I switched Minoan bull. . and.154 THE BULL OF MINOS carefully on the table. the creaking stairs to my basement bedroom. . . saw. . hoping I would remember to return to the library in the morning. Somehow there seemed no in carrying them back along that shadowy corridor tonight point them off the as I closed the door before delight. scending silhouetted against the dying glow of the fire.
for the first then it did not reveal itself time. hung one of GilIi6ron's brilliant copies. with vineyards climbing the lower slopes of the gentle hills which enclose it on east. it is a mound largely of its own making. west and south. Knossos lies in a hollow. and I sensed his unseen presence. but was instantly silenced. half hidden by trees. I strolled along the winding path past Hadrian and the bougainvillaeas. It was here that Evans had found the Cup-bearer fresco. a turn to the left. The original pieces now hang in the Herakleion Museum. lies open. swinging the formidable Prodger. and I was in the reconstructed fragment of the columned Propylaeum Hall. Even all at once. where the dry air has preserved walls and columns and architraves in their original state for three thousand years. Over the threshold. We passed through the screen of cypresses and. For it is no use comparing a Cretan Palace with the great monuments of Egypt. Though hot and dry in summer. Piet de Jong met me at the gatekeeper's lodge. I saw the spacious northwest courtyard and the northwest entrance to the Palace. the debris of more than two thousand years' occupation. Crete has torrential winter 155 . scrambled down a slope and so reached the narrow lane which leads to the Palace. but to the right. as sunlight. after Manoli had served breakfast in the austere dining room. on the brightly sunlit wall. the way to the sea. the first portrait of a Minoan to be discovered. For a split second the purist in me protested against all this reproduction. Only the northern side. and acknowledging the respectful salutes of the villagers. I we came out into the saw. but here.CHAPTER XV THE PALACE OF THE SEA KINGS EABLY next day. A wall of finely cut masonry hid the view immediately ahead. the Palace of Minos. past low walls and carefully kept pavements. It was a way which Sir Arthur must have used thousands of times. And though the Palace stands on a mound.
When we rebuilt the wall we replaced wood with concrete. framed. such as the Propylaeum Hall and the North Portico (see Plate 25). "we would often find evidences of the original stone 'chases' [grooves] into which the timber framework was the rotted cate fitted. THE BULL OF MINOS and next to human destroyers. damp is probably the greatis est enemy of ancient monuments. slim-waisted. "In a decayed wall. I thought of the I had seen in the tombs of Luxor. Perhaps. Its destructiveness all the greater when. especially in the Domestic Quarter. Yet there was nothing at last I the original stone blocks. Originally there was a long procession of these youths. with which the Minoans had been in contact for two thousand years. Piet showed me the system Evans had adopted to denote was kept. untouched for thirty centuries. the wooden pillars were timberporches and and framing burned. aristocratic features and curling black hair (see Plate 23). those solemn. Now Egyptian 1 wall paintings in the faces or dress of these people. Evans may large parts of the site he had only two alternatives to reconstitute or leave a rubbish heap. and the columns. the original construction of the Palace in his careful reconstructions. as de Jong pointed out to me. When the Palace was sacked (or set on fire by an earthquake it is not decided)." he said. is original Minoan masonry. with proud. to indiwood. stately procession. in his enthusiasm. much timber was used in the con- The walls.156 rains. which supported roofs. and painted it pale buff." * Along the wall the two Cup-bearers marched in slow. every fragment of original work which could be recovered have gone a little too far that is a matter of opinion but on and an impressive proportion of the Knossian Palace. and such timber as escaped the since rotted away under the damp earth. None the less. The rest of the wall we rebuilt as far as possible with began to sense the strangeness of Knossos. . at Knossos. broad-shouldered. fire has long The in walls collapsed. as struction. especially in the earlier Palaces. We were only a few hundred miles from Egypt. the roofs fell. stairways were all of timber. way which Evans and his colleagues could so that the only possible show the original appearance of the Palace was by a painstaking reconstruction of typical fragments.
"It's is Was there any special reason?" never been properly settled. "Do you know?" "No. the fact is that when Arthur was nearly always right. the architect had surveyed and measured the and studied all the architectural evidence. 157 hieratic figures in their robes of gauffered linen." I asked him how he ascertained the height and proportion of the columns. he assured me. of course. which often depicted buildings with the typical Minoan Sir tapered column. I think the most feasible that. the practical architect. his capacity for visualizing. as the columns were made from tree trunks. exactly how the whole room or building originally looked. Some of the most useful information on the shape and appearance of Minoan houses was obtained from representations in the form of small faience plaques only a few inches square. was speaking again." he added. They looked more European than Asiatic though Evans believed they came originally from Asia. "You know. a fallen "one of Sir Arthur's greatest gifts was He could tell. These were a great help when making reconstructions. Yet site. though the wood had rotted away." said Pict. just by looking at a column and a few bits of fresco. But we know they stood here. these Minoans were quite different. "People often ask why they made their columns with a downward taper. "The place must have . slapping the big rust-colored pillars of the Propylaeum.THE PALACE OF THE SEA KINGS stiff." Among the valuable evidence was that of the painted frescoes. Sometimes impressions of the columns remained in the earth. and the capitals lying nearby. Or it may have been just to leave more space at the bottom. "are concrete. These columns here. And he'd get most impatient if his architect couldn't see it just as quickly. they theory them root upwards. "But the coloring" I exclaimed. to prevent the trees sprouting again. was only a matter of careful surveying and comparison with architectural remains found on other parts of the site." he said. because we found the column bases. Who were they? Where had they come from? How tantalizing of them to have left us no history! But de Jong. with the broadest part of the trunk placed at the top. few broken stones. but this. Yet they were not like the classical Greeks.
wealth was not only in gold and precious things. put back the roof. originally hidden under stone slabs (see Plate 22). almost certainly made by burning oil. olives. the repository of his wealth. We jars. for in the days of the had contained Minoan thalassocracy. There." replied. So a south wind was blowing when the great Palace fell. sometimes black?" "From the frescoes. originally they fish. some more than grain. for russet. . and always the telltale stain showed that the smoke had been blown to the north. They were all thoroughly plundered when the Palace was sacked and burned. on the northern edge. graves of Mycenae. a curious. In fact. was the mark of black. and journalistic experience to observe and report facts. stonecorridor from which opened numerous long. Let into the floor of the rooms were narrow stone-lined cysts or chambers. "You'll see." said de Jong. . Central Court. I me in the supernatural. But he found saw many other evidences of fire. dried six feet high. that the and that he their capitals were sometimes left into blue. instance. "were a kind of safe deposit. faint I with my have no belief has trained delight and wonder. The rooms were nearly all full of great earthenware just We "What you see now is practically all Minoan. But first let me show you something/' He led the way into a broad.158 glowed with columns were a THE BULL OF MINOS color. as we turned to the the great gallery leading to the magazines." were in the storerooms of King Minos. "Now very little of this has been reconstructed. "These. Look at the marks of the fire see?" And he pointed to the edge of the pit. But I have to admit my . am uneasiness began to mingle not a superstitious man. paved the walls standing to a height of six feet or more and in some cases roofed over. As I followed the Curator up a flight of broad steps to the Elsewhere I . at one time in the history of the Palace they were used for storing precious things the kind of things Schliemann found in the shaft treasures hardly anything when he uncovered these cysts in 1900 just a few fragments of gold to show what had been there once. unmistakably. unctuous smoke. How did you know. beans. narrow rooms. oil. Evans suggested that the Mycenaean may actually have rested here at one time." he said.
I could see on my left the official quarters of the Palace. still they stirred the mind. but the two upper storeys have left only slight indications. Though only the lower storey of these ruined buildings remained. On gay frescoes in the now-familiar Evans. itself the greatest monument of Knossos. to the extraordinary skill of Christian Doll. almost miraculous preservation of the Domestic Apartments on the eastern side of the Great Court. supporting the landings above. the the sunshine. These had in the been rooms of flanked by columns. much used by the Minoans for the interiors of their buildings. but.THE PALACE OF THE SEA KINGS that. The column bases. let it be added. were original. originally covered with tones of pale blue and russet. crystalline stone. Standing in the center and look- But now. Christian Doll and the rest aided by Greek miners . crossed the We Court and began the descent. Originally there were five flights. in spite of the 159 keen spring there is air. shallow steps flights a system of light wells (as in by hotels and office blocks) which allowed a soft indirect state approached by lit while avoiding the direct rays of the hot sumor the icy winter winds ( see Plate 26 ) Though most of sun. I was able to drink in the full splendor of Knossos. from which Crete had been administered days of Knossian supremacy. and my own atmosphere of the Palace defor it pressed me. a smooth. with their sockets. was the Minoan we went lower. It was no other word sinister. and modern mer of broad. pleasure in visiting Knossos. Risoverlooking a central wall which gave light ing from the balustrade were stout Minoan columns of the familiar downward-tapering form. The steps are of gypsum. the architect who preserved it. white. in the spacious Central Court. their character is known through the light to penetrate . as I descended. these rooms have vanished. a monument not only to the Minoans. and when wall. On my left. To reach them we had to descend the famous Grand Staircase. and above them storey upon storey had once stood. But as walked down three full flights which must have looked exactly the same to the Minoan courtiers and ladies as they followed in the train of the Priest King more than thirty-six hundred years ago. to which de Jong now led me. I the right was a low balustrade to the stairway. ing north towards the sea.
and righted itself against the solid wooden framework prepared as a stop.?). .. I recalled Evans's originals. The struggle to preserve the . of identical shape to the are of concrete masked with stucco. . threatened to topple and destroy all that was left of this masterpiece of the Minoan master architect (could his name have been Daedalus . its base was then cut into. This was then removed. and thus restore to the modern world the structural aspects of this great work which dates back some 3. and the whole structure refixed in its upright position.. the wall . . presumably. conversely. description of how he and his staff dealt with a huge wall which in their bases. was first harnessed and secured by and ropes. The mighty mass was thus set in motion. and Time and other. It had all the classical elements of conflict was truly between the archaeologists on one hand. . seer Gregorios Antoniou. admittedly. and sixty men on the terrace above were then set to pull the ropes secured to the casing. Evans was a rich man. . can anyone even the most passionate advocate of state control gressive" Government spending a quarter imagine a modern "proof a million pounds on preserving an ancient monument even if it was vital to the had been discovered today. . Here is part of Evans's own account from Decay on the The Palace of Minos. but it is worth noting en passant that not all men of wealth spend it on yachts and race horses.) All the expense of this tremendous work was borne by the Evans fortune. history of our civilization? If Knossos would have had to apply for a grant from Evans. (See Plate 29. The middle staircase wall above the first flight was found to have a dangerous list outwards involving a continual risk to the remains of Under the superintendence of our trusty overthe whole fabric. . the impoverished British Council.160 THE BULL OF MINOS tunnelled into these depths some fifty years ago. And. Grand Staircase dramatic. they found the carbonized stumps of the original wooden columns still remaining The present columns. wedge-shaped stones and cement were held in readiness for insertion in the outer slit. .600 years. By these various means it has been possible to maintain the staircase and balustrade at their original levels. along its whole length planks on either side.
The cypress trunks and beams that . In the early days of the excavation the Architect. Daedalus.). one feels. wood. would have to provide enduring suphow to roof large spaces how approved. and these were partly masked with cement. the old work were of course no longer obtainable. . 161 of the clay concretions and the extraction and earthy materials of the intervening spaces left a void between the upper and lower spaces that threatened the collapse of the whole. part in these reconstructions. Even then. . To relax our efforts meant that the remains of the Upper Storeys would have crashed down on those below. . and cheaply and strongly. . imported through could be reduced to rottenness and powder in a few Trieste in . It was the first time how even of the Palace of the magnificent paltry are the remains . were splintered up and exposed and. and the effect was overwhelming. In Egypt the royal palaces were usually temporary structures made of sun-dried bricks. had supported such masses of .C. climate. The recourse to mine props and miscellaneous timbering was almost temporary and at times so insufficient that some dangerous falls occurred. At the foot of the Grand Staircase we entered a short cor- by had stood within a king s palace belonging to a period contemporary with the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Dynasties of the Egyptian Pharaohs (1600-1350 B. was not until reinforced concrete with its interlacing web of steel wires was introduced in the twenties. years by the violent extremes of the Cretan It . . The carbonized posts and beams and shafts. . So the twentieth century A. Christian Doll. The hewing away . had perforce largely to rely on iron girders.C. The only alternative was to endeavour to re-support the upper structures in some permanent manner. I ridor leading to a suite of splendid rooms. came to the aid of the twentieth century B. which it was hard to obtain properly seasoned. . who manfully grappled with his Atlantean task. although their form and measurement could be often observed. but we masonry had to leurn that even the pinewood of Tyrol. of which only foundations remain. was allowed to play a of the various rubble . .D. Mr. brought from England at great expense.THE PALACE OF THE SEA KINGS . that Evans found an answer to his problem port for heavy masses of masonry. of course. There only temples and tombs were built for eternity. could afford no support. and the result would have been an indistinguishable heap of ruins. and here I knew I was surrounded genuine Minoan walls.
win . in that far corner a group of elegant young men arc gambling.162 THE BULL OF MINOS Amenophis III at Medinet Habou. . Then the Curator pointed to a low plinth "We think there of the throne to replace the one that's disappeared. the Royal Family. In summer. jewels glittering on their ivory breasts. allowing a free flow of cool air. But let into these columns were recesses which proved that at one time folding doors had existed which in winter would be kept closed for warmth. full-sized. so like that described in the Iliad. on the Mycenaean daggers which Schliemann warrior. big enough to have covered the body of a Minoan on the stucco wall. Then Pict broke into my fantasy." On each side of the throne hung a great figure-eight shield. in his high-backed throne under the wall of shields. But that had some religious while these were purely the private apartments of significance. the doors could be neatly folded back into the recesses on the northern was a throne here. You see Sir Arthur put in a wooden replica wall of the Hall.. my dear. however. And not far away Minoan ladies. But at Knossos one walks through rooms which once heard the seductive rustic of the Minoan ladies' flounced skirts. hung on the wall of one of the principal rooms of . and perhaps recalling the amazing performance of that young Athenian " . and on the tiny bead seals which Evans had reproduced in his Palace of Minos." he said. are discussing fashion. Behind them. Now here were two of them. compared with the tombs of Amenophis and his descendants in the Royal Valley at Luxor. There. What was Theseus? "Did you notice how the him? But it was obvious. .. sits Minos himself . and echoed to the murmur of gossip and music. he just had in the arena . the barbarian's to name Princess looked at on the previous day. I had first had found in the shaft graves. of the Throne on the west side "just like the one in the Room I'll show of the Court you that later. "Sir Arthur called this room the Hall of the Double Axes/' he said. band. destroying the reputations of absent friends. between them lies the inlaid gaming board which Evans found nearby. . "Come over here and 111 of the show you something. was a painted spiral seen this curious body shield." There was a row of columns dividing the Hall Double Axes from the adjoining room. in the columns.
163 more than one thousand years older than Homer. defrom the centre of the seat. "They're not the original shields. shields there may Arthur reckoned that instead of painted have been real shields hanging on the wall as Sir a decoration. accessible from the main salon. partly masked by ^ curious projection. And there they are" ( see Plate 40 ) Then he led me through a short. yet all conforming to the over-all decorative pattern. So he told Gillieron to make accurate painted copies. the other side a doorway led to a further suite of smaller rooms. of course/' said de Jong. Well. doubtedly been a W. thus leaving room on the right for some vessel used for flushing the basin. with an earthenware bath shaped almost modern descendant. twisting corridor into the most private apartments of the Palace.THE PALACE OF THE SEA KINGS the Palace of Minos itself. and flag [stone] sloped towards a semicircular hole. connected by a spiraliform band like a dado. In Evans's words: An had un- On the face of a gypsum floor. There were low seats around the walls. Dark blue dolphins sported on an eggshell-blue ground. which Evans.C. in the Hall of the Double Axes. smaller than the bathroom. and hang them on the wall on each side of the Throne. eggs" realistically drawn. adjoining room. but not from outside. here. As an anticipation of scientific . Here from which a On bathroom. which were bright with gay frescoes of natural scenes. named "The Queen's Megaron. from the slab to the right is a groove for a seat Outside the doorway of the latrine is a a sink. The bath had evidently been hand presumably by a handmaiden but nearby was filled by a hole in the pavement through which the waste water could be little was a exactly like its poured into the main drain. there were starfish. there was the dado all right but no shields. forming from this opens a small duct leading to the main drain." Here all was lightness and grace. "but Evans found that in the rooms which once existed above the Hall of the Colonnades there had been shaped shields painted on the walls. and spiky "sea urchins" or "sea . The aperture viates leading to the main drain. about 57 cm. sensing a certain femininity in the surviving decoration. One wall opened on to a columned light well soft illumination filled the interior (see Plate 31).
