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1
DEUTSCHE NORMEN
System of Gear Fits
Back1 ash
Tooth Thickness Allowances Tooth Thickness Tolerances
Princbles
DIN
August 1978
3967
GetriebePassystem; Flankenspiel, Zahndickenabmasse, Zahndickentoleranzen, Grundlagen
To facilitate use of this Standard, the calculation of tooth thickness allowances has been included as Appendix A. Information on converting the allowances for the various measuring methods is add& in Appendix B. The DIN backlash system of fits for gear pairs allows the limiting allowances of tooth thickness to be defined with attention given to all effects occurring in the operation of a gear transmission, and to all deviations throughout the gearing. The system of fits therefore consists on the one hand of the allowances and tolerances of the gear teeth, referred to their prevailing mounting arrangements, and on the other hand of the allowances and tolerances of all the other com ponents of the gear transmission in so far as they determine the position of the teeth relative to one another. These values defined for a reference temperature vary in operation through temperature changes in the upward or downward direction, through elastic deformation under load and possibly through swelling or contraction. The system of fits is defined a a tooth thickness system of fits in the normal section on the reference cylinder, i. e. all s allowances, tolerances and operationally induced alterations in the gear transmission are treated as tooth thickness alterationsand require to be converted to the nonnal section. The normal section was chosen because the production effort, i. e. the necessary tooth thickness tolerance in the normal section, is indëpendent of the helix angle. The normal section was also chosen for metrological reasons, since the normal chordal tooth thickness and the base tangent length are measured in the normal section. The calculation of the allowances however is made over the transversesection, since on the finished gear transmission the backlash is measured as circumferential backlash (see Appendix A). The system of fits provides for safeguarding the minimum backlash and limiting the maximum backlash. The reference basis of the system of fits is the zeroplay condition at the nominal centre distance, with nominal addendum modification and with errorfree components. The necessary negative allowances of tooth thickness can be produced by an additional addendum modification in the negative direction Ax. This however is not taken into account in the nominal addendum modification. Whether the weakening of the tooth thickness needs to be taken into Consideration in calculationsof IoadCarryng capacity is something which has to be decided for the case concerned. In any event this should be done whenever
*sni
> 0.005.
tooth qualities demand given tooth thickness allowances in order to ensure the requisite or permissible backlash. The minimum backlash i s determined by the upper allowances. However it does not correspond.to the sum of the upper allowances because a whole series of factors alters the backlash (see Appendix A). The maximum backlash is determined by the lower tooth thickness allowances which result from the upper allowances and the tooth thickness tolerances. This also does not correspond to the sum of the allowances because here again a series of factors alters the backlash.
1 Other relevant Standards DIN 3960 Definitionsand parameters for cylindrical
DIN 3961 DIN 3962 gears and cylindrical gear pairs with involute teeth Tolerances for cylindrical gear teeth; principles Part 1 Tolerances for cylindrical gear teeth; tolerances for deviations of individual parameters Centre distance allowances and shaft position tolerances of housings for cylindrical gear transmíssions Symbols for gear teeth
DIN 3964
DIN 3999
2 Backlash
The backlash value says nothing about the quality of the gear teeth although, on the other hand, the different gear
2 Theoretical backlash 1 The theoretical backlashit results from the tooth thickness allowances converted to the transverse section and from the converted allowances of the centre distance.
Continued on pages 2 to 23 Explanations on page 24
!lesale rights of German Standards(DINNonnen) are with Beuth Verlag GrnbH. Berlin 30
11.91
DIN3967 engL Preikgr. 7;
Verir.Nr. O 1 12
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Page 2 DIN 3967 2.2 Acceptance backlash The acceptance backlash is the backlash obtained with the unloaded gear transmission a t reference temperature when one of the gears is rotated against the other. It is uwally smaller than the theoretical backlash, since the backlashreducingfactors generally outweigh the factors tending to increase the backlash. Backlashreducing factors are, for example, deviations in the gear teeth and also form and position deviations, see Appendix A. 2.3 Working backlash The working backlash is the backlash resulting when the gear transmission i s operating. It i s not constant. During the starting up of the gear transmikion in particular it is possible for the more rapid temperature rise of the gears compared with the housing to bring about larger changes in the working backlash. It is generally larger than acceptance backlashwhen the linear coefficient of expansion of the housing is greater than that of the gears. Shaft deflection and displacement also affect it.
3 Tooth thickness allowances and tooth thickness tolerances
Normally the tooth thickness allowances and tooth thickness tolerances can be found directly from Tables 1 and 2 on the basis of existing experience, such that, as a rule, the upper allowances for each gear should be at least as large (numerical value) as the lower allowance of the housing centre distance (without converting). If no empirical values are available for backlash and tooth thickness allowances, these must be calculated. A guide for this purpose will be found in Appendix A. The calculated values are usually rounded and then likewise taken from Tables 1 and 2. I f exceptionally small amounts of backlash are necessary for functional reasons, calculation i s indispensable.
Table 1. Upper tooth thickness allowances A ,
t
in pn
I
I
I
Referencediameter imm)
Allowance series
10
10

