Steam injected gas turbine

Steam injected gas turbine: Principle The main principle is that the steam used for injection is produced from fresh water in a HRSG by cooling the hot exhaust gases from the gas turbine. The steam is then supplied before or in the combustion chamber or at the turbine inlet. If it is an industrial gas turbine, some steam is also brought to an industrial process. The flue gases and steam expand in the turbine and thereafter heat new water. The steam/flue gas mix is then transported to the stack. Possibly flue gas condensing can be used in order to recover some of the water from the flue gases and to produce district heating.
Fuel Steam 11. Air

1.
Compressor 3. 2. Combustor Turbine Generator

4. Stack 5. Heat Recovery Steam Generator 8. Clean water Pump 7. 9. 10.

To process Water purification From process

6.

Make-up water

Efficiency calculations Electrical efficiency (pumpwork can be neglected)

η GT =

PGT & Q fuel

1

Thermal efficiency including process heat (pump work can be neglected):

η th =

& PGT + Q proc & Q
fuel

Process 1-2: Air enters the compressor and is pressurised. Compressor power input

& PC = mair ⋅ (h2 − h1 )
Process 2-3: Combustion with compressed air and high-pressure steam up to turbine inlet temperature Fuel supplied

& & Q fuel = m fuel ⋅ H i
The fuel flow of the gas turbine with steam injection can be calculated with a heat balance over the combustion chamber. Steam is introduced in the combustion chamber, but will not take any active part in the combustion process. To calculate the fuel flow, a heat balance over the combustion chamber can be made. Energy in = Energy out mair * h2, AIR + mfuel * LHV + msteam * hST,11 = (mair + mfuel ) * h3, GAS + msteam * hST,3 As the steam is not taking active part into the combustion, the gas flow and steam flows can be treated separately as above. The enthalpy in point 3 considers the enthalpy for flue gas WITHOUT the steam, i.e. same enthalpy expression as for the simple gas turbine: h3, GAS = h3, AIR + x*DH3 where x =

x = (1 + f ) ⋅

β
1+ β

Obs! As more fuel has to be added in the steam-injected gas turbine compared to a simple gas turbine to keep the turbine inlet temperature, the gas content x will be higher in the steam-injected gas turbine and thus the gas enthalpy (without steam) in 3. As the steam flow is very small compared to the airflow, the pressure increase in the combustion chamber can be neglected when steam is injected. The compressor determines the pressure in the combustion chamber Solving for β,

2

Steam injected gas turbine

β=

h3, AIR − h2, AIR + (

msteam ) ⋅ (hST ,3 − hST ,11 ) mair LHV − h3,AIR − (1 + f ) ⋅ DH 3

Process 3-4: Expansion of steam, air and combustion gases. The gross turbine power can be expressed as:

& & & PT = (mair + m fuel ) ⋅ (h3, gas − h4 , gas ) + msteam ⋅ (h3,steam − h4,steam )
The net power output of the gas turbine

PGTel = ( PT ⋅ η m − PC ) ⋅ η G
Process 4-5: Cooling of the flue gases by producing new steam for injection Heat recovered from flue gas side

& & & & Qrec = (mair + m fuel + msteam ) ⋅ c P ( gas ) ⋅ (T4 − T5 )
The media can be calculated as separate, and introducing enthalpies following expression can be used:

& & & & Qrec = ( mair + m fuel ) ⋅ ( h4, gas − h5, gas ) + msteam ⋅ ( h4,steam − h5,steam )

3

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