. the system of which we have here the record has been attained by few nations even at the present day. form of the sections of which the terra-cotta pipes were composed ing . were themselves ventilated by air shafts and made accessible by manholes: . . and this was done most cunningly by making the bottom of the water channels in a series of parabolic curves. These steps were in the open air. for anyone to whom sanitation and civilization are synonymous. Knossos is irresistible. The elaborate drainage system of the Palace and the connected sanitary arrangements excite the wonder of all beholders. . to which de Jong took me after we had reclimbed the Grand Staircase. Here is a noble of steps leading from the northeast angle of the central flight court to the lower ground near the river. .. But the most remarkable example of Minoan hydraulic engineering is on the Northeast Bastion. . Great stone channels led the water from the roof to underground drains. and the problem of the Minoan engineers was to get the water round the corners without its overflowing onto the landings. Each flight of steps (which were quite steep) was at right angles to the next. so roomy that my Cretan workmen spent whole days in them without inconvenience. which date from the earliest days of the The slightly taperbuilding.164 THE BULL OF MINOS methods of sanitation. for to the Knossian Palace. none of its aesthetic treasures make such It is a profound appeal as this thirty-six-hundred-year-old latrine. If the water ducts at the sides had been mere flat-bottomed slopes. says Evans. the rainwater would have rushed down them at such velocity that inevitably it would have overflowed at the first corner. and these shafts. The curves themselves almost . . The terra-cotta pipes.. flow of water so as to prevent the accumulation of sediment. were admirably designed to impart a shooting motion to the . most lay visitors typical of our technological age that. The trick was to slow down its speed. . and a channel had been cut at the side of each flight to carry away rainwater. are quite up to modern standards. nicely interlocked. with their scientifically-shaped sections. It is a Plumber's Paradise. Indeed. until de Jong showed me the scientific construction of these channels. That in itself did not seem very extraordinary.
the products of a Christ. something which had haunted me I entered the Palace. Why had he left his work unfinished? Again. the fresco of the grandstand with the chattering tion which. where in a gallery above the Room of the Throne were hung some of GilHeron's brilliant copies of the frescoes I had come so far to see. believed that it was sacked. "the special fitness of rainwater for washing linen warrants the conjecture that the tank was used for this purpose. just as the workman had left it. was surprised by Odysseus when she and her maidens were playing by the seashore after washing the family linen." Nor was this all. I felt that slight sense of unease which I first noticed when I saw the marks of fire in the great magazines. * . the intelligence. Evans believed that an earthquake had brought about the final destruction of Knossos. civiliza- hundred years before had already reached and passed its prime." This northeast quarter of the Palace seems to have contained workshops for the artisans. Pendlebury. "Nothing. the daughter of King Alcinous of Phaecia. But clining culture were present there was something else. In one of them Piet showed me a block of puq->le Spartan basalt. probably by a force from the mainland since Nausikaa. in fact. and Minoan Nausikaas 2 may have made their way here from the Palace halls above. And Evans adds. half sawn through. dein those delicate paintings. decadent. a smell of death. the jaded sophistication of a rich. so that when the water reached the bottom of the steps it was still pure and fit for washing purposes. A series of catch pits collected the sediment on its downward course. There they were the fresco of the bull leapers. too. We walked across the court again to the west side. sixteen ladies. There it lay on the floor. with one of those charming Homeric touches of which he was so fond. a sense of doom. "in the whole building gives such an impression of the result of long generations of intelligent experience on the part of the Minoan it poured down the slope engineers as the parabolic curves of the channels. a younger scholar. Therefore the water reached the bottom of each flight at about half the speed it would have attained had in a straight line instead of in a series of jumps.THE PALACE OF THE SEA KINGS 165 exactly agree with the natural parabolas that the water falling down a slope at such an angle would make." writes Evans. was. All the charm.
" said Piet. On this long. elegant women with their pale ivory skins. as represented in the Knossian frescoes. curling hair. jewelled necklaces And then one thinks of the last and hooped and flounced skirts. of rec- We on a pale blue ground. russet Between the guardian still griffins rose its high "wavy-edged" back and anatomically shaped seat. opened a wooden gate and were in the Throne Room itself. . . the splash of blood on the white gypsum pave- ment. with . whoever they were rotten. . . hundred years before Christ. . broad steps led down to one of those mysterious pits the "lustral areas" or in its original place. probably Homer's "bronze-clad Achaeans" they only hastened an end which was inevitable. It was not very large. I believe that Pendlebury was right. the Throne of Minos himself. in blackened walls and floors. to the left of the door. right-hand wall crouched two magnificent painted griffins lionlike creatures with the heads of birds. But the end must have been very terrible on that spring day. passed . and extending to the flanking walls. the sound of crashing timbers. The impression of a "cathedral chapter house" as suggested by Evans was very strong (see Plate 21). the broadest side being on the right.166 THE BULL OF MINOS of Greece. and I was glad de Jong had left it to the last. dark-skinned youths with their narrow waists and black. day the women running scream- ing through the frescoed corridors. One draws breath with wonder at the delicate beauty of the wall paintings. had overripened and become and that when the invaders came. the master craftsman disturbed at his work. On each side of the Throne. In front of the Throne. when the wind was blowfourteen even now something of the ing strongly from the south terror lingers in marks of fire. "Come and have a look at the Throne Room. the desperate fighting in doorways and staircases. at the groups of chattering. effeminate. leaving one stone jar half finished the warrior lying dead across his great body shield the smell of smoke. The Room of the Throne is die most dramatic room in tangular shape. I feel that the Minoan culture. in the now-familiar entered Knossos. fragments of charred timber grim evidence of the fatal day when the raiders came. at the slim. were low stone benches. the low-ceilinged outer chamber. had its apogee before 1400.
No doubt Mycenaean very good rallying cry through to the Black Sea trade which Troy was keeping to herself. the burning beams horizontally northward. when you from the North Portico and the Theatral Area. which is always associated with the sack of Knossos. which we can see this afternoon." apart As the Curator's footsteps died away. Knossos . an$ which seem to have been used in this ceremony. But lock the door after you go. flanked by its tapering. perhaps outside weeks.THE PALACE OF THE SEA KINGS "ritual 167 impluvia" which Evans believed had been used in connection with some ceremony of anointing. in the last decade of the fifteenth century on a spring day. . Ill have to get back to the Tavcrna. but you've no need to hurry if you want to stay. . the more so well have been the sentimental reason without which no purely com- mercial war can ever take place. In the antechamber still stood stone and earthenware jars which had been found on the site. I sat on the oldest throne in Europe. It was extremely comfortable. "that's about all in the Palace itself. [he wrote]. In front of me the dim light from the upper storey filtered down into the ritual pit. One of them seems to have been a kitchen.. This is just the in that it may type of detail that would be remembered." said Piet. russetcolored columns. next to The Palace of Minos. If only the Minoans had records which we could understand! It left written "Well. . It has and six maidens may have already been suggested that the six youths been the mainland quota for the bull-ring at Knossos. Then I recalled a passage from a book which. There was no sound outside. at least with the liberation of its subjects Theseus. is probably the most authoritative and scholarly work yet written on the Minoan civilization: John Pendlebury's The ArcJiacology of Crete. And. Other smaller rooms opened out of the Throne Room. when the the rape of Helen was a Empire wished to break when a strong south wind was blowing which carried the flames of fell. Names have a habit of being remembered when the deeds there is Now a name with which they are associated are forgotten or garbled. .. was all so baffling. and it may well have happened that on certain occasions the Priest King retired to this suite of chambers and isolated himself from the rest of the community for an extended period perhaps days.
the Throne A scene takes place in the most dramatic room ever Room.168 . It was found in a state of complete were in the act of the King had been hurried there to undergo. It looks as if . some last ceremony in the hopes of saving the people. . ritual vessels being used when the disaster came. Theseus and the Minotaur! Dare we believe that he wore the mask of the bull? great oil jar lay overturned in one corner. The final excavated confusion. too late. THE BULL OF MINOS .
At the time of Evans's resignation. had written to him. Evans was knighted. When such ity to make stupid and arbitrary use people crossed the path of hurt. which enabled him to keep an eye on its affairs. he lashed the was the "breaking In a notable speech he described the "surprise visit" of an official. but by that time his triumph over the reactionary elements in the University was complete. Three years earlier he had resigned his Keepership of the Ashmolean. tried to in the early years of the war. by the military authorities. 169 Air Board . but for his overall contribution to learning." In letter after and in private letter to the great newspapers. collections to make room for civil servants. in public speeches Philistines. Sir Arthur Evans. During the 1914-18 war he kept a vigilant eye on those centers of learning which tend in wartime to be brusquely treated . at the age of sixty. "Your real monument is the Ashmolean itself. of Visitor to the the same time Evans retained the honorary post Ashmolean. . Lord Curzon. moving the Sir Arthur. as he did to the end of his life. the Air Board and began roughly requisition the British Museum. in order to devote all his time to Knossos. now organized and equipped on a scale that renders it absolutely . they usually got For example. to in of the jungles. This. besides making generous gifts to it. Always in times of national emergency there are Jacks-in-office who take advantage of their brief authorof their powers.CHAPTER XVI "THE OLD TRADITIONS WERE TRUE" IN the year 1911. an honor bestowed not only for his work in Crete." At unrecognizable to the Oxonian of twenty-five years ago. followed by the Board's request to the Cabinet for permission to requisition the Museum as their headquarters. conversation. the new Chancellor.
I did something to expose. them . In the end in I since the recent war: war "witch hunt" America. and when the attempt was made. had been hurriedly cleared to make room for clerks. But. struction there of the results of generations of learned labour for there is no other word classification. but throughout the Press. threatens at every turn the very sanctuaries of control our Administration learning. came to the conclusion that they did not find the accommodation suitable!" Where was all this to end? he demanded. Some may far more deadly smile cynically at this outburst. . raised a general storm of indignation. the commandeering and of Those who represent its ferior race in the eyes of politicians. . show that those who are inspired by a Philistine spirit for which we shall in vain seek a Ruthless proscription. . the postthink such cynicism is misplaced." but "this monstrous proposal. the persecution and murder of nonconforming artists and scholars in totalitarian countries. but they. Galleries . Sir Arthur and his generation stood for absolute standards. galleries and works of art. but it is well to remind interests are doubtless a very inare not concerned to dispute We . entailed after . of "weeks of labour in the clearing out of three large galleries. They could not imagine a lowering of those standards. 'which both as Trustee of the Museum and President of the Society of Antiquaries. that even the lowest tribes of savages have their reservations. . the reparallel among civilized Governments. Evans spoke .* ing that "it did not need the building after all.170 THE BULL OF MINOS In the teeth of vigorous protest by the Trustees. not only among the accredited representatives of Art and the Historic Sciences. to the final undoing of the work of a century and a half by the wanton caprice of a Government Department which. their verdict. sult of panic action. "the order was actually given by the Cabinet. in the meantime. In 1916. the incalculable de- the University Press. But they lost. remembering the attacks on the citadels of culture during and the wholesale destruction of museums. they fought bitterly. the treatment of the British Museum. much harm had been done. were right." The order was withdrawn the Air Board suddenly discover. when a move was made to expel certain German . having occasioned all this trouble and expense. We are the losers. . . and not the Philistines.
with every article of . not realinto a gun emplacement (the izing what it was. selfless endeavor. had parachuted from the sky of Crete and themselves occupied splendid. the learned societies and academies of Germany. who. in spite of the wave of hate which was sweeping the country. Evans. Only one tomb. and the Germans had handed back the Villa Isopata.C."THE OLD TRADITIONS WERE TRUE" 171 Honorary Members from the Society of Antiquarians. These fine exhortations. In spite of the Gospel of carry Hate. Helbig stood forth as a conspicuous example should give us pause before we out any too sweeping measures. nor the Palace. Perhaps Evans and his German I confreres at had not labored Knossos had been entirely in vain. . they had not harmed it seriously. Admittedly. accompanied by an accurate inventory. and in spite of his own revulsion against the barbarities being committed on sea and land. which lie apart from the silent we shall be once more incumbent on us to do nothmutual intercourse in subjects like domain of human passions. its original furniture. closed the old. at been destroyed by a German N. The war had ended. and the sons of the men with whom Sir Arthur Evans had "laboured in a common field" of learning. with inconsiderable exceptions. the account of Evans's address. even during war. had turned it which his commanding officer afterwards ordered punishment would have made even Sir Arthur feel sorry for the sergeant). It is ing which should shut the door to our own. kept his head and spoke for reason and moderation.O. living at the Villa . the Villa Ariadne as a military headquarters. . in the avenues of the past. has Ariadne almost intact. "The existence among German Honorary Fellows of savants belonging to that noble class of which the late Dr. have re- frained from striking their English members from the rolls/' And he ended his address with the noble words: We cannot shirk the fact that tomorrow labourers in the same historic field. let it be said to their credit. for nearly a week. this I put down had they not all been futile? Another war had come and gone. So perhaps some civilized instincts remained. faded pamphlet and replaced it on the shelves of the library in the Villa Ariadne. I felt depressed.
he was ever a true comrade. talented Scotsman whom Evans had admired so zie. I tried to decipher the abbreviated symfingered the pages bols "L. a tribute of extraordinary tenderness. though a master." of our spade-work. much. Evans had returned to Crete. his services were in continual request. he continued to excavate and restore the . bore with extraordinary patience. and tomorrow I was to cross the mountain chain to reach the other great Palace of Phaestos.M. First Period. . quick-tempered himself. I had taken my notes and photographs." I . . I had seen the Palace many times. His Highland loyalty never failed. in his Palace of Minos. And on the following day I had to fly to Athens. There still fall on my ear the small voice" as he proposed the toast of a happy with sly jocose allusions. . The signature was "D.172 THE BULL OF MINOS Ariadne and making excursions into the surrounding country.lb" (Late Minoan. after long years. Mackenzie. . careful handwriting. in the late evening. and as sponsor. As Poor Mackenzie had suffered long under a mental illness to which he eventually succumbed. in early morning. Long before he had finally to leave Knossos. misty London. and who had developed a unique system of dating pottery. even by moonlight. after re-engaging his Cretan workmen. So these were Duncan Mackenzie's own notebooks. he wrote. and. or "best man. Mackenthe taciturn. Second Subdivision) and so on. I picked out one at random. but he was a rich man. no wake was complete without the sanction of his presence. and so back to cold. in the south. and the simple surroundings of gave him an inner understanding of the native workand a fellow feeling with them that was a real asset in the course his earlier years men To them. resting on a lower shelf. I noticed a group of notebooks with faded covers. tones of that "still After the First World War. no baptism. . it was filled with pencilled diagrams of pottery and notes in a small. news reached Sir Arthur of Mackenzie's death. Costs were higher. godfather. put back Evans's Presidcntal Address to the British Association. The lively Cretan dances revived the "reels" of his youth. fluently spoken in the Cretan dialect pair of modern Greek but not without a trace of the soft Gaelic accent. When. No wedding ceremony. he had been subject to fits of depression and nervous irritability which Evans.
000 m pages. as thus reconstituted. Piet de Jong joined him in 1922 the third of Evans's resident architects. because it strongly reveals Evans's poetic imagination. he is describing the rethis From it work in that constituted Grand Staircase: The Grand Staircase. with more than 2. The Sir John Myres wrote of the work: "The exceptional. In truth he needed space. stands alone among its its ancient architectural remains. balustrades rising. Here. Joan Evans: library was big enough to take any number of bookcases on from the bookshelves that lined its walls.. and still used a quifi pen.. of Minos In 1921 appeared the first volume of his long-awaited Palace of which further volumes were to appear at intervals during the next fourteen years. four great books (Volumes 2 and 4 were so enormous that each had to be issued in two sections ) totalling more than 3. he worked is described by his half sister. I would like to add one more. .000 pages the vast work reads like a saga. there is always the great design. Dr. It was a monumental achievement. within which each topic and digression takes its place. his Berkshire home. Evans had been so impressed by the architect's plans of the Mycenaean fortress that he had invited him to come to Knossos. floor. After the First World War de Jong for Professor Wace at Mycenae. practically intact."THE OLD TRADITIONS WERE TRUE*' had worked 173 Palace of Knossos. surrounding in tiers its central wall. in Volume 3. for difficulty of such a composition was new discoveries were being made throughout the forty-two years since Evans landed in Crete. He had neither secretary nor typewriter. with imposing fresco of the great Minoan shields on the back wall of its .400 illustrations many of them in color. and moving from one to the other like a chess player engaged in multiple games. But throughout its 3. and he took advantage of none of the modern methods in dealing with it. With its charred columns solidly re- stored in their pristine hues." almost unique among archaeological books combines detailed scholarship with bursts of brilliant descriptive writing I have already quoted typical passages. Here he could apart work at his great book classifying the material by the simple process of setting up a fresh trestle table for each fresh section. one above the other. his material was overwhelming. How the Most of it was written at Youlbury.
and rocked from side to side.45 in the evening of a calm. long-stoled priests. though my confidence in the full and a quarter's duration. the remote past. full of water.. For a long period he had suspected one of and crypts were associated with the propitiation of deity. great ladies. That the bull also entered into this worship he was certain. THE BULL OF MINOS now replaced in replica. the whole place seem to awake awhile to life and movement. But confirmation came in most dramatic form on a warm summer night in June. was nearly splashed empty. as if the whole must collapse. my own lot to experience its strange power of imaginative suggestion.. Such was the force of the illusion that the Priest-King with his plumed crown.174 middle gallery. even at a time when the work of reconstitution had not attained its present completeness. having found. as no other part of the building. that these pits an earth was full of past earthquakes and the foreMy own mind boding of a new convulsion when on June 26 . when Sir Arthur was resting in one of the basement bedrooms of the Villa Ariadne. warm day. and after them a retinue of elegant and sinewy youths as if the Cup- bearer and his fellows had stepped repassed on the flights below. we have noticed the significance he attached to the two sacrificed oxen found in the House of the Fallen Blocks. since it did not suffer more than slight cracks. and a pail. perhaps represented by the Minoan goddess herself in her aspect of Lady of the Underworld. tightly girdled. and . Small objects were thrown about. and tempted in the warm moonlight to look down the staircase well. for the sake of better air. though of only a minute trusting to the exceptional strength of the fabric. already produced the same physical effect . a temporary lodging in the room below the inspection tower that had been erected on the neighbouring edge of the Central Court. It down from the walls passed and was this quality of imagination which helped him to solve the significance of his baffling archaeological problems the mysterious "lustral areas. at 9. . During an attack of fever. . I chose to see the earthquake through from within. strength of the building proved justified. Perhaps I had hardly realized the full awesomeness of the experience." the subterranean "pillar crypts/' and even of the bull itself. indeed. It was. which recalled a ship in a storm. it revives. They caught me reading on my bed in a basement room of the headquarters house. and its still well-preserved gypsum steps ascending to four landings. But it creaked and groaned. The movement. the shocks began. flounced and corseted.
were provided with vats beside them to receive the blood of function that seems to connect were the sacrifice. some of them on a scale that could hardly be the work of man. peculiar to the old Cretan suggest the same explanation. but to which votaries descend. A dull sound rose from the an angry bull [my italics]. Meanwhile a mist of dust. some bank giving the appearance of a conflagration wrapped round with smoke ."THE OLD TRADITIONS WERE TRUE" sea. . . . lifted air. made rising costs impossible for the British School to . archaeological sequitur of this is very important." the massive central piers of which. Meanwhile. When. associated with the sacred double axe. while jangling of the dome and cuporepeated shocks produced their cumulative effect the crashing of the roofs of the two small houses outside the garden gate made themselves audible. Such. He was of seventy onwards. Such were the "lustral basins'* which were not made for the purpose of holding water. It was doubtless the constant need of protection against these petulant bursts of the infernal powers that explains the Minoan tendency to concentrate their worship on the chthonic aspect of their great goddess. Some seventy-five when he before he had decided to give the Palace. according to a primitive belief. however. Each and In 1952 it was handed over Greek Government. same seismic agen- . who. postwar stringencies having maintain it. had that experience. the belfry as well as the las of which were badly damaged. moreover. . wreathed with serpents as Lady of the Underworld. our single through the open window came the more distant chimes of Candia Cathedral. 1 he had taken enthusiastically to to the it flying. the Villa Ariadne years and its estate to the British School of Archaeology at Athens. tirely to eclipse the full moon. As the quickly 175 like the on me as a rough ground muffled roar of bell rang. rose sky high. It is something to have heard with one's own ears the bellowing of the bull beneath the earth who. for some ritual cult itself with Mother Earth. were happily rescued. ne1 from the age gotiations for which took several years. often by double flights of steps. as in the great Palace of Knossos we find evidence of a series of overthrows. tosses it on his horns. so as almost enhouse lights reflected on this dark . mingled with women's shrieks and the cries of some small children. windowless. Certain structural features. and only lit by artificial light. there The seems cies. upwards by a sudden draught of . real reason for tracing the cause to the . too. "pillar crypts.