100

85 150 200

70 125 170 230
310

58

48

40 70

33

22
 10

5 7 9 12 17 22 30 41
O O
O
50 125
135110
95
7 5  6 5
54
44
30
 40
14
50
125 280 560 1000
1600
280
560
1000

180 250 450 820


105
85
140 115 155 210 260

 60 95  80
110 145

19 26 35 48

56
75

330  280
 190
130

370
500 680 920
1600
2500 4000
 600

420

175
240 320 430
100 135 180 250 330


O O O
O
2500
1100 1500

 560  760
1020

340 290
460 390 620 520
840 700
200
270 360 480
 64  85 115 155
O O O
1
I
4000
6300
I
6300
1250

56
75
5m
10000 ~  2 0 0 0 ~  1 6 5 0 ~  1 3 5 0 ~  1 1 5 0 ~ 1  7 8 0 1640 1450 1210 1  1 0 0 940
1
O
1
i
Table 2. Tooth thickness tolerances TSnin pm
I
I
I
Reference diameter (mm) over up to 10 50 21 22 23 8 24 12 20
Tolerance series 25
26
30
27
50 80
28
29
130 200
10
50 280 560 1000
I
I
30
200 300 400 600 800
3
5
5
8
2 0
30
80
330
1
12
50
1
125
I
6
10 12
I
10 16 20 25
1
16
I
25 40 50
I
40
I
60
100 130 160
I
100 160 200
250
I
160
I
250
400
I
560
1 000
25 30
40 50
60
60 80
100 130
160
250 300 400 500 600 800
500 600 800
1600
2 500 4 000
16
20 25 30
60 80
100
1000
1300 1600 2000
1600
2500 4000
30
40 50
200
250 300
300 400 500
1000
1300
6 300
80
130
200
I
I
loooo
I
40
I
60
I
I
160
I
250
I
400
I
600
I lm I
1600 r2400
I
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g.bzxzw. With the closer tolerance zones it is therefore recommendable when calculating different test dimensions and their allowances t o apply appropriate corrections which take account of the influence of the individual deviations on these test dimensions empirically (statistically). f o r d = 100 rnm for example. g..`. For an errorfree gear there are mathematical relationships connecting the different measured quantities. 3.`. However. base tangent length allowances) and these used for acceptance testing the gear. g.70 pm and A.. calculation according to Appendix A will be necessary. VDINDE 2608).`. October 1976 edition. Guidance on determining correction values is given in Appendix B.. = . for example.1. As a rule for transmissions of the same kind it is possible t o choose the upper allowance for pinion and gear in all cases from a single allowance series. This i s the tooth thickness in the normal section which. however. The symbol consists of the number of . 32 Lower allowances . Quite generally it should be noted that small tooth thickness tolerances unfavourably affect the maintaining of gear tooth quality. that acceptance testing by a different measuring method (e.1 Upper allowances The upper allowances are to be taken from Table 1 independently of the reference diameter and the allowance series. this designation yields. see ``. however.``.com .3 and 5. Their choice is largely independent of the gear tooth quality and should be governed by the manufacturing facilities. In order to distinguish them clearly from the gear tooth qualities. the tooth thickness tolerance series and the letter symbol of the series for the upper tooth thickness allowance.`. Where adequate experience i s available (e. 33 Tooth thickness tolerances . since the individual measured quantities are affected differently by the individual deviations of the gear teeth a purely mathematical conversion of the tooth thickness allowances does not necessarily guarantee the required backlash. For calculating the allowance factors according to DIN 3960. has to be watched for functional reasons. according to DIN 3962 Patt 1 I f a maximum backlash . Example: 27cd.```.. Since the upper and lower allowances are always negative the amount of the tolerance has to be deducted from the upper allowance. Sections 4. = 170 pm. is not directly measurable. Their choice is largely independent of the gear tooth quality. The tooth thickness tolerances are to be found from Table 2.`. corresponding to the mean allowance should always be used.. The lower allowances are obtained by combining the upper allowances with the tooth thickness tolerances. the mean generating addendum modification coefficient xh.```.` www.DIN 3967 Page 3 3.. it is also permissible however to select values from different allowance series.. the tolerance series have been given the numbers 21 to 30. although it should be borne in mind that the tooth thickness tolerance must be at least twice as large as the permissible tooth thickness fluctuation R... see DIN 3960. The preferred series are 24 to 27. pin dimension measurement)will show that the tolerance is not fully complied with.  4 Converting the tooth thickness allowances for the different test methods The system of f i t s is referred to a theoretical value. Therefore indirect measurements are made by various methods. the limiting allowances A .```. It may then happen.4 Information in drawings The limiting allowances can be indicated in the drawing either directly or by means of an code designation. in the case of tooth thickness tolerance zone 26e or coarser) the tooth thickness allowances can be converted directly into given test dimension allowances (e.`. DIN 3966 Part 1.`. since they unnecessarily limit the correction possibilities during manufacture (see.
`.` www.```.`. According t o Table 1 the upper allowances are selected = 130 pm as A. gear heattreated and milled.Page 4 DIN 3967 5 Example Length dimensions in mrn Helical gears External Pinion I 5 Gear I I Normal module Number of teeth Standard basic rack tooth profile Helix angle Flank direction r...) selected in this respect also (see Section 3 3 .0. For series 27 Table 2 gives T = 1O0 pm and hence .``.com .`. a tolerance of 1O0 p n (Table 2 series 26) is adequate..0. Since the gear is milled.326 +O2389 7 I I 6 b 70 Pinion 16 MnCr 5 Gear 42 CrMo 4V ~~ Housing material Housing centre distance Housing width a GG 22 300 is 7 200 Pinion hardened and ground.cesof tooth thickness of series cd are appropriate for this type of transmission.517 1 +0. the observance of a functionally imposed maximum backlash is not necessary.. To cater for hardening distortion. and also to keep the grinding COR low. ``.`... Consequently A .070 mm A. nesses are not unacceptably weakened  Since the tooth thickness fluctuation according to DIN 3962 Part 1 i s allowed to be 14 pm for the pinion and 25 pm for the gear. for the gear.230mm    The adoption of these tolerance zones..0.```.170 mm (lower allowance = upper allowance minus tolerance).4000 1 I 492. It is assumed that it is known from experience that the upper allowan.`.`..170 pn = . = . the tolerance for the pinion is made comparatively large.130 m m Apii2 =230pm=0.bzxzw. A.) For the particular application concerned. means that the tooth thick. = . (These values are algebraically smaller than the lower allowance 26 p n of the centre distance.```.70 pm = . n 2 I 1 ~ I 97 20 ~~ I ~ Gear teeth Tool DIN 867 DIN 3972 9? 53? 49? DIN 3978 Left Right ß d x I Reference diameter Addendum modification coefficient to DIN 3992 Gear tooth quality Facewidth Material 1 1 I 1 I 101.`. = 70 pm for the pinion and A.. the tolerances are correctly . 2 = 130 pm = . which meet the manufacturing requirements..
.```.DIN3967 Page5 Number of teeth z Sn nenn 20 9..126 323..619 f 0.940 117.099 K A& MdK MdR DM AMa a" ZL 9.5435 8..061 30 1..2399 9.126 507.`..1757 The above result in the following test dimensions with their allowances: Base taqent length Measured number of teeth Allowance factor Dimension over balls Dimension over rollers Ball and roller diameter Allowance factor Working distance with master gear Number of teeth of master gear (DIN 3970) 1 ) Allowance factor W 39.``.2389 ~I..988 =9 i'..670 f 0.`.`.3670 + 0.`.3808 + 0.`." ``.3099 9. 177. .047 507.297 1.1 894 I +O9533 I +0.472 f 0.```.`.485 f 0.4000 maenaum moaiTicarion Xmin I I . I + 0.604 f 0..962 f 0.`.047 3 0.1399 97 8.066 30 1.1 899 9.2032 + 0.` www.bzxzw.314f0.7235 8.5935 8.218 A. .com .. + 0.1935 I I I I Tooth thidcness sn mittel Sn min + 0.325 129.```.
` Figure 1. however..l and 8 3 .`.`. as dictated by the tolerance for the housing and other effects. B. see Section 4 and Appendix B (Fig.`. Tolerance zones of test dimensions after idealgeometry conversion'of tooth thickness tolerance zone . ``. For use in ...Page 6 DIN 3967 The calculated allowances of the measured values are shown in Fig.```. as dictated by the slope of the tooth and the housing tolerance.`.``...`. and further effects (see Appendix A).`.. It may. 1: these are values for ideal geometry. The acceptance backlash may turn out to be smaller than the sum of t h e upper allowances.```.```.`...) practical measurements they may need to be corrected. also turn out to be larger than the sum of the lower allowances.
