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Submitted in the partial fulfillment for the award of degree
OF BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL)
SUBMITTED BY: PUNEET KUMAR
INSTITUTE OF INNOVATION IN TECHNOLOGY &MANAGEMENT
(Affiliated by GGSIP University, Delhi,)
I, Mr. Puneet kumar Roll No. 15490301710 certify that the Minor Project Report (Paper Code BBA-211) entitled “IMPORTANCE OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT SKILLS” is completed by me by collecting the material from the referenced sources. The matter embodied in this has not been submitted earlier for the award of any degree or diploma to the best of my knowledge and belief. DATE
Certified that the Minor Project Report (Paper Code BBA-211) entitled “Habits of great people” Done by Mr. Puneet kumar , Roll No.15490301710, is completed under my guidance.
Countersigned Director/Project Coordinator
This project is an attempt to study “Importance of Disaster Management skills” I am very grateful to my my Institute faculty who has helped me to carry out this project. I sincerely acknowledge (project guide) who was with me
throughout my project & taught me the basics of “Importance of Disaster Management skills” . She has given me all valuable suggestions, support & inspiration in writing & preparing the project. In spite of her busy schedule she has never hesitated to spare her valuable time for reviewing, rectifying this work and for clearing my doubts regarding my topics as well as providing the necessary guidance, whenever it was required. I would like to thank all those who were associated with my study in direct or indirect way of sharing their experience & information to enhance my understanding. Thank you Puneet kumar (15490301710)
Table of Contents
Certificate……………………………………………………................. Acknowledgment………………………………………………………. (i) (ii)
Chapter -1 INTRODUCTION…………………………………..6 1.1 Executive Summary……………………………………6-7 1.2 Overview……………………………………………......7 1.3 Objectives of the project and study………………….8 1.4 Research and Methodology………………………….8-13 1.5 Limitations……………………………………………13
Chapter-2 THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK…………………14 2.1 Introduction…………………………………...................14-15 2.2 Disaster Mitigation……………………………………15-26 2.3 Awareness about Disasters……………………………27-30
Chapter-3 THE DISASTER MANAEGEMENT…………….31-32 3.1 Importance of Disaster Management………………..32-33 3.2 Role of Municipalities in Disaster Management……33-34 3.3 Place Declared as Diaster Area……………………..34-35 3.4 Identifying Disaster Hazards………………………35 3.5 Prevent Disasters…………………………………….35-36 3.6 Prevention of Fire Disasters………………………...37
Chapter-4 SCHEME OF NATURAL DISASTERS……………38 4.1 Brief Note…………………………………………………38-41 4.2 Status position of Natural Diasater…………………….41-42
Chapter-5 DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE……………..43-45 5.1 Types of Disasters………………………………………..45 5.2 Victims and Survivors…………………………………...46 5.3 The Second Disaster……………………………………..46-47 5.4 Pecularities of Tsunami………………………………....47 5.5 Psycho Social aspects of Disaster……………………...48 5.6 Post traumatic stress disorder………………………..49 5.7 Disaster syndrome………………………..50 5.8 Meaning of loss………………………..50-51 Chapter-6 APPROACHES…………………………………….52 6.1 Integrated approach……………………………………52-53 6.2 The latest perspective………………………………….53-54 6.3 Workshop and Councelling……………………………55-56 6.4 Quality Statistics……………………………………….57-58 6.5 Conclusion………………………………………………59 6.6 Measures to solve the problems………………………60
CHAPTER1- INTRODUCTION 1.1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARRY
The Yokohama message emanating from the international decade for natural disaster reduction in May 1994 underlined the need for an emphatic shift in the strategy for disaster mitigation. It was inter-alia stressed that disaster prevention, mitigation, preparedness and relief are four elements which contribute to and gain, from the implementation of the sustainable development policies. These elements along with environmental protection and sustainable development, are closely inter related. Therefore, nations should incorporate them in their development plans and ensure efficient follow up measures at the community, sub-regional, regional, national and international levels. The Yokohama Strategy also emphasized that disaster prevention,
mitigation and preparedness
are better than disaster response in achieving the goals and
objectives of vulnerability reduction. Disaster response alone is not sufficient as it yields only temporary results at a very high cost. Prevention and mitigation contribute to lasting
improvement in safety and are essential to integrated disaster management.
The Government of India have adopted mitigation and prevention as essential components of their development strategy. The Tenth Five Year Plan document has a detailed chapter on Disaster Management. The plan emphasizes the fact that development cannot be sustainable without mitigation being built into developmental process. Each State is supposed to prepare a plan scheme for disaster mitigation in accordance with the approach outlined in the plan. In brief, mitigation is being institutionalized into developmental planning.
The Finance Commission makes recommendations with regard to devolution of funds between the Central Government and State Governments as also outlays for relief and rehabilitation. The
earlier Finance Commissions were mandated to look at relief and rehabilitation. The Terms of Reference of the Twelfth Finance Commission have been changed and the Finance Commission has been mandated to look at the requirements for mitigation and prevention apart from its existing mandate of looking at relief and rehabilitation. A Memorandum has been submitted to the Twelfth Finance Commission after consultation with States. The Memorandum proposes a Mitigation Fund.
1.2 OVERVIEW The repertoire of Indigenous Knowledge that communities in the four study areas – Kenya, Tanzania, Swaziland and South Africa – draw on to deal with natural disasters is very large. This knowledge serves communities well within the traditional power structures. The successful application of this knowledge is based on good prognosis, close observation and a thorough understanding of the local environment. These elaborate power structures ensure that communities are properly guided on the actions to take to prevent or mitigate disasters. Signs of coming disaster are obvious to everyone and this leads to instinctive response and preparation for coming events without necessarily being instructed as such by elders. People revere elders in their role of divining climatic conditions and natural disasters. The culture and belief system of a community also influences its response to disaster. In most communities disasters were believed to be of supernatural origin and as such the communities affected resigned themselves to the fact that they had no power to stop them once triggered but could only mitigate their effects.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT & STUDY
The main objectives of the project are: 1.) To understand the concepts disaster mangement skills 2.) To study about disater management. 3.) To explain what are disater mangement skills. 4.) To explain the importanve of disaster management skills. 5.) To find the strategy for development of disaster management
1.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Without proper methods one cannot make a project.for this purpose research design is required.Research deisgn is blue print for collection,measurement and analysis of data.it is framework of project that stimulates what informationm is to be collected from which sources and by what procedure.
there are four types of research metdology which are as follow:
1.) DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH. 2.) EXPLORATORY RESEARCH. 3.) EXPLANATORY RESEARCH. 4.) CONCLUSIVE RESEARCH.
Descriptive research is used to obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena to describe “what exists” with respect to variables or conditions in a situation. The methods involved range from the survey which describes the status, the correlation study which investigates the relationship between variables, to developmental studies which seek to determine changes over time. Descriptive research is also called Statistical Research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this research is highly accurate, it does not gather the causes behind a situation. Descriptive research is mainly done when a researcher wants to gain a better understanding of a topic for example, a frozen ready meals company learns that there is a growing demand for fresh ready meals but does not know much about the area of fresh food and so has to carry out research in order to gain a better understanding. It is quantitative and uses surveys and panels and also the use of probability sampling. Descriptive research is the exploration of the existing certain phenomena. The details of the facts won‟t be known. The existing phenomena facts are not known to the persons.
THE PRESENT RESEARCH IS OF DESCRIPTIVE IN NATURE. This project is of descriptive in nature because it is used to obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena to describe “what exists” with respect to variables or conditions in a situation. The methods involved range from the survey which describes the status, the correlation study which investigates the relationship between variables, to developmental studies which seek to determine changes over time. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. It is mainly done when a researcher wants to gain a better understanding of a topic.
DATA COLLECTION: It refers to collection of information .for a research to suceed rawfacts must be collected in a form which helps in effective production of result and meeting the objective of study.
Data observed or collected directly from first-hand experience.
Primary data is the data which is collected by the researcher directly from his own observations and experiences. For example, if the researcher conducts a survey for the collected of data then it is known as primary data.
Primary Data Sources Primary source is a term used in a number of disciplines to describe source material that is closest to the person, information, period, or idea being studied. Primary data collection is necessary when a researcher cannot find the data needed in secondary sources. Market researchers are interested in primary data about demographic/socioeconomic characteristics, attitudes/opinions/interests, awareness/knowledge, intentions, motivation, and behavior. Three basic means of obtaining primary data are observation, surveys, and experiments. The choice will be influenced by the nature of the problem and by the availability of time and money.
Examples include surveys, interviews, observations, and ethnographic research. A good researcher knows how to use both primary and secondary sources in her writing and to integrate them in a cohesive fashion.
Conducting primary research is a useful skill to acquire as it cangreatly supplement research in secondary sources, such as journals, magazines, or books. Primary research is an excellent skill to learn as it can be useful in a variety of settings including business, personal, and academics.
"Primary sources provide the 'raw data' that you use first to test the working hypothesis and then as evidence to support your claim. In history, for example, primary sources include documents from the period or person you are studying, objects, maps, even clothing; in literature or philosophy, your main primary source is usually the text you are studying, and your data are the words on the page. In such fields you can rarely write a research paper without using primary
Published data and the data collected in the past or other parties is called secondary data Secondary data is data that has already been collected and collated by somebody for some reason other than the current study. It can be used to get a new perspective on the current study, to supplement or compare the work or to use parts of it, as another study may prove costly and time consuming e.g. the census. "Secondary sources are research reports that use primary data to solve research problems, written for scholarly and professional audiences. Researchers read them to keep up with their field and use what they read to frame problems of their own by disputing other researchers' conclusions or questioning their methods. You can use their data to support your argument, but only if you cannot find those data in a primary source." A secondary source is a report on the findings of the primary source. While not as authoritative as the primary source, the secondary source often provides a broad background and readily improves one's learning curve. Most textbooks are secondary sources; they report and summarize the primary sources." "Secondary data is neither better nor worse than primary data; it is simply different. The source of the data is not as important as its quality and its relevance for your particular purpose. The major advantages of using secondary data are economic: using secondary data is less costly and time-consuming than collecting primary data. Its disadvantages relate not only to the availability of sufficient secondary data but also to the quality of the data that is available. Never use any data before you have evaluated its appropriateness for the intended purpose." Secondary data analysis saves time that would otherwise be spent collecting data and, particularly in the case of quantitative data, provides larger and higher-quality databases than
would be unfeasible for any individual researcher to collect on their own. In addition to that, analysts of social and economic change consider secondary data essential, since it is impossible to conduct a new survey that can adequately capture past change and/or developments. The present study is based on secondary data.
The following may be the precived limitation of the proposed study: Secondry data is used for this project because of due to time constraint it was not possible to collect primary data using interviews or questionnaires.
Researches done only on disater mangement. Limited time was provided to complete the study. Cost involved in collecting the data was high.
CHAPTER2 THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK 2.1 INTRODUCTION
Disaster management is a process or strategy that is implemented when any type of catastrophic event takes place. Sometimes referred to as disaster recovery management, the process may be initiated when anything threatens to disrupt normal operations or puts the lives of human beings at risk. Governments on all levels as well as many businesses create some sort of disaster plan that make it possible to overcome the catastrophe and return to normal function as quickly as possible.
The Government of India have issued guidelines that where there is a shelf of projects, projects addressing mitigation will be given a priority. It has also been mandated that each project in a hazard prone area will have disaster prevention/mitigation as a term of reference and the project document has to reflect as to how the project addresses that term of reference.
Measures for flood mitigation were taken from 1950 onwards. As against the total of 40 million hectares prone to floods, area of about 15 million hectares have been protected by construction of embankments. A number of dams and barrages have been constructed. The State Governments have been assisted to take up mitigation programmes like construction of raised platforms etc. Floods continue to be a menace however mainly because of the huge quantum of silt being carried by the rivers emanating from the Himalayas . This silt has raised the bed level in many rivers to above the level of the countryside. Embankments have also given rise to problems of drainage with heavy rainfall leading to water logging in areas outside the embankment. To evolve both short-term and long-term strategy for flood management/erosion control,
Government of India have recently constituted a Central Task Force under the Chairmenship of Chairman, Central Water Commission. The Task Force will examine causes of the problem of recurring floods and erosion in States and region prone to flood and erosion; and suggest shortterm and long-term measures. The Task Force will submit its report by December 2004.
Due to erratic behaviour of monsoons, both low and medium rain fall regions, which constitute about 68% of the total area, are vulnerable to periodical droughts. Our experience has been that almost every third year is a drought year. However, in some of the States, there may be successive drought years enhancing the vulnerability of the population in these areas. Local communities have devised indigenous safety mechanisms and drought oriented farming methods in many parts of the country. From the experience of managing the past droughts particularly the severe drought of 1987, a number of programmes have been launched by the Government to mitigate the impact of drought in the long run. These programmes include Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Desert Development Programme (DDP), National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA), Watershed Development Programme for Shifting Cultivation (WDPSC), Integrated Water Development Project (IWDP), Integrated Afforestation and Eco-development Project Scheme (IAEPS).
2.2 Disaster Mitigations Flood preparedness and response
In order to respond effectively to floods, Ministry of Home Affairs have initiated National Disaster Risk Management Programme in all the flood-prone States. Assistance is being provided to the States to draw up disaster management plans at the State, District, Block/Taluka
and Village levels. Awareness generation campaigns to sensitize all the stakeholders on the need for flood preparedness and mitigation measures. Elected representatives and officials are being trained in flood disaster management under the programme. Bihar Orissa, West Bengal, Assam and Uttar Pradesh are among the 17 multi-hazard prone States where this programme is being implemented with UNDP. USAID and European Commission.
Earthquake Risk Mitigation
A comprehensive programme has been taken up for earthquake risk mitigation. Although, the BIS has laid down the standards for construction in the seismic zones, these were not being followed. The building construction in urban and suburban areas is regulated by the Town and Country Planning Acts and Building Regulations. In many cases, the Building regulations do not incorporate the BIS codes. Even where they do, the lack of knowledge regarding seismically safe construction among the architects and engineers as well as lack of awareness regarding their vulnerability among the population led to most of the construction in the urban/sub-urban areas being without reference to BIS standards. In the rural areas, the bulk of the housing is nonengineered construction. The mode of construction in the rural areas has also changed from mud and thatch to brick and concrete construction thereby increasing the vulnerability. The
increasing population has led to settlements in vulnerable areas close to the river bed areas which are prone to liquefaction. The Government have moved to address these issues.
National Core Group for Earthquake Risk Mitigation
A National Core Group for Earthquake Risk Mitigation has been constituted consisting of experts in earthquake engineering and administrators. The Core Group has been assigned with the responsibility of drawing up a strategy and plan of action for mitigating the impact of earthquakes; providing advice and guidance to the States on various aspects of earthquake mitigation; developing/organizing the preparation of handbooks/pamphlets/type designs for earthquake resistant construction; working out systems for assisting the States in the seismically vulnerable zones to adopt/integrate appropriate Bureau of Indian Standards codes in their building byelaws; evolving systems for training of municipal engineers as also practicing of Bureau of Indian of certification of
architects and engineers in the private sector in the salient features Standards codes and the amended byelaws; evolving a system
architects/engineers for testing their knowledge of earthquake resistant construction; evolving systems for training of masons and carry out intensive awareness generation campaigns.
Review of building bye-laws and their adoption
Most casualties during earthquakes are caused by the collapse of structures. Therefore structural mitigation measures are the key to make a significant impact towards earthquake safety in our country. In view of this the States in earthquake prone zones have been requested to review, and if necessary, amend their building bye-laws to incorporate the BIS seismic codes for construction in the concerned zones. Many States have initiated necessary action in this regard. An Expert Committee appointed by the Core Group on Earthquake Risk Mitigation has already submitted its report covering appropriate amendments to the existing Town & Country Planning Acts, Land Use Zoning Regulation, Development Control Regulations & Building Bylaws, which could be
used by the State Governments & the local bodies there-under to upgrade the existing legal instruments. The Model Building Bylaws also cover the aspect of ensuring technical implementation of the safety aspects in all new constructions & upgrading the strength of existing structurally vulnerable constructions. To facilitate the review of existing building
byelaws and adoption of the proposed amendments by the State Governments & UT administrations, discussion workshops at regional level in the country are being organized. It is expected that all planning authorities and local bodies will soon have development control regulations and building byelaws which would include multi-hazard safety provisions.
Development and Revision of Codes
There are Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) codes which are relevant for multi-hazard resistant design and construction. These codes have to be regularly updated. An action plan has been drawn up for revision of existing codes, development of new codes and
documents/commentaries, and making these codes and documents available all over the country including on-line access to these codes. An Apex committee consisting of representatives of Ministry of Consumer Affairs, BIS and MHA has been constituted to review the mechanism
and process of development of codes relevant to earthquake risk mitigation and establish a protocol for revision by BIS.
Hazard Safety Cells in States
The States have been advised to constitute Hazard Safety Cells (HSC) headed by the Chief Engineer (Designs), State Public Works Department with necessary engineering staff so as to establish mechanism for proper implementation of the building codes in all future Govt. constructions, and to ensures the safety of buildings and structures from various hazards. The HSC will also be responsible for carrying out appropriate design review of all Government buildings to be constructed in the State, act as an advisory cell to the State Government on the different aspects of building safety against hazards and act as a consultant to the State Government for retrofitting of the lifeline buildings. Rajasthan, West Bengal and Chhatisgarh have already constituted these cells and other States are in the process.
National Programme for Capacity Building of Engineers and Architects in Earthquake Risk Mitigation
Two National Programmes for Capacity Building in Earthquake Risk Mitigation for Engineers and Architects respectively, have been approved to assist the State Govts in building capacities for earthquake mitigation. These two programmes are being implemented for training of 10,000 engineers and 10,000 architects in the States in seismically safe building designs and related techno-legal requirements. Assistance is being provided to the State/UTs to build the capacities of more than 125 State Engineering Colleges and 110 Architecture Colleges to be able to provide advisory services to the State Govts to put in place appropriate techno-legal regime, assessment of building and infrastructures and their retrofitting. These institutions will function as State Resource Institutions. Twenty-one National level Engineering and Architecture Institutions have
been designated as National Resource Institutes to train the faculty members of selected State Engineering and Architecture colleges. 450 engineering faculty members and 250 architecture faculty members of these State Resource Institutions will be trained during the current year.
Training of rural masons
A programme to assist the States/UTs in training and certification of 50000 masons has been formulated in conultation with Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO) and the Ministry of Rural Development. The training module for masons to include multi-hazard resistant construction has also been prepared by an expert committee, and revised curriculum will be introduced in the vocational training programme of Ministry of Human Resource Development.
The role of engineers and architects is crucial in reducing earthquake risks by ensuring that the construction adhere to the norms of seismically safety. In view of this, the elements of earthquake engineering is being integrated into the undergraduate engineering and architecture courses. The model course curricula for adoption by various technical institutions and
universities have been developed and circulated to the Universities and Technical Institutions for adoption in the under graduate curricula. Ministry of Home Affairs is working with All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) and Council of Architecture (COA) for introduction of revised curricula for engineering and architecture course from 2005-2006.
Hospital Preparedness and Emergency Health Management in Medical Education
Hospital preparedness is crucial to any disaster response system. Each hospital should have an emergency preparedness plan to deal with mass casualty incidents and the hospital administration/ doctor trained for this emergency. The curriculum for medical doctors does not include Hospital Preparedness for emergencies. Therefore capacity building through in-service training of the current heath managers and medical personnel in Hospital Preparedness for emergencies or mass causality incident management is essential. At the same time, the future health managers must acquire these skills systematically through the inclusion of health emergency management in the undergraduate and post graduate medical curricula. In consultation with Medical Council of India(MCI), two committees have been constituted for preparation of curriculum for introduction of emergency health management in MBBS curriculum, and preparation of in-service training of Hospital Managers and Professionals. Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences Karnataka have been identified as the lead national resource institution for the purpose.
Retrofitting of Lifeline buildings
While these mitigation measures will take care of the new constructions, the problem of unsafe existing buildings stock would still remain. It will not be possible to address the entire existing building stock, therefore the life line buildings like hospitals, schools or buildings where people congregate like cinema halls, multi-storied apartments are being focussed on. The States have been advised to have these buildings assessed and where necessary retrofitted. The
Ministries of Civil Aviation, Railways, Telecommunication, Power and Health and Family Welfare have been advised to take up necessary action for detailed evaluation and retrofitting of lifeline buildings located in seismically vulnerable zones so as to ensure that they comply with BIS norms, Action plan have been drawn up by these Ministries for detailed vulnerability analysis and retrofitting/ strengthening of buildings and structures. The Ministry of Finance
have been requested to advise the financial institutions to give loans for retrofitting on easy terms. Accordingly the Ministry of Finance had advised Reserve Bank of India to issue suitable instructions to all the Banks and Financial Institutions to see that BIS codes/bye laws are scrupulously followed while financing/refinancing construction activities in seismically vulnerable zones.
National Earthquake Risk Mitigation Project
An Earthquake Mitigation Project has been drawn up, with an estimated cost of Rs.1132 crore. The project has been given in-principle clearance by the Planning Commission. The programme includes detailed evaluation and retrofitting of lifeline buildings such as hospitals, schools, water and power supply units, telecommunication buildings, airports/airport control towers, railway stations, bus stands and important administrative buildings in the States in seismic zones IV and V. The programme also includes training of masons in earthquake resistant
constructions. Besides, assistance will be provided under this project to the State Governments to put in place appropriate techno legal regime. Startup activities for implementation of this project have already been initiated.
Acceleration Urban Earthquake Vulnerability Reduction Programme
An accelerated urban earthquake vulnerability reduction programme has been taken up in 38 cities in seismic zones III, IV & V with population of half a million and above. 474 Orientation programmes have been organized for senior officers and representatives of the local planning and development bodies to sensitize them on earthquake preparedness and mitigation measures. The training programme for engineers and architects are being organized to impart knowledge about seismically safe construction and implementation of BIS norms. So far 1088 engineers and 825 architects have been trained. For enhanced school safety, education programmes have been organized in schools, colleges and other educational institutions. This programme will be further extended to 166 earthquake prone districts in seismic zones IV & V. Awareness generation programmes, community and neighbourhood organizations have been started in these cities. These cities are also being assisted to review and amend their building bye-laws to incorporate multi hazard safety provisions. City Disaster Management Plans are being developed under the project. Nine Cities have prepared city Disaster Management Plans.
Mainstreaming Mitigation in Rural Development Schemes
Rural housing and community assets for vulnerable sections of the population are created at a fairly large scale by the Ministry of Rural Development under the Indira Awas Yojna(IAY) and Sampooran Grameen Rojgar Yojna(SGRY). About 250 thousand small but compact housing units are constructed every year, besides community assets such as community centres, recreation centres, anganwadi centres etc. Technology support is provided by about two hundred rural housing centres spread over the entire country. The Ministry of Home Affairs is working with the Ministry of Rural Development for changing the guidelines so that the houses
constructed under IAY or school buildings/community buildings constructed under SGRY are earthquake/cyclone/flood resistant; as also that the schemes addressing mitigation are given priority under SGRY. Ministry of Rural Development are carrying out an exercise for this purpose. This initiative is expected to go a long way in popularization of seismically safe construction at village/block level .
National Cyclone Mitigation Project
A project for Cyclone Mitigation (estimated cost Rs. 1050 crore) has been drawn up in consultation with the cyclone prone States. This project envisages construction of cyclone shelters, coastal shelter belt plantation in areas which are prone to storm surges, strengthening of warning systems, training and education etc. This project has also been given in-principle clearance by the Planning Commission and is being taken up with World Bank assistance.
Landslide Hazard Mitigation
A National Core Group has been constituted under the Chairmanship of Secretary, Border Management and comprising of Secretary, Department of Science and Technology, Secretary, Road Transport & Highways, and the Heads of Geological Survey of India and National Remote Sensing Agency for drawing up a strategy and plan of action for mitigating the impact of landslides, provide advise and guidance to the State Governments on various aspects of landslide mitigation, monitor the activities relating to landslide mitigation including landslide hazard zonation and to evolve early warning systems and protocols for landslides/landslide risk reduction. The Government have designated Geological Survey of India (GSI) as the nodal agency responsible for coordinating/ undertaking geological studies, landslides hazard zonation,
monitoring landslides/avalanches, studying the factors responsible and suggesting precautionary and preventive measure. The States/UTs have been requested to share the list of habitation close to landslide prone areas in order to supplement GSI‟s on going assessment of such areas based on the Survey of India‟s Toposheet and their existing data base on landslide for the purpose of landslide hazard zonation being carried out by them. A national strategy for mitigating landslide hazard in the country is being drawn up in consultation with all the agencies concerned.
Disaster Risk Management Programme
A Disaster Risk Management Programme has been taken up in 169 districts in 17 multi-hazard prone States with the assistance from UNDP, USAID and European Union. Under this project, the States are being assisted to draw up State, district and Block level disaster management plans; village disaster management plans are being developed in conjunction with the
Panchayati Raj Institutions and disaster management teams consisting of village volunteers are being trained in various preparedness and response functions such as search and rescue, first aid, relief coordination, shelter management etc. Equipment needs for district and State Emergency
Operation Centres have been identified by the State nodal agencies and equipment is being provided to equip these EOCs. Orientation training of masons, engineers and architects in disaster resistant technologies have been initiated in these districts and construction of model demonstration buildings will be started soon.
Under this programme Disaster Management Plans have been prepared for 8643 villages, 1046 Gram Panchayat, 188 blocks and 82 districts. More than 29000 elected representatives of Panchayati Raj Institutions have already been trained, besides imparting training to members of voluntary organizations. About 18000 Government functionaries have been trained in disaster
mitigation and preparedness at different levels. 865 engineers and 425 architects have been trained under this programme in vulnerability assessment and retrofitting of lifeline buildings. 600 master trainers and 1200 teachers have already been trained in different districts in disaster preparedness and mitigation. Disaster Management Committees consisting of elected representatives, civil society members, Civil Defence volunteers and Government functionaries have been constituted at all levels including village/urban local body/ward levels. Disaster Management Teams have been constituted in villages and are being imparted training in basic functions of first aid, rescue, evacuation and related issues. The thrust of the programme is to build up capabilities of the community since the community is invariably the first responder. During the recent past, it has been experienced that the capacity building of the community has been very helpful even in normal situations when isolated instances of drowning, burns etc. take place. With the creation of awareness generation on disaster mitigation, the community will be able to function as a well-knit unit in case of any emergency. Mock drills are carried out from time to time under the close supervision of Disaster Management Committees. The Disaster Management Committees and Disaster Management Teams have been established by notifications issued by the State Governments which will ensure that the entire system is institutionalized and does not disintegrate after the conclusion of the programme. The key points being stressed under this programme are the need to ensure sustainability of the programme, development of training modules; manuals and codes, focused attention to awareness generation campaigns; institutionalization of disaster management committees and disaster management teams, disaster management plans and mock-drills and establishment of techno-legal regimes.
2.3 Awareness about Disasters Awareness generation
Recognizing that awareness about vulnerabilities is a sine qua non for inducing a mindset of disaster prevention, mitigation and preparedness, the Government has initiated a nation-wide awareness generation campaign as part of its overall disaster risk management strategy. In order to devise an effective and holistic campaign, a steering committee for mass media campaign has been constituted at the national level with due representation of experts from diverse streams of communication. The Committee has formulated a campaign strategy aimed at changing peoples‟ perception of natural hazards and has consulted the agencies and experts associated with advertising and media to instill a culture of safety against natural hazards.
Apart from the use of print and electronic media, it is proposed to utilize places with high public visibility viz. hospitals, schools, railway stations and bus terminals, airports and post offices, commercial complexes and municipality offices etc. to make people aware of their vulnerabilities and promote creation of a safe living environment.
A novel method being tried is the use of government stationery viz. postal letters, bank stationery, railway tickets, airline boarding cards and tickets etc. for disseminating the message of disaster risk reduction. Slogans and messages for this purpose have already been developed and have been communicated to concerned Ministries/agencies for printing and dissemination. The mass media campaign will help build the knowledge, attitude and skills of the people in vulnerability reduction and sustainable disaster risk management measures.
Disaster Awareness in School Curriculum
Disaster management as a subject in Social Sciences has been introduced in the school curriculum for Class VIII & IX. The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) which has introduced the curriculum runs a very large number of schools throughout the country and the course curriculum is invariably followed by the State Boards of Secondary Education. Teachers are being trained to teach disaster management Syllabus for Class X is being finalized and will be introduced in the course curriculum soon. The State Governments have been advised to take similar steps vis-à-vis their school boards. Several Provincial Governments have already
introduced the same curriculum in Class VII. Ministry is working with the Council of Board of School Education (COBSE) to facilitate inclusion of disaster management in public education in all 39 School Boards in the country.
Information, Education and Communication
In order to assist the State Governments in capacity building and awareness generation activities and to learn from past experiences including sharing of best practices, the Ministry of Home Affairs has compiled/prepared a set of resource materials developed by various organisations/institutions to be replicated and disseminated by State Governments based on their vulnerabilities after translating it into the local languages. The voluminous material which runs in about 10000 pages has been divided into 4 broad sections in 7 volumes. These sections cover planning to cope with disasters; education and training; construction toolkit; and information, education and communication toolkit including multi-media resources on disaster mitigation and preparedness. The Planning section contains material for analyzing a community‟s risk, development of Preparedness. Mitigation and disaster management plans, coordinating available
resources and implementing measures for risk reduction. The model bye-laws, DM Policy, Act and model health sector plan have also been included. Education and Training includes material for capacity building and upgradation of skills of policy makers, administrators, trainers, engineers etc. in planning for and mitigating against natural disasters. Basic and detailed training modules in disaster preparedness have been incorporated along with training methodologies for trainers, for community preparedness and manuals for training at district, block, panchayat and village levels. For creating a disaster-resistant building environment, the Construction Toolkit addresses the issue of seismic resistant construction and retrofitting of existing buildings. BIS Codes, manuals and guidelines for RCC, Masonry and other construction methodologies as also for repair and retrofitting of masonry and low-rise buildings have been included.