Probably it has been entirely robbed however/' In 1932 he returned. in the neglected garden. cannot vouch for the facts of in told me . Ordering his chauffeur to stop. I decided to spend a few more days in Athens. When to stop immediately. waving Prodger." he wrote. after an absence of half a century. to his beloved Croatia and Dalmatia. . Evans told him. "starting some trial excavations which have already led to a large surprising results including where I looked for it! built tomb. a terrific snowstorm occurred. good faith. I civilized people. the worst known at Athens for fifty years.. get a seaplane to In his eightieth year he in its unexpected accidents.. and still if possible. "When enjoyed travel and delighted I tried to leave Piraeus by a Greek boat and was actually on board. The demoli- this anecdote. and began belaboring the workmen. com- manding them Mayor. In his eightieth year he could still find energy to excavate. of Sir Arthur's sharp temper Age had not brought softening and sharper wit. fly THE BULL OF MINOS out to Athens.176 year he would Crete. he was driving travellers . . in the strongest terms. a bees at Athens by sending to the paper that Venizclos full account of the bad treatment that I and other had experienced both on landing at Piraeus and on attempting to depart from it. through Herakleion when he noticed to his indignation that workmen were demolishing one of the finest Venetian houses in the town. and demanding to see the that official appeared. though I had no means of checking it. and that to demolish it was an act of vandalism unworthy of a tion ceased. at the hands of the 'Pirates of . In Crete I was told a story about him which may well be true. and the steamer stayed in port. Incidentally this gave me an opportunity of stirring them for Crete up like reads. that the building was a national monument of which the Cretans should be proud. "Here I am with the Pendleburys and de Jong. He saw again the Casa San Lazzaro the house to which he had taken Margaret after their marriage and even found. and to fly to Crete by the seaplane. Sir Arthur stormed out. Immediately after one of his arrivals in Crete." Piraeus' the boatmen and porters. but it was and I see no reason to disbelieve it.
is Friedrich von Buhn." and "was who. and the revelations of Minoan With him. . There is a grave. . already quoted. H. the Italian archaeologist who first in the field. Hall. the Patriarch of Cretan excavation. in the fullness of his years. . the old scholar began to feel the loneliness and isolation fifty As the is the penalty of all those who long survive their own generation. the revered German "old advice.. Already. . . . it had been owing to his interpretative genius that the first real light was thrown on the Hittite problem.. one by one. . and danger. Professor Frederico Halbherr. H. * His warmest tribute was reserved for his old friend. . A. . . and paved the way his preliminary exploration of the island in times for the excavations lives His smile. his kindly manners won all hearts." friends and colleagues of a lifetime died. in friends and fellow-scholars. Gone too. . has gone before his time.even while this present Volume was of those whom I could most look to for encouragement and in hand . The "net" under which he slept secure at night. had helped Evans to make of difficulty at Knossos. . through his seasoned knowledge of local conditions.. . was suddenly taken from us. he remarked to the custodian. dignified sadness in the Intro- which duction to the fourth and last volume which he on: salutes his departed of his great book." . Much travelled scholar and Sayce first hand student of the monuments of Egypt and the East . After his tribute to Duncan Mackenzie. R. too. and his memory still among the Cretan villagers. learned and serviceable guide."THE OLD TRADITIONS WERE TRUE" flowers 177 which they had planted. most Crete nearly concerned him. "I come here every years. beyond the Aegean shores to Egypt and the Ancient East. Visiting the jail in which he had been imprisoned. he goes the passage of the years itself Apart from this sad stroke has lately taken an untimely toll. when this Volume was well advanced. and his coal-black Arab steed that climbed rocks "like a wild goat" and on which be could gallop over the Turkish road from Phaestos to Candia legendary. in little over five hours. master. have become almost ..
all lands which Evans knew and loved. and admiration ". and now he spent most of his time in his study at Youlbury. . In London. though he still came sometimes to the Ashmolean Museum. One member at least. Curator of Knossos.. as he recorded the deaths one of his fellow-scholars. birthday. . ." wrote Sir John Myres. and wonders if Evans realized. his exceptional contributions to learning. he received in his library at Youlbury a deputation of his friends .178 THE BULL OF MINOS The Introduction reads like a roll call of the dead. which he accepted like the air he breathed. John Pendlebury. recalling "..' It was his last contribution to learning. and said brightly It is finished. Three days later he was dead." . the invasion of Greece and Crete. the young scholar whom Evans had admired not only for his scholarship but for the touch of knight-errantry in his make-up. in 1941. the occupation of Yugoslavia. 'lay a well-used map showing his Roman road [Evans had traced on his estate at Youlbury and had become interested in this fragment of local antiquity]." his to the cause "On Ordnance it knees. though he lived through the first two bitter years the fall of France. the disinterested pursuit of knowledge for its own sake. that he was also recording the end of an epoch. amicable the liberal relationships between scholars of varied nationalities intellectual atmosphere in which he had been reared as a child. in reply to a question he showed the fair copy of his account of it. shortly after having undergone a serious operation. and had defended in his wartime speeches did he recognize that these precious were soon to be swamped by a new fanatic intolerance things worse than any he had known in the First World War? He did not survive the Second World War. alongside the Cretan Resistance. he visited the British Museum burned and blasted by enemy attack. it will go to Oxoniensia. had died gallantly fighting His health had begun to fail two years before. He called who had been at the offices of the Hellenic Society to inquire about its members left in Greece and Crete.'* and of his freedom lifelong and strenuous devotion in thought and in action. On his ninetieth who brought him a beautiful scroll from the President and with gratitude Council of the Hellenic Society. . Leisurely scholarship supported by private wealth.
but the whole is still inspired with Minos's spirit of order and organization. had been abandoned in a brutal struggle for survival. to know that the Villa Ariadne was a German military headquarters. replying to the address of welcome in words which epitomize the story I have tried to tell. after his last. namely. It is true that on the old Palace site what we see are only the ruins of ruins. It is at that moment that I prefer to think of him. even between nations at war. If this 179 it has often been observed. in this book: We know now that the old traditions were true. Evans would not have lived to hear the hum of bombers over Europe's ancient cities. Instead. however inadequately and incompletely. always falls short of Art. The spectacle indeed. that his beloved Balkan countries were once again a battleground of the Great Powers. that we have here before us is assuredly of world-wide significance. the highest honors the Cretans could bestow upon him. and the free and natural art of the great architect Daedalus. he would have died in 1939. inspired and guided by a greater Power. of a civilization twice as old as that of Hellas. and that civilized standards of conduct which used to be observed. it has been as the humble instrument. at Herakleion. as the explorer may have attained success. triumphal visit to Crete to receive."THE OLD TRADITIONS WERE TRUE" Life. We have before our eyes a wondrous spectacle the resurgence. had been a novel. eighty-eight years of age. . Compared with it how small is any individual contribution! So far indeed.
Right left. At the highest point I estimated that we were at some five thousand feet above sea level. that I calculated while contemplating the unfenced precipices within a few feet of our wheels that we must be carrying more than twice the load that our ancient Ford had been built to carry. as we began to bowl down the other side of the pass. en route for the south coast of Crete. from above they seemed almost a forest. only two hundred miles away. Now we were climbing slowly and laboriously over the high mountain chain which is the spine of Crete. It was evening as we moved 180 quietly down into the rich . with occasional bands and patches of reddish earth which had been newly ploughed. At the road clung to the edge of the mountain. left to anright. and every turn in the road only led other. our wheels danced on the rough surface. the dust rose behind us. probably higher. but the mountains still rose above us. animal and vegetable freight. lay the north coast of Africa. had broken through the mountain chain and were coming smoothly down into a lovely fertile plain in which were more olive trees than I had seen in the whole of Crete. And ahead of us smiled the sea. Suddenly the long agony of the engine was over. Away to the right rose a snow-covered peak which seemed unbelievably high and remote Mount Ida itself. making the green of the fields We glow like emerald. ague-shaken old bus had ground its way out of the Cathedral Square in Herakleion. It stopped screaming and gratefully accepted top gear. some capped with snow like sugar icing. while enorpoints mous boulders seemed poised. gear-whining climb into the mountains we had taken on board such a weight of human. the southern sea beyond which. swung the bus. and against this brilliant green of spring grass the old powdery- grey olives stood in ranks. and on the rutted. rocky road. At every halt on the long. I heard the rumble of the tires again.EPILOGUE OVER an hour and a half ago the agonized. ready to fall upon us from the upper slopes. The sunlight slanted down over the mountains.
dark man who. . Cronos. the first faint stars were beginning Near the top of the hill I to tremble in the night sky. I was welcome. a small. a little bacon and a glass of wine still. with his broad shoulders and slim waist. the southern rival of Knossos. on its knoll overlooking the plain. waved his arm towards a hill on the left of I had arranged to spend the night. the Cup-bearer himself." he said with a smile. At supper round the candlelit table. As I followed Alexandros into the rest house. "Phaestos. and friends meet in the house. who drowned his cries by the noise of cymbals and drums to prevent his being devoured by his father. after courteously carrying out my bag and absurd typewriter. delighted to have remembered enough of my Greek phrase book to thank these charming was met by Alexandros Venetikos (Alexander the Venetian). a child after a birth. and a tall mountaineer friend. We lineally descended from They told up to the time of its christening. his sister in her red head scarf.EPILOGUE 181 Plain of Messara. he said long before the students and the tourists usually arrived. "Efcharisto!" I replied. It was at Phaestos that I Byzantine church. But I had come so early in the year. entrusted by his mother to the Corybantes. I would have a comfortable bed. past a dismantled German gun emplacement. lithe. here also. is responsible for the rest house at Phaestos. . and thus prevent them being heard by evil ones. most fertile region in Crete. making merry as noisily as possible so as to drown the child's cries. This may have its origin in the legend of Zeus. and could only offer me eggs. looked as if he were talked of local beliefs. people. stood the Palace of Phaestos. me that in some parts of Crete it is believed that. . The driver. all the relatives So. was relieved when at last the bus stopped near a small the road. the light wavered on the dark faces of the caretaker. . with his sister. and though they had only candles and oil lamps. Here had been found the tombs of some of the earliest peoples to settle in the island. However. The dusty old vehicle moved off round the bend. is surrounded by evil spirits. near the harbor where once the Minoan galleys had moored. and the Palace to myself. and I began to climb the path which wound up the slope through the olive trees. who.
the long. the footsteps of some important court official hurrying along the corridor. aghast. doorways rose to their original height. and gave to the majestic ruin a strange. the walls and in place. . gay ceilings feminine laughter and gossip." she told him." are but men. the storerooms or magazines with their great pithoi. the service could be perfect. The full moon threw gleaming white stone. the doorways of minimum of restoration. had only to do the there the maze of rooms. "If only you would make a little extra effort.182 It is EPILOGUE certain that respect for the old gods is still strong among some modern Cretans. might I not find Phaestos with the gay frescoes restored. But in contrast to Knossos the site was in some ways simpler to excavate and preserve. Beyond that doorway. at feet (see Plate 46). I was reminded of a true story told me by an English friend living in Crete. To right and left." "Perfect?" he asked. "Why don't you make the buses run to time?" He replied that it was impossible. is for the gods. shadowed corridors. All the familiar lying well back at a respectMinoan features are sweeping stairways. The place seemed compounded of moonwhich would disappear when dawn light. and in the center were bases from which lofty columns had once sprung (see Plate 45). would I hear. which seems to have been an audience chamber. dreamlike quality. The gentle radiance softened the contours of the broken walls. . spread out light. the hum of voices. unlike Evans. like a fairy palace came. and to people the shadows with Minoans. the solemn chanting of if I . "Perfection . The original stone benches remained on two sides. making it possible to imagine the walls at their original height. One day she asked a Cretan bus driver. with the ful distance hills on each side. the broad a magical light over the noble flights of stone steps. one could recreate the Palace. perhaps. Sitting on one of the stone seats. We After supper I left to the Palace of Phaestos. It stands on a high knoll proudly command- and down the slope my hosts and walked out into the moon- my ing the Messara Plain. "But in England we do it. I found myself in a room with walls of shining white gypsum. so that Halbherr. Phaestos is far more magnificently sited than Knossos. to replace the great bronze and silver doors. just as it was passed through it.
and the results of the journey summarized. So. theories of the late of Crete. trying to assemble in since my mind all that had happened had stepped over the threshold of "La Belle Hel&ne de Menelaiis" at Mycenae. Now that journey was nearly over. came its destroyers? And where does Homer fit in? And what of old Dr.. and that older are constantly being modified. not very long ago. impatient to begin the exI my I sat up in bed. The Archaeology came to Crete roughly between 4000 and 3000 Their original home . 183 celebrating the sacred rites of the Mother Goddess? looking at the full moon high in the clear sky. perhaps. it was time to turn the boat round and glide rapidly downstream again. believed that the ancestors of the Minoans B. and the fluting of an owl.. in the few remaining pages. I had lain awake. an oil lamp drawn books and notes scattered on the ploration of Schliemann's Mycenae the first stage in my long journey into prehistory. coverlet. I had been welcomed by friendly people. noting the chief landmarks. It is I deeply indebted. upstream nearly to its source. having followed the river of Aegean civilization bearing in mind that opinions vary. I had followed Ariadne's thread through the Labyrinth. high over all. from whence. rode the long. I looked to my left and there. and hearing only the sound of frogs croaking in the valley. serene and splendid. there.EPILOGUE priests I sat silent. as new knowledge is gained. Back close to in the rest house the bedside. too. Where had it led me? Are we now the ancient in the full daylight of knowledge concerning Aegean civilization which began in Crete. yet how distant it seemed now! There. . then spread to other islands and the mainland. The following outline of the course of Minoan civilization is based mainly on that ologists. snow-covered ridge of Mount Ida. to whose book. Schliemann and his theories? Are they now quite discredited? I flicked through the pages of my diary. or even abandoned altogether. Somehow these questions must be answered. sacred to Zeus. I will try to sum up what is currently accepted by Aegean archae- To change the metaphor.C. am John Pendlebury. too. and the little night sounds the flutter of a startled bird.
