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New Energy Developments - Concepts and Conceptual Generator (2)

New Energy Developments - Concepts and Conceptual Generator (2)

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New Energy Developments: Concepts and Conceptual Generator (a First-Draft for Encouraging Cross-Fertilization of Ideas) From

what has been released about Leonardo Corp’s E-Cat devices, Brillouin’s Controlled Electron Capture Reaction devices, Blacklight Power’s hydrino devices and NanoSpire’s Cavitation devices (utilizing the LeClair effect), it is clear that these devices all rely on a combination of one or more of the following effects:      “vacuum energy” differentials through constricted geometries (Casimir cavities) cyclical stressing, particularly involving water cavities (cavitation) and electron flow pressurization (confinement of movement) and heating (increase of atomic-level kinetic energy) pulsed / alternating current flows and voltage - electrons, shells, nuclei and potentials potential difference between metal lattices (positive) and monatomic hydrogen ions (negative)

These effects, it would seem, sum together to liberate, capture and then radiate energy at the atomic level. To understand what each effect may be contributing to the whole, it is useful to look at each in isolation: Vacuum Energy To quote Wikipedia (for convenience), “The concept of vacuum energy has been deduced from the concept of virtual particles, a concept which is itself derived from the energy-time uncertainty principle. The effects of vacuum energy can be experimentally observed in various phenomena such as spontaneous emission, the Casimir effect, van der Waals bonds and the Lamb shift…” Looking at one of these phenomena, Heinrich Casimir first proposed his “Casimir plates” experiment to prove the existence of the Casimir effect back in 1947 and, together with Dirk Polder, succeeding in building a working experiment with results (which were encouraging, but not definitive) in May 1948. That was 64 years ago. It was not until 1996, however, that Steve Lamoreaux at the University of Washington succeeded in building an experiment sensitive enough to demonstrate the Casimir effect and measure it to within five percent of its predicted value. There is little doubt now that the Casimir effect is real, and is especially a problem at the moment in the movement of micro machines, where it is at the root of the stiction problem designers of such devices are currently facing. The Cavitation Phenomenon R.E. Froude proposed the cavitation phenomenon (in water) in 1895 as a part of a general investigation at the time into why propellers degraded with clear signs of erosion on their trailing edges: experiments soon confirmed that Froude’s proposal was correct, and that the turbulence caused by a propeller rotating within the water was causing the repeated formation of bubbles that then imploded on contact with the metal surface of the propeller, leading to cyclic stress, heat and fatigue damage, especially as the rotation rate increased.

New Energy Developments: Concepts and Conceptual Generator (a First-Draft for Encouraging Cross-Fertilization of Ideas) Pressurization Pressurization and heating confine movement whilst increasing atomic-level kinetic energy, so encouraging atoms to move and pass closer to one another than is seen in "normal" environments. Indeed, these effects are often prerequisites to initiating chemical reactions, through encouraging bound electrons to “loosen” and share their fields across atomic nuclei. This creates an "electronic glue" to bind atoms in geometrically prescribed ways to form molecules or compounds. “Hot fusion” attempts to use confinement and high energization of atoms to create the conditions necessary for atomic nuclei to overcome the Coulomb barrier (the barrier created by the repulsion of positively charged protons) to induce nuclear fusion. Electrons, Shells, Nuclei and Potentials Pulsed / alternating current flows and voltage not only “loosen” electrons around atomic nuclei (so making them more likely to share their fields across nuclei), they also provide excess electrons (“ionization”) to create a “negative charge”, particularly in gases. With little or no confinement, these ionized gas states can quickly lead to the separation of electrons from nuclei, but with enforced confinement, the result is more likely to be a cloud of negatively charged particles. With enough energy, the ionized material (particularly gas) can be converted to a plasma form: increasing pressure, on the other hand, can convert the plasma back into a densely populated ionized gas cloud (one where the electrons are once more tightly captured by the nuclei). Further, ionizing gases whilst positively charging solids can create extremely powerful potentials to much accelerate collapsing fields, as well as potentially play a part in shadowing protons from protons where electron orbits are closer to the nucleus and the spin of captured electrons and nuclei cohered via highfrequency pulsed fields (a principle used in the laser or the maser, for example). Many of the Effects are not New, but their Combination Is So, many of the effects which “Cold Fusion” researchers are using are not “new”, but have been observed and even studied over many years. What is new is the combination of these effects into new situations and environments not normally found in nature (although some of these conditions do exist, such as within subterranean earthquakes and, indeed, results of transmutation consistent with nuclear fusion have been observed in fissures formed by or involved in quake activity). More usefully, rather than waiting for “big events”, structures such as Casimir cavities can be created at much smaller scales, in the case of Casimir cavities, by creating “pockets” within positively charged metallic lattices: these cavities can either be “manufactured” in ways similar to semiconductor devices or, just as valid, induced in metallic lattices by creating fissures and fractures through hardening and brittling the material: the good news is that heat is one particular way in which metals can be hardened, so a heat-based system is going to preserve the necessary conditions to maintain and even increase the number of fractures, so long as the heat does not cause the metal lattices to “flow” and collapse. Of course, to make these cavities useful, they need to be accessible, so the greater the number of them accessible via exposed surfaces for a given volume, the better.