IEC material seeks to generate awareness to induce mitigation and preparedness measures for risk reduction. Material and strategies used by various States and international organizations, including tips on different hazards, have been incorporated along with multi-media CDs on disasters. The material has been disseminated to all the State Governments/UT Administrations with the request to have the relevant material, based on the vulnerability of each district, culled out, translated into local languages and disseminate it widely down to the village level.
Special Focus to Northeastern States
A special focus is being given to North-Eastern States and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands. The North-Eastern Council has been made the nodal agency for the NE States. The NEC has been provided with a resource person/advisor in disaster management. A detailed presentation on the vulnerabilities of the NE region and the need for comprehensive disaster management plan has been made in the Governing Body of NE Council. An action plan has been drawn up by NEC
and a declaration namely “Shillong Declaration” has been adopted by States in the NE region for integrating disaster management with development planning. 140 officials and non-officials
have been trained in disaster management to act as resource persons for the NE region. State and district level sensitization and training programmes are being carried out.
The various prevention and mitigation measures outlined above are aimed at building up the capabilities of the communities, voluntary organisations and Government functionaries at all levels. Particular stress is being laid on ensuring that these measures are institutionalized considering the vast population and the geographical area of the country. This is a major task being undertaken by the Government to put in place mitigation measures for vulnerability reduction. This is just a beginning. The ultimate goal is to make prevention and mitigation a part of normal day-to-day life. The above mentioned initiatives will be put in place and information disseminated over a period of five to eight years. We have a firm conviction that with these measures in place, we could say with confidence that disasters like Orissa cyclone and Bhuj earthquake will not be allowed to recur in this country; at least not at the cost, which the country has paid in these two disasters in terms of human lives, livestock, loss of property and means of livelihood.
Chapter-3 The Disaster Management
DEFINITION OF DISASTER ‘Disaster is a crisis situation that far exceeds the capabilities’. - Quarentelly, 1985. „Disaster‟ is defined as a crisis situation causing wide spread damage which far exceeds our ability to recover. Thus, by definition, there cannot be a perfect ideal system that prevents damage, because then it would not be a disaster. It has to suffocate our ability to recover. Only then it can be called as „disaster‟.
Disasters are not totally discrete events. Their possibility of occurrence, time, place and severity of the strike can be reasonably and in some cases accurately predicted by technological and scientific advances. It has been established there is a definite pattern in their occurrences and hence we can to some extent reduce the impact of damage though we cannot reduce the extent of damage itself. This demands the study of disaster management in methodical and orderly approach.
A disaster can be caused by humans or nature. Disasters are events that are sometimes unpredictable. It is important for any government to manage disasters. Government provides
legislation, allocates resources and does rational planning and sustainable development. Disaster management and planning is a key part of government work.
This guide includes the following:
1. The importance of disaster management plans 2. The role of municipalities in disaster management 3. What does it mean when a place is declared a disaster area? 4. Identifying potential disaster hazards in your area 5. Preventing disasters in your households and communities: What to do 6. How can we prevent fire disasters?
3.1 The importance of putting disaster management plans in place
Disasters are events that have a huge impact on humans and/or the environment. Disasters require government intervention. They are not always unpredictable. Floods take place in valleys and flood plains, droughts in areas with unstable and low rainfall, and oil spills happen in shipping lanes. This predictability provides opportunities to plan for, prevent and to lessen the impact of disasters.
Disasters arise from both natural and human causes, and the responses needed could stretch community and government capacity to the limit. For example, during 2000 we saw a series of disasters in South Africa: huge floods devastated the Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga and neighbouring countries; massive fires and an oil spill threatened Cape Town; and separate floods hit rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape. In 2004 Cape Town experienced
a drought disaster attributed to global warming. From April 2004 to January 2005, the province experiences 376 disasters, mostly fire and flood.
Disasters are inevitable although we do not always know when and where they will happen. But their worst effects can be partially or completely prevented by preparation, early warning, and swift, decisive responses.
Disaster management aims to reduce the occurrence of disasters and to reduce the impact of those that cannot be prevented. The government White paper and Act on Disaster Management define the roles of Local Authorities as well as Provincial and National government in disaster management.
3.2 The role of municipalities in disaster management
Every municipality must have a disaster management plan as part of its Integrated Development Plans according to the Municipal Systems Act.
Structure and Mechanism: This plan must set up the structure and mechanisms for dealing with disasters and it must anticipate future disasters. Plans must be developed to deal with disasters that occur regularly - for example flooding of informal settlements and roads.
Protection Services Department: In each municipality, the Protection Services department is responsible for Disaster Management. The department usually deals with traffic policing, fire brigades, law enforcement, and sometimes ambulances on an agency basis for provincial government, The role of Disaster Management is to coordinate the response to disasters and emergencies, ensuring that resources are applied effectively, whatever it may be. Fire services,
ambulance services, emergency medical services, engineers and traffic services can all become involved in Disaster Management.
Capacity: When a disaster exceeds the capacity of a local authority, the district, province or national can become involved, coordinating and facilitating the response and efforts of various local authorities. Other parties such as the SANDF as well as volunteer organizations such as the Red Cross, St John's and the National Sea Rescue Institute can also be drawn in if needed.
Disaster Management Activities: Disaster Management Activities include the co-ordination of disaster response agencies, the compilation and exercising of contingency plans, and Disaster Management education and training.
Funding: Following the finalisation of the Act, the national government will announce on a funding mechanism for provinces and municipalities to finance their comprehensive disaster management plans.
3.3 What does it mean when a place is declared a disaster area?
The disaster management policy and legislation makes provision for government to declare disaster areas, and allow for resources to be allocated for immediate relief, as well as reconstruction. This includes things like food, blankets and medical supplies as relief and building materials for reconstruction. The local and provincial government have to prepare the submission to the national Department of Provincial and Local Government for this to be done speedily.
The Disaster Management Act focuses on speeding up response and cutting red tape to ensure that disasters are dealt with efficiently and effectively - by giving clear guidelines for the classification of disasters and the declaration of states of disaster.
3.4 Identifying potential disaster hazards in your area
These can include all or some of the following:
Mass-event situations (concerts, sport, other social gatherings - for example the 2001 Ellis park disaster during the Pirates-Chiefs game)
Storms and storm damage; Flooding; Fires: Domestic, mountain and veld; Oils spills, at sea, on land; Transport accidents; Hazardous material spills (spilling of chemicals, etc from factories, trucks);
3.5 Preventing disasters in your households and communities:
What to do "In South Africa, it is not necessarily the 'classic', comparatively rare events - which receive massive media coverage - that we should be focusing on, but rather on building alert, informed,
self-reliant and resilient communities who have the capacity to withstand, cope and recover from these relatively less spectacular events which affect them on a regular basis"
Pat Reid, former president of Disaster Management of Southern Africa. (SAPA. 3 January 2004)
Role of organisations and community workers Here are some of the things development workers can advise communities to prepare and deal with disasters:
Know the emergency numbers. Remember that all municipalities have emergency centers - get these details!
Report incidents - don't take it for granted that someone else has already reported it;
Do not build houses in unsafe areas - for example close to a river-bed (even if it has been dry for years) or on dolomite invested areas;
Keep a bucket of sand next to your door so that any small fires can be put out quickly - sand works on paraffin and electric fires, water does not.