They were at the Neolithic stage of development." There is no doubt that there was contact with the Lower Nile and with Libya from extremely early times. pointed out that at the very beginning of the historic period in Lower Egypt.. The Libyan men wore their hair with a . The Minoans wore the same sheath. the cult objects of the people of the Western Delta (nearest to Crete) "included (1) the Harpoon. their nearest cultural connections were with the people of those areas. For one of the features of Libyan male dress in this remote time as after the conquest of Lower Egypt 3200 B. each one reached from some point on the coast.e. It is an interesting fact that the capital of by Menes. But although the Neolithic settlers were probably Asiatic. Now this Libyan connection gives us some most significant clues to the possible cultural origins of the Cretans. (4) the Double Axe and. i. (5) a Dove or Swallow.)... These people were at first mainly cave dwellers. had as her emblem the figure-eight shield. Neith. addressing the British Association in 1923. they used fairly highly developed stone implements and weapons." which. protected the genitals. traceable to the opening out of communications with the Nile Valley across the Libyan Sea. There may even have been a landing by small bands of shown in statuettes was the "Libyan Sheath." And even the Harpoon may have been later modified into the familiar Minoan Trident. says Pendlebury.C. which appears on the walls of Knossos and Phaestos. Sir Arthur Evans believed that "the determining cause of this development of early civilization is . whose goddess.C. in pre-Dynastic times (before 3200 B. Their settlements occur in small groups.184 EPILOGUE seems to have been in southwest Anatolia and Syria at least. The people of the Western Delta were known to be closely connected with Libya in fact the Egyptian in Lower Egyptian refugees Mountain and probably. With the exception of the Harpoon all these cult objects are also found in Crete. The brilliant late Professor Percy Newberry. though later they built elementary shelters. and they were a seafaring people. like the side lock falling down from in front of the ear over the breast or through the armpit. was Sais. (2) the Figure of Eight Shield with crossed arrows. (3) the language was unknown to the inhabitants. So did the Minoan men (see the illustra- codpiece of medieval times. the Western Delta of the Nile.
at Palaikastro. for instance. I am indebted to Dr. They may have mous. The Middle Minoan Period 1 which appear to have been indeThere were no palaces. settlements were in the east. Important towns grew up on the coast. the population of the island increased rapidly. 1 During the thousand years which archaeologists call for convenience the Early Minoan Period (circa 2800-1800 B. Egypt and Libya became closer.C. Evans suggests that Minoan agriculture may have by contacts . flourished.g. and the Priest King. constantly reinforced by other peoples from the same area. With the concentration of population in towns and villages. as modern scholars tend to place them somewhat later than he did twenty years ago. in the very early "tholos" tombs discovered in the Messara not far from Phaestos the excavators found "idols or human figurines entirely divergent in class from the old Neolithic class but identical with those found in prehistoric tombs at Naquada [in Egypt]/' So we have two main elements in Neolithic Crete.) 2 is with Egypt.C. fine lapidary work and the manufacture of faience for which the Delta was fa- at the beginning of the third millennium B. But in metalwork the Minoans were still backward. though in the south the Messara Plain became well populated. Pseira. and eastern. Foreign relations especially with Asia. a The most prosperous class of professional craftsmen arose." "The dates for these periods (which in any case are only approximate) differ from those given by Pendlebury in his excellent The Archaeology of Crete. an original stock from western Asia. There are other curious examples. pendent of each other. Plate 23. either through trade or through the immigration of a small number of refugees from the Western Delta. Frank Stubbings of Cambridge for the revised dating. (circa 1800-1600 benefited B. driven out when the Kings of Upper Egypt conquered the whole country taught the original settlers new arts e. and a quickening influence from the Nile Valley. southern divided into three groups. Mokhlos and Gournia. Sculpture was in its infancy and the seal stones were of poor design and quality. especially that of the potter. art. "The beans found in the store-rooms at Knossos were at once recognized by our workmen as identical with those imported from Egypt. Plate 38).EPILOGUE 185 tions of the Cup-bearer.). The island was at this time central. communications were improved. Life became easier..C.
Their Empire probably grew like the British Empire. buildings show evidence of detailed planning to this period belongs the introduction of the architectural features. and were taken seriously even by historians such as Thucydides. "the seal-stones reach the highest made the Minoans rich. "In Middle Minoan III. but Knossos appears to have gained chief political power.* During these two brilliant centuries the three main divisions of the country began to coalesce. First they would get permission from a local prince to establish a trading post. the "light wells" and the wonderful . the rise of the Palaces. Bronze was sum was used marvellous introduced. and probably peacefully. the prince might ask them for help against a neighbor which would be given. Phaestos may have remained independent. They may not have deliberately planned the conquest of other Aegean islands. and. Crete may still have been divided into many states. So did miniaand the art of making faience ( glazed clay ) Gem engraving kept pace with progress in the other arts. The population began to spread west of Ida. Then.186 EPILOGUE marked by "two most important changes. making it possible to cut fine ashlar masonry. Finally comes the stage when further acquisitions become necessary owing to the need of putting down piracy or rather of ensuring against other seafarers poaching on their preserves. The potter's wheel came in. A ture sculpture school of vase painting developed (see Plate 24). Undisturbed from the envy of their neighbors by the sea by war. most of the country comes under the control of newcomers. protected of which they were masters. later. they were acquiring a commercial empire. Building methods became so similar that it is clear that the Minoan culture was now a unity. of ." says Pendlebury. unity of culture [Pendlebury]. So gradually. Gypas a facing stone. allowing for a local difference due to natural difficulties of communication. at a price. Fresco painting reached a dazzling level of achievement. perhaps build a port. point of beauty/* Overseas trade had Such was the origin of the sea empire of Minos. traditions which survived until classical times. elaborate drainage system.
of which the story of Theseus and his companions is the legendary symbol Evans believed it was due to one of the terrible earthquakes which had brought previous destruction to the Minoan cities. It was the seat of a government which controlled not merely the . History of Greece. and smaller homes for the numerous artisans. neighboring regions or even the island. there were fine roads linking the Minoan cities. . co-equal with Egypt and state. What Bury. Phaestos. at the very height of this glory. as they are today. Then. Knossos. but a maritime empire. 3 The other great Palace of Phaestos. .. surmise that there existed a well-developed system of may fairly We fices. supplying the great cypress beams needed for the columns. ruin and death. but clothed with magnificent forests. It was not merely a king's residence. not offering tribute as members of a subject mighty Palace the King of Crete ruled over many overseas dominions.EPILOGUE By 1100 B. architraves and timber framing of the palaces. . had brought about this disaster? Pendlebury. protected by guard stations. longed to princes of the Knossian family line. believed it was due to an invasion from the mainland. from his tombs.C.) 187 the Hittite Empire. By now Knossos had become the center of a highly centralized bureaucratic system. administrative machinery which needed considerable room for its ofThe rich tributes which the Kings derived from their dependencies were stored in the Palaces. accompanied by burning.C. it was a center of administration. may have be- Round each of these and other smaller palaces handsome towns with well-built houses of stone for clustered the solid burgher class. as we have seen. in about 1400 B..C. Hence the size and complexity of the Palace. Mallia and Zakros all show traces of violent destruction. in the south. but from one great monarch to another. Gournia. These were the days when the proud ambassadors of the Keftiu are shown on the walls of the Egyptian the beginning of the Late Minoan Period (circa 1550^rete was a world power. The mountains were not bare. bearing gifts By 1550 B. Hagia Triadha. Moklilos. * came violent destruction.
came from the north from the interior of Europe where the sea was unknown. but they have left names which do mainly names ending us memorials of their presence in certain place not belong to the Greek language. they would naturally borrow the name used by the people whom they had conquered. Other names were of flowers. He points out Pendlebury's theory that on each of the sites mentioned above there is evidence of though perhaps. like that of the Cretans. plants and birds with which the invading Greeks were not familiar such names as hyacinth and narcissus which have passed into our own language." many in Greece and. is not Greek. and why are they believed answer to have come from the mainland? have to go back six hundred more years and look at the mainland of Greece as it was in 2000 B. They belonged to the dark-haired "Mediterranean" race and may have been akin to the inhabitants of Crete and the Cyclades. is lost. * has much to support it.188 EPILOGUE this case. In Crete there were scores of such old non-Greek place names of which Knossos itself is the most Most significantly. In Greece (not then called by that name). on arriving on the shores of the Mediterranean. Ilissos. who destruction were they. followed either by foreign invasion or local insurrection. llalicarnassos. the very name for "sea" thalassa the sea by which the Greeks lived. Tylissos these names of Greek towns and rivers are not Greek.C. For instance. Therefore.C. Their language. Scholars suggest this is another indication that the people which invaded what is now Greece round about 2000 B. as in Crete and some of the Aegean islands. These are in "-os" and "-nth. Corinth. . But if foreign invaders destroyed the chief cities of Crete fourteen hundred years before Christ. obvious example. of which there are even more in Crete. there was a Bronze Age population which had entered the country a thousand find the shall To we years earlier. when Crete had already attained a high degree of civilization. and that in ancient times earthquakes did not necessarily cause fire. as they do in modern towns with gas and electricity mains. in by fire. significantly. they have been left behind by the population which lived there before the ancestors of the modern Greeks entered the country.
and especially Mycenae. does not accept this view. They do not seem to have occupied and colonized Crete. after 1400 B. is unmistakably Minoan. Evans believed that the Minoans colonized Mycenae. But Professor Wace. "So Minoanized does the rest of the Aegean become. They imitated it in their architecture. came into contact with the great Minoan Empire to the south and so produced the fusion of mainland and Cretan culture which we call it And Mycenaean. but were attracted by the higher civilization of Crete." was these men. the subject matter hunting and fighting is not. and Pendlebury agreed with him.C. the en- graved dagger sheaths. after the fall of Knossos. Authorities differ fundamentally in their interpretation of Minoan-Mycenaean relations.g. conclusion that it was dominated . and may. with Mycenae at the head. "that it is impossible for the present writer at least to avoid the . the mainland cities." he wrote.EPILOGUE These conquerors 189 for whose presence there is positive archaeoevideftce after circa 2000 B." politically by Crete. dress and art. who became overlords of the Mediterranean peoples and set up their mighty citadels at Mycenae. Inevitably these people. are believed by scholars logical to have been the ancestors of Homer's "bronze-clad Achaeans. . Pendlebury believed that the Achaeans or "Mycenaeans" attacked and destroyed . . Those who hold Wace's belief point out that though the style of the objects found in the shaft graves. the Cretan cities as a political move probably because they wished to smash the Cretan monopoly of trade and obtain a with Egypt. Such subjects would have more appeal to a northern warrior race. have employed Minoan artists to work for them on the mainland.. northern climate.. in fact. since. it is certain that. Notice also the decidedly non-Minoan 4 faces on the Mycenaean death mask ( Plate 12 ) Whatever may have been the cause. a warrior race from a harder. who may have been organized in a loose federation of states. who probably knows more about Mycenae than anybody else. and the impression left by "Mycenaean" art is that of Minoan craftsmen working to the orders of a foreign master. Tiryns and elsewhere. He believes that the mainland rulers remained politically independent.C. e. Minoan culshare of the rich 4 traffic For further information on this point see Appendices. rose to the peak of their power and wealth.
having defeated the Kings of Crete. Throughout the period Mycenae was dominant..C. in the smaller Cretan The Palaces. though in a minor key. which from 1400 to 1200 was wealthier and probably more united than it was to be again for five hundred years. by the King of Libya. Then. Among them the Egyptian inscriptions mention the "Achai- probably another reference to the Achaeans or "Mycenaeans. it was then that the Mycenaean princes enlarged their Citadel. but most of the invaders came from the north. broke through to the rich East. exchanging the products of the Aegean for luxuries such as gold. an invading host moved down on Egypt. and lots of jewellery. the word which Homer used in the thirteenth century B. but a generation later a second great wave came down from the north. of course. and among them the . dominating the community." The invasion was unsuccessful. but at a lower level communities.C. founding setdements at Rhodes. like the Minoans before them. the ancient capital of the Hittite kings. much earlier ( 1650-1550 B. It was a splendid age. including a washa" mighty host of the "sea peoples. An interesting point is that there have been discovered at Boghaz Keui.." This was the coalition defeated by Harnesses III in a land and sea battle. Cos. with their ruling class and hive of civil servants. But before that happened the Achaeans. clay documents referring to the King of Akhfyava which nearly all scholars now accept as the first docu- mentary reference to the Achaeans most often to describe the Greeks. rate coiffures shaft graves were. wore tightracing. seem to have been destroyed. The scene now culture of the Aegean. with open bosoms. built the Lion Gate and hollowed out of the hillsides some of the earlier "beehive" tombs described in Chapter Five.C. led mony. ) In his lofty castle. elabodescribes. as Homer The . Cretan civilization continued until it was absorbed into the com- mon shifts to Greece. trading with Egypt.190 ture still EPILOGUE continues. this heroic period to which Homer looked back during the Dark Age which followed the collapse of the Achaean Empire. ivory and textiles. and Cyprus. in Asia Minor. waisted jackets. The Mycenaean nobles loved hunting and chariot Their women. Egypt adds her testiIn 1221 B. the King entertained his guests with banqueting and minstrelsy. huge flounced skirts.
The final chapter in this ancient drama. or coalition of states." where Odysseus is washed ashore after his shipwreck Of her country the King's daughter. and details of Mycenaean social customs. is . These earlier poems. when the old Mycenaean cities lay in ruin and the Minoan Empire was forgotten. a Greek poet of genius produced. the Iliad and the Odyssey. For the Achaeans. These were the Dorians the ancestors of the "classical" Greeks and those of today. moving down the coast of Syria and Palestine with their women. especially. were themselves overthrown in the twelfth and eleventh centuries by yet another wave of northern immigrants of the same Greek-speaking stock. destruction of the destroyers. children and baggage wagons. who had broken the power of Knossos and inherited the wealth of the old Minoan perhaps to break the Trojan stranglehold on the Black Sea trade. Empire." desperate venture of the Mycenaean Emwas the siege of Troy. This again seems to have been a Probably the last pire. the last attempt. and although they were modified and altered to suit prevailing Dorian fashions. had been transmitted orally from generation to generation. they still preserved the names of the Mycenaean cities. "The Isles. Nausikaa. They may even contain unconscious memories of Cretan a generation which could not glories. Mycenaean leaders and their deeds. It was an age of unrest and vast migrations of people. which glorified the deeds of the heroes of the Mycenaean Age. but of whole tribes. The gods are too fond of us for that. seems to have been far more than the advance of professional armies. transferred to fairyland by that they had once existed. there hostile no man on earth. Consider Homer's description imagine of the mythical "Isle of Phaeacia. from a number of much earlier epics. . They broke up the highly organized Mycenaean state into small cantons. nor ever will be. Centuries later. which history. who would dare set feet on Phaeacian soil. says: * . legend and archaeology all agree was fought during the first quarter of the twelfth century.EPILOGUE 191 Egyptian inscriptions mention "Damma" who may have been the Danaoi. "were in tumult. But by this time the Achaeans were facing peril at home. revealed by the spade but living more richly on the lips of poets tells of the political stroke." wrote the Pharaoh's priestly chronicler.
home of ours. . in May not this be a folk memory of the luxurious life of the Knossian Palace? For in Homer's own time. King of Phaeacia. a few fragments of the bull frescoes. building on the foundations which Schliemann and laid. As for the Labyrinth. this is simply derived from the labnjs another non-Greek word. Alcinous. in speed of foot. As for the mysterious underground maze in which Minos of Theseus great sewers of the Palace drainage system enough to accommodate a man and were. tells his guest: we But the things in which we take perennial delight are the feast. we are the outposts of man- Could there be a better description of Crete in the days of her glory? And in a later passage occur the lines: their energy sail For the Phaeacians have no use for the bow and quiver. the dance. So forward now. a hot bath and our beds. with youths and maidens. The curious Dorians found. Remote kind. other folk behind in seamanship. we can Dorpfeld So. and show us your steps. thanks to new territory of prehistoric life in survey Europe. so that when he gets home our guest may be able to tell his friends how far leave all dancing and in song. in the crumbling ruins of Knossos. and these may have helped in the de- velopment of the legend of Minos and the Athenian captives. the most familiar symbol on the walls of Knossos. this story kept known own primitive communities. of may have been brought back to Greece by venturesome Dorians who found their way into the which were big course. . but spend on masts and oars and on the graceful craft they love to across the foam-flecked seas. meaning the double axe. my champion dancers.192 EPILOGUE in this sea-beaten . and and the Minotaur. at least five hundred years after the fall of the Cretan power. The old legends . nothing remained in Crete itself to tell the newcomers that the island had once been the center of a mighty Empire. clean linen in plenty. quite unin their the bull-monster. the lyre. a vast Evans and his fellow-scholars.
