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Evaporation

Slides prepared by Daene C. McKinney

Reading: Applied Hydrology Sections 4.1
and 4.2
Quotation for today (from Socrates) "There
is only one good, that is knowledge; there
is only one evil, that is ignorance."
Contributed by Matt Harold.

Evaporation
Terminology
Evaporation process by which liquid
water passes directly to the vapor phase
Transpiration - process by which liquid
water passes from liquid to vapor through
plant metabolism
Sublimation - process by which water
passes directly from the solid phase to the
vapor phase
Factors Influencing Evaporation
Energy supply for
vaporization (latent heat)
Transport of vapor away
from evaporative surface
Wind velocity over surface
above surface
Vegetated surfaces
Supply of moisture to the
surface
Evapotranspiration (ET)
Potential Evapotranspiration
(PET) moisture supply is not
limited
n
R
E
Evaporation
Air Flow
u
Evaporation from a Water
Surface
Simplest form of evaporation
From free liquid of permanently saturated
surface
Evaporation from a Pan
National Weather Service Class A
type
Installed on a wooden platform in a
grassy location
Filled with water to within 2.5 inches
of the top
Evaporation rate is measured by
manual readings or with an analog
output evaporation gauge
h
Area, A
CS
w

AE m
w v
=
dt
dh
E =
n
R
s
H
Sensible
heat to air
Vapor flow rate
Heat conducted
to ground
G
Methods of Estimating Evaporation
Energy Balance Method
Aerodynamic method
Combined method
Energy Method
CV contains liquid and vapor phase water
Continuity - Liquid phase
}}
+
}}}
=
CS
w
CV
w v
d
dt
d
m dA V
0 =
dt
dh
A
w
=
No flow of liquid
water through CS
AE m
w v
=
E
dt
dh
=
h w

v
m
dt
dh
E =
n
R
s
H
G
Energy Method
Continuity - Vapor phase
}}
=
CS
a v w
q AE dA V
0 =
Steady flow of air
over water
AE
w
=
}}
+
}}}
=
CS
a v
CV
a v v
q d q
dt
d
m dA V
}}
=
CS
a v
w
q
A
E dA V

1
}}
=
CS
a v v
q m dA V
h w

v
m
dt
dh
E =
n
R
s
H
G
}}
+ + +
}}}
+ + =
CS
u
CV
u
d gz V e
d gz V e
dt
d
dt
dW
dt
dH
A V

) 2 / (
) 2 / (
2
2
Energy Method
Energy Eq.
0 =
h
w

v
m
dt
dh
E =
n
R
s
H
G
. , 0 ; 0 const h V ~ = ~
}}}
=
CV
w u
d e
dt
d
dt
dH

G H R
dt
dH
s n
=
G H R
s n
=
Energy Method
Energy Eq. for Water in CV
Assume:
1. Constant temp of water in CV
2. Change of heat is change in internal energy of water evaporated
h
w

v
m
dt
dh
E =
n
R
s
H
G
v v
m l
dt
dH
=
G H R
dt
dH
s n
=
G H R m l
s n v v
=
AE m
w
=
( ) G H R
A l
E
s n
w v
=

1
Recall:
w v
n
r
l
R
E

=
Neglecting sensible and ground heat
fluxes
Wind as a Factor in Evaporation
Wind has a major effect on evaporation, E
Wind removes vapor-laden air by convection
This Keeps boundary layer thin
Maintains a high rate of water transfer from
liquid to vapor phase
Wind is also turbulent
Convective diffusion is several orders of magnitude
larger than molecular diffusion
Aerodynamic Method
Include transport of vapor
away from water surface
as function of:
surface
Wind speed across surface
Upward vapor flux

Upward momentum flux
n
R
E
Evaporation
Air Flow
1 2
2 1
z z
q q
K
dz
dq
K m
v v
w a
v
w a

= =
1 2
1 2
z z
u u
K
dz
du
K
m a m a

= = t
( )
( )
1 2
2 1
u u K
q q K
m
m
v v w

=t
Aerodynamic Method

Log-velocity profile

Momentum flux
n
R
E
Evaporation
Air Flow
( )
( )
1 2
2 1
u u K
q q K
m
m
v v w

=t
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
o
Z
Z
k u
u
ln
1
*
( )
( )
2
1 2
1 2
ln
(

=
Z Z
u u k
a
t
( )( )
( ) | |
2
1 2
1 2
2
ln
2 1
Z Z K
u u q q k K
m
m
v v a w

=

Thornthwaite-Holzman Equation
u
Z
Aerodynamic Method

Often only available at 1
elevation
Simplifying
n
R
E
Evaporation
Air Flow
( )( )
( ) | |
2
1 2
1 2
2
ln
2 1
Z Z K
u u q q k K
m
m
v v a w

