05/09/2012

Concrete Technology

The raw material is always available in the form of oxides in nature. The range of percentages of various oxides which are used in cement is as given in Table-1.

Table-1 Oxide
Calcium Oxide (CaO)

Percent
59-64% 19-24% 3-6% 1-4% 0.5-4%

Download 4 Go BackComment Link Embed Zoom
17

Silica Oxide (SiO2) Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3) Ferric Oxide (Fe2O3) Magnesia (MgO)

of 118 Readcast
Tw eet
Share
0

When the raw material is heated in the kiln, the oxides get converted into silicates and aluminates in addition to some other compounds. The percentages of all important compounds are as given in Table-2.

8

Table-2
Compound
Tri-calcium Silicate Di-calcium Silicate Tri-calcium Aluminate Tetra-calcium Alumino Ferrite

Short form
C3S C2S C3A C4AF

Chemical Formula
3CaO.SiO2 2CaO.SiO2 3CaO.Al2O3 4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3

% age
39-50% 20-45% 8-12% 6-10%

Out of the above compounds, the strength of cement is contributed mainly by silicates. Silicates react with water Search This Document and produce a gel called Calcium Silicate Hydrate or C-S-H Search gel. This gel is initially weak and porous, but with the Search History: passage of time it becomes stronger and less porous. Since it is an exothermic reaction, a lot of heat is generated. The www.scribd.com/doc/18479451/Concrete-Technology

18/128

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful