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been successfully used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases such as cough, hypertension, stomach disorders, loss of appetite, upper respiratory congestion, nerve and heart disorders and menstrual difficulties. But recent studies suggest that although it could be used to reduce the risk of kidney damage in diabetics, high doses could lead to kidney damage. CHUKWUMA MUANYA writes.CAN drinking high doses of the popular zobo drink lead to kidney damage? Results of a recent study suggest that aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HSE) has no harmful effect on the liver but when consumed in high doses could be harmful to the kidney. ―Further research aimed at identifying the chemical composition and potential toxic agent(s) in HS is recommended,‖ the researchers wrote.Commonly called zobo or roselle in Nigeria, Hibiscus sabdariffa belongs to the plant family malvaceae.The study titled: ―Toxicilogical effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa on the liver and kidney,‖ was published in Journal of College of Medicine.The aim of the study is to show the effect of graded doses of aqueous extract of HS on major excretory organs (liver and kidney) of albino Wistar rats. This may be helpful in determining the safety or otherwise of its consumption at different concentrations.The researchers wrote: ―There were no significant changes in the histology of the liver throughout the period of HS administration in all the groups. However, there were significant histological changes in the kidney, which were more pronounced at higher doses (80 and 160mg/kg). There was shrinkage of glomerular tuft, increase in urinary pole, increase in size of tubular lumen and tubular damage. These effects were more marked as the duration of administration of the extract progressed with greatest effect observed at 12th week.‖Another study found that Hibiscus sabdariffa might help treat kidney stones via uricosuric activity. The study titled: ―Uricosuric effect of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in normal and renal-stone former subjects,‖ was published in Journal of Ethnopharmacology.Uricosuric agents are used to lower the uric acid level in the blood and to prevent the formation of uric acid crystals in the joints and kidneys. These drugs are often used to treat gout, a disease in which uric acid crystals deposit in joints and cause pain. By decreasing plasma uric acid levels, these drugs decrease the deposition of crystals in joints, eventually decreasing inflammation and thereby reducing the pain of gout.Researchers from Thailand conducted a study with nine subjects with no history of kidney stones and nine with a history of kidney stones. A cup of tea made from 1.5 grams of dry roselle was provided to subjects twice daily (morning and evening) for 15 days.After taking the tea, both groups showed increases in oxalate and citrate. In the non-kidney stone group, increases in uric acid excretion and clearance were observed. In the patients with kidney stones, both uric acid excretion and clearance were significantly increased.The study authors concluded that roselle has a uricosuric effect and they suggested that the chemical constituents exerting this effect should be identified.Also, researchers have shown that aqueous (water) extracts of HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glutathione activities significantly in diabetic kidney, and decreasing the plasma levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) value. Lipid peroxidation is a well-defined mechanism of cellular damage in both animals and plants that occurs in vivo during aging and in certain disease states. Catalase is an antioxidant enzyme found in living organisms that changes hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. Hydrogen peroxide is formed as a toxic waste product of metabolism. It must be quickly converted into other, less dangerous, chemicals. To manage this problem, the enzyme catalase is frequently used to rapidly catalyse the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into harmless oxygen and water. Glutathione is an antioxidant compound found in living animal and plant tissue. Glutathione is the major endogenous antioxidant produced by the cell. Glutathione participates directly in the neutralization of free radicals, reactive oxygen compounds, and maintains exogenous antioxidants such as vitamins C and E in their reduced (active) forms. In addition, through direct conjugation, glutathione plays a role in the detoxification of many xenobiotics (foreign compounds) both organic and inorganic. Glutathione is an essential component of the human immune response. Triglycerides are a type of lipid found in blood. When food is consumed, calories are released by the oxidation of food. The calories, which the body does not exhaust, are converted into energy resources called triglycerides which are stored in the fat cells of the body and are used to supply energy when required. Under the action of certain hormones these triglycerides are broken into simpler, absorbable forms of fatty acids to liberate energy. LDL is ―bad‖ cholesterol, while HDL is ―good‖ cholesterol.
According to the study published in Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, HSE, in histological examination, improves hyperglycemia-caused osmotic diuresis in renal proximal convoluted tubules (defined as hydropic change) in diabetic rats. Hyperglycemia or Hyperglycæmia, or high blood sugar, is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. Osmotic diuresis is increased urination caused by the presence of certain substances in the small tubes of the kidneys. The proximal convoluted tubule is the most proximal segment of the renal tubular portion of the nephron. It is responsible for the reabsorption of glucose, amino acids, various ions and water. The study also reveals that up-regulation of Akt/Bad/14-3-3? and NF-?B-mediated transcription might be involved. The researchers concluded: ―In conclusion, our results show that HSE possesses the potential effects to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy via improving oxidative status and regulating Akt/Bad/14-3-3? signaling.‖ The study is titled: ―Aqueous extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa linnaeus ameliorate diabetic nephropathy via regulating oxidative status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3? in an experimental animal model.‖ Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is kidney disease or damage that occurs in people with diabetes. HSE has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study investigated the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Diabetic mellitus (DM) is a consequence of chronic metabolic aberrations including hyperlipidemia. High glucose facilitating the glycolysis and adenosine triphosphate generation would cause huge reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Under physiological circumstances, ROS involve some signaling molecules and follow defense mechanisms such as phagocytosis, neutrophil function and shear-stress induced vasorelaxation. However, excessive oxidative stress could damage proteins, lipids, and DNA and eliminate anti-oxidative enzymes or molecules. Ujihara et al. observed that oxidized LDL level was significantly higher in diabetic patients with macroalbuminuria. They suggested that oxidized-LDL might play an important role in diabetic nephropathy. Experimentally, the oxidative level of LDL can be determined by detecting lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant defense mechanisms include free radical scavengers and enzyme systems, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH) and catalase (CAT). Previous studies showed that these anti-oxidative molecules were reduced in diabetes. In addition to the devastating damage effect on macromolecules, oxidative stress can be involved in cellular signal transduction including Akt signaling pathway. Akt is a principal mediator of biological functions of insulin in glucose metabolism. Phosphorylated Akt can regulate apoptosis via activating Bad to associate with 14-3-3? protein and also to activate nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) to regulate transcription. Recent studies showed the importance of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3-K) and Akt signaling pathway in diabetic nephropathy including regulation of renal mesangial hypertrophy and renal tubular cells proteolysis. It has been well known that hyperglycemia and insulin could modulate Akt activity in diabetic renal tissue. However, the results are not compatible. Furthermore, the correlation between oxidative stress and Akt signaling in diabetic renal tissues has not been well clarified. A wide variety of natural products have been found to possess capacity to control metabolic problems and oxidative stress in diabetes. Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus is usually used as a beverage. The constituents in the flowers of Hibiscus species are polyphenolic acids, flavonoids, and anthocyanins.
Previous studies found that HSE possessed anti-oxidative characteristics and had anti-atherosclerotic effects. Recent pharmacological studies also showed that HSE significantly reduced blood pressure in humans and in experimental animals.
“ZOBO” DRINK SEEKING LOCAL YOUTH SOCCER TEAM TO SPONSOR
DURHAM, N.C. –The makers of ZOBO drink are looking for a youth soccer team in the Triangle area to sponsor for the 2011-2012 season. See the flyer here. ZOBO is an international sports drink and refreshment that is being introduced to the city of Durham and the greater Triangle region of North Carolina. ZOBO originates from Nigeria, (west) Africa where football (or American soccer) is very popular. The company is offering a yearlong sponsorship for a local youth soccer team to continue the tradition. Details are available online at www.ZoboLove.com for teams and coaches that would like to be considered. A ZOBO team sponsorship includes:
One-year supply of ZOBO for selected team and coaches New team uniforms or T-shirts with official ZOBO logo ZOBO corporate sponsor signage at all games Social media and web links to the selected team’s website Selected team featured in a 30-second ZOBO online commercial ―webisode‖
Kehinde Olajide, president and CEO of Hemisphere Beverages—makers of ZOBO—said, ―ZOBO offices are headquartered in the Triangle, and we are a part of this community, so sponsoring a local team is an ideal way to generate goodwill and to support youth athletics.‖ All-natural ZOBO drinks are made from the hibiscus plant which is known for its pro-health properties and high antioxidant content. ZOBO has no empty calories, no additives and no preservatives, and it’s a convenient, portable beverage adored by young, high-energy athletes on the go. ZOBO is caffeine free and has 100 percent of the daily recommended dose of Vitamin C. The assorted drink line currently offers six flavors suitable for hot or cold drink consumption. Featured flavors are: Original, LemonLime, Vanilla, Pineapple, Strawberry and Ginger. Headquartered in Durham, NC, Hemisphere Beverages manufactures and distributes refreshing ―all natural‖ beverages with high nutritional values. Customers and fans of the drinks can connect online through the ZOBO website at www.ZoboLove.com. Corporate information for media, retail outlets and wholesalers is available online at www.HemisphereBeverages.com. For more information or to schedule an interview, contact V.K. Fields & Co. Public Relations at (919) 829-5951 or e-mail email@example.com. ### Why is ZOBO sponsoring a local youth soccer team?
Parents want healthy, nutritional refreshments for their kids Coaches want to provide healthy drink alternatives for high-energy athletes
NO additives. Lemon-Lime.ZOBOLove. and this is a great way to show support What is included in a ZOBO youth soccer team sponsorship? One-year supply of ZOBO for selected team and coaches New team uniforms or T-shirts with official ZOBO logo ZOBO corporate sponsor signage at all games Social media and web links to the team’s website Selected team featured in a 30-second ZOBO commercial What is ZOBO drink? ZOBO is a 100% all-natural beverage. South American. headquartered in Durham.com Visit online at www.com ―Like‖ ZOBO on Facebook – at Facebook. refreshing hot or cold beverage ZOBO has NO empty calories. African. how do you drink/prepare it? Just add water (hot or cold) and shake or stir ZOBO can be a refreshing cold drink after soccer practice ZOBO is great on a cold day.S. NC International company has a U. Strawberry. and NO preservatives What is ZOBO made of and what health properties does it have? ZOBO is caffeine-free and has 100% of recommended daily Vitamin C ZOBO is all-natural. and Asian presence How can we learn more about ZOBO and Hemisphere Beverages? Visit online at www. made from the hibiscus plant Hibiscus has been proven to reduce blood pressure and cholesterol levels ZOBO also has a high antioxidant content What flavors does ZOBO come in? Currently six flavors: Original. ZOBO is convenient and portable. Vanilla. Pineapple. just add hot water and stir What is Hemisphere Beverages? Manufacturer and distributor of all-natural beverages with high nutritional values Company was founded in 2009. and Ginger ZOBO comes in a stick package. so it’s easy to take on the road to games ZOBO is a part of the community.com/ZOBODrink ..HemisphereBeverages. made from the hibiscus plant ZOBO is a healthy.
