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P. 1

Rc Element Structures|Views: 34|Likes: 0

Published by raghuarjun

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/105233995/Rc-Element-Structures

09/07/2012

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**Determine the suitable dimension of the cantilever retaining wall
**

which is required to support the bank of earth 4m height above. G.L. on

the toe side of the wall considered the back fill surface to the inclined at

an angle of 15

o

Assume good soil for foundation at a depth of 1.25m

below G.L SBC – 160 KN/m

2

. Further assume the back fill to comprise of

granular soil with unit wt 16KN/m

3

and an ansle of shearing resistance of

30

o

. Assume co-efficient of friction b/w. soil and concrete is 0.5. Pa is the

active earth pressure exerted by the retain earth on the wall.

Solution : (both wan & the earth move in the same direction)

= 30

o

, SBC = 160 KN/m

2

,

= 16 KN/m

3

, μ= 0.5

Rankine’s min depth of foundation,

dmin =

2

sin 1

sin 1 SBC

,

_

¸

¸

φ +

φ −

γ

=

2

o

o

30 sin 1

30 sin 1

16

160

,

_

¸

¸

+

−

= 1.11m 1.25m

Thickness of base slab h/12

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

=

12

25 . 5

= 0.4375

Assume the top tk of stem as 150mm thickness of stem tappers from

450mm from bottom & 150mm to top.

L

min

=

R

1

h

3

Ca

α

,

_

¸

¸

Co-efficient of active earth pressure

C

a

=

θ

1

1

]

1

¸

φ − θ + θ

φ − θ − θ

Cos

Cos Cos Cos

Cos Cos Cos

2 2

2 2

=

1

o 2 o 2 o

o 2 o 2 o

Cos

30 Cos 15 Cos 15 Cos

30 Cos 15 Cos 15 Cos

1

1

]

1

¸

− +

− −

= Ca = 0.373

Cp =

o

o

30 sin 1

30 sin 1

sin 1

sin 1

−

+

·

φ −

φ +

= 3

Assuming surcharge height of 0.4m at the end of heel slab.

h′

= 5.25 + 0.4

15

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

h′

= 5.65 m

Assuming the trapezoidal below the base slab.

α

R

= 0.67

Lmin =

Lmin = 2.97 m

Provide base slab width of 3m

Width of heel slab is X

min

= L

min

x α

R

= 3 x 0.67 = 2m

The preliminary proportion is shown in fissure

For the assumed proportions the retaining wall is check for stability

against overturning and sliding

Force

ID

Force (KN) Distance from

heel (m)

Moment

KNm

W1 ½ x 1.85 x 0.5 x 16 = 7.44 1/3 x 1.85 =

0.616

4.583

W2 1.85x 5 x 25 – 0.45 x 16 =

142.08

½ (1.85) =

0.925

131.424

W3 0.15 x 4.8 x 25 = 18 1.85 + 0.15/2 =

1.925

34.65

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

W4 ½ x (0.450 – 0.15) x 4.8 x

(25 – 16) = 6.48

1.85 – 1/3

(0.30) = 1.75

11.34

Pa sin 98.65 sin 15

o

= 25.53

Pa = Ca γ e x 4/2

= 0.373 x 16 x

2

2

75 . 5

,

_

¸

¸

Pa = 98.65KN

The resultant of the vertical of lies at a distance of Xw from the h

end

X

4

=

W

MW

=

28 . 283

62 . 232

= 0.99m

Check for over turning moment

FoSo = > 1.4

For retaining wall with sloping back fi

Mo = Pa cos θ x h

1

/3 = 98.65 Cos 15

o

x 5.75 / 5

Mo = 182.63 KNm

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

M

r

= W (L. x W) + Pa Sin θ (L)

= 233.28 (3 – 0.99) + 98.65 sin 15

o

= 545.5

Foso =

63 . 182

5 . 545 x 9 . 0

=2.68 > 1.4

Check for sliding

Fos sliding =

θ Cos Pa

F 9 . 0

F = μR = 0.5 x 232.28

= 116.64 KN

Fos sliding =

o

15 Cos Pa

64 . 116 x 9 . 0

= 1.10 < 1.4

Hence the section is not safe is sliding

The shear key is required to resist sliding

Assume shear key of size 300 x 300mm at a distance of 1.3m from the

too as shown in figure.

Figue***

15

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Tan 30

o

=

3 . 1

x

x = 0.75m

h1 = 1.25 - 0.3 + 0.8 = 1.25m

h2 = 1.25 + 0.75 = 2m

Ppe = Cp pe

( )

2

1

2

2

h h −

= 3 x

2

) ) 25 . 1 ( ) 2 (( 16

2 2

−

Pps = 58.5KN

Fos s =

o

ps

15 cos 65 . 98

P F 9 . 0 +

=

o

15 cos 65 . 98

5 . 58 ) 64 . 116 ( F 9 . 0 +

= 1.71 > 1.4

Hence the section is safe against sliding.

Soil pressure from the supporting soil on base slab :

15

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

The distribution of soil pressure from the base is trapezoida in

nature. Maximum pressure at one end is

q

max

=

L

R

,

_

¸

¸

+

L

e 6

1

and min-pressure is

q

min

=

,

_

¸

¸

−

L

e 6

1

L

R

(where qmax is direct stress + Bending stress

qmin is direct stress – bending stress)

here the eccentricity ‘e’ is given by

e = L

R

– L/2

where L

R

= The distance of R from the heel slab

L

R

= (M

o

+ Mw) /R

=

38 . 233

) 62 . 232 63 . 182 ( +

LR = 1.78m

E = 1.78 – (3/2) = 0.28m

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

q

max

=

,

_

¸

¸

+

3

) 28 . 0 ( 6

1

3

28 . 233

= 121.30KN/m

2

α SBC

qmin =

,

_

¸

¸

−

3

) 28 . 0 ( 6

1

3

28 . 233

34.21 > 0 KN/m

2

Hence pressure is within the limits.

Figure***

Design of Toe slab :

Fig***

The toe slab is design for a UD of 92.36

The Toe slab is design as cantilever

Assume the clear cover as 75mm for base slab and bar dia of 16mm

Eff. Depth, d = D – clear cover - φ /2

= 450 – 75 – 16/2

d = 367mm

The max. B.M at the rear face of the stem is

M = 92.36 x 1 x ½ + (½ x 1 x 28.96)

15

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

M = 55.82 KNm

The ma. Shear force occurs at the distance of ‘d’ from the face of the

stear.

V = ½ x 1 (92.36 + 121.3) x (1-0.367)

V = 67.62 KN

Factored B.M = 1.5 x 55.82

Mu = 83.73 KNm

Factored shear force, Vu = 1.5 x 67.62

Vu = 101.43 KN

Mu = 0.87fy Ast (d – 0.47

fck 36 . 0

Ast fy 87 . 0

)

83.73 x 10

6

= 0.87 x 415 x Ast (367 - 0.42

,

_

¸

¸

1000 x 20 x 36 . 0

Ast fy 87 . 0

Ast = 656.44mm

2

S =

Ast

ast 1000

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

=

Ast

4

) 16 ( x

x 1000

2

π

S = 306.19 mm

Refer table 2 in slab for M20 p fe 415 stal

Provide 16mm @ 300mm c/c.

Check for shear

Design of heel slab :

M = 34.3 x 1.55 x

2

55 . 1

½ x 1.55 x 47.89 x 1/3 x 1.55

M = 60.37 KNm

V = ½ (82.19 + 34.3) (1.55 – 0.367)

V = 68.90KN

Mu = 1.5 x 60.37 = 90.55 KNm

Vu = 1.5 x 68.90 = 103.35 KN

Mu = 0.87fy Ast d

,

_

¸

¸

−

bd fck 36 . 0

Ast fy

1

15

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

90.55 x 10

6

= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 367

,

_

¸

¸

−

367 x 1000 x 20

Ast 415

1

Ast = 712.03mm

2

S =

08 . 712

4

16 x

x 1000

2

π

S = 282.37mm

Provide 16mm @ 280mm c/c

Development length :

The main reinforcement to be developed into the fixed support for

a length of

Ld =

bd

s

4τ

σ φ

=

6 . 1 x 2 . 1 x 4

415 x 87 . 0 x 16

Ld = 752.18 mm

Check for shear

15

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

τ

v

=

367 x 1000

10 x 35 . 103

bd

vu

3

·

= 0.281 N/mm

2

P

t

=

367 x 1000

03 . 712 x 100

bd

Ast 100

·

= 0.194%

c

= 0.315 N/mm

2

τ v < τ c

Hence section is safe in shear

Distribution steel :

Ast min = 0.12 c/s is provided along the transverse direction of the

base slab.

Ast min = 0.12 bd = 0.12 x 1000 x 150

= 540.0 mm

2

S =

540

4

10 x

x 1000

2

π

= 145.44mm

Provide 10mm @ 140mm c/c

Design of stem

15

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Stem is designed as a cantilever slab for a height of 4800mm (5250

- ) The max. moment on cantilever slab in head stem is

M = C a h3/6

Assume clear cover of 50mm, bar of 16mm

d = 450 – 50 – 16/2 = 392mm

M = 0.373 x 16 x = 110KNm

The maximum shear force at ‘d’ from compound base slab is

V = Caγ Z2/2 where Z = 4.8 – 0.45 = 4.35m

V = 0.373 x 16 x (4.35/2)2

V = 56.46. KN

Mu = 1.5 x 110 = 165KNm

Vu = 1.5 x 56.46 = 84.69 KN

Mu = 0.87 fy Ast d

,

_

¸

¸

−

bd

fck

Ast fy

1

165 x 10

6

= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 312

,

_

¸

¸

−

312 x 1000 x 20

Ast 415

1

Ast = 1248.30mm

2

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

S = 161.06mm

Provide 16mm φ @ 160mm c/c.

Check for shear

v =

312 x 1000

10 x 67 . 84

bd

Vu

3

·

= 0.216 N/mm

2

Pt =

392 x 1000

3 . 1248 x 100

bd

Ast 100

·

= 0.318

C = 0.392 N/mm

2

v

<

c

Hence section is safe in slab.

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Design of heel slab :

Wt from backfill = 16(5.25 – 0.45) = 76.8

Self wt of heel slab 25 (0.45) = 11.25 Kn

= 88.05 Kn

M = 5.86 x 1.55 x 1.55/2 +

½ (47.89) x 1.55 x 2/3 (1.55)

M = 45.39 KNm

V = ½ (5.86 + 53.75) (1.53 – 0.367) 5.86

V = 35.25 KN

Mu = 1.5 (45.39) = 68.08 KNm

Vu = 1.5 x 56.463 = 84.69 KN

Mu = 0.87 fy Ast. d (1-

3 x 1000 x 20

Ast 415

)

S =

65 . 529

4

12 x

x 1000

2

π

S = 213.53mm

15

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Provide 12mm @ 210mm c/c.

Provide distribution steel 10mm @ 160mm c/c. in the base slab as well as

along the transverse direction for the steam in the rear face. Also provide

distasted for the front face of the stem along both direction as 10mm @

16mm c/c.

Reinforcement Details :

The main reinforcement in the stem can be curtailed at two places.

At ½ height (4/3m) half the reinforcement is curtail.

Provide 16mm @ 320mm c/c.

At 2/8 h

,

_

¸

¸

8 . 4 x

8

2

the reinforcement is reduced to half.

Provide 16mm @ 640mm c/c.

The distribution steel is also curtail in the similar method.

Design the cantilever retaining wall to retain a level difference of 4m.

Good soil is available at a depth of 1.25m below G.L. The unit wt of soil

16KN/m3 and SBC of soil is 160KN/m

2

. The backfill is leveled one with

angle of internal friction φ = 30

o

.

Soln :

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Height of wall above G.L= 4m

Good soil depth below G.L. = 1.25m

Unit wt of soil = 16 Kn/m

3

SBC = 160KN/m

2

= 30

Rankine’s min depth of foundation.

dmin =

2

sin 1

sin 1 SBC

,

_

¸

¸

θ +

θ −

γ

=

2

o

o

30 sin 1

30 sin 1

16

160

,

_

¸

¸

+

−

= 1.11m 1.25

Earth pressure co-efficient

Ca =

θ +

θ −

sin 1

sin 1

=

o

o

30 sin 1

30 sin 1

+

−

= 0.333

Cp =

θ +

θ −

sin 1

sin 1

=

o

o

30 sin 1

30 sin 1

+

−

= 3

15

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Thickness of base slab =

12

25 . 5

12

h

·

= 0.4375 = 0.45m

Assume top width of wall as 150mm & tk of stem tappers from 450mm to

150mm

L

min

=

,

_

¸

¸

3

Ca

R

h

α

Assuming the trapezoidal sters below the base slab

R

= 0.67

L

min

=

,

_

¸

¸

,

_

¸

¸

67 . 0

25 . 5

3

333 . 0

= 2.610m

Provide base slab width of 3m

Width of heel slab is X

min

= L

min

x α

R

= 3.0 x 0.67

= 2.01

= 2m

The preliminary proportions is shown in figure.

15

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

For the assumed proportions the retaining is check for stability against

overturning (s)

P

a

= Ca e x

2

2

) h (

,

_

¸

¸

= 0.333 x 16 x

,

_

¸

¸

2

) 25 . 5 (

2

P

a

= 73.43 Kn

Force

ID

Force (KN) Distance from

heel (m)

Moment

KNm

W1 ½ x 1.85 x 0.45 x 16 =

142.08

1/2 x 1.85 =

0.925

181.42

W2 0.15 x (5.25 – 0.45) x 25 =

18

1.85 +

,

_

¸

¸

2

15 . 0

=

1.925

34.65

W3 ½ x (0.45 – 0.15) x 4.8 x

(25-16) = 6.48

1.85 – 1/3(0.3)

= 1.75 3/2

11.35

W4 3 x 0.45 x 25 = 33.75 3/2 = 1.5 50.625

W = 200.31KN M = 228.045 KNm

The resistant of vertical forces lies at a the of x 01 from the heel end.

X

4

=

31 . 200

045 . 228

W

Mw

·

= 1.188m

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Check for overturning moment :

Foso =

Mo

Mr 9 . 0

Mo = Pa cos θ x h

1

/3 = 73.43

,

_

¸

¸

3

25 . 5

Mo = 128.50 KNm

M

r

= W (L. x W) + Pa Sin (L)

= 200.31 (3 – 1.138)

= 372.97KNm

Foso =

50 . 128

97 . 372 x 9 . 0

=2.61 > 1.4

Check for sliding

Fos sliding =

θ Cos Pa

F 9 . 0

F = μR = 0.5 x 200.31

= 100.155 KN

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Fos sliding =

43 . 73

155 . 100 x 9 . 0

= 1.22 < 1.4

Hence the section is not safe is sliding

The shear key is required to resist sliding

Assume shear key of size 300 x 300mm at a distance of 1.3m from the

too as shown in figure.

Figue***

Tan 30

o

=

3 . 1

x

x = 0.75m

h1 = 1.25 - 0.3 + 0.8 = 1.25m

h2 = 1.25 - 0.3 + 0.3 + 0.75 = 1.25m

Ppe = Cp e

( )

2

1

2

2

h h −

= 3 x

2

) ) 25 . 1 ( ) 2 (( 16

2 2

−

Pps = 58.5KN

15

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Fos s =

θ

+

cos 65 . 98

P F 9 . 0

ps

=

43 . 73

5 . 58 ) 155 . 100 ( F 9 . 0 +

= 2.02 > 1.4

Hence the section is safe against sliding.

Soil pressure from the supporting soil on base slab :

The distribution of soil pressure from the base is trapezoida in

nature. Maximum pressure at one end is

q

max

=

L

R

,

_

¸

¸

+

L

e 6

1

and min-pressure is

q

min

=

,

_

¸

¸

−

L

e 6

1

L

R

here the eccentricity ‘e’ is given by

e = L

R

– L/2

where L

R

= The distance of R from the heel slab

15

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

L

R

= (M

o

+ Mw) /R

=

31 . 200

) 04 . 228 5 . 128 ( +

L

R

= 1.78m

e = 1.78 – (3/2) = 0.28m

q

max

=

,

_

¸

¸

+

3

) 28 . 0 ( 6

1

3

31 . 200

= 104.16KN/m

2

α 160

q

min

=

,

_

¸

¸

−

3

) 28 . 0 ( 6

1

3

28 . 233

29.37 Kn/m

2

> 0

Hence pressure is within the limits.