Author: Gordon Docherty

Page 2

Date: September 4th, 2012

New Energy Developments: Concepts and Conceptual Generator (a First-Draft for Encouraging Cross-Fertilization of Ideas) This suggests that hardened metallic powders are probably the most suitable mechanism for creating high-densities of accessible cavities within a given volume. In such a scenario, under an electron microscope, it is easy to see the surface of a metallic grain as being like a system of peaks and valleys, only at the nano scale:

How, though, do these cavities help? According to Casimir’s theory, one of the most significant aspects of Casimir cavities is that the “space” or “vacuum” energy within each cavity is lower than the vacuum energy external to it. This creates an energy gradient, and where there is a gradient, there is a potential for energy extraction. How, though, can a “vacuum energy” gradient be exploited? This is where the (as not yet universally accepted but increasingly evidentially supported) hydrino theory of Randy Mills comes into play. At the heart of this idea is that “vacuum” energy somehow stops the electron field (as an electron shell anchored around the nucleus) from contracting below a certain fixed “density”. In terms of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, it is explained that if you could contract an anchored electron’s field sufficiently then you could know both the “position” and “direction” of the electron causing the field, something “forbidden” under Heisenberg’s principle, so “traditional” physics has often contented itself with the “fact” that electron shells cannot drop below a fixed level, yet there is nothing inherently “unphysical” about the electron shell being allowed to drop if conditions allowed – after all , the nucleus of an atom sits inside a very tight “sphere” indeed… So, if it were possible to reduce the size of an electron’s field further (requiring the field to become denser), then this “fall” of the electron closer toward the nucleus would release energy: this change in density, however, would not occur continuously, but rather in discrete steps, leading to the release of packets, or “quanta”, of energy in the form of photons. Indeed, this discrete step behaviour is the reason given as to why captured electrons inhabit defined shells at set distances around the nucleus – to change from one shell to another requires the capture or release of a set energy quantum, so always leading to the same result. Returning to Randy Mill’s hydrino theory, reducing the vacuum energy density, it is proposed, allows the electron field density to increase, so allowing for a new, lowered ground state and hence a release of energy as the electrons fall inward – and evidence in the form of emission spectra has now been provided that strongly suggests this is, in fact, the case.