e. “There are colourless and odourless preservatives. he noted however that there are internationally recognized preservatives that could be used for commercial Zobo.Zobo is a drink made from Roselle (locally known as Zobo). he said much market has not yet been created beyond the north. toxins. Fertility and good libido in men essentially require good blood circulation and there are certain foods that can help you improve blood flow to the genitals. Zobo drink is a veritable source of vitamin A. In some instances scent leaf. air pollution. he said. This drink believed to be medicinal has since been commercialized and can be found in most homes and restaurants and is sold by vendors in all parts of Nigeria. Approximately 30 per cent of couples with infertility can be traced to male factors. pineapple. so you have to mill it. Why onion. I can’t immediately determine how long Zobo can be preserved except you calculate the microbial load to determine its expiration. It gives vitamins and minerals”. On the nature and availability of market for Zobo in Nigeria. prepared with roselle (fresh calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa as main ingredient) scent leaf (Ocimum gratissimum). Many factors. the pineapple peels and the lemon rinds and allow it to boil for over 20 minutes. orange and any other flavour used in baking. and insufficient vitamin intake. zobo can treat infertility in men Infertility is one of the major health problems among couples. Add moderate amount of water and allow it to boil for about 25 minutes. The vegetable is widely grown and commonly used as port herb or soup in the northern part of Nigeria. several of them. Zobo contains anti-oxidants which help patients of cardiopathic ailments to indirectly slow down the rate of cholesterol deposition in the arteries. “Zobo is a flower. On the issue of long term preservation of Zobo for export. Nwosu said. The vegetable is widely grown and commonly used in soup and drink preparations in the northern part of Nigeria. such as drug treatment. Food Scientist and Nutritionist. garlic (Allium sativum) and ginger (Zingiber officinarium) could be effectively used to treat diarrhoea and pneumonia. Remove from heat. chemotherapy. Nutritionally. Nigerian researchers have confirmed that the popular herbal drink. “It also helps in the absorption of vitamins. INGREDIENTS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ZOBO DRINK: 1 bowl of dried Zobo leaves 1 teaspoon Ginger Flavours Sweeteners or sugar Garlic Lime or lemon juice (optional) Pineapple peels or juice HOW TO DO IT YOURSELF: Wash dried Zobo leaves properly in ordinary water to get rid of sand and particles. Add flavours. Hibiscus sabdariffa is commonly called Roselle in English. protect .g. In Hausa the plant is locally called Yakuwa. apple. Serve chilled. Put the Zobo in a cooking pot. Infertility in men in most cases is as a result of either poor sperm formation or poor motility. So it is not something you want to consume directly because its water based”. It belongs to the Malvaceae family. In the last few years. it is commonly called Zobo in Nigeria. he said. Add sugar or honey when still hot and stir properly to taste. According to Mr. a red coloured flower (calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa). Add the grounded ginger and garlic. dilute with water before serving. The best place to do that is in NAFDAC laboratory to avoid being faulted”. garlic and ginger are added to spice it up. Zobo. the seed Isontea while the fresh calyx is referred to as Zoboroto. “That is its main medicinal value”. allow it to cool and sieve into a big bowl to remove residue. not everyone takes Zobo largely because of concerns about the hygiene of its preparation by locals. may have harmful effects on the process of sperm development and the normal production of sperm. Several conditions can interfere with sperm development and reduce sperm quality and production. However. a marked decrease in the quality of semen has been reported and this has led researchers to try to seek a solution to conditions and problems that affect sperm production and quality as a way of helping men with infertility. flavoured ones. sieve it and allow it to settle. Caesar Nwosu. If too thick. He is of the view that even in the north. Recent researches have confirmed the drink to be a good cure for diarrhea and pneumonia. The Yoruba call the leaves Amukan and the flowers Ishapa. It is also recommended for hypertensive patients. Put in bottles and chill immediately to prevent fermentation. strawberry.
There are proofs. puncture vine. The popular zobo drink may also offer relief for male infertility. according to Iranian researchers supporting the health benefit of onion bulb juice on sperm quality. Obioha and Toyin Y. College of Medicine. vitamins A. the protective roles of onion and garlic extracts on cadmium-induced changes in sperm characteristics and testicular oxidative damage was pointed out by scientists at the Department of Biochemistry. and E are very helpful in ensuring quality sperm. Stephen M. Tribulus terrestris is a flowering plant in the family Zygophyllaceae. Testosterone helps to build protein and is essential for normal sexual behavior and producing erections. Vitamins C and E are well known antioxidants that can help protect cell from damage and could improve sperm health parameters. plays a key role in developing and maintaining masculine sexual organ. Traditionally. percentage of viability. or male sex hormone. yellow vine and goat head. and flavonoids. and promotes secondary sexual characteristics. zobo is commonly used for its anti-hypertension properties. administration of either Zobo or ginger attenuated the cisplatin. sexual desire.the health of sperm as well as ensure good production of quality sperms. It is commonly called devil’s thorn. has a beneficial effect on health due to its antioxidant function. The scientists were Drs. The combination of the two has become a popular refreshing but medicinal drink. Ola-Mudathira. an important flavonoid. Food and Chemical Toxicology. in allusion to its thorns piercing the feet-a common expression) or tsaida (to stop because if a thorn pierces the . Fafunso. Meanwhile. and C. tsaiji in Fula-Fulfulde. The fresh juice of onions was prepared using a fruit juice extracting machine. Udoka E. the testes of rats in all groups were removed and sperm was collected from the epididymis (sperm count) and was prepared for analysis. Folia Morpholology. Testosterone. percentage of viability. including the appearance of facial hair. they reported that freshly prepared onion juice significantly affect the sperm number. 30 wistar male rats were used. Research has shown that onion contains antioxidants such as selenium. and flavonoids of onion such as quercetin. Suru: Michael A.” Quercetin. United Arab Emirate University. Faremi and this was published in the journal. C. On the twentieth day. diabetes and a natural antibiotic from nature. it is dareisa in Arabic-Shuwa. In their evaluation of the effect of onion bulb juice on sperm production in the journal.” The researchers opined that “the effects of onion on sperm number. The Asian Journal of Andrology published the discovery made by Amir Amin and Alaa EldinA Hamza of the Department of Biology. According to the 2009 study findings. hana taakama in Hausa (prevents swagger. From their study. Pumpkin seeds are naturally high in zinc and essential fatty acids which are vital to healthy functioning of the male reproductive system. In Nigeria. Previous studies by Nigerian researchers showed how extracts of Tribulus terrestris increase the testosterone (male sex hormone) level of the blood. In 2008. The fresh onion juice was administered for 20 consecutive days to 20 of these rats while the remaining 10 served as control animals. and sexual behavior. Onion (Allium cepa) is commonly used in our daily diet and has recently been the source of much interest because of its many medicinal properties for hypertension. “it seems that using 4 g/kg of freshly prepared onion juice is effective in sperm health parameters. University of Ibadan. which shows that both Zobo and Ginger treatment can help to restore sperm motility of sperm.induced reduction of sperm count and motility and also protected against sperm abnormality changes. B. lime and pineapple to make a reddish drink. In the study involving rats under laboratory conditions. they were able to demonstrate that aqueous extracts of onion and garlic could proffer a measure of protection against the damaging effects of toxins and air pollutants like cadmium on sperm quality and sperm formation. Kikelomo F. Ibadan. B. and sperm motion because of the increase in the production of testosterone. It is usually prepared adding other fruits like cloves. Ginger is used world wide as a spice. increasing the rate of fertility in men. The animals were kept in standard conditions. Nigeria. Researchers reported that diets that are rich in antioxidants and vitamins A. other herbs that have been suggested to help with poor sperm formation or poor motility include pumpkin seeds. and motility could be related to vitamins. caltrop. vitamin C. Eat pumpkin seeds to help maintain a healthy reproductive system. Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences. In investigating the effect of the fresh juice of onion bulbs on the process of sperm cell development in rats.
Lactobacillus sp. The calyces of Hibiscus sabdarifta have been found to be rich in vitamins and other antioxidants (Wong et al.. The study revealed that lime juice can be used to prolong the shelf-life of zobo drinks. Osueke and Ehirim.787. Also. cheap or affordable and readily available and safe. nuts. Nwachukwu.2007.foot one must stop to extract it). Enterobacter aerogenes (32%).62 log10 cfu mL-1. Its shell-life is approximately twenty-four hours following production if not refrigerated. (26%) and Bacillus subtilis (23%). Klebsiella sp. Escherichia coli. The non-alcoholic drink or zobo is quite popular especially in Northern Nigeria and it is usually served chilled at various social gathering (Aliyu. 2002) and also minerals (Babalola et al. peppers. caused by clumping as pharmaceuticals. After extraction the filtrate may be taken hot as tea or allowed to cool and packaged in plastic sachet containers then taken as a refreshing drink when chilled.787. rose hips. They suggested that the aqueous extracts may thus be used to modify impaired sexual functions in humans due to their saponin components.791 URL: http://scialert. DOI: 10. which might also be expected to improve. ABSTRACT The bacterial quality of zobo drinks locally produced and the effect of lime juice on the bacteria associated with the drinks were investigated. and watercress. Research Journal of Microbiology. Bacteria isolated from zobo drink samples included Staphylococcus aureus. Zinc increases sperm count. The sweetness of zobo drink does not last long due spoilage by microbial activities. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (30%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The sharp sour taste of the raw extract is usually sweetened with sugar cane or granulated sugar. The isolates in decreasing order of occurrence were Staphylococcus aureus (45%). There is increase in the demand for zobo drinks due to its low prices. How to cite this article: E. Microorganisms associated with the dried calyx and the processing for the production of zobo drinks and other factors may contribute to its spoilage. Klebsiella sp. The total coliforms and total viable counts generally decreased in values following treatment of zobo drink samples with lime juice.M. orange or other fruits depending on choice. Sources of Zinc include spinach. kaije in Kanuri. Zobo drinks were obtained from local market and analysed bacteriologically according to standard methods. Bacillus subtilis. peanut butter. 2: 787-791. Ezeama. Effect of Lime Juice on the Bacterial Quality of Zobo Drinks Locally Produced in Nigeria. pineapple. There is the need for alternative source of preservation that is natural. The total viable counts was 2. 2004.3923/jm. Onovo and C. nutritional and medicinal properties (Oboh and Elusiyan.F. Enterobacter aerogenes. that helps fight infertility in men. Hibiscus sabdariffa which is annual herb that is widely cultivated in India and Africa. Apart from the fact that most chemical preservatives may have adverse effect on humans. 2007. salad dressings and vegetable oils are also good sources of vitamin E. Zobo is a name derived from zoborodo which is the local hausa (Northern Nigeria) name for Hibiscus sabdariffa plant. 2000). 2000). 2004). tedo by the Koma people of Adamawa State and da ogun daguro in Yoruba. cucumbers and oyster. in addition to the intensity of orgasm and ejaculation. O. (37%). The greatest limitations for large-scale production of zobo drinks is the rapid deterioration of the drink.. Other C rich foods include bitter melon. they are expensive and usually not affordable by the local people that produce this zobo drink.net/abstract/?doi=jm.2007.791 INTRODUCTION Zobo drinks are aqueous extracts of calyx of roselle. The leaves of roselle are used as vegetables and the seeds are source of oil. Lactobacillus sp. The zobo drink is prepared by boiling the dry calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa in water for about 10-15 min from which the pigment or flavor embedded is extracted. Testosterone supplementation has previously been shown to improve sexual function and libido. Naturally Vitamin C rich foods like guava may be as effective at fighting infertility.79 log10 cfu mL-1 and total coliforms was 2. Escherichia coli (40%). Therefore the aim of this study is to .
methyl red. Ten fold dilution of the zobo drink sample was obtained and 0. shaken and then serially diluted. Nigeria and were taken to the laboratory for analyses. The colonies were counted and recorded as colony forming units per milliliter (cfu mL -1). voges proskauer. Since the zobo drinks deteriorate rapidly. Each of the bacterial colonies on both Nutrient and MacConkey agar plates was subcultured and pure culture obtained. Baker and Breach. This study was conducted in the research laboratory. sugar fermentation reactions and nitrate reduction were among the tests carried out for determination of Bacillus subtilis. from each treatment 0. especially when not refrigerated.79 log10 cfu mL-1 while the total coliforms was 2. Lactobacillus sp. and their percentage occurrence is shown in Table 2. The occurrence of the different types of bacteria in zobo drinks is of public health importance. may be due to microbial activities. Escherichia coli Enterobacter aerogenes. Lactobaccillus and Klebsiella. Each experiment was carried out in triplicates. Table 3 showed the total coliforms and total viable counts obtained after the treatment with different volumes of lime juice.1. Amusa et al. Abia State. This may be explained by the microbial quality of ingredients used and personal hygiene. Psendomonas aeruginosa. indole production. Coagulase and catalase tests were performed to determine coagulase positive Staphylococcus. Data obtained were subjected to the analysis of variance using statistical analysis software. Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike. IMViC (indole. citrate) test was performed to identify and differentiate Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes. the colonies on the nutrient agar plates were counted and recorded as colony forming units per millilitre (cfu mL-1). Golden yellow colonies isolated as Staphylococcus were inoculated on mannitol salt agar.1 mL was inoculated separately on to nutrient agar and MacConkey agar plates and spread evenly using sterile bent glass rod. Bacillus subtilis. 1976. 1. From the appropriate dilution. The result obtained indicated that isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from zobo drinks occurred frequently followed by Escherichia . 0. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus. (2005) reported that hawked zobo drinks harbored similar bacteria including Streptococcus and Proteus species. The inoculated nutrient agar plates were incubated at 30°C for 48 h while the inoculated MacConkey agar plates were inoculated at 35°C for 48 h. Coliforms and Escherichia coli were determined on macconkey agar and the pink-red colonies with precipitation were subcultured by streaking. Lactobacillas sp.0 mL of lime juice were added.. a loopful of the juice was inoculated on nutrient agar plate for 24 h. 1. voges proskauer. Then inoculated on DNase agar for the identification of Staphylococcus auraus. starch hydrolysis and sugar fermentation (Harrigan and McCance. Isolates were identified by carrying out tests which included gram and spore staining. The effect of lime juice concentrations on the bacterial quality of zobo drinks was investigated with a view to prolong the shell-life of zobo drinks. The result revealed a steady decrease in the number of bacteria in zobo drink samples following treatment with lime juice.0.62 log10 cfu mL-1. Microbiological Analyses One milliliter of zobo drink sample was placed in 9 mL of sterile distilled water in sterile test tubes. Treatment of Zobo Samples with Lime Juice Thirteen lime fruits were surface-sterilized (70% ethanol) and peeled using a presterilized knife. cell morphology motility starch hydrolysis. the major problem is therefore how to preserve the drink. respectively for 48 h. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 1 showed that the total viable counts obtained from zobo drink sample was 2. In another study. Bacillus subtilis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Source of Samples Twenty zobo drinks were purchased randomly from the local markets in Umuahia. Bacteria isolated from zobo drink samples in this study (Table 1 and 2) included Staphylococcus aurens. Colonies of lactose-fermenting organisms (red or pink colonies) on MacConkey agar plates were also counted and recorded as coliforms (Harrigan and McCance. respectively to each test tube of the ten fold dilution.investigate the effect of lime juice on the bacterial quality of zobo drinks with a view to improve the shelf life of the drink. 0. After the period of incubation. 1980). 1991). Gram and spore stains. coaqulase.5. The mixture was allowed to stand for 6 h at 30°C. Isolates were determined by using standard techniques. Escherichia coli. citrate utilization. The presence of these bacteria in zobo drinks is therefore no longer in doubt but studies must be pursued towards reducing the bacterial load.5 and 2. In order to determine that the lime juice is not contaminated with bacteria. Oxidase positive colonies were considered for identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa among other tests. oxidase. The fruits were then halved (using a presterilized knife) and the juice squeezed aseptically (sterile gloves worn during operation) into sterile 100 mL conical flasks (Efiuvwevwere and Oyelade. methyl red. Thereafter. catalase.1 mL was inoculated onto triplicate plates of nutrient agar and macconkey agar and incubated at 30 and 35°C. 1976). Klebsiella sp.