See Appendix "B.EPILOGUE 193 and myths have been proved to contain more truth than the dry-as-dust historians would admit. the Evanses. descriptions of noble rooms. like flies in amber. France. Ours also is a twilight age. Professor Wace's book. we owe our debt to Evans and the line of devoted scholars who have succeeded him. are dead. perhaps yield tombs and work. But remains to be learnedl The myswhich Evans went to Crete in the hope writing. remains still a mystery. He had not seen the walls of Ilium. works of art. But for pa- but his antecedents had seen these wonders. another step forward in our understanding of the My- how much more Minoan treasures equal to But how Egypt 's "Valley of the is such work to be done today? who is also a man of genius finance. are doing fine marks terious cenaeans. far working with more limited resources. The valley in which the Palace of Minos stands. * Since the first edition of this book was published." the man of and civilized. He wrote in a period of cultural twilight. such work? What Government would dare to ask for a vote of 250. America. 5 and in Crete. The Schliemanns and men who had the leisure and knowledge for its own sake. could. of deciphering. Mycenae. and a way of life which had vanished in Homer's own day. arms and armor. who and had the means and the tient. especially for humane studies. or watched Agamemnon ride through Mycenae's Lion Gate. So it happens that in the poems there are preserved. For this knowledge we have to thank first Schliemann. will to justify his faith. more remains beneath the soil than has yet been taken out of it. if excavated. enough to on the great work which Schliemann and Evans began. but which the spade of the archaeologist has now proved to have existed. in spite of the work of scholars and archaeologists from Britain. the "Linear B" script has been portly deciphered. scientific investigation. for example.000 for excavating and rebuilding a threewealth Tombs of Where is who could the Kings. analysis and synthesis. trusted the ancient traditions. let alone plan." . Homer now appears as more than a weaver of dreams and fairy tales. Italy and elsewhere. the wealth to preserve their successors. or sat in the frescoed hall of King Minos at Knossos. carry is thousand-year-old palace? One is years must pass before the world left sadly wondering how many settled.
fortunate "snatch a fearful joy. green Plain of Messara expanded till it met the enclosing hills. the propaganda have come near to destroyall the evils which Evans fought people to enjoy the stimulus of travel and friendly intercourse between nations. and slowly mounted the broad. fleeting visits. . I reflected. are also part of the pattern of our time. a book. magnificent stairway as noble as that of Versailles which leads to the entrance of this four-thousand- year-old Palace (see Plate 43). or a university dare we say it just enjoying themselves? thesis. I breakfasted on the terrace. planning a career. I passed through the long corridors. rode high and serene in the innocent blue of morning. past the innumerable doorways and flights of steps which once led to higher apartments. . with its icy-white crest. less than that young men of modest means could spend months in such rewarding places. very occasionally. corridors. Fifty years ago nay. on." conscious all the time of the return airline ticket in their pocket and the impatient editor waiting at . suspicion. Yet in our Age of Anxiety we must make the best of what chances we have. shining through uncurtained windows. intolerance. or perhaps such experiences can be enjoyed only by three "privileged Today classes" the rapidly dwindling minority of tourists who can afford to pay their passage. the rich. Mount Ida. which made the white walls shine like snow. the even smaller minority who travel journalists. on. woke me early. stirring my coffee. home. I crossed the broad Central Courtyard. who on university grants and. Ahead. I walked down the slope from the rest house. which used to be considered the mark of civilization. These hurried. For a short time the grip of unreason has relaxed a little just sufficiently to allow a few Natonalist passions. beyond the flat-topped hill on which the Palace stood.194 EPILOGUE The morning sun. lie ing the world he knew. and patterned the courtyards. and broad-sweeping stairways with ink-black shadows. up further stairways and along further corridors until I arrived at the furthermost limit of the Palace the point . with the Palace spread out a few hundred feet below me in the sun.
at my feet. whence came the Spring of Europe. . came a high trumpet note. . gentle hills. pink asphodel sprang. . the hills in which were found the **tholos" tombs of some of the earliest peoples to land and settle in Crete. windless air. painting the green plain with bright sweep upon sweep of the tiny yellow oxalis. sea-beaten home of ours. a lush green patterned with ranks of powder-grey olives.EPILOGUE at 195 falls which the knoll on which it stands away in a sheer cliff to the fertile Plain of Messara below. Spring spring had come to Crete from the south. . . windy London. which had been the path of the first Cretan settlers five or six thousand years ago. Among the old grey stones of the Palace. . each throwing a long morning shadow across the damp grass. To and left Ahead lay the Messara itself. across Homer's wine-dark sea. Embassy from Egypt? No Suddenly. There were red and blue wild anemones and. . A herald announcing the arrival of an just a shepherd's horn. . In a day and a half I would be walking the rain-washed pavements of cold. **. piercing the morning air. partly shadowed right in the morning sun. /' . thin. the outpost of mankind. this . rose the low. its many-clustered flowers standing quite still in the warm. from far below. But I had seen the arrival of Persephone on gold.
have been active. as have the concluding lines of the book. A few months after I left. perhaps revealing treasures equalling or exceeding in wonder those which Schliemann found three quarters of a century ago. brought to light in 1952. "Another chapter will have been added to our story.APPENDIX MYCENAE'S SECOND GLORY AT at the end of the of 1953. who can say that the last secrets have been revealed. a story which can never end. for if the Schliemanns and the Evanses have had their triumphs. I wrote. working under Professor Wace. During the same period British archaeologists. I first autumn mentioned some remarkable discoveries made edition of this book. which I approached along the narrow winding road which leads from the village of Charvati to the Citadel. and that archaeologists of the future may not achieve even greater victories over the forces of Time and Decay?" In Chapter Five I have described my visit to Mycenae. Dr. and during the past two years treasures have come to light almost equalling in splendor and historical significance those which the German excavator found. which read. published in the more important than any made discovered the shaft graves in 1876. on that site since Schliemann At the end of the brief Appendix describing some of the treasures Mycenae in the spring of 1952. John Papadimitriou of the Greek Archaeological Service made this marvellous discovery." These words have been proved abundantly true. nor that within a few yards of the roadside lay a Grave Cir- Middle Bronze Age. Little did I know that at one point I had walked over the grave of a Mycenaean princess. excavating in the Prehisof the cle containing more than sixteen graves of Mycenaean royalty 196 . no doubt other graves of the newly discovered Circle will have been excavated. "By the time these words appear in print.
of the University of Cincinnati.). asserting that though Mycenae continued to be ocafter the Dorian sack. proving that the Mycenaeans used the same system of writing as was used in Crete during the latter part of the Late Minoanruins of Period (1400-1100 B. tends Age. entering upon a new and some earlier theories may have some to be In this Appendix. revealing objects which have thrown new light on the Mycenaean Age and confirmed its close connection with the world described by Homer.APPENDIX "A" toric 197 Cemetery just outside the Lion Gate. Chief credit for this achievement goes to an English architect. the late Michael Ventris. and that was not a complete archaeological break in the culture of Mycenae at the end of the Bronze Age. not all scholars accept this brought view. in fact. is the partial decipherment. The two discoveries are closely linked. he suggests.C. Knossos may have been conquered by the_M)fc it Pylos. of the Minoan/Mycenaean "Linear B" script which Evans first discovered at Knossos. jars at and Wace has discovered similar tablets and inscribed now appears fairly certain that the cenaeans. Moreover. Recently Professor Blegen. thus supporting the theory of Wace and others that during its latter stages the Minoan civilization at Knossos was strongly influenced by the mainland and that. in which discarded. and which has baffled scholars for more than fifty years. to disprove the hitherto-accepted belief that the Dorian Invasion in a Dark However. is which its memory was kept Certainly Aegean archaeology exciting phase. though less spectacular. I shall describe of the . and uncovering the Mycenaean houses outside the walls of the Citadel. the Mycenaean culture was cercupied some tainly disrupted. This. there Wace has also stated that the recently excavate3 graves in die Prehistoric Cemetery show continuity of culture. Epic poetry was the main medium through alive. in 1952. because tablets and objects have been discovered in Greece inscribed with the same form of writing which Evans found on the Knossian tablets. language was an early form of Greek. found many scores of inscribed tablets at Mycenae. therefore. Even more remarkable. though American and European scholars had been working on similar lines and helped him in his researches.
recent finds at Mycenae. In that which follows, Ventris's work on the "Linear B" script will be discussed, after which I shall try to relate the two, and endeavor to indicate how these extraor-
dinary developments are likely to influence our view of the
brought to light by Schlie-
his British staff
Cemetery just mentioned that "Professor Wace has shown that the form part origprehistoric cemetery of which the shaft graves extended beyond the line of the Cyclopean walls, west of inally the Lion Gate." He found, in 1952, a number of graves of the Middle Bronze Age, with characteristic burials of the period. These, apparently, were not royal graves, and they had been plundered in antiquity, though interesting objects had survived. He also found what may have been discarded loot from a "tholos" tomb of the Late Helladic Period. Among these was a remarkable group of ivories, some of which were in the form of our old friend, the "figure-ofeight" shield ( see page 51 ) These seem to have been models of the great body shield mentioned by Homer. Other ivories seem to have formed part of the mountings of wooden furniture. For example, there was one with a tenon at the base for the insertion of a socket, which may have formed part of a bedstead or chair, though Wace suggests that it may have been the head of a herald's staff analogous to the caduceus which is usually borne by Hermes. Another ivory showed a griffin in low relief, masterfully carved (remember the griffins on the walls of the Throne Room at Knossos). There was also the handle of a silver cup of the same type as the famous golden cups of Vapheio (see Plates 34 and 35); the barrel of the handle and the upper and lower plates were inlaid with gold and niello. More interesting was a small hoard of bronzes found near the spring Perseia. They seem to have been the stock in trade of some worker in bronze. Wace found tools, including chisels, a drill and a hammer, a double axe, an adze, a dagger and several curved knives. These were of the Mycenaean period. It should be remembered that not all the Mycenaeans lived within the walls of the Citadel. On the slopes below were many
of the Prehistoric
began further explorations outside the Lion Gate. In Chap-
and it was in the ruins of these houses that Wace made most remarkable discoveries. In one of these, which seems to have belonged to an oil merchant, was a storeroom with large
ranged along the wall as described by Odysseus in the Odyssey. But the significant fact was that this house had been burned and the stirrup jars had been deliberately broken or unjars (pithoi)
stoppered to add fuel to the flames. The two basement rooms of the same house contained thirtyeight clay tablets inscribed with "Linear B," like the script discovered by Evans at Knossos. These, except for surface finds made in 1950, were the first to be found anywhere in a purely
private house. Like those found at Knossos and at Pylos (by Blegen), they seem to have been merely accounts and inventories.
Since their discovery they have been partially deciphered On one of these tablets was a sketch of a man in a
for a wall fresco, as at Knossos.
standing to attention. Perhaps this was an artist's draft We know that the Mycenaeans were in the habit of adorning their plastered walls with frescoes
men and women, chariots and hunting scenes. In 1953, Wace continued work at Mycenae. To
and south of the House of the Oil Merchant he discovered two more houses dating from the thirteenth century B.C. This time he found even more magnificent ivoiy carvings.
Such a wealth of Mycenaean work in ivory has probably never been found before. Certainly nothing which could be compared with this has been found for at least sixty years.
the north side of the
of the Oil
excavators examined a house which stands on a platform held up by massive walls. Two rooms were revealed, the western one con-
have been used mainly taining ivory carvings which appear to as inlays and decoration for wooden caskets, beds, chairs and other furniture. Here again, the spade of the archaeologist has
wrote, for he mentions ivory as an adorn-
and keys. More shields were found in ivory, also ivory lids, of-eight of a Mycenaean warrior wearing the Boars' Tusk
of furniture, harness, swords
model figureand the head Helmet men-
(see page 52). called this the "House of Shields/'
and named the
house the "House of Sphinxes," from a sftiall ivory plaque of couchant sphinxes which it contained. These are rather like the lions shown on the Lion Gate. "The anatomy of the legs and bodies is delicately drawn," he writes. They wear
Mycenaean They had wooden thresholds to the doorways, as described by Homer, and the basements recalled the basements in the palaces of Priam and Menelaiis described by the poet. It
lily-crowns' and their hair streams out behind." Much was also learned about the construction of
now very clear that Homer preserved many of the features of what we call Mycenaean civilization, even though he wrote
during the transitional age between iron and bronze. But perhaps the most important discovery made by Wace in 1952 and 1953 was that of a number of inscribed clay tablets, clay seals and seal impressions. Some of these were found in the
"House of Shields." Other specimens of Mycenaean writing were found in the "House of Sphinxes." In a doorway leading to the storeroom were seven clay seals from the same signet, and on the back of each seal was an incised inscription in the "Linear B"
script, all different.
ing were generally known to citizens of Mycenae and that their use was not confined to kings and officers, the priesthood and tax-gathers.
The important fact [writes Wace], is that we have now clear evidence of writing in each of the three houses in this row of large private houses. This confirms beyond all doubt that reading and writ-
Further excavations in the Prehistoric Cemetery revealed continuity of culture between the end of the Bronze Age the
phase of Mycenaean
which Homer belonged.
and the beginning
zation at the close of the Bronze
of the graves belongs to the latest phase of Mycenaen civiliAge and dates from the twelfth cenit
tury B.C. In
were found, a small jug and a
Age, with proto-Geometric pottery. The two vases, a large amphora with concentric circles and a small, duck-like vase and simple linear
ornament, carry on the tradition.
typical of the so-called Granary style. Next in date is a grave (sunk in the ruins of the House of Shields) of the opening of the Iron
graves were found which also "carried on the tradipins, the riches
The objects found in them etc., would have little appeal
vases, iron daggers, bronze to the layman compared with
Royal Grave Circle, which will be de-
scribed later, and yet they have greater significance historically. For, as the excavator says:
is valuable because they give us the seof style and show that there was no archaeological break in the quence culture of Mycenae at the end of the Bronze Age. . The effects
This series of graves
of the Dorian Invasion have been unduly magnified by historians. The archaeological facts suggest that there was no definite racial or cultural break, but only a political revolution. 1 The citadel of Mycenae was burned at the end of the Bronze Age, but there was no real inter-
of Wace and his colleagues has not brought to so spectacular and romantic as the discovery of the light anything new Grave Circle, but their patient digging has added much to
our knowledge of the Mycenaean civilization and its close relationship with the heroic world of the Iliad and the Odyssey.
Homeric arms and
joyed peace, since otherwise how could the wealthy merchants have built their houses outside the wall? But many puzzles remain unsolved, some of which will be discussed at the end of
of writing which was known outside palace and official circles. It is also clear that, in the thirteenth century B.C., Mycenae en-
has been established that the Mycenaeans had a system
That second-century travel writer, Pausanias, whose obserwere not accepted literally by nineteenth-century schol-
gaining increased respect as excavation at Mycenae continues to confirm his accuracy. The first to vindicate him was, of
course, Schliemann, who, as I described in Chapter Four, accepted the truth of his statement that:
that a number of scholars disagree It is only fair to state at this point with this conclusion of Professor Wace, and assert that there was a break in
In the ruins of
a tomb of Atreus
Aegisthos murdered on their reand Aegisthos were buried a little turn from Troy. Clytemnestra outside the wall, for they were not deemed worthy of burial within it, where Agamemnon lies and those who were murdered with him.
there are also tombs of those
Schliemann dug within the walls of the Citadel and found
the six shaft graves. In 1951, seventy-five years after Schliemann, Dr. J. Papadimitriou of the Greek Archaeological Service discovered the second Grave Circle, which Pausanias describes as
being outside the wall.
by accident when repairing
of Clytemnestra." discovered Grave Circle lies 130-140 yards west
of the Lion Gate, partly under the road which runs between the Citadel and the village of Charvati. Dr. Papadimitriou believes that the graves were known in the time of Pausanias (127 A.D.) because gravesones, or stelai, similar to those found above Schliemann's shaft graves, were found "at a very small depth from the surface soil of the area in the days of Pausanias, which level has
been determined by the latest excavations." However, it still remains a mystery why, if the graves were known at that time, they were not robbed. There is a difference beween the new Grave Circle and Schliemann's. Both have roughly the same diameter, about 27 meters (29& yards) but the enclosing wall of the "new" Circle is much thicker, 1.55 meters (5 feet 1 inch) and is built of large,
blocks of limestone. Chronologically it belongs to the same period as the graves it encloses, whereas the wall sur-
rounding the Circle within the Citadel was built two hundred years after the burials, of slabs of poros stone. This was because
Schliemann's graves originally lay outside the wall of the Citadel. When this was extended, and the graves came within the Citadel, a new encircling wall was built around them. Perhaps originally
they were enclosed by the same kind of limestone wall which surrounds the newly discovered Circle.
By April, 1954, sixteen graves had been excavated, and some yielded treasures almost equal to those found by Schliemann. Over two of them were found funerary stelai which bear,
in Dr. Papadimitriou's words,
beautiful representations of
bull-hunting and lion-hunting
". It cement tank of the aqueduct had been injured and the rest was necessary to divert the road and the aqueduct and remove the tank. and age. gracefully bent as the handle No similar work of art has been found in the Greek mainland or in Crete. This gave us a chance to examine again the method followed in the setting the stelai which were discovered by Schliemann and transported without their bases to the National Museum in Athens. extremely fatiguing work. will yield most important conclusions relative to the construction of the graves and the burial customs of that remote mann. It is amazing obtained this unusually large piece of crystal [15 centimeters 5% inches]. The aqueduct of the village crossed the grave. and the experience and knowledge obtained since the days of Schliemann from the excavation work and writings of international scholars. . as it is carried out today with our new scientific methods. a young woman whose body was found lying in an extended position. However only the top of the grave was unknown and had not been robbed. Papadimitriou has called the graves after the initials of the Greek alphabet." Dr. how the artist perhaps similar precious vases. This detail alone is capable of showing the significance of the new graves whose excavation. was in the shape of a duck. having the head with the neck of the bowl and its tail as the lip. As a result we found in the Grave Circle in the Citadel some blocks belonging to the bases of stelai which have remained unknown to this date. grave circle had been completely dethe modern road and the whole grave was completely unstroyed by der the asphalt." The skeleton of the princess had originally been richly . the excavation of which required considerable care. The richest is Grave Omicron.APPENDIX "A" fotflfc in situ 203 the base containing a fragment of a funerary stele. but the excavators were richly rewarded. who gave them Latin numerals. For the grave seems to have been that of a Mycenaean princess. to distinguish them from those of Schlie- At this site the wall of the in the centre of the grave a built. near three clay vases. On the north side of the a rock-crystal bowl carved grave. Only in Egypt and in Asia Minor can we find .
