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List of Literary Movements
Amatory fiction Romantic fiction written in the 18th and 19th centuries. Notable authors: Eliza Haywood, Delarivier Manley Cavalier Poets 17th century English royalist poets, writing primarily about courtly love, called Sons of Ben (after Ben Jonson). Notable authors: Richard Lovelace, William Davenant Metaphysical poets 17th century English movement using extended conceit, often (though not always) about religion. Notable authors: John Donne, George Herbert, Andrew Marvell The Augustans An 18th century literary movement based chiefly on classical ideals, satire and skepticism. Notable authors: Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift Romanticism 1800 to 1860 century movement emphasizing emotion and imagination, rather than logic and scientific thought. Response to the Enlightenment. Notable authors: Victor Hugo, Lord Byron and Camilo Castelo Branco Gothic novel Fiction in which Romantic ideals are combined with an interest in the supernatural and in violence. Notable authors: Ann Radcliffe, Bram Stoker Lake Poets A group of Romantic poets from the English Lake District who wrote about nature and the sublime. Notable authors: William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge American Romanticism Distinct from European Romanticism, the American form emerged somewhat later, was based more in fiction than in poetry, and incorporated a (sometimes almost suffocating) awareness of history, particularly the darkest aspects of American history. Notable authors: Washington Irving, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Pre-Raphaelitism 19th century, primarily English movement based ostensibly on undoing innovations by the painter Raphael. Many were both painters and poets. Notable authors: Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Christina Rossetti Transcendentalism 19th century American movement: poetry and philosophy concerned with self-reliance, independence from modern technology. Notable authors: Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau Dark romanticism 19th century American movement in reaction to Transcendentalism. Finds man inherently sinful and self-destructive and nature a dark, mysterious force. Notable authors: Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, George Lippard Realism Late-19th century movement based on a simplification of style and image and an interest in poverty and everyday concerns. Notable authors: Gustave Flaubert, William Dean Howells, Stendhal, Honoré de Balzac, Leo Tolstoy, Frank Norris and Eça de Queiroz Naturalism Also late 19th century. Proponents of this movement believe heredity and environment control people. Notable authors: Émile Zola, Stephen Crane
H. published an eponymous literary magazine which served as the group's mouthpiece and artistic vehicle from 1928-1931. based originally at Vanderbilt University. Notable authors: Manuel Maples Arce. Notable authors: John Crowe Ransom. Zora Neale Hurston Surrealism Originally a French movement. Notable authors: Guillaume Apollinaire. Robert Penn Warren Oulipo Mid-20th century poetry and prose based on seemingly arbitrary rules for the sake of added challenge. Notable authors: Langston Hughes. Salvador Novo Imagism Poetry based on description rather than theme.ED 0333-5697103 Symbolism 2012 Principally French movement of the fin de siècle based on the structure of thought rather than poetic form or image. Notable authors: Siegfried Sassoon.A ENGLISH & B. Arqueles Vela. Notable authors: Stéphane Mallarmé.D. active in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Gertrude Stein and Fernando Pessoa The Lost Generation It was traditionally attributed to Gertrude Stein and was then popularized by Ernest Hemingway in the epigraph to his novel The Sun Also Rises. Kurt Schwitters First World War Poets Poets who documented both the idealism and the horrors of the war and the period in which it took place. "the natural object is always the adequate symbol. Notable authors: Raymond Queneau. Ezra Pound. Arthur Rimbaud. It refers to a group of American literary notables who lived in Paris and other parts ofEurope from the time period which saw the end of World War I to the beginning of the Great Depression. and on the motto. or reaction to science and technology. Richard Aldington Harlem Renaissance African American poets. Waldo Pierce Dada Touted by its proponents as anti-art. without authorial presence. novelists. that uses surprising images and transitions to play off of formal expectations and depict the unconscious rather than conscious mind. Notable authors: Xavier Villaurrutia. Notable authors: Jean Cocteau." Notable authors: Ezra Pound. who expressly repudiated many modernist developments in favor of metrical verse and narrative. often employing elements of blues and folklore. Notable Authors: F. Notable authors: Ezra Pound. formal innovation. Eliot. influenced by Surrealist painting. influential for English language poets from Edgar Allan Poe to James Merrill. based in the Harlem neighborhood ofNew York City in the 1920s. James Joyce Modernism Variegated movement of the early 20th century. encompassing primitivism.M. James Joyce. Paul Valéry Stream of consciousness Early-20th century fiction consisting of literary representations of quotidian thought.. and his memoir A Moveable Feast. They exalted modern urban life and social revolution. Notable authors: Virginia Woolf. Rupert Brooke Stridentism Mexican artistic avant-garde movement. H.. dada focused on going against artistic norms and conventions.A SAQIB JANJUA M. S. Some Southern Agrarians were also associated with the New Criticism. T. Germán List Arzubide Los Contemporáneos A Mexican vanguardist group. Dylan Thomas Southern Agrarians A group of Southern American poets. Ernest Hemingway. Walter Abish 101 . and thinkers. Scott Fitzgerald.D.