Figure***

Design of Toe slab :

Fig***

2

x

3

79 . 74

1

·

X = 49.86KN/m

2

15

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

55 . 1

x

3

79 . 74

·

X = 38.64 KN/m

2

The Toe slab is design for a UDL ofas cantilever beam

Assume the clear cover as 75mm for base slab and bar dia of 16mm

Eff. Depth, d = D – clear cover - φ /2

= 450 – 75 – 16/2

d = 367mm

The max. B.M at the rear face of the stem is

M = 79.23 x 1 x ½ + (½ x 1 x 21.93) x 2/3

M = 47.925 KNm

The ma. Shear force occurs at the distance of ‘d’ from the face of the

stear.

V = ½ x 1 (79.23 + 104.16) x (1-0.367)

V = 58.04 KN

Factored B.M = 1.5 x 47.92

Mu = 71.85 KNm

Factored shear force, Vu = 1.5 x 58.04

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Vu = 87.06 KN

Mu = 0.87fy Ast (1 -

fck

Ast fy

)

71.88 x 10

6

= 0.87 x 415 x Ast (367)

,

_

¸

¸

−

367 x 1000 x 20

Ast 415

1

Ast = 560.21mm

2

S =

Ast

ast 1000

=

21 . 560

4

) 12 ( x

x 1000

2

π

S = 201.80 mm

Provide 12mm @ 200mm c/c.

Check for shear

v

=

367 x 1000

10 x 06 . 87

bd

Vu

3

·

= 0.237 N/mm

2

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Pf =

367 x 1000

21 . 560 x 100

bd

Ast 100

·

= 0.152%

c

= 0.2816N/mm

2

τ

v

=

c

.

Hence section is safe in shear.

Design of heel slab :

Wt from back fill = 16(5.25 – 0.45) = 76.8 Kn

Self wt of heel slab = 25 (0.45) = 11.25 KN/m

2

88.05 Kn/m

2

M = (20.04 x 1.55) x

2

55 . 1

½ x 1.55 x 38.68 x 2/3 x 1.55

M = 55.04 KNm

Mu = 1.5 (55.04) = 82.56 KNm

V = ½ (20.04 + 58.68) (1.55 – 0.367)

V = 46.56KN

Vu = 1.5 x (46.56) = 69.84 KNm

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Mu = 0.87fy Ast d

,

_

¸

¸

−

bd fck 36 . 0

Ast fy

1

82.56 x 10

6

= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 367

,

_

¸

¸

−

367 x 1000 x 20

Ast 415

1

Ast = 646.71mm

2

S =

71 . 646

4

16 x

x 1000

2

π

S = 174.85mm

Provide 12mm @ 170mm c/c

Distribution steel

Ast(min) = 0.12% bd

=

450 x 1000 x

100

12 . 0

= 540mm

2

S =

540

4

) 0 ( x

x 1000

2

π

= 145.44mm

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Provide 10mm @ 140mm c/c.

Design of Stem :

Stem is designed as cantilever slab for a height of 5.25 – 0.45 =

4.8m

The max. moment on cantilever slab in the head stem is

M = Caγ h

3

/6

= 0.833 x 16 x

4

) 8 . 4 (

3

M = 98.20 Knm

Assume 50mm cover & 16mm bar

d = 450 – 50 – 16/2 = 392mm

Max. shear force at ‘d’ from compound slab is

V = Caγ Z

2

/2 Z = 4.8 – 0.45 – 4.3

V = 0.833 x 16 x

2

) 35 . 4 (

2

V = 50.40 KN

Mu = 1.5 x 98.20 = 147.3 Knm

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Vu = 1.5(50.40) = 75.6 KN

147.3 x 10

6

= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 392

1000 x 20

Ast 415

1 −

Ast = 1105.44mm

2

S =

44 . 1105

4

16 x

x 1000

2

π

= 181.88mm

Provide 16mm @ 180mm c/c.

Check for shear

τ

v

=

392 x 1000

10 x 6 . 75

bd

vu

3

·

= 0.192 N/mm

2

P

t

=

392 x 1000

44 . 1105 x 100

bd

Ast 100

·

= 0.282%

τ

c

= 0.375 N/mm

2

τ v < τ c

Hence section is safe in shear

Reinforcement details :

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Figure***

L

d

=

6 . 1 x 2 . 1 x 4

415 x 87 . 0 x 16

4

0

bd

·

τ

σ φ

= 752mm = 750mm

Design a suitable counterfort retaining wall to support a leveled back fill

of height 7.5m above g.l on the toe side. Assume good soil for the

foundation at a design of 1.5m below G.L. The SBC of soil is 170KN/m2

with unit weight as 16KN/m

3

. The angle of internal friction is = 30

o

. The

co-efficient of friction below the soil and concrete is 0.5 use M25

concrete and Fe415 steel.

Figure ****

Soln :

Minimum depth of foundation =

2

sin 1

sin 1 P

,

_

¸

¸

θ +

θ −

γ

=

2

o

o

30 sin 1

30 sin 1

16

170

,

_

¸

¸

+

−

= 1.180m < 1.5m

Depth of foundation = 1.5m

Height of wall = 7.5 + 1.5 = 9m

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Thickness of heel & stem = 5% of 9m = 0.45m = 0.5m

Thickness of toe slab = 6% of 9m = 0.54m

Stability Conditions :

Earth pressure calculations :

Force

ID

Force (KN) Distance from

heel (m)

Moment

KNm

W1 16(7.5+1.5 – 0.5) x 2.5 =

340

(3-0.5)/2 =

1.25

425

W2 25(0.5)(9-0.5) = 106.25 0.5/2 + 2.5 =

2.75

292.18

W3 25(0.5)x3 = 37.5 1.5 56.25

W4 25(1.5) (0.72) = 27 1.5/2+3=3.75 101.25

Total W=510.75 KN MH = 874.69

The resistant of vertical forces lies at a the of x 01 from the heel end.

X

W

=

75 . 510

69 . 874

W

Mw

·

= 1.713m

Check for overturning moment :

Foso =

Mo

Mr 9 . 0

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Mo = Pa cos θ x h

1

/3 = 0.333 x 16 x

,

_

¸

¸

6

9

3

Mo = 647.35 KNm

M

r

= W (L. x W) = W = 510.75 (4.5 – 1.718)

= 1423.6KNm

Foso =

35 . 647

6 . 1423 x 9 . 0

=1.98 > 1.4

Hence, section is safe against overturning.

Check for sliding

Fos sliding =

θ Cos Pa

F 9 . 0

F = μR = 0.5 x 510.75

= 255.87 KN

P

a

= Ca e x

2

2

) h (

,

_

¸

¸

= 0.333 x 16 x

,

_

¸

¸

2

) 9 (

2

P

a

= 215.78 Kn

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Fos sliding =

78 . 215

) 37 . 255 ( x 9 . 0

= 1.065 < 1.4

Hence the section is not safe is sliding

The shear key is required to resist sliding

Base pressure calculation:

q

max

=

L

R

,

_

¸

¸

+

L

e 6

1

=

,

_

¸

¸

+

5 . 4

) 73 ( 6

1

4.5

510.75

= 223.97 KN/m

2

> SBC un safe

q

min

=

L

R

,

_

¸

¸

+

L

e 6

1

=

,

_

¸

¸

+

5 . 4

) 73 ( 6

1

4.5

510.75

= 3.02 Kn/m

2

> 0

Safe

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

where the eccentricity ‘e’ is given by

e = L

R

– L/2

where L

R

= The distance of R from the heel slab

L

R

= (M

o

+ Mw) /R

=

75 . 510

) 352 . 647 68 . 874 ( +

L

R

= 2.98m

e = 2.98 – (4.5/2) = 0.72 x 1/6 (0.75m)

Since maximum earth pressure is greater than SBC of soil, the

length of base slab has to increased preferably along the toe side. Increase

the toe slab by 0.5m in length.

EH = 510.75 + 0.5 x 25 x 0.72 = 519.75 KN

LR =

75 . 519

352 . 647 438 . 917

R

Mw) (Mo +

·

+

= 3.01m

∑

M

Design of Toe slab :

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Fig***

2

x

3

79 . 74

1

·

X = 49.86KN/m

2

55 . 1

x

3

79 . 74

·

X = 38.64 KN/m

2

The Toe slab is design for a UDL ofas cantilever beam

Assume the clear cover as 75mm for base slab and bar dia of 16mm

Eff. Depth, d = D – clear cover - φ /2

= 450 – 75 – 16/2

d = 367mm

The max. B.M at the rear face of the stem is

M = 79.23 x 1 x ½ + (½ x 1 x 21.93) x 2/3

M = 47.925 KNm

The ma. Shear force occurs at the distance of ‘d’ from the face of the

stear.

V = ½ x 1 (79.23 + 104.16) x (1-0.367)

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

V = 58.04 KN

Factored B.M = 1.5 x 47.92

Mu = 71.85 KNm

Factored shear force, Vu = 1.5 x 58.04

Vu = 87.06 KN

Mu = 0.87fy Ast (1 -

fck

Ast fy

)

71.88 x 10

6

= 0.87 x 415 x Ast (367)

,

_

¸

¸

−

367 x 1000 x 20

Ast 415

1

Ast = 560.21mm

2

S =

Ast

ast 1000

=

21 . 560

4

) 12 ( x

x 1000

2

π

S = 201.80 mm

Provide 12mm @ 200mm c/c.

Check for shear

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

v

=

367 x 1000

10 x 06 . 87

bd

Vu

3

·

= 0.237 N/mm

2

Pf =

367 x 1000

21 . 560 x 100

bd

Ast 100

·

= 0.152%

τ

c

= 0.2816N/mm

2

τ

v

=

c

.

Hence section is safe in shear.

Design of heel slab :

Wt from back fill = 16(5.25 – 0.45) = 76.8 Kn

Self wt of heel slab = 25 (0.45) = 11.25 KN/m

2

88.05 Kn/m

2

M = (20.04 x 1.55) x

2

55 . 1

½ x 1.55 x 38.68 x 2/3 x 1.55

M = 55.04 KNm

Mu = 1.5 (55.04) = 82.56 KNm

V = ½ (20.04 + 58.68) (1.55 – 0.367)

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

V = 46.56KN

Vu = 1.5 x (46.56) = 69.84 KNm

Mu = 0.87fy Ast d

,

_

¸

¸

−

bd fck 36 . 0

Ast fy

1

82.56 x 10

6

= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 367

,

_

¸

¸

−

367 x 1000 x 20

Ast 415

1

Ast = 646.71mm

2

S =

71 . 646

4

16 x

x 1000

2

π

S = 174.85mm

Provide 12mm @ 170mm c/c

Distribution steel

Ast(min) = 0.12% bd

=

450 x 1000 x

100

12 . 0

= 540mm

2

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

S =

540

4

) 0 ( x

x 1000

2

π

= 145.44mm

Provide 10mm @ 140mm c/c.

Design of Stem :

Stem is designed as cantilever slab for a height of 5.25 – 0.45 =

4.8m

The max. moment on cantilever slab in the head stem is

M = Caγ h

3

/6

= 0.833 x 16 x

4

) 8 . 4 (

3

M = 98.20 KNm

Assume 50mm cover & 16mm φ bar

d = 450 – 50 – 16/2 = 392mm

Max. shear force at ‘d’ from compound slab is

V = Ca Z

2

/2 Z = 4.8 – 0.45 – 4.3

V = 0.833 x 16 x

2

) 35 . 4 (

2

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

V = 50.40 KN

Mu = 1.5 x 98.20 = 147.3 Knm

Vu = 1.5(50.40) = 75.6 KN

147.3 x 10

6

= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 392

1000 x 20

Ast 415

1 −

Ast = 1105.44mm

2

S =

44 . 1105

4

16 x

x 1000

2

π

= 181.88mm

Provide 16mm @ 180mm c/c.

Check for shear

v

=

392 x 1000

10 x 6 . 75

bd

vu

3

·

= 0.192 N/mm

2

P

t

=

392 x 1000

44 . 1105 x 100

bd

Ast 100

·

= 0.282%

c

= 0.375 N/mm

2

v < τ c

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Hence section is safe in shear

Reinforcement details :

Figure***

L

d

=

6 . 1 x 2 . 1 x 4

415 x 87 . 0 x 16

4

0

bd

·

τ

σ φ

= 752mm = 750mm

Design a suitable counterturn retaining way to support a leveled back fill

of height 7.5 m above g. L on the toe side. Assume good soil for the

foundation at a deim of 1.5 m below G. L. The SBC of soil is 170 KN/m2

with unit weight as 16 KN/m3. The angle of internal friction is φ = 300

the co-efficient of friction b/w the soil of concrete is 0.5 use M25

concrete of Fe 415 steel.

Soln:-

Figure *********

Minimum depth of foundation =

2

sin 1

sin 1 P

,

_

¸

¸

φ +

φ −

γ

=

m 5 . 1 m 180 . 1

30 sin 1

30 Sin 1

16

170

0

0

< ·

,

_

¸

¸

+

−

Depth of foundation = 1.5 m

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Height of wall = 7.5 + 1.5 = 9 m

Thickness of heal & stem = 5% of 9m =

Thickness of heal & stem = 5% of 9m = 0.45 m = 0.5

Thickness of toe slab – 8% of 9m = 0.72 m.

h

min

3

Ca

X

,

_

¸

¸

·

=

m 0 . 3 9

3

333 . 0

· <

,

_

¸

¸

L

min

= 1.5 x 3 = 4.5 m

Thickness of countertort = 6% of 9 m = 0.54 m

Stabiling conditions:

Earth pressure calculations:

Force IDforce (KN) Distance from heal (m) Moment

KNm

W

1

16 ( 7.5 + 1.5 – 0.5) x 2.5

= 340

(3 – 0.5)/2 = 1.25 425

W

2

25 (0.5) (9 – 0.5) =

106.25

0.5/2 + 2.5 = 2.75 292.18

W

3

25(0.5)x 3 = 37.5 1.5 56.25

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

W4 25 (1.5) (0.72) = 27 1.5/2 + 3 = 3.75 101.25

Total W = 510.75 KN M4 =

874.69

W = 25(0.3) x 0.75 = 9.00

X

W

=

m 713 . 1

75 . 510

69 . 874

·

= 1.713 m

Fos

(overturnis)

=

0

M

M 9 . 0

M

o

= Pa. h.3 = Caγ e. h

3

/6 = 0.333 x 16 x (9)

3

/6

= 647. 35 KNm

M

r

= (L – X

w

) w = 510.75 (4.5 – 1.713)

= 1423.6 KNm

Fos =

4 . 1 98 . 1

35 . 647

) 6 . 1423 ( 9 . 0

> ·

Hence section is safe against, overturnins.

Silding:-

Fos(sliding) =

θ PaCos

F 9 . 0

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

F = R = 0.5 x 510.75 = 255.37

Pa = Ca. γ e. h2/2 = 0.383 x 16 x (9)2/2

= 215.78

Fos sliding = 0.9 (255.37) / 215.75 = 1.065m < 1.4

Hence the section is not safe against sliding.

Base pressure calculation:

9 mas =

,

_

¸

¸

+ ·

,

_

¸

¸

+

5 . 4

) 73 . 0 ( 6

1

5 . 4

75 . 510

L

60

1

L

R

= 223.97 KN/m

2

> SBC unsafe

Qmin =

,

_

¸

¸

+ ·

,

_

¸

¸

5 . 4

) 73 . 0 ( 6

1

5 . 4

75 . 510

L

e 6

14

L

R

= 3.02 w/m

2

> 0 safe

Where, LR =

where 2 / L LR C

R

M M

0 h

− · ·

+

LR =

m 98 . 2

75 . 510

352 . 647 688 . 874

·

+

e = 2.98 – 4.5/2 = 0.78 < L/L (0.75mm)

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Since maximum earth pressure is stresses then SBC of sol, the

length of base slab has to b. increased praberables along the toe side.

Increase the toe slab by 0.5m in length.

w = 510.75 + 0.5 x 25 x 0.72 = 519.75 KN

Figure **********

Additional load due to increase in toe slab by 0.5.

Moment = 0.5/2 + 4.5 = 4.75m

Σ m = 874.69 + 42.75 = 917.44 KNm

LR=

m 01 . 3

75 . 519

352 . 647 x 438 . 417

R

) M M (

W 0

· ·

+

e = LR – L/2 = 30.11 – 5/2 = 0.511 m < L/6 (0.833m)

q

max

=

,

_

¸

¸

+ ·

,

_

¸

¸

+

0 . 5

m 5 . 0 x 6

1

0 . 5

75 . 519

L

e 6

1

L

R

= 167.69 KN/m

2

< SBC

Q

min

=

,

_

¸

¸

−

L

e 6

1

L

R

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

=

,

_

¸

¸

−

5

) 511 . 0 ( 6

1

5

75 . 519

Q

min

= 40.20 KN/m

2

> 0

FOS siliding =

784 . 215

75 . 519 x 5 . 0 x 9 . 0

Pa

F 9 . 0

·

= 1.082 < 1.4

Hence the section is not slab against sliding.

