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Rc Element Structures

# Rc Element Structures

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# IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Determine the suitable dimension of the cantilever retaining wall
which is required to support the bank of earth 4m height above. G.L. on
the toe side of the wall considered the back fill surface to the inclined at
an angle of 15
o
Assume good soil for foundation at a depth of 1.25m
below G.L SBC – 160 KN/m
2
. Further assume the back fill to comprise of
granular soil with unit wt 16KN/m
3
and an ansle of shearing resistance of
30
o
. Assume co-efficient of friction b/w. soil and concrete is 0.5. Pa is the
active earth pressure exerted by the retain earth on the wall.
Solution : (both wan & the earth move in the same direction)
 = 30
o
, SBC = 160 KN/m
2
,
 = 16 KN/m
3
, μ= 0.5
Rankine’s min depth of foundation,
dmin =
2
sin 1
sin 1 SBC

,
_

¸
¸
φ +
φ −
γ
=
2
o
o
30 sin 1
30 sin 1
16
160

,
_

¸
¸
+

= 1.11m 1.25m
Thickness of base slab h/12
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
=
12
25 . 5
= 0.4375
Assume the top tk of stem as 150mm thickness of stem tappers from
450mm from bottom & 150mm to top.
L
min
=
R
1
h
3
Ca
α

,
_

¸
¸

Co-efficient of active earth pressure
C
a
=
θ
1
1
]
1

¸

φ − θ + θ
φ − θ − θ
Cos
Cos Cos Cos
Cos Cos Cos
2 2
2 2
=
1
o 2 o 2 o
o 2 o 2 o
Cos
30 Cos 15 Cos 15 Cos
30 Cos 15 Cos 15 Cos
1
1
]
1

¸

− +
− −
= Ca = 0.373
Cp =
o
o
30 sin 1
30 sin 1
sin 1
sin 1

+
·
φ −
φ +
= 3
Assuming surcharge height of 0.4m at the end of heel slab.
h′
= 5.25 + 0.4
15
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
h′
= 5.65 m
Assuming the trapezoidal below the base slab.
α
R
= 0.67
Lmin =
Lmin = 2.97 m
Provide base slab width of 3m
Width of heel slab is X
min
= L
min
x α
R
= 3 x 0.67 = 2m
The preliminary proportion is shown in fissure
For the assumed proportions the retaining wall is check for stability
against overturning and sliding
Force
ID
Force (KN) Distance from
heel (m)
Moment
KNm
W1 ½ x 1.85 x 0.5 x 16 = 7.44 1/3 x 1.85 =
0.616
4.583
W2 1.85x 5 x 25 – 0.45 x 16 =
142.08
½ (1.85) =
0.925
131.424
W3 0.15 x 4.8 x 25 = 18 1.85 + 0.15/2 =
1.925
34.65
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
W4 ½ x (0.450 – 0.15) x 4.8 x
(25 – 16) = 6.48
1.85 – 1/3
(0.30) = 1.75
11.34
Pa sin 98.65 sin 15
o
= 25.53
Pa = Ca γ e x 4/2
= 0.373 x 16 x
2
2
75 . 5

,
_

¸
¸
Pa = 98.65KN
The resultant of the vertical of lies at a distance of Xw from the h
end
X
4
=
W
MW
=
28 . 283
62 . 232
= 0.99m
Check for over turning moment
FoSo = > 1.4
For retaining wall with sloping back fi
Mo = Pa cos θ x h
1
/3 = 98.65 Cos 15
o
x 5.75 / 5
Mo = 182.63 KNm
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
M
r
= W (L. x W) + Pa Sin θ (L)
= 233.28 (3 – 0.99) + 98.65 sin 15
o
= 545.5
Foso =
63 . 182
5 . 545 x 9 . 0
=2.68 > 1.4
Check for sliding
Fos sliding =
θ Cos Pa
F 9 . 0
F = μR = 0.5 x 232.28
= 116.64 KN
Fos sliding =
o
15 Cos Pa
64 . 116 x 9 . 0
= 1.10 < 1.4
Hence the section is not safe is sliding
The shear key is required to resist sliding
Assume shear key of size 300 x 300mm at a distance of 1.3m from the
too as shown in figure.
Figue***
15
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Tan 30
o
=
3 . 1
x
x = 0.75m
h1 = 1.25 - 0.3 + 0.8 = 1.25m
h2 = 1.25 + 0.75 = 2m
Ppe = Cp pe
( )
2
1
2
2
h h −
= 3 x
2
) ) 25 . 1 ( ) 2 (( 16
2 2

Pps = 58.5KN
Fos s =
o
ps
15 cos 65 . 98
P F 9 . 0 +
=
o
15 cos 65 . 98
5 . 58 ) 64 . 116 ( F 9 . 0 +
= 1.71 > 1.4
Hence the section is safe against sliding.
Soil pressure from the supporting soil on base slab :
15
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
The distribution of soil pressure from the base is trapezoida in
nature. Maximum pressure at one end is
q
max
=
L
R

,
_

¸
¸
+
L
e 6
1
and min-pressure is
q
min
=

,
_

¸
¸

L
e 6
1
L
R
(where qmax is direct stress + Bending stress
qmin is direct stress – bending stress)
here the eccentricity ‘e’ is given by
e = L
R
– L/2
where L
R
= The distance of R from the heel slab
L
R
= (M
o
+ Mw) /R
=
38 . 233
) 62 . 232 63 . 182 ( +
LR = 1.78m
E = 1.78 – (3/2) = 0.28m
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
q
max
=

,
_

¸
¸
+
3
) 28 . 0 ( 6
1
3
28 . 233
= 121.30KN/m
2
α SBC
qmin =

,
_

¸
¸

3
) 28 . 0 ( 6
1
3
28 . 233
34.21 > 0 KN/m
2
Hence pressure is within the limits.
Figure***
Design of Toe slab :
Fig***
The toe slab is design for a UD of 92.36
The Toe slab is design as cantilever
Assume the clear cover as 75mm for base slab and bar dia of 16mm
Eff. Depth, d = D – clear cover - φ /2
= 450 – 75 – 16/2
d = 367mm
The max. B.M at the rear face of the stem is
M = 92.36 x 1 x ½ + (½ x 1 x 28.96)
15
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
M = 55.82 KNm
The ma. Shear force occurs at the distance of ‘d’ from the face of the
stear.
V = ½ x 1 (92.36 + 121.3) x (1-0.367)
V = 67.62 KN
Factored B.M = 1.5 x 55.82
Mu = 83.73 KNm
Factored shear force, Vu = 1.5 x 67.62
Vu = 101.43 KN
Mu = 0.87fy Ast (d – 0.47
fck 36 . 0
Ast fy 87 . 0
)
83.73 x 10
6
= 0.87 x 415 x Ast (367 - 0.42

,
_

¸
¸
1000 x 20 x 36 . 0
Ast fy 87 . 0
Ast = 656.44mm
2
S =
Ast
ast 1000

14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
=
Ast
4
) 16 ( x
x 1000
2
π
S = 306.19 mm
Refer table 2 in slab for M20 p fe 415 stal
Provide 16mm @ 300mm c/c.
Check for shear
Design of heel slab :
M = 34.3 x 1.55 x
2
55 . 1
½ x 1.55 x 47.89 x 1/3 x 1.55
M = 60.37 KNm
V = ½ (82.19 + 34.3) (1.55 – 0.367)
V = 68.90KN
Mu = 1.5 x 60.37 = 90.55 KNm
Vu = 1.5 x 68.90 = 103.35 KN
Mu = 0.87fy Ast d

,
_

¸
¸

bd fck 36 . 0
Ast fy
1
15
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
90.55 x 10
6
= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 367

,
_

¸
¸

367 x 1000 x 20
Ast 415
1
Ast = 712.03mm
2
S =
08 . 712
4
16 x
x 1000
2
π

S = 282.37mm
Provide 16mm @ 280mm c/c
Development length :
The main reinforcement to be developed into the fixed support for
a length of
Ld =
bd
s

σ φ
=
6 . 1 x 2 . 1 x 4
415 x 87 . 0 x 16
Ld = 752.18 mm
Check for shear
15
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
τ
v
=
367 x 1000
10 x 35 . 103
bd
vu
3
·
= 0.281 N/mm
2
P
t
=
367 x 1000
03 . 712 x 100
bd
Ast 100
·
= 0.194%

c
= 0.315 N/mm
2
τ v < τ c
Hence section is safe in shear
Distribution steel :
Ast min = 0.12 c/s is provided along the transverse direction of the
base slab.
Ast min = 0.12 bd = 0.12 x 1000 x 150
= 540.0 mm
2
S =
540
4
10 x
x 1000
2
π

= 145.44mm
Provide 10mm @ 140mm c/c
Design of stem
15
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Stem is designed as a cantilever slab for a height of 4800mm (5250
- ) The max. moment on cantilever slab in head stem is
M = C a h3/6
Assume clear cover of 50mm, bar of 16mm
d = 450 – 50 – 16/2 = 392mm
M = 0.373 x 16 x = 110KNm
The maximum shear force at ‘d’ from compound base slab is
V = Caγ Z2/2 where Z = 4.8 – 0.45 = 4.35m
V = 0.373 x 16 x (4.35/2)2
V = 56.46. KN
Mu = 1.5 x 110 = 165KNm
Vu = 1.5 x 56.46 = 84.69 KN
Mu = 0.87 fy Ast d

,
_

¸
¸

bd
fck
Ast fy
1
165 x 10
6
= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 312