who eschewed patterned form in favor of the rhythms and inflections of the human voice. William Blake and Ben Jonson. and word play. Alicia Ostriker New York School Urban. William S.M. six. originally based at Black Mountain College. Most often associated with the Latin American literary boom of the 20th century. Acrostic: Acrostic poetry is one that contains certain letters. Alasdair Gray Black Mountain Poets A self-identified group of poets. These letters form a message or word when they are read in a sequence. 102 . They also deal mostly with folklore or popular trends though some also originate from a wide range of subject matter. gay or gay-friendly. Ken Kesey Hungryalist Poets A literary movement in postcolonial India (Kolkata) during 1961-65 as a counter-discourse to Colonial Bengali poetry. loosely connected movement of writers from former colonies of European countries. Sylvia Plath.ED 0333-5697103 2012 Postmodernism Postwar movement skeptical of absolutes and embracing diversity. Samir Roychoudhury Confessional poetry Poetry that. John Ashbery Magical Realism Literary movement in which magical elements appear in otherwise realistic circumstances. The verses in ballads are straight-forward and seldom have any detail. and painters of the 1960s. Clerihew: This type of poetry is made up of a comic verse that has two couplets and a specific rhyming scheme. Malay Roy Choudhury. Wole Soyinka Poetry is the expression of a thought. which are usually placed at the beginning of each line. Salman Rushdie. often brutally. Günter Grass. Ballads usually have a refrain. four. leftist poets. Burroughs. Blank Verse: A blank verse is written in unrhymed iambic pentameter. Notable authors: Gabriel García Márquez. Epics usually deal with the history and traditions of a nation. Common forms of epigrams are written as a couplet. Notable authors: Charles Olson. ballads always possess graphic simplicity and force. whose work is frequently politically charged. Notable authors: Jack Kerouac. Julio Cortázar Postcolonialism A diverse. Allen Ginsberg. Cinquain: A cinquain is short poem that is made up of five lines that are usually unrhymed. Notable authors: Jorge Luis Borges.A SAQIB JANJUA M. writers. Burlesque: In this kind of poetry a subject that is serious in nature is treated as humor. eight and two syllables respectively. irony. Notable poets:Shakti Chattopadhyay. S. Epitaph: A short poem with rhyming lines written on a tombstone in praise of a deceased person is called an epitaph. Giannina Braschi. V. Thomas Pynchon. Notable authors: Robert Lowell. It talks about the adventures of a hero. Binoy Majumdar. Epigram: Practiced by poets like Robert Frost. These five lines contain two. Ballad: This type of poetry is short and narrative and is made up of stanzas of two to four lines. Derek Walcott. epigrams are short poems that possess satire. Apart from that. Denise Levertov Beat poets American movement of the 1950s and 1960s concerned with counterculture and youthful alienation. Notable authors: Frank O'Hara.A ENGLISH & B. an idea. This type of poetry ends with a stinging punchline or humorous retort. a concept or a story in a structured form which has a flow and a music created by the sounds and syllables in it. Notable authors: Jamaica Kincaid. Didactic Poetry: Didactic poems are poems that are written in order to instruct or teach. exposes the self as part of an aesthetic of the beauty and power of human frailty. Naipaul. Octavio Paz. Epic: This type of poem is long and narrative in nature. This form is a little like the rhythms of speech.
1500: Middle English Period Major Writers: Geoffrey Chaucer 1500 . Free Verse: Like the name suggests. They talk about the death of an individual.1625: Jacobean Age Major Writers: Ben Jonson John Webster Thomas Kyd George Chapman John Donne George Herbert Emilia Lanyer 1625 .1600: The Renaissance (Early Modern) Period 1558 .ED 0333-5697103 2012 Elegy: This type of poetry is sad and thoughtful in nature. LIST OF LITERARY PERIOD IN ENGLISH LITERATURE 0450 . free verse is poetry that is irregular.1066: Old English (Anglo-Saxon) Period Major Writers: Beowulf (Anonymous) 1066 . Ode: A poem that is written in praise of a place. is known as an ode. This type of poetry has content which is free from the traditional rules of using verse.A SAQIB JANJUA M.M.1649: Caroline Age Major Writers: John Ford John Milton 103 .1603: Elizabethan Age Major Writers: Christopher Marlowe Edmund Spenser Francis Beaumont John Fletcher Sir Philip Sidney Thomas Dekker Thomas Wyatt William Shakespeare 1603 . the couplet has stanzas made up of two lines which rhyme with each other. thing or person. Couplet: Perhaps the most popular type of poetry used.A ENGLISH & B. Sonnet: A poem that is made up of 14 lines and a particular rhyming scheme is called a sonnet.
1910: The Edwardian Period Major Writers: 104 .1901: The Victorian Period Major Writers: Charles Dickens George Eliot Robert Browning Alfred Lord Tennyson 1848 .1901: Aestheticism and Decadence 1901 .M.T.1700: Restoration Period Major Writers: John Dryden 1700 .A SAQIB JANJUA M.A ENGLISH & B.ED 0333-5697103 2012 1649 .1660: Commonwealth Period Major Writers: John Milton Andrew Marvell Thomas Hobbes 1660 .1745: The Augustan Age Major Writers: Alexander Pope Jonathan Swift Samuel Johnson 1745 .1860: The Pre-Raphaelites Major Writers: William Holman Hunt John Everett Millais Dante Gabriel Rossetti William Michael Rossetti James Collinson Frederic George Stephens Thomas Woolner 1880 .1830: The Romantic Period Major Writers: William Wordsworth S.1783: The Age Of Sensibility 1785 . Coleridge Jane Austen the Brontës 1832 .
Lawrence Ezra Pound William Faulkner Ernest Hemingway Katherine Anne Porter E.1914: The Georgian Period Major Writers: G. Wells P. Eliot 1914 . G. Byatt SATIRICAL STYLES 1. G.H.M.S. M. Scott Fitzgerald Samuel Beckett Robert Frost 1945 . M.A ENGLISH & B. Eliot Virginia Woolf John Steinbeck D.S. Lawrence T. B. Barrie Arnold Bennett Joseph Conrad E. Forster Franz Kafka Joseph Conrad W. S. H.G. Yeats F. Wells James Joyce D.ED 0333-5697103 J. Indirect satire is communicated through characters in a situation TYPES OF SATIRE 105 . Hopkins H.M.Present: Post Modern Period Major Writers: Ted Hughes Doris Lessing John Fowles Don DeLillo A. Direct satire is directly stated 2. M. Forster John Galsworthy Kenneth Grahame Edith Nesbit Beatrix Potter Lucy Maud Montgomery H. Wodehouse 2012 1910 .A SAQIB JANJUA M.1945: The Modern Period Major Writers: Knut Hamsun James Joyce Mikhail Bulgakov T.
