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Introduction Purpose of O-D Study Definition of the Study Area Zoning Surveys


Origin - Destination Why Origin & Destination Study is required ? Study area and Zoning Data collection Representation of Data Desired line diagram OD Matrix

Purpose of O-D Study

Where they come from and where they go to? To develop models is transport planning process To assess the adequacy of the present highway system To assess the adequacy of parking facilities and to plan for future To determine the amount of by-passable traffic that enters a town

Defining the Study Area

The study area for which transportation facilities area being planned is first of all defined For planning at the urban level, the study area should embrace existing and potential built-up areas of the city The external cordon line should be continuous and uniform in its course and the line should intersect roads where it is safe and convenient to carry out traffic surveys The external cordon line should be compatible with previous studies


The purpose of such a sub-division is to facilitate the spatial quantification of land-use and economic factors which influence travel pattern Sub-division into zones further helps in geographically associating the origins and destinations of travel A convenient system of coding is adopted

Important points to be kept in view, while dividing the area into zones

- Land-use is the most important factor in establishing zones for accuracy. (residential, industrial, commercial, recreational, open space)
- The zones should have a homogeneous land-use so as to reflect accurately the associated trip-making behaviour - Anticipated changes in land-use should be considered when sub-dividing the study area into zones - It would be advantageous if the Sub division follows closely that adopted by other bodies for data collection, thus will facilitate correlation of data

Important points to be kept in view, while dividing the area into zones

- The zones should not be too large to cause considerable errors in data. At the same time, they should not be too small either, to cause difficulty in handling and analysing the data
- Zones should have regular geometric form for easily determining the centroid which represents the origin and termination of travel - Zones must be compatible with screen lines and cordon lines - Natural or physical barriers such as canals, railways, rivers etc. can form convenient zone boundaries


For large urban areas, the internal to internal travel is heavy whereas for small areas the internal to internal travel is insignificant. The internal to internal travel is best studied by the home interview technique with checks by screen-line surveys. The internal-external, external-internal and external-external travels can be studied by cordon surveys

Types of Survey

Home interview Road-side interview Commercial vehicle surveys Taxi surveys Post card questionnaire Registration number surveys Tag surveys Public transport surveys

Home interview
Home-interview origin-destination survey is a method in which households

were asked questions to get data on the travel pattern and the general characteristics influencing trip-making The information on travel pattern includes number of trips made, their origin and destination, purpose of trip, travel mode, time of departure from origin and time of arrival at destination conducted on a daily basis The information on household characteristics includes type of dwelling unit, number of residents, age, sex, vehicle ownership, whether he or she has a drivers license, number of drivers, family income and so on

Based on these data it is possible to relate the amount of travel to household and develop equations for trip generation rates

Home interview
Procedure for conducting Home interview is contained in the Bureau of

Public Roads Manual, which precisely describes how the interview is to be conducted and what information is to be collected It is impractical and unnecessary to interview all the residents of the study area. Since travel patterns tend to be uniform in a particular zone, so that proper sampling procedure is employed

Minimum Sampling Size for Home Interview

Population of Study Area
Under 50,000 50,000 150,000 150,000 300,000

Minimum Sample Size

1 in 10 households 1 in 20 households 1 in 35 households

300,000 500,000
500,000 1,000,000 Over 1,000,000

1 in 50 households
1 in 70 households 1 in 100 households