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List of Literary Movements
Amatory fiction Romantic fiction written in the 18th and 19th centuries. Notable authors: Eliza Haywood, Delarivier Manley Cavalier Poets 17th century English royalist poets, writing primarily about courtly love, called Sons of Ben (after Ben Jonson). Notable authors: Richard Lovelace, William Davenant Metaphysical poets 17th century English movement using extended conceit, often (though not always) about religion. Notable authors: John Donne, George Herbert, Andrew Marvell The Augustans An 18th century literary movement based chiefly on classical ideals, satire and skepticism. Notable authors: Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift Romanticism 1800 to 1860 century movement emphasizing emotion and imagination, rather than logic and scientific thought. Response to the Enlightenment. Notable authors: Victor Hugo, Lord Byron and Camilo Castelo Branco Gothic novel Fiction in which Romantic ideals are combined with an interest in the supernatural and in violence. Notable authors: Ann Radcliffe, Bram Stoker Lake Poets A group of Romantic poets from the English Lake District who wrote about nature and the sublime. Notable authors: William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge American Romanticism Distinct from European Romanticism, the American form emerged somewhat later, was based more in fiction than in poetry, and incorporated a (sometimes almost suffocating) awareness of history, particularly the darkest aspects of American history. Notable authors: Washington Irving, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Pre-Raphaelitism 19th century, primarily English movement based ostensibly on undoing innovations by the painter Raphael. Many were both painters and poets. Notable authors: Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Christina Rossetti Transcendentalism 19th century American movement: poetry and philosophy concerned with self-reliance, independence from modern technology. Notable authors: Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau Dark romanticism 19th century American movement in reaction to Transcendentalism. Finds man inherently sinful and self-destructive and nature a dark, mysterious force. Notable authors: Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, George Lippard Realism Late-19th century movement based on a simplification of style and image and an interest in poverty and everyday concerns. Notable authors: Gustave Flaubert, William Dean Howells, Stendhal, Honoré de Balzac, Leo Tolstoy, Frank Norris and Eça de Queiroz Naturalism Also late 19th century. Proponents of this movement believe heredity and environment control people. Notable authors: Émile Zola, Stephen Crane
based originally at Vanderbilt University. Waldo Pierce Dada Touted by its proponents as anti-art. Notable authors: Xavier Villaurrutia. Notable authors: Manuel Maples Arce. Ezra Pound. or reaction to science and technology. Scott Fitzgerald. They exalted modern urban life and social revolution. Notable authors: John Crowe Ransom.A ENGLISH & B.ED 0333-5697103 Symbolism 2012 Principally French movement of the fin de siècle based on the structure of thought rather than poetic form or image.. Notable authors: Raymond Queneau. and his memoir A Moveable Feast.M." Notable authors: Ezra Pound. James Joyce Modernism Variegated movement of the early 20th century. S. based in the Harlem neighborhood ofNew York City in the 1920s. Zora Neale Hurston Surrealism Originally a French movement.D. published an eponymous literary magazine which served as the group's mouthpiece and artistic vehicle from 1928-1931. Gertrude Stein and Fernando Pessoa The Lost Generation It was traditionally attributed to Gertrude Stein and was then popularized by Ernest Hemingway in the epigraph to his novel The Sun Also Rises. Ernest Hemingway. Notable authors: Guillaume Apollinaire. Notable Authors: F.D. Notable authors: Jean Cocteau. Germán List Arzubide Los Contemporáneos A Mexican vanguardist group. Notable authors: Virginia Woolf. Walter Abish 101 . influenced by Surrealist painting. Paul Valéry Stream of consciousness Early-20th century fiction consisting of literary representations of quotidian thought. Notable authors: Siegfried Sassoon. Salvador Novo Imagism Poetry based on description rather than theme. without authorial presence. H. Richard Aldington Harlem Renaissance African American poets. dada focused on going against artistic norms and conventions. that uses surprising images and transitions to play off of formal expectations and depict the unconscious rather than conscious mind. active in the late 1920s and early 1930s.A SAQIB JANJUA M. Notable authors: Langston Hughes. Kurt Schwitters First World War Poets Poets who documented both the idealism and the horrors of the war and the period in which it took place. Dylan Thomas Southern Agrarians A group of Southern American poets. and on the motto. influential for English language poets from Edgar Allan Poe to James Merrill. Some Southern Agrarians were also associated with the New Criticism.. James Joyce. formal innovation. Notable authors: Stéphane Mallarmé. and thinkers. Rupert Brooke Stridentism Mexican artistic avant-garde movement. T. H. who expressly repudiated many modernist developments in favor of metrical verse and narrative. It refers to a group of American literary notables who lived in Paris and other parts ofEurope from the time period which saw the end of World War I to the beginning of the Great Depression. Arqueles Vela. Eliot. Robert Penn Warren Oulipo Mid-20th century poetry and prose based on seemingly arbitrary rules for the sake of added challenge. "the natural object is always the adequate symbol. encompassing primitivism. often employing elements of blues and folklore. Notable authors: Ezra Pound. Arthur Rimbaud. novelists.