The irony resides in the contrast between the meaning intended by the speaker and the added significance seen by others. sarcasm. a caricature. personal. For example. self-effacing and aims to correct through humor. Humor: Exaggeration or overstatement: Something that does happen. the formalized walk of Charlie Chaplin. Socratic irony is feigning ignorance to achieve some advantage over an opponent. Irony is achieved through such techniques as hyperbole and understatement. Surprise: Twist endings. Slipslop: ―She was not remarkably handsome. Linguistic games / Malapropism: A deliberate mispronunciation of a name or term with the intent of poking fun. and what one means or what is generally understood. 2012 Horatian: Horatian satire is tolerant. Socratic Irony: Socrates pretended ignorance of a subject in order to draw knowledge out of his students by a question and answer device. This form is often pessimistic. this type of satire is more contemptuous and abrasive than the Horatian. Named for the Roman satirist from the Augustan period in Rome. and serious. Example: a practical joke that backfires is situational irony. with less emphasis on humour. mild.‖ Incongruity: A marked lack of correspondence or agreement. Horatian satire's sympathetic tone is common in modern society.M. exaggeration. characterized by irony. etc. and savage ridicule. SATIRICAL DEVICES 1. It directs wit. outrage. weird rhymes. This is the most common type of satire. funny. For example. Writer is using a tongue-in-cheek style. 106 . Named after Augustan period‘s Roman satirist Juvenal. and self-deprecating humour toward what it identifies as folly.A SAQIB JANJUA M. sophisticated witty. though more cutting because of its indirectness. Juvenalian satire provokes a darker kind of laughter. wise. and light-hearted humour. Horace.ED 0333-5697103 There are two types of satire. relentless. Think sarcasm with the intentions of evoking change. bitter. Understatement: A statement that seems incomplete or less than truthful given the facts. Juvenalian: Juvenalian satire is angry. unexpected events 2. the President slips and bangs his head leaving the helicopter. Situational Irony: Depends on a discrepancy between purpose and results. this playfully criticizes some social vice through gentle. moral indignation and personal invective. The ability to recognize irony is one of the surest tests of intelligence and sophistication. etc. Irony speaks words of praise to imply blame and words of blame to imply praise.A ENGLISH & B. Fielding‘s description of a grossly fat and repulsively ugly Mrs. addresses social evil and points with contempt to the corruption of men and institutions through scorn. Irony: Literary device conveying the opposite of what is expected. It is lighter. caustic. Marge reading ―Fretful Mother‖ as she ignores her child. For example. in which there is an incongruity or discordance between what one says or does. Verbal Irony: Simply an inversion of meaning Dramatic Irony: When the words or acts of a character carry a meaning unperceived by himself but understood by the audience. Deflation: the English professor mispronounces a word. but is exaggerated to absurd lengths. rather than evil. less harsh in wording than sarcasm.
and the name ―Earnest‖. honest emotions may be turned to sentimentality. improbable situations. Inflation: Taking a real-life situation and blowing it out of proportion to make it ridiculous and showcase its faults. the sublime may be absurd. Instead. boisterous conduct. horseplay. The knave exploits someone ―asking for it‖. 7. Psychological: Nature of consciousness and its relation to time. they expose each other. about his own feelings. usually serious. coarse with. tends to see it as altogether fluid. abusive language directed against a person or cause. patches. Comic Juxtaposition: Linking together with no commentary items which normally do not go together.ED 0333-5697103 2012 3. Idealistic: Create pleasant and edifying picture. Diminution: Taking a real-life situation and reducing it to make it ridiculous and showcase its faults.M. Pope‘s line in Rape of the Lock: ―Puffs. 16. When knaves & fools meet. STYLE is the essential quality in burlesque. 1Travesty: Presents a serious (often religious) subject frivolously it reduces everything to its lowest level.‖ 18. comic satire results. its continuity and yet its continuous change. It is a play on the word ―earnest‖. 17. Invective is a vehicle. The term came from the Greek word ―sarkazein‖ which means ―to tear flesh. harsh. 9. bibles. meaning honest. Mock Encomium: Praise which is only apparent and which suggests blame instead. 10. but could. A style ordinarily dignified may be used for nonsensical matters. 12. 4. Parody is in literature what the caricature and cartoon are in art. Knaves & Fools: In comedy there are no villains and no innocent victims. Wit or word play: The title The Importance of Being Earnest. Parody: A mocking imitation. ―Trans‖= over. etc. noisy singing. 8. slap-stick. 13. made difficult to think of consciousness. 5. MODERN NOVEL Novel: Most important and popular literary medium. This usually contains low comedy: quarreling. 107 . 11. existing. Modern Novel: Realistic as opposed to idealistic. Farce: Exciting laughter through exaggerated. 15. piece of work.A ENGLISH & B. and billet-doux‖.A SAQIB JANJUA M. a tool of anger. Deals the relations between loneliness and love. Designed to ridicule in nonsensical fashion an original piece of work. Mock Epic / Mock Heroic: Using elevated diction and devices from the epic or the heroic to deal with low or trivial subjects. clownishness. Invective: Name calling. fighting. For example. the essence of all ―sick humor: or ―black humor‖ 6. Sarcasm: A sharply mocking or contemptuous remark. It is the bitterest of all satire. Euphemism: The substitution of an inoffensive term for one that is offensive. Absurdity: Something that seems like it would never happen. there are rogues (knaves) and suckers (fools). composition imitating or burlesquing another. psychological. story becomes unreal and unsatisfactory. When these two interact. Presenting a subject in a dress intended for another type of subject. Burlesque: Ridiculous exaggeration achieved through a variety of ways. 14. STREAM OF CONSCIOUSNESS Origin of the term: William James coined the phrase to describe the flux of the mind. Realistic: Consider truth to observe facts about outer world. drunkenness. trickery. Grotesque: Creating a tension between laughter and horror or revulsion. across ―vestire‖ = to clothe or dress.