2002). Producers of zobo drinks should be educated to know the importance of adherence to quality control measures during processing to avoid the hazardous effects of microbial contamination. How ever since few organisms such as fungi can survive acidic medium further studies should be carried out to test the effect of lime juice on fungi. Staphylococcus aureus in zobo drink could possibly be through the processing methods which usually involved the use of hands since the organism is a common flora of the skin. Moreover lime fruits are not hazardous and hence safe for human consumption. Therefore the addition of lime juice should be encouraged since this study has reviewed that lime juice can inhibit bacterial growth in zobo drinks. The presence of these bacteria indicated possible contamination of the drink. packaged in polyethylene containers and sold as source of income for most families. 1993) Generally Escherichia coli is an indicator of water pollution (Hurst et al. (2005) determined the effect of three storage conditions and reported that the microbial load of samples at ambient and refrigeration increased with time. suggests that the addition of lime juice. This is because low pH tend to inhibit bacterial growth. In there study no preservatives was used. The use of lime juice for this study was simply due to the reason that lime juice is acidic in nature and most micro organisms do not strive in acidic medium. 1995). The possible explanation for the reduction of the bacterial load in zobo drinks following addition of lime juice is the acidic nature of the lime juice. The result of the treatment of the zobo drink samples with different concentrations of lime juice (Table 3) reviewed that the bacterial load of the drink was reduced considerably. Very few studies have been carried out on the shelf-life of zobo drinks. The result of the effect of lime on quality of zobo drinks is a finding that will be useful. Potable water should be used during processing to avoid bacterial contamination of the drink. Fasoyiro et al. at appropriate concentrations. According to Jay (1996) the excellent keeping quality of fruits and soft drinks is due to low pH. in order to enhance the keeping quality of the zobo drinks the processing environment should be hygienic while the packaging materials and additives should be adequately sterilized. packaging materials which probably were not properly sterilized as well as containers and soil particles or the environment can serve as a source of additional microbial contamination of the zobo drinks (Frazier and Westhoff. Since zobo drinks is easy to produce at home. in zobo drinks may help in prolonging the shelf-life of the drink. Furthermore.coli and other bacteria. The organism is responsible for staphylococcal food poisoning (Hobbs and Robert. There is also the need to investigate other natural preservatives especially of plant origin on the microbial quality of drinks. 2002) and therefore. the presence of the organism in zobo drink is probably related to the sources or quality of water used for processing. Furthermore. lime juice as preservative is recommended so as to prolong the shelf life. . In addition Escherichia coli isolated from water may have some health implications (Nwachukwu and Otokunefor. This finding therefore. Table 1: Total Coliforms (TC) and Total Viable Counts (TVC) Zobo drink samples Table 2: Percentage occurrence of bacteria in Zobo drinks samples Table 3: Total coliforms and total viable counts after treatment of zobo drink samples with lime juice Moreover additives which were incorporated into the zobo drinks after extraction may be source of contamination..
Food Agric. 6: 133-134.). Breach.N. 7: 340-342. and coconut palms. Ehirim. G. 4th Edn. McNerney. Tata McGram Hill Publ. Sci. Babalola and O. Trop. Baker. Microbiological and nutritional quality of hawked of zobo drinks wildly consumed in Nigeria. Afr..O. CBS. Y. Babalola. J... 1993. Compositional attributes of the calyces of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. or simply toddy.. Robert. In the Philippines.A.C. 3: 64-68.J. Borneo. 2: 21-24.). J. Hurst. Stetzernbach. production of palm wine may have contributed to the endangered status of some palm species such as the Chilean wine palm (Jubaea chilensis). Afr. A. Environ.J.R.. Oyelade. Oboh. Direct Link | Frazier.F.A. B. Food Sci.H. O.O. such as emu and oguro in Nigeria. G. nsamba in Democratic Republic of the Congo.C. Publishers. Amusa.J. Palm wine also called palm toddy also called "kallu". A. Hobbs. Ltd. Laboratory Methods in Food and Dairy Microbiology. Otokunefor.A. Food Sci. Technol. and D. Academic Press..M. Adeola and F. Biodeteriorative and physico-chemical changes in modified atmosphere packaged oranges and the microbial quality of the preserved and unpreserved juice. 1976. 2002. Samuel. 1980. Wong.. Exp. pp: 701. Physico-chemical characteristics of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. W. tuak in North Sumatra.B.. 32: 68-73. Nutritional and sensory analysis of zobo drink and selected soft drinks.. B. Knudsen and L. Agric. Jay. Nutr.A. and D. 2000. Arnold. J. Cheman. 1st Edn. Indonesia. Harrigan. London. Butterworth $ Co. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. Oladapo.C. Kenya goribon (Rungus) in Sabah. Food. Ashaye. J. P. and C. M. 2004. nsafufuo in Ghana.O. kallu in South India.) Production as affected by pruning and sowing date. and tuba in the Philippines. 2004.M.. mnazi in Mijikenda. Elusiyan. 6th Edn. Efiuvwevwere. 1991. .. 6: 16-20. Aworh. New Delhi. pp: 539. Hodder Headline Group. and goes by various names. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.C..C. On the one hand. pp: 181-197.. C. and M.. 1996. 3: 47-50.. Medical Microbiological Techniques.R. Agric. Direct Link | Fasoyiro. London.[not in citation given] This drink is common in various parts of Asia and Africa. Toddy is also consumed in Sri Lanka and Myanmar.. Med. Salmah and Y. pp: 452.D. the red tuba is aged for up to one to two years such that an echoing ring is made when a glass container is tapped[clarification needed]. Aiyebayo and M.C. S. is an alcoholic beverage created from the sap of various species of palm tree such as the palmyra. S. Nutrient composition and antimicrobial properties of Sorrel drinks (Soborodo) J. Ltd.J.REFERENCES Aliyu.. Co. 2002.A. Washnington DC.V. J. W. 2002. J. New Delhi. 4th Edn. tubâ refers both to the freshly harvested sweetish sap and the one with the red lauan-tree tan bark colorant. Modern Food Microbiology. J. Chemical and storability of fruits-flavored (Hibiscus sabdariffa) drinks. pp: 547. World J. Applied Agric. and T. McCance. Food Technol.. Food Microbiology. and J.O. F. pp: 103-110. and F. R. and M. 31: 325-333. Clin. 1: 165-168. Borneo and Mexico..L. In Leyte. Ashaye. Sci. 2005. 2005. ASM Press. E. Pathogenic potentials of Escherichia coli isolated from rural water suppies. O.. Microbial. CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link | Osueke. Crawford.B. London. 1995.. Food Poisoning and Food Hygiene.O. A. L. On the other hand. Westhoff.. 2000. N. Nwachukwu.. Chemical.A. this type of tubâ is called bahalina. Revised Edn. palm wine production by small holders and individual farmers may promote conservation as palm trees become a source of regular household income that may economically be worth more than the value of timber sold.
 Tamil Sangam literature contains many references to Toddy (kallu) and Tirukkuṛaḷ contains a chapter on "Abhorrence of Toddy". the process of making toddy can clearly be seen with tapped palm trees that line Funafuti International Airport. In part of central and western Democratic Republic of the Congo. The white liquid that initially collects tends to be very sweet and non-alcoholic before it is fermented. and country whiskey). or from oil palm such as the African Oil Palm (Elaeis guineense) or from Raffia palms. the palmyra. Palm sap begins fermenting immediately after collection. In Togo it is called sodabe. Democratic Republic of the Congo In Africa. Within two hours. stored and distributed by semi-government agencies.Contents 1 Tapping 2 Distilled 3 Social role 4 Culinary use 5 Consumption by animals 6 Names 7 See also 8 References 9 External links Tapping The sap is extracted and collected by a tapper. an area in the south of Mozambique between the Lobombo mountains and the Indian Ocean. . and the jaggery palm (Caryota urens). up to a day. An alternate method is the felling of the entire tree. In southern Africa. Neera is said to contain many nutrients including potash. From the oil palm comes ngasi. while in Tunisia it is called Lagmi. due to natural yeasts in the air (often spurred by residual yeast left in the collecting container). In parts of southern Ghana distilled palm wine is called akpeteshi or burukutu. kithul palms. dibondo comes from the raffia palm. arrack. Where this is practiced. In Tuvalu. palm wine is called malafu. Palm wine tapping is mentioned in the novel Things Fall Apart by the Nigerian writer Chinua Achebe and is central to the plot of the groundbreaking novel The Palm Wine Drinkard by Nigerian author Amos Tutuola Toddy collectors at work on Cocos nucifera palms In parts of India. A little lime is added to the sap to prevent it from fermenting. fermented and stored in calabashes in Bandundu Province. Palm wine is collected. coconut palms and Palmyra palms such as the Arecaceae and Borassus are preferred. charayam. Throughout Nigeria. It is mainly produced from the lala palm (Hyphaene coriacea) by cutting the stem and collecting the sap. the unfermented sap is called neera (padaneer in Tamil Nadu) and is refrigerated. fermentation yields an aromatic wine of up to 4% alcohol content. Longer fermentation produces vinegar instead of stronger wine.g. Typically the sap is collected from the cut flower of the palm tree. and mahusu from a short palm which grows in the savannah areas of western Bandundu and Kasai provinces. Distilled Local Distillation of Burukutu in Ghana Palm wine may be distilled to create a stronger drink. palm wine is evaporated to produce the unrefined sugar called jaggery. this is commonly called ogogoro. village gin.. a fire is sometimes lit at the cut end to facilitate the collection of sap. In India and South Asia. The wine may be allowed to ferment longer. the sap used to create palm wine is most often taken from wild datepalms such as the silver date palm (Phoenix sylvestris). in the Philippines it is called lambanog. mildly intoxicating and sweet. or nipa palms. which some people prefer. more sour and acidic taste. cocoti from the coconut palm. to yield a stronger. A container is fastened to the flower stump to collect the sap. There are four types of palm wine in the central and southern DRC. which goes by different names depending on the region (e. In some areas of India. palm wine (ubusulu) is produced in Maputaland.