2 A.2 A.10 Acceptance backlash Example for determining the backlash to be expected A.4. .4 A.5 A.lO.1 General A l . Total profile deviation 1) Pitch span deviation over k pitches Concentricity deviation Tooth trace total deviation 1 ) Separation of bearing centres of a shaft Swelling of housing Swelling of gears 1) Measured according t o DIN 3960 in the transverse section tangential to the base cylinder. A.8 Calculationof the backlashmodifyingeffects Backlash modification through temperature rise Aje A4.2.4.2.6.4 Allowances under modified conditions A.4 A.102 Acceptance backlash A.1 Upper allowances A.1 General Symbols and designations Connection between backlash and allowances Backlashmodifying effects Temperature rise Centre distance tolerance of the housing Nonparallelism of bore axes in the housing Gear tooth individual deviations Swelling or contraction Position.5 Backlash modification through swelling or contraction AiQ A.2.2.6.DIN 3967 Page 7 Appendix A Calculation of tooth thickness allowances or backlash Contents A.4 A.2.4.9.9.l A.4 Backlash modification through gear tooth individual deviations AiF A. A.3 A.7 A.1 A.7 Backlash modification through elasticity AiE A. Centre distance Facewidth Reference diameter Individual pitch deviation Axial skew over length LG Theoretical backlash Acceptance backlash Working backlash Maximum circumferential backlash Minimum circumferentialbacklash Module Relative water absorption (relative volume expansion) Addendum modification coefficient with mean tooth thickness allowance Centre distance allowance Upper centre distance allowance Asm Lower centre distance allowance Upper allowance of tooth thickness' in normal section Lower allowance of tooth thickness in normal section Upper allowance of tooth thickness in transverse section Lower allowance of tooth thickness in transverse section .7 A.2 Lower allowances A.4. form and dimension deviations of components AiB A.5 A.6.2 A23 A. it.6.3 Lower allowances without a specified maximum backlash A.1 A. form a n d dimension deviations of components Elasticity Action of the backlashmodifying effects A.3 Backlash modification through nonparallelism of bore axes Aics A.6 Backlash modification through position.2 A.4. A.9. b d fD fZß it it.2 Backlash modification through centre distance tolerance Aja A.3 A.2.l Determining the theoretical backlash A.1 A.l.1.6 A.5.1 Symbols and designations U A.4.6 f Calculation of sum o upper allowances ZA* from minimum backlashjtmb the badclashand modifying effects Determining the upper allowances of tooth thickness in the normal section Calculation of sum of lower allowances ZA& from maximum backlashitmsx and the backlashmodifying effects Definitions Maximum backlash jt mu Calculation Determining the lower allowances of tooth thickness in the normal section Calculation of backlash from the tooth thickness allowances and the badclashmodifying effects Allowance diagram of tooth thickness in the normal section A..5 A.9.l A.9 Example for determining tooth thickness allowances A9.
```..`. form and dimension deviations of components Mainly involved here are concentricity deviations of bearings (internal and external diameters] and of fixed or rotating parts mounted in one another. Axial skew is always backlashreducing. because the tooth thickness.`.2 Backlashmodifying effects k 2 . Tooth thickness alterations through form alterations resulting from the shrinkingon of toothed components have to be treated separately. since various backlashmodifyingfactors are effective.. It is often this component which is the largest of all.DIN 3967 ``.5 Swelling or contraction The swelling or contraction of plastics in damp air.2. A2. In each case however a backlash reduction is effective at one or more points in the case of individual tooth trace. A 2 6 Position.`. The deviations may accumulate or cancel.4 Gear tooth individualdeviations Gear tooth individual deviations may act differently at the circumference of the gear. 1 Temperature rise A change of backlash through temperature rise occurs not only when gears and housing are made of materials having different linear coefficients of expansion..``. If the material has been suitably pretreated (preswelled) prior to machining. A. since according t o DIN 3964 plus/minus tolerancing is used.`.```.2. profile and pitch deviations and also with tooth thickness fluctuations... A.. but instead the backlashmodifying effects have to be taken into account in the calculation.` Tooth thickness fluctuation Tolerance Tolerance of twoflank working distance Tolerance of normal chordal tooth thickness fluctuation Tooth thickness tolerance in the normal section Tolerance of diametral twoball or tworoller measurement Tolerance of radial singleball or singleroller measurement Base tangent length tolerance Pressure angle Normal pressure angle Transverse pressure angle Linear coefficient of expansion of housing Linear coefficient of expansion of gears or gear rings Helix angle Backlash modification through centre distance tolerance Backlash modification through form and dimension deviations of the components Backlash modificationthrough elasticity Backlash modificationthrough gear tooth individual deviations Backlash modificationthrough swelling or contraction Backlash modificationthrough temperature rise Backlash mcdif ication through nonparallelism of bore axes Temperature difference of housing relative to 20°C Temperature difference of gears relative t o 20 "c Sum of upper allowances of tooth thickness of gear pair in the normal section Sum of lower allowances of tooth thickness of gear pair in the normal section Sum of upper allowances of tooth thickness of gear pair in the transverse section Sum of lower allowances of tooth thickness of gear pair in the transverse section A. These deviations are in some cases interrelated. Further subscripts: 1 For quantities on the smaller gear of a gear pair 2 For quantities on the larger gear of a gear pair K When measurement with balls R When measurement with rollers A. In this way the backlash is reduced or increased. particularly when the gear transmission is started up.7 Elasticity The effect of elasticity consists mainly of a displacement in the bearings and housings and deflection of the shafts and housing under load. this amount cannot simply be distributed over the allowances. but also due to the fact that. water.2 Centre distance tolerance of the housing Through this tolerance the theoretical centre distance is reduced or increased. is referred via the reference circle to the gear axis.2. any subsequent alteration is generally so slight that it can be disregarded. A. A. if a specific minimum or maximum backlash is required..2 Connection between backlash and allowances I n contrast with cylindrical f i t s the backlash arising with gear tooth f i t s cannot be calculated directly from the allowances. and correspondingly the tooth thickness fluctuation also. The concentricity deviation need not be taken into account if the tooth thickness is toleranced.2.`. the temperature rise of gears and housing is different. Conversely.. Thus they have both a backlashincreasingand backlashreducing effect. so that a summation of the maximum allowable values never occurs. Axial inclination does not need to be taken into account because it is not allowed to exceed the centre distance tolerances and is thus covered by these. A temperature difference is equivalent to a change in the centre distance of the housing. hydrocarbons or other chemicals alters the backlash.`. It acts nearly always to increase .3 Nonparallelismof bore axes in the housing The nonparallelism of the bore axes in the housing may consist of axial inclination and axial skew.`.```.1. and do so cyclically in the case of moving (rotating) parts.
`.```.`..```.cTemperature rise Centre distance tolerance Nonpara1tel ism of bores Gear tooth individual deviations SwelIing or contraction Direction when calculating the upper lower allowances ~~ DIN 3967 Page 9 Remarks e.l..``.`.....`.`.```. t 4 for plus allowances for minus allowances e r QG > Q R QG < Q R Form and dimension deviations of components ``.`.`. Action of the backlashmodifying effects t 4 backlashincreasing + backlashreducing  .` Elasticity Figure A...