Great success is religious instructions. sentiment. Characteristic: Their customs were different from each other as in savagery.A SAQIB JANJUA M. 3. Principles: they had five principles. love of pure glory. sang in series about the fate of man. We seem to be selective in our thoughts. distinctively refers to the historical background. a priest who wrote sermons in a sort of poetic prose. focussing attention on certain objects and areas of experience. ANGLO-SAXON PROSE 1. 1) Waldhere (693-705): The Fight at Finnesburg: Deals with battle against fearful odds.A ENGLISH & B. indicate the precise nature in a limited time. 4. 108 . Development in character which is difficult. Means of escape from tyranny. gives a complete picture of a character both historically and psychologically. first English poet known by name. (i) Personalities of characters emerge from a chronological account of events and reactions to it as in Hardy‘s The Mayor of Casterbridge. selectively attentive or inattentive. the glorious king of Wessex and Aelfric. and then investigates a given state of mind so completely. love of womanhood. rough living and deep feeling. Their literature was full of vivacity due to all these traits. no break in prose of Anglo-Saxon period and Middle English period.ED 0333-5697103 2012 Consciousness: An amalgam of that we have experienced and continue to experience. Beowulf: Epic. Impossible to give a psychological accurate account of a man. 2) Caedmon (657-681): Religious poet. THE ANGLO-SAXON (428 – 1100) Anglo-Saxon: Angles and Saxon. A technique that reveals the character completely historically as well as psychologically. struggle for glory. splendid courage and deep melancholy resulting from unanswered riddle of death.M. First represents the presentation of conscious from chronological sequence of events. English prose was established. gives the reaction to a particular experience at the moment but also his previous and future reactions. ancestors of the English race. happy domestic life and virtues were their magnetic attractions. rejecting others. dissatisfied with these traditional methods. ANGLO-SAXON POETRY Most poets of their literature have over-shadowed yet some are left. nature lover. interested in dynamic aspects rather than static. Life: external and internal rich life. brave and fearless fighters. Two great pioneers: Alfred the Great. 2. Character can be presented outside time and place. Every thought is a part of the personal consciousness. Love of personal freedom. TECHNIQUE OF CHARACTERISATION Previous methods: Two different methods were adopted in the delineation of character. Complaint of Deor: Disappointment of a lover. unique and ever-changing. 3) Cynewulf (757-786): Religious poet Christ: Metrical narration of leading events of Christ‘s ministry upon earth. (ii) First a descriptive portrait of the character is given and the resulting actions and reactions elaborate that picture as in Trollope’s Barchester Towers. Present moment is specious denoting the ever fluid passing of the ‗already‘ into the ‗not yet‘. ―Stream of consciousness‖ novelist is responsible for an important development. totally blocking others out. from the creation to fall of man and the last Judgment. Unlike poetry. Through the transcription of Latin Chronicles into English by the King Alfred the great probably.