Shear they is provided to resist sliding. Assume shear they of size

300 x 300 mm

Figure *********

tan 300 =

2400

L

x = 1.385 = 1.39 m

P

Pb

= Cp. Re

,

_

¸

¸

−

2

h h

2

1

2

2

h

2

= 1.39 + 1.2 = 2.89m

h

1

= 1.2 + 0 = 1.2m

15

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Meridonial thrust T =

30 . 1 1

WR

+

=

724 . 0 1

06 . 9 x 5 . 4

+

T = 23.64 KN

Meridonial stress

100 x 1000

10 x 64 . 23

s / c

T

3

·

= 0.2364 N/mm2 x 7 N/mm

2

Hence the section is safe against meridonial stress.

Hoop stress:-

Hoop Stress =

,

_

¸

¸

ϑ +

− θ

cos 1

1

Cos

T

WR

=

,

_

¸

¸

+

−

721 . 0 1

1

724 . 0

64 . 23

06 . 9 x 5 . 4

= 0.248 N/mm

2

< 7 N/mm

2

Since the section is safe to resist meridonial thrust of hoop stress

the provided 100 mm thickness of sufficient.

15

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

A

st min

= 0.3 % of C/S

=

2

mm 300 100 x 1000 x

100

3 . 0

·

For 8mm φ spacing =

mm 5 . 167

300

4

8 x

x 1000

2

·

π

∴

Provide 8 mm @ 160 mm c/c both way.

Design of Rin beam

The area of concrete received for the ring beam is bound for the

hoop stress and area of steel required is bound for the horizontal

component of meridmial thrust.

HZ component of Meridonial thrust = T Cos θ x D/2

= 23.64 x 0.724 x 12.5/2

= 106.97 KN

A

st

=

2

3

mm 13 . 713

150

10 x 97 . 106

·

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

For 16 mm φ , no. 08 bars =

4

16 x

13 . 713

2

π

= 3.54 say 4 nos

Size of rins beam is based on tensile stress of concrete

P

P8

= 3 x 16

,

_

¸

¸ −

2

) 2 . 1 ( ) 89 . 2 (

2 2

P

P8

= 165.89 KN/m2

FOS sliding =

,

_

¸

¸ −

2

) 2 . 1 ( ) 89 . 2 (

2 2

= 1.852 > 1.4

Hence section is safe against sliding.

Design of Toe slab:

Eff.Cover = 75 + 20/2 = 85 mm

Toe slab is designed similer to cantition and with maximum moment at

trust face of the size a maximum shear at ‘d’ for face it beam.

D = 720 – 85 = 635 mm

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

M =

2 x

3

2

x 94 . 49 x 2 x

2

1

2

2

x 38 . 80

2

+

= 227.35 KNm

S.F at 0.635 m =

KN 85 . 15 635 . 0 x

2

94 . 49

·

Area of tralizium = ½ x (a + b) h = ½ (130.82 + 95.98) (2 – 0.635)

= 154.44 KN

Factored S.F = 1.5 (154.44)

S.F Vu = 231.66 KN

Factored B.M, Mu = 1.5 (227.35) = 341.02 KNm

K =

845 . 0 845 . 0

635 x 1000

02 . 341

bd

M

2 2

u

· · ·

P

t

= 0.2445

C

t

=

100

635 x 1000 x 245 . 0

Ast

bd

Ast 100

· · >

A

st

= 1552.575 mm

2

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Spacing =

mm 50 . 129

575 . 1552

4

16 x

x 1000

2

·

π

Provide 16 mm @ 125 mm C/C

Transerve Reinforcement = 0.12% of C/S

=

2

mm 864 720 x 1000 x

100

12 . 0

·

Spacing =

mm 90 . 90

864

4

10 x

x 1000

2

·

π

∴

Provide 10 mm @ 100 mm c/C

Check for shear :-

τ

v

=

2

3

u

mm / N 364 . 0

635 x 1000

10 x 66 . 231

bd

V

· ·

τ

c

\ 0.36 N/mm

2

τ

v

~ τ

c

∴

The section is safe in shear

Design of heel slab

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

The had slab is designed by countention at regular interval. The

counterbant act as support and makes the had slab as one – way

continuous slab.

The heal slab is designed for a moment Wl2/l2 at the support &

Wl2/16 at the mid span. The maximum shear at the support is W **** the

maximum pressure at the best slab is consider for me design.

Moment at the support, M

Suf

=

12

2 . 3 x 92 . 106

12

Wl

2

·

= 111.65 KNm

Moment at the mid span, M

mid

=

KNm 72 . 83

16

Wl

2

·

The max pressure acting on the had slab is the as ‘W’ for which the A

st

required at mid span and support one found.

Factored M

sup

= 167.47 KNm A

st

= 1172.69 mm

2

Factored M

midspan

= 125.58 A

st

= 868.27mm

Using 16 mm φ bar, spacing =

02 . 170

Ast

Ast 1000

·

∴

Provide 16 mm @ 170 mm c/c.

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

At mid span, spacing = 231.72 mm Provide 16mm @ 230 mm C/C.

Transverse reinforcement = 0.12% of Bd

=

2

mm 600 500 x 1000 x

100

12 . 0

·

For 8mm bar, spacing = 83.775 mm

∴

Provided 8 mm @ 80mm c/c.

Check for shear:-

Maximum shear

,

_

¸

¸

− ·

,

_

¸

¸

− 415 . 0

2

5 . 2

107 d

2

l

W

Factored S.F = 217.47 KN = P

t

= 0.282

τ

v

= 0.624 N/mm

2

, τ

c

= 0.376 N/mm

2

, τ

cmax

= 3.1 N/mm

2

τ

v

>

c

∴

Depth has to be increased.

Design of stem

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

The stem is also designed as one – way continuous slab with

support moment

12

Wl

2

and midspan moment

16

Wl

2

For the negative moment at the support, reinforcement is provided at the

rear side & for positive moment at mid span, reinforcement is provided at

front base of the stem.

The maximum moment various beam a base

Intensitus of Ca γ e. h = 1/3 x 16 x (9 – 0.5)

= 45.33 KN/m

Mmid =

16

Wl

2

=

16

54 . 3 x 33 . 45 x 5 . 1

2

= 53.25 KNm (or) 307.04 KNm

Effective depth d = 500 – (50 + 20/2) = 440 mm

M support =

KNm 71

12

54 . 3 x 33 . 45 x 5 . 1

12

Wl

2 2

· ·

Ast at support = 454.73 spacing = 69 mm

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

∴

Provide 16 mm @ 300 mm C/C.

Ast at mid span = 339.54 mm

2

For 16 mm , spacing = 592.54 mm

Provide 16 mm @ 300 mm C.C

Max S.F = W

,

_

¸

¸

− d

2

l

= 60.28 KN

Factored S.F = 90.42 KN

Transverse reinforcement = 0.12 % of 6D

= 0.12/100 x 1000 x 440 = 528 m

For 8 mm , spacing = 95

8mm @ 90 mm C/C 8t = 0.134.

τ

v

= 0.205 N/mm

2

, τ

c

= 0.29 N/mm

2

v

< τ

c

∴

Shear of safe.

Design of countertors:-

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

The countertort is desined as a cautilever beam whose depth is

equal to the length of the heal slab of the base is reduces to the thickness

of the stem at the top. Maximum moment at the base of coutnerfort.

Mmax = Ca γ e. h3/6 x Le

Where Le C/C distance from counterforb

M

max

= 1932.5 KNm

Factored M

max

= 2898.75 KNm

A

st

= 2755.5 mm

2

No. of bars required =

4

25

x

5 . 2755

ast

Ast

2

π

·

= 5.61

Say n = 6 nos

The main reinforcement is provided along the slanting face of the

counterbort.

Cartailment of reinforcement:

Not all the 6 bars need to be taken to the for end

Three bars are taken straight to the entire span of the beam upto me hop

of the stem.

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

One bar is Cut al a distance of

2

2

1

5 . 8

h

n

1 n

·

−

, where n is the total no of

h

1

distance from top .

n = 6, γ = 6-1/6 = h12/8.52

h

1

= 7.72th (from bottom )

m 94 . 6

5 . 8

h

6

2 6

5 . 8

h

n

2 n

2

2

2

2

2

2

· ·

−

·> ·

−

The third part is cut at a distance of

) bottom From ( m 01 . 6 3 h ,

5 . 8

h

n

3 n

2

2

3

· ·

−

Vertical ties and horizontal ties are provided to connect the counter fort

with the item is the heal slab.

Design of horizontal ties:-

Closed stirrups are provided t, the vertical stem is the countertort.

Considering 1m strip, the tension resisted by reinforcement is given by

lateral pressure on the wall multiplied by contributing area.

T = C

α

.γ

e

.h

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Where A

st

=

fy 87 . 0

T

T = 1/3 x 16 x (9-0.5) x 3.54 = 160.48 KN

A

st

=

2

3

mm 72 . 666 ) 48 . 444 ( 5 . 1

415 x 87 . 0

5 . 1 x 10 x 48 . 160

· ·

For 10 mm φ spacing = 110 mm

Provide 10 mm @ 110 mm c/c closed stirrups as horizontal ties.

Design of vertical ties:-

The vertical stirrups connects the countertort and the heel slab

considering 1m strip, the tensile force is the product of the average

download pressure & the spacing between the counterforts.

T = Avg 943.56 + 167) + Le = 266.49 KN

Factored T = 399.74 KN

A

st

= 1107.15 mm

2

. For 10mm , spacing = 70.93

Provide 10mm @ 70m c/c.

C/s of counter fort wall of midspan:

Reinforcement details of stem, toe slab of heel slab.

15

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Isotropicall reinforced – Squave slab – fixed on all edges – udl:-

External work done = W. S

W – load, S – virtual displacement

Internal work done = Σ Mθ = Σ m.lθ =

L

2 2 . L 2 . m ¬

I.W.D work done by positive yield line (ab, bc, cd, da) for

L

2

2 / L

1

· · θ

M

θ

= 4[W x L x 2/L] = 8m

Total I.W.D = 16m

E.W.D, Σ W.S = ½ x L x L/2 x W x ½ x (1) x 4 = Wl

2

/3

I.W.D = E.W.D

16m = WL2/3

M =

b 4

WL

2

M – Moment per metre length alms the rived line.

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Design a square slab fixed along as the bour edges, with side 5m. the slab

hase, to support a service load of hase to be support a service load of 4

KN.m

2

. use M

20

concrete and Fe 415 steel.

Soln:-

Side = L = 5m, All four edges fixed

Given

Service load = 4 KN/m

2

F

cx

= 20 N/mm

2

F

y

= 415 N/mm

2

As per yield line theory for isotrophic reinforced square slab fixed on all

four edges,

M = *****

Step 1:-

As per IS 456 : 2000 L/d ratio for simply supported slab using Fe 415

steel.

L/D = 0.8 (35) = 28

D = 5000/28 = 178.57m

∴

Provide effective depth d as 180 mm

15

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Solve the above problem using the co-efficient stam in IS 456:2000

Soln:-

Given Lens = l

2

= l

y

= 5 m ly/l2 = 1

∴

The slab is two way slab.

Assume all four edges discontinuous, rebearing annex d, take 20

α

u

= α

y

= 0.056

M

x

= α x Wd

x

2

= 0.056 x 15 x 52 = 21 KN

M

2

= M

y

= 21 KNm

M

u

=

,

_

¸

¸

−

bd Fck

Ast fy

1 d Ast fy 87 . 0

21 x 10

6

= 0.87 fy Ast d

,

_

¸

¸

−

180 x 1000 x 20

Ast 415

1

A

st

= 336.15 mm

2

S =

mm 59 . 149

336

4

8 x

x 1000

2

·

π

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

∴

Provide 8 mm φ @ 140 mm C/C

Design the above problem for simply support condition.

Soln:-

M =

KNm 625 . 15

24

5 x 15

24

WL

2 2

· ·

Mu = 0.87 fy Ast d

,

_

¸

¸

−

bd fck

Ast fy

1

15.625 x 10

6

= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 180

,

_

¸

¸

−

180 x 100 x 20

Ast 415

1

A

st

= 247.48 mm

2

S =

mm 50 . 203

247

4

8 x

x 1000

2

·

π

∴

Provide 8 mm bar @ 220 mm c/C

Check for shear:-

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

τ

v

=

2

d

u

mm / N 208 . 0

180 x 100

2

5 x 15

b

V

· ·

P

t

=

% 137 . 0

180 x 1000

247 x 100

bd

Ast 100

· ·

τ

c

= 0.28 N/mm

2

c

= 1.2 x 0.28 = 0.336 N/mm

2

τ

v

<

c

∴

Hence the section is safe is shear.

V

u

=

KN 27

2

4 x 5 . 13

2

l W

x u

· ·

τ

v

=

2

3

mm / N 18 . 0

150 x 1000

10 x 27

·

P

t

=

% 184 . 0

150 x 1000

277 x 100

·

τ

c

= 0.307 N/mm

2

τ

c

= K

c

= 1.26 x 0.307 = 0.386 N/mm

2

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

∴

Hence the section is safe is shear.

In the above problem design the slab if all support are fixed

Soln:-

Based on yield line theory, for rectangular slab fixed on all four edges,

subjects to UDL throushour

M =

,

_

¸

¸

µ

φ

α

2

2

u

tan

24

L W

tan =

,

_

¸

¸

α

µ

−

,

_

¸

¸

α

µ

+ µ

2 4

5 . 1

2

2

=

,

_

¸

¸

−

,

_

¸

¸

+

) 67 . 0 ( 2

7 . 0

) 67 . 0 ( 4

) 7 . 0 (

) 7 . 0 ( 5 . 1

2

2

tan φ = 0.8000

m =

,

_

¸

¸

7 . 0

8 . 0 x 8 . 0

48

6 x 5 . 13

2

= 9.26 KNm

18

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

M = 0.87 fy Ast d

,

_

¸

¸

−

bd fck

Ast fy

1

9.26 x 10

6

= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 150

,

_

¸

¸

−

150 x 1000 x 20

Ast 415

1

A

st

= 175 mm

2

A

st min

=

2

mm 204 170 x 1000 x

100

12 . 0

·

∴

Ast provided on shorter direction is 204 mm

2

Assume 80 mm φ , S =

204

4

8 x

x 1000

2

π

S = 246.39 mm

∴

Provide 8 mm @ 240 mm c/c both ways

Check for shear

v

=

2

3

mm / N 18 . 0

150 x 1000

10 x 27

bd

Vu

· ·

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

P

t

=

% 136 . 0

150 x 1000

204 x 100

·

τ

c

= 0.28 N/mm

2

τ

c

1

= K

c

= 1.26 x 0.28 = 0.352 N/mm

2

τ

v

<

c

∴

Hence the section is sale in shear

Solve the above problem for two long edges fixed boundarks condition

Soln:-

M =

,

_

¸

¸

µ

φ

2

2

x u

tan

24

L W

=

,

_

¸

¸

7 . 0

8 . 0

24

4 x 5 . 13

2 2

M = 8.28 Knm

8.23 x 10

6

= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 150

,

_

¸

¸

−

150 x 1000 x 20

Ast 415

1

A

st

= 155.3 mm

2

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

A

st min

=

2

mm 204 150 x 1000 x

100

12 . 0

·

∴

Ast provide on shorter direction is 204 mm

2

Assume 8mm φ , S =

mm 39 . 246

204

4

8 x

x 1000

2

·

π

∴

Provide 8 mm @ 240 mm C/C bothways

Check for shear

v

=

2

3

mm / N 18 . 0

150 x 1000

10 x 27

·

Pt =

% 136 . 0

150 x 1000

204 x 100

·

τ

c

= 0.28 N/mm

2

c1

= K

c

= 1.26 x 0.28 = 0.352 N/mm

2

τ

v

<

c

Hence the section is safe in shear.

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Design an equilateral triangular slab of side 5m, isotropically reinforced

and simply supported along its edges. The span is subjected to a super

imposed load of 3 KN/m

2

use M

20

concrete of Fe – 1

415

Soln:-

Based on yield line theory, the ultimate moment for an etuilateral

triangular slab simply supported alms all edges of subjected to VDL

through out.

M =

72

L W

2

u

Assume L/d = 28

D = 5000/28 = 178.54 mm

Assume eff. Depth d = 180 mm

Assume in eff.cover of 20 mm

∴

overall depth, D = 180 + 20 = 200 mm

Load calculation:

Self wt of slab = 1 x 0.2 x 25 = 5 KN/m

2

Live load = 3 KN/m

2

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Floor finish = 1 KN/ m

2

W = 9 KN/m

2

Factored load, Wk = 1.5 x 9 = 43.5 KN/m for 1m strip.