,
_

¸
¸

312 x 1000 x 20
Ast 415
1
Ast = 1248.30mm
2
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
S = 161.06mm
Provide 16mm φ @ 160mm c/c.
Check for shear
v =
312 x 1000
10 x 67 . 84
bd
Vu
3
·
= 0.216 N/mm
2
Pt =
392 x 1000
3 . 1248 x 100
bd
Ast 100
·
= 0.318
C = 0.392 N/mm
2

v
< 
c
Hence section is safe in slab.
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Design of heel slab :
Wt from backfill = 16(5.25 – 0.45) = 76.8
Self wt of heel slab 25 (0.45) = 11.25 Kn
= 88.05 Kn
M = 5.86 x 1.55 x 1.55/2 +
½ (47.89) x 1.55 x 2/3 (1.55)
M = 45.39 KNm
V = ½ (5.86 + 53.75) (1.53 – 0.367) 5.86
V = 35.25 KN
Mu = 1.5 (45.39) = 68.08 KNm
Vu = 1.5 x 56.463 = 84.69 KN
Mu = 0.87 fy Ast. d (1-
3 x 1000 x 20
Ast 415
)
S =
65 . 529
4
12 x
x 1000
2
π
S = 213.53mm
15
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Provide 12mm @ 210mm c/c.
Provide distribution steel 10mm @ 160mm c/c. in the base slab as well as
along the transverse direction for the steam in the rear face. Also provide
distasted for the front face of the stem along both direction as 10mm @
16mm c/c.
Reinforcement Details :
The main reinforcement in the stem can be curtailed at two places.
At ½ height (4/3m) half the reinforcement is curtail.
Provide 16mm @ 320mm c/c.
At 2/8 h

,
_

¸
¸
8 . 4 x
8
2
the reinforcement is reduced to half.
Provide 16mm @ 640mm c/c.
The distribution steel is also curtail in the similar method.
Design the cantilever retaining wall to retain a level difference of 4m.
Good soil is available at a depth of 1.25m below G.L. The unit wt of soil
16KN/m3 and SBC of soil is 160KN/m
2
. The backfill is leveled one with
angle of internal friction φ = 30
o
.
Soln :
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Height of wall above G.L= 4m
Good soil depth below G.L. = 1.25m
Unit wt of soil = 16 Kn/m
3
SBC = 160KN/m
2
 = 30
Rankine’s min depth of foundation.
dmin =
2
sin 1
sin 1 SBC

,
_

¸
¸
θ +
θ −
γ
=
2
o
o
30 sin 1
30 sin 1
16
160

,
_

¸
¸
+

= 1.11m  1.25
Earth pressure co-efficient
Ca =
θ +
θ −
sin 1
sin 1
=
o
o
30 sin 1
30 sin 1
+

= 0.333
Cp =
θ +
θ −
sin 1
sin 1
=
o
o
30 sin 1
30 sin 1
+

= 3
15
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Thickness of base slab =
12
25 . 5
12
h
·
= 0.4375 = 0.45m
Assume top width of wall as 150mm & tk of stem tappers from 450mm to
150mm
L
min
=

,
_

¸
¸
3
Ca
R
h
α
Assuming the trapezoidal sters below the base slab
R
= 0.67
L
min
=

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
67 . 0
25 . 5
3
333 . 0
= 2.610m
Provide base slab width of 3m
Width of heel slab is X
min
= L
min
x α
R
= 3.0 x 0.67
= 2.01
= 2m
The preliminary proportions is shown in figure.
15
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
For the assumed proportions the retaining is check for stability against
overturning (s)
P
a
= Ca e x
2
2
) h (

,
_

¸
¸
= 0.333 x 16 x

,
_

¸
¸
2
) 25 . 5 (
2
P
a
= 73.43 Kn
Force
ID
Force (KN) Distance from
heel (m)
Moment
KNm
W1 ½ x 1.85 x 0.45 x 16 =
142.08
1/2 x 1.85 =
0.925
181.42
W2 0.15 x (5.25 – 0.45) x 25 =
18
1.85 +

,
_

¸
¸
2
15 . 0
=
1.925
34.65
W3 ½ x (0.45 – 0.15) x 4.8 x
(25-16) = 6.48
1.85 – 1/3(0.3)
= 1.75 3/2
11.35
W4 3 x 0.45 x 25 = 33.75 3/2 = 1.5 50.625
W = 200.31KN M = 228.045 KNm
The resistant of vertical forces lies at a the of x 01 from the heel end.
X
4
=
31 . 200
045 . 228
W
Mw
·
= 1.188m
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Check for overturning moment :
Foso =
Mo
Mr 9 . 0
Mo = Pa cos θ x h
1
/3 = 73.43

,
_

¸
¸
3
25 . 5
Mo = 128.50 KNm
M
r
= W (L. x W) + Pa Sin (L)
= 200.31 (3 – 1.138)
= 372.97KNm
Foso =
50 . 128
97 . 372 x 9 . 0
=2.61 > 1.4
Check for sliding
Fos sliding =
θ Cos Pa
F 9 . 0
F = μR = 0.5 x 200.31
= 100.155 KN
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Fos sliding =
43 . 73
155 . 100 x 9 . 0
= 1.22 < 1.4
Hence the section is not safe is sliding
The shear key is required to resist sliding
Assume shear key of size 300 x 300mm at a distance of 1.3m from the
too as shown in figure.
Figue***
Tan 30
o
=
3 . 1
x
x = 0.75m
h1 = 1.25 - 0.3 + 0.8 = 1.25m
h2 = 1.25 - 0.3 + 0.3 + 0.75 = 1.25m
Ppe = Cp e
( )
2
1
2
2
h h −
= 3 x
2
) ) 25 . 1 ( ) 2 (( 16
2 2

Pps = 58.5KN
15
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Fos s =
θ
+
cos 65 . 98
P F 9 . 0
ps
=
43 . 73
5 . 58 ) 155 . 100 ( F 9 . 0 +
= 2.02 > 1.4
Hence the section is safe against sliding.
Soil pressure from the supporting soil on base slab :
The distribution of soil pressure from the base is trapezoida in
nature. Maximum pressure at one end is
q
max
=
L
R

,
_

¸
¸
+
L
e 6
1
and min-pressure is
q
min
=

,
_

¸
¸

L
e 6
1
L
R
here the eccentricity ‘e’ is given by
e = L
R
– L/2
where L
R
= The distance of R from the heel slab
15
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
L
R
= (M
o
+ Mw) /R
=
31 . 200
) 04 . 228 5 . 128 ( +
L
R
= 1.78m
e = 1.78 – (3/2) = 0.28m
q
max
=

,
_

¸
¸
+
3
) 28 . 0 ( 6
1
3
31 . 200
= 104.16KN/m
2
α 160
q
min
=

,
_

¸
¸

3
) 28 . 0 ( 6
1
3
28 . 233
29.37 Kn/m
2
> 0
Hence pressure is within the limits.
Figure***
Design of Toe slab :
Fig***
2
x
3
79 . 74
1
·
X = 49.86KN/m
2
15
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
55 . 1
x
3
79 . 74
·
X = 38.64 KN/m
2
The Toe slab is design for a UDL ofas cantilever beam
Assume the clear cover as 75mm for base slab and bar dia of 16mm
Eff. Depth, d = D – clear cover - φ /2
= 450 – 75 – 16/2
d = 367mm
The max. B.M at the rear face of the stem is
M = 79.23 x 1 x ½ + (½ x 1 x 21.93) x 2/3
M = 47.925 KNm
The ma. Shear force occurs at the distance of ‘d’ from the face of the
stear.
V = ½ x 1 (79.23 + 104.16) x (1-0.367)
V = 58.04 KN
Factored B.M = 1.5 x 47.92
Mu = 71.85 KNm
Factored shear force, Vu = 1.5 x 58.04
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Vu = 87.06 KN
Mu = 0.87fy Ast (1 -
fck
Ast fy
)
71.88 x 10
6
= 0.87 x 415 x Ast (367)

,
_

¸
¸

367 x 1000 x 20
Ast 415
1
Ast = 560.21mm
2
S =
Ast
ast 1000

=
21 . 560
4
) 12 ( x
x 1000
2
π
S = 201.80 mm
Provide 12mm @ 200mm c/c.
Check for shear
v
=
367 x 1000
10 x 06 . 87
bd
Vu
3
·
= 0.237 N/mm
2
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Pf =
367 x 1000
21 . 560 x 100
bd
Ast 100
·
= 0.152%

c
= 0.2816N/mm
2
τ
v
= 
c
.
Hence section is safe in shear.
Design of heel slab :
Wt from back fill = 16(5.25 – 0.45) = 76.8 Kn
Self wt of heel slab = 25 (0.45) = 11.25 KN/m
2
88.05 Kn/m
2
M = (20.04 x 1.55) x
2
55 . 1
½ x 1.55 x 38.68 x 2/3 x 1.55
M = 55.04 KNm
Mu = 1.5 (55.04) = 82.56 KNm
V = ½ (20.04 + 58.68) (1.55 – 0.367)
V = 46.56KN
Vu = 1.5 x (46.56) = 69.84 KNm
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Mu = 0.87fy Ast d

,
_

¸
¸

bd fck 36 . 0
Ast fy
1
82.56 x 10
6
= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 367

,
_

¸
¸

367 x 1000 x 20
Ast 415
1
Ast = 646.71mm
2
S =
71 . 646
4
16 x
x 1000
2
π

S = 174.85mm
Provide 12mm @ 170mm c/c
Distribution steel
Ast(min) = 0.12% bd
=
450 x 1000 x
100
12 . 0
= 540mm
2
S =
540
4
) 0 ( x
x 1000
2
π
= 145.44mm
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Provide 10mm @ 140mm c/c.
Design of Stem :
Stem is designed as cantilever slab for a height of 5.25 – 0.45 =
4.8m
The max. moment on cantilever slab in the head stem is
M = Caγ h
3
/6
= 0.833 x 16 x
4
) 8 . 4 (
3
M = 98.20 Knm
Assume 50mm cover & 16mm  bar
d = 450 – 50 – 16/2 = 392mm
Max. shear force at ‘d’ from compound slab is
V = Caγ Z
2
/2 Z = 4.8 – 0.45 – 4.3
V = 0.833 x 16 x
2
) 35 . 4 (
2
V = 50.40 KN
Mu = 1.5 x 98.20 = 147.3 Knm
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Vu = 1.5(50.40) = 75.6 KN
147.3 x 10
6
= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 392
1000 x 20
Ast 415
1 −
Ast = 1105.44mm
2
S =
44 . 1105
4
16 x
x 1000
2
π
= 181.88mm
Provide 16mm @ 180mm c/c.
Check for shear
τ
v
=
392 x 1000
10 x 6 . 75
bd
vu
3
·
= 0.192 N/mm
2
P
t
=
392 x 1000
44 . 1105 x 100
bd
Ast 100
·
= 0.282%
τ
c
= 0.375 N/mm
2
τ v < τ c
Hence section is safe in shear
Reinforcement details :
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Figure***
L
d
=
6 . 1 x 2 . 1 x 4
415 x 87 . 0 x 16
4
0
bd
·
τ
σ φ
= 752mm = 750mm
Design a suitable counterfort retaining wall to support a leveled back fill
of height 7.5m above g.l on the toe side. Assume good soil for the
foundation at a design of 1.5m below G.L. The SBC of soil is 170KN/m2
with unit weight as 16KN/m
3
. The angle of internal friction is = 30
o
. The
co-efficient of friction below the soil and concrete is 0.5 use M25
concrete and Fe415 steel.
Figure ****
Soln :
Minimum depth of foundation =
2
sin 1
sin 1 P

,
_

¸
¸
θ +
θ −
γ
=
2
o
o
30 sin 1
30 sin 1
16
170

,
_

¸
¸
+

= 1.180m < 1.5m
Depth of foundation = 1.5m
Height of wall = 7.5 + 1.5 = 9m
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Thickness of heel & stem = 5% of 9m = 0.45m = 0.5m
Thickness of toe slab = 6% of 9m = 0.54m
Stability Conditions :
Earth pressure calculations :
Force
ID
Force (KN) Distance from
heel (m)
Moment
KNm
W1 16(7.5+1.5 – 0.5) x 2.5 =
340
(3-0.5)/2 =
1.25
425
W2 25(0.5)(9-0.5) = 106.25 0.5/2 + 2.5 =
2.75
292.18
W3 25(0.5)x3 = 37.5 1.5 56.25
W4 25(1.5) (0.72) = 27 1.5/2+3=3.75 101.25
Total W=510.75 KN MH = 874.69
The resistant of vertical forces lies at a the of x 01 from the heel end.
X
W
=
75 . 510
69 . 874
W
Mw
·
= 1.713m
Check for overturning moment :
Foso =
Mo
Mr 9 . 0
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Mo = Pa cos θ x h
1
/3 = 0.333 x 16 x

,
_

¸
¸
6
9
3
Mo = 647.35 KNm
M
r
= W (L. x W) = W = 510.75 (4.5 – 1.718)
= 1423.6KNm
Foso =
35 . 647
6 . 1423 x 9 . 0
=1.98 > 1.4
Hence, section is safe against overturning.
Check for sliding
Fos sliding =
θ Cos Pa
F 9 . 0
F = μR = 0.5 x 510.75
= 255.87 KN
P
a
= Ca e x
2
2
) h (

,
_

¸
¸
= 0.333 x 16 x

,
_

¸
¸
2
) 9 (
2
P
a
= 215.78 Kn
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Fos sliding =
78 . 215
) 37 . 255 ( x 9 . 0
= 1.065 < 1.4
Hence the section is not safe is sliding
The shear key is required to resist sliding
Base pressure calculation:
q
max
=
L
R

,
_

¸
¸
+
L
e 6
1

=

,
_

¸
¸
+
5 . 4
) 73 ( 6
1
4.5
510.75
= 223.97 KN/m
2
> SBC un safe
q
min
=
L
R

,
_

¸
¸
+
L
e 6
1

=

,
_

¸
¸
+
5 . 4
) 73 ( 6
1
4.5
510.75
= 3.02 Kn/m
2
> 0
Safe
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
where the eccentricity ‘e’ is given by
e = L
R
– L/2
where L
R
= The distance of R from the heel slab
L
R
= (M
o
+ Mw) /R
=
75 . 510
) 352 . 647 68 . 874 ( +
L
R
= 2.98m
e = 2.98 – (4.5/2) = 0.72 x 1/6 (0.75m)
Since maximum earth pressure is greater than SBC of soil, the
length of base slab has to increased preferably along the toe side. Increase
the toe slab by 0.5m in length.
EH = 510.75 + 0.5 x 25 x 0.72 = 519.75 KN
LR =
75 . 519
352 . 647 438 . 917
R
Mw) (Mo +
·
+
= 3.01m

M
Design of Toe slab :
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Fig***
2
x
3
79 . 74
1
·
X = 49.86KN/m
2
55 . 1
x
3
79 . 74
·
X = 38.64 KN/m
2
The Toe slab is design for a UDL ofas cantilever beam
Assume the clear cover as 75mm for base slab and bar dia of 16mm
Eff. Depth, d = D – clear cover - φ /2
= 450 – 75 – 16/2
d = 367mm
The max. B.M at the rear face of the stem is
M = 79.23 x 1 x ½ + (½ x 1 x 21.93) x 2/3
M = 47.925 KNm
The ma. Shear force occurs at the distance of ‘d’ from the face of the
stear.
V = ½ x 1 (79.23 + 104.16) x (1-0.367)
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
V = 58.04 KN
Factored B.M = 1.5 x 47.92
Mu = 71.85 KNm
Factored shear force, Vu = 1.5 x 58.04
Vu = 87.06 KN
Mu = 0.87fy Ast (1 -
fck
Ast fy
)
71.88 x 10
6
= 0.87 x 415 x Ast (367)

,
_

¸
¸

367 x 1000 x 20
Ast 415
1
Ast = 560.21mm
2
S =
Ast
ast 1000

=
21 . 560
4
) 12 ( x
x 1000
2
π
S = 201.80 mm
Provide 12mm @ 200mm c/c.
Check for shear
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

v
=
367 x 1000
10 x 06 . 87
bd
Vu
3
·
= 0.237 N/mm
2
Pf =
367 x 1000
21 . 560 x 100
bd
Ast 100
·
= 0.152%
τ
c
= 0.2816N/mm
2
τ
v
=
c
.
Hence section is safe in shear.
Design of heel slab :
Wt from back fill = 16(5.25 – 0.45) = 76.8 Kn
Self wt of heel slab = 25 (0.45) = 11.25 KN/m
2
88.05 Kn/m
2
M = (20.04 x 1.55) x
2
55 . 1
½ x 1.55 x 38.68 x 2/3 x 1.55
M = 55.04 KNm
Mu = 1.5 (55.04) = 82.56 KNm
V = ½ (20.04 + 58.68) (1.55 – 0.367)
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
V = 46.56KN
Vu = 1.5 x (46.56) = 69.84 KNm
Mu = 0.87fy Ast d

,
_

¸
¸

bd fck 36 . 0
Ast fy
1
82.56 x 10
6
= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 367

,
_

¸
¸

367 x 1000 x 20
Ast 415
1
Ast = 646.71mm
2
S =
71 . 646
4
16 x
x 1000
2
π

S = 174.85mm
Provide 12mm @ 170mm c/c
Distribution steel
Ast(min) = 0.12% bd
=
450 x 1000 x
100
12 . 0
= 540mm
2
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
S =
540
4
) 0 ( x
x 1000
2
π
= 145.44mm
Provide 10mm @ 140mm c/c.
Design of Stem :
Stem is designed as cantilever slab for a height of 5.25 – 0.45 =
4.8m
The max. moment on cantilever slab in the head stem is
M = Caγ h
3
/6
= 0.833 x 16 x
4
) 8 . 4 (
3
M = 98.20 KNm
Assume 50mm cover & 16mm φ bar
d = 450 – 50 – 16/2 = 392mm
Max. shear force at ‘d’ from compound slab is
V = Ca Z
2
/2 Z = 4.8 – 0.45 – 4.3
V = 0.833 x 16 x
2
) 35 . 4 (
2
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
V = 50.40 KN
Mu = 1.5 x 98.20 = 147.3 Knm
Vu = 1.5(50.40) = 75.6 KN
147.3 x 10
6
= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 392
1000 x 20
Ast 415
1 −
Ast = 1105.44mm
2
S =
44 . 1105
4
16 x
x 1000
2
π
= 181.88mm
Provide 16mm @ 180mm c/c.
Check for shear

v
=
392 x 1000
10 x 6 . 75
bd
vu
3
·
= 0.192 N/mm
2
P
t
=
392 x 1000
44 . 1105 x 100
bd
Ast 100
·
= 0.282%

c
= 0.375 N/mm
2
v < τ c
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Hence section is safe in shear
Reinforcement details :
Figure***
L
d
=
6 . 1 x 2 . 1 x 4
415 x 87 . 0 x 16
4
0
bd
·
τ
σ φ
= 752mm = 750mm
Design a suitable counterturn retaining way to support a leveled back fill
of height 7.5 m above g. L on the toe side. Assume good soil for the
foundation at a deim of 1.5 m below G. L. The SBC of soil is 170 KN/m2
with unit weight as 16 KN/m3. The angle of internal friction is φ = 300
the co-efficient of friction b/w the soil of concrete is 0.5 use M25
concrete of Fe 415 steel.
Soln:-
Figure *********
Minimum depth of foundation =
2
sin 1
sin 1 P

,
_

¸
¸
φ +
φ −
γ
=
m 5 . 1 m 180 . 1
30 sin 1
30 Sin 1
16
170
0
0
< ·
,
_

¸
¸
+

Depth of foundation = 1.5 m
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Height of wall = 7.5 + 1.5 = 9 m
Thickness of heal & stem = 5% of 9m =
Thickness of heal & stem = 5% of 9m = 0.45 m = 0.5
Thickness of toe slab – 8% of 9m = 0.72 m.
h
min
3
Ca
X

,
_

¸
¸
·
=
m 0 . 3 9
3
333 . 0
· <

,
_

¸
¸
L
min
= 1.5 x 3 = 4.5 m
Thickness of countertort = 6% of 9 m = 0.54 m
Stabiling conditions:
Earth pressure calculations:
Force IDforce (KN) Distance from heal (m) Moment
KNm
W
1
16 ( 7.5 + 1.5 – 0.5) x 2.5
= 340
(3 – 0.5)/2 = 1.25 425
W
2
25 (0.5) (9 – 0.5) =
106.25
0.5/2 + 2.5 = 2.75 292.18
W
3
25(0.5)x 3 = 37.5 1.5 56.25
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
W4 25 (1.5) (0.72) = 27 1.5/2 + 3 = 3.75 101.25
Total W = 510.75 KN M4 =
874.69
W = 25(0.3) x 0.75 = 9.00
X
W
=
m 713 . 1
75 . 510
69 . 874
·
= 1.713 m
Fos
(overturnis)
=
0
M
M 9 . 0
M
o
= Pa. h.3 = Caγ e. h
3
/6 = 0.333 x 16 x (9)
3
/6
= 647. 35 KNm
M
r
= (L – X
w
) w = 510.75 (4.5 – 1.713)
= 1423.6 KNm
Fos =
4 . 1 98 . 1
35 . 647
) 6 . 1423 ( 9 . 0
> ·
Hence section is safe against, overturnins.
Silding:-
Fos(sliding) =
θ PaCos
F 9 . 0
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
F = R = 0.5 x 510.75 = 255.37
Pa = Ca. γ e. h2/2 = 0.383 x 16 x (9)2/2
= 215.78
Fos sliding = 0.9 (255.37) / 215.75 = 1.065m < 1.4
Hence the section is not safe against sliding.
Base pressure calculation:
9 mas =

,
_

¸
¸
+ ·

,
_

¸
¸
+
5 . 4
) 73 . 0 ( 6
1
5 . 4
75 . 510
L
60
1
L
R
= 223.97 KN/m
2
> SBC unsafe
Qmin =

,
_

¸
¸
+ ·

,
_

¸
¸
5 . 4
) 73 . 0 ( 6
1
5 . 4
75 . 510
L
e 6
14
L
R
= 3.02 w/m
2
> 0 safe
Where, LR =
where 2 / L LR C
R
M M
0 h
− · ·
+
LR =
m 98 . 2
75 . 510
352 . 647 688 . 874
·
+
e = 2.98 – 4.5/2 = 0.78 < L/L (0.75mm)
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Since maximum earth pressure is stresses then SBC of sol, the
length of base slab has to b. increased praberables along the toe side.
Increase the toe slab by 0.5m in length.
w = 510.75 + 0.5 x 25 x 0.72 = 519.75 KN
Figure **********
Moment = 0.5/2 + 4.5 = 4.75m
Σ m = 874.69 + 42.75 = 917.44 KNm
LR=
m 01 . 3
75 . 519
352 . 647 x 438 . 417
R
) M M (
W 0
· ·
+
e = LR – L/2 = 30.11 – 5/2 = 0.511 m < L/6 (0.833m)
q
max
=

,
_

¸
¸
+ ·

,
_

¸
¸
+
0 . 5
m 5 . 0 x 6
1
0 . 5
75 . 519
L
e 6
1
L
R
= 167.69 KN/m
2
< SBC
Q
min
=

,
_

¸
¸

L
e 6
1
L
R
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
=

,
_

¸
¸

5
) 511 . 0 ( 6
1
5
75 . 519
Q
min
= 40.20 KN/m
2
> 0
FOS siliding =
784 . 215
75 . 519 x 5 . 0 x 9 . 0
Pa
F 9 . 0
·
= 1.082 < 1.4
Hence the section is not slab against sliding.
Shear they is provided to resist sliding. Assume shear they of size
300 x 300 mm
Figure *********
tan 300 =
2400
L
x = 1.385 = 1.39 m
P
Pb
= Cp. Re

,
_

¸
¸

2
h h
2
1
2
2
h
2
= 1.39 + 1.2 = 2.89m
h
1
= 1.2 + 0 = 1.2m
15
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Meridonial thrust T =
30 . 1 1
WR
+
=
724 . 0 1
06 . 9 x 5 . 4
+
T = 23.64 KN
Meridonial stress
100 x 1000
10 x 64 . 23
s / c
T
3
·
= 0.2364 N/mm2 x 7 N/mm
2
Hence the section is safe against meridonial stress.
Hoop stress:-
Hoop Stress =

,
_

¸
¸
ϑ +
− θ
cos 1
1
Cos
T
WR
=

,
_

¸
¸
+

721 . 0 1
1
724 . 0
64 . 23
06 . 9 x 5 . 4
= 0.248 N/mm
2
< 7 N/mm
2
Since the section is safe to resist meridonial thrust of hoop stress
the provided 100 mm thickness of sufficient.
15
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
A
st min
= 0.3 % of C/S
=
2
mm 300 100 x 1000 x
100
3 . 0
·
For 8mm φ spacing =
mm 5 . 167
300
4
8 x
x 1000
2
·
π

Provide 8 mm @ 160 mm c/c both way.
Design of Rin beam
The area of concrete received for the ring beam is bound for the
hoop stress and area of steel required is bound for the horizontal
component of meridmial thrust.
HZ component of Meridonial thrust = T Cos θ x D/2
= 23.64 x 0.724 x 12.5/2
= 106.97 KN
A
st
=
2
3
mm 13 . 713
150
10 x 97 . 106
·
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
For 16 mm φ , no. 08 bars =
4
16 x
13 . 713
2
π
= 3.54 say 4 nos
Size of rins beam is based on tensile stress of concrete
P
P8
= 3 x 16

,
_

¸
¸ −
2
) 2 . 1 ( ) 89 . 2 (
2 2
P
P8
= 165.89 KN/m2
FOS sliding =

,
_

¸
¸ −
2
) 2 . 1 ( ) 89 . 2 (
2 2
= 1.852 > 1.4
Hence section is safe against sliding.
Design of Toe slab:
Eff.Cover = 75 + 20/2 = 85 mm
Toe slab is designed similer to cantition and with maximum moment at
trust face of the size a maximum shear at ‘d’ for face it beam.
D = 720 – 85 = 635 mm
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
M =
2 x
3
2
x 94 . 49 x 2 x
2
1
2
2
x 38 . 80
2
+
= 227.35 KNm
S.F at 0.635 m =
KN 85 . 15 635 . 0 x
2
94 . 49
·
Area of tralizium = ½ x (a + b) h = ½ (130.82 + 95.98) (2 – 0.635)
= 154.44 KN
Factored S.F = 1.5 (154.44)
S.F Vu = 231.66 KN
Factored B.M, Mu = 1.5 (227.35) = 341.02 KNm
K =
845 . 0 845 . 0
635 x 1000
02 . 341
bd
M
2 2
u
· · ·
P
t
= 0.2445
C
t
=
100
635 x 1000 x 245 . 0
Ast
bd
Ast 100
· · >
A
st
= 1552.575 mm
2
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Spacing =
mm 50 . 129
575 . 1552
4
16 x
x 1000
2
·
π
Provide 16 mm  @ 125 mm C/C
Transerve Reinforcement = 0.12% of C/S
=
2
mm 864 720 x 1000 x
100
12 . 0
·
Spacing =
mm 90 . 90
864
4
10 x
x 1000
2
·
π

Provide 10 mm  @ 100 mm c/C
Check for shear :-
τ
v
=
2
3
u
mm / N 364 . 0
635 x 1000
10 x 66 . 231
bd
V
· ·
τ
c
\ 0.36 N/mm
2
τ
v
~ τ
c

The section is safe in shear
Design of heel slab
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
The had slab is designed by countention at regular interval. The
counterbant act as support and makes the had slab as one – way
continuous slab.
The heal slab is designed for a moment Wl2/l2 at the support &
Wl2/16 at the mid span. The maximum shear at the support is W **** the
maximum pressure at the best slab is consider for me design.
Moment at the support, M
Suf
=
12
2 . 3 x 92 . 106
12
Wl
2
·
= 111.65 KNm
Moment at the mid span, M
mid
=
KNm 72 . 83
16
Wl
2
·
The max pressure acting on the had slab is the as ‘W’ for which the A
st
required at mid span and support one found.
Factored M
sup
= 167.47 KNm  A
st
= 1172.69 mm
2
Factored M
midspan
= 125.58  A
st
= 868.27mm
Using 16 mm φ bar, spacing =
02 . 170
Ast
Ast 1000
·

Provide 16 mm @ 170 mm c/c.
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
At mid span, spacing = 231.72 mm  Provide 16mm @ 230 mm C/C.
Transverse reinforcement = 0.12% of Bd
=
2
mm 600 500 x 1000 x
100
12 . 0
·
For 8mm bar, spacing = 83.775 mm

Provided 8 mm @ 80mm c/c.
Check for shear:-
Maximum shear

,
_

¸
¸
− ·

,
_

¸
¸
− 415 . 0
2
5 . 2
107 d
2
l
W
Factored S.F = 217.47 KN = P
t
= 0.282
τ
v
= 0.624 N/mm
2
, τ
c
= 0.376 N/mm
2
, τ
cmax
= 3.1 N/mm
2
τ
v
> 
c

Depth has to be increased.
Design of stem
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
The stem is also designed as one – way continuous slab with
support moment
12
Wl
2
and midspan moment
16
Wl
2
For the negative moment at the support, reinforcement is provided at the
rear side & for positive moment at mid span, reinforcement is provided at
front base of the stem.
The maximum moment various beam a base
Intensitus of Ca γ e. h = 1/3 x 16 x (9 – 0.5)
= 45.33 KN/m
Mmid =
16
Wl
2
=
16
54 . 3 x 33 . 45 x 5 . 1
2
= 53.25 KNm (or) 307.04 KNm
Effective depth d = 500 – (50 + 20/2) = 440 mm
M support =
KNm 71
12
54 . 3 x 33 . 45 x 5 . 1
12
Wl
2 2
· ·
Ast at support = 454.73 spacing = 69 mm
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Provide 16 mm @ 300 mm C/C.
Ast at mid span = 339.54 mm
2
For 16 mm , spacing = 592.54 mm
Provide 16 mm @ 300 mm C.C
Max S.F = W

,
_

¸
¸
− d
2
l
= 60.28 KN
Factored S.F = 90.42 KN
Transverse reinforcement = 0.12 % of 6D
= 0.12/100 x 1000 x 440 = 528 m
For 8 mm , spacing = 95
8mm @ 90 mm C/C 8t = 0.134.
τ
v
= 0.205 N/mm
2
, τ
c
= 0.29 N/mm
2

v
< τ
c

Shear of safe.
Design of countertors:-
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
The countertort is desined as a cautilever beam whose depth is
equal to the length of the heal slab of the base is reduces to the thickness
of the stem at the top. Maximum moment at the base of coutnerfort.
Mmax = Ca γ e. h3/6 x Le
Where Le  C/C distance from counterforb
M
max
= 1932.5 KNm
Factored M
max
= 2898.75 KNm
A
st
= 2755.5 mm
2
No. of bars required =
4
25
x
5 . 2755
ast
Ast
2
π
·
= 5.61
Say n = 6 nos
The main reinforcement is provided along the slanting face of the
counterbort.
Cartailment of reinforcement:
Not all the 6 bars need to be taken to the for end
Three bars are taken straight to the entire span of the beam upto me hop
of the stem.
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
One bar is Cut al a distance of
2
2
1
5 . 8
h
n
1 n
·

, where n is the total no of
h
1
distance from top .
n = 6, γ = 6-1/6 = h12/8.52
h
1
= 7.72th (from bottom )
m 94 . 6
5 . 8
h
6
2 6
5 . 8
h
n
2 n
2
2
2
2
2
2
· ·

·> ·

The third part is cut at a distance of
) bottom From ( m 01 . 6 3 h ,
5 . 8
h
n
3 n
2
2
3
· ·

Vertical ties and horizontal ties are provided to connect the counter fort
with the item is the heal slab.
Design of horizontal ties:-
Closed stirrups are provided t, the vertical stem is the countertort.
Considering 1m strip, the tension resisted by reinforcement is given by
lateral pressure on the wall multiplied by contributing area.
T = C
α

e
.h
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Where A
st
=
fy 87 . 0
T
T = 1/3 x 16 x (9-0.5) x 3.54 = 160.48 KN
A
st
=
2
3
mm 72 . 666 ) 48 . 444 ( 5 . 1
415 x 87 . 0
5 . 1 x 10 x 48 . 160
· ·
For 10 mm φ spacing = 110 mm
Provide 10 mm @ 110 mm c/c closed stirrups as horizontal ties.
Design of vertical ties:-
The vertical stirrups connects the countertort and the heel slab
considering 1m strip, the tensile force is the product of the average
T = Avg 943.56 + 167) + Le = 266.49 KN
Factored T = 399.74 KN
A
st
= 1107.15 mm
2
. For 10mm , spacing = 70.93
Provide 10mm @ 70m c/c.
C/s of counter fort wall of midspan:
Reinforcement details of stem, toe slab of heel slab.
15
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Isotropicall reinforced – Squave slab – fixed on all edges – udl:-
External work done = W. S
W – load, S – virtual displacement
Internal work done = Σ Mθ = Σ m.lθ =
L
2 2 . L 2 . m ¬
I.W.D work done by positive yield line (ab, bc, cd, da) for
L
2
2 / L
1
· · θ
M
θ
= 4[W x L x 2/L] = 8m
Total I.W.D = 16m
E.W.D, Σ W.S = ½ x L x L/2 x W x ½ x (1) x 4 = Wl
2
/3
I.W.D = E.W.D
16m = WL2/3
M =
b 4
WL
2
M – Moment per metre length alms the rived line.
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Design a square slab fixed along as the bour edges, with side 5m. the slab
hase, to support a service load of hase to be support a service load of 4
KN.m
2
. use M
20
concrete and Fe 415 steel.
Soln:-
Side = L = 5m, All four edges fixed
Given
2
F
cx
= 20 N/mm
2
F
y
= 415 N/mm
2
As per yield line theory for isotrophic reinforced square slab fixed on all
four edges,
M = *****
Step 1:-
As per IS 456 : 2000 L/d ratio for simply supported slab using Fe 415
steel.
L/D = 0.8 (35) = 28
D = 5000/28 = 178.57m

Provide effective depth d as 180 mm
15
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Solve the above problem using the co-efficient stam in IS 456:2000
Soln:-
Given Lens = l
2
= l
y
= 5 m ly/l2 = 1

The slab is two way slab.
Assume all four edges discontinuous, rebearing annex d, take 20
α
u
= α
y
= 0.056
M
x
= α x Wd
x
2
= 0.056 x 15 x 52 = 21 KN
M
2
= M
y
= 21 KNm
M
u
=

,
_

¸
¸

bd Fck
Ast fy
1 d Ast fy 87 . 0
21 x 10
6
= 0.87 fy Ast d

,
_

¸
¸

180 x 1000 x 20
Ast 415
1
A
st
= 336.15 mm
2
S =
mm 59 . 149
336
4
8 x
x 1000
2
·
π
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Provide 8 mm φ @ 140 mm C/C
Design the above problem for simply support condition.
Soln:-
M =
KNm 625 . 15
24
5 x 15
24
WL
2 2
· ·
Mu = 0.87 fy Ast d

,
_

¸
¸

bd fck
Ast fy
1
15.625 x 10
6
= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 180

,
_

¸
¸

180 x 100 x 20
Ast 415
1
A
st
= 247.48 mm
2
S =
mm 50 . 203
247
4
8 x
x 1000
2
·
π

Provide 8 mm bar @ 220 mm c/C
Check for shear:-
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
τ
v
=
2
d
u
mm / N 208 . 0
180 x 100
2
5 x 15
b
V
· ·
P
t
=
% 137 . 0
180 x 1000
247 x 100
bd
Ast 100
· ·
τ
c
= 0.28 N/mm
2

c
= 1.2 x 0.28 = 0.336 N/mm
2
τ
v
< 
c

Hence the section is safe is shear.
V
u
=
KN 27
2
4 x 5 . 13
2
l W
x u
· ·
τ
v
=
2
3
mm / N 18 . 0
150 x 1000
10 x 27
·
P
t
=
% 184 . 0
150 x 1000
277 x 100
·
τ
c
= 0.307 N/mm
2
τ
c
= K
c
= 1.26 x 0.307 = 0.386 N/mm
2
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Hence the section is safe is shear.
In the above problem design the slab if all support are fixed
Soln:-
Based on yield line theory, for rectangular slab fixed on all four edges,
subjects to UDL throushour
M =

,
_

¸
¸
µ
φ
α
2
2
u
tan
24
L W
tan  =

,
_

¸
¸
α
µ

,
_

¸
¸
α
µ
+ µ
2 4
5 . 1
2
2
=

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
+
) 67 . 0 ( 2
7 . 0
) 67 . 0 ( 4
) 7 . 0 (
) 7 . 0 ( 5 . 1
2
2
tan φ = 0.8000
m =

,
_

¸
¸
7 . 0
8 . 0 x 8 . 0
48
6 x 5 . 13
2
= 9.26 KNm
18
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
M = 0.87 fy Ast d

,
_

¸
¸

bd fck
Ast fy
1
9.26 x 10
6
= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 150

,
_

¸
¸

150 x 1000 x 20
Ast 415
1
A
st
= 175 mm
2
A
st min
=
2
mm 204 170 x 1000 x
100
12 . 0
·

Ast provided on shorter direction is 204 mm
2

Assume 80 mm φ , S =
204
4
8 x
x 1000
2
π
S = 246.39 mm

Provide 8 mm  @ 240 mm c/c both ways
Check for shear

v
=
2
3
mm / N 18 . 0
150 x 1000
10 x 27
bd
Vu
· ·
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
P
t
=
% 136 . 0
150 x 1000
204 x 100
·
τ
c
= 0.28 N/mm
2
τ
c
1
= K 
c
= 1.26 x 0.28 = 0.352 N/mm
2
τ
v
< 
c

Hence the section is sale in shear
Solve the above problem for two long edges fixed boundarks condition
Soln:-
M =

,
_

¸
¸
µ
φ
2
2
x u
tan
24
L W
=

,
_

¸
¸
7 . 0
8 . 0
24
4 x 5 . 13
2 2
M = 8.28 Knm
8.23 x 10
6
= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 150

,
_

¸
¸

150 x 1000 x 20
Ast 415
1
A
st
= 155.3 mm
2
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
A
st min
=
2
mm 204 150 x 1000 x
100
12 . 0
·

Ast provide on shorter direction is 204 mm
2

Assume 8mm φ , S =
mm 39 . 246
204
4
8 x
x 1000
2
·
π

Provide 8 mm @ 240 mm C/C bothways
Check for shear
v
=
2
3
mm / N 18 . 0
150 x 1000
10 x 27
·
Pt =
% 136 . 0
150 x 1000
204 x 100
·
τ
c
= 0.28 N/mm
2

c1
= K
c
= 1.26 x 0.28 = 0.352 N/mm
2
τ
v
< 
c

Hence the section is safe in shear.
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Design an equilateral triangular slab of side 5m, isotropically reinforced
and simply supported along its edges. The span is subjected to a super
2
use M
20
concrete of Fe – 1
415
Soln:-
Based on yield line theory, the ultimate moment for an etuilateral
triangular slab simply supported alms all edges of subjected to VDL
through out.
M =
72
L W
2
u
Assume L/d = 28
D = 5000/28 = 178.54 mm
Assume eff. Depth d = 180 mm
Assume in eff.cover of 20 mm

overall depth, D = 180 + 20 = 200 mm
Self wt of slab = 1 x 0.2 x 25 = 5 KN/m
2
2
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Floor finish = 1 KN/ m
2
W = 9 KN/m
2
Factored load, Wk = 1.5 x 9 = 43.5 KN/m for 1m strip.
M =
KNm 69 . 4
72
5 x 5 . 13
72
L W
2 2
u
· ·
4.69 x 10
6
= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 180

,
_

¸
¸

10 x 1000 x 20
Ast 415
1
Ast = 72. 77 mm
2

8mm φ Transverse reinforce =
2
mm 240 200 x 1000 x
100
12 . 0
·
Spacing =
mm 209
240
4
8 x
x 1000
2
·
π

Provide 8 mm @ 200 mm C/C.
Check for shear
τ
v
=
bd
V
u
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
V =
75 . 33
2
5 x 5 . 13
2
WL
· ·
V
u
= 33.75 = 33.75
τ
v
=
2
3
mm / N 187 . 0
180 x 1000
10 x 75 . 33
·
P
t

% 133 . 0
180 x 1000
240 x 100
·
τ
c
= 0.28 N/mm
2
, τ
c max
= 2.5 N/mm
2
τ
c
1
= K
c
= 1.2 x 0.28 = 0.336 N/mm
2
τ
v
< 
c
< τ
c max

Section is safe in shear
A right angled triangular slab simply support along all the edges it has
sides AB = BC = 4m. the slab is isotrofically reinforced with 10 mm @
100 mm C/C both way use M
20
and Fe
415
(HYDS) bars. Find the safe
permissible service load (Live load) that can be apply on the slab.
Soln:
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
For A1m slab S.S along all the edges which is right angle isotuplication
reinforced subjected to UDL through out.
M
u
=
) there line yield on Based (
6
L x W
2
u
α = 1

,
_

¸
¸
4
4
S =
Ast
ast 1000
Ast =
2
2
mm 4 . 785
100
4
10 x
x 1000
·
π
L/4 = 28  d =
28
4000
D = 170 mm
For Ast available moment resistance the section.
M
u
= 0.87 fy Ast d

,
_

¸
¸

bd fck
Ast fy
1
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
M
u
= 0.87 x 415 x 785.4 x 150

,
_

¸
¸

150 x 1000 x 20
4 . 785 x 415
1
M
u
= 37.9 KN m
37.9 x 10
6
=
6
4 x 1 x Wu
2
W
u
= 14.2 KN/m
2
2

Working load = 14.2 / 1.5 = 9.46 KN/m
2
Self wt = 0.17 x 25 = 4.25 KN/m
2
Floor finish =
95 . 4
m / KN 71 . 0
2

The service live load that can be safly apply on slab is 9.46 – 4.96 =
4.5 KN/m
2
Design a circular slab of diameter 5m, S.S along the edges and subjected
to live load of 4 KN/m
3
use M
20
& Fe
415
steel.
Soln:-
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Based on yield line theory the ultimate moment for circular slab
isotopicus reinforcement Sr. S. along the edges subjectedto VDO through.
M =
6
r W
2
u
Assume L/d = 28
D = 5000 / 28 = 178.07mm

eff. Depth, d = 180 mm
Adopt eff. Cover = 20 mm

overall depth, D = 200 mm
Self wt on slab = 0.2 x 25 = 5 KN/m
2
L.L = 4 KN/m
2
Floor finish = KN/m
2
W = 10 KN/m
2
Factored load, Wu = 1.5 x 10 = 15 KN/m
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
M =
KNm 625 . 15
6
) 5 . 2 ( x 15
6
r W
2 2
u
· ·
15.625 x 10
6
= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 180

,
_

¸
¸

10 x 1000 x 20
Ast 415
1
Ast = 247.48 mm
2
Transverse reinforcement = 0.12% of D
=
200 x 1000 x
100
12 . 0
= 240 mm
2
For 8 mm φ S =
mm 10 . 203
48 . 247
4
8 x
x 1000
2
·
π
Provide 8 mm φ @ 200 mmC/C both ways
Check for shear:-
τ
v
=
208 . 0
180 x 1000
2
10 x 5 x 15
bd
2
l W
bd
Vu
3
u
· · ·
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
P
t
=
% 187 . 0
180 x 1000
48 . 247 x 100
·
τ c = 0.28 N/mm
2
τ v < τ c
Hence the section is safe in shear
Design a simply supported rectangular slab of sie 5m x 8m which is
orthotopilr reinforced with co-efficient of orthorooly µ = 0.75 the
service live load on the slab is 5 KN/m2 use M20 concrete and Fe 415
steel
Soln : L = 8m, α = 5m LL = 5 KN/m2
Based on yield line memory the rectangular slab orthotropically
reinforced, S.S. along with edges of subjected to VDL through out.
Α = 5/8 = 0.625
M =
[ ]
2
2 2
2 3
24
Wl
µ α − µ α +
α
Assume L/D = 28
5000 / 28 = d, d = 178. 57 mm
Provide d = 180 mm
15
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Eff. Cover = 20 mm, overall depth , D = 200 mm
Self wt on slab = 0.2 x 25 = 5 KN/m
2

2
Floor finish = l KN/m
2
Total load, W = 11 KN/m
2
For 1 m strip , 4 = 11 KN/m
Factored load, Wu = 1.5 x 11 = 16.5 KN/m
Mu =
[ ]
2
2 2
2 3
24
Wl
µ α − µ α +
α
=
[ ]
2
2
2 2
75 . 0 625 . 0 625 . 0 x 75 . 0 3
24
8 x 625 . 0 x 5 . 16
− +
Mu = 27.86 KNm
27.86 x 10
6
= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 180

,
_

¸
¸

180 x 1000 x 20
Ast 415
1
Ast = 452.26 mm
2
Transverse reinforcement ast min
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
For 10mm φ mm bar
Provide 10mm φ @ 170 mm C.C lonser direction Ast µ Ast = 0.75 x
452.26 = 339.19 mm
2
Check for shear: provide 10 mm @ 230 mm C/C
τ v = Vu/ bd
Vu = WL/2 = 16.5 x 5 / 2 = 41.25 KN
v = 41.25 x 103 / 1000 x 180 = 0.229 N/mm
2
Pt = 100Ast / bd = 100 x 452.26/1000x 180 = 0.25 %
τ c = 0.36 N/mm
2
c1 = K τ c = 1.2 x 0.86 = 0.432 N/mm
2
Hence section is safe in shear.
Design a rectangular slab of size 5m x 4m which is fixed along the long
edges of S.S along the two short edges. The slab is subjected to the
distributed live load of 4 KN/m2 design the slab for orthotopically
reinforced condition with co-efficient orthotropy µ = 0.7
Soln:
Based on yield line theory for orthotropically reinforced slab fixed along
long edges of S. S along the short edges of subjected to VDL through out,
the ultimate mum M is
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
M = Wulx2 / 24 =

,
_

¸
¸
µ
2
tan
tan φ =

,
_

¸
¸
α
µ

,
_

¸
¸
α
µ
+ µ
2 4
5 . 1
2
2
Assume L/d = 28
4000 / d = 28
D = 142.85
Provide eff. Depth d = 150 mm
Effective cover = 20 mm
Overall depth D = 170 mm
Self wt of slab = .0.17 x 25 = 4.25 KN/m
2
L.L = 4 KN/m
2
Floor finish = 0.75 KN/m
2
W = 9 KN/m
2
For 1 m strip, W = 9 KN/m
Wu = 1.5 x 9 = 13.5 KN/m
2
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Α = 4/5 = 0.8
Tan φ = 1.5 (0.7)
Tan = 0.804
M = 8.311 KNm
M = 0.87 fy Ast x d
8.311 x 10
3
= 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 150

,
_

¸
¸

150 x 1000 x 20
Ast 415
1
Ast = 156.86 mm
2
Ast provided in Longer direction = µ Ast = 0.7 (156.86) = 109.8
Ast min = 0.12% to D = 0.12 / 100 x 1000 x 170
Ast = 204 mm
2
Provide Ast = 204 mm
2
For 8 mm φ , spacking =
246
204
4
10 x
x 1000
2
·
π
Provide 8 mm  @ 240 mm c/c.
Check for shear
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
v = Vu/bd
Vu = WuL/ 2 = 13.5 x 4 /2 = 27KN
τ v =
bd
V
u
Rf =
KN 27
2
4 x 5 . 13
2
WuL
· ·
τ c = 0.28 N/mm
2
c1 = K τ c = 1.26 x 0.28 = 0.3528 N/mm
2
v < c1
Hence section is safe in shear
Design a doom for a cylindered water tank of diameter 12.5 m use M20
concrete of Fe 415 steel
Soln:
D = 12.5 m
Rise = 12.5/5 = 2.5m
R2 = (R – r)2 + (D/2)2
R2 = (R – 2.5)2 + (12.5/2)2
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
R = 9.06 m
Cos θ = 0.724
The done is subjected to meridonial thorust and hoof force for which the
stress should be within permissible compressive strength of concrete
Assume thickness of slab, t = 100 mm
Self wt = 25 x 0.1 = 2.5 KN/m
2
W = 4.5 KN/m
2
Ast =
3
3
st
o
mm 38 . 603
150
10 x 5 . 90 comp HZ
· ·
σ
Assume 16mm , no of bars =
4
16
x
3 . 603
2
π
Provide 4 nos of 16 mm  bar
Size of ring beam is based on tensile stress of concrete
ct = Ft / Act (m-1) Ast
2.8 = 90.50 x 10
3
/ AC + (13.33-1) 603.3
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Ac = 24886.4 mm
2
Provide ring beam of size 160 x 160 mm
Design a water tank for field base condition for a capacities of 4 lakh
litres height of tanks is 4m. permissible stresses σ
st
= 150 N/mm
2
for M
20
came σ
cbc
= 7 N/mm
2
, j = 0.84, R = 1.16
Soln:-
Capacity 4 x 105 lr = 400 m
3
Ht = 4m
Volume
4 x
4
πd
2
2
d
4 x
4 x 400
·
π
d = 11.28
Provide diameter d = 115.m
Thickness of tank based on emtiral relation.
T min = 30 (4) + 50 = 170 mm
Provide a thickness of 170 mm
Non – dimensional parameter =
18 . 8
79 . 0 x 5 . 11
) 4 (
Dt
4
2 2
· ·
Hoop tension devolor on the 10 all =
T = co-efficient WH D/
2
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
BM develop along the W911, Co-eff x WH
3
Reborins tasie 9 of SI = 3370 (Pert IV)
Co-efficient for m x m hoof tension = 0.577
ett . C
Dt
H
2
·
8 = 0.575
10 – 0.608
8.18 – 0.577
For
Dt
H
2
of 8.18 the co-efficient for hoof tension is actions it 0.64

mass – hoop tension, T = 0.577 x 9.81 x 4 x 11.5/2
T = 130.18 KN
Co – efficient for max B.M is taken from table to of IS 3370 (Part IV)
8  0.0146
10  0.0123
8.18  0.0148
Co- efficient of max B.M – 0.0143 actions at 1.04 (at Base)
Moment = Co. efficient x WH
3
= -0.0143 x 9.81 x 4
3
B.M = -8.97 KNm
Transverse Reinforcement:
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Ast =
150
10 x 18 . 130 H
8
st
t
·
σ
Ast = 867.86 mm
2
For 16 mm φ S =
mm 69 . 231
8 . 867
4
16 x
x 1000
2
·
π

Provide 16 mm φ @ 230 mm c/c
Adopt 12 mm φ @ 130 mm c.c
Vertical Steel:- The vertical reinforcement tension for the max. BM 0.8
8.97 KN m by working shows mif
Ast =
sd
M
st
σ
Min – depth, d =
m 127 mm 93 . 87
1000 x 16 . 1
10 x 97 . 8
Rb
M
6
<< · ·
Overall depth of wan, thickness = 170 mm
Adopiting a clear cover of 25 mm
D = 170 – 25 – 12/2 – 12
D = 127 mm
Ast =
2
6
mm 55 . 560
127 x 84 . 0 x 150
10 x 97 . 8
·
15
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
For 12mm, S =
mm 77 . 201
5 . 560
4
12 x
x 1000
2
·
π

Provide 12 mm  @ 200 mm c/c.
Min. reinforcement Ast min = 0.3 % C.S
= *****
A
st min
= 510 mm
2
< A
st rerd
.
Design of base slab:
Assume 150 mm thick base slab, provide 0.3% of C/S as
reinforcement along both the faces.
Ast =
2
mm 450 150 x 1000 x
100
3 . 0
·
For 8 mm, S =
mm 70 . 111
450
4
8 x
x 1000
2
·
π
Provide 8 mm @ 200 mm c/c both base along both faces.
Provide haunch of side 150 x 150 mm with min. steel of 8 mm @ 200
mm C/C along the face of the haunch
Figure ****
TUTORIAL
Design a rectangular water tanks of size 4m x 7m with height 3.5m
use M20 concrete of Fe – 415 steel. Design constant j = 0.053 R = 1.32
15
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Soln:-
L x B  7m x 4m
L/B = 7/4 = 1.75 x2
H = 3.5 m
h = H/4 or 1
m 1 or 875 . 0
4
5 . 3
· ·
h = 1 m
P = p (H-h) = 9.81 (3.5 – 7)
P = 24.53 KN/m
2
To find the final moment at the junction of lons will & short will based
on the FEM & D.F. Moment distribution is done
For any joint, D.F =
2
2
1
1
1 1
L
I
L
I
L / I
F . D
+
·
FEM M
FAB
=
KNm 70 . 32
12
4 x 53 . 24
12
PB
2 2
· ·
M
=
KNm 16 . 100
12
7 x 53 . 24
12
82
2 2
· ·
AB
Member
A
int Jo
F . D
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
2
2
1
1
2 2
2
2
1
1
1 1
L
I
L
I
L / I
L
I
L
I
L / I
F . D
+ +
36 . 0
7
1
4
1
7 / 1
611 . 0
7
1
4
1
4 / 1
·
+
·
+
Joint Member
D.F 0.64 0.36
FIM -32.70 100.16
B.M -43.17 -24.28
Total -75.87 KNm 75.88 KNm
Fixed B.M is 75.88 KNm
Free B.M (For B.M)
a) Along shorter direction =
KNm 06 . 49
8
4 x 53 . 24
8
PB
2 2
· ·
b) Longer direction =
KNm 24 . 150
8
7 x 53 . 24
8
PL
2 2
· ·
resultant B.M at the mid span is
a) Short will == -75.88 to 49.06 = -26.82 KNm
b) Long will = -75.88 + 150.24 = 74.36 KNm
At support = 75.88 KNm
The will is design for me max B.M of for
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
M max = 75.88 KNm
Reinforcement details:
A
st L
=
st
2
st
L
P
id
x P M
σ
+
σ

A
st B
=
st
B
st
b
P
id
x P M
σ
+
σ

P
L
= P x B/2 = 24.53 x 4/2 = 49.06 KN
P
B
= P x L/2 = 24.53 x 7/2 = 85.86 KN
X = D/2 – eff.cover
Providing a clear cover of 25 mm of bar 10 φ mm
Eff.cover = 25 x 10/2 = 30 mm
d =
mm 75 . 239
1000 x 32 . 1
10 88 . 75
Rb
M
6
· ·
provide d = 240 mm
overall depth, D = 240 + 30 = 270 mm

thickness of will is 270 mm
X =
30
2
270

X = 105 mm
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
A
st L
=
150
10 x 06 . 49
240 x 853 . 0 x 150
105 x 10 x 86 . 85 10 x 88 . 75
3 3 6
+

A
st L
= 2630.33 mm
2
A
st B
=
150
10 x 86 . 85
240 x 853 . 0 x 150
105 x 10 x 86 . 85 10 x 88 . 75
3 3 6
+

A
st 8
= 2749.83 mm
2
Provide 20mm φ bar, S =
mm 43 . 119
33 . 2630
4
20 x
x 1000
2
·
π

Provide 20 mm φ @ 110 mm c/c
Since the thickness is greater than 200mm, the reinforcement is placed
alogn both forces.