mogadthadu.[clarification needed] However. 3. and funeral wakes are served generous quantities. moonshine distillers of arrack often sell methanolcontaminated alcohol. the Igbo Land. The treeshrews metabolize the alcohol very efficiently and do not appear to become drunk from the fermented nectar. In Tamil Nadu. Palm wine is enjoyed by men and women. 2. toddy is sold under a licence issued by the excise department and it is an industry having more than 50. The kallu is collected. In villages. although women usually drink it in less public venues.Circa 1909 In India. The inflorescences of the bertam palm contain populations of yeast which ferment the nectar in the flowers to up to 3. especially the southeast Asian pen-tailed treeshrew. it all depends on the custom of the various towns in some parts of the Igbo Land. though the legality fluctuates with politics. many drinking sessions begin with a small amount of palm wine spilled on the ground (Kulosa malafu in Kikongo ya Leta). as it becomes more sour and acidic day by day. Palm wine plays an important role in many ceremonies in parts of Nigeria such as among the Igbo (or Ibo) peoples. like vinegar in taste.000 employees with a welfare board under the labour department. palm wine or toddy is served as either neera or padaneer (a sweet. Toddy is mixed with rice dough and left over night to aid in fermentation and expansion of the dough causing the dough to rise overnight. birth celebrations. parpudthadu. toddy is used in leavening (as a substitute for yeast) a local form of hopper called the vellai Appam. palm wine is usually available at toddy shops (known as Kalitha Gadang in Tulu. but not as strong as wine). There are different types of toddy (kallu) according to the season: 1. and 4. For instance. which is famous in the parts of Karnataka and Goa in India. poddathadu. Guests at weddings. Kallu is usually drunk soon after fermentation by the end of day. Palm wine is often infused with medicinal herbs to remedy a wide variety of physical complaints.8% alcohol (average: 0. people drink it every day after work. pandudthadu. A young man who's going for the first introduction at his inlaws is required to come with Palm wine. It's used for traditional wedding. It is also used in the preparation of a soft variety of Idli. distributed and sold by the people of a particular caste called Goud or Gamalla (Goundla). Palm wine is called "Nkwu Elu" or "Mmanya Ocha" (white drink). toddy is a popular drink in rural parts. Culinary use In the Indian state of Kerala. In Kerala. a staple among the Nasrani Christians. As a token of respect to deceased ancestors. Consumption by animals Some small pollinating mammals consume large amounts of fermented palm nectar as part of their diet.6%). Kallu Angadi in Kannada or "Liquor Shop" in English). There are two main types of kallu in Andhra Pradesh. They drink out of leaves by holding them to their mouths while the Goud pours the kallu from the binki (kallu pot). To discourage this practice. is considered to have a short-lived shelf life. In the state of Andhra Pradesh (India). People enjoy kallu right at the trees where it is brought down. It is a big business in the cities of those districts. In Karnataka. A Billava Toddy Tapper of southern India. Kallu Dukanam in Telugu. In the absence of legal toddy. in "Urualla" and other "ideator" towns. . and elsewhere in central and western Africa. whereas Thati Kallu is stronger (sweet in the morning. which can have lethal consequences. making the bread soft when prepared. authorities have pushed for inexpensive "Indian Made Foreign Liquor" (IMFL). There are specific galons of palm wine required. non-alcoholic beverage derived from fresh sap) or kallu (a sour beverage made from fermented sap. this beverage is currently banned. becoming sour to bitter-sour in the evening) and is highly intoxicating. India. Eetha Kallu is very sweet and less intoxicating. it may be refrigerated to extend its life.Social role A Modern Toddy tapper of southern India. much to the dismay of toddy tappers. namely Thadi Kallu (from Toddy Palmyra trees) and Eetha Kallu (from silver date palms). The drink. In some parts of the Eastern Nigeria.
N. Saw Leng Guan. 1.5% yogurt powder. 3% yogurt powder. ^ "English-Chinese Translation of " Read more: http://www.5% palm wine settling and 1.Popular fermented foods and beverages in Southeast Asia". a deity who consumes toddy. Volume 5(4). ^ Frank Wiens. The gained bodyweight and feeding efficiency index were calculated were taken as performance parameters. ^ Gnarfgnarf:Palm wine. 9. Michel Yegles. an alcoholic beverage made of fermented rice.Names There are a variety of regional names for Palm wine: a b Telugu. 2011. Retrieved 2008-08-25 8.com. Tuak. Tamil and Malayalam. The first batch (STA) received the only the basic feeding. Marc-André Lachance. Fall 2002. and Rainer Spanagel. beers and other drinks and beverages of Cambodia. A global perspective. ^ a b c d e f g "MiniReview. ^ Toddy/Kallu and Neera/Padhaneer 7. Chronic intake of fermented floral nectar by wild treeshrews Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. . Michael Hogan. a West African musical genre. retrieved on 15 April 2012 10. Retrieved 2008-08-31 2.Creating New Names for Common Things in Cameroon English (I-TESL-J) 11. Wurst. four batches of 35 chicks were used. To conduct this experiment. Dietrich von Holst. Friedrich M. ^ Anchimbe . yeast and sugar. another deity who consumes toddy. ^ Fermented and vegetables. Madurai Veeran. The Chilean Wine Palm in the Mildred E. 9 April 2012. ^ Rundel. Published online before print 2008-07-28. See also Palm-wine music. Philip W. Chapter 4 6. The following feeding supplementations were added to the basic feed. ^ C. 2008. rice wine. Marathi. References 1. Stromberg 4. 4 (YEA + YOG) received respectively 3% palm wine settling. 3 (YOG). ^ Toddy and Palm Wine – Practical Answers on the Practical Action website. Retrieved 2008-08-31 3. grape wine. Batches 2 (YEA). Sree Muthappan.answers. Mathias Botanical Garden Newsletter. ^ Confirel:Sugar Palm Tree . Annette Zitzmann.com/topic/palm-wine#ixzz1zl3xlYYC Guide for preparation of Livestock Research for Rural Development 20 (3) 2008 papers LRRD News Citation of this paper Effect of palm wine yeasts and yogurt probiotics on the growth performance of broilers G L Bohoua Département des Sciences et Technologies des Aliments Université d’Abobo-Adjamé 02 BP 801 Abidjan 02. Côte d’Ivoire (West Africa) labograin@yahoo.Conservation of natural heritage retrieved on 15 April 2012 5. Chilean Wine Palm: Jubaea chilensis.fr Abstract The effect of Palm wine yeasts and yogurt probiotics was studied on done one hundred and forty (140) Red Island chicks. ed. Data were collected every week and the performance was measured. GlobalTwitcher. Retrieved 20 January 2012. International Food Research Journal (18). Fritz Pragst.
The yogurt powder obtained was finally used as a supplement and incorporated at a given ratio in the poultry feeding. This batch was followed by batch 2 (YEA). The collection of this fermented wine is free. micro-organism. chicks were on the second formulation II (growth feeding). their average weight was 45. proteins and micro-nutriments. A mixed strain of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus was added to the milk at a ratio of 3 %. Vitamins and minerals used in our experiment were purchased from PROVETO enterprise in Riviera 2 (Abidjan). This final powder was used as a supplement and incorporated at a ratio of the selected ratio in the poultry feedings.The best results in terms of body weight and the feeding efficiency index were obtained with batch 3 (YOG).67 g. The fermentation mix was then centrifuged at 1500 rpm for 5 minutes and the settling obtained was vacuum dried at 30°C for 48 hours. This formulation is rich in carbohydrates. Palm wine was purchased from the main market in the district of Abobo. Unfortunately this wine produced is not stable: the fermentation process continues until the quality becomes unacceptable. The yogurt was then freeze dried. The fermentation temperature was set at 43°C for 8 hours. batch 4 (YEA + YOG) and batch 1 (STA). Manufacturing of yogurt Milk powder was dispersed into water at 43°C.5%) yogurt During our experiment. poultry Introduction Palm wine is a traditional wine extracted from palm tree Elaeis guineensis. Lourens-Hattingh and Wiljoen 2001. Experiment The experiment was conducted simultaneously into two buildings (A and B). During the entire experimental . The palm wine collected in laboratory tanks and maintained at 30°C. feeding supplementation. Palm wine is consumed for its nutritional effect because of its probiotic content (Ezeronye 2004. Everyday huge quantities are poured away.The settling of this wine is rich in probiotic bacteria and yeasts and could be utilized as a probiotic adjunct in poultry (Ehrmann et al 2002). For the ratio used. From week 4 up to week 8. Abidjan). This type of wine is cheap and represents an important part of income in rural areas of Côte d’Ivoire (West Africa). At day one. The dry powder product containing yeasts was then fine grinded. The yogurt mix was then grinded in fine powder. As feeding supplementations. For the first three weeks. Heller 2001). It confers a health benefit on the host (Guarner et al 2005). chicks were fed with the basic formulation I (starter feeding). The mix was then homogenized and pasteurized at 73°C for 30 minutes. their may significantly reduce the breeding cost of poultry.5%) palm wine +(1.Yogurt was manufactured in the nutritional Laboratory of the Food Sciences department of the University of Abobo-Adjamé. In each building there were 4 batches of 35 chicks which receive the following feeding formulations: Batch1 (STA): Basic formulation Batch 2 (YEA): Basic formulation + (3%) palm wine Batch 3 (YOG): Basic formulation + (3%) yogurt Batch 4 (YEA+YOG): Basic formulation + (1. Keyword: feeding efficiency index. palm wine yeast and yogurt probiotics combined had a detrimental effect on the weight and the feeding efficiency index. Another probiotic carrier commonly used is yogurt. our study objective is to study the single and combined effects of these two types of probiotic carrier feeds on the performance of broilers. The solid content was 12%. Taking in account the importance of probiotics. chicks have been fed with two types of feeding formulations. The milk was cooled at 43°C for fermentation. Strains of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus were purchased from Rolls poulen. Methods Culture of yeast The culture of palm wine yeasts was conducted as follows. Materials and methods Biological and chemical material The experiment was conducted one hundred and forty (140) Red Island chicks obtained from ALCI (Yopougon.
Colonies previously isolated are identified by biochemical characterization. % 1. The average weight for each batch was calculated. Microbiological Tests: identification of strains and species of yeasts in the palm wine 50 samples of 300 ml each have been taken for analysis. the aspect of the colonies on different agars was checked. UI/Kg 23 Iron. Feeding composition of the basic formulations Basic formulation I Feeding composition (starter feeding) Crude proteins % 23 Digestible Energy.7 Vitamin A. physiological and biochemical characteristics. The analysis of variance and the means comparison were made to appreciate the significant differences between various batches. yogurt. and on OGA agar + TTC (Triphenyl tretrazolium chloride) or Sabouraud + chloramphenicol + TTC for 48 hours at 25°C in order to ease a better development of yeasts to study their morphological. Thereafter. mg/Kg 25 Basic formulation II (growth feeding) 18. % 0. on gallery of identification API 20 C (Auxanogramme Biomérieux) and an automation of reading and interpretation: ATB expression. The method of analysis used is the classical bacteriological method.00 0. The seeding was done on OGA agar (Oxytetracycline Glucose Agar) and on Sabouraud agar + chloramphenicol. UI/Kg 9500 Vitamin D3.24 Methionine. Table 1. The pH of each sample has been noted and neutralized if necessary before seeding.5 3000 4 1.7 Calcium.59 9500 4400 23 33 89 25 Their weight was taken every week and weight gained was plotted in figure 1. Then colonies of yeasts are sub-cultured in OGA broth or Sabouraud. by culture and isolation on solid medium.period. % 4 Lysin. different supplementations (palm wine.1 Phosphorus. Kcal 3100 Crude fibers.9 0. Results and discussion Chicks in each batch were fed according to the feeding formulation (table 1). % 1. UI/Kg 4400 Vitamin E. . Determination of the feeding efficiency index The feeding efficiency index (FEI) is the value represented by the ratio of the average quantity of the feedings consumed on the average weight of the individuals. The presumptive colonies of yeasts on OGA and Sabouraud + chloramphenicol appear creamy. %: 0. Determination of the chicks average weight The chicks weights were taken once a week.58 0. The medium was incubated at 25° C for 72 hours. mixed palm wine and yogurt) were added to the basic formulations. It does not have a unit and is determined as follows: FEI = QM / PM QM = average quantity of consumed feed FM = average weight of chicks Statistical analysis The statistical analysis was carried out using a ―Statistica Data Management‖ software. mg/Kg 33 Zinc. mg/Kg 89 Copper.
The mineral content of the feed such as calcium and phosphorus and zinc reinforced by yeasts significantly increase the body weight (Coïc and Coppenet 1989). .5%) + yogurt (1. the mixed feeding of yogurt and palm wine supplement (batch 4: YEA+YOG). Larpent and Larpent-gourgaud in 1990 have shown that yeasts and lactic acids bacteria growth is improved by their symbiotic relation. methionine and cystein. These results found show the importance or beneficial aspects of the use of probiotic in broilers feeding formulations. we noticed an increase during the first three weeks. the better the feeding conversion index. The batch fed with the mixed culture of yogurt and palm wine (batch 4: YOG + YEA) has a growth lower than batches fed individually these two supplements. From week 3 to week 7. We would expected a better growth due to the presence of these micro-organisms or to the large quantity of metabolites generated. Kimoto et al 2000. During this period. The feeding conversion index was also studied to find out the effect of these different feedings supplementations (figure 2). In a decreasing order of the body weight after the yogurt batch. However.(STA): Basic formulation. The highest values were obtained with the standard batch (STA) followed by the palm wine and the mixed supplementation (YEA+YOG). Bourlioux 1997). chicks were getting used to the feed and the metabolic systems were being settled. Microbiological identification tests have shown that palm wine (batch 2: YEA) was mainly composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. fermentation products or cell components favour the development of a balanced digestive flora (Fooks et al 1999. Probiotic bacteria often produced bacteriocin that is one of their beneficial characteristics. After the first week the trend was reversed. At last comes the standard batch (batch 1: STA) with the lowest growth. This is mainly due to the beneficial effect of lactic acid producing bacteria or probiotics (Bourgeois and Larpent 1989) such as Streptococcus thermophilus (Cosson and Deschamps 1994. Conclusions From our experiment we may conclude that palm wine and yogurt probiotics improve the performance of broilers. The lowest values were obtained with the yogurt supplementation (YOG) and the highest values were obtained with the standard batch (STA). (YEA): Basic formulation + yeasts of palm wine (3%). It has also been suggested by other authors that growth of probiotic yeasts stimulate the growth of probiotic organisms and assure their survival (Lourens-Hattingh and Wiljoen 2001). it is not surprising to observe a lower performance. These bacteria either by their enzymes activities. These amino acids are essential for the growth of broilers (Emilina et al 2006). The highest weight gained was obtained with chicks fed with basic formulations supplemented with yogurt (batch 3: YOG). This figure can be divided into two steps: From week 1 to week 3. The produced bacteriocin displays antifungal activity against yeasts in the palm wine. The best performance of the group fed with yogurt (YOG) is mainly due to the nutrient content of the feed (metabolites synthetized) or the activity of probiotics in the digestive tract of the poultry. the trend was reversed. Collins et al 1998. These results justify those of the body weight of the broilers. and thus reducing gastro-intestinal infections in poultry (Nava et al 2005). (YEA+YOG): Basic formulation + yeasts of palm wine (1. Fooks and Gibson 2002). Naidu et al 1999). there was an increase in the feeding conversion index.5%) Figure 1. Sanders and In’t veld 1999). the effect of the feed was becoming more significant. we have chicks fed with palm wine (batch 2: YEA). It may contribute to the colonisation resistance of the host and its protection against gastrointestinal pathogens (Reid et al 2001. (YOG): Basic formulation + yogurt (3%). The difference in the weight becomes more significant every week. The lower the value is. bulgaricus (Bezkorovainy et al 1997. in our study. At equal quantity the feeding of the batch 3: YOG is more nutritious than other batches followed by batch 2: YEA and 4:YEA+YOG and then batch 1: STA containing less essential nutrients. Probiotic yeasts in palm wine (Ezeronye 2004) by their activities increase the amino acids content of the feeding especially lysin. Yeasts having been killed and the quantity of the yogurt supplement being half of the amount used in the case of batch only fed with yogurt. the association is detrimental. As regard to the general trend. The lowest values were noted with yogurt supplement (YOG). All the trends obtained from the feeding supplements were uniform throughout the experimental period. Effect of feeding supplementations on the average weight of broilers The trends of the different curves were ascending and regular. Sreekumar and Hosono 2000) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. (Klaenhammer and Kullen 1999.
Kobayashi M and Okamoto T 2000 In vitro studies on probiotic properties of lactococci. The mixed feeding has a detrimental effect on broilers at the ratio used (batch 4: YEA + YOG). Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 38: 13126 Nava G M. Bildlack W R and Clemens R A 1999 Probiotic spectra of lactic acid bacteria. MicrobiologieAliments-Nutrition 12: 93-98 Emilina S. British Journal of Nutrition 93: 783-786 Heller K J 2001 Probiotic bacteria in fermented foods: product characteristics and starter organisms. Perdigon G.Trends in Microbiology 9: 424-428 Sanders M E and in’t Veld J H 1999 Bringing a probiotic-containing functional food to the market: microbiology. Salminen. isolated form kefir grains and kefir starter made from them . Dimitrov Z and Spasov Z 2006 Amino acid profiles of lactic acid bacteria. Technique et Documentation. Probiotics and human gut microbiology. Pages 104-106 Collins J K.fass. Bauer J and Vogel R H 2002 Characterization of lactobacilli towards their use as probiotic adjuncts in poultry. Technique et Documentation. Thornton G and Sullivan G O 1998 Selection of Probiotic Strains for Human Applications. Bielke L R.org/cgi/reprint/83/5/931 .Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 86 (3): 235-240 Fooks L J. Fuller R and Gibson G R 1999 Prebiotics. S Koletzko B and Morelli L 2005 Should yogurt cultures be considered probiotic?. regulatory and labeling issue. Techcnologia Lactea Latinoamericana 10: 34-41 Bourgeois C M et Larpent J P 1989 Les fermentations alimentaires. Paris. Nomura M. Lavoisier. Paris. Kurzak P. International Dairy Journal 9: 53-61 Fooks L J and Gibson G R 2002 In vitro investigations of the effect of probiotics and prebiotics on selected human intestinal pathogens. References Berzkorovainy A.International Journal of Food Microbiology 107 (2): 112-123 Ehrmann M A. product. Journal of Applied Microbiology 92: 966-975 Ezeronye O U 2004 Nutrient utilization profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from palm wine fruit fermentation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73: 374S-379S Kimoto H. Corthier G. International Dairy Journal 8: 487-490 Cosson C et Deschamps A M 1994 Comportement de souches bactériennes probiotiques en présence de bile et de sels biliaires. Howard J and Gan B S 2001 Can interference prevent infection?. 2e Edition. The best result was obtained with the group fed with yogurt (batch 3: YOG) followed by the one fed with palm wine (batch 2: YEA). FEMS Microbiology Ecology 39: 67-75 Guarner F. Miller-Catchpole R and Kot E 1997 Health benefits of Bifidobacteria. Beshkova D. Food Research International 34 (9) 791796 Naidu A S. Inra. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 76: 293-315 Sreekumar O and Hosono A 2000 Immediate effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus on the intestinal flora and fecal enzymes of rats and in vitro inhibition of Escherichia coli in coculture. Paris. Lavoisier. Callaway T R and Castaneda M P 2005 Probiotic alternatives to reduce gastro6intestinal infections: the poultry experience 6: 105-118 Reid G. Journal of Dairy Science 82: 2530-2535 http://jds. Zejyashko S. 315 Pages Bourlioux P 1997 What is currently known about the molecular mechanisms of colonisation resistance? Anaerobe 3: 179-18 Coïc Y et Coppenet M 1989 Les oligo-éléments en agriculture et élevage. International Journal of Food Microbiology 50: 45-57 Larpent J P et Larpent-Gourgaud M 1990 Mémento technique de microbiologie. Pages 320-321 Lourens-Hattingh A and Wiljoen B C 2001 Growth and survival of a probiotic yeast in dairy products. Milchwissenschaft 55 (5) 245-249 Klaenhammer T R and Kullen M J 1999 Selection and design of Probiotics. Ohmomo S. Frengova G.
and eight to ten servings daily of fruits and vegetables. Accepted 2 January 2008. Yogurt is highly nutritious and is an excellent source of protein. The starter cultures—or probiotics—used to make yogurt are Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Lactobacillus casei and Bifidus. Yogurt is a component of the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet designed to reduce the risk of high blood pressure. acidophilus milk and fermented milk products. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that individuals ages nine and older consume three servings of milk. Yogurt (1 cup) Nutrient NF Fruit NF Plain LF Fruit LF Plain Artif sweetened . Yogurt and Lactose Intolerance Many people who are lactose intolerant can enjoy yogurt. and may reduce eczema in babies. children 4-8 years should consume 2-1/2 servings. Various forms of lactic acid bacteria added when manufacturing yogurt. Yogurt is a cultured milk product that is soured and thickened by the action of specific lactic acid-producing cultures added to milk. and topping with your favorite fruit Top waffles or pancakes with yogurt and sliced strawberries Enjoy a mid-day snack by blending yogurt. shortening the length and severity of sickness. many people suffer unpleasant side effects such as diarrhea. You can dip it. such as kefir. Ways to eat Yogurt Yogurt is extremely versatile. freeze it.Received 25 October 2007. spread it. which includes three servings a day of low-fat and fat-free milk. boost the immune system. This is because some antibiotics upset the balance of bacteria in the digestive tract. Eating foods rich in probiotics may help relieve these side effects of antibiotics. You can enjoy yogurt as a part of a meal. cheese or yogurt each day. calcium and potassium. tacos. When taking antibiotics. add fruit to it or eat it plain. Some common ones are Lactobacillus acidophilus. Health Benefits of Yogurt Other probiotics are often added to yogurt for their health effects. One serving of yogurt is one eight-ounce cup or container. has also been shown to reduce other risk factors for heart disease. intestinal pain and/or bloating. soups and chili—as an alternative to sour cream There are a wide range of yogurt flavors available and with texture options running from creamy custard-style to drinkable liquids. thickening the milk and adding the characteristic sour flavor. consult the table below. The lactic acid produced by the culture coagulates the milk protein. dry cereal or granola. Published 1 March 2008 Go to top Yogurt Nutrition Yogurt is often found on healthy food lists and for good reason. For a complete listing of the nutrients in yogurt. This diet. It provides numerous vitamins and minerals and is relatively low in calories. Here are some of the other ways you can enjoy yogurt: Make a breakfast parfait by layering yogurt. can help lessen the effects of lactose intolerance. fruit and juice to make a delicious smoothie Dip raw vegetables in plain yogurt Use yogurt for salad dressing and dips Serve plain yogurt on quesadillas. Yogurt contains lower amounts of lactose than milk because the lactose in yogurt is converted to lactic acid by the bacterial cultures. for dessert or for a snack. These probiotics can help maintain the balance of bacteria necessary for a healthy digestive system. yogurt and cheese.
3 5 2% 134 6% 402 11% 14 0% 0.1 137 14 19 19 0 0.5 15 5% 172 7% 573 16% 125 3% 1.5 25% 2.2 1% 47 12% 385 39% 0.7 3% 127 32% 372 37% 22 6% 0.3 2% 30 8% 247 25% 0.1 154 13 17 17 0 3.2 1% 37 9% 292 29% 0.7 24 1.2 20% 1.Kilocalories Protein (g) Carbohydrate (g) Sugars (g) Fiber (g) Total Fat (g) Calories from Fat Saturated Fat (g) Cholesterol Cholesterol (%DV) Sodium (mg) Sodium (%DV) Potassium (mg) Potassium (%DV) Vitamin A (IU) Vitamin A (%DV) Vitamin B12 (ug) Vitamin B12 (DV) Vitamin C (mg) Vitamin C (%DV) Vitamin D (IU) Vitamin D (DV) Calcium (mg) Calcium (%DV) Folate (ug) Folate (%DV) Iron (mg) Iron (%DV) Magnesium (mg) Magnesium (% DV) Phosphorus (mg) Phosphorus (%DV) Thiamin (mg) 233 11 47 47 0 0.4 4 0.12 250 11 47 47 0 2.98 16% 3 5% 0 0% 325 33% 18 5% 0.7 3% 127 32% 372 37% 22 6% 0.11 98 9 17 17 0 0.3 5 2% 189 8% 625 18% 17 0% 1.8 34 2.5 5 0.3 5 2% 142 6% 475 14% 29 1% 1.1 .2 20% 1.2 1% 42 11% 353 35% 0.5 5 0.4 23% 2 3% 2 1% 448 45% 27 7% 0.2 4% 0 0% 488 49% 29 7% 0.2 1% 37 9% 292 29% 0.7 10 3% 142 6% 478 14% 88 2% 1.