M =

KNm 69 . 4

72

5 x 5 . 13

72

L W

2 2

u

· ·

4.69 x 10

6

= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 180

,

_

¸

¸

−

10 x 1000 x 20

Ast 415

1

Ast = 72. 77 mm

2

8mm φ Transverse reinforce =

2

mm 240 200 x 1000 x

100

12 . 0

·

Spacing =

mm 209

240

4

8 x

x 1000

2

·

π

∴

Provide 8 mm @ 200 mm C/C.

Check for shear

τ

v

=

bd

V

u

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

V =

75 . 33

2

5 x 5 . 13

2

WL

· ·

V

u

= 33.75 = 33.75

τ

v

=

2

3

mm / N 187 . 0

180 x 1000

10 x 75 . 33

·

P

t

% 133 . 0

180 x 1000

240 x 100

·

τ

c

= 0.28 N/mm

2

, τ

c max

= 2.5 N/mm

2

τ

c

1

= K

c

= 1.2 x 0.28 = 0.336 N/mm

2

τ

v

<

c

< τ

c max

∴

Section is safe in shear

A right angled triangular slab simply support along all the edges it has

sides AB = BC = 4m. the slab is isotrofically reinforced with 10 mm @

100 mm C/C both way use M

20

and Fe

415

(HYDS) bars. Find the safe

permissible service load (Live load) that can be apply on the slab.

Soln:

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

For A1m slab S.S along all the edges which is right angle isotuplication

reinforced subjected to UDL through out.

M

u

=

) there line yield on Based (

6

L x W

2

u

α = 1

,

_

¸

¸

4

4

S =

Ast

ast 1000

Ast =

2

2

mm 4 . 785

100

4

10 x

x 1000

·

π

L/4 = 28 d =

28

4000

D = 170 mm

For Ast available moment resistance the section.

M

u

= 0.87 fy Ast d

,

_

¸

¸

−

bd fck

Ast fy

1

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

M

u

= 0.87 x 415 x 785.4 x 150

,

_

¸

¸

−

150 x 1000 x 20

4 . 785 x 415

1

M

u

= 37.9 KN m

37.9 x 10

6

=

6

4 x 1 x Wu

2

W

u

= 14.2 KN/m

2

Factored load = 14.2 KN/m

2

∴

Working load = 14.2 / 1.5 = 9.46 KN/m

2

Self wt = 0.17 x 25 = 4.25 KN/m

2

Floor finish =

95 . 4

m / KN 71 . 0

2

∴

The service live load that can be safly apply on slab is 9.46 – 4.96 =

4.5 KN/m

2

Design a circular slab of diameter 5m, S.S along the edges and subjected

to live load of 4 KN/m

3

use M

20

& Fe

415

steel.

Soln:-

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Based on yield line theory the ultimate moment for circular slab

isotopicus reinforcement Sr. S. along the edges subjectedto VDO through.

M =

6

r W

2

u

Assume L/d = 28

D = 5000 / 28 = 178.07mm

∴

eff. Depth, d = 180 mm

Adopt eff. Cover = 20 mm

∴

overall depth, D = 200 mm

Load calculation

Self wt on slab = 0.2 x 25 = 5 KN/m

2

L.L = 4 KN/m

2

Floor finish = KN/m

2

W = 10 KN/m

2

Factored load, Wu = 1.5 x 10 = 15 KN/m

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

M =

KNm 625 . 15

6

) 5 . 2 ( x 15

6

r W

2 2

u

· ·

15.625 x 10

6

= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 180

,

_

¸

¸

−

10 x 1000 x 20

Ast 415

1

Ast = 247.48 mm

2

Transverse reinforcement = 0.12% of D

=

200 x 1000 x

100

12 . 0

= 240 mm

2

For 8 mm φ S =

mm 10 . 203

48 . 247

4

8 x

x 1000

2

·

π

Provide 8 mm φ @ 200 mmC/C both ways

Check for shear:-

τ

v

=

208 . 0

180 x 1000

2

10 x 5 x 15

bd

2

l W

bd

Vu

3

u

· · ·

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

P

t

=

% 187 . 0

180 x 1000

48 . 247 x 100

·

τ c = 0.28 N/mm

2

τ v < τ c

Hence the section is safe in shear

Design a simply supported rectangular slab of sie 5m x 8m which is

orthotopilr reinforced with co-efficient of orthorooly µ = 0.75 the

service live load on the slab is 5 KN/m2 use M20 concrete and Fe 415

steel

Soln : L = 8m, α = 5m LL = 5 KN/m2

Based on yield line memory the rectangular slab orthotropically

reinforced, S.S. along with edges of subjected to VDL through out.

Α = 5/8 = 0.625

M =

[ ]

2

2 2

2 3

24

Wl

µ α − µ α +

α

Assume L/D = 28

5000 / 28 = d, d = 178. 57 mm

Provide d = 180 mm

15

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Eff. Cover = 20 mm, overall depth , D = 200 mm

Load calculation

Self wt on slab = 0.2 x 25 = 5 KN/m

2

L. Load = 5 KN/m

2

Floor finish = l KN/m

2

Total load, W = 11 KN/m

2

For 1 m strip , 4 = 11 KN/m

Factored load, Wu = 1.5 x 11 = 16.5 KN/m

Mu =

[ ]

2

2 2

2 3

24

Wl

µ α − µ α +

α

=

[ ]

2

2

2 2

75 . 0 625 . 0 625 . 0 x 75 . 0 3

24

8 x 625 . 0 x 5 . 16

− +

Mu = 27.86 KNm

27.86 x 10

6

= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 180

,

_

¸

¸

−

180 x 1000 x 20

Ast 415

1

Ast = 452.26 mm

2

Transverse reinforcement ast min

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

For 10mm φ mm bar

Provide 10mm φ @ 170 mm C.C lonser direction Ast µ Ast = 0.75 x

452.26 = 339.19 mm

2

Check for shear: provide 10 mm @ 230 mm C/C

τ v = Vu/ bd

Vu = WL/2 = 16.5 x 5 / 2 = 41.25 KN

v = 41.25 x 103 / 1000 x 180 = 0.229 N/mm

2

Pt = 100Ast / bd = 100 x 452.26/1000x 180 = 0.25 %

τ c = 0.36 N/mm

2

c1 = K τ c = 1.2 x 0.86 = 0.432 N/mm

2

Hence section is safe in shear.

Design a rectangular slab of size 5m x 4m which is fixed along the long

edges of S.S along the two short edges. The slab is subjected to the

distributed live load of 4 KN/m2 design the slab for orthotopically

reinforced condition with co-efficient orthotropy µ = 0.7

Soln:

Based on yield line theory for orthotropically reinforced slab fixed along

long edges of S. S along the short edges of subjected to VDL through out,

the ultimate mum M is

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

M = Wulx2 / 24 =

,

_

¸

¸

µ

2

tan

tan φ =

,

_

¸

¸

α

µ

−

,

_

¸

¸

α

µ

+ µ

2 4

5 . 1

2

2

Assume L/d = 28

4000 / d = 28

D = 142.85

Provide eff. Depth d = 150 mm

Effective cover = 20 mm

Overall depth D = 170 mm

Load calculation:

Self wt of slab = .0.17 x 25 = 4.25 KN/m

2

L.L = 4 KN/m

2

Floor finish = 0.75 KN/m

2

W = 9 KN/m

2

For 1 m strip, W = 9 KN/m

Wu = 1.5 x 9 = 13.5 KN/m

2

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Α = 4/5 = 0.8

Tan φ = 1.5 (0.7)

Tan = 0.804

M = 8.311 KNm

M = 0.87 fy Ast x d

8.311 x 10

3

= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 150

,

_

¸

¸

−

150 x 1000 x 20

Ast 415

1

Ast = 156.86 mm

2

Ast provided in Longer direction = µ Ast = 0.7 (156.86) = 109.8

Ast min = 0.12% to D = 0.12 / 100 x 1000 x 170

Ast = 204 mm

2

Provide Ast = 204 mm

2

For 8 mm φ , spacking =

246

204

4

10 x

x 1000

2

·

π

Provide 8 mm @ 240 mm c/c.

Check for shear

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

v = Vu/bd

Vu = WuL/ 2 = 13.5 x 4 /2 = 27KN

τ v =

bd

V

u

Rf =

KN 27

2

4 x 5 . 13

2

WuL

· ·

τ c = 0.28 N/mm

2

c1 = K τ c = 1.26 x 0.28 = 0.3528 N/mm

2

v < c1

Hence section is safe in shear

Design a doom for a cylindered water tank of diameter 12.5 m use M20

concrete of Fe 415 steel

Soln:

D = 12.5 m

Rise = 12.5/5 = 2.5m

R2 = (R – r)2 + (D/2)2

R2 = (R – 2.5)2 + (12.5/2)2

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

R = 9.06 m

Cos θ = 0.724

The done is subjected to meridonial thorust and hoof force for which the

stress should be within permissible compressive strength of concrete

Assume thickness of slab, t = 100 mm

Loadings on slab:

Self wt = 25 x 0.1 = 2.5 KN/m

2

Live load = 2

W = 4.5 KN/m

2

Ast =

3

3

st

o

mm 38 . 603

150

10 x 5 . 90 comp HZ

· ·

σ

Assume 16mm , no of bars =

4

16

x

3 . 603

2

π

Provide 4 nos of 16 mm bar

Size of ring beam is based on tensile stress of concrete

ct = Ft / Act (m-1) Ast

2.8 = 90.50 x 10

3

/ AC + (13.33-1) 603.3

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Ac = 24886.4 mm

2

Provide ring beam of size 160 x 160 mm

Design a water tank for field base condition for a capacities of 4 lakh

litres height of tanks is 4m. permissible stresses σ

st

= 150 N/mm

2

for M

20

came σ

cbc

= 7 N/mm

2

, j = 0.84, R = 1.16

Soln:-

Capacity 4 x 105 lr = 400 m

3

Ht = 4m

Volume

4 x

4

πd

2

2

d

4 x

4 x 400

·

π

d = 11.28

Provide diameter d = 115.m

Thickness of tank based on emtiral relation.

T min = 30 (4) + 50 = 170 mm

Provide a thickness of 170 mm

Non – dimensional parameter =

18 . 8

79 . 0 x 5 . 11

) 4 (

Dt

4

2 2

· ·

Hoop tension devolor on the 10 all =

T = co-efficient WH D/

2

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

BM develop along the W911, Co-eff x WH

3

Reborins tasie 9 of SI = 3370 (Pert IV)

Co-efficient for m x m hoof tension = 0.577

ett . C

Dt

H

2

·

8 = 0.575

10 – 0.608

8.18 – 0.577

For

Dt

H

2

of 8.18 the co-efficient for hoof tension is actions it 0.64

∴

mass – hoop tension, T = 0.577 x 9.81 x 4 x 11.5/2

T = 130.18 KN

Co – efficient for max B.M is taken from table to of IS 3370 (Part IV)

8 0.0146

10 0.0123

8.18 0.0148

Co- efficient of max B.M – 0.0143 actions at 1.04 (at Base)

Moment = Co. efficient x WH

3

= -0.0143 x 9.81 x 4

3

B.M = -8.97 KNm

Transverse Reinforcement:

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Ast =

150

10 x 18 . 130 H

8

st

t

·

σ

Ast = 867.86 mm

2

For 16 mm φ S =

mm 69 . 231

8 . 867

4

16 x

x 1000

2

·

π

∴

Provide 16 mm φ @ 230 mm c/c

Adopt 12 mm φ @ 130 mm c.c

Vertical Steel:- The vertical reinforcement tension for the max. BM 0.8

8.97 KN m by working shows mif

Ast =

sd

M

st

σ

Min – depth, d =

m 127 mm 93 . 87

1000 x 16 . 1

10 x 97 . 8

Rb

M

6

<< · ·

Overall depth of wan, thickness = 170 mm

Adopiting a clear cover of 25 mm

D = 170 – 25 – 12/2 – 12

D = 127 mm

Ast =

2

6

mm 55 . 560

127 x 84 . 0 x 150

10 x 97 . 8

·

15

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

For 12mm, S =

mm 77 . 201

5 . 560

4

12 x

x 1000

2

·

π

∴

Provide 12 mm @ 200 mm c/c.

Min. reinforcement Ast min = 0.3 % C.S

= *****

A

st min

= 510 mm

2

< A

st rerd

.

Design of base slab:

Assume 150 mm thick base slab, provide 0.3% of C/S as

reinforcement along both the faces.

Ast =

2

mm 450 150 x 1000 x

100

3 . 0

·

For 8 mm, S =

mm 70 . 111

450

4

8 x

x 1000

2

·

π

Provide 8 mm @ 200 mm c/c both base along both faces.

Provide haunch of side 150 x 150 mm with min. steel of 8 mm @ 200

mm C/C along the face of the haunch

Figure ****

TUTORIAL

Design a rectangular water tanks of size 4m x 7m with height 3.5m

use M20 concrete of Fe – 415 steel. Design constant j = 0.053 R = 1.32

15

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Soln:-

L x B 7m x 4m

L/B = 7/4 = 1.75 x2

H = 3.5 m

h = H/4 or 1

m 1 or 875 . 0

4

5 . 3

· ·

h = 1 m

P = p (H-h) = 9.81 (3.5 – 7)

P = 24.53 KN/m

2

To find the final moment at the junction of lons will & short will based

on the FEM & D.F. Moment distribution is done

For any joint, D.F =

2

2

1

1

1 1

L

I

L

I

L / I

F . D

+

·

FEM M

FAB

=

KNm 70 . 32

12

4 x 53 . 24

12

PB

2 2

· ·

M

FAD

=

KNm 16 . 100

12

7 x 53 . 24

12

82

2 2

· ·

AD

AB

Member

A

int Jo

F . D

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

2

2

1

1

2 2

2

2

1

1

1 1

L

I

L

I

L / I

L

I

L

I

L / I

F . D

+ +

36 . 0

7

1

4

1

7 / 1

611 . 0

7

1

4

1

4 / 1

·

+

·

+

Joint Member

A AB AD

D.F 0.64 0.36

FIM -32.70 100.16

B.M -43.17 -24.28

Total -75.87 KNm 75.88 KNm

Fixed B.M is 75.88 KNm

Free B.M (For B.M)

a) Along shorter direction =

KNm 06 . 49

8

4 x 53 . 24

8

PB

2 2

· ·

b) Longer direction =

KNm 24 . 150

8

7 x 53 . 24

8

PL

2 2

· ·

resultant B.M at the mid span is

a) Short will == -75.88 to 49.06 = -26.82 KNm

b) Long will = -75.88 + 150.24 = 74.36 KNm

At support = 75.88 KNm

The will is design for me max B.M of for

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

M max = 75.88 KNm

Reinforcement details:

A

st L

=

st

2

st

L

P

id

x P M

σ

+

σ

−

A

st B

=

st

B

st

b

P

id

x P M

σ

+

σ

−

P

L

= P x B/2 = 24.53 x 4/2 = 49.06 KN

P

B

= P x L/2 = 24.53 x 7/2 = 85.86 KN

X = D/2 – eff.cover

Providing a clear cover of 25 mm of bar 10 φ mm

Eff.cover = 25 x 10/2 = 30 mm

d =

mm 75 . 239

1000 x 32 . 1

10 88 . 75

Rb

M

6

· ·

provide d = 240 mm

overall depth, D = 240 + 30 = 270 mm

∴

thickness of will is 270 mm

X =

30

2

270

−

X = 105 mm

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

A

st L

=

150

10 x 06 . 49

240 x 853 . 0 x 150

105 x 10 x 86 . 85 10 x 88 . 75

3 3 6

+

−

A

st L

= 2630.33 mm

2

A

st B

=

150

10 x 86 . 85

240 x 853 . 0 x 150

105 x 10 x 86 . 85 10 x 88 . 75

3 3 6

+

−

A

st 8

= 2749.83 mm

2

Provide 20mm φ bar, S =

mm 43 . 119

33 . 2630

4

20 x

x 1000

2

·

π

∴

Provide 20 mm φ @ 110 mm c/c

Since the thickness is greater than 200mm, the reinforcement is placed

alogn both forces.

∴

Along transverse direction (HZ) provide

20 mm φ @ 220mm c/c along both faces in the short well & long wall.

Vertical Reinforcement

For the cantilever action, moment develop is

6

2 x 5 . 3 x 21 . 9

6

PHh

2 2

·

M = 5.723 KN-m

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Ast min:-

0.3 % c/s for 100 mm of

0.2% C/S for 450 mm

∴

for 270 mm 0.251% C/S

A

st min

=

270 1000 x

100

251 . 0

= 677.7 mm

2

For 10mm φ , S =

mm 87 . 115

7 . 677

4

10 x

x 1000

2

·

π

∴

Provide 10mm @ 220 mm C/C as vertical reinforcement along both

the faces the taks for long will and short will.