Author: Gordon Docherty

Page 3

Date: September 4th, 2012

New Energy Developments: Concepts and Conceptual Generator (a First-Draft for Encouraging Cross-Fertilization of Ideas) So, accepting that denser electron fields can, indeed, be created within areas of reduced vacuum energy, Casimir cavities formed on the pitted surfaces of (latticed) metal granules would indeed be “fertile ground” for the formation of hydrinos and the consequent release of radiative energy. So, Casimir cavities, it is postulated, together with monatomic hydrogen (preferably, negatively charged to encourage entry into the Casimir cavities created between positively charged metallic lattice walls and discourage reformation of diatomic hydrogen) are a fertile source of “energy from the vacuum”. Increasing pressures within the monatomic hydrogen gas can increase the number of hydrogen ions within the Casimir cavities, leading to more energy being radiated leading to more heat. A Further Role for the Metal Lattice This is likely not the end of the story, however. By additionally pulsing the hydrogen / hydrino gas particles (using regular sound compressions known as phonons), and taking advantage of the negatively charged but shrunken ions “pressing against” the positively charged metal lattices (which are also pulsed with phonons), it is postulated that the hydrogen (or, rather, hydrino) ions can be shuffled or absorbed into the metal lattice. It is further postulated that the hydrogen / hydrino ions can appear to the metal lattice nuclei more akin to neutrons (as opposed to protons with electron shells) so finding it easier to enter the lattice (possibly surrendering an electron to the lattice in the process, if only one electron sinks to the lower ground state). These hydrogen atoms, ions or, more likely, hydrinos within the metal lattices then congregate in sweet spots known as Brillouin zones (hence the name of one of the companies): subject to the same phonon compressions, and high concentration of these hydrogen ions / hydrinos in these sweet spots, the chances of some form of Widom-Larsen like neutron-based fusion then much increase - there are also suggestions that cohered electron / nuclear spin between these confined ions also plays a significant role in bringing the “electron-shadowed” hydrogen nuclei closer together.

A Brillouin Zone in a Metal Lattice Date: September 4th, 2012

Author: Gordon Docherty

Page 4

New Energy Developments: Concepts and Conceptual Generator (a First-Draft for Encouraging Cross-Fertilization of Ideas)

Solid, Gas and Liquid So far, so good, but it is not the end of the story even now: by delivering the monatomic hydrogen via a fluid (water) carrier, the fluid can also be subject to pulsed compressions to create cavitation effects and, when the pulsing is intense and targeted toward a hard surface (the metal lattice), it can create not only cavitation effects but, with the right surface geometry, a re-entrant cavitation effect known as the LeClair Effect (discovered in 2004) by Mark L. LeClair who, together with Sergio Lebid, are the driving force behind NanoSpire, Inc. To quote the NanoSpire website: “Produced by the enormous pressure of cavitation bubble collapse, many of the jets were seen to have facets and to possess tremendous electrostatic charge. The crystal has an equilateral triangular cylinder subunit that most commonly forms jet hexagon cross-sections. The crystal is a series of repeating O-H bonds along its axis and is bound by hydrogen bonds in the cross-sectional plane, a type of hybrid bonded crystal known as a van der Waals crystal. The flexibility of the hydrogen bonds allowed the crystal to assume a rich variety of shapes, most commonly resembling a bacteriophage, with a large hexagonal faceted head and narrow whip tail. The crystal tail can split into a fractal fan on impact. The leading face, closest to the bow shock, and the sides of the crystal are positively charged and the tail is negative, allowing the crystal to form observed closed loops. The positive charge of the leading face and sides was revealed by impacting the crystal into litmus paper. This created bright red hexagonal impacts in green litmus paper, and purple hexagons in orange litmus paper, both indicators of zero pH and large positive charge concentration on the crystal. The MTI grant research showed that the crystallized jets would often carve long trenches in materials guided by their electrostatic charge and removed far more material than could be accounted for. The crystal, moving at supersonic and greater speeds, is surrounding by a bow shock like a fighter plane. The positively charged crystal is attracted to its own negatively charged bow shock by the Casimir Force and coherently extracts zero point energy on a large scale. The crystal then accelerates to what appears to be relativistic speeds in very short distances. This is implied by the heavy element transmutation observed bull-dozed in front of the bow shock, the only way these heavy elements are known to form in nature is either from stellar core collapse or supernova explosions, both occurring at relativistic speeds. The transmutation process observed in all the experiments closely matched the behaviour of stellar fusion nucleosynthesis and both type I & II supernova shock nucleosynthesis.” The LeClair Effect, in other words, creates the conditions necessary for localized high-energy fusion normally only seen in type I and II supernovae, producing heavier elements as a tangible result - and a lot of energy in the process. This is another observed effect that cannot just be “swept under the carpet”.

Author: Gordon Docherty

Page 5

Date: September 4th, 2012

New Energy Developments: Concepts and Conceptual Generator (a First-Draft for Encouraging Cross-Fertilization of Ideas) Putting it all Together – for Maximum Effect So, it would seem that the various devices from Leonardo Corporation, Brillouin Energy, Blacklight Power and NanoSpire, Inc., all make use of a part of system of effects that, taken together, could lead to a very high density, yet stable, “Cold Fusion” system or, put another way, combining these effects would be fertile ground for practical research, should there be interest. How, then, could these effects be combined? Well, one way would be to create a nickel lattice body within a pressure vessel, in which pockets were engineered into the lattice by some means:

possibly radially, in the form of a cylinder. In more detail, the nickel lattice would contain pockets, and would be lined with an insulator and then cathode to supply electrons to hydrogen molecules passing through the grid under pressure:

At larger scales (in the meter – milimeter range), the pockets could be milled from a metal block, such as steel or aluminum, and then coated with nickel powder. At smaller (sub-micron) scales, nickel blocks could be used, while at nano-scales (at some future point), deposition of materials on / into a substrate could be used, as is currently done for semiconductor manufacture.

Author: Gordon Docherty

Page 6

Date: September 4th, 2012

New Energy Developments: Concepts and Conceptual Generator (a First-Draft for Encouraging Cross-Fertilization of Ideas) So, whatever dimension is being considerd, it is envisaged that each “pocket” would be topped with a negatively charged grid coupled with a “vortex initiator” (formed from the insulating layer between the negatively charged grid cathode and the positively charged nickel body anode – this system consumes electrical energy):

Such a system would then be filled with pressurized with hydrogen gas or pressurized water containing hydrogen gas or some solution that, under pressure, would liberate hydrogen gas. The whole system would then be heated via a “reaction initiator” (such as a grid of tubes or wires) that heated the metal lattice and the fluid / gas in the pressure chamber, before being pulsed with high frequency sonic waves (“phonons”) in order to compress then relax the fluid (or gas) and metal grid to encourage absorption of the monatomic hydrogen ions into the Brllluoin hotspots in the metal lattice. Further, if using a fluid, the fluid would be pressurized through the “vortex initiator” at the head of each pocket down into the pocket (space or cavity). This downward, rotating fluid vortex would first be compressed, and then expanded, where it would meet an upward “jet” of fluid: the pressure would have to be such to cause the fluid to exceed the sound barrier in both directions as it entered the pocket, something that could readily be achieved by forcing fluid under pressure into a more confined space, then flushing it, then forcing it, and so on, in a cyclical action, an action enhanced by phonons being pulsed through the liquid. The aim would be to create re-entrant, collapsing “bubbles” in each cavity, formed as a result of the upward linear jet meeting the downward spiralling vortex whilst being subjected to high-frequency phonon compressions to encourage dissociation of the hydrogen ions / hydrinos out from the carrier). If all went well, these collapsing bubles would liberate large amounts of energy in the form of highly energetic radiation, something that would require effective radiation shielding around the pressure vessel. As said, by varying the pressure on the carrier or gas cloud, material could be introduced into and withdrawn from the cavities on a cyclical basis, so creating “pulsed, continuous” operation for an ultimate NET output of useful energy from the system in the form of heat to drive turbines / generators, which, of course, are not lossless, so requiring a sufficient COP to effect a net production of USEFUL (i.e. excess) energy.

Author: Gordon Docherty

Page 7

Date: September 4th, 2012

New Energy Developments: Concepts and Conceptual Generator (a First-Draft for Encouraging Cross-Fertilization of Ideas) Finally, by forcing the gas or fluid through “casimir dimensioned” pipes, it would be hoped to draw energy from the gas or fluid as the hydrogen ions reduced to hydrinos (if a set of pipes could not be constructed, then one pipe containing a series of grids could be used, although these would all have to be placed before the vortex initiator, and be aligned overall to enhance any vortex effect in addition to hydrino generation):

Author: Gordon Docherty

Page 8

Date: September 4th, 2012

New Energy Developments: Concepts and Conceptual Generator (a First-Draft for Encouraging Cross-Fertilization of Ideas) So, diagrammetically, the intended “operation” of one pocket would be as follows:

This is a fully “machined” solution. Using processed nickel powders instead, it is now possible to see how such powders, at high pressure and heat, could be used in combination with such pockets, to further enhance energy production, something worth reflecting on indeed. Author: Gordon Docherty Page 9 Date: September 4th, 2012

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