4 Calculation of the backlashmodifying effects Since it is necessary when fixing the tooth thickness allowances to start from a stipulated backlash (working backlash) the backlashmodifyingeffects are calculated a backlash modifications s Backlash modificationthrough temperature rise Aja The following applies with adequate accuracy: A.```.`.1. and A . for the minimum backlash and A.```.2.`. With gears however this is never the case. tan a. for the maximum backlash in the case of external gear A.3 (3) For calculating the maximum backlash the condition prevailing with perfectly parallel bore axes is the criterion In this case Aizp = O. For the maximum backlash therefore only '12 AjF is effective.`. cosß Backlash modification through nonparallelism of bore axes AjzB The effect of axial skew is the same as that of tooth trace angle deviations. only the dependence on module and gear tooth quality being taken into account.`. In the condition at rest a reduction of backlash can then arise. The backlashreducing component AiF is therefore calculated according t o the error propagation law as follows If A j s is positive...``. The worst case condition is considered each time.. A.1 individual deviations AiF The following are taken into consideration: a) tooth trace deviations b) profile deviations c) individual pitch deviations It is unlikely that all three deviations will be effective at the same time t o their full value. The backlash modification is calculated from A.`.3 Action of the backlashmodifying effects The action of the backlashmcdifying effects is shown schematically in Fig.4 Backlash modification through gear tooth A. 1 Rounded values of AjF in pm ``. The dependence of the parameter AjF on the reference diameter and facewidth is negligible. It differs according to whether the calculation has been made for minimum backlash or maximum backlash.. This means A . A. When taken into account in the calculation it results in the acceptance backlash becoming smaller.` ..`.```.`.4. At best the gears have a deviation which is equal to half the deviation permissible for their quality. O  A. and this has to be separately calculated.4.1.l. pairs. Since the allowances are always negative this is represented in the schematic by a downwarddirected arrow. For a! = 2Q0therefore the rounded values for Ais can be taken from the Table A. In the case of minimum backlash each backlash reduction demands an increase in the amounts of the tooth thickness allowances. AjF =  cos a t cos at (4) Backlash modifi&on through centre distance tolerance Aja I n the calculation the least favourable allowance has to be taken as the basis each time and given the appropriate sign.Page 10 DIN 3967 backlash in the operating condition. Aja z 2 * A .. Table A.2 For the maximum backlash the least favourable case would arise if no deviations were present.4. a backlash increase takes place.4. This m! be necessaw both at the reference a temperature of 20 C and also at lower temperatures. see also Section A. I n the went of calculation for maximum badclash a different condition may arise and may result in a smaller or opposite effect.. InthiscaseAûG isequal t o A 6 a . for the minimum backlash and Aai for the maximum backlash in the case of internal gear pairs..
1 Definition The sum of the lower allowances of tooth thidmess of the gear pair in the transverse section is calculated from the maximum backlash which has not to be exceeded in the completed gear transmission when the backlashmodifying effects are operative.5 For normal cases in general mechanical engineering A ~ Q AjE = Ajjg = O can be adopted and the equation = simplified accordingly as follows: (7) A. It is immaterial how the sum of the allowances is distributed between the two gears.6 Calculation of sum of lower allowances Z A from maximum backlash jt mm and the backlashmodifying effects A.`. These have therefore to be allowed for according to the error propagation law. 1 +Asie 2 = U* COSß (8) A.5 Calculation of sum of upper allowances & from minimum backlashit msn i * and the backlashmodifying effects The calculation is based on the minimum backlashjtdn. are calculated.. then the relative linear expansion is approximately '3 w and the following backlash modification / arises: A.``. I n the calculation the signs have to be watched: swelling i s to be taken as positive and contraction as negative. The minimum backlash can thus be kept small. the displacementsof the gears.`. w = 0. transmissions for instrumentation purposes.(itmio . A.3 Calculation The interaction of the effects is shown in Fig.(A~E) + A& + Aj:) (6) (For positive backlash the allowances are negative.`. for one of the gears the upper allowance O can also be adopted.4..`. Hence. or with empirical values.```..5). First.` Reference values for the relative water absorption w can be found from the data published for the material concerned by the plasticsmanufacturers.02 A 2 percent by volume). U* s . I . so long as the condition of equation (8)i s complied with. When determining this backlash it should be borne in mind that all backlashreducingeffects are dealt with in the calculation. gear transmissionswith nonuniform drive or alternation of loading direction). which affect the centre distance deviations.1 Determiningthe upper allowances of tooth thickness in the normal section The sum of the upper allowances in the transverse section calculated with equation (6)or (7) has to be converted to the normal section ``. A . g.. If both gears are of plastic material and if w is the relative water absorption (e. When determining this backlash it must be borne in mind that all backlashmodifying effects are dealt with by the calcurafion. A. A. This applies in particular to the coarser qualities in which the highest spots of the tooth flanks are present only at a few points and therefore wear more quickly than in the case of finer qualities..2 Maximum backlashit. The tabulated values are the upper allowancesof tooth thicknesses in the normal section and apply to all modules and all qualities.(Ais).7 Backlash modification through elasticity AjE This component depends on the service loading and has to be determined according to the design circumstances.6. These are the same as apply to the minimum backlash (see Section A.5.. therefore it is often possible to determine the sum of the lower allowances without calculation. This i s the smallest Circumferential backlash which must be present in the completed gear transmission in the least favourable operating condition. The calculation of the backlash modification follows the lines of equation (2). A..6 Backlash modification through position. Similar considerations apply to the swelling and contraction of other components which influence the backlash. In all other cases the only determining factor is a possible reduction of the root strength of the teeth through diminished tooth thickness. The sum of the upper allowances is first calculated in the transverse section.4.DIN 3967 Page 11 Backlash modification through swelling or contraction AjQ The effect is the same as that of temperature rise. A.) The individual backlash modifications are to be inserted with the sign found for them.```.l.4.`.`.l. It shoutifnot be chosen too small. Some of these components however do not a c t simultaneously to the full extent. The rules which apply are the same as those for determining A. form and dimension deviations of components AiB These act like centre distance deviations and are therefore calculated according to equation (2).(AAJ + VAjE + Aj5p + Ajil .`.6. From Table 1 a suitable value has to be chosen consistent with the calculated sum A .6. This is t h e largest circumferential backlash which may be present in the completed gear transmission in the least favourable operating condition.. The selection should be made in such a manner that the amount of the sum of the selected allowances is a t least as large as the amount of the sum calculated according to equations (6)to (8).. The principle to be applied here is that impairment of the strength at the tooth root is to be avoided as far as possible.```. 1 + A . The interaction of the different effects is shown in Fig. A. Narrowing of the backlash should be undertaken only if the function of the gear transmission demands t h i s (actuator transmissions.