It was almost in the center of the grave and adorned with beautiful miniature jewellery which appeared. Three necklaces lay on the breast. clasps. of silver. and the princess had worn golden ear clips of a strangely modern appearance. Grave Xi. Another body wore a golden collar. of course. and made a charming impression. two made of various precious stones such as amethysts and carnelians. . perishe<^Nhe silver ornaments. Grave Delta contained three bodies. had remained. says Papadimitriou. in situ as they would have Iain on the body of this unlucky child. On one wrist was found a beautiful gold bracelet made of repeated spiral circles. near one of which lay two bronze swords and other bronze weapons and clay vaseg.. A tiny necklace of small precious stones lay near the center. presumably intended to hold a heavy robe. placed with the legs apart and with the hands forward near the pelvis. Near this Gamma nearly six feet in height. a bronze lance and other weapons. diadems. . and near the west side of the grave were gold ornaments and a gold cup. but it may be that the body was placed leaning against pillows. with a gold head. with an ivory plate which may have been used to hold them in position." A diadem of double gold leaves joined by a gold bandlet lay on the head.. One sword had an ivory pommel with delicate carving spiral decorations and four sculptured heads.204 clothed. with the hands on the hips. was found the skeleton of a little girl of not more than two years of age. a bronze dagger. Bronze and alaskeleton lay fine baster cups were also found. and there was even a baby's rattle of gold. a tall man Grave. the other of amber beads. and there were two gold and gold rings near the temples to hold the tresses together. and another pin. On each shoulder was a bronze pin with a crystal head. In another sepulcher. Near her head lay two large diadems of gold. etc. was found near the right shoulder. Papadimitriou discovered that the male and female bodies . It is not clear why this position was adopted (the excavators found other bodies in the same position). APPENDIX "A" and though the fabric had. . ". two of bulls and two of lions.. necklaces. The body lay in the of a warrior. two long bronze swords with ivory pommels.
proof. some of stone and others of alabaster. discovered early in the excavations. a bronze knife with a handle of rock crystal and a bronze lance.. and.APPENDIX "*" men 205 buried in separate graves. They are. it was piled up in the form of a small mound. Once again. If there was still insufficient room. rich in gold" has lived up to On top of these were laid canes. one of which was equipped with a bronze sword and an ivory pommel. The graves vary in depth. gold head ornaments and a face mask of electrum (gold and silver alloy). the the earlier occupant was shifted to one side to make room for the newcomer. No coffins were used. who were not thought worthy of The simple people of Mycenae whom Pausanias met in . there is still no clue to the identity of the people buried within these graves. two gold cups. In many of the graves fine cups and vases were found. but they are all of the shaft type. In the Iota Grave there were two male skeletons. clay. the murderers of Agamemnon. some of the clay jars would be moved from the shaft and placed on top of the ceiling. to make the grave waterfor the grave. on top of which the funerary stele Hvas set. a narrow ledge was left at a certain height from the bottom. as there was more earth than was needed to cover the grave. Then wooden beams were laid from ledge to ledge and thus formed a ceiling The method reputation. of burial was similar to that its Then the earth was turned back. We know now that they date from a* period several hundred years earlier than that in which Agamemnon is supposed to have lived. some of clay with painted decoration. Pausanias was told that burial within the Citadel. When it was desired to make another burial. under the mound. with their funerary gifts. and that only the graves of the contained gold and silver cups. very close tothe whole being covered with a thick layer of greenish gether. One. in fact. The bodies were laid on a floor of pebbles. used in Schliemann's shaft graves. contained bronze and silver vases. the bodies were those of Aegisthos and his companions.C. Homer's "Mycenae. body of Unfortunately. much older than the epoch of the Trojan War. the bodies of Mycenaean royalty who lived about 1650-1550 B. As the grave was dug. or sometimes with flagstones.
did they not carve on the gravestones the names of their royal dead? The Egyptians covered the walls of their tombs with written inscriptions. APPENDIX "A" when the famous city of Agamemnon lay in ruins." One fact has continued to puzzle me. and I offer it to the reader for his consideration. But not the Mycenaeans. Grave Circles Papadimitriou has reached the conclusion that the were not flat. Lecturer they in Classics at Cambridge. which they may eventually have overcome. "This custom. The later Greeks and Romans also set up inscribed gravestones. Frank Stubbings. their ancient history only Dr. Why? I asked this question of several archaeologist friends. but that a mound of earth was raised over each grave. "is referred to in Homer's Iliad. The ivory almost certainly came from Syria. and therefore had no sure conception of chronology such as we have today. as is proved by the quantities of animal bodies found in the earth covering each grave. wrote to me: has also dug at Mycenae with . at the funeral of Patroclus. Dr. None the less they remembered the names of their famous ancestors. the relatives and friends of the deceased held a funeral feast over the grave. and pigs. We now know that the Mycen- aeans could write. then.D. silver." Vases and jars were also found inscribed with this script. Also the Mycenaeans clearly had close cultural contacts with the island empire of Crete. inscribed with the form of writing known as "Linear B. where. Why." the archaeologist points out. the mighty warriors who made expeditions to the Orient and brought back gold. so that the blood sheep ran around the body. the Greeks assembled near the body at a funeral who killed animals. and admit that it is a puzzle. bulls. ivory and other precious objects.208 A. so did the Phoenicians. 127. who Wace. When the funeral ceremony was over and the grave filled in. since the Mycenaeans took the trouble to draw up inventories of their goods and label their oil jars.C. Wew by legend and the Homeric poems. since we know that elephants were hunted in the Orontes Valley in 1500 B. clay tablets have been found in private houses in Mycenae (admittedly some two or three centuries later than the period of the Grave Circles). banquet given by Achilles.
may I put forward two possible answers to this question? Neither has any firm historical or archaeological backing. in one case with painted pictures. The first was suggested The Egyptians had a system of writing before 3000 B. [Knossos. but is unknown on the mainland.e. a means of keeping accounts and records. and is offered to me by Ancient only as a theory.C. 4< . one would rather expect such inscriptions (if they ever existed) to be carved on the stone too. circa 1400. a means by which could communicate with others without having to meet with them.] Linear A 2 in Crete is found as early as the Shaft-Graves. APPENDIX "A" 207 a lively oral tradition of history took itself had started even in Mycenaean times? Chadwick has out how well the Greek of the tablets seems to fit the hexapointed meter metre. The stelae over the the place of carved or written monumental-inscriptions]. Were there painted tomb-inscriptions? None are known.. yet we do not find anything approaching a literature until a thousand years later. is the earliest. "Linear A. Egypt. a man and talk discovered that words have a magic of their own. and there then arose writers of stories and romances who used language 8 Evans discovered two forms of writing at Knossos. has it is to the burial and suppose. Such an oral tradition must be behind the Homeric epics. The Royal Tomb an inscription that may or may not refer in Linear A. and Homer preserves a number of words of this Mycenaean Greek otherwise lost by classical times. or even a stone) to mark the site of a tomb. I at Isopata near Knossos. Since the experts can give no definite answer. ShaftGraves say 1650-1550 (?). but I know none inscribed. like all civilized and articulate people. It is this form which has been partially deciphered by Ventris (see Appendix B"). short. which is still undeciphered. per- haps epic Shaft-Graves [both Schliemann's and Papadimitriou's] are earlier than any "Linear B" yet known. Later the Egyptians." a later form which also appears on the mainland. Later Mycenaean tombs sometimes had gravestones or markers. In Homer there is talk of raising barrows. Egyptian writing was invented for a purely utilitarian purpose. but apparently only as a landmark to be identified orally. It was a working tool.% wonder myself whether their place [i." the earliand "Linear B. est. and on such a monument as the "Treasury of Atreus" [see Plate 1] with its carved fagade [now in the British Museum].
as did the peoples of other ancient civilizations?" This brings me to my alternative theory. The same reluctance occurs in Ancient Egypt. liked to hear the deeds of their ancestors sung or recited in epic verse.208 for APPENDIX "A < . It is same probable that the Mycenaeans adopted writing for the practical purpose. the god entered his horizon. He was called or "the Ruler" or his identity was disguised under such as "the Bull" or "the "One" names Hawk. Thus the developed into an art. reli- Anthropologists tell us that among primitive tribes to this day taboos exist which forbid the mention of a chief's name. a useful tool for merchants. seems certain that the epic poems upon which Homer based his Iliad and Odyssey were originally recited Homer mentions bards. as we do. on the ninth day of the third dation. It appears to me more than It probable that the Mycenaean princes. because there was no need to do so. sitting in their halls of state after a banquet. but that no one would think of committing these poems to writing. as a means of keeping records and accounts a purely mechanical device in which the aristocracy would not be interested. But there remains the question: "Why did not the Mycen- aeans at least record the names and achievements of their kings in their tombs. on the poems of Homer for any impression of how the Mycenaeans Mycenaean period be found. but not writers. Writing was for the "rude mechanicals. that the anonymity of Mycenaean royalty may have been due to a gious taboo. but beneath the dignity of kings and princes. and thought and felt. 9 9 no other purpose than to give pleasure." If this theory is valid. clerks and suchlike." In The Story describes the death of Amenemhat of Sinuhe the writer as follows: In the year 30. The bards had prodigious memories. The Pharaoh was rarely referred to by his actual name. then it is unlikely that any written will ever literature of the that future generations will still have to rely. tradesmen. month of the Inun- .
he says. more than a thousand years after civilization to heaven. "King Amenemhat away in the Nile Valley. in the middle period of Egyptian history. are void If this prohibition of written texts. it would exthe names of their kings were never inscribed on their plain why tombs. On the whole. 209 flew and names his successor. but immediately afterwards he refers to the young Prince as "the Hawk" who "flew away with his henchmen/' However. The Story of Sinuhe is a sophisticated work dating from the Twelfth Dynasty. two hundred years ago. Sesostris. however. . applied to the Mycenaeans. Perhaps in much earlier times the of the king could not be spoken." admittedly. though adorned with frescoes depicting human beings. I think it is more likely that the absence of tomb inscriptions. This religious taboo may be due to the fact that names have a magical significance to primitive people. written histories and written poems was due to the fact that. and why the walls of Mycenaean and Minoan Palaces. rized their and that Mycenaean poems and transmitted them poet-historians orally memo- from generation to generation.APPENDIX "A" r. at the time of which we are speaking from about 1500 to 1100 B. and just as in Siam. writing was a purely utilitarian device.C. so no common man was permitted to speak the sacred name. just as members of primitive African tribes today are forbidden to mention the began name name of their chief. anyone touching the king's body was punished by death. The name was a part of the man.
"as it is . but although he and other scholars wrestled for more than thirty years with the decipherment of the mysterious writing. and now." came to Crete to find. horses. and it was in use at the time of the destruction of Knossos. more than fifty years after Evans discovered the "Linear B" tablets. men and the "pictographs" which appeared at the end of if it certain lines. In the first volume of his Scripta Minoa Evans showed that there were three stages of writing in Crete. book was being written.APPENDIX **B" THE "EVEREST" OF GREEK ARCHAEOLOGY IN Chapter Ten I described Sir Arthur Evans's discovery at Knossos of "whole deposits. which he called "Linear A. it seems fairly certain that the language in which they were written was an early form of Greek. Then came a more cursive form of writing." he wrote. First there were hieroglyphs. that there was a numerical system. the script or rather But while one form of it was at last yielding its secrets. and that some of the objects listed in the what I . a modified form of the "Linear A" which Evans called "Linear B. The same form of writing has been found at places on the mainof the language this 210 . Moreover. of clay tablets analogous to the Babylonian but with inscriptions in the prehistoric script of Crete. they were able only to establish that the tablets represented inventories. represented on the early engraved seal stones. . It was what he had come to find. All attempts to ascertain the grammatical basis had one failed." This was the commonest form. inventories women from could be identified as chariots. I must have about seven hundred pieces by now. It is extremely satisfactory. they can be partially read." Finally came a third script. entire or fragmentary.
Ventris was not an archaeologist. In vain archaeologists sought for a such as a bill of lading written in Minoan and billingual clue Greek. and (b) because elements of the ancient language still survived in the Coptic tongue. The symbols bore no relation to any known form of writing. And among the audience was a thirteen-year- London. Ventris old schoolboy studying classics at Stowe. on the Rosetta Stone. philologist. cipherment unreadable Each operation needs to be planned in three . then. then in his eighty-fourth year. when Grotefend first correctly read part of the Old Persian syllabary. even today. It is Mycenae and even a professional fiftieth was. an architect. in fact. As Ventris If no himself said: Since 1802. such as 211 this "Linear B"' script which has been partially deciphered. From that day on. Champollion and other philologists were able to decipher the writing of the Ancient Egyptians because (a) there existed. one can attempt to decipher an unknown language. and decided to make the subject his hobby. the basic techniques necessary to a successful dehave been tested and developed on many other initially scripts. which set Egyptologists on the road to understanding the hieroglyphs. the same inscription written in both Ancient Egyptian and Greek. How. of the script Minoan has the feat been accomplished? there are other ways in which bilingual clue exists. Ventris intrigued.APPENDIX "B" land. In 1935. No such help was provided for those who tried to wrest the secret from the baked-clay tablets found in the Palace of King Minos. was Why did the writing take so long to decipher? Largely because there was no bilingual clue such as that provided by the Rosetta Stone. he began to struggle with the problem. largely through the efforts of the late Michael Ventris. But no such aid has appeared. but it was to take him seventeen years to solve. The Behistun Rock supplied the same kind of bilingual clue for the cuneiform writing of Babylonia. nor Pylos. the British School at Athens was celebrating its He anniversary with an exhibition at Burlington House. The boy Michael heard Sir Arthur say that the tablets he had discovered thirty-five years before still challenged decipherment. Among the speakers was Sir Arthur Evans.
1 Antiquity.212 APPENDIX **B _. see if there was any possible link. seventy or eighty signs. he might . . skill and application._. but not all. the language would probably be syllabic. for example. . designed to extract every possible clue as to the spelling system. For instance. the signs G-R-OW which ended in different ways. XXVII. Then he might have a setback THROwmg on finding that whereas ROW and Rowing seemed to be governed by the same grammatical rules. e. to ensure that the apparent results are not due to fantasy. Looking further he might find another GROwing word containing some. as in Greek. each sign representing a consonant or a vowel (though some ancient languages. meaning and language structure. if he had enough material and sufficient patience. . 9 9 phases. without knowing the language or any related tongue. one can begin to sort out and classify the words and signs. words and contexts. preferably with the aid of virgin material. words and contexts in all the available inscriptions. .g. if there were. coincidence or circular reasoning. by comparing it with that of known languages. . 1 Let us consider the first phase of the operation: the "exhaustive analysis of the signs. if the reader was confronted with a book written in English. the third form of the word was not Rown but Rowed. such as Egyptian. Another would be to find out the total number of symbols used. In this way. If. THROW THROwn. e. ." If sufficient material exists. each symbol having the value of a consonant plus a notice that the words . . and then. and a decisive check. or not? This is only one example of the ways in which the script might be attacked. GROW GROwn. . of the same signs. December. to notice how many times the same group of signs occurs. . the language would probably be alphabetical. he might be able to hazard a guess at the grammar. 1953. the same group of signs has varying endings. and how often and in what way a word beginning with AND and THE occurred more often than any and that sometimes one found a word beginning with others. . say. On the other hand. . but which used the same endings as in the first group of words. Did the thing work. had no signs for vowel sounds).. an exhaustive analysis of the signs. Vol. an experimental substitution of phonetic values to give possible words and inflections in a known or postulated language. there were only twenty-four signs.g.
g. "only 142 out of the 2. Forces. He found a palatial Mycenaean building in which lay some six hundred tablets in the "Linear B" script. He examined the shapes of the signs in a more methodical way than Evans. the aged counsellor of the Greeks before Troy. which Evans had volume contained material. 213 A e. and. Emmett L. one sign for TA. the traditional home of Nestor. Sir John Myres. he submitted a thesis on the tablets.APPENDIX "B" vowel. so on. in 1939.S. Then. in the Western Peloponnese.846 tablets ( and fragments of tablets ) found by Evans had been published. Evans's lifelong friend. The Pylos tablets discovered by Blegen had been deposited in the Bank of Athens. apart from the "ideograms" the small pictorial signs which indicated such objects as chariots. e. horses. Working By 1940 it . published in 1951. This the "Linear B" tablets found at Knossos.. Hittite sixty number Cypriote. published Scripta Minoa. he told me. But eighty signs. who had access to more tablets than other people. and of syllabic writing systems. and that suggesting that the language might the Etruscans may have spoken an Aegean language. a third for TE. all unfinished at his death. of the University of Cincinnati. began to excavate at Pylos. in 1952.. after his return from cryptographer service in the U. Professor Blegen. another for TO. provided Ventris with valuable new was already generally recognized that the script contained some seventy common signs for sound values. In 1940 Ventris wrote an article in The American Journal of Archaeology be like Etruscan. In 1947. showed that though the script ceased in use at Knossos after the sack of 1400 B.. have managed to make do with between and and was handicapped by lack of material. it was still in use two hundred years later on the mainland. with the Pylos tablets." and the Hittite heiroglyphs.g. At the outset Ventris I started. men and women. swords. The like modern Japanese script was therefore clearly a "syllabary. Bennett Jr. studied the tablets and helped to prepare them for publication. These tablets. a Finnish scholar. but Blegen had had them photographed..C. left Volume Two. The most useful work on the material was by Sundwall." "When we made slow progress/' Then. and one of his students.
on this hypothesis, he tried to decipher the script, but his theory was based on too small a part of the material, and came to nothing. Meanwhile, between 1944 and 1950, the late Dr. Alice Kober of Brooklyn suggested that by looking at the Knossian tablets which had been published one could see that the script had a certain grammatical pattern. She suggested also that by studying the order of the words and how they changed, e.g., by noting inflections and word endings, one might get at the grammar even without knowing the pronunciation. Ventris, in the meantime, had joined the Royal Air Force and become a navigator in Bomber Command. It is typical of him that he chose to be a navigator rather than a pilot, because the mathematical problems involved in navigating an aircraft seemed to offer more interest than "being a driver." Then the war ended and he was able to take up his hobby again, devoting to it all the time he could spare from his profession of architect. Up to 1950, it was generally assumed that the "Linear B" script contained a non-Greek language, like "Linear A" (17001450 B.C.). Evans thought that "Linear B" had been developed from "Linear A" when the Knossos ruler centralized the government of the island in his Palace, and overhauled its administrative methods. It remained the same language, Evans believed, but better written. But the young American scholar, Emmett L. Bennett, thought differently. He made a close study of the two scripts and, in 1950, published an article pointing out certain vital differences. The signs looked the same, but the words were
imagine a Martian
this clearer, at the risk of oversimplification, studying two manuscripts, one in English,
the other in German, but both using the Latin alphabet. Not knowing the languages, and seeing that the same signs were used to write it, he might at first think that both manuscripts were
written in the
same language. Only after careful study would he discover that they were two different languages using the same
This vital discovery led to a new approach to the "Linear script. "Linear A," the earlier form, was used in Crete over many centuries. Then suddenly one finds an entirely
system, though using the same signs, and this is used not only in Crete at the end of the Late Minoan Period, but also
continues on the mainland for centuries afterwards.