ballads always possess graphic simplicity and force.ED 0333-5697103 2012 Postmodernism Postwar movement skeptical of absolutes and embracing diversity. Cinquain: A cinquain is short poem that is made up of five lines that are usually unrhymed. Octavio Paz. V. Burlesque: In this kind of poetry a subject that is serious in nature is treated as humor. Giannina Braschi. Notable authors: Robert Lowell. four. Acrostic: Acrostic poetry is one that contains certain letters. eight and two syllables respectively. originally based at Black Mountain College. Most often associated with the Latin American literary boom of the 20th century.A SAQIB JANJUA M. Alicia Ostriker New York School Urban. a concept or a story in a structured form which has a flow and a music created by the sounds and syllables in it. Epics usually deal with the history and traditions of a nation. Notable poets:Shakti Chattopadhyay. Ballads usually have a refrain. S. Denise Levertov Beat poets American movement of the 1950s and 1960s concerned with counterculture and youthful alienation. 102 . irony. Burroughs. The verses in ballads are straight-forward and seldom have any detail. writers. Notable authors: Jorge Luis Borges. Thomas Pynchon. Clerihew: This type of poetry is made up of a comic verse that has two couplets and a specific rhyming scheme. who eschewed patterned form in favor of the rhythms and inflections of the human voice. It talks about the adventures of a hero. This type of poetry ends with a stinging punchline or humorous retort. Common forms of epigrams are written as a couplet. and word play. Notable authors: Jamaica Kincaid. William Blake and Ben Jonson. gay or gay-friendly. Didactic Poetry: Didactic poems are poems that are written in order to instruct or teach. an idea. Günter Grass. This form is a little like the rhythms of speech. Epigram: Practiced by poets like Robert Frost. Samir Roychoudhury Confessional poetry Poetry that. Salman Rushdie. whose work is frequently politically charged. Notable authors: Frank O'Hara. loosely connected movement of writers from former colonies of European countries.A ENGLISH & B. These five lines contain two. exposes the self as part of an aesthetic of the beauty and power of human frailty. Apart from that. Wole Soyinka Poetry is the expression of a thought. Derek Walcott. Sylvia Plath. Allen Ginsberg. leftist poets. Ballad: This type of poetry is short and narrative and is made up of stanzas of two to four lines. They also deal mostly with folklore or popular trends though some also originate from a wide range of subject matter. Binoy Majumdar. epigrams are short poems that possess satire. William S. Alasdair Gray Black Mountain Poets A self-identified group of poets. Malay Roy Choudhury. Notable authors: Gabriel García Márquez. Notable authors: Jack Kerouac. Naipaul. six. Ken Kesey Hungryalist Poets A literary movement in postcolonial India (Kolkata) during 1961-65 as a counter-discourse to Colonial Bengali poetry. Notable authors: Charles Olson. often brutally. which are usually placed at the beginning of each line. and painters of the 1960s. Blank Verse: A blank verse is written in unrhymed iambic pentameter. Epic: This type of poem is long and narrative in nature. Epitaph: A short poem with rhyming lines written on a tombstone in praise of a deceased person is called an epitaph. John Ashbery Magical Realism Literary movement in which magical elements appear in otherwise realistic circumstances. Julio Cortázar Postcolonialism A diverse.M. These letters form a message or word when they are read in a sequence.
