Casing DrillingRecent Advances for Drilling Challenges

Allen Sinor Hughes Christensen - A Baker Hughes Company The Woodlands, Texas

SPE Gulf Coast Section January 10, 2001

Casing Drilling History
Casing Drilling Isn’t New….. • Mid 20’s- Retractable Bits in Poland/France (Gelfgat) • Mid 70’s- Retractable Bits in Siberia (Gelfgat) • Early 80’s- California Heavy Oil Sands • Mid 80’s- West Texas Infill Drilling (Weaver) • Late 80’s - High Speed Coring/Drilling (Millheim ) • 90’s
• • • • Unsaturated / In-Situ (Long- DOE Yucca Mtn.) Depleted Reservoir Sections (Sinor, Vogt) Unstable Formations / Ocean Drilling (O.D.P.) Well Cost Reduction (Tessari , Warren)

Drilling Challenges
Why Casing Drilling? • Getting Casing / Liner to Total Depth • Running Casing / Liner into Depleted Pay with Weak Matrix Strength • Minimizing Flat Time • Extending the Length of Open Wellbores • Mitigating Shallow Gas / Water Hazards • Rubble Zones Above / Below Salt Domes

Getting Casing / Liner to Total Depth Bestline Liner Systems Liner Drilling in Heavy Oil Application .

Evolutionary Process…… • Bridges While TIH With Liner • Drilling Liner to Remove Obstacles • Drilling Liner Underbalanced • Drilling Liner and Gravel Packing Successes • 2000 Liner Drilling Completions Since 1981 • 260+ in 1998. 100+ in 2000 • Three Sizes •8-1/2” bit (or 7”x15” UR) with 7” liner for 9-5/8” casing •7-7/8” bit (or 7”x15” UR) with 6-5/8” liner for 8-5/8” casing •Same for 5-1/2” liner for 8-5/8” casing •6-1/8” bit (or 6”x13” UR) with 5-1/2” liner for 7” casing • Texaco. Aera Energy LLC + independents • INCREASED PRODUCTION . Chevron.

DIRECTION OF CIRCULATION ROTATING HEAD DIVERTER LINE BOP DRILL PIPE ONE STEP Completion System • Drill and Underream Liner • Gravel Pack Liner • Release Liner • All Steps Completed in One Trip Procedure • Run Liner to Casing Shoe • Establish Foam Rate and Pressure • Establish Shoulder for Underreaming • Begin Foam Drilling • Take Returns Through Diverter Line DRILL IN NIPPLE LINER CASING CASING SHOE UNDERREAMER BIT PILOT HOLE .

Opening Gravel Pack Valve Inside Liner • Foam Down Drillpipe. Circulate Foam Until Clean • Switch Returns to Casing Valve • Close Hydril • Drop Ball Down Drillpipe. Out Through Liner Slots and Casing Valve CASING VALVE CASING CASING SHOE SLOTTED LINER GRAVEL PACK VALVE UNDEREAMER BIT .DIRECTION OF CIRCULATION ROTATING HEAD DIVERTER LINE BOP DRILL PIPE • At TD.

Drop Release Ball • Circulate to Remove Sand from Liner Top • Pull Tools and Tailpipe Out of the Hole DIVERTER LINE BOP DRILL PIPE CASING VALVE CASING CASING SHOE SLOTTED LINER GRAVEL PACK VALVE UNDERREAMER BIT .DIRECTION OF CIRCULATION ROTATING HEAD Begin Gravel Packing • Reverse Foam Down Casing. Liner Slots and Gravel Pack Valve • Begin Adding Gravel to Foam • Continue at Slow Rate Until Liner Has Packed Off • Bleed Off Pressure.

Running Casing / Liner into Depleted Pay with Weak Matrix Strength Baker Hughes Inc. .

7-5/8” and 9-5/8” • Liner Lengths up to 4.872’ / Inclination up to 67° .Liner Drilling Successes North Sea. 7”.Valhall • 10 Wells Drilled Rotating the Liner • 7 Wells Drilled with a Drill-in Liner • Liner Sizes of 5”.Arun Field • 9 Wells Drilled with a Drill-in Liner • Liner Sizes of 7” and 9-5/8” • Liner Lengths up to 6.472’ / Inclination up to 67° • Successful Drilling into Severely Depleted Pay (∆ 7 ppge • Significant Well Cost Savings (~$2MM/well) Offshore Indonesia.