This is mainly due to the metabolism of S.3 2% 8% 0.2 1% Vitamins in yogurt Nutrients in yogurt: Production Macro-nutrients Vitamins Minerals Health benefits Nutritional composition References Water soluble vitamins The vitamin content of yogurts is variable depending on the type of yogurt and method of production.2 1% 7% 0. while vitamin E is an antioxidant which protects cell membranes and is needed for the immune system. Thiamin (vitamin B1) is necessary for carbohydrate metabolism. Vitamin A is necessary for normal eye function. thermophilus which uses up these B vitamins and leads to reduced content in the final product. neurological and cardiac function. Some lactic acid bacteria species such as S. A 150g serving of whole milk plain yogurt and low-fat plain yogurt will provide 23% and 45% of an adult’s daily B2 requirement respectively. Vitamins B12 and B6 are often significantly reduced in yogurt compared with milk. Yogurt is a provider of several B vitamins particularly.37 22% 0. but remains fairly similar to milk for the majority of vitamins. the folate content of yogurt can be significantly increased compared with milk -see the nutritional composition of yogurt Fat soluble vitaminsWhole milk yogurt is also a provider of the fat soluble vitamins A and E.3 2% 7% 0.Thiamin (%DV) Riboflavin (mg) Riboflavin (%DV) Niacin (mg) Niacin (%DV) 7% 0.44 26% 0.52 31% 0. However some varieties of yogurt are still useful dietary providers of these nutrients. Riboflavin is necessary for the release of energy from foods and healthy membranes and skin. . A 150g serving of whole milk plain yogurt and low-fat plain yogurt will provide 31% and 30% of an adult’s daily B2 requirement respectively.3 2% 7% 0. thermophilus and Bifidobacteria actually synthesise certain vitamins such as Folic acid and depending upon the bacterial strain used. riboflavin (vitamin B2) and thiamin (vitamin B1).44 26% 0.57 34% 0.
Carbohydrate The form of carbohydrate found in yogurt and all dairy products is the sugar known as lactose. This process lowers the lactose concentration in yogurt compared with milk and partly explains why individuals who have difficulty digesting lactose are able to tolerate yogurt better than milk . It is also important to note that the nutritional value of milk proteins is not affected by the fermentation process. Once the fermentation process begins. lactose is digested by up to 20-30% into its absorbable components. This is due to the pre-digestion of milk proteins that occurs through the action of the bacteria present in yogurt. Protein The protein in yogurt and milk is of high quality as it provides all of the amino acids the body needs to function correctly. glucose and galactose. whole milk yogurts tend to have the highest calorie content whilst low fat natural yogurts are lowest. Therefore flavoured.Macro-nutrients in yogurt Nutrients in yogurt: Production Macro-nutrients Vitamins Minerals Health benefits Nutritional composition References Energy The energy/calorie content of yogurt depends upon the type of yogurt consumed. Fat . The milk proteins in yogurt also have a higher content of the amino acids proline and glycine compared with milk and these proteins have additional functions in the body including enhancing calcium absorption and boosting the immune system. Lactose is digested by the enzyme lactase into glucose and galactose which are then absorbed and used to produce energy. Interestingly the protein present in yogurt tends to be more readily digested than the proteins present in milk.see section on lactose intolerance. However. the lactose content of yogurt is about 6%. Before fermentation. The protein content of yogurt is usually slightly higher than in milk because of the addition of non-fat dry milk during processing. due to the lower fat content. flavoured yogurts are usually higher in added sugars than natural yogurts and are consequently higher in calories. Natural yogurts made with semi skimmed or skimmed milks usually have a lower calorie content compared with natural yogurts made with whole milk.
If you're looking for a healthier and tastier alternative to that popular ice cream dessert. and coloring and flavoring agents. a naturally occurring fat. The fat present in milk goes through many biochemical changes during yogurt production. Frozen yogurt also has probiotics. Potassium. Another essential nutrient that can be obtained from eating frozen yogurt is protein. They contain a unique ―package of nutrients‖ that are an essential part of a healthy eating plan. bacteria that is healthful for humans.5 to 6% that is found in yogurt--compared to regular ice cream. such as beet or cane sugar. for instance. and also a reliable producer of hormones. mitigates the chances of calcium deficiency-related illnesses. Basic Ingredients Frozen yogurt is essentially made up of milk fat. after finding out the potentials that frozen yogurt offers. emulsifiers and stabilizers. This essential mineral's greatest benefit is that it significantly develops bone strength and density. animal and vegetable gelatins act as emulsifying and stabilizing agents. It is readily available because of its rich occurrence in dairy products. ranging from approximately 10% fat for full fat Greek style yogurts. this inimitable icy delight packs quite a wallop when it comes to the nutrition department. Yogurt has also shown to have increased concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). reduce . then it's time you switch to frozen yogurt. which is believed to boost the immune system and protect against cancers. In order to bring the frozen yogurt to an appropriate consistency. you should be able to realize that not only are you given the privilege of enjoying a cool and delectable respite. scientific evidence suggests that consuming milk products can boost immunity. Though not considered to be essential nutrients. reduce risk of diabetes. enhancement of immunity against certain diseases. but also a serving of essential nutrients for your greater wellbeing. It serves as the body's builder and repairer of tissues.3% fat. there are also carbohydrates present. sweeteners. the ―substitutes‖ are not the same. The use of natural sweeteners. frozen yogurt is loaded with a sundry of organic compounds that are necessary and beneficial to the body. Nutritional Content and Value Fitting the bill as a healthy alternative. such as lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacterium. and production of vitamins inside the body. 3% fat for whole milk yogurts.The fat content of yogurts varies depending on the product. In addition to building healthy bones. There is also an assortment of other notable vitamins and minerals that can be found in frozen yogurt that add on more benefits. The homogenisation and fermentation processes result in the breakdown of some of the fat into fatty acids which increases the digestion and absorption of the yogurt end product. in the form of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium. Some examples of these are improvement of digestion. Speaking of being nutritious. milk solids. while thiamine assists in the proper nervous system operation. Milk is not easily replaceable with other foods. corn syrup. helps in the proper blood pressure regulation. Research continues to identify positive ways that milk impacts health. The first one that comes to mind is the essential nutrient known as calcium. 1. yogurt culture. and at the same time. Food colors and flavors provide the distinct character for variation and appeal. Nutrients in Milk Milk and milk products are highly nutritious foods. and a host of other bodily chemicals. enzymes. proteins and carbohydrates. and riboflavin facilitates in the task of breaking down fats. Consequently. The bulk of the frozen yogurt is made up of milk solids that give it a sweet and smooth composition. which contains at least 10% due to the cream. lower blood pressure.7% fat for low fat yogurts and non-fat varieties containing less than 0. It basically gives you that same chill-induced satisfaction associated with ice cream without feeling the guilt of sacrificing that nutritious diet of yours. and corn syrup further enhance the sweetness to a much standard level. which provide that additional energy boost to the body. The presence of milk fat or buttermilk is minimal. The presence of these probiotics is another big plus because it has a wide range of potential benefits. Meanwhile. ranging from 0. the yogurt culture provides essential probiotics.
we favor low-fat dairy products rather than products made from whole milk although we understand that there are individuals for whom whole milk dairy products may appropriate. cheese and yogurt and the amount of nutrients per 8 ounce serving.7% vitamin B1222. Yoghurmak. For a detailed report on this topic. Additional information about the amount of these .1% calcium44. Yogurt is a fermented dairy product made by adding bacterial cultures to milk. which causes the transformation of the milk's sugar. Nutrients in Yogurt 1.risk for some cancers and support weight maintenance strategies by increasing satiety. into lactic acid.5% Calories (154)8% This chart graphically details the %DV that a serving of Yogurt provides for each of the nutrients of which it is a good.8% potassium16. adding cheese to salads and sandwiches.5% vitamin B514. This process gives yogurt its refreshingly tart flavor and unique pudding-like texture." As a general rule. easy and nutritious snack that is available year-round.2% vitamin B230. a quality that is reflected in its original Turkish name.8% tryptophan21. lactose.3% molybdenum15% zinc14.8% phosphorus35. which is important throughout life and specifically for athletes and the elderly. which means "to thicken. very good. Pouring a glass of milk with meals. For that reason. milk and milk products taste good. vitamin D and potassium. but researchers are finding evidence that milk and yogurt may actually add years to your life as is found in some countries where yogurt and other fermented dairy products (like kefir) are a dietary staple.00 cup (245. The following pages describe the nutrient content and health benefits of milk. are convenient. are affordable and—most importantly—they offer three of the four nutrients of concern that are often deficient in Americans’ diets: calcium. Milk Yogurt Cheese Dairy Desserts In addition to these health benefits.5% protein25. and snacking on yogurt are easy ways to satisfy these recommendations and create healthy eating habits for the whole family. Milk is an excellent source of high quality protein. the USDA recommends that adults consume three servings per day. Yogurt Not only is yogurt a wonderful quick. or excellent source according to our Food Rating System.00 grams) Nutrient%Daily Value iodine58. please read our report on the subject. The pages provide the percent Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Daily Value (DV) met by 14 key nutrients found in these milk products.
A human study has confirmed that a daily serving of probiotic-rich yogurt bolsters your body's ability to protect you from infection. Daily consumption of yogurt—both conventional. malnourished mice receiving lactobacillus casei were able to more effectively clear the pneumonia pathogen from their blood and had significantly less lung damage than controls. zinc. and parasites. But some of the most interesting health information about yogurt comes from a different context—its potential inclusion of live bacteria. The incidence of death for those subjects who ate yogurt and milk more than three times per week was 38% lower than the incidence of death those subjects who ate yogurt and other dairy foods less than once a week. which serve as our body's primary means of protection against infection by viruses. which would in turn increase resistance to immune-related diseases. In all groups of animals given lactobacillus casei. pantothenic acid-vitamin B5. may enhance the immune response. A link that takes you to the In-Depth Nutritional Profile for Yogurt. Researchers reported that a threefold decrease in infections was seen in these women. particularly in immunocompromised populations such as the elderly. Health Benefits Description History How to Select and Store How to Enjoy Individual Concerns Nutritional Profile References Health Benefits Our food ranking system qualified yogurt as a very good source of calcium. significantly improved the immune response and ability to fight off pneumonia in an animal study published in the Journal of Nutrition. . protein and molybdenum. Yogurt Boosts Immune Response Lactobacillus casei. After their 21-day protein-free diet. commercially available yogurt and probiotic yogurt (yogurt containing health-promoting bacteria)—stimulated cellular immunity in a study involving 33 healthy women aged 22-29 years. and may fortify your immune system. women who had frequent yeast infections ate 8 ounces of yogurt daily for 6 months. laboratory animals were fed a balanced conventional diet with or without supplemental lactobacillus casei for 7. potassium. yeasts. phosphorus. In one study. riboflavin-vitamin B2 and iodine. featuring information over 80 nutrients. cellular immunity is also critical in preventing the development of cancer. can be found under the Food Rating System Chart. Controls took 21 days to regain a normal immune response. then challenged with S. Yogurt also emerged from our analysis as a good source of vitamin B12. Yogurt that contains live bacterial cultures may help you to live longer. In addition. Research studies have shown that increased yogurt consumption. These 10 nutrients alone would make yogurt a health-supportive food. who received only the balanced conventional diet. pneumoniae. but test animals fed the friendly bacteria recovered normal immunity in just 7 days! In addition. Cellular immunity—our immune system's first line of defense—involves special white cells (typically T cell lymphocytes and neutrophils). Yogurt for A Longer Life The highest quality yogurt in your grocery store contains live bacteria that provides a host of health benefits.nutrients provided by Yogurt can be found in the Food Rating System Chart. normalization of the immune response and recovery occurred much more quickly than in controls. One research study tracked a population of 162 very elderly people for five years. (Consuming citrus fruit twice a week and a lowered consumption of meat were also associated with decreased incidence of death). 14 or 21 days. a strain of friendly bacteria found in cultured foods like yogurt and kefir. Eating yogurt may help to prevent vaginal yeast infections.