A SAQIB JANJUA M.1625: Jacobean Age Major Writers: Ben Jonson John Webster Thomas Kyd George Chapman John Donne George Herbert Emilia Lanyer 1625 .1603: Elizabethan Age Major Writers: Christopher Marlowe Edmund Spenser Francis Beaumont John Fletcher Sir Philip Sidney Thomas Dekker Thomas Wyatt William Shakespeare 1603 . They talk about the death of an individual. is known as an ode. This type of poetry has content which is free from the traditional rules of using verse. thing or person. Ode: A poem that is written in praise of a place. Sonnet: A poem that is made up of 14 lines and a particular rhyming scheme is called a sonnet.ED 0333-5697103 2012 Elegy: This type of poetry is sad and thoughtful in nature.1500: Middle English Period Major Writers: Geoffrey Chaucer 1500 .1649: Caroline Age Major Writers: John Ford John Milton 103 . free verse is poetry that is irregular.A ENGLISH & B. Free Verse: Like the name suggests. Couplet: Perhaps the most popular type of poetry used. the couplet has stanzas made up of two lines which rhyme with each other.M.1066: Old English (Anglo-Saxon) Period Major Writers: Beowulf (Anonymous) 1066 . LIST OF LITERARY PERIOD IN ENGLISH LITERATURE 0450 .1600: The Renaissance (Early Modern) Period 1558 .
M.1901: The Victorian Period Major Writers: Charles Dickens George Eliot Robert Browning Alfred Lord Tennyson 1848 .1660: Commonwealth Period Major Writers: John Milton Andrew Marvell Thomas Hobbes 1660 .1783: The Age Of Sensibility 1785 .1830: The Romantic Period Major Writers: William Wordsworth S.1901: Aestheticism and Decadence 1901 .A ENGLISH & B.ED 0333-5697103 2012 1649 .1745: The Augustan Age Major Writers: Alexander Pope Jonathan Swift Samuel Johnson 1745 .T.1700: Restoration Period Major Writers: John Dryden 1700 .1860: The Pre-Raphaelites Major Writers: William Holman Hunt John Everett Millais Dante Gabriel Rossetti William Michael Rossetti James Collinson Frederic George Stephens Thomas Woolner 1880 . Coleridge Jane Austen the Brontës 1832 .A SAQIB JANJUA M.1910: The Edwardian Period Major Writers: 104 .
A ENGLISH & B. Forster Franz Kafka Joseph Conrad W. Scott Fitzgerald Samuel Beckett Robert Frost 1945 . Yeats F. G.1914: The Georgian Period Major Writers: G. Barrie Arnold Bennett Joseph Conrad E. S. Wells P. M. Byatt SATIRICAL STYLES 1. M. Direct satire is directly stated 2.S.M.Present: Post Modern Period Major Writers: Ted Hughes Doris Lessing John Fowles Don DeLillo A. Forster John Galsworthy Kenneth Grahame Edith Nesbit Beatrix Potter Lucy Maud Montgomery H. M. Lawrence Ezra Pound William Faulkner Ernest Hemingway Katherine Anne Porter E. Indirect satire is communicated through characters in a situation TYPES OF SATIRE 105 . Wells James Joyce D. Eliot Virginia Woolf John Steinbeck D. Lawrence T.M.ED 0333-5697103 J.G.S.A SAQIB JANJUA M. B. H. Eliot 1914 . G. Hopkins H.1945: The Modern Period Major Writers: Knut Hamsun James Joyce Mikhail Bulgakov T. Wodehouse 2012 1910 .H.