Gain knowledge of basic first aid, fire training and CPR; Remember that swimming pools, dams and rivers are a danger to children; Always follow the rules when: swimming in rivers, dams, pools and the ocean; camping and making fires;
3.6 How can we prevent fire disasters?
A very important way of preventing fire disasters is to have a good disaster plan in place. The emphasis should be on public education, prevention and containment.
One of the common disasters in poor areas and informal settlements are fires. These fires are often caused by accidents with paraffin or candles. The Paraffin industry is involved in the "Ufudo" campaign. Because of the building practices in informal settlements, and the building materials used in these settlements, everyday tools such as a primus stove, paraffin lamp or candle can become extremely dangerous if used incorrectly. The "Ufudo" kits provide tools to make primus stoves, paraffin lamps and candles more stable and less prone to fall over.
The Paraffin Safety Association also promotes safe storage and use of paraffin through safe bottles and dispensers - any registered dealer can get access to this.
People in informal settlements should be educated about leaving enough space between houses to prevent the spread of fires and to allow emergency vehicles into the area. Fire fighting volunteers can also be trained.
Chapter-4 Scheme of Natural Disaster
4.1 BRIEF NOTE ON OPERATION OF SCHEME OF NATURAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
1. Name of the Scheme: 2. Type of Scheme: Natural Disaster Management Program.
3. Year of inception: 1992-93 Approved by Department Sanctioning Committee in December. 1993 4. Pattern of assistance : 100 per cent by Government of India. 5. Objective: - To focus on disaster preparedness with emphasis on mitigation measures. - To increase level of awareness of community about disasters, prepare them adequately to face the crisis situation 6. Activities i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Human Resources Development, Research and Consultancy Services. Documentation of major events, Operation of Faculty on NDM in State level training States. Operation of National Centre of Disaster Management. Public education and community awareness program
7. Eight Plan Outlay & Expenditure 1. Plan Outlay: Rs. 900.00 lakh 2. Progress of expenditure: (Rs. in lakh) Year 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 Allocation 20.00 110.00 110.00 200.00 200.00 Expenditure 17.00 23.00 48.00 120.00 123.00 Percentage 85% 20.91% 43.64% 60% 61.5%
8. Ninth Plan Outlay & Expenditure 1. Plan Outlay: Rs 20.00 core (allocated by the DAC) 2. Progress of Expenditure: (Rs. in lakh) Year 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-2001 9. Achievements Setting up of a National Centre for Disaster Management in the Indian Institute of Public Administration in 1995. Setting up of separate Disaster Management Faculties in State Administrative Training Institutes in 18 out of 25 States. These Sates are Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir. Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Allocation 220.00 210.00 325.00 500.00 Expenditure 191.00 189.00 316.08 69.95 Percentage 86.82% 90% 97% 13.390%
Pradesh, Maharashtra, Mizoram Orissa, Punjab. Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Documentation of major events like UP. and Maharashtra earthquakes, research studies On land slides in Kerala, Sikkim and Uttar Pradesh, Research study on Drought in Rajasthan. Preparation of source book for use of trainees of the Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration, Organised/sponsored about 100 training Programs/workshops on various aspects of Natural Disaster Management Public education and community awareness campaign through newspapers, postal stationery, audio-visual media and observation of World Disaster Reduction Day annually.
10. Increase in activities The occurrences of major natural disasters like Maharashtra earthquake of 1993 and cyclone of Andhra Pradesh in 1996 and Orissa in 1999 have been instrumental in generating a lot of concern among the various agencies of Government. non-governmental organisations and the public at large about the adverse impact of natural disasters. This has increased the tempo of activities under the Plan Scheme as many institutions /organisations States are showing interest in the field of disaster reduction activities. Keeping in view the magnitude and frequencies of natural disasters visiting various parts of the country annually; there is need to provide substantial budget provision in the Annual Plan to commensurate with the requirements of a vast country like ours in order to embark upon such activities in a big way in the context of fast developing scientific and technological advancements in the world.
11. Thrust Areas - Public education and community participation campaign, - Information Technology, - building up data base, - involvement of NGOs, strengthening of State faculties on NDM, - regional cooperation on sharing of experience, - expertise and technology in various fields of natural disaster - preparedness and mitigation.
4.2 STATUS POSITION ON EFC MEMO ON NATURAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN FORMATION SYSTEM SUBMITTED BY NRSA.
Name of the Proposal :
Natural Disaster Management Information Support Services through Space Technology (NDM) – ISS.
Proposal received from :
Activities covered :
Drought monitoring Drought early warning Drought damage assessment
Flood monitoring and inundation Cyclone impact, mapping dam-age assessment R & D support to operation a services Data base creation and data integration services
Amount proposed for 9th Five Year Plan : Rs 2.05 crore
Present status :
Draft EFC Memo was sent to Planning Commission for their comments/views. Based on these observations necessary action is being taken to finalise the EEC Memo. Thereafter it will be circulated to all concerned Ministries before convening the meeting of EFC.
Preventive medicine has played a very important role in reducing the mortality and morbidity in any population with regard to several important diseases such as plague, syphilis, cholera during several different times in the history of man. But, one grey area that has often taken us by surprise is the occurrence of disasters. The most recent example is Tsunami. The literature relating to disaster management is meager and there are several hollows that need to be explored. We shall now review the importance of Preventive medicine in terms of disaster management.
CHAPTER-5 DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE
DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE
Disaster management cycle includes the following stages/ phases
1. Disaster phase 2. Response phase 3. Recovery/ Rehabilitation phase 4. Risk Reduction/ Mitigation phase 5. Preparedness phase Disaster phase – The phase during which the event of the disaster takes place. This phase is characterized by profound damage to the human society. This damage / loss may be that of human life, loss of property, loss of environment, loss of health or anything else. In this phase, the population is taken by profound shock. Response phase – This is the period that immediately follows the occurrence of the disaster. In a way, all individuals respond to the disaster, but in their own ways. The ambulances and medical personnel arrive, remove the injured for transportation to medical camps or hospitals and provide first aid and life support. The public also take part in relief work. One can even find injured victims help other injured ones. Almost everyone is willing to help. The needs of the population during this phase are immediate medical help, food – „roti‟, clothing – „kapda‟ and shelter – „clothing‟.
Recovery phase – When the immediate needs of the population are met, when all medical help has arrived and people have settled from the hustle – bustle of the event, they begin to enter the next phase, the recovery phase which is the most significant, in terms of long term outcome. It is during this time that the victims actually realize the impact of disaster. It is now that they perceive the meaning of the loss that they have suffered. They are often housed in a camp or in some place which is often not their house, along with other victims. During this time, they need intensive mental support so as to facilitate recovery. When the victims have recovered from the trauma both physically and mentally, they realize the need to return back to normal routine. That is, to pre-disaster life. During this phase, they need resources and facilities so as to enable them to return back to their own homes, pursue their occupation, so that they can sustain their life on their own, as the help from the government and other non governmental organizations is bound to taper in due course. Thus, they are provided with a whole new environment, adequate enough to pursue a normal or at least near normal life. This is called Rehabilitation. Risk reduction phase – During this phase, the population has returned to predisaster standards of living. But, they recognize the need for certain measures which may be needed to reduce the extent or impact of damage during the next similar disaster. For example, after an earthquake which caused a lot of damages to improperly built houses, the population begins to rebuild stronger houses and buildings that give away less easily to earthquakes. Or, in the case of tsunami, to avoid housings very close to the shore and the development of a „green belt‟- a thick stretch of trees adjacent to the coast line in order to reduce the impact of the tsunami waves on the land. This process of making the impact less severe is called Mitigation.