Tor Payzone 7.7 ppg.2500 m • Sea Level ca.North Sea.0 ppg • Top of Reservoir ca. 2400 . 200 m 9 5/8” Liner • Used for New Drills 7” and 7 5/8” Liner • Used for Reentry (Sidetrack) Wells • Sidetrack off Whipstock • Directionally Drill Section Valhall Field .Valhall Field (BP Amoco) Depleted Oil Reservoir • Lista Top Formation 14.

Mobil Indonesia / North Sumatra. 2900 .5 ppg 7” Tools: Reentry Application • Section Milling • Whipstock • Perforate & Squeeze or no Cementing .3200 m • Shale 14.Arun Field Depleted Gas Reservoir • Top of Reservoir ca. Limestone 2.7 ppg.

Depleted Pay With Weak Matrix Strength North Sea Valhall Challenges: High porosity / low matrix permeability Result: weak matrix reservoir Production Challenges • Solids production • Reservoir compaction • Subsidence Drilling Challenges • Reservoir compaction (9 ft) • Reservoir depletion (up to 8 ppge) • Lista shale (overburden) fracturing .

Rotary Method • • • • • • • • • Drillable PDC Bit Shoe Float Collar Landing Collar Packer.optional Liner Liner Hanger / PBR Packer Rotating Liner Hanger Running Tool HWDP Drillpipe to surface .

optional Core Shoe Mud Motor Drill Collars Thruster / Bumper Sub Liner Hanger Running Tool Drillpipe to surface Liner Hanger Packer Running Tool Thruster Motor Drill Pipe to Surface Rotating Core Shoe / Pilot Bit Drill Pipe (inner string) Landing Sub Standard Lower BHA .Drill-in Method • • • • • • • • PDC or Rollercone Pilot Underreamer.

Liner Drilling Procedure Step 1: Drill above problem zone Step 2: Drill Liner into zone Rotary or Motor Method Step 3: Isolate Casing Cement / Packers .

Drill-in Liner Procedure DL_Movie.exe .

5 8.166 3.0 11.1 4.5 6.160 3.3 7.9 2.167 3.5 12.157 3.0 11.3 7.5 14.162 3.5 4.5 10.5 7.161 3.0 WOB (klbs) 5.Liner Example: Well 2/8-A-2A Depth (m) 3.158 3.164 3.8 2.5 7.9 8.171 ROP (m/hr) 9.5 7.7 6.0 7.7 13.5 6.0 RPM 75 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 80 Flow (gpm) 210 150 150 150 145 145 145 145 140 145 140 180 P (psi) 1280 840 830 840 870 900 923 900 1050 850 680 260 .165 3.159 3.163 3.5 7.

6m in 3.Well 2/8-A-2A Results: • Drilled 15. • Reduced rig time from 33.9 m/hr • Drilled 7.82MM ($100k/day) .6m of depleted TOR • Total losses of 14.6 ppg mud was 1.6 days • Estimated savings of $1.8 days to 15.350 bbls • Annulus kept full with 69 bbls of 6.2 hours. shoe in 65 min. 4.8 ppg base oil • Mill drilled landing/float collar.

Liner Shoe Improvements Well 2/8-A -2A Carbide Cutters Saw Cuts for Improved Milling Well 2/8-A -8A(T2) Well 2/8-A -3B • Carbide Cutters • Two blades • Anti-whirl features • Two blades • Bicenter design • PDC cutters • Larger nozzles • Anti-whirl features • Four blades • Shorter PDC cutters (cone) • Lower cone angle • Thicker base plate Time .

6 days Well 1 Baseline 33.2MM Savings Unscheduled Events.8MM Savings Sidetrack & Redrill Well 2 15.Liner Drilled Wells $2.8 days 40 Baseline Well 1 20 10 0 Well Control 30 Well 2 A-1A A-2A A-8A Well 3 A-3B F6 Well . % 60 50 Well 3 12.1 days $1.