For example. Irony is achieved through such techniques as hyperbole and understatement.ED 0333-5697103 There are two types of satire. Linguistic games / Malapropism: A deliberate mispronunciation of a name or term with the intent of poking fun. and serious.A ENGLISH & B. The irony resides in the contrast between the meaning intended by the speaker and the added significance seen by others. SATIRICAL DEVICES 1. 2012 Horatian: Horatian satire is tolerant. Named after Augustan period‘s Roman satirist Juvenal.A SAQIB JANJUA M. It is lighter. For example. but is exaggerated to absurd lengths. less harsh in wording than sarcasm. personal. this playfully criticizes some social vice through gentle. and what one means or what is generally understood. unexpected events 2. Deflation: the English professor mispronounces a word. funny. moral indignation and personal invective. Fielding‘s description of a grossly fat and repulsively ugly Mrs. Irony: Literary device conveying the opposite of what is expected. and savage ridicule. Verbal Irony: Simply an inversion of meaning Dramatic Irony: When the words or acts of a character carry a meaning unperceived by himself but understood by the audience. Slipslop: ―She was not remarkably handsome. outrage. For example. caustic. the President slips and bangs his head leaving the helicopter. and light-hearted humour. Irony speaks words of praise to imply blame and words of blame to imply praise. sarcasm. Socratic irony is feigning ignorance to achieve some advantage over an opponent. Writer is using a tongue-in-cheek style. in which there is an incongruity or discordance between what one says or does. Horatian satire's sympathetic tone is common in modern society. bitter. Marge reading ―Fretful Mother‖ as she ignores her child. self-effacing and aims to correct through humor. Example: a practical joke that backfires is situational irony. this type of satire is more contemptuous and abrasive than the Horatian. The ability to recognize irony is one of the surest tests of intelligence and sophistication. It directs wit. sophisticated witty. a caricature. and self-deprecating humour toward what it identifies as folly. Horace. etc. 106 . Juvenalian: Juvenalian satire is angry. addresses social evil and points with contempt to the corruption of men and institutions through scorn. relentless. Socratic Irony: Socrates pretended ignorance of a subject in order to draw knowledge out of his students by a question and answer device. etc. Surprise: Twist endings.‖ Incongruity: A marked lack of correspondence or agreement. the formalized walk of Charlie Chaplin. weird rhymes. Think sarcasm with the intentions of evoking change. Situational Irony: Depends on a discrepancy between purpose and results. characterized by irony. This form is often pessimistic. wise. Juvenalian satire provokes a darker kind of laughter. rather than evil. Named for the Roman satirist from the Augustan period in Rome. mild. Humor: Exaggeration or overstatement: Something that does happen. though more cutting because of its indirectness. This is the most common type of satire.M. with less emphasis on humour. exaggeration. Understatement: A statement that seems incomplete or less than truthful given the facts.
STREAM OF CONSCIOUSNESS Origin of the term: William James coined the phrase to describe the flux of the mind. 13. piece of work. trickery. there are rogues (knaves) and suckers (fools). STYLE is the essential quality in burlesque. improbable situations. Invective is a vehicle. drunkenness. Mock Encomium: Praise which is only apparent and which suggests blame instead. they expose each other. 15. 16. Grotesque: Creating a tension between laughter and horror or revulsion. It is a play on the word ―earnest‖. and billet-doux‖. story becomes unreal and unsatisfactory. but could. composition imitating or burlesquing another. horseplay. When knaves & fools meet. Invective: Name calling. Comic Juxtaposition: Linking together with no commentary items which normally do not go together. etc. Psychological: Nature of consciousness and its relation to time. honest emotions may be turned to sentimentality. Deals the relations between loneliness and love. Parody: A mocking imitation. 1Travesty: Presents a serious (often religious) subject frivolously it reduces everything to its lowest level. A style ordinarily dignified may be used for nonsensical matters. made difficult to think of consciousness. fighting.ED 0333-5697103 2012 3. Inflation: Taking a real-life situation and blowing it out of proportion to make it ridiculous and showcase its faults. Realistic: Consider truth to observe facts about outer world.A ENGLISH & B. slap-stick. Sarcasm: A sharply mocking or contemptuous remark. 14. harsh. Instead. Absurdity: Something that seems like it would never happen. Wit or word play: The title The Importance of Being Earnest. Idealistic: Create pleasant and edifying picture. Pope‘s line in Rape of the Lock: ―Puffs. the essence of all ―sick humor: or ―black humor‖ 6. Burlesque: Ridiculous exaggeration achieved through a variety of ways. bibles. a tool of anger. comic satire results. and the name ―Earnest‖. Parody is in literature what the caricature and cartoon are in art. Presenting a subject in a dress intended for another type of subject. ―Trans‖= over. noisy singing. existing. Modern Novel: Realistic as opposed to idealistic. The term came from the Greek word ―sarkazein‖ which means ―to tear flesh. 11. Knaves & Fools: In comedy there are no villains and no innocent victims. The knave exploits someone ―asking for it‖.M. its continuity and yet its continuous change. psychological. 5. tends to see it as altogether fluid. meaning honest. the sublime may be absurd. Farce: Exciting laughter through exaggerated. Mock Epic / Mock Heroic: Using elevated diction and devices from the epic or the heroic to deal with low or trivial subjects. For example. When these two interact. across ―vestire‖ = to clothe or dress.‖ 18. abusive language directed against a person or cause. clownishness. 17. boisterous conduct. 12. usually serious. Euphemism: The substitution of an inoffensive term for one that is offensive. 107 . MODERN NOVEL Novel: Most important and popular literary medium. 7. coarse with. It is the bitterest of all satire.A SAQIB JANJUA M. patches. Designed to ridicule in nonsensical fashion an original piece of work. Diminution: Taking a real-life situation and reducing it to make it ridiculous and showcase its faults. 8. 10. about his own feelings. 4. This usually contains low comedy: quarreling. 9.