Preparedness phase – This phase involves the development of awareness among the population on the general aspects of disaster and on how to behave in the face of a future disaster. This includes education on warning signs of disasters, methods of safe and successful evacuation and first aid measures. It is worth to note that the time period for each phase may depend on the type and severity of the disaster.
5.1 TYPES OF DISASTER
Disasters are mainly of 2 types, 1.) Natural disasters. Example – earthquakes, floods, landslides, etc. 2.) Man made disasters. Example – war, bomb blasts, chemical leaks, etc.
The phases of all disasters, be it natural or man made, are the same. The disasters often differ in quantity of damage caused or in quality of the type of medical consequences. For example earthquakes cause a lot of physical injury and fractures, floods cause drowning deaths and infections, chemical leaks cause toxic manifestations, etc.
5.2 VICTIMS AND SURVIVORS
Almost everyone in the population is affected by a disaster. No one is untouched by it. Those who suffer damage are called victims. The victims may die or live. Those who manage to live are called survivors. These survivors can be classified as, Primary survivor – One who is exposed to the disaster first-hand and then survives. They are called „survivor victims‟. Secondary survivor – One who grieves the loss of primary victims. Example, a mother who lost her child, or a man who lost his friend. Third level survivor – The rescue and relief personnel. These people are also affected due to the disaster as they are at the site of disaster and undergo almost the same mental trauma as the other victims. Fourth level survivor – Reporters, Government personnel, traders, etc. Fifth level survivor – People who read about or see the event in media reports.
5.3 THE SECOND DISASTER
The actual disaster results in a lot of damage to the population in terms of loss of life and property. This direct result can be dubbed as the „first disaster‟. The impact of the first disaster sends another wave of damage triggered by chain of events relating to the first disaster by means of cause-and-effect, resulting in indirect damage to people remote from the original disaster. This can be called the „second disaster‟. For example, tsunami had caused loss in terms of life, damage to houses, etc. This is the first disaster. This leads to disruption in the trade of fishing industries, which suffers massive financial losses. The losses suffered by these industries
results in lower wages and salaries to those involved in the fishing business. These people cannot repay their loans, resulting in losses to money lenders, and so on. Such events can also result in higher incidences of heart attacks, strokes, suicides and homicides. This is called „second disaster‟ and can be in greater magnitude than the ‘first disaster’. Proper rehabilitation and care of the victims of first disaster can break the chain of events leading to the second disaster.
5.4 PECULIARITIES OF TSUNAMI
There are few ways in which tsunami differs from other disasters,
Time duration of the attack was very small. The entire attack took place in a matter of a few minutes.
Extent of damage was very large, grossly disproportionate to the duration of attack. Extensive damage took place in a matter of few minutes, which took the people by surprise and awe. Everything seemed to be normal….. all of a sudden water flows in….. Boom! Everything seems different. There was no time for people to adapt to the disaster.
The victims are either alive and healthy or simply dead. There was very less physical injury and hence there was no great need for medical facilities, unlike other disasters.
There have been no precedents of this type. People have not even heard of this type of a disaster.
There were no outbreaks of any infections, which are common in floods. This point is of note because in floods, it is freshwater – a good culture medium for organisms. And, when water stagnates, organisms flourish even more. But, in tsunami, it was seawater which is hypertonic saline which is unfavorable for microorganisms. Moreover, there was no stagnation as the water receded back completely.
5.5 PSYCHO SOCIAL ASPECTS OF DISASTER
Often, minimal importance is given to the mental trauma suffered by the victims of a disaster. They are overshadowed by the excessive importance to physical and financial needs of the victims which are considered by the relief personnel to be more than sufficient to alleviate the suffering of the victims. Unlike physical and material damage, the damage to the psyche (mind) cannot be obviously seen, until and unless, it is looked for. And, to look for, the relief personnel need to be aware of the possible effects on the mind, which can be permanent and disabling. „The psycho social needs are generally seen as something too secondary to attract the attentions of relief agencies, relief workers & governmental organizations’
- Jaswan 2000
There is a phenomenal increase in the incidence of psychiatric disorders in the affected population. The common problems include
1. Acute stress disorder 2. Post traumatic stress disorder 3. Anxiety disorders 4. Depression 5. Alcohol and drug abuse 6. Aggravation of previous disorders if any.
5.6 POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER
The most important of the above is post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which if occurs is a permanent damage. There is definitive damage to the hippocampus of the brain, and hence is important to identify the people vulnerable and provide adequate psychiatric intervention.
There are several abnormal behaviors and complaints that have been seen in disaster victims such as
1. excessive crying 2. irritation 3. restlessness 4. fatigue 5. sleeplessness 6. flashbacks 7. panic attacks 8. mood swings 9. guilt 10. anger The list is long and indefinite. But one thing is to be borne in mind - „all these are not abnormal reactions. They are just normal reaction to an abnormal event‟. But these reactions must resolve in due course, failure of which is the diagnosis referred to as PTSD. This should be prevented as it is disabling disorder with very less promising outcomes.
5.7 DISASTER SYNDROME
This is an observed disorder that can be identified in disaster victims. As a matter of fact, about 75% of the population of the population is affected, immediately following the disaster (Duffy, 1998). By the 10th week, there is a significant drop, and by the end of the first year, it drops to about 30 – 40% of the disaster affected population. It is also observed, that there is a 17% higher occurrence of long-term sequelae in the disaster affected population, as compared to other control populations (Roubonis, 1991).
The observation by Duffy of the widespread occurrence of symptoms following a disaster (75%) implicates that they are a normal reaction to an abnormal event (by the concept of Normality by majority). The ensuing drop in the prevalence of symptoms in the following year shows that they are resolving „on the own‟. The rest who suffer continual symptoms may be the victims of a failure of resolution of the normal reaction. Though there is a view that these psycho social issues should not be medicalised (WHO, 1992), the logical deduction from the observations of Duffy and Roubonis implicates that facilitation of the resolution can bring about lower psychiatric morbidity in the disaster affected population.
5.8 MEANING OF LOSS
It has been oft repeated mistake to assess severity of a disaster by means of calculating the loss in terms of numbers, quantity figures or units such as number of deaths, number wounded, number of houses damaged, surface area of affected land, etc. But, this is not the actual measure. The meaning of the loss rather the loss itself is a much more significant measure. In other words, the impact of the disaster rather the disaster itself is more important.
For example, the loss of a neighbor may mean a great loss to one person but a minimal loss to another. Similarly, loss of animal life may mean nothing for one victim but may mean a lot for an animal lover. The loss of a house may mean less for someone who is thankful for having survived, but more for someone who has a sentimental attachment to his house. Thus, the actual damage being less, the impact may be disproportionately severe. Though the entire population experiences the same disaster, each one perceives it in a different and unique way. The governmental relief agencies need to see the damage alone, but we, health care personnel cannot afford to do that. We much see what the loss means to the victim; only then, can we assess the impact the disaster has had on that person.
6.1 INTEGRATED APPROACH
There is need for a change in the approach towards disaster management. There is now no orientation among health care providers. This is because the health care providers are actually oblivious of the actual needs of the victims. The need of the hour is „integration‟. Integration of what? Integration of medical help and resource provision. And integration of mental health services with other medical services.