the equation changes as follows: jt ``.. the two gears are given tolerances consistent with the production requirements. The individual backlash modifications are to be inserted with the signs determined for them. Since both allowances are negative. (12) . otherwise the minus sign. g. Hence the following is obtained: and mating gear also makes possible an increase in the tolerance. The allotment of the lower allowances should be made in such a way that. From Table 2 tooth thickness tolerances are selected such that the sum of the tolerances for the two gears can be A6. a check should be made to establish whether.. Selective assembly of gear A. If the value between the vertical strokes under the square root sign yields a negative figure. The backlash modification through unequal temperature rise acts to reduce the badclash at Ajo <O (lower part of the diagram).```.the working temperature can be influenced.`.cosa. in accordance with the system of fits of this Standard .the prospective acceptanceor working backlash i s calculated with the backlashmodifying effects taken into account.Page 12 DIN 3967 the upper allowances.`. the amounts of backlash (addition of the allowances) are also entered as negative values.`  = EA* Fßl 332 + Aja + Ajxp iAiB . = AiB = O can be adopted and the equation thereby simplified as follows A.. corresponding to their size.``. = A me T (13) If the upper and lower allowances are determined on the criterion of function.7 Calculation of backlash from the tooth thickness allowances and the backlashmodifying effects With prescribed allowances .e..4 Attention should be paid to the remarks concerning Aja in Section A.4..```. To arrive at a larger tolerance.`. In the calculation the individual backlash modifications have to be inserted with the correct sign. A.2.`. the plus sign in front of the square root sign should be used.. the minus sign should be used before the square root.Fßl T12R.2 shows how the backlash and backlash modifications are constituted and how the sum of the allowances and tolerances of the two gears results therefrom. ifthe value in quation (15) between the vertical lines is negative.C A 2 (111 At the same time a check must be made t o ensure that the tolerance is equal to at least twice the tolerance for the tooth thickness fluctuation . otherwise the plus sign.8 Allowance diagram of tooth thickness in the normal section Fig.`. With equation (9) the case may arise in which the amount of the sum of the lower allowances is larger than the maximum backlashjtmax. the backlashreducing components of the minimum backlash must be reduced and likewise the backlashincreasingcomponents of the maximum backlash. If it i s impossible or undesirable to increase component accuracy any further. t h e case may arise in which the tooth thickness tolerance i s no longer consistent with production requirements. in other words it is necessary to weigh the cost of production of the gears against that of the housing.i Fß2 cosat cosat 2 cosat The lower allowances then result from the upper allowances and the tolerances A . but instead overlap partially or completely. Since some components may act with both backlashreducing and backlashincreasingeffect. If the individual influencing factors are present as actual values.. (IO) Determiningthe bwer allowances of tooth thickness in the normal section The sum of the lower allowances in the transverse section calculated by equation (9) i s converted according to equation (8) to the normal section. The starting point is zero allowance. since in this case the tolerances do not add together in full... and if so at what cost. COS& Ti + T 5 ZAme .`. In this case therefore a tooth thickness tolerance consistent with the production requirements frequently demands a higher accuracy class for the axial position. the diagram can only serve as an example and does not apply to all cases.```.`. The upper allowance must therefore have .m&++ja+Ajzß it  +AjB. For normal cases in general mechanical engineering AjQ = Aj.
........`...`..`. .`.. t* s 2 2 o O LHzAsn .. .. ..............`... ...g o c  ZAsni ....... ....` ......```.........```.```. 1"..... ...  ... ...``..DIN 3967 Page 13 L .. ``.....`...`.
`.5 d) According to equation (3) the backlash modification through nonparallelismof the bore axes is Ajzp = O e) According to Section A.(.  .Page 14 DIN 3967 a larger absolute value than would be necessary for the minimum backlash only.19 pm f) Since steel and cast iron are not subject to swelling. Coefficient of linear expansion of steel (yR = 1 . like any other backlash reduction also. i) According to equation (9) sum of the lower the allowances in the transverse section is According to equation (3) the backlash modification through nonparallelism of the bore axes is 70 Ajxp = . 0 Ajo = 300 [(50 . the following is assumed: AiB = 15 pm.9 Example for determining tooth thickness allowances Same gear transmission data as in main part.(20(. e.60) .l the backlash modification through gear tooth modification is: =0..40 pm (series e) AsieZ= .(90. = O.`. g) For t h e backlash modification due to position. 1 gives AiF = 19 pm Since steel and cast iron are not subject to swelling.`. Ai. transmission temperature a t full C load: gears 90 O C . the following is assumed: AjB = 15 pm.061 mm==60pm According to equation (2) the backlash modification through centre distance tolerance is AjF = 1 .15 The backlash modification through elasticity A ~ E is disregarded here because it is assumed that in this case it is not backlashreducing..1 Upper allowances .5  A.``. similarly backlash increases are directed towards the zero line.117 * cos 9 8 6 ' = .` i) According to equation ( 6 ) the sum of the upper allowances in the transverse section i s EAe5 .`. form and dimension deviations of the components. but also gear with gear tooth quality 6 Maximum tem. The difference of t h e two calculated sums i s the sum of the tolerances of the two gears which is distributed with due consideration of production requirements. The sums of the allowances are distributed according to design considerations (tooth thickness)..(70. housing 80 O .99 . in the case of steel gears in plastics housings).99 = 19 pm.20) 1 lW6] tan 20' cos 9 8 6 ' .`.26)  tan 20" cos 9 8 6 ' .. The minimum backlashjtmhi s taken as 20 pm.. perature difference between housing and gears 2C a t 0 ' 70 O C gear temperature. After all components have been taken into account the totals of the upper and lower allowances in the transverse section result. . form and dimension deviations of the components.45 pm  .45).9.`.19)2+ (.`.```. The upper part of the diagram shows how the allowances develop when Aja and &Q are larger than O (e.00 + v(.99 k) According to Table 1 t h e upper allowances are selected such that their sum amounts to at least 115pm: &e 1= . It therefore has t h e effect of increasing backlash. g.  AjD = 300 [(80. Section 5 .. ``. = O is adopted.75 pm (series e) A. AjQ = 0 i s adopted.20) 11.(300. The sum of the lower allowances may therefore amount to 310pm if a maximum backlash of 300 pm is to be guaranteed.1521) = ..4 and Table A. corresponding to the helix angle.20 =200  7 Pm Table A. h) The calculation of shaft deflection yields a backlash modification AJE = 15 Km.```.7)*+ 1g2 + 1g2 + ( 1512) = .310 pm .. The sums of the allowances in the normal section are smaller.O  2 fi.52+ 9 3 2 .045 mm = . is the b) According to equation (1) backlash modification through temperature rise is A. i.117 pm j) The conversion to the normal section according to equation (8)yields Ume.9. Aj. L A & = .20) 10 tan 2 0 ' * 1061 2 cos 9 8 6 ' . The component Ai+ therefore has to be indicated in the direction away from the zero line.5 pm T Aja = 2 (.115 Dm = . For the backlash modification due to position. 19=9.20) 11.```.0. . of cast iron 15 (yG = 10 Maximum backlash 300 pm. According t o equation (1) the backlash modification through temperature rise is c) According to equation (2) the backlash modification through centre distance tolerance is Aja = 2 26  tan 20" cos 9 8 6 ' .4.99 =.1 g2 + O2 + 9.2 Lower allowances a) The maximum backlashjtmau taken as 300 pm.99 = ..