other archaeologists believed that at this period mainland influence in Knossos was strong; that, in fact, the Mycenaeans,
Greek stock, may have conquered Knossos. Could the "Linear B" script have been an archaic form of Greek, using the Minoan syllabary? This possibility had already occurred to Ventris, and he corresponded with Bennett in order to test his theory. He was on the brink of an important discovery. Blegen's six hundred Pylos tablets, which had been published in 1951, furnished him with new material, and there was also Myres's Scripta Minoa, Volume Two, which came out later. The latter volume, based on Evans's fifty-year-old material, might possibly contain errors, so Emmett L. Bennett went out to Herakleion in Crete to check up on the originals in the Museum. The two young scholars kept in touch, and between the spring of 1951 and 1952 Ventris worked away at the script, testing and discarding theories, and every month taking a particular line of inquiry. At regular intervals he would send out copies of his investigations and conclusions, so that other scholars could study and comment on them. In May, 1952, Professor Blegen was back at Pylos, excavating the Palace of Nestor. He explored the other end of the Archive Room in which he had found the six hundred tablets in 1939. To his delight another four hundred came to light, including the missing halves of some already dug up in 1939. They were entrusted to Bennett to be prepared for publication, and the contents of a few of them were made known to Ventris and
other scholars in early 1954.
scope of this book, and readers who wish to study the subject in greater detail should read the presentation of his theory
complete explanation of Ventris's methods
Mycenaean Greek which he and John Chadwick, a Cambridge philologist, published in 1957. But, which showed, for example, briefly, he built up a huge dossier
times a certain sign occurred, how many times it occurred at the end of a word, how many times in the middle, how many times at the beginning, etc. Then he and other scholars
began a long process
of analysis and gradually began to recognize the apparent grammatical structure of the ancient language, and
_ APPENDIX "B
the relative frequence and interrelationships of the phonetic signs with which it was written. Ventris wrote:
Once the values
of a syllabary are
conveniently set out in the form of a chequerboard "grid" on which the vertical columns each contain a single vowel, and the horizontal
phonetic values were tried out; this was made possible by clear evidence that certain groups of signs shared the same vowel, (e.g. no ro
to), others the
a single consonant. A vital part of the analysis consisted in arranging the signs as far as possible in their correct pattern before any
wa we wi
There were also several pairs of
in such a
spellings which alternated as to suggest masculine and feminine forms of way word, and Dr. Kober had detected the presence of
inflectional endings. During the fifteen
months following Bennett's publication
of the Pylos tablets, Ventris was able to form some idea of the grammatical structure of the "Linear B" language, and to fix the
of many of the signs on his "grid" (see on page 217). "There now seemed to be," he wrote in his cautious
way, "sufficient material for a reasonably controlled experiment in allotting phonetic values." Thus, after years of preliminary research, classification and analysis, he had reached the second phase of the operation: "an experimental substitution of phonetic values to give possible words and inflections in a known or postulated language." "Previous attempts at decipherment," wrote Ventris, "had all relied, for fixing of key phonetic values, on supposed resemblances between 'Linear B' signs and those of the classical Cypriote Syllabary, whose values are known." What was this "Cypriote Syllabary"? Mr. R. D. Barnett, Keeper of Western Asiatic Antiquities of the British Museum,
It has been thought for some time that the actual language of Homeric times was probably nearest to the archaic dialects which still survived in Classical times, isolated by later Dorian and Ionic invasions and restricted to Cyprus and, on the mainland, to the mountain
district of Arcadia.
likely to receive
at the be-
the Dorian and Ionian invasions
ginning of the Iron Age, the Mycenaean civilization collapsed and with it all recollection of the arts of writing, except for the memory of
the tablet inscribed with "baleful signs" which Proitus gave to Bellerophon to carry to the King of Lycia, which was really a request to have
might be related Cypriote Syllabary, though attractive, cannot yet be proved. The syllabary shows few superficial resemblances to
that the "Linear
or "B," except in the shapes of some of the differences," wrote Ventris, "might be elementary signs. to a reduction in size and a more 'cuneiform' writing due
technique, but they
Cypriote Syllabary almost impossible to trace. It is clear that the values of the 'Linear B* signs must be fixed on
and to satisfy the 'grid' and inflexions already found, without taking into account any other doubtfully related
the war, and who had recognized certain inflections. Among the words which she had studied, there was a consistent series
writing systems [my italics]/' Ventris decided to "go it alone" and turned to the work of Alice Kober, who had worked on the "Linear B" script during
which recurred in different contexts, in three different forms. Dr. Kober called these words "paradigms" and Ventris, "triplets." These, Ventris thought, were possibly the names of the chief
together with their corresponding adjectives.
Now it is
bically written, that the signs for the plain vowels
most languages [he wrote], when syllaA-E-I-O-U are ex-
an initial position; and the first sign of the the value A to Kober and Ktistopoulos. The suggested decisive step was to identify the first words with Amnissos, and to substitute values which would turn the others into Knossos, Tylissos,
Phaestos, and Lyktos:
" When Ventris began to apply the experimental phonetic values to the pattern of declensions which he had already analyzed. . But they did not become a "dislocated jumble. he began to realize that the language could be read as an archaic form of Greek. in Greek: Hicreia echei-que. ktoinoochons-de ktionaon kekeimenaon onata echeen. 4' Tf TV. Af f T. he found known Greek system lects/' to his surprise that "these fell into line. If these names were an then the resulting system of values must inevitably be a completely dislocated jumble. like Evans and other scholars. experimentally. Greek values to the signs. (Tossonde spermo. 1953." At first. here is one tablet from Pylos. not merely with the of declensions.) f WHEAT 3-9-3. For example. to ensure that the apparent results are not due to fantasy. preferably with the aid of virgin material. But now. by attributing. with which no further sense could be extracted from the texts by any sort of jugglery." Ventris: "Greek Records in the Minoan December. ^ XY ' . 2 illusion. 1 1 1 ." Antiquity. coincidence or circular reasoning. and the similarities occurred too often to be mere coincidences. he had assumed that the unknown language was Minoan. but specifically with its most archaic forms as deduced from Homeric and other dia- Ventris was now at the third stage of the operation. by a kind of chain reaction. Script. . XXVII. a "decisive check. and that it had no connection with Greek or any other known language. euchetoi-que etonion echeen theon.APPENDIX "B" 219 Since about 50 signs had already been assigned to their places on the "grid" the substitutions in these five words automatically fixed most of them as well. Vol. If one attributes to the signs the values given them by Ventris this could read.
does it make sense? appears to. which is good Greek and makes sense. araruia haniaphi. Pan. another British scholar who worked with Ventris. the rail(?) of wild-fig-wood is missing. Hera. could read: Hiquia.." But in 1952 this was forthcoming. Zeus. 9 9 which in English would read: This the priestess holds. ou-que "pte-no"." The thing appears to work. 1 CHARIOT. painted red. read with the values Ventris ascribes to it. In decipherment the real test is simple. A tablet was found at Pylos in that year which has almost the . supplied with with jointing of horn. The classical Greek equivalent for this would be kakia "bound with bronze" or "brazen. and "The Lady. carry the names of Greek gods: "Lady Athena. . phoinikia harrarmostemena. (So much seed) 3 5%o units. with reins. recognizable from a pictogram which clearly illustrates this It weapon." They did not fall into that category of "virgin material" previously unknown. Another tablet. (so It 'There tossa phasgana. The accompanying description." However. two tablets from Knossos and one from Pylos. but the plot-holders the enjoyment. and the pie-no Horse-vehicle. . . and solemnly declares that the god has the true ownership." John Chadwick. from the armory of Knossos. which in English would read: bodywork fitted. all the above examples were taken from the earlier Evans and Blegen "digs. CHARIOT 1. describes the wheels as kakodeta or many is ends with a number and the "total" to-sa pa-ka-na swords).220 APPENDIX "B < . For instance there is an inventory of swords. Poseidon." Enyalios (an old name for Ares). which Ventris needed for his "decisive check. wirinios "o-po-qo" keraiaphi opii(staP) iaphi. of the plots in which it is laid out. points out that "it is certainly surprising to find names which can be read as Hector and Achilles (but not Nestor or Minos). deciphered by the Ventris system. Most remarkable of all. another tablet with a pictogram representing chariot wheels.
At the end of his article in Antiquity he wrote cautiously: There large is some doubt whether the present "Linear B" material for the decisive proof of a solution. gave them the values ti-ri-po-de unmistakably the Greek word for tripods. porary civilizations. stories. searching for the clue unknown English language. their language is probably in the existing circumstances unknowable. Their contemporaries. But the important right in his fact conclusions) is that (assuming that Ventris was scholars now have the key to the is Minoan-Mycenaean tions turn up. should any more interesting inscripamazing that a brillant and gifted people. Ventris himself was very modest about his achievement. as Evans and others suspected. But they have left us no written record of their history save what poems and letters. the disappointing fact is that now. had found somebody's laundry poet to the a great bill. writing about Ventris's achievement. achievements are immortalized in the epic poems of Homer which may indeed be based on oral poetry. they can hardly be explained otherwise than we have proposed. and having heard of named Shakespeare. the mysterious script seems to have been deciphered. but because of this unfair advantage. handed down from that remote age have left no written documents apart from these inventories. if the tablets are written in Greek. And the rest of the tablet is in the same strain. proving the decipherment to be on the right lines. So have the people of the Euphrates Valley. the Egyptians. It is as if some future excavator. The Mycenaeans must have been in touch with these contem- . On it are drawings of tripods and vases. historical annals. Barnett. but if they are not. have left us tomb inscriptions. reading the signs which accompany the picture.APPENDIX "B" 221 effect of a bilingual. is enough is but a substantial check promised by the still unpublished Pylos tablets found by 1952 and 1953. Keeper of Western Asiatic Antiquities at the British the happy it when truly is. mere inventories. At all events. hit on phrase "The Everest of Greek Archaeology". for such To the layman. all that is revealed are. Ventris. objects found in their cities prove that. It whose writing. Blegen in R. I do not anticipate serious competition from any rival decipherment not out of conceit. Museum. D. Other tablets yielded similarly interesting results.
he says. even when the King sets an ambush for him. writing only once. He is descended. am Glaucus. discursive orations with which the Homeric heroes address each other before proceeding to battle.. .. and begged him to of sound satisfy her passion in secret. the wife of Proetus." him a long piece of family history. "I But if you to fight against the gods of Heaven. son of Glaucus and grandson of Sisyphus "as cunning a rogue as ever there was. a far more powerful nobleman than himself. so he sent him to Lycia. bush.222 survives in the APPENDIX "B" poems of writing many centuries after the last Homer. In one of those long. But Bellerophon was a man principles. he packed him off to Lycia with sinister credentials from and thus ensure his own death. to reassure him. Proetus dared not put Bellerophon to death. which were first set down in Achaean King ruled from is Mycenae. like Potiphar's wife. and refused/* will are one and you is a man or a god in disguise. of us mortals who plough the earth for food. or be killed himself. . the Lycian King. since. from the redoubtable Bellerophon. and it is here that Homer mentions writing for the first and only time: number himself. . he says. and told him to hand them to his traced a father-in-law. gives Whereupon. . Diomedes asks if Glaucus not a man meet your doom the sooner. fell in love with the handsome youth "who was endowed with every manly grace. There a passage in the Book VI. come on. The incomparable Bellerophon In the end the King realized that he was a true son of men the Gods." Bellerophon was subject to King Proetus. gives Bellerophon a number of arduous and dangerous tasks. in which Glaucus. He gave him a folded tablet on which he had of devices with a deadly meaning. The Lycian King He killed picked the best all. Homer mentions Iliad. but each time the young man triumphs. . chal- single combat. the Queen told her husband that Bellerophon had tried to ravish her. and urged Proetus to kill him. Not one of them them in all Lycia and stationed them in amcame home. the son lenges Diomedes "of the loud war-cry" to of Hippolochus. hoping he will be killed. Queen Anteia.
" So the torch is handed on. To conclude. though a corner has been turned and fresh vistas spring to view. It is interesting to note. And there still remains the "Linear A" which may be truly let Minoan and may script. Tiryns and Eleusis. The writing materials are not identifiable from what little is said. "Linear B" is Greek. In a letter to Antiquittj published in March of this year he wrote: Wace For some time past several of us have been pointing out that in L. even though we can hardly expect to find the actual death-warrant for Bellerophon which Homer alludes to. and it is known on tablets at Pylos and Mycenae and on pots from Thebes. and so on. throne-rooms. baffle all attempts at de- cipherment for years to come.C. as Luisa Banti points out.M. from Schliemann to Evans.) Knossos was under mainland influence. and I think myself that it does. It now appears very possible that people of Greek stock were dominant at Knossos at the close of the Late Minoan Period. the end is far from being in sight.APPENDIX "B" Now until recently this passage in the Iliad 223 was regarded as a later interpolation. Little is yet known of Mycenaean contacts with Lycia in Asia Minor. Professor has long believed that in Late Minoan II (1500-1400 B. that Bellerophon belongs to an earlier generation of heroes. . Orchomenos. though I hope one day [there] will be. Much more work on the tablets will be needed. beehive tombs. moreover. Mycenae. the Palace Style. us take a forward look and consider the problems and possibilities arising from these new discoveries. from Ventris and Papadimitriou to whom? For. II there were Greeks. to be dated definitely earlier than the known examples of "Linear B. says Stubbings: There is no reason why it should not refer to Minoan or Mycenaean script. but. "Linear B" The Mycenaeans were So at Knossos in L.M. alabastra. imitations of Ephyraean pots. Now Knossos alone in Crete has the "Linear B" script. II at Knossos (but not in the rest of Crete) there are features which are maintained. is more spread on the mainland than in Crete. from Evans to Ventris and Papadimitriou. Also the Knossian frescoes. His case grows stronger with the evidence that Greek was written there at that time. agree with the mainland more than with the rest of Crete. in fact the work has only begun.
"Is and wide-awake peoit likely that such an inventive. . All our knowledge at this period is from tombs. is dark only to are on the eve of great developments. can no longer speak of pre-Hellenic Greece.224 tact with the I. and Mycenaean art is the first great manifestation of We We Greek art. APPENDIX "B" Greeks. The crying need now is for more documents from Pylos. . towards the end of the Bronze Age. Thus the decipherment of the tablets confirms the result already arrived at archaeologically. and an Early Iron Age inhabited site. what the script and language situation was at The so-called Dark Age. . He was only [writes Wace] we could find an inhabited site of the Late A only thirty -four when he died. vasion there was a Dark illiterate. tragic shadow has been thrown over these researches by the death of Vcntris in an automobile accident in 1956. But other hands have taken up the torch. The earliest known date for the Phoenician alphabet as century B. There is another aspect. they were the Middle Helladic people developed after conMinoan civilization and the Near East in Late Helladic or rather from just before the end of Middle Helladic through Late Helladic I. . Mycenae and other in order to find out that time. common. onwards the Greeks were in Greece. thought Wace. . intelligent the Greeks were B" Mycenaean script which presumably came ple as the Greeks would ever have stopped reading and writing once they had learned to do so?" the end of the "Linear B" script and the beginning of the Phoenician Alphabet may have overlapped? Perhaps who knows If Bronze to Early Bronze Age to Early Iron Age period we might find tablets in it.C. One would like to see applied to the Dorian invasion the same methods of study and the same archaeological technique as have thrown so much light upon the arrival in Britain of the AngloSaxons and upon our own origins: the two problems have much in . us. sites.C. adapted by the Greeks is the eighth Historians used to believe that after the Dorian in- Now we know down Age during which that the "Linear was in use to the fall of Pylos. because from 2. .000 B. Wace poses the question.
). Agamemnon. Vol. Vol. Archaeological Institute of America). Jflan. W. V. Glotz. Translated by Prof. Vol. The Iliad (Translated by E. . XV (Humphrey J. The Aegean ner). Milford). British School at Athens No. W. Breasted. Sir Arthur. 1910 (Longmans. Green). Forsdyke.. Homer. (Smith. parts 1 & 2 (Published for the University of Cincinnati by Princeton University Press. Vol. Lang. 1912 (Macmillan). Journal of Hellenic Studies. J. The Rhind Homer. 1908 (Chapman & Hall).C. Vol.BIBLIOGRAPHY Academy 49. 1912. 1903 Co. I (J. 1913 (Macmillan). 1943 (Longmans. Vol. Lectures. JEvans. 1950 (Published by Blackie (Dent). Session. R. Leaf. G. 2. H. The. 1929 (Macmillan). Cornhill Magazine. 1923 (Methuen). Dent). W. The World of Homer. Hawes. G. E. A. Frazer. Hall. History of Greece. 1951 (Macmillan). the Forerunner of Greece. 1925 (Kegan Paul. A Study in Homeric Geography. July-December. & H. 1. Rieu. 1946 (Heinemann). Carl W. Troy. Trench. . W. Elder Bury.). Karo. 1896 (Publishing Office: 27 Chancery Lane. Crete. History of Greece. M. Aeschylus. G. 49. W. Vol. LXXXIV. Triib- Grote. 225 . Green) Minoan Art. Apollodorus The Loeb Classical Library II. 33. Journal of Hellenic Studies. & Courtney. V. XIV January-June. July. Penguin). Leaf. The Shaft Graves. Fortnightly Review. The Civilization of Greece in the Bronze Age. J. Leaf. Journal of Hellenic Studies. B. Ancient Records of Egypt. The Odyssey (Translated by E. January to June. Sir J. Penguin). Civilization. Vol. S. Blegen. The Palace of Minos ( MacmillanJ Time and Chance. 1895-96 (Macmillan). American Journal of Archaeology. B. W. etc. 1915 (Macmillan). 32. M. Homer and History. L. 54/3. Rieu. 1912 (Macmillan). Bible. British Academy Vol. 1950).: Troy. Evans.