Design of Base slab:-

Assuming a thickness of 150 mm min. slab is provided for the base

slab. Since it is resting on firm ground.

Ast min =

2

mm 450 150 x 100 x

1000

3 . 0

·

= 450mm

2

For 8mm φ S =

mm 7 . 111

450

4

8 x

x 1000

2

·

π

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

∴

Provide 8 mm φ @ 220 mm C/C along both ways along both faces

Provide a layer of lean mix (M10) for a thickness of 75 mm below base

slab.

Figure **************

A straight staircase is made of structures independent tread slab

cantilevered from the R.C wall given riser is 150 mm and trend is

300mm. width if flight is 1.5m. design a typical cantilever tread slab. Any

live load for over crowing. Use M

20

concrete of Fe. 250 steel.

Soln:-

Given

R = 159 mm, T= 300 mm, w = 1.5 m M

20

9 F

e

250

Loading on tread slab (0.3m)

i) self wt = 0.15 x 25 x 0.3 = 1.125 KN/m

ii) floor finish = 0.6 x 0.3 = 1.125 KN/m

dead load = 1.305 KN/m

B.M

D.L

=

KNm 46 . 1

2

5 . 1 x 5 . 13

2

·

Live load moment is a minimum of

i) UDL due to live load on stair (for over providing case) W

L

= 5 KN/m

2

ii) For cantilever tread slab the live load condition, is check for it load of

1.3 KN at tread.

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Figure *************

B.M LL

1

=

2

5 . 1 x 5 . 1

2

B.M LL

2

= 1.3 x 1.5 = 1.95 KN

Maximum of B.M LL = 1.9 KN m

Total BM = BM DL + B.D LL = 1.46 + 19.5

= 3.41 KNm.

Factored B.M = 1.5 x 3.41 = 5.12 KNm

Assume clear covet of 15 mm & 12mm bar.

d = 150 – 15 – 12/2 = 129 mm

M

u

= 0.87 fy A

st

d

,

_

¸

¸

−

td Fck

Ast f

1

y

5.12 x 10

6

– 0.87 x 250 x Ast x 129

,

_

¸

¸

−

129 x 300 x 20

Ast 250

1

A

st

= 194.73 mm

2

n =

nos 3 say 47 . 2

4

10 x

194373

ast

Ast

2

·

π

·

provide 3 nos of 10 mm bar

Distribution steel:-

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

A

st

min = 0.15% & D =

150 x 300 x

100

15 . 0

= 67.5 mm

2

S =

mm 744

5 . 67

4

8 x

x 1000

2

·

π

Provide 8 mm @ 300 mm C/C

Check for shear:-

d

u

v

b

V

· τ

Dead load

V

DL

= 1.3.5 x 1.5 = 1.959 KN

V

LL1

= 1.5 x 1.5 = 2.25 KN

VLL2 = 1.3 KN

Max V

LL

2.25 KN

Total V

u

= 2.25 + 1.958 = 4.208 KN

Factored V

u

= 1.5 x 4.208 = 6.31 KN

v

=

2

mm / N 168 .. 0

129 x 300

10 x 31 . 6

·

∴

τ

c

= 0.48 N/mm

2

K = 1.3 from table

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

T

c

1

= K T

c

= 1.3 x 0.48 = 0.624 N/mm

2

τ

c

2.8/2 = 1.4 N/mm

2

τ

v

x

c

x τ

c

mm

Hence safe in shear

Ld =

mm 15 . 453

2 . 1 x 4

250 x 87 . 0 x 10

bd 4

3

· ·

τ

σ φ

Design a suitable countertor reintaining way to support a leveled back till

of height 7.5m above g.L on the toe side. Assume good soil for the

foundation at a desm of 1.5m below G.L the SBC of soil is 170 KN/m2

with unit weight as 16KN/m3. The angle of internal friction is = 300

the co-efficient of friction b/w the soil and concrete is 0.5 use M25

concrete and Fe 415 steel.

Soln:-

Figure **************

Minimum depth of foundation = ***

= ***

Depth of foundation = 1.5 m

Height of wall = 7.5 + 1.5 = 9m

Thickness of had and stem = 5% of 9m = 0.45m ** 0.5.

Thickness of toe slab = 8% of 9 m = 0.72 m.

16

**IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 =
**

5.25 12

= 0.4375

Assume the top tk of stem as 150mm thickness of stem tappers from 450mm from bottom & 150mm to top. Lmin =

Ca h 1 3 αR

**Co-efficient of active earth pressure Ca =
**

Cos θ − Cos 2θ − Cos 2 φ Cos θ + Cos 2θ − Cos 2 φ Cos θ

=

Cos 15o − Cos 2 15o − Cos 2 30o Cos1 o 2 o 2 o Cos 15 + Cos 15 − Cos 30

= Ca = 0.373 Cp =

1 + sin φ 1 + sin 30o = 1 − sin φ 1 − sin 30o

=3

**Assuming surcharge height of 0.4m at the end of heel slab. = 5.25 + 0.4
**

h′

15

**IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 = 5.65 m
**

h′

**Assuming the trapezoidal below the base slab.
**

α

R

= 0.67

**Lmin = Lmin = 2.97 m Provide base slab width of 3m Width of heel slab is Xmin = Lmin x α
**

R

= 3 x 0.67 = 2m The preliminary proportion is shown in fissure For the assumed proportions the retaining wall is check for stability against overturning and sliding Force ID W1 ½ x 1.85 x 0.5 x 16 = 7.44 Force (KN) Distance from Moment heel (m) KNm

1/3 x 1.85 = 4.583 0.616

W2

1.85x 5 x 25 – 0.45 x 16 = ½ 142.08

(1.85)

= 131.424

0.925 1.85 + 0.15/2 = 34.65 1.925

14

W3

0.15 x 4.8 x 25 = 18

65KN The resultant of the vertical of lies at a distance of Xw from the h end X4 = MW W = 232.30) = 1.99m Check for over turning moment FoSo = > 1.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 W4 ½ x (0.4 For retaining wall with sloping back fi Mo = Pa cos θ x h1/3 = 98.63 KNm 14 .53 Pa = Ca γ e x 4/2 = 0.75 / 5 Mo = 182.48 – 1/3 11.65 sin 15o = 25.85 (25 – 16) = 6.28 = 0.15) x 4.62 283.8 x 1.373 x 16 x 5.34 (0.75 2 2 Pa = 98.65 Cos 15o x 5.75 Pa sin 98.450 – 0.

9 F Pa Cos θ F = μR = 0. x W) + Pa Sin θ (L) = 233.5 182.3m from the too as shown in figure.64 KN Fos sliding = 0.99) + 98.28 = 116.68 > 1.28 (3 – 0.9 x 545.65 sin 15o = 545.4 Hence the section is not safe is sliding The shear key is required to resist sliding Assume shear key of size 300 x 300mm at a distance of 1.5 x 232. Figue*** 15 .10 < 1.64 Pa Cos 15o = 1.63 =2.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Mr = W (L.9 x 116.5 Foso = 0.4 Check for sliding Fos sliding = 0.

64) + 58.25 + 0.65cos15o = 0.25) 2 ) 2 Pps = 58.25m = 1.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Tan 30o = x 1.3 x = 0.8 = 1.4 Hence the section is safe against sliding.25 .65 cos15o = 1.9 F + Pps 98. Soil pressure from the supporting soil on base slab : 15 .5 98.5KN Fos s = 0.75m h1 h2 Ppe = 1.3 + 0.9 F (116.0.75 = 2m = Cp pe (h 2 2 2 − h1 ) =3x 16((2 ) 2 − (1.71 > 1.

78 – (3/2) = 0.78m E = 1.28m 14 .63 + 232.62 ) 233.38 LR = 1. Maximum pressure at one end is q max = R L 6e 1 + L and min-pressure is qmin = R 6e 1 − L L (where qmax is direct stress + Bending stress qmin is direct stress – bending stress) here the eccentricity ‘e’ is given by e = LR – L/2 where LR = The distance of R from the heel slab LR = (Mo + Mw) /R = (182.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 The distribution of soil pressure from the base is trapezoida in nature.

d = D – clear cover .M at the rear face of the stem is M = 92. Depth.21 > 0 KN/m2 Hence pressure is within the limits.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 qmax = 233.28) 1 − 3 3 34.28) 1 + 3 3 = 121.36 x 1 x ½ + (½ x 1 x 28.30KN/m2 α SBC qmin = 233.φ /2 = 450 – 75 – 16/2 d = 367mm The max.28 6(0.36 The Toe slab is design as cantilever Assume the clear cover as 75mm for base slab and bar dia of 16mm Eff.96) 15 .28 6(0. Figure*** Design of Toe slab : Fig*** The toe slab is design for a UD of 92. B.

M = 1.5 x 67.3) x (1-0.367) = 67.43 KN Mu = 0.87fy Ast 0.73 KNm Factored shear force.47 0. V V = ½ x 1 (92.44mm2 S = 1000 ast Ast 14 .82 Mu = 83.87fy Ast (d – 0.82 KNm The ma.87fy Ast 0.73 x 106 = 0.36 + 121.36 x 20 x1000 Ast = 656.42 0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 M = 55.36 fck ) 83.62 KN Factored B. Shear force occurs at the distance of ‘d’ from the face of the stear.87 x 415 x Ast (367 . Vu = 1.62 Vu = 101.5 x 55.0.

5 x 68.55 M = 60.19 mm Refer table 2 in slab for M20 p fe 415 stal Provide 16mm @ 300mm c/c.55 – 0.3 x 1.90KN Mu = 1.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 = π x (16) 2 1000 x 4 Ast S = 306.37 KNm V = ½ (82.19 + 34.5 x 60.55 KNm Vu = 1.367) V = 68.35 KN Mu = 0. Check for shear Design of heel slab : M = 34.36 fck bd 15 .55 x 47.87fy Ast d fy Ast 1 − 0.3) (1.90 = 103.55 x 1.37 = 90.89 x 1/3 x 1.55 2 ½ x 1.

87 x 415 4 x 1.2 x 1.37mm Provide 16mm @ 280mm c/c Development length : The main reinforcement to be developed into the fixed support for a length of Ld = φ σs 4 τ bd = 16 x 0.18 mm Check for shear 15 .IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 90.6 Ld = 752.55 x 106 = 0.03mm2 S= 1000 x π x 162 4 712.08 S = 282.87 x 415 x Ast x 367 415 Ast 1 − 20 x 1000 x 367 Ast = 712.

35 x 103 = bd 1000 x 367 = 0.0 mm2 S= π x 102 1000 x 4 540 = 145.281 N/mm2 Pt = 100 Ast 100 x 712.12 c/s is provided along the transverse direction of the base slab.315 N/mm2 τ v<τ c Hence section is safe in shear Distribution steel : Ast min = 0.194% c = 0. Ast min = 0.12 bd = 0.12 x 1000 x 150 = 540.44mm Provide 10mm @ 140mm c/c Design of stem 15 .03 = bd 1000x 367 = 0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 τ v = vu 103.

KN Mu = 1.5 x 56.45 = 4.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Stem is designed as a cantilever slab for a height of 4800mm (5250 .46.87 x 415 x Ast x 312 415 Ast 1 − 20 x 1000 x 312 Ast = 1248.5 x 110 = 165KNm Vu = 1.373 x 16 x (4.35/2)2 V = 56.) The max.46 = 84.87 fy Ast d fy Ast 1 − fck bd 165 x 106 = 0.373 x 16 x = 110KNm The maximum shear force at ‘d’ from compound base slab is V = Caγ Z2/2 where Z = 4.69 KN Mu = 0.35m V = 0. moment on cantilever slab in head stem is M = C a h3/6 Assume clear cover of 50mm.30mm2 14 . bar of 16mm d = 450 – 50 – 16/2 = 392mm M = 0.8 – 0.

3 = bd 1000 x 392 = 0.67 x 103 = bd 1000 x 312 = 0.392 N/mm2 v < c Hence section is safe in slab. 14 .IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 S = 161.216 N/mm2 Pt = 100 Ast 100 x 1248.06mm Provide 16mm φ @ 160mm c/c.318 C = 0. Check for shear v = Vu 84.

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Design of heel slab : Wt from backfill = 16(5.86 x 1.55 x 1.463 = 84.5 x 56.08 KNm Vu = 1.25 KN Mu = 1.25 – 0.65 S = 213. d (1415 Ast 20 x 1000x 3 ) S= 1000 x π x 122 4 529.86 + 53.367) 5.89) x 1.45) = 76.45) Self wt of heel slab 25 (0.69 KN Mu = 0.55 x 2/3 (1.75) (1.53 – 0.8 = 11.87 fy Ast.5 (45.55/2 + ½ (47.55) M = 45.39 KNm V = ½ (5.86 V = 35.39) = 68.05 Kn M = 5.53mm 15 .25 Kn = 88.

At ½ height (4/3m) half the reinforcement is curtail. Provide 16mm @ 320mm c/c. Good soil is available at a depth of 1.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Provide 12mm @ 210mm c/c.8 8 the reinforcement is reduced to half.L. Design the cantilever retaining wall to retain a level difference of 4m. Soln : 14 . Provide 16mm @ 640mm c/c.25m below G. Also provide distasted for the front face of the stem along both direction as 10mm @ 16mm c/c. The unit wt of soil 16KN/m3 and SBC of soil is 160KN/m2. Provide distribution steel 10mm @ 160mm c/c. Reinforcement Details : The main reinforcement in the stem can be curtailed at two places. The backfill is leveled one with angle of internal friction φ = 30o. At 2/8 h 2 x 4. in the base slab as well as along the transverse direction for the steam in the rear face. The distribution steel is also curtail in the similar method.

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Height of wall above G.L.25m Unit wt of soil = 16 Kn/m3 SBC = 160KN/m2 = 30 Rankine’s min depth of foundation.25 Earth pressure co-efficient Ca = 1 − sinθ 1 + sinθ = 1 − sin 30o 1 + sin 30o = 0.L= 4m Good soil depth below G.11m 1.333 Cp = 1 − sinθ 1 + sinθ = 1 − sin 30o 1 + sin 30o =3 15 . dmin = SBC 1 − sin θ γ 1 + sin θ 2 = 160 1 − sin 30o 16 1 + sin 30o 2 = 1. = 1.

67 = 2.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Thickness of base slab = h 5.25 = 12 12 = 0.67 R = 0.610m Provide base slab width of 3m Width of heel slab is Xmin = Lmin x α R = 3. 15 .333 3 5.01 = 2m The preliminary proportions is shown in figure.67 = 2.25 0.45m Assume top width of wall as 150mm & tk of stem tappers from 450mm to 150mm Lmin = Ca h α 3 R Assuming the trapezoidal sters below the base slab Lmin = 0.4375 = 0.0 x 0.

75 W = 200.48 = 1.43 Kn Force ID W1 Force (KN) Distance from Moment heel (m) KNm ½ x 1.045 = W 200 .25) 2 2 Pa = 73.85 + 18 1.75 3/2 3/2 = 1.08 0.65 0.5 50. X4 = Mw 228 .IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 For the assumed proportions the retaining is check for stability against overturning (s) Pa = Ca e x (h) 2 2 = 0.85 – 1/3(0.188m 14 .045 KNm The resistant of vertical forces lies at a the of x 01 from the heel end.45) x 25 = 1.3) 11.925 W3 ½ x (0.8 x 1.25 – 0.85 x 0.925 = 34.45 x 25 = 33.15 x (5.42 142.45 – 0.15 2 W2 0.45 x 16 = 1/2 x 1.85 = 181.333 x 16 x (5.625 W4 3 x 0.35 (25-16) = 6.31KN M = 228.31 = 1.15) x 4.

31 (3 – 1.138) = 372.97KNm Foso = 0.97 128.25 3 Mo = 128.61 > 1.9 x 372.50 =2.155 KN 14 .9 F Pa Cos θ F = μR = 0.50 KNm Mr = W (L.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Check for overturning moment : Foso = 0.4 Check for sliding Fos sliding = 0.5 x 200.31 = 100.43 5. x W) + Pa Sin (L) = 200.9 Mr Mo Mo = Pa cos θ x h1/3 = 73.

22 < 1.155 73.75m h1 h2 Ppe = 1.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Fos sliding = 0.3m from the too as shown in figure.43 = 1.25 .0.25) 2 ) 2 Pps = 58.9 x 100.5KN 15 .3 + 0.3 x = 0.25m = 1.4 Hence the section is not safe is sliding The shear key is required to resist sliding Assume shear key of size 300 x 300mm at a distance of 1.0.3 + 0.8 = 1. Figue*** Tan 30o = x 1.75 = 1.3 + 0.25 .25m = Cp e (h 2 2 2 − h1 ) =3x 16((2 ) 2 − (1.