Unlike poetry. rough living and deep feeling. a priest who wrote sermons in a sort of poetic prose. TECHNIQUE OF CHARACTERISATION Previous methods: Two different methods were adopted in the delineation of character. struggle for glory. Through the transcription of Latin Chronicles into English by the King Alfred the great probably. sang in series about the fate of man. Two great pioneers: Alfred the Great. 1) Waldhere (693-705): The Fight at Finnesburg: Deals with battle against fearful odds. gives a complete picture of a character both historically and psychologically. totally blocking others out. Means of escape from tyranny. love of womanhood. First represents the presentation of conscious from chronological sequence of events. ANGLO-SAXON POETRY Most poets of their literature have over-shadowed yet some are left. from the creation to fall of man and the last Judgment. 108 . 2. Impossible to give a psychological accurate account of a man. 3. Life: external and internal rich life. Character can be presented outside time and place. Present moment is specious denoting the ever fluid passing of the ‗already‘ into the ‗not yet‘. (i) Personalities of characters emerge from a chronological account of events and reactions to it as in Hardy‘s The Mayor of Casterbridge. ANGLO-SAXON PROSE 1.M.ED 0333-5697103 2012 Consciousness: An amalgam of that we have experienced and continue to experience. English prose was established. Beowulf: Epic. THE ANGLO-SAXON (428 – 1100) Anglo-Saxon: Angles and Saxon. dissatisfied with these traditional methods. Characteristic: Their customs were different from each other as in savagery. Principles: they had five principles. gives the reaction to a particular experience at the moment but also his previous and future reactions. indicate the precise nature in a limited time. distinctively refers to the historical background. ―Stream of consciousness‖ novelist is responsible for an important development. Love of personal freedom. Complaint of Deor: Disappointment of a lover.A ENGLISH & B. Development in character which is difficult. brave and fearless fighters. 2) Caedmon (657-681): Religious poet. and then investigates a given state of mind so completely. (ii) First a descriptive portrait of the character is given and the resulting actions and reactions elaborate that picture as in Trollope’s Barchester Towers. Great success is religious instructions. rejecting others. ancestors of the English race. love of pure glory. 4. Their literature was full of vivacity due to all these traits. 3) Cynewulf (757-786): Religious poet Christ: Metrical narration of leading events of Christ‘s ministry upon earth. selectively attentive or inattentive. A technique that reveals the character completely historically as well as psychologically. splendid courage and deep melancholy resulting from unanswered riddle of death.A SAQIB JANJUA M. Every thought is a part of the personal consciousness. sentiment. nature lover. first English poet known by name. the glorious king of Wessex and Aelfric. no break in prose of Anglo-Saxon period and Middle English period. happy domestic life and virtues were their magnetic attractions. interested in dynamic aspects rather than static. We seem to be selective in our thoughts. unique and ever-changing. focussing attention on certain objects and areas of experience.