but their HDL (good) cholesterol substantially increased.) In addition. For the first 2 weeks. just mix a cup of yogurt with a quarter cup of extra virgin olive oil and your favorite herbs and spices. In the women consuming probiotic yogurt. the women consumed 6 ounces (200 g) daily of either the conventional or the probiotic yogurt. Here are just a few ways to enjoy yogurt: Top your daily cup of yogurt with a quarter-cup of granola. CD69 promotes the production and activation of more lymphocytes. (Meyer AL.In this study. The take-home message: adding a daily cup of yogurt—preferably a yogurt with probiotic bacteria—to your healthy way of eating is an easy and delicious way to improve your cholesterol profile. childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the U. the increase in CD69 indicates an increase in immune system defense capability. in women volunteers. So. childhood obesity is already three times higher than it was just over 10 years ago. given the rate at which childhood obesity is rising in the West: consumption of calcium-rich foods was found to be negatively correlated with body fat. Study participants' white blood cells were checked both at the beginning of the study and after each phase. In this study. not only did the ability of immune cells to effectively kill pathogens increased following intake of the yogurt. and the International Obesity Task Force recently reported that in the UK. a handful of nuts. they consumed either 3 ounces (100 g) each day of a conventional yogurt or 3 ounces daily of a yogurt containing added probiotics (health-promoting bacteria). (Fabian E. not only did levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol decrease significantly. For a creamy salad dressing or vegetable dip. Then both groups were given 6 ounces (200 g) of the type of yogurt they had been consuming for 2 more weeks. while a second group of 16 women were given 3 ounces of conventional yogurt daily for 2 weeks. The study ended with a final 2 weeks during which both groups of women ate no yogurt. Results found a significant (30. Raises HDL Cholesterol Daily consumption of 3 ounces (100 g) of probiotic yogurt (yogurt containing health-promoting bacteria) significantly improved the cholesterol profile. These results suggest that enjoying a daily cup of yogurt—either conventional or probiotic—may boost immune function. and a significant increase in the expression of CD69 on T lymphocytes among subjects consuming both probiotic and conventional yogurts. one group of 17 women consumed 3 ounces (100 g) a day of probiotic yogurt. Creamy yogurt. . Lower Body Fat Linked to Consumption of Calcium-Rich Foods A prospective study published in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association gives parents yet another reason to consider regularly including low-fat dairy products such as yogurt in their children's healthy way of eating. although their HDL did not rise. yams or other cooked vegetables. delicious and sustaining breakfast. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism). (CD69 is one of the first cell surface molecules expressed on lymphocytes after they are called into action. and some frozen berries or dried fruit for a quick.7%) increase in the numbers of T lymphocytes among women consuming the probiotic yogurt.S. but this effect persisted in the washout period after the women had stopped their daily yogurt consumption. Yogurt Lowers LDL. with the number of overweight children more than doubling in the last three decades. According to the New England Journal of Medicine. the women were divided into two groups. lowering LDL (bad) cholesterol while raising HDL (good) cholesterol. Women consuming conventional yogurt also experienced a significant drop in LDL cholesterol. Once expressed. This was followed by a 2 week washout period in which no yogurt or other fermented foods were consumed.8 to 32.. For the following 2 weeks. chives. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism). and freshly ground sea salt and pepper make a great topping for baked potatoes.
It may be due to the fact that calcium reduces fat cells' ability to store fat. 41 obese subjects. Not only did those in the yogurt group lose more fat. and the high dairy foods group 24 pounds. but may help explain why. especially around their waistlines. . Dr. If you're tyring to lose weight. Dr. while total dietary fat or saturated fat intake and amount of sedentary activity (hours/day) were positively correlated. Another study published in Obesity Research suggests that calcium's weight loss benefits extend to adults as well. Plus. The current study's lead author. Significantly Increases Fat Loss In just 3 months. Yogurt. it may be due to the branched chain amino acids present in dairy products. and 66% of the fat lost in those getting their calcium from dairy foods. eating more calcium-rich foods. At the conclusion of the study.In this prospective longitudinal study.5-3. The first group received a low (430 mg/day) calcium diet. 50% of the fat lost in those on the high calcium diet. such as low fat milk and yoghurt and to increase physical activity. In this study. Taken together these data suggest that increasing calcium intake by the equivalent of two dairy servings per day could reduce the risk of overweight substantially. but they also retained more lean. researchers at the University of Tennessee assessed the height. and the rate at which their bodies burned fat after a meal was assessed at the beginning and end of the study. indicates that adding one or two servings of yogurt to your daily diet can help you maximize loss of fat and minimize loss of muscle—the optimal outcome for any diet. How yogurt promotes fat loss while preserving muscle is still a matter of debate. and less is produced in the liver. muscle tissue than subjects on the yoghurt-free diet. starting when the children were 2 months of age and following them for 8 years. Or. In addition. advised that children should be encouraged to regularly eat calcium-rich foods. perhaps by as much as 70 percent. Normal-weight women ranging in age from 18-30 years were randomly assigned to a low (less than 800 mg per day) or high (1000-1400 mg per day) calcium diet for 1 year. so cells burn more. Dietary calcium and polyunsaturated fat intake were negatively related to percent of body fat. may really help. Earlier studies have also reported a negative association between calcium intake and body fat accumulation during childhood and between calcium intake and body weight at midlife. yogurt and kefir. especially around the midsection. 32 of whom completed the study. weight and dietary intake of 52 children (girls and boys). Each 300 mg increment in regular calcium intake has been consistently associated with approximately 1 kg less body fat in children and 2. Regardless. were divided into three groups and put on diets designed to result in the loss of one pound per week for 24 weeks. And the third group ate a diet with enough dairy foods to provide about 1100 mg calcium each day. especially low fat dairy foods such as cow's milk. the high calcium group 19 pounds.0 kg lower body weight in adults. Calcium-rich Dairy Foods Boost the Body's Fat Burning After a Meal Yet another study suggests those ads linking a daily cup of yogurt to a slimmer silhouette have a real basis in scientific fact. this study. the low calcium group had lost almost 15 pounds. 16 obese men and women on a reduced calorie diet that included three daily portions of yogurt lost 61% more fat and 81% more abdominal fat than 18 obese subjects assigned to a diet with the same number of calories but little or no dairy products and low amounts of calcium. Jean Skinner. published in the International Journal of Obesity. Specifically. All diets contained the same number of calories and were designed to provide subjects with a calorie deficit of 500 calories per day. fat lost from the midsection represented an average of 19% of total fat loss in those on the low calcium diet. The second group got the same diet with enough supplemental calcium to bring their daily intake up to 1200 mg. Skinner recommended that carbonated soft drinks and other nutrient-poor beverages be restricted since children's intake of carbonated beverages and other sweetened drinks was found to be negatively related to their calcium intake. Research published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition not only confirms earlier studies showing a calciumrich diet is associated with fat loss.
At the conclusion of the study. may be better for building bone than taking a calcium supplement. To find out. Dairy Foods Better than Calcium Supplements for Growing Girls' Bones For young girls going through the rapid growth spurts of puberty. One group was given supplemental calcium (1000 mg) + vitamin D3 (200 IU) each day. Because lactobacillus has already demonstrated beneficial effects in other inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disorders. it appears that a high-calcium diet increases fat oxidation.06 gram per minute). an iron-binding protein that boosts the growth and activity of osteoblasts (the cells that build bone). . the cells that build cartilage. getting calcium from dairy products. and the fourth group was given a placebo supplement. girls getting their calcium from cheese had higher whole-body bone mineral density and cortical thickness of the tibia than girls given supplemental calcium + vitamin D. 0. parathyroid hormone is secreted to instruct bone cells to release calcium into the bloodstream. supplemental calcium alone. The second group received only supplemental calcium (1000 mg/day).) Higher blood levels of parathyroid hormone were associated with a lower rate of fat oxidation and lower dietary calcium intake. at least in part. For building bone. thus keeping blood levels of the hormone low. Boost the Body's Ability to Build Bone It's not just its calcium that makes yogurt a bone-friendly food. a probiotic (friendly) bacteria found in yogurt offers "remarkable preventive and curative" effects on arthritis. by lessening the need for parathyroid hormone secretion. enjoying both milk and yogurt seems a good idea since lactoferrin's effects were found to be dosedependent. While the researchers noted that differences in the rate at which different children naturally grow might account for some of the differences seen in bone mineral density. say Israeli researchers in a study published in the Journal of Nutrition. When calcium levels drop too low. So. The third group ate cheese supplying 1. it also reduces the rate at which these cells die by up to 5070%. Finnish researchers enrolled 195 healthy girls aged 10-12 years and divided them into 4 groups. and whole body. they ran two groups of animal experiments. spine. and the radius and tibia were checked by peripheral quantitative computed tomography.10 vs. researchers thought it might also lessen the inflammation of arthritis. or placebo. stimulating an up to a 5-fold increase in osteoblasts at higher doses. cow's milk and fermented milk products such as yogurt and kefir also contain lactoferrin. such as yogurt. In addition. who were burning fat more rapidly after a meal. fat oxidation (burning) was higher in women eating the high calcium diet compared to those in the lowcalcium control group (0.000 mg of calcium each day. while lower blood levels of parathyroid hormone levels were seen in the women consuming a diet high in calcium. they concluded: "Increasing calcium intake by consuming cheese appears to be more beneficial for cortical bone mass accrual than the consumption of tablets containing a similar amount of calcium. (The primary function of parathyroid hormone is to maintain normal levels of calcium in the body. The women's blood levels of parathyroid hormone were also checked and were found to correlate with their rate of fat oxidation." Help Prevent and Heal Arthritis Lactobacillus. and decreases the formation of osteoclasts (the cells responsible for breaking down bone) thus helping to prevent or reverse osteoporosis.After 1 year. lactoferrin also increases the proliferation of chondocytes. Not only does lactoferrin increase osteoblast differentiation. DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) scans were run to check bone indexes of the hip. suggests a study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. At the beginning and end of the study.
Yogurt is available in a variety of different flavors. sour cream and butter. lactose. Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermopholis are the lactic acid bacteria usually used to make yogurt in the United States. Reduce Your Risk of Colorectal Cancer Although we've focused on the benefits of low-fat yogurt.2 ounces (90 grams) of yogurt twice a day not only lowers levels of hydrogen sulfide and other volatile sulfide compounds responsible for bad breath. although plain yogurt is the simplest. subjects were given the C-urea breath test. cream.In both sets of experiments. In this study. such as whole milk. History . which causes the transformation of the milk's sugar. these dairy foods contain a number of potentially cancer-preventive factors. pylori ate yogurt containing the probiotic bacteria Lactobaciullus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis twice daily after a meal. while those fed plain yogurt experienced only moderate inflammation. This process gives yogurt its refreshingly tart flavor and unique pudding-like texture. had no effect. Be careful when selecting yogurt and choose yogurts that contain live cultures—highest quality prodcts will often indicate exactly how many live bacteria are contained in the product. The animals that received just lactobacillus. So impressed were the researchers with the study's results that they recommended trials using commercial yogurts containing lactobacilli in arthritic patients. which means "to thicken". Eat Yogurt Consuming just 3. suggests a study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Milk. may significantly reduce risk for colorectal cancer. In those receiving the yogurt containing probiotics. for six weeks. For each increment of 2 servings of high-fat dairy foods a woman consumed each day.8 years. can be shut down by yogurt. while research continues to indicate that it is wise to limit your intake of saturated fat by cutting back on servings of high-fat meats. and risk for gingivitis. while 11 others received a milk placebo. but may also eliminate tongue-coating bacteria and reduce dental plaque formation.pylori to allow it to penetrate and infect the stomach lining. Protection against Ulcers Helicobater pylori the bacterium responsible for most ulcers. even heat-killed lactobacillus. however. into lactic acid. also showed significant benefit. laboratory animals fed the yogurt with large amounts of lactobacilli had the least amount of arthritic inflammation. most wholesome and versatile. which measures the amount of urease. her risk of colorectal cancer dropped 13%. kefir. enjoying full-fat versions of yogurt and other dairy products may actually be protective. a quality that is reflected in its original Turkish name. After eight weeks. Description Yogurt is a fermented dairy product made by adding bacterial cultures to milk. 48 adult volunteers infected with H. over 60.000 women aged 40-76 years were followed during an average of 14. Certain varieties of yogurts also feature a fruit mixture strewn throughout. H. Those women who ate at least 4 servings of high-fat dairy foods each day were found to have a 41% lower risk of colorectal cancer compared to women eating less than a serving of high-fat dairy foods daily. In this study. cheese. including a protective fat called conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). For Fresh Breath and a Healthy Mouth. an enzyme used by H. The sugar-free yogurt eaten by 24 volunteers in this 6-week study was fermented with two strains of probiotic (friendly) bacteria: streptococci and lactobacilli. which has also been shown to be cardioprotective. The lactic acid bacteria that are traditionally used to make yogurt—Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus—also confer on yogurt many of its health benefits. Yoghurmak. So. cavities. Although high in saturated fat. a study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition indicates that enjoying full-fat yogurt and other full-fat dairy foods.pylori activity was effectively suppressed.