65 cos θ = 0.02 > 1. Maximum pressure at one end is q max = R L 6e 1 + L and min-pressure is qmin = R 6e 1 − L L here the eccentricity ‘e’ is given by e = LR – L/2 where LR = The distance of R from the heel slab 15 .5 73.43 = 2. Soil pressure from the supporting soil on base slab : The distribution of soil pressure from the base is trapezoida in nature.9 F (100 .155 ) + 58.4 Hence the section is safe against sliding.9 F + Pps 98.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Fos s = 0.

79 x1 = 3 2 X = 49.5 + 228.28) 1 + 3 3 = 104.37 Kn/m2 > 0 Hence pressure is within the limits. Figure*** Design of Toe slab : Fig*** 74 .31 LR = 1.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 LR = (Mo + Mw) /R = (128.28) 1 − 3 3 29.78 – (3/2) = 0.31 6(0.78m e = 1.28 6(0.16KN/m2 α 160 qmin = 233.86KN/m2 15 .28m qmax = 200.04 ) 200.

Depth.367) = 58. B.23 x 1 x ½ + (½ x 1 x 21. V V = ½ x 1 (79.5 x 47. Shear force occurs at the distance of ‘d’ from the face of the stear.04 KN Factored B.925 KNm The ma.79 x = 3 1.16) x (1-0.93) x 2/3 M = 47.92 Mu = 71. Vu = 1.55 X = 38.23 + 104.64 KN/m2 The Toe slab is design for a UDL ofas cantilever beam Assume the clear cover as 75mm for base slab and bar dia of 16mm Eff.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 74.M = 1.85 KNm Factored shear force.φ /2 = 450 – 75 – 16/2 d = 367mm The max.04 14 . d = D – clear cover .5 x 58.M at the rear face of the stem is M = 79.

87 x 415 x Ast (367) 415 Ast 1 − 20 x1000x367 Ast = 560.21mm2 S = 1000 ast Ast = 1000 x π x (12) 2 4 560.06 x 103 = bd 1000x 367 = 0.06 KN Mu = 0.80 mm Provide 12mm @ 200mm c/c.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Vu = 87.21 S = 201.87fy Ast (1 fy Ast fck ) 71.88 x 106 = 0.237 N/mm2 16 . Check for shear v = Vu 87.

68 x 2/3 x 1.25 – 0.5 (55.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Pf = 100Ast 100x 560.5 x (46.55 M = 55.84 KNm 16 . Design of heel slab : Wt from back fill = 16(5.55) x 1.55 x 38.04 KNm Mu = 1.56 KNm V = ½ (20.56KN Vu = 1.2816N/mm2 τ v = c.55 2 ½ x 1.45) = 11.04 x 1.367) V = 46.45) = 76.152% c = 0. Hence section is safe in shear.56) = 69.8 Kn Self wt of heel slab = 25 (0.25 KN/m2 88.21 = bd 1000x 367 = 0.04 + 58.55 – 0.68) (1.04) = 82.05 Kn/m2 M = (20.

36 fck bd 82.44mm 16 .12% bd = 0.71 S = 174.85mm Provide 12mm @ 170mm c/c Distribution steel Ast(min) = 0.56 x 106 = 0.87fy Ast d fy Ast 1 − 0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Mu = 0.71mm2 S= π x 162 1000 x 4 646.12 x 1000 x 450 100 = 540mm2 S= 1000 x π x (0) 2 4 540 = 145.87 x 415 x Ast x 367 415 Ast 1 − 20 x 1000 x 367 Ast = 646.

35) 2 2 V = 50.8) 3 4 M = 98.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Provide 10mm @ 140mm c/c.20 Knm Assume 50mm cover & 16mm bar d = 450 – 50 – 16/2 = 392mm Max. shear force at ‘d’ from compound slab is V = Caγ Z2/2 Z = 4.20 = 147.5 x 98. moment on cantilever slab in the head stem is M = Caγ h3/6 = 0.45 – 4.45 = 4.3 Knm 14 .8 – 0.25 – 0.40 KN Mu = 1.8m The max.3 V = 0.833 x 16 x ( 4.833 x 16 x ( 4. Design of Stem : Stem is designed as cantilever slab for a height of 5.

282% τ c = 0. Check for shear τ v = vu 75.3 x 106 = 0.44 = 181.375 N/mm2 τ v<τ c Hence section is safe in shear Reinforcement details : 14 .6 x 103 = bd 1000 x 392 = 0. = bd 1000x 392 = 0.40) = 75.44mm2 S= π x 162 1000 x 4 1105.5(50.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Vu = 1.192 N/mm2 Pt = 100 Ast 100 x 1105 44 .87 x 415 x Ast x 392 1− 415 Ast 20 x 1000 Ast = 1105.88mm Provide 16mm @ 180mm c/c.6 KN 147.

l on the toe side.5 = 9m 14 .5m below G.87 x 415 = 4τ bd 4 x 1.L. The co-efficient of friction below the soil and concrete is 0.5 + 1.2 x 1. Figure **** Soln : Minimum depth of foundation = P 1 − sin θ γ 1 + sin θ 2 = 170 1 − sin30o 16 1 + sin30o 2 = 1.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Figure*** Ld = φ σ0 16 x 0. The angle of internal friction is = 30o.5m Depth of foundation = 1.6 = 752mm = 750mm Design a suitable counterfort retaining wall to support a leveled back fill of height 7.5 use M25 concrete and Fe415 steel.180m < 1. Assume good soil for the foundation at a design of 1. The SBC of soil is 170KN/m2 with unit weight as 16KN/m3.5m above g.5m Height of wall = 7.

25 0.5) = 106.5m Thickness of toe slab = 6% of 9m = 0.5 25(1.75 W3 W4 Total 25(0.5)x3 = 37.5 = (3-0.25 101.5/2+3=3.9 Mr Mo 14 .5+1.45m = 0.69 56.75 KN 1.75 MH = 874.5 = 292.5)/2 340 W2 25(0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Thickness of heel & stem = 5% of 9m = 0.72) = 27 W=510.5) (0. XW = Mw 874 .5 – 0.5)(9-0.18 2.54m Stability Conditions : Earth pressure calculations : Force ID W1 Force (KN) Distance from Moment heel (m) 16(7.5/2 + 2.5 1.75 = 1.25 1.69 = W 510 .25 KNm = 425 The resistant of vertical forces lies at a the of x 01 from the heel end.713m Check for overturning moment : Foso = 0.5) x 2.

6KNm Foso = 0.333 x 16 x 93 6 Mo = 647.6 647.75 = 255.4 Hence.98 > 1.9 x 1423.78 Kn 16 .9 F Pa Cos θ F = μR = 0. x W) = W = 510.35 =1. section is safe against overturning.35 KNm Mr = W (L.87 KN Pa = Ca e x (h) 2 2 = 0. Check for sliding Fos sliding = 0.718) = 1423.75 (4.333 x 16 x ( 9) 2 2 Pa = 215.5 – 1.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Mo = Pa cos θ x h1/3 = 0.5 x 510.

5 = 3.5 = 223.97 KN/m2 > SBC un safe qmin = R L 6e 1 + L = 510.78 = 1.37 ) 215 .5 1 + 6(73) 4.75 4.5 1 + 6(73) 4.9 x ( 255 .IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Fos sliding = 0.75 4.4 Hence the section is not safe is sliding The shear key is required to resist sliding Base pressure calculation: q max = R L 6e 1 + L = 510.065 < 1.02 Kn/m2 > 0 Safe 16 .

5 x 25 x 0.98 – (4.75 KN LR = (Mo + Mw) 917 .5/2) = 0.75 = 3.98m e = 2.01m ∑M Design of Toe slab : 16 .75m) Since maximum earth pressure is greater than SBC of soil.72 x 1/6 (0.352 = R 519 .75 LR = 2.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 where the eccentricity ‘e’ is given by e = LR – L/2 where LR = The distance of R from the heel slab LR = (Mo + Mw) /R = (874. Increase the toe slab by 0.352 ) 510 . the length of base slab has to increased preferably along the toe side.75 + 0.72 = 519.438 + 647 .68 + 647 .5m in length. EH = 510.

64 KN/m2 The Toe slab is design for a UDL ofas cantilever beam Assume the clear cover as 75mm for base slab and bar dia of 16mm Eff.925 KNm The ma.16) x (1-0.M at the rear face of the stem is M = 79. Shear force occurs at the distance of ‘d’ from the face of the stear.φ /2 = 450 – 75 – 16/2 d = 367mm The max. V = ½ x 1 (79.23 + 104.367) 14 .79 x = 3 1.79 x1 = 3 2 X = 49.93) x 2/3 M = 47.23 x 1 x ½ + (½ x 1 x 21. Depth.86KN/m2 74. B.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Fig*** 74 . d = D – clear cover .55 X = 38.

87 x 415 x Ast (367) 415 Ast 1 − 20 x1000x367 Ast = 560.21 S = 201.5 x 58.92 Mu = 71. Vu = 1.04 KN Factored B.06 KN Mu = 0.87fy Ast (1 fy Ast fck ) 71.04 Vu = 87.M = 1.80 mm Provide 12mm @ 200mm c/c.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 V = 58.88 x 106 = 0. Check for shear 16 .21mm2 S = 1000 ast Ast = 1000 x π x (12) 2 4 560.5 x 47.85 KNm Factored shear force.

04 KNm Mu = 1.04 x 1.55 2 ½ x 1.8 Kn Self wt of heel slab = 25 (0. Design of heel slab : Wt from back fill = 16(5. v Hence section is safe in shear.55 M = 55.55 – 0.55 x 38.25 – 0.04) = 82.45) = 11.45) = 76.152% τ τ c = 0.5 (55.68 x 2/3 x 1.237 N/mm2 Pf = 100Ast 100x 560.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 v = Vu 87.21 = bd 1000x 367 = 0.68) (1.25 KN/m2 88.06 x 103 = bd 1000x 367 = 0.2816N/mm2 = c.05 Kn/m2 M = (20.367) 16 .04 + 58.56 KNm V = ½ (20.55) x 1.

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 V = 46.5 x (46.71mm2 S= 1000 x π x 162 4 646.56) = 69.71 S = 174.85mm Provide 12mm @ 170mm c/c Distribution steel Ast(min) = 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 367 415 Ast 1 − 20 x 1000 x 367 Ast = 646.56 x 106 = 0.56KN Vu = 1.12% bd = 0.12 x 1000 x 450 100 = 540mm2 14 .84 KNm Mu = 0.87fy Ast d fy Ast 1 − 0.36 fck bd 82.

8 – 0.20 KNm Assume 50mm cover & 16mm φ bar d = 450 – 50 – 16/2 = 392mm Max. shear force at ‘d’ from compound slab is V = Ca Z2/2 Z = 4. Design of Stem : Stem is designed as cantilever slab for a height of 5.25 – 0.44mm Provide 10mm @ 140mm c/c.35) 2 2 16 .45 = 4.8) 3 4 M = 98.45 – 4.833 x 16 x ( 4.833 x 16 x ( 4.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 S= 1000 x π x (0) 4 540 2 = 145.8m The max.3 V = 0. moment on cantilever slab in the head stem is M = Caγ h3/6 = 0.

192 N/mm2 Pt = 100 Ast 100 x 1105 44 .5 x 98. Check for shear v = vu 75.40) = 75.20 = 147.87 x 415 x Ast x 392 1− 415 Ast 20 x 1000 Ast = 1105.375 N/mm2 v < τ c 14 .88mm Provide 16mm @ 180mm c/c.282% c = 0.6 x 103 = bd 1000 x 392 = 0.44mm2 S= 1000 x π x 162 4 1105.44 = 181.40 KN Mu = 1.5(50.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 V = 50.6 KN 147. = bd 1000x 392 = 0.3 x 106 = 0.3 Knm Vu = 1.

Soln:Figure ********* Minimum depth of foundation = P γ 1 − sin φ 1 + sin φ 2 = 170 1 − Sin300 = 1.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Hence section is safe in shear Reinforcement details : Figure*** Ld = φ σ0 16 x 0.87 x 415 = 4τ bd 4 x 1. The SBC of soil is 170 KN/m2 with unit weight as 16 KN/m3.5 use M25 concrete of Fe 415 steel.180 m < 1. The angle of internal friction is φ = 300 the co-efficient of friction b/w the soil of concrete is 0.5 m 14 . Assume good soil for the foundation at a deim of 1. L on the toe side.2 x 1.5 m above g.6 = 752mm = 750mm Design a suitable counterturn retaining way to support a leveled back fill of height 7.5 m below G.5m 16 1 + sin 300 Depth of foundation = 1. L.

5 + 1.25 = 340 W2 25 (0.5 14 56.72 m.5) (9 – 0.5 m Thickness of countertort = 6% of 9 m = 0.5 = 2.0 m 3 Lmin = 1.5)x 3 = 37.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Height of wall = 7.5 – 0.25 .54 m Stabiling conditions: Earth pressure calculations: Force W1 IDforce (KN) Distance from heal (m) Moment KNm 425 16 ( 7.5) = 0.45 m = 0.5 x 3 = 4.75 106. h Ca X m in = 3 = 0.5 (3 – 0.25 292.5)/2 = 1.5 + 1.18 W3 25(0.5/2 + 2.333 < 9 = 3.5 Thickness of toe slab – 8% of 9m = 0.5 1.5 = 9 m Thickness of heal & stem = 5% of 9m = Thickness of heal & stem = 5% of 9m = 0.5) x 2.

Silding:Fos(sliding) = 0 .5) (0.75 Fos(overturnis) = 0 .98 > 1.75 = 9.9 M M0 = = 1.6 KNm Fos = 0. overturnins.333 x 16 x (9)3/6 = 647.69 = 1.4 647.75 KN 1.75 101.3) x 0.3 = Caγ e.69 W = 25(0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 W4 Total 25 (1.5 – 1.6) = 1.713 m Mo = Pa.9 F PaCos θ 14 .5/2 + 3 = 3.72) = 27 W = 510. h3/6 = 0.75 (4.25 M4 874. 35 KNm Mr = (L – Xw) w = 510.713) = 1423.35 Hence section is safe against.9 (1423. h.00 XW = 874.713m 510.

75 6( 0.5 6( 0.383 x 16 x (9)2/2 = 215.688 + 647.75 14 = L L 4.37) / 215.78 Fos sliding = 0.5 = 3.98m 510.78 < L/L (0. γ e.5/2 = 0.97 KN/m2 > SBC unsafe Qmin = R 6e 510 .5 4.73) 1 + 4.75 = 1.9 (255.02 w/m2 > 0 safe Where. h2/2 = 0.75 = 255.73) 1 + = 1 + L L 4.98 – 4.065m < 1.5 = 223.75mm) 16 .4 Hence the section is not safe against sliding.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 F = R = 0. LR = Mh + M0 = C = LR − L / 2 where R LR = 874.352 = 2.75 e = 2.5 x 510. Base pressure calculation: 9 mas = R 60 510 .37 Pa = Ca.

75 + 0. Moment = 0. w = 510.5 x 25 x 0.5.44 KNm LR= ( M 0 + M W ) 417.75 = 917.438 x 647.511 m < L/6 (0. the length of base slab has to b.11 – 5/2 = 0.69 KN/m2 < SBC Qmin = R 6e 1 − L L 16 .0 = 167.5m in length. Increase the toe slab by 0.72 = 519.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Since maximum earth pressure is stresses then SBC of sol.69 + 42.75 KN Figure ********** Additional load due to increase in toe slab by 0.75m Σ m = 874.352 = = 3. increased praberables along the toe side.5 = 4.5 m 1 + = 1 + L L 5.75 e = LR – L/2 = 30.833m) q max = R 6e 519 . 0 5.75 6 x 0.01m R 519.5/2 + 4.

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 = 519 . Shear they is provided to resist sliding. Re h 2 2 − h 12 2 h2 = 1.9 x 0.2 = 2.39 m PPb = Cp.511) 1 − 5 5 Qmin = 40.082 < 1.39 + 1.89m h1 = 1.75 = Pa 215.75 6(0.20 KN/m2 > 0 FOS siliding = 0.2m 15 . Assume shear they of size 300 x 300 mm Figure ********* tan 300 = L 2400 x = 1.5 x 519.9 F 0.784 = 1.2 + 0 = 1.4 Hence the section is not slab against sliding.385 = 1.

2364 N/mm2 x 7 N/mm2 Hence the section is safe against meridonial stress.5 x 9.06 1 0.64 1 + 0.724 T = 23.30 = 4.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Meridonial thrust T = WR 1 + 1.248 N/mm2 < 7 N/mm2 Since the section is safe to resist meridonial thrust of hoop stress the provided 100 mm thickness of sufficient.64 x 10 3 = c / s 1000 x 100 = 0.64 KN Meridonial stress T 23 . Hoop stress:Hoop Stress = WR 1 Cos θ − T 1 + cos ϑ = 4. 15 .06 1 + 0.5 x 9.724 − 23.721 = 0.