Life of Alfred the Great by Asser 901-1066. Pope Gregory the Great (Gregorian Calendar. Elene (saint's legend). flourishing Christian poetry in Northumbria (preserved in West Saxon). School of Caedmon". Chronicle continued. Orosius. activity of Irish missionaries in Scotland. Charlemagne's reign in France 850. The Wanderer (reflective poem on fate). establishment of powerful Anglo-Saxon kingdoms 633. The Husband's Message (love poems). with some development of medieval English lyrics. Queen Elizabeth 570-632. Decline of Anglo-Saxon heroic verse and reduced literary activity in English. Andreus (saint's legend--voyage tale). Switzerland. Battle of Maldon (heroic poem) 1000-1200. containing Caedmon poems 971. The Seafarer (reflective. descriptive lyric on sailor's life). Bede. and Aelfric 950. Deor's Lament (lyric. second period of Danish invasions 991. Junius MS written. sermons. probable beginnings of medieval dram in dramatatization of liturgy 893. influential medieval Latin work by Boethius. Fates of the Apostles (saints' legends). Germany. monastic revival under Dunstan. Gregorian music) 597. Aelfric's Sermons. Hymns (first English poet known by name) 700. traditional date (from Gildas and Bede) for Germanic invasion by Hengist and Horsa 450-700. The Exeter Book (MS containing Cynewulf poems) 109 . The Phoenix (myth interpreted as Christian allegory) 787. Widsith (lyric. Battle of Brunanburh (heroic poem) 950-1000. Beowulf composed in present form 731. germs of English romances 1000. lyrics 937. Danish conquest 871-901. Alfred the Great. Ecclesiastical History (Latin) by The Venerable Bede 750. The Wife's Complaint.A ENGLISH & B. Iceland. sermons.A SAQIB JANJUA M. Boethius. Mohammed 590-604. Charms 500-700. Anglo-Saxon Gospels. the missionary Saint Augustine establishes Christianity in southern England 600-700. Blickling Homilies 975.ED 0333-5697103 2012 ANGLO-SAXON HISTORY 449. Aethelwold. "Consolation of Philosophy"--would be translated into English by King Alfred. Finnsburg (fragmentary. transition from English to Norman French. St. related to Beowulf). saints' lives 875-900. poetry. Ethelwold's Concordia Regularis. Juliana (Saint's legend in dialogue form). account of poet). account of poet). closing of Athenian philosophical schools 524. first Danish invasion 800.M. Latin "History of the Britons" by Nennius (Welsh)--first mention of Arthur 800-814. Caedmon. Christian culture flourishes in Ireland. Chaucer. France. Biblical translations and paraphrases. composition of Old English poems: Beowulf (epic).800. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle revised and continued to 892. saints' lives. directions for acting a trope at Winchester--earliest evidence of dramatic activity in England 979-1016. The Koran 670. Cynewulf and his school: Crist (narrative). translations of Pope Gregory's Pastoral Care. Beowulf MS written 1000-1025. West Saxon Martyrology. Italy 509.
These forces produced during the reign (1558–1603) of Elizabeth I one of the most fruitful eras in literary history. Norman conquest 1066-1154. ecclesiastical philosopher. First Crusade The major literary figures in the English Renaissance include: Francis Bacon Thomas Dekker John Donne John Fletcher John Ford Ben Jonson Thomas Kyd Christopher Marlowe Philip Massinger Thomas Middleton Thomas More Thomas Nashe William Rowley William Shakespeare James Shirley Philip Sidney Edmund Spenser John Webster Thomas Wyatt Tudor period The Tudor period usually refers to the period between 1485 and 1603. William II--centralization of kingdom 1098-1099.M. Accounts by men such 110 . and more optimistic under the Tudors" than at any time in a thousand years. concerns of people. This coincides with the rule of the Tudor dynasty in England whose first monarch was Henry VII (1457 – 1509). Not a member of the House of Tudor. Abelard (French). Mary I (1553 to 1558) Elizabeth I (1558 to 1603) The Tudors and the Elizabethan Age The beginning of the Tudor dynasty coincided with the first dissemination of printed matter. The early Tudor period. Doomsday Book (English census) 1087-1100. lover of Heloise 1086. William Caxton's press was established in 1476. which brought about a vast increase in the power of the monarchy.A ENGLISH & B. Guy (1988) argues that "England was economically healthier. was marked by a break with the Roman Catholic Church and a weakening of feudal ties. The term can be used more broadly to include Elizabeth I's reign (1558 – 1603). Norman kings 1079-1142.ED 0333-5697103 2012 1000-1100. Battle of Hastings. Danish kings 1042-1066. specifically in relation to the history of England. both in its narrow sense—the study and imitation of the Latin classics—and in its broad sense—the affirmation of the secular. increasing England's exposure to Renaissance culture. probable period of full development of Christmas and Easter cycles of plays in Western Europe 1017-1042. In terms of the entire century. The House of Tudor produced six monarchs who ruled during this period. Saxon kings restored 1066. although this is often treated separately as the Elizabethan era. Stronger political relationships with the Continent were also developed. Humanism became the most important force in English literary and intellectual life. Vercelli Book (Anglo-Saxon MS). more expansive. Henry VII (1485 to 1509) Henry VIII (1509 to 1547) Edward VI (1547 to 1553) Lady Jane Grey (1553) – Nominal queen for nine days in failed bid to prevent accession of Mary I.A SAQIB JANJUA M. The energy of England's writers matched that of its mariners and merchants. only nine years before the beginning of Henry VII's reign. Caxton's achievement encouraged writing of all kinds and also influenced the standardization of the English language. in addition to the otherworldly. particularly the reign of Henry VIII.