the condition according to equation (121 is fulfilled.140 pm A.. for example. so that there i s no tolerance.15 = 330 pm. it must be borne in mind that when the gear transmission is cold then the minimum acceptance backlash must be larger than the minimum backlash by Aja.52 = .5 7 pm If the gear transmission i s to be exposed to relatively low temperatures in the idle condition. the tolerances are selected freely according to equation (12) and Table 2. As regards the maximum acceptance backlash. is changed to 177 pm.3 Lower allowances without a specified maximum backlash If no maximum backlash is specified. A.70 11.~E therefore the maximum acceptance backlash is 300 + 45 . At a temperature of . 1= > > This however would make the sum of the lower allowances (. For this case therefore the specification for the maximum backlash needs to be checked and a design modification undertaken if necessary.9.9.5 Acceptance backlash If checking of acceptance backlash is proposed.124 pm . this curcumstance must be taken into account. The worst condition for minimum backlash therefore occurs a t reference temperature 20 OC.141 mm= 141 pm Hence.5 1O6) 2 tan 20" cos 9. with vehicle transmissions.9. A.100 = 175 pm.124 pm) larger than the sum of the upper allowances (. of must be taken into account. 40 60 = 100 pm and Asni2 = 75 . the conditions are changed fundamentally. 3 shows the size of the backlash and backlash modifications. I n the example course. . 2 = 100 pm ' 1 T2= 160 pm From equation (13) the following are found A. 2 = 235 pm  A. In the example therefore 20 + 60 = 80 pm.30 O C .1g2+ O 2 +9. Fig.8969' = . 1O6 is used. .!j2 + 9. Here A j e = O.305 pm k) According to equation (11) the sum of the tolerances for both gears is 5"1+2'2=IU. e.DIN3967 Pagel5 j) The conversion to the normal section on the lines of equation (8) yields XAe = .174 pm). so that backlash is still present a t this temperature.   A. i. I n this case therefore the minimum backlash must be made a t least 140 pm.1521) T 28 prn T 36 pm i 2 On the basis of production requirements tolerance series 27 is chosen.310 cos 9.(300141 15 CAsiel=l305(115)1=190pm From Table 2 the following are selected from tolerance series 26 for the pinion and gear 2 = 60 pm and T2= 100 pm 1 ' Ti+ T2= 160 pm According to DIN 3962 Part 1 the tooth thickness fluctuation is allowed to be R S 1= 14 pm R S 2= 18 pm The toterances are thus more than twice as large as the tooth thickness fluctuation.  Hence the sum of the upper allowances in the transverse section is BA~=(20+1/(19)2+(7)*+192+192+(15)2) = . so that C A . For calculation of the lower allowances there is a backlash modification through temperature rise Ajo = 300 (60* 24 .4 Allowances under modified conditions If instead of a grey iron housing a light metal housing with linear coefficient of expansion (Y = 24 . A& = A 6 6 = 50 O C will apply.    . according to equation (9) the sum of the lower allowances is E A & = . = Equation (13) gives the lower allowances as A.8969" =0. The backlash modification through temperature rise Aje acts to increase backlash. A. as may be the case. the permissible maximum backlash can be exceeded in the cold condition by the corresponding Aje although.  d i . The backlash modification through temperature rise from 30 O C to + 20 "C alone amounts to 138 Frn.
3. Backlash. backlash modifications Allowances and tolerances for the worked example (the components under the root sign of equations (7) and (9) have been combined to a single amount) .Page 16 DIN 3967 Caiculation Execution 1 I Figure A.
` 4.8969" 400 CA. AjE are left out of consideration when determining the acceptance backlash.(70) (.`. = . Ai.2 the following apply AjF1 = AjFZ = 19 pm AjB = 1 5 p m 3.cos 9..1 Determiningthe theoretical badclash 1..1 Minimum backlash 1.200 pm .26 pm and A .10.10 Example for determining the backlash to be expected System of fits DIN 3967: pinion 27 cd gear 26 cd Centre distance allowances DIN 3964: I S 0 tolerance zone js7 Gear tooth quality DIN 3962: 6 For further data see Section A.10.(170) + (.1 the theoretical backlash is jtmm = ..9 A.3 Ajzß = O 2.406) =19pm =+19pm  ``.9.(.```. According to equation (14) therefore the minimum backlash is found as U = .2 Maximum backlash 1.130) = .2 Acceptance backlash Aja.10.203) + k 19) = 184 pm .1 5 p m 2.. = = ..406 pm cos 9.. According to equation (2) the backlash modification due to the centre distance allowances A .. + Ud = . acceptance backlash is j t .4.1 the following apply Ajzp = .DIN 3967 Page 17 A.8969' tan 20' 2 . Backlash modificationdue to nonparallelism of the bore axes according to Section A.t .`..2.712 + (19)2 + (19)* + (+ O = 166 pm U& =  A.`.`.400 pm 2. The sum of the tooth thickness allowances is A..8969' tan 20' = 3 Therefore according to equation (15) t h e maximum . According to Section A. According to Section 2. = + 26 pm is calculated as A j = 2 (.( 203) 15)2 fi.`.406) + (19) =425 pn +0=426pm The theoretical backlash of it = 1 8 4 pm to 425 pm is modified by the backlashreducingeffects to become it= 166 pm to 426 pm. According to Section A.```.I .```. Conversion to the transverse section according to equation (8) yields *Oo =203pm cos 9.`.26) ~ Ai.8969" it mh= .9.``.1912 + (.2.230) = . .`.10.. = .(.7 Pm AjFl =hjF2 19 pm = AiB = .(+ 26) cos 9. = (. A.
.`.7.```.l B..1 Theoretical position of the tolerance zones B.`.4 B..`.`.7 Actual allowances of tworoller measurement B.3 Actual allowances of normal chordal tooth thickness B.`.```.Page 18 DIN 3967 Appendix B ``.2 8..6 Actual allowances of twoball measurement B.7..``.7.`.3 Determining the tooth thickness from the tooth thickness angle Measurement of the normal chordal tooth thickness Measurement of the working distance with the master gear Measurement of the base tangent length Measurement of the dimension over two rollers or balk B.7.5 B 6 Singleball measurement and singleroller measurement .2 Actually determined position of allowances B.```. B.9 Symbols and designations as in Appendix A Additionally: Twoflank working distance Facewidth Module Tooth thickness Normal chordal tooth thickness on the y cylinder Addendum modification coefficient Number of teeth Allowance factor of the twoflank working distance Allowance factor of diametral twoball or tworoller dimension Allowance factor of radial singleball or singleroller dimension Total tooth trace deviation Diametral twoball or tworoller dimension Diametral twoball dimension Diametral tworoller dimension Radial singleball or singleroller dimension Tooth thickness fluctuation Tooth thickness fluctuation from twoflank working distance Tooth thickness fluctuation from chordal measurement on t h e y cylinder Tooth thickness fluctuation from twoball measurement Tooth thickness fluctuation from tworoller measurement Tooth thickness fluctuation from base tangent length over 4 measured teeth Tolerance of twoflank working distance Tooth thickness tolerance Tooth thickness tolerance for twoflank working distance Tooth thickness tolerance for the chordal measurement on the y cylinder Tooth thickness tolerance for twoball measurement Tooth thickness tolerance for tworoller measurement Tooth thickness tolerance for the base tangent length Tolerance of normal chordal tooth thickness on the y cylinder Tolerance of t h e diametral twoball dimension Tolerance of the diametral tworoller dimension Base tangent length tolerance Base tangent length over 4 measured teeth Transverse pressure angle Helix angle Tooth thickness half angle ..5 Actual allowances of base tangent length measurement B.`..7 Determining the correction values B.8 Tooth thickness fluctuations Reliability of results B.7..7.` Conversion of allowances for the different measuring methods Contents B.4 Actual allowances of working distance B.7.
4). The eccentricity of the gear teeth can be found. the normal chordal tooth thickness i s measured in the normal section a t a given depth. Nevertheless to avoid obscurity the reference should always be to chordal measurement. Since angle measuring facilities of the necessary accuracy are usually not available in industry.1 Theoretical position of the tolerance zones As an example.3 Measurement of the working distance with the master gear Apart from the concentricity deviation of the gear teeth. 1 shows the tolerance zones for a given gear.` B.`. are to be calculated as in DIN 3960. With the concentricity deviation of t h e tip circle taken into account and a sufficient number of measurements made on the gear circumference.l.1 Determining the tooth thickness from the tooth thickness angle The tooth thickness can be measured by mechanically tracing the two flanks of a tooth in the V circle by means of a measuring pickup (as null indication) in conjunction with an angle measuring instrument. B. and the allowance factor AM.2 Measurement of the normal chordal tooth thickness On t h e basis of a reference diameter. 