3 x 1000 x 100 = 300 mm 2 100 For 8mm φ spacing = 1000 x π x 82 4 = 167.97 KN Ast = 106.97 x 103 = 713. Design of Rin beam The area of concrete received for the ring beam is bound for the hoop stress and area of steel required is bound for the horizontal component of meridmial thrust.5 mm 300 ∴ Provide 8 mm @ 160 mm c/c both way.64 x 0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Ast min = 0.5/2 = 106. HZ component of Meridonial thrust = T Cos θ x D/2 = 23.13 mm 2 150 16 .724 x 12.3 % of C/S = 0.

13 π x 162 4 = 3. 08 bars = 713. no. Design of Toe slab: Eff.852 > 1.89 KN/m2 FOS sliding = ( 2.4 Hence section is safe against sliding.54 say 4 nos Size of rins beam is based on tensile stress of concrete PP8 = 3 x 16 ( 2.89) 2 − (1. D = 720 – 85 = 635 mm 16 .2 ) 2 2 PP8 = 165.Cover = 75 + 20/2 = 85 mm Toe slab is designed similer to cantition and with maximum moment at trust face of the size a maximum shear at ‘d’ for face it beam.2 ) 2 2 = 1.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 For 16 mm φ .89) 2 − (1.

635 m = 49.66 KN Factored B.98) (2 – 0.44 KN Factored S.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 M= 80.82 + 95.M.5 (154.02 = 0.635 = 15.845 = 0.02 KNm K= M bd u 2 = 341 .44) S.85 KN 2 Area of tralizium = ½ x (a + b) h = ½ (130.35) = 341.245 x 1000 x 635 = > Ast = bd 100 Ast = 1552.F = 1.94 x x 2 2 2 3 = 227.F Vu = 231.35 KNm S.845 1000 x 635 2 Pt = 0.F at 0.38 x 22 1 2 + x 2 x 49. Mu = 1.5 (227.94 x 0.2445 Ct = 100 Ast 0.635) = 154.575 mm2 16 .

66 x 10 3 = = 0.12 x 1000 x 720 = 864 mm 2 100 Spacing = 1000 x π x 10 2 4 = 90.90 mm 864 ∴ Provide 10 mm @ 100 mm c/C Check for shear :τ v = Vu 231 .IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Spacing = π x 16 2 1000 x 4 = 129.12% of C/S = 0.364 N / mm 2 bd 1000 x 635 τ c \ 0.36 N/mm2 τ v ~τ c ∴ The section is safe in shear Design of heel slab 16 .575 Provide 16 mm @ 125 mm C/C Transerve Reinforcement = 0.50 mm 1552.

Moment at the support.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 The had slab is designed by countention at regular interval.02 Ast Provide 16 mm @ 170 mm c/c. ∴ 16 .65 KNm Moment at the mid span. MSuf = Wl 2 106.69 mm2 Factored Mmidspan = 125.92 x 3. Factored Msup = 167. Mmid = Wl 2 = 83. The maximum shear at the support is W **** the maximum pressure at the best slab is consider for me design. The counterbant act as support and makes the had slab as one – way continuous slab. spacing = 1000 Ast = 170. The heal slab is designed for a moment Wl2/l2 at the support & Wl2/16 at the mid span.72 KNm 16 The max pressure acting on the had slab is the as ‘W’ for which the Ast required at mid span and support one found.47 KNm Ast = 1172.58 Ast = 868.2 = 12 12 = 111.27mm Using 16 mm φ bar.

τ cmax = 3. spacing = 231.12% of Bd = 0.415 2 2 Factored S.F = 217. τ > c c = 0.624 N/mm2. ∴ Check for shear:Maximum shear l 2.5 W − d = 107 − 0.1 N/mm2 v ∴ Depth has to be increased. spacing = 83. Transverse reinforcement = 0.775 mm Provided 8 mm @ 80mm c/c.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 At mid span.47 KN = Pt = 0.12 x 1000 x 500 = 600 mm 2 100 For 8mm bar. Design of stem 16 .376 N/mm2.72 mm Provide 16mm @ 230 mm C/C.282 τ τ v = 0.

5) = 45. reinforcement is provided at the rear side & for positive moment at mid span.33 KN/m Mmid = Wl 2 16 = 1.5 x 45.04 KNm Effective depth d = 500 – (50 + 20/2) = 440 mm M support = Wl 2 1. h = 1/3 x 16 x (9 – 0. reinforcement is provided at front base of the stem.5 x 45.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 The stem is also designed as one – way continuous slab with support moment Wl 2 12 and midspan moment Wl 2 16 For the negative moment at the support.54 2 16 = 53.54 2 = = 71 KNm 12 12 Ast at support = 454. The maximum moment various beam a base Intensitus of Ca γ e.33 x 3.33 x 3.73 spacing = 69 mm 16 .25 KNm (or) 307.

12/100 x 1000 x 440 = 528 m For 8 mm .IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 ∴ Provide 16 mm @ 300 mm C/C.42 KN Transverse reinforcement = 0. spacing = 95 8mm @ 90 mm C/C 8t = 0.12 % of 6D = 0.F = 90.28 KN Factored S. Design of countertors:- 16 . τ v = 0.205 N/mm2.29 N/mm2 v < τ ∴ Shear of safe.54 mm Provide 16 mm @ 300 mm C. Ast at mid span = 339.134. spacing = 592.C Max S.F = W l − d 2 = 60. τ c c = 0.54 mm2 For 16 mm .

Cartailment of reinforcement: Not all the 6 bars need to be taken to the for end Three bars are taken straight to the entire span of the beam upto me hop of the stem.61 Say n = 6 nos The main reinforcement is provided along the slanting face of the counterbort. Mmax = Ca γ e.5 = 252 ast πx 4 = 5.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 The countertort is desined as a cautilever beam whose depth is equal to the length of the heal slab of the base is reduces to the thickness of the stem at the top.5 mm2 No. Maximum moment at the base of coutnerfort. 14 .5 KNm Factored Mmax = 2898. of bars required = Ast 2755. h3/6 x Le Where Le C/C distance from counterforb Mmax = 1932.75 KNm Ast = 2755.

h 14 .5 2 2 The third part is cut at a distance of n −3 h = 3 2 . the vertical stem is the countertort.γ e. h 3 = 6. Design of horizontal ties:Closed stirrups are provided t.5 6 8 .94 m n 8 . 5 2 h1 distance from top . Considering 1m strip. γ = 6-1/6 = h12/8. n = 6. where n is the total no of n −1 h = 12 n 8. T = Cα.72th (from bottom ) n −2 h 6−2 h = 2 2 => = 2 2 = 6. 5 2 Vertical ties and horizontal ties are provided to connect the counter fort with the item is the heal slab.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 One bar is Cut al a distance of .01m ( From bottom ) n 8. the tension resisted by reinforcement is given by lateral pressure on the wall multiplied by contributing area.52 h1 = 7.

5 ( 444 .87 fy T = 1/3 x 16 x (9-0.5 = 1. spacing = 70.48 ) = 666 .49 KN Factored T = 399. C/s of counter fort wall of midspan: Reinforcement details of stem.54 = 160.87 x 415 For 10 mm φ spacing = 110 mm Provide 10 mm @ 110 mm c/c closed stirrups as horizontal ties. Design of vertical ties:The vertical stirrups connects the countertort and the heel slab considering 1m strip.56 + 167) + Le = 266.93 Provide 10mm @ 70m c/c.72 mm 2 0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Where Ast = T 0.48 KN Ast = 160 . For 10mm .74 KN Ast = 1107.5) x 3. T = Avg 943. the tensile force is the product of the average download pressure & the spacing between the counterforts.15 mm2. 15 . toe slab of heel slab.48 x 10 3 x 1.

D work done by positive yield line (ab.D = E.W.S = ½ x L x L/2 x W x ½ x (1) x 4 = Wl2/3 I. da) for 1 2 = L/2 L θ = Mθ = 4[W x L x 2/L] = 8m Total I.W.D.D 16m = WL2/3 M= WL2 4b M – Moment per metre length alms the rived line.¬2L.D = 16m E.W. cd.lθ = m. bc.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Isotropicall reinforced – Squave slab – fixed on all edges – udl:External work done = W.W.2 2 L I. 14 .W. Σ W. S – virtual displacement Internal work done = Σ Mθ = Σ m. S W – load.

use M20 concrete and Fe 415 steel. the slab hase.m2.57m Provide effective depth d as 180 mm ∴ 15 . Soln:Side = L = 5m. M = ***** Step 1:As per IS 456 : 2000 L/d ratio for simply supported slab using Fe 415 steel. L/D = 0.8 (35) = 28 D = 5000/28 = 178. with side 5m.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Design a square slab fixed along as the bour edges. All four edges fixed Given Service load = 4 KN/m2 Fcx = 20 N/mm2 Fy = 415 N/mm2 As per yield line theory for isotrophic reinforced square slab fixed on all four edges. to support a service load of hase to be support a service load of 4 KN.

056 x 15 x 52 = 21 KN M2 = My = 21 KNm Mu = fy Ast 0.59 mm 336 14 .87 fy Ast d 1 − Fck bd 21 x 106 = 0. rebearing annex d. ly/l2 = 1 ∴ Assume all four edges discontinuous.87 fy Ast d 415 Ast 1 − 20 x 1000 x 180 Ast = 336.056 Mx = α x Wdx2 = 0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Solve the above problem using the co-efficient stam in IS 456:2000 Soln:Given Lens = l2 = ly = 5 m The slab is two way slab. take 20 αu = αy = 0.15 mm2 S= π x 82 1000 x 4 = 149 .

50 mm 247 ∴ Provide 8 mm bar @ 220 mm c/C Check for shear:- 16 .87 x 415 x Ast x 180 415 Ast 1 − 20 x 100 x 180 Ast = 247.625 x 106 = 0.48 mm2 S= π x 82 1000 x 4 = 203 .87 fy Ast d fy Ast 1 − fck bd 15.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 ∴ Provide 8 mm φ @ 140 mm C/C Design the above problem for simply support condition. Soln:M= WL2 15 x 52 = = 15.625 KNm 24 24 Mu = 0.

**IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 τ
**

v

=

**15 x 5 V 2 = = 0.208 N / mm2 d b 100 x 180
**

u

Pt =

100 Ast 100 x 247 = = 0.137 % bd 1000 x 180

τ

c

= 0.28 N/mm2

**c = 1.2 x 0.28 = 0.336 N/mm2 τ
**

v

< c

∴

Hence the section is safe is shear.

Vu = Wu l x 13.5 x 4 = = 27 KN 2 2 τ =

27 x 10 3 = 0.18 N / mm 2 1000 x 150

v

Pt =

100 x 277 = 0.184 % 1000 x 150

τ τ

c

= 0.307 N/mm2 =K

c

c

**= 1.26 x 0.307 = 0.386 N/mm2
**

16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

∴

Hence the section is safe is shear.

In the above problem design the slab if all support are fixed Soln:Based on yield line theory, for rectangular slab fixed on all four edges, subjects to UDL throushour M=

Wu L α tan 2 φ 24 µ

2

tan =

µ2 µ 1.5µ + − 4α 2 2α

=

(0.7 ) 2 0.7 1.5 (0.7 ) + − 4(0.67) 2 2(0.67)

tan φ = 0.8000 m=

13.5 x 6 2 0.8 x 0.8 48 0.7

= 9.26 KNm

18

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 M = 0.87 fy Ast d

fy Ast 1 − fck bd

9.26 x 106 = 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 150

** 415 Ast 1 − 20 x 1000 x 150
**

Ast = 175 mm2 Ast min = 0.12 x 1000 x 170 = 204 mm 2 100 Ast provided on shorter direction is 204 mm2

∴

Assume 80 mm φ , S =

1000 x π x 82 4 204

S = 246.39 mm Provide 8 mm @ 240 mm c/c both ways

∴

**Check for shear v =
**

Vu 27 x 10 3 = = 0.18 N / mm 2 bd 1000 x 150

16

7 M = 8.28 = 0.28 Knm 8.136 % 1000 x 150 τ τ τ c = 0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Pt = 100 x 204 = 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 150 415 Ast 1 − 20 x 1000 x 150 Ast = 155.5 x 4 2 0.3 mm2 16 .82 24 0.28 N/mm2 1 c = K c = 1.26 x 0.352 N/mm2 v < c ∴ Hence the section is sale in shear Solve the above problem for two long edges fixed boundarks condition Soln:M= Wu L x tan 2 φ 24 µ 2 = 13.23 x 106 = 0.

18 N / mm 2 1000 x 150 Pt = 100 x 204 = 0.12 x 1000 x 150 = 204 mm 2 100 Ast provide on shorter direction is 204 mm2 ∴ Assume 8mm φ . S = π x 82 1000 x 4 = 246 .352 N/mm2 τ v < c Hence the section is safe in shear.26 x 0. 16 .IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Ast min = 0.28 N/mm2 c1 = Kc = 1.28 = 0.136 % 1000 x 150 τ c = 0.39 mm 204 ∴ Provide 8 mm @ 240 mm C/C bothways Check for shear v = 27 x 10 3 = 0.

Depth d = 180 mm Assume in eff.2 x 25 = 5 KN/m2 Live load = 3 KN/m2 16 . isotropically reinforced and simply supported along its edges.cover of 20 mm overall depth. M= Wu L2 72 Assume L/d = 28 D = 5000/28 = 178. The span is subjected to a super imposed load of 3 KN/m2 use M20 concrete of Fe – 1415 Soln:Based on yield line theory. the ultimate moment for an etuilateral triangular slab simply supported alms all edges of subjected to VDL through out. D = 180 + 20 = 200 mm ∴ Load calculation: Self wt of slab = 1 x 0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Design an equilateral triangular slab of side 5m.54 mm Assume eff.

69 KNm 72 72 4. M= Wu L2 13. Wk = 1.5 x 52 = = 4. Check for shear τ v = Vu bd 16 .IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Floor finish = 1 KN/ m2 W = 9 KN/m2 Factored load.5 KN/m for 1m strip.87 x 415 x Ast x 180 415 Ast 1 − 20 x 1000 x 10 Ast = 72.69 x 106 = 0.5 x 9 = 43. 77 mm2 8mm φ Transverse reinforce = 0.12 x 1000 x 200 = 240 mm 2 100 Spacing = 1000 x π x 82 4 = 209 mm 240 ∴ Provide 8 mm @ 200 mm C/C.

187 N / mm 2 1000 x 180 Pt 100 x 240 = 0. τ 1 c max = 2.336 N/mm2 c max v < c < τ ∴ Section is safe in shear A right angled triangular slab simply support along all the edges it has sides AB = BC = 4m. Find the safe permissible service load (Live load) that can be apply on the slab.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 V= WL 13.75 2 2 Vu = 33.28 = 0.133 % 1000 x 180 τ τ τ c = 0.75 τ v = 33 .5 x 5 = = 33.28 N/mm2 . Soln: 16 .75 = 33.5 N/mm2 c = K c = 1.75 x 10 3 = 0.2 x 0. the slab is isotrofically reinforced with 10 mm @ 100 mm C/C both way use M20 and Fe 415 (HYDS) bars.

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 For A1m slab S.87 fy Ast d fy Ast 1 − fck bd 14 . Mu = Wu x L2 (Based on yield line there ) 6 α=1 4 4 S= 1000 ast Ast Ast = π x 10 2 1000 x 4 = 785 .4 mm 2 100 L/4 = 28 d = 4000 28 D = 170 mm For Ast available moment resistance the section. Mu = 0.S along all the edges which is right angle isotuplication reinforced subjected to UDL through out.

2 KN/m2 Working load = 14.95 ∴ The service live load that can be safly apply on slab is 9.5 = 9.4 x 150 415 x 785.9 x 106 = Wu x 1 x 4 2 6 Wu = 14.5 KN/m2 Design a circular slab of diameter 5m.46 – 4.2 / 1.2 KN/m2 Factored load = 14.46 KN/m2 ∴ Self wt = 0.17 x 25 = 4.71 KN / m 2 4.9 KN m 37. Soln:16 .25 KN/m2 Floor finish = 0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Mu = 0. S.87 x 415 x 785.S along the edges and subjected to live load of 4 KN/m3 use M20 & Fe 415 steel.96 = 4.4 1 − 20 x 1000x 150 Mu = 37.