=

u q
v
and
( )
( ) | |
2
2
2
2
ln
622 . 0
o
a as a
Z Z P
u e e k
m

=

AE m
w
=
( )
a as a
e e B E =
( ) | |
2
2
2
2
ln
622 . 0
o w
a
Z Z P
u k
B

=
2
@ pressure vapor Z e
a
=
Combined Method
Evaporation is calculated by
Aerodynamic method
Energy supply is not limiting
Energy method
Vapor transport is not limiting
Normally, both are limiting, so use a combination
method
a r
E E E

+ A
+
+ A
A
=
w v
n
r
l
R
E E

= =
( )
a as a
e e B E E = =
w v
h p
K l
p K C
622 . 0
=
2
) 3 . 237 (
4098
T
e
dT
de
s s
+
= = A
r
E E
+ A
A
= 3 . 1
Priestly & Taylor
Example
Elev = 2 m,
Press = 101.3 kPa,
Wind speed = 3 m/s,
Net Radiation = 200 W/m2,
Air Temp = 25 degC,
Rel. Humidity = 40%,

Use Combo Method to find Evaporation
kJ/kg 2441 10 ) 25 * 36 . 2 2500 (
2370 10 501 . 2
3
6
= =
=
x
T x l
v
mm/day 10 . 7
997 * 10 2441
200
3
= = =
x
l
R
E
w v
n
r

Example (Cont.)
Elev = 2 m,
Press = 101.3 kPa,
Wind speed = 3 m/s,
Net Radiation = 200 W/m2,
Air Temp = 25 degC,
Rel. Humidity = 40%,

Use Combo Method to find Evaporation
( )
mm/day 45 . 7
) day 1 / s 86400 ( * ) m 1 / mm 1000 ( * 1267 3167 10 54 . 4
11
=
=

x E
a
( ) | |
( ) | |
s m/Pa 10 54 . 4
10 3 2 ln 997 * 3 . 101
3 * 19 . 1 * 4 . 0 * 622 . 0
ln
622 . 0
11
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
= = =

x
x
Z Z P
u k
B
o w
a

Pa 3167 =
as
e
Pa 1267 3167 * 4 . 0 * = = =
as h a
e R e
Example (Cont.)
Elev = 2 m,
Press = 101.3 kPa,
Wind speed = 3 m/s,
Net Radiation = 200 W/m2,
Air Temp = 25 degC,
Rel. Humidity = 40%,

Pa/degC 1 . 67
10 2441 * 622 . 0
10 3 . 101 * 1005
622 . 0
3
3
= = =
x
x
K l
p K C
w v
h p

Pa/degC 7 . 188
) 25 3 . 237 (
3167 * 4098
2
=
+
= A
738 . 0 =
+ A
A

mm/day 2 . 7 45 . 7 * 262 . 0 10 . 7 * 738 . 0 = + =

+ A
+
+ A
A
=
a r
E E E

262 . 0 =
+ A

Example
Net Radiation = 200 W/m2,
Air Temp = 25 degC,
Use Priestly-Taylor Method to find
Evaporation rate for a water body
r
E E
+ A
A
= 3 . 1
Priestly & Taylor
mm/day 10 . 7 =
r
E
738 . 0 =
+ A
A

mm/day 80 . 6 10 . 7 * 738 . 0 * 3 . 1 = = E
Evapotranspiration
Evapotranspiration
Combination of evaporation from soil surface and
transpiration from vegetation
Governing factors
Energy supply and vapor transport
Supply of moisture at evaporative surfaces
Reference crop
8-15 cm of healthy growing green grass with abundant water
Combo Method works well if B is calibrated to local
conditions
Potential Evapotranspiration
Multiply reference crop ET by a Crop Coefficient and a
Soil Coefficient
r c s
ET k k ET =
3 . 1 0.2
t; Coefficien Crop
s s
=
c
c
k
k
1 0
t; Coefficien Soil
s s
=
s
s
k
k
ET Actual = ET
ET Crop Reference =
r
ET
http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/crops/04707.html
CORN
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Time Since Planting (Days)
C
r
o
p

C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
,

k
c
Resources on the web
Evaporation maps from NWS climate
prediction center
http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/soilmst/e.shtml
Climate maps from NCDC
http://www.nndc.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/climaps/climaps.pl
Evapotranspiration variability in the US
http://geochange.er.usgs.gov/sw/changes/natural/et/