8. this measurement also covers the tooth trace deviation up to the width of the master gear.. . October 1976 edition. so that the tooth thickness is determined in accordance with the definition. It must be borne in mind however that where relatively large allowances amounting practically to an additional addendum modification are involved. The mean measured value u" and the allowance factor A:H are to be calculated as in DIN 3960. for the tooth to be measured. normally on the V circle. similarly the measurement over balls or rollers Md. The results of the measurements on all five gears were combined (righthandside of illustration) the offset of ``.4 Measurement of base tangent length This measurement does not cover the eccentricity of the gear teeth relative to the gear mounting. Therefore in order to be sure that the tooth thickness i s not exceeded a t any point on the gear. October 1976 edition. Where large numbers of teeth or virtual numbers of teeth are involved the conversion of the allowances from the reference circle to t h e V circle according to DIN 3960. Pitch deviations . B. Page 19 over k teeth however enter into the measurement..also yields negligible differences. The upper allowance is displaced according to the master gear width. It is therefore appro priate to calculate it for the mean value of the tooth thickness allowances and not for the nominal dimension of the tooth thickness (see DIN 3960. B. Section A. the allowance factor A& may alter to such an extent that it can no longer be disregarded. t h e expression tooth thickness measurement should beavoided in thiscase. Consequently before converting it is necessary t o apply a plus correction to the permissible allowances by t h e amount of the tooth trace deviation.2. If this i s larger than or equal to the width of t h e working gear all tooth trace deviations will be covered.. All the measured values were converted to tooth thickness values and presented as sudi.4. The same applies to the base tangent length fluctuation. it is not possible to make any general statements. 6. too. Of all the measured values of each measuring method the weighted average was determined and presented each time.`. case hardened) on all teeth are compared in Fig. if it is smaller an allowance in proportion to the two widths is sufficiently accurate. it is necessary here to add a correction value. B.This shows both the fluctuations of the individual measured values in one and the same gear and also the differences of the gears one from another. the upper and lower actual allowances of the normal chordal tooth thickness are found. they also cover eccentricities and are thus equatable with the chordal measurement. it i s necessary in this case also to add a correction value to the conversion factor. The criterion for the lower allowance is Fp (Appendix A.6 Singleball measurement and singleroller measurement If these measurements are made radially from a reference diameter or from centring elements which can be equated with the gear mounting. This illustration shows (right) how different in position and size are the allowances and tolerances of the measured values although on an idealgeometry basis they express the same tooth thickness production tolerance.`.``. since t h e measurement is referenced to t h e mounting axis of the gear. Section 5.`.7. 8. Hence although theoretically the tooth thickness tolerance could be converted with a factor for the base tangent length tolerance. this method i s not suitable for practical application and i s only of significance for scientific investigations. Section 5.`..```.2 Actually determined position of allowances The results of measurements on five gears (milled.5 Measurement of dimension over two rollers or baIIs Here. Fig.`. It i s therefore recommended that measurements be made in the various production areas and the correction values determined from the actual values obtained by the different measuring methods. The tooth thickness is found by converting the measured tooth thickness angle 2 $ into radians.DIN 3967 8. the tip circle radius with reference to the gear mounting. which can conveniently be the tip diameter.```.7 Determining the correction values Although the influences which make correction values necessary are known.7. B. B. Section 51. October 1976 edition...October 1976 edition. the eccentricity of the gear teeth is not covered.l. For this purpose it is necessary to determine beforehand.. shaved..`. The mean measured value M. The tooth trace deviation however has already been taken into account in calculating the tooth thickness allowances. Section 4. Conwersion of the too* thickness allowances from the arc to the chord can normally be dispensed with.```.
Since the width of bearing on the tooth i s larger than with the chordal measurement a tooth trace form deviation could exert influence. The tolerance can be displaced by the offset compared with the chordal measurement. and to calculate the normal chordal tooth thicknesses also for this.7 Actual allowances of the tworolier measurement Here. so that in come cases objections may be made against gears which are found to be serviceable. and ought for this reason to be the preferred measurement. The weighted average is 10 pm. as regards t h e functional conditions. 6.7. The tolerance has therefore to be reduced by the amount of the permissible concentricity deviation.7. i. For comparative measurements it is therefore expedient to carry out all measurements at approximately the same points on the flanks. which points to a concentricity deviation. compared with the other measuring methods.e. Apart from this however the measurements on the individual gears yield fluctuations differing widely in magnitude.2. If the maximum value is in tolerance. since the causes of this have already been taken into account in the calculation of the allowances. to determine the ball and roller diameters approximately for the measurement points of the base tangent length measurement.7. the same remarks as in Section B. the minimum backlash is guaranteed. 6. converted to the tooth thickness. This affects in particular shaved gears which may have relatively large pitch deviations which are not always allocatable to the concentricity deviations (see Fig. and also in the fact that the measurement circle differs and in this way profile deviations become effective. From these the correction value for the tolerance centre of each method of measurement can be determined.6 apply. confirms the concentricity deviation. Compared with the chordal measurement however the mean value of the measurements i s offset by + 10 pm. the mean value of a particular type of measurement relative to the mean value of the normal chordal tooth thickness measurement of the gear concerned being shown each time.7.27 pm. These are not taken into account in the calculationof the a!lowances of tooth thickness. since eccentricity dÒes not enter into the result. 6 3 .7. If the allowances of the chordal tooth thickness measurement were to be converted purely theoretically as allowances for the base tangent length measure . according to measuring method. Example: With gear 1 the fluctuation of the measured values of base tangent length ranges from + 11 pm to . This makes the measurement "thicker" than with the twoball measurement.4 Actual allowances of working distance The fluctuation of the measured values of the gear. This however is taken into account in the calculation of the allowances.7. Hence if an offset occurs the tolerance zone can be displaced accordingly.) Fig. It is therefore f necessary to alter the site o the tolerance if it i s to be guaranteed that all tooth thicknesses are within tolerance when checking is carried out by way of only individual measured values (and not over the whole circumference).2. B. This shows that the concentricity deviation determined is attributable to eccentricity and not t o outofroundness. If the theoretically calculated tolerance were to be utilized. The upper allowance of the working distance measurement can thus be displaced relative to the normal chordal tooth thickness measurement by the amount determined. This security of compliance with t h e minimum and maximum backlash however is bought a t the cost of making the tolerance small. B. . neither the minimum backlash nor the maximum backlash would be guaranteed if t h i s tolerance were to be utilized to the full. The tolerance must therefore be reduced not only by the concentricity tolerance but also by the pitchspan tolerance. I f the maximum value of the working distance is within the theoretically calculated tolerance the minimum backlash is guaranteed. in t h e twoflank working test. B. The error propagation law can of course also be applied here. These however have already been taken into account in the calculation of t h e tooth thickness allowances. gears 3 and 5 also the limits mown by dashed lines in . it is also the method which involves reducing the theoretical tolerance by the largest amount in order to guarantee the backlash in the same way as with the chordal measurement. It i s of course possible for tooth trace form deviations to have an effect. Although in general the base tangent length measurement i s subject t o the smallest measuring errors.3 Actual allowances of normal chordal tooth thidtness In the example the fluctuation of the measured values on one and the same gear ranges up to 55 pm. The weighted average of this fluctuation is + 1pm. without this endangering the stipulated minimum backlash. The mean value of the measurements is not displaced compared with the chordal measurement.6 