H.6° exit angle to 2. inner string motor and casing spear ** Drilled in three attempts due to casing failure at window Changed from 3.5 2.0 2.63 7.00 7. PDM.Rotary Liner Drilled Wells Well Name A-1A Hod A-7B * A-2A A-8A A-8A(T2) A-3B F6 A-9A ** A-5B A-22A A3D Year 1993 1995 1995 1996 1996 1996 1996 1997 1997 1999 2000 Hole Angle (deg) 0 40 7 5 5 2 60 12 60 64 67 Liner Size (in) 5. Spear Rotary / PDC shoe Rotary / PDC shoe Rotary / PDC shoe Rotary / PDC shoe Rotary / PDC Shoe Rotary / PDC Shoe Rotary / PDC Shoe Motor then Rotary bu Rotary / PDC * Bit and underreamer.75 7.0 2.5 2.5 Comments F.63 9.5 1.63 Liner Length (ft) 568 5335 3346 1640 1640 3960 4472 2789 433 801 Length Drilled (ft) 899 89 49 7 28 31 3 64 66 24 Drill Time (hrs) 29.00 7.5 1.00 11.00 7. 6” PDC bit Bit.0 12.00 9.1° on whipstock .5 6.63 9.63 7. UR.

Drill-in Liner Wells # Date Customer Location Mobil Indonesia 2 Sep. first MOI DL Whipstock Sidetrack not stuck.1997 5 Nov.5" 7" 5.5 hrs 9 hrs 33 hrs 16 hrs Time 9 hrs Incl.5°/100 ft 2.5 ft 2669 m 8756 ft 3027 m 9927 ft 4302 m 14110 ft 3202 m 10503 ft 2575 8445 ft # # 3556 m 11664 ft 3325 m 10905 ft Drilling Distance 24 m 80 ft 25 m 81 ft 60 m 198 ft 12.4 ppf 53. Nodeco Hanger got stuck on the first trial.5°/30 m # # 2.5 ft 17 m 56 ft 5.1995 4 Oct. n/a 3 hrs.5 hrs 3 hrs 1. stalling problems.4 m 34 ft 12 m 39 ft # # 27.1998 13 14 Oct.879" 9 5/8" 8.879" 9 5/8" 8.879 7" 5.879" 7" 5.879" 7" 5.5°/30 m 1.879" 7 5/8" 6. 15. # # 37. 56° 53° 51° 38° 67° 43° 63° 36° 60° 39° 3° # # 63° 38° DLS 7°/30 m 7°/100 ft 8°/30 m 8° / 100 ft 8°/30 m 8°/100 ft 2°/30 m 2°/100 ft 2°/30 m 2°/100 ft 2°/30 m 2°/100 ft n/a n/a 3.879" 9 5/8" 8.879" 7" 5.76 m 2.1998 9 Feb.5" 7 5/8" 5.1998 11 May.5 hrs 1.9°/30 m n/a Remark No hanger used Releasing tool problems Problems start drilling Releasing tool problems Releasing tool problems Meptec & BOT involved No problems Only sliding Mode No problems No problems Only sliding mode No problems Differential Sticking problems Only sliding Mode.1997 7 Jan.879" 35 ppf 35 ppf 39 ppf 53.1998 10 Mar.3°/30 m 3.1998 8 Jan.8 m 19 ft 7m 23 ft 10.1997 6 Dec.879" 7" 5.5" 7" 5. finiched drilling when set 61 ft into reservoir final Result Successful Successful Successful Successful Successful Successful Successful Successful Successful Succesful Succesful abandoned DL Job Successful Succesful 1 Jun.8 m 42 ft 19 m 62 ft 0. fishing required. 98 Nov-98 Mobil Indonesia Mobil Indonesia Mobil Indonesia Amoco Norway Mobil Indonesia Amoco Norway Mobil Indonesia Amoco Norway Mobil Indonesia Amoco Norway Amoco Norway Mobil Indonesia Mobil Indonesia Field Well Arun C-I-16 Arun C-II-8B Arun C-I-12 Arun C-II-6 Valhall 2/8-F17 Arun C-IV-9 Valhall 2/8-F11 Arun C-II-3B Valhall 2/8-A-19A Arun C-1-8 Valhall 2/8-F14 Valhall 2/8 A-6A Arun C-II-21 Arun C-IV-4 ST Liner length 493 m 1616 ft 912 m 2992 ft 1024 m 3360 ft 915 m 3000 ft 2080 m 6822 ft 808 m 2650 ft 1445 m 4674 ft 806 m 2642 ft 1600 m 5277 ft 837 m 2747 ft 1352 m 4434 ft # # 655 m 2148 ft 758 m 2487 ft Liner OD / ID 7" 5.3°/100 ft 1.4 ppf 35 ppf 35 ppf 35 ppf 35 ppf weight 35 ppf Measured Depth in 3240 m 10626 ft 3212 m 10534 ft 3402 m 11157 ft 3049 m 10000 ft 3551 m 11646 ft 3264 m 10705 ft 2652 m 8698 ft 3021 m 9908 ft 4295 m 14087 ft 3192 10469 ft 2563 m 8406 ft # # 3529 m 11574 ft 3296 m 10810 ft out 3264 m 10707 ft 3236 m 10615 ft 3462 m 11355 ft 3062 m 10042 ft 3570 m 11709 ft 3265 m 10707.5" 7" 5.8 hrs 2 hrs.5°/100 ft n/a n/a 2.4 m 90 ft 29 m 95 ft 6 hrs.4 ppf 35 ppf 39 ppf 35 ppf 53.1995 3 Dec.1995 . roller reamer slow drilling DL set 10 m into reservoir Tool failed at the rig site due to wrong handling pocedure no problems.1998 12 July.9°/100 ft 2.