A lot of victims suffer from mental agony and pain that needs grief counseling, so that the recovery happens. Else, it results in permanent psychiatric sequelae. But, the victims themselves are not ready to seek psychiatric help as they feel that they don‟t need it. This is because food, clothing and shelter are the most essential needs which need to be satisfied urgently. The next most significant need is that of financial support. Without these, psychiatric help will not sought by the victims. So it is essential that medical personnel and mental health care providers don‟t go empty handed. In other terms, financial and basic need support should reach them as soon as possible so as to be able to make the victims ready for counseling. Thus, mental health care will not be accepted if financial needs are not met.
Yet, the importance of mental health services should not be underestimated. Without a healthy mind and sound mental health, the relief measures will not serve its end in improving the general quality of life of the disaster affected individuals. Thus, financial help does not serve
its end without mental health care provision. Now it should be clear what an integrated approach means. Integration of financial support with mental health care, in the right temporal sequence – the right thing at the right time.
6.2 THE LATEST PERSPECTIVE
When, there is major disaster such as the tsunami, where the affected population is huge, to the tune of several lakhs, it is very difficult to get enough health care personnel to work there, especially for a long time. All non governmental organizations and international aid will offer help for a few weeks or few months to alleviate the immediate crisis, but they cannot afford to stay for a long time. But long term continuing health care is essential for improved long term outcomes. Moreover, when mental health care is considered, it is very important that the counselors and psychiatrists speak the native language. This is true to some extent even when medical help in general is considered. Thus it is easier, more cost effective and yielding to train volunteers from the population who are willing to work for the aggrieved to identify those in need for specialist consultation by consultants who are often in lack. For example, the affected population in Sri Lanka after tsunami runs in lakhs but there are only 27 psychiatrists or so. Though the Tamil speaking population was affected at large, only 3 out of the 27 were Tamil speaking, out of which only one was actively practicing in the affected areas. These few consultants are overwhelmed by the number of cases, the majority of which don‟t need specialist help and can be handled by trained counselors and primary health care workers. And, it is nearly impossible for consultants to visit the affected site. So, a new plan has been proposed a way to handle this – POST TRAUMA COUNSELLING. It involves training of volunteers to become counselors who meet every victim, collect the identity details and talk to them. These counselors
are taught to identify normal grief reactions from abnormal reactions. The normally aggrieved victims are counseled
and the abnormally aggrieved are referred to the consultants. The advantages of this method,
1. The case load for the consultants is reduced, making it more comfortable to spend more time on each case and work up completely. 2. The method is cost effective. It is unfeasible to pay consultants to see so many cases 3. The method is time saving. We always have fewer consultants than counselors. Few consultants take more time to scan the population than many counselors doing the same job. 4. The victims feel easier to talk to counselors who are often from affected lot rather than to a specialist. 5. It is easier for counselors to keep track of the victims who may drop off. The counselors can visit the victims at their doorsteps and ensure continued surveillance of the victims. There is an age old aphorism – „God cannot be everywhere… so, he created mothers‟. Similarly, psychiatrists cannot be everywhere, so, we create counselors.
6.3WORKSHOP ON POST TRAUMA MANAGENMENT & COUNSELING
Under this plan, a non governmental organization called the Chartered Management Institute(CMI), with their central office in UK and a branch in Sri Lanka, in collaboration with The Management Club(TMC), an association of leading corporate personnel in Sri Lanka, requested the Indian Association of Private Psychiatry (IAPP) which under the instance of Dr. M. Thirunavukarasu, its national level advisor, sent a six member delegation of mental health care personnel to the affected areas to train volunteers to become counselors so as to identify those in need of psychiatric intervention. The program was recognized and welcomed by the WHO representative to Sri Lanka Mr. Kun Tan. It was two day program in three places – Colombo, Galle and Batticaloa. The total number of participants was about 200.
The first day included the following seminars,
1. Introduction to Mind and Mental Health 2. Impact of Tsunami 3. What is Disaster? 4. Psycho- social aspects of Disaster 5. What is counseling? 6. Basics of Counseling 7. Management of children affected by the disaster. 8. Summary
The second day consisted of,
1. A recap of previous day topics 2. Interview techniques 3. Difficult to handle victims 4. Role play of simulated counseling situations by participants 5. Introduction of questionnaires to record responses by victims 6. Interactive session
In addition to the interactive session participants were encouraged to ask doubts and share their experiences after each topic. Paper, pens, student files and feed back forms were given. The response from the Sri Lankan public was superb and surpassed expectations. The feedback showed the overwhelming response of the Sri Lankan public for these measures. The mental health services now are taking place actively with the aid of trained counselors, in Sri Lanka. The questionnaires provided to them are expected to give us ample material for further study.
6.4 QUALITY STATISTICS
Disaster management articles by quality and importance
Natural disasters happen almost all over the world all of a sudden causing heavy loss of human life, destruction of infrastructure and properties. Usually natural disasters can not be stopped. However, the magnitude of disasters can be reduced if preventive measures be taken in due time for which pragmatic government policies and public awareness are of utmost importance. This is especially true if the government, community and the people work together to this end. The effects of natural disasters have shown the necessity to intensify international cooperation for natural disaster mitigation. Above and over, international and regional cooperation in this field is very necessary. Establishment of the institutions like : Asian Disaster Reduction Centre (ADRC) at Kobe, Japan and Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC) at Bangkok, Thailand could help greatly to redress the situation by means of collecting and disseminating information and conducting trainings and organizing meetings. This kind of gatherings at international, regional and subregional basis will promote international cooperation, mutual understanding and help among the countries by exchanging ideas and sharing experiences between the fellow participants. Such meeting will also help to learn from each others experiences. This Second ADRC International Meeting could contribute significantly in reducing natural disasters as it aims to share disasterrelated information and to exchange views and opinions among disaster reduction experts from Member countries so as to promote further cooperation for disaster reduction in Asia based on the First ADRC International Meeting held at Kobe in February, 1999. Outcome of this kind of gathering will be very much useful for the participant and his/her country and institution.
Measures to Solve the Problems
Despite of the various problems, appropriate policy measures could help to solve the problems. As public awareness is one of the vital problem in managing the disaster in Nepal, it is felt necessary to work at increasing the literacy rate. Moreover, disaster management course should be included in the school and university curriculum. It is also necessary to train school teachers, selected students, women leaders, health workers and social workers to educate others in measures to prevent or mitigate the natural disasters. Such types of programmes may convince people to believe that natural disasters are not an act of God. To attain all this, there is the need of the strong political determination, pragmatic policy formulation and quick decision making. Moreover, active people's participation is also very necessary. On the other hand it will be better to include disaster management component in the development plans and programs of concerned agencies for the effective implementation of disaster mitigation programs. It is also needed very much to improve road infrastructure, transportation and communication facilities to carry out rescue and relief works effectively and efficiently. In order to prevent inappropriate construction of buildings, the building code should be strictly implemented. To prevent duplication of relief works and the lack of cooperation, it is needed to establish mutual understanding and frequent dialogue between the focal persons. It is felt necessary to amend the Natural Disaster Relief Act, 1982 and formulate the Natural Disaster Relief Regulations whereby the role, functions, duties and responsibilities of all the disaster management related agencies could be specified so that no agency could ignore or shift their responsibilities.
Alexander, D., 2002, Natural Disasters, London: Routledge, ISBN 1-85728-094-6 Alexander, D., 2002, Principles of Emergency planning and Management, Harpended: Terra publishing, ISBN 1-903544-10-6
Wisner, B., P. Blaikie, T. Cannon, and I. Davis, 2004, At Risk - Natural hazards, people's vulnerability and disasters, Wiltshire: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-25216-4
WEBSITES http://www.unep.org/ik/Pages.asp?id=Natural%20Disaster%20Management%20Overview http://www.col.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/Disaster_Management_version_1.0.pdf
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