Homer and Mycenae. The Composition endon Press). edited by W. H. 2 January-March. D. J. J. L. etc. translated by Henry Y. Carpenter. E. Sir John Linton. of Greek Literature (Methuen). Mycenae and Tiryns (John Murray). 1946 (University of California Press. 1931 (Putnam). C. Bohn). The Metamorphoses. Nilsson. P. 1934. Schliemann. 20. M. The Mycenean Age. Homer's Odyssey. H. Ovid. H. Thucydides. 1852 (H. Sather Classical Lectures. History. Tsountas and Manatt. Alan. California). of and Los Angeles).226 BIBLIOGRAPHY Lorimer. City and County of the Trojans. G. Berkeley. The Rise of the Greek Epic. Fiction and Songs in the Homeric Epics. Ovid. 1901 (John Murray). see above). W. (Whittaker). Newbolt. Ovid. Folk Tale. Schliemann. P. Wace. Symposium of the Homeric Problem (in American Journal of Archaeology. H. G. G. Mycenae (Oxford University Press). Woodhouse. Nilscon. Trojan Antiquities. Homer and the Monuments. 1891 (Macmillan). Murray. H. Vol. 1930 (Clar- . ed. The Heroides. A Handbook Schliemann. Schliemann of Troy. Monthly Review. Schuchhardt. translated by John Benson Rose. The Minoan and Mycenaean Religion. Riley. 1904 (De La More Press). Who Were the Greeks? 1930 (University of California Press. J Rhys. translated by Arthur Golding. Ludwig. Rouse. M. 1878. H. translated by Crawley (Dent). Ilios Schliemann. The Metamorphoses. 1950 (Macmillan). Schliemann s Excavations. H. Berkeley Rose. Murray.. 1924 (Clarendon Press). Agamemnon (George Allen & Unwin). Tiryns. Henry. 1933 (Methuen). Myres.
196 of Greece. 42. 18. 29. 135 Ashmole. 207 Atridae (sons of Atreus). 89. 4 Athene. 23. 73. 220 16. 23. 46. 58. Director of. 145. 4. 8. 73. 44. 18. Vale of. 46. 169. 55. 192 Alcippe. 12. 45. 107. 12 Aegisthos. 186. 105. 17 Antiquarians. 82. 72. 73 Archaeology of Crete. 104 Apollodonis. 205 Aegeum. 14. 14 Apollo. 102 172. 17 Alcinous. 12 Athena. 43. 188 Aegeus. 82 River of. 90. 67. Amenemhat. 202. 54. 190 Akhnaten. 162 American Journal of Archaeology. 72 Archaeological Service. 113. 167. Oxford. 50. 220 Temple of. Amphidamas. 10. 128. 78. 31. 98. Society of. 206 202 Agamemnon. 44. 55 Ariadne. 6. 44. 176 Acropolis. 61. 17. 11. 94. 89. 213 Amnissus. 53. 14. Aeneas. 17 Akhiyava. Pharoah. 4. 105. 13. 17. 20 Aeschylus. 221. Argos. 44. 63. 100. 65. 106. 16. 12. 98. 42. 72 Ankershagen. 146. 19. 6. Agamemnon. 39 Archaeological Society 40. 171 Antiquity. 78. 43. 7. 69 Tomb of. 169-170 193. 42 Air Board. Argolis. 87 Amasis. 18. 165. 206. 10. 71 Bay of. 183. 107 Archaeological Institute. Aphrodite. 69 Plain of. 97 Archibishop of. 68 Amyntor. Gregorios. 61. 51. Museum at. 64. 209 Amenophis III.INDEX Achilles. 43. 3. 4 Adreste. Mount. Amyclae. 160 Aegean Sea. 64. 34 All Souls. 136 Alcandre. 190 83. 5. Islands of. 66 Amelineau. 137 202. 185 Ares. 94r-90. 17 Alexander the Great. 14 Athens. 17. 62. 54. 80. 29. 81 Anteia. 46. 60 Aetos. 71. 42. 62. 59. 31. 102. 55 46. 97 University Street. 105. 205. 28. 72. 13. 8. King of the Myrmidons. 45. 13. 43. 77. 138. 10. 55. 127. 61. 20 72 Autolycus. 106. 140. 52 Amsterdam. 12. 136. 52 Aylesford. 24 Annin. Elias. 39. 223 Antoriiou. 42. 66. 106 Aegina. 19. Mount. 13. 133. 83 Atreus. 60. 52 Anchises. 14. 212. 183 Artemis. 18. 95 227 . 61. 28 64 Shoe Lane. 38. King of. 105. 98 Ashmolean Museum. 178 Asine. 220 Acrocorinthus. 118. 219. Andromache. 77. 38 18. 4. 40. 22. Argolid. 222 11-12.
76. 93 Banti. 44. 202 Carter. 133. Athens. 126. 95 Crivoscia. 215. 207. 27 California. 181 Curzon. 160 British Museum. 52 Cotswold Hills. 176 Cassandra. 87 Brown. 85. 213. 13. 46. 181 Cos. 133. 104. 45. 178 British School of Archaeology. 134 Crimea. 82-83. 85 122 Breasted. 159. 43. in Mycenaean Greek. 109. 11 170. 95 Behistun Rock. 216. 92. 40. 102. 108. 143 Cretan Archaeological Society. the Forerunner of Greece. Daedalus the Smith. King. . 107 Candia.228 Balfour. 108 Constantinople. 144 Dictean Cave (birthplace of Zeus). 40. 11. 222 Dionysus. 130.. 223 Bennett. Emile. 89. 148 Burnouf. Jr. 27. 89-90.. 108. 45. 112. 105. 120. 54 Chadwick. 220 Champollion. 112. 31 Balliol. 134 Brasenose. 122. Worcestershire. 190 Cythera. 103. 50.. 213. 188 Cyclopes. 155 ff. 40 Ministry at. 84 Dickinson. 143 Documents 215 161 118 Dactyls. Lord. 106 134 Dawkins. 121 Cretan Exploration Fund. 176 Demeter. 58 Cyllene. 98. 92. 103. 112. 137. 199. 109 de Jong. 91. 179 Dardanelles. 60. 211 Corybantes. 11. 172. 14. Emmett L. 102. 134 Bounarbashi. 47 Coptic tongue. 43. 131. 223 Barnett. 103 Dickinson. 75 Boyd. . 86 Brood. 52. 104. 109. D. 66. 220. 79. 137. 82. 190 Bosanquet. Professor Baldwin. Miss. Chaucer. 108. John. 191 Blegen. 85. 90. 144. 221 Cleonae. 222. 138. 30. Harriet Ann. Chryseis. 75 Cairo. R. 169- Cypriote Syllabary. Briseis. 214. 142. 84 Camicus. 184 British Council. 25. 161. 30. Oxford. 143. 59 215 Berkshire. Leonardo. Frank. Cocalus. 13 Doll. 211 Charvati. 12. 107. 173. 41. 175 Broadway Tower. INDEX Circe. 197. John. 106. 18. British Association. Professor. de Jong. 218 Cyprus. Piet. 4. 216. 85 Bali Dagh. 16 . Carr. 43. 120 87 Desptovitch. 131 Crete. 26. 31. 190 Corinth. 74 da Vinci. 36. 91 Cronos. Dia. 215. 12. 65 Casa San Lazzaro (Arthur Evans's house in Ragusa).. 12 Clytemnestra. 221 Bodleian. 25 Bismarck. 173 Berlin. 99. 9. 56. 202 Batum. 82. 120. Christian. 211 Bellerophon. 167. 17. 9 Oxford. 169 Cyclades. See Herakleion Howard. 107. 99. Mount. Luisa. 8 Chiltern hills. 106 . 120-124 Diomedes. 84. Effie. 119. 13 Chryses. 94 Boghaz Keui. 77 Black Sea. 49. 143.
45 Eleusis. 75. 11. 199. 71. 94 Galton. 120. 121. 60.. 70. 67 211 Grotefend. . Mount. . 122. 56. 185. 161 229 Evans. 12 Electra. 138. 184. Dr. Frederico. 174 ff. 198. 171 Helen of Troy. 155. 131 ff. 177. 54 Evans. 102. 13 ff. 52 Elgin. fountain of. Lancelot. 93 Freeman. 61 Halbherr. 88. 136. Evans. 139 Egyptian tombs.. Lewis (brother of Arthur). 125. 189. 43 Epidaurus. 125 133 173 Evans. 143 Gabor. 222 Goebbels [Joseph]. 163. 99 Gillieron. 87. 221. 23 Harrow. Margaret Eighteenth-Twentieth 136 Dynasty. 176. 219. 93. 89. 104. 125 Gottingen. Bethlen. See also Freeman Evans. 84. Emperor. Athens. 29. 6 Gortyn. 87 Egyptian Kingdoms. 98. 184 First Dynasty. 65. M. 120 Hadrian. Joseph.. 197. 129. Hermann. 84 Helbig. 134 Hazzidakis. 118. 133 B. 192. 89. 136. 182 Hall. 85 "Harvester" vase... 139. 126. 62. George. 102. 37. 153 Gardner. 78 8. Theodore. 43. Sir Arthur. 91. 197 Dorpfeld. Lord. 116. 214. 82. 17. 220. 86 Gournia. 83 ff. Gladstone. 161 Eighteenth Dynasty. 76. 98 Furstenburg. 127. 125. 84 Earth. Margaret (Mrs. 64. 126. French School. Francis. 86. 135. John. Drury. 94. Edinburgh. 81. 57. 9. 194. 103. 95. 72. 213. 120. 85. Enneakrounos. Arthur). 97 Epic Cycle. 134. H. 135. 78. Dr. 143 Freeman. 193. 139 165 114. 91 ff. HOff. 97. Prince. 38. 133. 141-142.. 144. 143. 133. 187 Grote. 134. 133. 86 Fortnum. 121. 119. 112. 84. Dr. 121 Eurymedon. 135 pre-Dynastic Period. 84. 169 ff. 136 Eleventh-Thirteenth Dynasty. R. 130. 134 Hector. W. 79. 116. 192 Dublin. 196. 80 223 Evans. 130 \ Dynasties general explanation. 115 Eileithyia. 93 George. 10. 21 Fyfe. 9. 8. 146. 185. 109. 108. 141 ff. 153 Earth Mother.. 70. 130 Egyptian Empires. of Greece. 12 Erechtheum. 135 Third-Tenth Dynasty. 135 Second Dynasty. 92. 84. 137. 103 Eionae.. 19. and H. 130 Glaucus. 79 Gortyna. 223 Goering. 215.. 147. 32. 177 Halle. 133. See Evans. 6 43 Eicon. 13. 53.. 31. 121. Margaret. 72. 63. 125 ff. 210. 155 Hagia Triadha. M. 211. 5 Europa. 97.. Glasgow. Joan. 12.. 66. 126. 77. Professor. 71. 67. Norman. 135. Lewis (great grandfather of Arthur). Percy. 136 Seventeenth Dynasty. 87 Evans. 144 Hamburg. 95 Freeman [Edward Agustus]. 82. 86.INDEX Dorian Invasion.. 220 Hawes. Professor 125. Hades. 114. 121. 187 Hagios Elias. 175 Earth-Shaker. 5.
216. 171. 8ff. 205. 222 Hissarlik. 30. 213. 104. 60. 32.20 . 84 Jowett Jukta.. 200. 88 7. 72 Cave of. 26.93. 16. 80. 153. See Hera. Hellenic Society. 223 "Linear B" script. 15 Kober. 9. 27 Keftiu. Kcramopoullos. 104. Kenilworth. 10 Hertfordshire. 61. 222. Heinrirh. 195. 218 Komo. 72 120. 98. 104.. Hogarth. 162. 145 Ktistopoulos. 102. 79. 195 London Photographic Society. 75. ff. 135. 72. 179 INDEX 20. 120. 89. 52. 178. 188.. 99 ff. ff. 223 . 73. 207. 210. 95 Khios. 180 Jerrer. 21 Hermes. 155. 108. 23. 187. 199. 197. 31. 143. 80. 210. 77. 126 Kalokairinos. 173. 189. 67. 79 Iliad. 53. 214. 189. 187 6 Hippolochus. 138. 56 Kephala. 122. 30.. 51. 215. 208. 77 Ithaca. 198. 44. 125 ff. 177. 169. 141 ff. 118 Ida. 21. 75. 218 Hyskos. Alice. 42 98 Herculaneum. 69. 73 125. Jove. 110. 208... 191. 120 Hestia. 102. 76. Kairatos (river). 111.230 Hellas. 98. 206. 198. 40. 180.. 40. 52. 79. 89. 144 Holmes (British Consul at Sarajevo). 194 19. 92. 79 187 History of Greece (Bury). 104. Kertch. 104. 68. 90. 102 Hermione.. 73. H. London.. 197. 38. 182. 76 lliou Melathron. Herakleion 112. 19 History of Greece (Grote). D. 181.. 31. 186. 26. . 51. 71. 8 Knossos. 183. Museum. 191. 54. 220. 193. 223 Huxley. 29. 25. 207. 115. 68. 117. 43 Isopata. 106 Lestrygonians. Troy Indianapolis. llios. 27. 190. 120 Himmler. 120. 199. 127. 201. 193. 82. 220 (formerly Candia). 176. 206. 177. 197. 65 Homer. 99. 78. 102. 179 - Cathedral. 30. 191. 207 Istanbul. 192. 41. 215 Jerusalem. 122. 166. 178 Hellespont. 4. 94. 221. 95 Mount. 114. 108. 16 Heracles. 40. Idomeneus. 27 Joubin. 163. 222. 100. mound 101. 31 Hephaestus. 25. 32. 99 Mountain (Dicte). 110 155 ff. T. 12 Herodotus. 106. 192. Dr. 223 200. 9 Libyan Sea. -. 210 ff. 214. of (at 110. 68 Lasithi. 80. 82. (Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University). 199. 153. Mount (Crete). 125 ff. 77. 103. 214. Minos. 80. 183. 38. 207. 193. 185. 207.. 184. Knossos). 41 Icarus. 10 . 123 highlands of. 124 Ida. 172. 110. 198. 99. 104. 120 Lemnos. 34. 28 Iphigeneia. . 184 "Linear A" script. G. 70 See Palace of Ih'os Ilium. 99 Hesiod. Lacedaemon. 67. Mount (Greece). 85 Hyle. 103. 136 Ibrahim Pasha. 115. 131 ff. 175 Cathedral Square.. 152 120 ff. 172. Hodge. 112. 75 31. 111 Katherina.
173. 7. 40. 66 Rooms of Palace. 44. 126. 179. 159. 115. 87.INDEX Lubbock. battle of. 155. 187 Palace at. 135. 194. 162 Hall of the Colonnades. 157 Theatral Area. 189. 53. 87 Mallia. 82. 147. 163 Hall of the Double Axes. 164 North Portico. 150. 45. George. 106. 65. 188. Louis. Minna. 118. 59 Walls ("Cyclopean"). 193 6. 162. 163 Northeast Bastion. 79. 130. Menes. 82. 114. 47. 153 Late. 60-61 113. 76 Domestic quarters. 160. 163 Megaron. 162 Mediterranean Sea. 17. 41. 196. 183 223 224 Acropolis. 104 Lysimachus. 187 Molus. 112. 162. 74.. 172. 158. 113. 126 Manchester Guardian. 39. 88. 45. 168. 194 Lucian. 70. 58. 118. 66 Mycenae. 197. 152. 136. 125. 116. 79 73. 177 Macmillan. 8. 67. 193 cistern. 147... 167 Throne Room. 14 133 aril i at os. 48. 118. 46. 49. Duncan. 96 Mecklenburg. 120. 108. 211. 43. 133. 174. 173. 185. Emil. 122. 91 Manoli. 99. 60. Le. 181. 13. 116. 56. 24. 151. 195 Miletus. 98. 93. 132. 29. 4 ff. 105 Postern Gate. 192 Minos. 139. the. 49. 142. 120. 190. 76. 13. 137. 186 Third Middle. 147. 179. 190. 185 Minos. 211 Central Court. 173 Machaon. 148. 79. 192 Mirage Oriental. 13. 137. 119 MacNeice. 196 ff. 193. Propylaeum Hall. 223 Minoan Priest King. See under individual names 14.. 100. 71. 74 Luxor. 105. 139. 58. 55 Mokhlos. 121 Moscow. 128. 146. 121. 57. 71 Mycenae. 118. 83. 135. 22 Mcincke. 148. 105. . 121 Ludwig. 52 Messara. 8. 200 Murray [Professor Gilbert]. 17. 59.. 198 Early. 184 Meriones. 182. 113. 79 Lyctus. 159. 185. 3 Meincke. 18. 167 128. 110. The. 132. 156 Lycastus. 124. 85. 106. 64. King of Sparta. 20. 190. 187. 136 Menelaus. 185 Middle. Louise. 12. 139. 158. 148. 168. 142. 112. 186. 44. tombs of. 138. 121 Mountains. 164. 119. 27. 138. 14 Murray [publisher]. 79. 8 Magdalen. 34. 59. 50. 155 ff. 117. 71 Mycenae and Tiryns. 84 Minos. 78. 183. Lion Gate. Mases. 166. Palace of (Knossos). 172. 111. 130. King. 22. Oxford. 116. 175. 159. 69. Bull of. 12 Mecca. 27 . 167 M Minotaur. 231 105. 66. 77 Memphis. 18. 118. 47. 192. 197 Citadel (see Acropolis). 127. 174. 51 Mackenzie. 118. 130. 98. 185. 152. 156. 141. 42 ff. 129. 24. 93. 82. 158. 189 Megara. 52 Monthly Review. 151. 162 126-127. 139. Great Court. 126. 46. 159 Grand Staircase. 126. ff. 50 ff. 132. Minoan Periods 146. 144. Underground . 159. 161. 58. 174 46. 108. 147- 148. 24 Moses. 109. 154. 174. 167. 155 Marathon. 117. 156. 100. . 136. 42.. Mcdinet Habou. 156. Minoan Goddess. 112. 165.
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