5 x 10 = 15 KN/m 14 .L = 4 KN/m2 Floor finish = KN/m2 W = 10 KN/m2 Factored load. Depth.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Based on yield line theory the ultimate moment for circular slab isotopicus reinforcement Sr. Cover = 20 mm overall depth.07mm eff. S. along the edges subjectedto VDO through. M= Wu r 2 6 Assume L/d = 28 D = 5000 / 28 = 178. d = 180 mm ∴ Adopt eff. D = 200 mm ∴ Load calculation Self wt on slab = 0. Wu = 1.2 x 25 = 5 KN/m2 L.

12 x 1000 x 200 100 = 240 mm2 For 8 mm φ S = 1000 x π x 82 4 = 203.625KNm 6 6 15.48 mm2 Transverse reinforcement = 0.48 Provide 8 mm φ @ 200 mmC/C both ways Check for shear:τ v = Wu l 15 x 5 x 103 Vu 2 = 2 = = 0.10 mm 247.87 x 415 x Ast x 180 415 Ast 1 − 20 x 1000 x 10 Ast = 247.5) 2 = = 15.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 M = Wu r 2 15 x ( 2.12% of D = 0.625 x 106 = 0.208 bd bd 1000 x 180 16 .

48 = 0.75 the service live load on the slab is 5 KN/m2 use M20 concrete and Fe 415 steel Soln : L = 8m. α = 5m LL = 5 KN/m2 Based on yield line memory the rectangular slab orthotropically reinforced.28 N/mm2 τ v<τ c Hence the section is safe in shear Design a simply supported rectangular slab of sie 5m x 8m which is orthotopilr reinforced with co-efficient of orthorooly µ = 0.187 % 1000 x 180 τ c = 0. along with edges of subjected to VDL through out.625 M= Wl 2 α2 24 [ 3+µ α − α µ 2 ] 2 Assume L/D = 28 5000 / 28 = d. Α = 5/8 = 0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Pt = 100 x 247. S. d = 178.S. 57 mm Provide d = 180 mm 15 .

5 x 11 = 16.86 x 106 = 0. Load = 5 KN/m2 Floor finish = l KN/m2 Total load.26 mm2 Transverse reinforcement ast min 14 . overall depth . D = 200 mm Load calculation Self wt on slab = 0.625 2 x 82 24 [ 3 + 0.75 ] 2 Mu = 27. Cover = 20 mm.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Eff.2 x 25 = 5 KN/m2 L.5 KN/m Mu = Wl 2 α2 24 [ 3+µ α − α µ 2 ] 2 = 16. 4 = 11 KN/m Factored load.75 x 0.5 x 0.6252 − 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 180 415 Ast 1 − 20 x 1000 x 180 Ast = 452. W = 11 KN/m2 For 1 m strip .86 KNm 27.625 0. Wu = 1.

36 N/mm2 c1 = K τ c = 1.S along the two short edges.26/1000x 180 = 0.86 = 0.432 N/mm2 Hence section is safe in shear. S along the short edges of subjected to VDL through out.25 KN v = 41.19 mm2 Check for shear: provide 10 mm @ 230 mm C/C τ v = Vu/ bd Vu = WL/2 = 16.5 x 5 / 2 = 41.229 N/mm2 Pt = 100Ast / bd = 100 x 452. The slab is subjected to the distributed live load of 4 KN/m2 design the slab for orthotopically reinforced condition with co-efficient orthotropy µ = 0.25 % τ c = 0.25 x 103 / 1000 x 180 = 0.7 Soln: Based on yield line theory for orthotropically reinforced slab fixed along long edges of S. the ultimate mum M is 16 . Design a rectangular slab of size 5m x 4m which is fixed along the long edges of S.2 x 0.C lonser direction Ast µ Ast = 0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 For 10mm φ mm bar Provide 10mm φ @ 170 mm C.75 x 452.26 = 339.

Depth d = 150 mm Effective cover = 20 mm Overall depth D = 170 mm Load calculation: Self wt of slab = .75 KN/m2 W = 9 KN/m2 For 1 m strip.5 x 9 = 13.85 Provide eff.17 x 25 = 4.5µ + − 4α 2 2α Assume L/d = 28 4000 / d = 28 D = 142. W = 9 KN/m Wu = 1.25 KN/m2 L.0.5 KN/m2 16 .IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 M = Wulx2 / 24 = tan 2 µ tan φ = µ2 µ 1.L = 4 KN/m2 Floor finish = 0.

804 M = 8.5 (0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Α = 4/5 = 0.7 (156.86 mm2 Ast provided in Longer direction = µ Ast = 0. Check for shear 14 .311 x 103 = 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 150 415 Ast 1 − 20 x 1000 x 150 Ast = 156.86) = 109.8 Ast min = 0.12% to D = 0.12 / 100 x 1000 x 170 Ast = 204 mm2 Provide Ast = 204 mm2 For 8 mm φ .8 Tan φ = 1.7) Tan = 0.87 fy Ast x d 8.311 KNm M = 0. spacking = 1000 x π x 10 2 4 = 246 204 Provide 8 mm @ 240 mm c/c.

26 x 0.5 x 4 /2 = 27KN τ v= Vu bd Rf = WuL 13.5 x 4 = = 27 KN 2 2 τ c = 0.5 m use M20 concrete of Fe 415 steel Soln: D = 12.28 = 0.5 m Rise = 12.5/2)2 16 .IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 v = Vu/bd Vu = WuL/ 2 = 13.5)2 + (12.28 N/mm2 c1 = K τ c = 1.3528 N/mm2 v < c1 Hence section is safe in shear Design a doom for a cylindered water tank of diameter 12.5m R2 = (R – r)2 + (D/2)2 R2 = (R – 2.5/5 = 2.

8 = 90.3 162 πx 4 Provide 4 nos of 16 mm bar Size of ring beam is based on tensile stress of concrete ct = Ft / Act (m-1) Ast 2.5 KN/m2 Ast = HZo comp 90. no of bars = 603.50 x 103 / AC + (13.06 m Cos θ = 0.3 14 .5 KN/m2 Live load = 2 W = 4.724 The done is subjected to meridonial thorust and hoof force for which the stress should be within permissible compressive strength of concrete Assume thickness of slab.1 = 2.38mm3 σ st 150 Assume 16mm .33-1) 603.5 x 103 = = 603.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 R = 9. t = 100 mm Loadings on slab: Self wt = 25 x 0.

R = 1. T min = 30 (4) + 50 = 170 mm Provide a thickness of 170 mm Non – dimensional parameter = 42 ( 4)2 = = 8.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Ac = 24886.84.28 Provide diameter d = 115. permissible stresses σ came σ Soln:Capacity 4 x 105 lr = 400 m3 Ht = 4m Volume πd 2 x4 4 400 x 4 = d2 πx 4 cbc st = 150 N/mm2 for M20 = 7 N/mm2.16 d = 11.4 mm2 Provide ring beam of size 160 x 160 mm Design a water tank for field base condition for a capacities of 4 lakh litres height of tanks is 4m.m Thickness of tank based on emtiral relation.79 Hoop tension devolor on the 10 all = T = co-efficient WH D/2 16 .18 Dt 11 . j = 0.5 x 0.

ett Dt 8 = 0.M = -8.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 BM develop along the W911.0143 x 9.18 0.577 x 9.18 KN Co – efficient for max B.M is taken from table to of IS 3370 (Part IV) 8 0.18 the co-efficient for hoof tension is actions it 0.64 ∴ mass – hoop tension.18 – 0.81 x 4 x 11.04 (at Base) Moment = Co.575 10 – 0.577 H2 = C.0123 8.0146 10 0.81 x 43 B.0148 Co. T = 0.608 8.97 KNm Transverse Reinforcement: 16 .efficient of max B. efficient x WH3 = -0.577 For H2 Dt of 8.5/2 T = 130.M – 0. Co-eff x WH3 Reborins tasie 9 of SI = 3370 (Pert IV) Co-efficient for m x m hoof tension = 0.0143 actions at 1.

d = 8.55 mm 2 150 x 0.84 x 127 15 .93 mm << 127 m Rb 1.86 mm2 For 16 mm φ S = π x 16 2 1000 x 4 = 231 .97 KN m by working shows mif Ast = M σst sd Min – depth.The vertical reinforcement tension for the max.16 x 1000 Overall depth of wan.c Vertical Steel:.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Ast = H t 130.97 x 106 M = = 87.18 x 108 = σ st 150 Ast = 867.8 8. BM 0.69 mm 867.8 ∴ Provide 16 mm φ @ 230 mm c/c Adopt 12 mm φ @ 130 mm c. thickness = 170 mm Adopiting a clear cover of 25 mm D = 170 – 25 – 12/2 – 12 D = 127 mm Ast = 8.97 x 10 6 = 560 .

70 mm 450 Provide 8 mm @ 200 mm c/c both base along both faces.3 x 1000 x 150 = 450 mm 2 100 For 8 mm.5m use M20 concrete of Fe – 415 steel. Design constant j = 0. Provide haunch of side 150 x 150 mm with min.77 mm 560.3 % C. Design of base slab: Assume 150 mm thick base slab. reinforcement Ast min = 0.053 R = 1.5 ∴ Provide 12 mm @ 200 mm c/c.32 15 . S = π x 82 1000 x 4 =111. provide 0. S = π x 12 2 1000 x 4 = 201.S = ***** Ast min = 510 mm2 < Ast rerd. Min. Ast = 0. steel of 8 mm @ 200 mm C/C along the face of the haunch Figure **** TUTORIAL Design a rectangular water tanks of size 4m x 7m with height 3.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 For 12mm.3% of C/S as reinforcement along both the faces.

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Soln:L x B 7m x 4m L/B = 7/4 = 1.75 x2 H = 3.5 m h = H/4 or 1 = 3.5 = 0.875 or 1m 4

h=1m P = p (H-h) = 9.81 (3.5 – 7) P = 24.53 KN/m2 To find the final moment at the junction of lons will & short will based on the FEM & D.F. Moment distribution is done For any joint, D.F =

D.F =

I 1 / L1 I1 I 2 + L1 L 2

FEM MFAB =

PB 2 24.53 x 4 2 = = 32.70 KNm 12 12

MFAD =

82 2 24.53 x 7 2 = = 100.16 KNm 12 12

D.F Jo int

A

Member AB

AD

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

D.F

I1 / L1 I1 I 2 + L1 L2

= 0.611 1/ 7 = 0.36 1 1 + 4 7

I 2 / L2 I1 I 2 + L1 L2

1/ 4 1 1 + 4 7

Joint A D.F FIM B.M Total Fixed B.M is 75.88 KNm Free B.M (For B.M) a) Along shorter direction = AB

Member AD 0.36 100.16 -24.28 75.88 KNm

0.64 -32.70 -43.17 -75.87 KNm

PB 2 24.53 x 4 2 = = 49.06 KNm 8 8

b) Longer direction =

PL2 24.53 x 7 2 = = 150.24 KNm 8 8

resultant B.M at the mid span is a) Short will == -75.88 to 49.06 = -26.82 KNm b) Long will = -75.88 + 150.24 = 74.36 KNm At support = 75.88 KNm The will is design for me max B.M of for

14

**IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 M max = 75.88 KNm Reinforcement details: Ast L =
**

M − PL x P + 2 σst id σst

Ast B =

M − Pb x P + B σst id σst

PL = P x B/2 = 24.53 x 4/2 = 49.06 KN PB = P x L/2 = 24.53 x 7/2 = 85.86 KN X = D/2 – eff.cover Providing a clear cover of 25 mm of bar 10 φ mm Eff.cover = 25 x 10/2 = 30 mm d=

**75.88 106 M = = 239.75mm Rb 1.32 x 1000
**

provide d = 240 mm overall depth, D = 240 + 30 = 270 mm

∴

thickness of will is 270 mm

X= 270 − 30 2 X = 105 mm

14

06 x 10 3 + 150 x 0.853 x 240 150 Ast 8 = 2749. the reinforcement is placed alogn both forces.43 mm 2630 .IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Ast L = 75.86 x 10 3 x 105 85. S = π x 20 2 1000 x 4 = 119 .88 x 10 6 − 85.33 ∴ Provide 20 mm φ @ 110 mm c/c Since the thickness is greater than 200mm.86 x 10 3 x 105 49.5 x 2 2 = 6 6 M = 5.21 x 3.853 x 240 150 Ast L = 2630.33 mm2 Ast B = 75.88 x 10 6 − 85. ∴ Along transverse direction (HZ) provide 20 mm φ @ 220mm c/c along both faces in the short well & long wall. moment develop is PHh 2 9.83 mm2 Provide 20mm φ bar.723 KN-m 16 . Vertical Reinforcement For the cantilever action.86 x 10 3 + 150 x 0.

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Ast min:0.87 mm 677. Since it is resting on firm ground.7 mm2 For 10mm φ .251 x 1000 270 100 = 677. Design of Base slab:Assuming a thickness of 150 mm min.7 ∴ Provide 10mm @ 220 mm C/C as vertical reinforcement along both the faces the taks for long will and short will.3 % c/s for 100 mm of 0.2% C/S for 450 mm ∴ for 270 mm 0. slab is provided for the base slab.3 x 100 x 150 = 450mm 2 1000 For 8mm φ S = π x 82 1000 x 4 = 111 .251% C/S Ast min = 0.7 mm 450 = 450mm2 14 . Ast min = 0. S = π x 10 2 1000 x 4 = 115.

Figure ************** A straight staircase is made of structures independent tread slab cantilevered from the R.3m) i) self wt = 0.125 KN/m ii) floor finish = 0. Any live load for over crowing.C wall given riser is 150 mm and trend is 300mm.125 KN/m dead load = 1. design a typical cantilever tread slab.5 x 1. Use M20 concrete of Fe.46 KNm 2 Live load moment is a minimum of i) UDL due to live load on stair (for over providing case) WL = 5 KN/m2 ii) For cantilever tread slab the live load condition.15 x 25 x 0. is check for it load of 1.L = 13. 16 . Soln:Given R = 159 mm.3 = 1.5m. 250 steel.52 = 1.5 m M20 9 Fe 250 Loading on tread slab (0. T= 300 mm. w = 1. width if flight is 1.M D.305 KN/m B.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 ∴ Provide 8 mm φ @ 220 mm C/C along both ways along both faces Provide a layer of lean mix (M10) for a thickness of 75 mm below base slab.3 = 1.6 x 0.3 KN at tread.

41 = 5.5 = 1.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Figure ************* B.M LL = 1.87 fy Ast d f Ast 1 − y Fck td 5.5 = 3.12 x 106 – 0. d = 150 – 15 – 12/2 = 129 mm Mu = 0.52 x 1.46 + 19.5 x 3.5 2 B.M = 1.12 KNm Assume clear covet of 15 mm & 12mm bar.95 KN Maximum of B.73 mm2 n= Ast 194373 = 2 = 2. Factored B.M LL1 = 1.M LL2 = 1.D LL = 1.3 x 1.41 KNm.87 x 250 x Ast x 129 250 Ast 1 − 20 x 300 x 129 Ast = 194.9 KN m Total BM = BM DL + B.47 say 3 nos ast π x 10 4 provide 3 nos of 10 mm bar Distribution steel:- 14 .

5 x 1.5 x 4.959 KN V LL1 = 1.5 mm2 S= 1000 x π x 82 4 = 744 mm 67.168 N / mm 2 300 x 129 ∴ τ c = 0.15% & D = 0.5 Provide 8 mm @ 300 mm C/C Check for shear:τv = Vu bd Dead load V DL = 1.15 x 300 x 150 100 = 67.3 from table 16 .25 KN VLL2 = 1.958 = 4.5 = 1.5 = 2.31 x 10 = 0.31 KN v = 6.48 N/mm2 K = 1.3.25 KN Total Vu = 2.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Ast min = 0.25 + 1.5 x 1.208 KN Factored Vu = 1.3 KN Max VLL 2.208 = 6..

624 N/mm2 τ τ c 2.5m above g. Thickness of toe slab = 8% of 9 m = 0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Tc1 = K Tc = 1.3 x 0.87 x 250 = = 453 . 16 .5 + 1.4 N/mm2 x c x τ c v mm Hence safe in shear Ld = φ σ3 10 x 0.L on the toe side.15 mm 4 τ bd 4 x 1. Assume good soil for the foundation at a desm of 1.45m ** 0. The angle of internal friction is = 300 the co-efficient of friction b/w the soil and concrete is 0.2 Design a suitable countertor reintaining way to support a leveled back till of height 7.48 = 0.72 m.5 use M25 concrete and Fe 415 steel.5.5 = 9m Thickness of had and stem = 5% of 9m = 0.5m below G.8/2 = 1.5 m Height of wall = 7. Soln:Figure ************** Minimum depth of foundation = *** = *** Depth of foundation = 1.L the SBC of soil is 170 KN/m2 with unit weight as 16KN/m3.

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