School of Caedmon". directions for acting a trope at Winchester--earliest evidence of dramatic activity in England 979-1016. France. second period of Danish invasions 991. the missionary Saint Augustine establishes Christianity in southern England 600-700. Danish conquest 871-901. Hymns (first English poet known by name) 700. Blickling Homilies 975. Queen Elizabeth 570-632. Battle of Maldon (heroic poem) 1000-1200. monastic revival under Dunstan. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle revised and continued to 892. Chaucer. Iceland.800. Orosius. sermons. Chronicle continued. Latin "History of the Britons" by Nennius (Welsh)--first mention of Arthur 800-814. "Consolation of Philosophy"--would be translated into English by King Alfred.A SAQIB JANJUA M. influential medieval Latin work by Boethius. The Phoenix (myth interpreted as Christian allegory) 787. account of poet). Bede. Charlemagne's reign in France 850. Ethelwold's Concordia Regularis. Switzerland. descriptive lyric on sailor's life). account of poet). traditional date (from Gildas and Bede) for Germanic invasion by Hengist and Horsa 450-700. Caedmon. Germany. establishment of powerful Anglo-Saxon kingdoms 633. saints' lives. Biblical translations and paraphrases. poetry. Juliana (Saint's legend in dialogue form). Mohammed 590-604. flourishing Christian poetry in Northumbria (preserved in West Saxon). Cynewulf and his school: Crist (narrative). Beowulf composed in present form 731. Deor's Lament (lyric. The Wife's Complaint. Widsith (lyric. Italy 509. The Wanderer (reflective poem on fate). Ecclesiastical History (Latin) by The Venerable Bede 750. Charms 500-700. Anglo-Saxon Gospels. saints' lives 875-900. with some development of medieval English lyrics.ED 0333-5697103 2012 ANGLO-SAXON HISTORY 449. Christian culture flourishes in Ireland. activity of Irish missionaries in Scotland. Andreus (saint's legend--voyage tale).A ENGLISH & B. Junius MS written. Aethelwold. sermons. Elene (saint's legend). Gregorian music) 597. and Aelfric 950. St. Decline of Anglo-Saxon heroic verse and reduced literary activity in English. lyrics 937. Life of Alfred the Great by Asser 901-1066. Beowulf MS written 1000-1025. Finnsburg (fragmentary. The Husband's Message (love poems). Aelfric's Sermons. Fates of the Apostles (saints' legends). containing Caedmon poems 971. The Koran 670. probable beginnings of medieval dram in dramatatization of liturgy 893.M. composition of Old English poems: Beowulf (epic). Alfred the Great. Pope Gregory the Great (Gregorian Calendar. translations of Pope Gregory's Pastoral Care. related to Beowulf). The Seafarer (reflective. Battle of Brunanburh (heroic poem) 950-1000. transition from English to Norman French. West Saxon Martyrology. first Danish invasion 800. Boethius. The Exeter Book (MS containing Cynewulf poems) 109 . germs of English romances 1000. closing of Athenian philosophical schools 524.
Danish kings 1042-1066.A ENGLISH & B. in addition to the otherworldly. Norman kings 1079-1142. William Caxton's press was established in 1476. William II--centralization of kingdom 1098-1099.A SAQIB JANJUA M. Abelard (French). lover of Heloise 1086. Accounts by men such 110 . particularly the reign of Henry VIII. more expansive. Humanism became the most important force in English literary and intellectual life. Guy (1988) argues that "England was economically healthier. only nine years before the beginning of Henry VII's reign. The energy of England's writers matched that of its mariners and merchants. ecclesiastical philosopher. First Crusade The major literary figures in the English Renaissance include: Francis Bacon Thomas Dekker John Donne John Fletcher John Ford Ben Jonson Thomas Kyd Christopher Marlowe Philip Massinger Thomas Middleton Thomas More Thomas Nashe William Rowley William Shakespeare James Shirley Philip Sidney Edmund Spenser John Webster Thomas Wyatt Tudor period The Tudor period usually refers to the period between 1485 and 1603. In terms of the entire century. Caxton's achievement encouraged writing of all kinds and also influenced the standardization of the English language. The term can be used more broadly to include Elizabeth I's reign (1558 – 1603). These forces produced during the reign (1558–1603) of Elizabeth I one of the most fruitful eras in literary history.ED 0333-5697103 2012 1000-1100. Battle of Hastings. probable period of full development of Christmas and Easter cycles of plays in Western Europe 1017-1042. Doomsday Book (English census) 1087-1100. specifically in relation to the history of England. Vercelli Book (Anglo-Saxon MS). This coincides with the rule of the Tudor dynasty in England whose first monarch was Henry VII (1457 – 1509). and more optimistic under the Tudors" than at any time in a thousand years. The House of Tudor produced six monarchs who ruled during this period. Stronger political relationships with the Continent were also developed. concerns of people. which brought about a vast increase in the power of the monarchy. Not a member of the House of Tudor. Mary I (1553 to 1558) Elizabeth I (1558 to 1603) The Tudors and the Elizabethan Age The beginning of the Tudor dynasty coincided with the first dissemination of printed matter.M. Norman conquest 1066-1154. The early Tudor period. both in its narrow sense—the study and imitation of the Latin classics—and in its broad sense—the affirmation of the secular. although this is often treated separately as the Elizabethan era. was marked by a break with the Roman Catholic Church and a weakening of feudal ties. Saxon kings restored 1066. Henry VII (1485 to 1509) Henry VIII (1509 to 1547) Edward VI (1547 to 1553) Lady Jane Grey (1553) – Nominal queen for nine days in failed bid to prevent accession of Mary I. increasing England's exposure to Renaissance culture.