while fruit-filled yogurt can be a delicious treat. Although the aim of pasteurization is to kill any harmful bacteria.While it is unclear when and where yogurt was developed. Today. the recognition of yogurt's special health benefits did not become apparent in Western Europe and North America until the 20th century. and Israel. to fully enjoy the benefits of yogurt. How to Enjoy A Few Quick Serving Ideas Toss cubes of cooked eggplant with plain yogurt. Russia and Eastern European countries. Check the expiration date on the side of the yogurt container to make sure that it is still fresh. alternate layers of yogurt and your favorite fruits. as a result of research done by Dr. Yogurt is a great base for salad dressings. flavors and varieties. whose armies were sustained by this healthful food. Yet. while others do not. fermented dairy products were probably consumed for thousands and thousands of years. garlic and cayenne. India. Yogurt parfaits are a visual as well as delicious treat. Eastern Europe and Asia. Metchnikoff conducted research on the health benefits of lactic acidproducing bacteria and postulated that the longevity of peoples of certain cultures. Individual Concerns Allergic Reactions to Cow's Milk Products Although allergic reactions can occur to virtually any food. it also kills the beneficial lactic acid bacteria in the yogurt. flavorings or sweeteners. Yogurt and other fermented dairy products have long been a staple in the diets of cultures of the Middle East. food labels have been required to identify the presence of any major food allergens. It is becoming more widely available in an array of sizes. such as the Bulgarians. One of the first records of yogurt consumption comes from the Middle East during the times of the Conqueror Genghis Khan in the 13th century. in several part of the world. research studies on food allergy consistently report more problems with some foods than with others. beginning in 2004 with the passage of the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA). For example. be aware that oftentimes these yogurt products contain excess sugar. In a large wine glass. was related to their high consumption of yogurt and fermented dairy products. Japan. Store yogurt in the refrigerator in its original container. In the United States. it will stay fresh for about one week past the expiration date. Mix cold cereal or granola with yogurt for a twist on the traditional cereal and milk breakfast. substantially reducing its health benefits. chopped mint leaves. including Canada. ever since the beginning of the domestication of cows. Look for yogurt made from organic milk. Therefore. Greece. look for those that feature "live active cultures" or "living yogurt cultures— on the label. Add chopped cucumber and dill weed to plain yogurt. Elie Metchnikoff. click Recipes. Asia. sesame seed allergy has risen to a level of major concern over the past 10 years. It's important to realize that the frequency of problems varies from country to country and can change significantly along with changes in the food supply or with other manufacturing practices. If unopened. and countries in the Middle East. Avoid yogurts that have artificial colors. Simply place plain yogurt in the blender with enough water to achieve your desired consistency. How to Select and Store Some yogurt manufacturers pasteurize their yogurt products. Dr. Eat this delicious and cooling salad as is or use as an accompaniment to grilled chicken or lamb. Additionally. yogurt plays an important role in many different world cuisines including Turkey. such as Bulgaria. Since 90% of food . Add to this your favorite herbs and spices. For some of our favorite recipes.
(5) crustacean shellfish (including shrimp. molybdenum. prawns. The 8 food types classified as major allergens are as follows: (1) wheat. (To view this food's in-depth nutritional profile that includes values for dozens of nutrients . it does not necessarily mean that the food doesn't contain it. fatty acids.allergies in the U. Because most food allergy symptoms can be caused by a variety of other health problems. it is these 8 food types that are considered to be major food allergens in the U. soluble and insoluble fiber. isolated form in order to trigger an adverse reaction. including carbohydrates. Nutritional Profile Yogurt is a very good source of iodine. we adopted the government standards for food labeling that are found in the U. the percent Daily Value (DV%) that this amount represents. chronic bowel problems (such as diarrhea or constipation). pecans. it is good practice to seek the help of a healthcare provider when evaluating the role of food allergies in your health. and dizziness or lightheadedness. almonds. returning to the chart itself. and can include skin rash. or good . trouble breathing. even though the cow's milk has been processed and fermented in order to make the yogurt. you can look next to the nutrient name in order to find the nutrient amount it offers.S. and vitamin B2. sodium. minerals. lobster and crab). Their report on rBGH noted that cows injected with the growth hormone reportedly have a 25 percent increase in risk of mastitis. depression. tingling in the mouth. (6) tree nuts (including cashews. vitamins. and require identification on food labels. For an in-depth nutritional profile click here: Yogurt. swelling of the lips. the nutrient density that we calculated for this food and nutrient. and (8) soy foods. For example. (3) hen's eggs.not just the ones rated as excellent. chronic headache.S. potassium. Another independent Canadian scientific committee found there was no direct risk to human health. Centers for Disease Control. walnuts. (2) cow's milk. The following chart shows the nutrients for which this food is either an excellent.please use the link below the chart. Food allergy symptoms may sometimes be immediate and specific. groups have opposed the use of the hormone. Brazil nuts. Canada has banned the use of this hormone in cows.S. pistachios.) To read this chart accurately. This profile includes information on a full array of nutrients. hazelnuts and chestnuts). It is also a good source of protein. Several U. Yogurt and rBGH Cows may be treated with a compound called recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH). Food and Drug . amino acids and more. (7) peanuts. very good. But food allergy symptoms may also be much more general and delayed. For most of our nutrient ratings. and eczema. In-Depth Nutritional Profile In addition to the nutrients highlighted in our ratings chart. It simply means that the nutrient is not provided in a sufficient amount or concentration to meet our rating criteria. vitamin B12. itching. calcium.S. tongue. sugar. an in-depth nutritional profile for Yogurt is also available. yogurt made from cow's milk is also a common allergenic food.S. phosphorus. based on research from Canadian scientists. or good source (below the chart you will find a table that explains these qualifications). One concern is that cows with mastitis are treated with antibiotics. Ice cream made from cow's milk would be an equally good example. (4) fish. you'll need to glance up in the top left corner where you will find the name of the food and the serving size we used to calculate the food's nutrient composition. have been associated with 8 food types as reported by the U. wheezing or nasal congestion. and a 50 percent increase in the risk of lameness. and the rating we established in our rating system. The best way to ensure that you buy milk that has not been treated with rBGH is to buy organic dairy products. If a nutrient is not listed in the chart. an 18 percent increase in the risk of infertility. These foods do not need to be eaten in their pure. This system allows us to highlight the foods that are especially rich in particular nutrients. and can include fatigue. zinc and pantothenic acid. we created a Food Rating System. or throat. Now. Introduction to Food Rating System Chart In order to better help you identify foods that feature a high concentration of nutrients for the calories they contain. very good. hives. and insomnia. This serving size will tell you how much of the food you need to eat to obtain the amount of nutrients found in the chart.
Clovis. Lin JM. Palmano KP. Mahonen A.00 grams 154.1 6.35 mg 44. Mor F. Endocrinology. Callon KE. . 2006.00 cup 245.7 good tryptophan 0.134(8):1964-1969. 1999.8 good zinc 2.8 5. Robertson MJ.82(5):1115-26.30 mg 16. Influence of daily consumption of probiotic and conventional yoghurt on the plasma lipid profile in young healthy women. Halpern M. Vaananen KH. Banovic T.7 3. Fabian E.22 mcg 58.145(9):4366-74.7 good vitamin B5 1. 2005.9 good molybdenum 11. Cornish J. Ivaska KK.45 mg 14. Lamberg-Allardt C. 1986. Reid HE. Pena J.18 mg 14. Weinberger A. Ciampa L. et al.6 AND DV>=10% DV>=50% OR very good Density>=3.5 1.Administration's "Reference Values for Nutrition Labeling. Haggarty NW. J Nutr. Epidemiology 2000 Jul. Bava U. PMID:15166119. Effects of calcium. Korpela R. Tylavsky F.6 3. Ensminger AH.50(4):387-93. PMID:15284384." Read more background information and details of our rating system. Forastiere F.6 very good protein 12. Yogurt 1. Koistinen A. Borrego F. al. Fazzalari N. e.35 calories DV Nutrient World's Healthiest Nutrient Amount (%) Density Foods Rating iodine 87. Ann Nutr Metab. J. PMID:16816529. Chan VA.0 1. Lyytikainen A. Lactobacillus GG Bacteria Ameliorate Arthritis in Lewis Rats. 2004.4 1.1 very good vitamin B2 0. 2000.11(4):440-5.97(1):159-65. Diet and overall survival in a cohort of very elderly people. Grey AB. Ritz J. PMID:10447727. PMID:15210. PMID:16280447.0 good vitamin B12 1. Wang QJ.27 mcg 15.4 AND DV>=5% DV>=25% OR good Density>=1.5 AND DV>=2. Lactoferrin is a potent regulator of bone cell activity and increases bone formationin vivo. 1999.37 mcg 22. Baker HM. Suominen H. Nicholson PH. . Alen M. Elmadfa I. 2004 Aug. Kroger H.3 4. 1986. Suuriniemi M.07 g 21. Linda Ciampa CNN. Fortes C.com. Food for Health: A Nutrition Encyclopedia. 2006. Immunology.80 mg 35.2 very good phosphorus 352. 1999 May. June 15. Chen Q.86 g 25. Esminger M. Naot D.5% In-Depth Nutritional Profile for Yogurt References Baharav E. Am J Clin Nutr. and vitamin D supplementation on bone mass accrual and body composition in 10-12-y-old girls: a 2-y randomized trial. Reid IR.6 good potassium 573. 2005 Nov. Baker EN. 2004. Ohlsson C. Watson M.8 very good calcium 448. dairy product. Tong PC. Cheng S. CD69 is a stimulatory receptor for natural killer cell and its cytotoxic effect is blocked by CD94 inhibitory receptor. Consumer groups seek to ban growth hormone for dairy cows.9 2. Farchi S. California: Pegus Press. 2004 Sep. Epub 2006 Jun 30 .5 1. Solana R. K.8 2.52 mg 30.7 good World's Healthiest Foods Rating Rule DV>=75% OR excellent Density>=7.
Baltimore.80(3):737-41. Wang W. Daily intake of probiotic as well as conventional yogurt has a stimulating effect on cellular immunity in young healthy women. Heaney RP. 2005. PMID:15321816. Gunther CW. Meyer AL. 2005. Dairy augmentation of total and central fat loss in obese subjects. 2002. High fat dairy food and conjugated linoleic acide intakes in relation to colorectal cancer incidence in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Rebecca. Effect of ingesting Lactobacillusand Bifidobacterium-containing yogurt in subjects with colonized Helicobacter pylori. Su Y. 2006. Bergkvist L.50(3):282-9. Gomi K. McCabe GP. Longitudinal calcium intake is negatively related to children's body fat indexes. MD. Barger-Lux MJ. 1988. Carruth BR. Micksche M. Am J Clin Nutr 2000 Apr. Racedo S. 21(2): 152S-155S. Immunologic effects of yogurt. Richards J. Lactobacillus casei Improves Resistance to Pneumococcal Respiratory Infection in Malnourished Mice. Bru E. 2005. PMID:15220.29:391-397. The Whole Foods Encyclopedia. New York. Am J Clin Nutr 2001 Dec 74. Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 1. 2002 Apr. Aguero G. Obes Res. Wolk A. Calcium and dairy acceleration of weight and fat loss during energy restriction in obese adults. et al. Milstead A. NY: Prentice-Hall Press. Hojo K. 2005. Ann Nutr Metab. 2004. 2003. 1988. Alvarez S. Int J Obesity 2005 January. Wood. Paper presented at the 83rd General Session. Skinner JD. Hilton E. Herbacek I. Am J Clin Nutr. PMID:15672113. James JM. Medina M. Maeda N. Effects of Yoghurt on the Human Oral Microbiota and Halitosis. Campbell P. Wu D. Morris K. 2005 Dec. Bounds W. Davies KM.71(4):861-72.103(12):1626-31. 2006. PMID:16332655. 2005 Oct. 2001. Ziegler P. Alperstein P. Peacock M. Elmadfa I. Lyle RM. Larsson SC.74(6):833-9. Mathis S. Milstead A. PMID:16508257. Villena J. 2003 Dec. Teegarden D. . J Am Diet Assoc. Gebhardt L. . 2005. Liu C. 2004. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Sep.116(5):353-7. Rutherfurd KJ. 2004 Apr. Enhancement of immunity in the elderly by dietary supplementation with probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis HN019. Silva E. Meydani SN. McCabe LD. Zemel MB. Jan C. Isenberg HD. Ohshima T. Gill HS. 2005 Jun. Am J Clin Nutr.82(4):894-900.135(6):1462-9. Calcium and weight: clinical studies. International Association for Dental Research. Ingestion of yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus as prophylaxis for candidal vaginitis. J Am Coll Nutr. Wang T. 2000. Wang K. March 10. 1992. 2005. Thompson W. PMID:16210722. Perug D. PMID:15930453.12(4):582-90. Zemel M. Cross ML. Li S. J Nutr. Yashima A. Lai C. Fat oxidation and its relation to serum parathyroid hormone in young women enrolled in a 1-y dairy calcium intervention. Ha WK. Epub 2006 Feb 23. Legowski PA.82(6):1228-34.
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