Minimizing Flat Time Improving Drilling Efficiency with Casing Drilling Tesco Corporation .

Casing Drilling Successes • Two Horizontal Test Wells • 18 Commercial Wells Drilled • 16 Land • Two Offshore • Directional up to Horizontal (7” casing) • Casing Sizes Drilled • 4-1/2” • 7” • 9-5/8” .

Drill lock assembly .Almost continuous circulation .Pilot Bit Operation: .Casing Used for Drillstring Uniform.Under reamer or drilling shoe .No drill string tripping . if needed .Directional tools. Reduced Volume Annulus Retrievable Bottom Hole Assembly .Casing on bottom at all times .Casing rotated .

3-1/2”) .Casing Clamp Extend Clamp (9-5/8” .

Wyoming Hours from spud to plug down Four Wells • 800 ft Surface Holes • Drilled 12-1/4” Hole • Cemented 9-5/8” Casing 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Best Offset 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Rollercone PDC .

Wamsutter Field Five Surface Holes Drilled to 1200’ (7” Casing) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Total time Drilling time Av er ag eO ffs ets Fi rs tW ell Se co nd W ell Th ird W ell Fo ur th W ell Fi fth W ell Time. Hours .Wyoming.

14 A . Hrs 100 80 60 40 20 0 Conventional 75.5 hrs First Casing Drilled 94.12 A .5 hrs A .5 hrs Second Casing Drilled 59.0 hrs 75.13 Target .Offshore Gulf of Mexico Two 12-1/4” Holes Drilled with 9-5/8” Casing Depths of 3200 & 3800 ft Elapsed Time (Spud to TD).

436 ft BHA retrieved in good shape after 236 drilling hrs Pay zone drilled underbalanced Retrieved BHA with wireline & pumped cement float Successful cement job including float holding pressure • Production hole .12.Deepest Casing Drilled Well January 2001 • Surface Hole – – – – – – – – – 8-1/2” hole drilled with 7” casing to 1200 ft Tesco Underreamer and Hughes PDC pilot bit Retrieve BHA & cemented (no plug) 8 hr drilling time .5 hr total time 6-1/4” hole drilled with 4-1/2” casing to 9.

BETA • Drilled 500’ w/10-3/4” casing & 12-1/4” Rollercone • Rotary Speeds Up to 300 rpm Gulf of Mexico • Extending the Reach – ~30 Disposable Motor Runs Past Two Years – 5-7/8” & 6-1/4” Bits / 7-5/8” Casing / 4-3/4” Motors • ~8 Large Diameter Casing Strings Drilled – 10” & 18-5/8” Casing – Water Depths of 300’ .800’ .Additional Activities…..

00 300 60.00 150 30.00 DH-Torque 50 DH. ROP (fph). RPM 350 10-3/4” Casing BHA 70.00 100 20.00 800.WOB 0 300.00 600. Trigger 5 Downhole Torque Torque (ft-lb.00 400.00 200 40.00 1000.00 .00 Depth (ft) 700.RPM Avg ROP DH.00 900.00 500.00 0.00 10.BETA Well Comparison 12-1/4” Hole Standard Packed BHA w/ 8” Drillcollars Bit Bounce -.00 Weight on Bit (klb) Downhole Weight Surface Indicated Weight 250 50.CoPilot Run 3.

Summary Continuing Advances in Liner / Casing Drilling • Proven Successes – Getting Casing / Liner to Total Depth – Running Casing / Liner into Depleted Pay with Weak Matrix Strength – Minimizing Flat Time – Improving Drilling • Opportunities – Flat Time Reduction with Large Diameter Surface Holes – Extending the Reach or Hole Section Limits – Shallow Water Flows .

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