Actual allowances of the twoball measurement The fluctuation of the measured values converted to the tooth thickness is significantly smaller than i s t h e case with the foregoing measured values.Page 20 DIN 3967 ment (Fig.    6. The offset relative to the weighted average of the normal chordal tooth thickness is 7 pm. 8.11. right). For the fluctuation of the values the weighted average was again determined. The mean value of the measurements is slightly displaced compared with the chordal measurement.5 Actual allowances o the base tangent f length measurement Although the concentricity deviation does not enter into this measurement the fluctuation of the measured values is larger than with the twoball and tworoller measure ment This is due to the fact that the pitchspan deviations influence the measurement. For t h i s value the fluctuation for this offset is between + 10 pm and 7 pn for all five gears (see Fig. neither the minimum backlash nor the maximum backlash would be guaranteed any more. The reason for t h i s may lie in the fact that only point contact is made with the flanks. The mean offset relative to the normal chordal tooth thickness measurement is thus in this case + 1 pm. The lower allowance must however be displaced by the amount 2 cosq' f Fß  6. The cause of t h i s lies in the profile and tooth trace deviations.
It is therefore necessary to have a large number of measurement series for the widely differing areas before statistically affirmed correction values can be stated for the conversion. Example: m = 4. % Tolerancezone of specifid tooth thickness Derived tolerance zones o f test dimensions 0.`.. B. The tolerance modifications of the given tooth thickness tolerances. B.8 Tooth thickness fluctuations Tooth thickness fluctuations are often measured a flucs tuations of the base tangent length and in some cases also as fluctuations of the twoball or tworoller dimension.160 pm corresponds to Ax = . fi = .`. should however be carried out where possible.051 7.`. Use of the theoretical allowance factors alone can thus lead to errors. For other measurements these values have to be converted..```. but also it i s not permissible to transfer conclusions from one size of gear to others.7.. Tolerance zones of test dimensions after idealgeometry conversion of tooth thickness tolerance zone t = 29.`.4 to B. as described in Sections B. I r.. or from one method of manufacture t o another. For this conversion the same applies as for converting t h e tooth thicknesses themselves.25 mm. The zero line corresponds ' 0 with zerobacklash design of the gear transmission. 8.2063. 'MdR Figure B. The mean allowance .9 Reliability of results The relationships of the different measuring methods shown here by way of an example can only apply qualitatively.``.`.154 mm corresponding to x = 0.```. The tolerances stated in DIN 3962 Part 1 apply to the fluctuation of the tooth thicknesses.```. B. O = 22 mm. B. x = 0.1546.`.`.` ..7..DIN 3967 Page 2 1 The tolerance must however likewise be reduced by the amount of the permissible concentricity deviation. ``. The modifications of Fig..3.l necessary from the evaluation of Fig. tooth thickness for this s = 7. For quantitative statements not only is the number of measurements too small. and on the other hand the necessary production effort also. On the one hand this will lead to the backlash effectively obtained being largely the same with all measuring methods..2 (right) are shown in Fig.the mean tooth thickness is then s = 7.7.l.314 mm.0. I I Z 'y a 'TW' 'd U. Therefore so long as no firm conversion figures are available it is recommended when using the tolerances to the full t h a t a check should be carried out by measuring the normal chordal tooth thicknesses or the working distance with a master gear in order to avoid difficulties at acceptance.
Page 22 DIN 3967 L O .
. and the allowances of the test dimensions determined therefrom. Altered tolerance zones of tooth thickness and resulting tolerance zones of the test dimensions On the basis of the unmodified tooth thickness allowancesof Fig.5 and Explanations). These tolerance zones result in approximately equal production effort and the same effective backlash..```.DIN3967 Page23 Tolerancezones o f specified tooth thicknesses Derived tolerance zones of test dimensions O Pm . cf..l for the chordal measurement the tooth thickness tolerance zones for the other test dimensions (apart from the base tangent length measurement. Section 8. see upper illustration (left).`.` .`..2 (right).``.200 300 LOO .500 Figure 6.`.`.`.`.3..```. ``.5) were calculated for position and site according to the evaluation in Fig.7... B.```. The limits shown by dashed lines of the tooth thickness tolerance for t h e base tangent length (TSw)and base tangent length tolerance (Tw) are needed for shaved gear teeth (see Section 7..`. B.100 .
. Otherwise. base tangent length or the twoballdistance can be kept the same relative to the normal chordal tooth thickness. but instead has to be superseded by indirect tooth thickness measurements using different methods. Within an allowance series the upper tooth thickness allowances have a progression of "@ The calculated values have been rounded according to ISO/R 286.```.`.. It is also intended to stimulate the collection of practical experience. In any case it is recommendable to determine correction values by measurements.```. Ten tolerance series based on the preferred number series R 10 are given and allocated to the reference diameter (see Table 2). vet despite this the gears are within tolerance (see limits shown by dashed lines in Fig.3). The previously standardized allocation of tooth thickness tolerances to gear tooth quality has thus been dropped..`. . It is also possible that the tolerance for the base tangent length need not be so severely restricted a indicated in s Section 5 of Appendix B. The parameters. the calculation can be carried out according to Appendix A. so that further general pronouncements can be made on the system of gear tooth fits... The progression from one tolerance series to the next is 1. Assuming a sufficiently large number of measurement series for the most diverse gears and manufacturing methods there is a possibility that the offset of the tolerances for measurements by way of working distance..`.. To simplify use of this Standard the main text i s followed in Appendix A by information on the calculationof tooth thickness allowances and in Appendix B by information on the conversion of allowances for the different measuring methods.Page 24 DIN 3967 Explanations With this Standard the system of fits for securing the minimum backlash and limiting the maximum backlash is placed on a broader footing compared with DIN 3963 and DIN 3967 dating from 1953. DIN 3998 and DIN 3999. The allowance series (Table 1) are based on a progression of certain series near the zero line being omitted. the accurate calculation of the tooth thickness allowances is superfluous.` '"a.`. It has also not been considered expedient to adopt coding of the tolerance values with multiples of the individual pitch deviation fpt as contained in the InternationalStandard IS0 1328 1975. It is left t o the user t o establish a selection system or reference values for the backlash concerned.```. since in the case of the five gears measured the base tangent length is not always within the calculated reduced tolerance. symbols and designations of this Standard have been redefined in conformity with DIN 3960.. Empirical values for specific systems of fits involving given gear transmission categories could not be laid down in a uniform system by the responsible committee because with differing diameters no uniform minimum ba&lash can be stated. The proposed system of fits is regarded as a general basis.`. When values obtained from experience for the backlash or tooth thickness allowances are available or when for functional reasons no exact determinationof backlash is necessary. The examples given in Appendix B are not directly transferable to other gears.  ``. so that the desired backlash is complied with despite the different influence exerted on the measured variables by the individual deviations of the teeth.`. The information in Appendix B on the relationships between the values obtained with different measuring methods should be considered additionally because in industry the tooth thickness is not measured as defined. The values of t h e upper tooth thickness allowances and the tooth thickness tolerances should be taken from Tables 1 and 2.6.``.`. B.
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