George Gascoigne. patriotism. explorer. Raphael Holinshed. and ideas were incorporated into English literature. Thomas Kyd.A SAQIB JANJUA M. Among the most prominent of this group were Thomas Churchyard. critic. the first to write romantic comedy. historians. courtier. famed for the highly artificial and much imitated prose work Euphues (1578). and he is universally regarded as the greatest dramatist and one of the greatest poets of all time. and Fulke Greville. earl of Oxford. diplomat. which expressed itself also in the works of chroniclers (John Stow. the versatile Thomas Lodge and Thomas Nashe. and was. all presented in a variety of literary styles. Marlowe wrote in blank verse with a rhetorical brilliance and eloquence superbly equal to the demands of high drama. Italian poetic forms. adventure. the greatest dramatist of the group. who wrote strong.1545) by Nicholas Udall and Gammer Gurton's Needle (c. who popularized neo-Senecan tragedy. especially the sonnet. whose sophisticated plays set the course of Renaissance drama and paved the way for Shakespeare. hands. often anonymous. Michael Drayton. An ambitious and influential work was A Mirror for Magistrates (1559). and tragedies set a standard never again equaled. a historical verse narrative by several poets that updated the medieval view of history and the morals to be drawn from it. drama flourished in England as never before or since. Focusing on heroes whose very greatness leads to their downfall. historian. Ralph Roister Doister (c. became models for English poets.1552) are considered the first English comedies. and Edward de Vere. His unfinished epic poem The Faerie Queen (1596) is a treasure house of romance. The ideal English Renaissance man was Sir Philip Sidney—scholar. A myriad of new genres. and Protestant morality. Robert Greene. The Wits included John Lyly. and soldier—. allegory. of course.M. His history plays. Many others in a historical era when poetic talents were highly valued were skilled poets. comedies. a seminal influence. poet. spare poetry. combining elements of classical Roman comedy with native burlesque. The activities and literature of the Elizabethans reflected a new nationalism. His best poetry is contained in the sonnet sequence Astrophel and Stella (1591) and his Defence of Poesie is among the most important works of literary criticism in the tradition. 111 . with Henry Howard. William Shakespeare. Early Tudor drama owed much to both medieval morality plays and classical models. The poet who best synthesized the ideas and tendencies of the English Renaissance was Edmund Spenser. themes. earl of Surrey.A ENGLISH & B.. It came of age with the work of the University Wits. Samuel Purchas. During the late 16th and early 17th cent. and translators and even in political and religious tracts. courtier. and soldier—who died in battle at the age of 32. fulfilled the promise of the Elizabethan age.ED 0333-5697103 2012 as Richard Hakluyt. A common goal of these poets was to make English as flexible a poetic instrument as Italian. Sir Thomas Wyatt was the most successful sonneteer among early Tudor poets. Tottel's Miscellany (1557) was the first and most popular of many collections of experimental poetry by different. More versatile even than Sidney was Sir Walter Raleigh—poet. Samuel Daniel. and others). Important late Tudor sonneteers include Spenser and Shakespeare. Neoplatonic ideas. and Sir Walter Raleigh were eagerly read. and Christopher Marlowe.
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