with Henry Howard. and soldier—. During the late 16th and early 17th cent. explorer. who popularized neo-Senecan tragedy. and Fulke Greville. whose sophisticated plays set the course of Renaissance drama and paved the way for Shakespeare. historian. and was. Sir Thomas Wyatt was the most successful sonneteer among early Tudor poets. Marlowe wrote in blank verse with a rhetorical brilliance and eloquence superbly equal to the demands of high drama. Thomas Kyd. combining elements of classical Roman comedy with native burlesque. spare poetry. a historical verse narrative by several poets that updated the medieval view of history and the morals to be drawn from it. Important late Tudor sonneteers include Spenser and Shakespeare. especially the sonnet. diplomat. and Edward de Vere. and ideas were incorporated into English literature. earl of Oxford. the greatest dramatist of the group. His history plays. Italian poetic forms. Neoplatonic ideas. drama flourished in England as never before or since. Samuel Daniel. His unfinished epic poem The Faerie Queen (1596) is a treasure house of romance. adventure. The ideal English Renaissance man was Sir Philip Sidney—scholar. George Gascoigne. historians. allegory. fulfilled the promise of the Elizabethan age. Samuel Purchas. Many others in a historical era when poetic talents were highly valued were skilled poets. of course. An ambitious and influential work was A Mirror for Magistrates (1559). often anonymous. themes. and Christopher Marlowe. and Sir Walter Raleigh were eagerly read.. The Wits included John Lyly. comedies. critic.ED 0333-5697103 2012 as Richard Hakluyt. and soldier—who died in battle at the age of 32. poet. The poet who best synthesized the ideas and tendencies of the English Renaissance was Edmund Spenser. who wrote strong.M. patriotism. The activities and literature of the Elizabethans reflected a new nationalism. and translators and even in political and religious tracts. and he is universally regarded as the greatest dramatist and one of the greatest poets of all time. the first to write romantic comedy. Michael Drayton. Focusing on heroes whose very greatness leads to their downfall. Ralph Roister Doister (c. and others). and tragedies set a standard never again equaled. Among the most prominent of this group were Thomas Churchyard.A ENGLISH & B. It came of age with the work of the University Wits.1552) are considered the first English comedies. A myriad of new genres. all presented in a variety of literary styles. William Shakespeare. hands. which expressed itself also in the works of chroniclers (John Stow.A SAQIB JANJUA M. a seminal influence. famed for the highly artificial and much imitated prose work Euphues (1578). Raphael Holinshed. courtier. Robert Greene. 111 . More versatile even than Sidney was Sir Walter Raleigh—poet. His best poetry is contained in the sonnet sequence Astrophel and Stella (1591) and his Defence of Poesie is among the most important works of literary criticism in the tradition. became models for English poets. A common goal of these poets was to make English as flexible a poetic instrument as Italian. courtier. Tottel's Miscellany (1557) was the first and most popular of many collections of experimental poetry by different. earl of Surrey. the versatile Thomas Lodge and Thomas Nashe. and Protestant morality. Early Tudor drama owed much to both medieval morality plays and classical models.1545) by Nicholas Udall and Gammer Gurton's Needle (c.
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