Along transverse direction (HZ) provide
20 mm φ @ 220mm c/c along both faces in the short well & long wall.
Vertical Reinforcement
For the cantilever action, moment develop is
6
2 x 5 . 3 x 21 . 9
6
PHh
2 2
·
M = 5.723 KN-m
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Ast min:-
0.3 % c/s for 100 mm of
0.2% C/S for 450 mm

for 270 mm  0.251% C/S
A
st min
=
270 1000 x
100
251 . 0
= 677.7 mm
2
For 10mm φ , S =
mm 87 . 115
7 . 677
4
10 x
x 1000
2
·
π

Provide 10mm  @ 220 mm C/C as vertical reinforcement along both
the faces the taks for long will and short will.
Design of Base slab:-
Assuming a thickness of 150 mm min. slab is provided for the base
slab. Since it is resting on firm ground.
Ast min =
2
mm 450 150 x 100 x
1000
3 . 0
·
= 450mm
2
For 8mm φ S =
mm 7 . 111
450
4
8 x
x 1000
2
·
π
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Provide 8 mm φ @ 220 mm C/C along both ways along both faces
Provide a layer of lean mix (M10) for a thickness of 75 mm below base
slab.
Figure **************
cantilevered from the R.C wall given riser is 150 mm and trend is
300mm. width if flight is 1.5m. design a typical cantilever tread slab. Any
live load for over crowing. Use M
20
concrete of Fe. 250 steel.
Soln:-
Given
R = 159 mm, T= 300 mm, w = 1.5 m M
20
9 F
e
250
i) self wt = 0.15 x 25 x 0.3 = 1.125 KN/m
ii) floor finish = 0.6 x 0.3 = 1.125 KN/m
B.M
D.L
=
KNm 46 . 1
2
5 . 1 x 5 . 13
2
·
Live load moment is a minimum of
i) UDL due to live load on stair (for over providing case) W
L
= 5 KN/m
2
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
Figure *************
B.M LL
1
=
2
5 . 1 x 5 . 1
2
B.M LL
2
= 1.3 x 1.5 = 1.95 KN
Maximum of B.M LL = 1.9 KN m
Total BM = BM DL + B.D LL = 1.46 + 19.5
= 3.41 KNm.
Factored B.M = 1.5 x 3.41 = 5.12 KNm
Assume clear covet of 15 mm & 12mm  bar.
d = 150 – 15 – 12/2 = 129 mm
M
u
= 0.87 fy A
st
d

,
_

¸
¸

td Fck
Ast f
1
y
5.12 x 10
6
– 0.87 x 250 x Ast x 129

,
_

¸
¸

129 x 300 x 20
Ast 250
1
A
st
= 194.73 mm
2
n =
nos 3 say 47 . 2
4
10 x
194373
ast
Ast
2
·
π
·
provide 3 nos of 10 mm bar
Distribution steel:-
14
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
A
st
min = 0.15% & D =
150 x 300 x
100
15 . 0
= 67.5 mm
2
S =
mm 744
5 . 67
4
8 x
x 1000
2
·
π
Provide 8 mm  @ 300 mm C/C
Check for shear:-
d
u
v
b
V
· τ
V
DL
= 1.3.5 x 1.5 = 1.959 KN
V
LL1
= 1.5 x 1.5 = 2.25 KN
VLL2 = 1.3 KN
Max V
LL
2.25 KN
Total V
u
= 2.25 + 1.958 = 4.208 KN
Factored V
u
= 1.5 x 4.208 = 6.31 KN
v
=
2
mm / N 168 .. 0
129 x 300
10 x 31 . 6
·

τ
c
= 0.48 N/mm
2
K = 1.3 from table
16
IS 3370 (Part II) 1984
T
c
1
= K T
c
= 1.3 x 0.48 = 0.624 N/mm
2
τ
c
2.8/2 = 1.4 N/mm
2
τ
v
x 
c
x τ
c
mm
Hence safe in shear
Ld =
mm 15 . 453
2 . 1 x 4
250 x 87 . 0 x 10
bd 4
3
· ·
τ
σ φ
Design a suitable countertor reintaining way to support a leveled back till
of height 7.5m above g.L on the toe side. Assume good soil for the
foundation at a desm of 1.5m below G.L the SBC of soil is 170 KN/m2
with unit weight as 16KN/m3. The angle of internal friction is = 300
the co-efficient of friction b/w the soil and concrete is 0.5 use M25
concrete and Fe 415 steel.
Soln:-
Figure **************
Minimum depth of foundation = ***
= ***
Depth of foundation = 1.5 m
Height of wall = 7.5 + 1.5 = 9m
Thickness of had and stem = 5% of 9m = 0.45m ** 0.5.
Thickness of toe slab = 8% of 9 m = 0.72 m.
16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 =
5.25 12

= 0.4375

Assume the top tk of stem as 150mm thickness of stem tappers from 450mm from bottom & 150mm to top. Lmin =
 Ca  h 1    3  αR

Co-efficient of active earth pressure Ca =
 Cos θ − Cos 2θ − Cos 2 φ   Cos θ + Cos 2θ − Cos 2 φ    Cos θ  

=
 Cos 15o − Cos 2 15o − Cos 2 30o    Cos1 o 2 o 2 o  Cos 15 + Cos 15 − Cos 30   

= Ca = 0.373 Cp =
1 + sin φ 1 + sin 30o = 1 − sin φ 1 − sin 30o

=3

Assuming surcharge height of 0.4m at the end of heel slab. = 5.25 + 0.4
h′

15

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 = 5.65 m
h′

Assuming the trapezoidal below the base slab.
α
R

= 0.67

Lmin = Lmin = 2.97 m Provide base slab width of 3m Width of heel slab is Xmin = Lmin x α
R

= 3 x 0.67 = 2m The preliminary proportion is shown in fissure For the assumed proportions the retaining wall is check for stability against overturning and sliding Force ID W1 ½ x 1.85 x 0.5 x 16 = 7.44 Force (KN) Distance from Moment heel (m) KNm

1/3 x 1.85 = 4.583 0.616

W2

1.85x 5 x 25 – 0.45 x 16 = ½ 142.08

(1.85)

= 131.424

0.925 1.85 + 0.15/2 = 34.65 1.925
14

W3

0.15 x 4.8 x 25 = 18

65KN The resultant of the vertical of lies at a distance of Xw from the h end X4 = MW W = 232.30) = 1.99m Check for over turning moment FoSo = > 1.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 W4 ½ x (0.4 For retaining wall with sloping back fi Mo = Pa cos θ x h1/3 = 98.63 KNm 14 .53 Pa = Ca γ e x 4/2 = 0.75 / 5 Mo = 182.48 – 1/3 11.65 sin 15o = 25.85 (25 – 16) = 6.28 = 0.15) x 4.62 283.8 x 1.373 x 16 x  5.34 (0.75     2  2 Pa = 98.65 Cos 15o x 5.75 Pa sin 98.450 – 0.

9 F Pa Cos θ F = μR = 0. x W) + Pa Sin θ (L) = 233.5 182.3m from the too as shown in figure.64 KN Fos sliding = 0.99) + 98.28 = 116.68 > 1.28 (3 – 0.9 x 545.65 sin 15o = 545.4 Hence the section is not safe is sliding The shear key is required to resist sliding Assume shear key of size 300 x 300mm at a distance of 1.5 x 232. Figue*** 15 .10 < 1.64 Pa Cos 15o = 1.63 =2.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Mr = W (L.9 x 116.5 Foso = 0.4 Check for sliding Fos sliding = 0.

64) + 58.25 + 0.65cos15o = 0.25) 2 ) 2 Pps = 58.25m = 1.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Tan 30o = x 1.3 x = 0.8 = 1.4 Hence the section is safe against sliding.25 .65 cos15o = 1.9 F + Pps 98. Soil pressure from the supporting soil on base slab : 15 .5 98.5KN Fos s = 0.75m h1 h2 Ppe = 1.3 + 0.9 F (116.0.75 = 2m = Cp pe (h 2 2 2 − h1 ) =3x 16((2 ) 2 − (1.71 > 1.

78 – (3/2) = 0.78m E = 1.28m 14 .63 + 232.62 ) 233.38 LR = 1. Maximum pressure at one end is q max = R L  6e  1 +   L and min-pressure is qmin = R 6e  1 −  L L (where qmax is direct stress + Bending stress qmin is direct stress – bending stress) here the eccentricity ‘e’ is given by e = LR – L/2 where LR = The distance of R from the heel slab LR = (Mo + Mw) /R = (182.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 The distribution of soil pressure from the base is trapezoida in nature.

d = D – clear cover .M at the rear face of the stem is M = 92. Depth.21 > 0 KN/m2 Hence pressure is within the limits.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 qmax = 233.28)  1 −  3  3  34.28)  1 +  3  3  = 121.36 x 1 x ½ + (½ x 1 x 28.30KN/m2 α SBC qmin = 233.φ /2 = 450 – 75 – 16/2 d = 367mm The max.28  6(0.36 The Toe slab is design as cantilever Assume the clear cover as 75mm for base slab and bar dia of 16mm Eff.96) 15 .28  6(0. Figure*** Design of Toe slab : Fig*** The toe slab is design for a UD of 92. B.

M = 1.5 x 67.3) x (1-0.367) = 67.43 KN Mu = 0.87fy Ast     0.73 KNm Factored shear force.47 0. V V = ½ x 1 (92.44mm2 S = 1000 ast Ast 14 .82 Mu = 83.87fy Ast (d – 0.82 KNm The ma.87fy Ast 0.73 x 106 = 0.36 + 121.36 x 20 x1000  Ast = 656.42  0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 M = 55.36 fck ) 83.62 KN Factored B. Shear force occurs at the distance of ‘d’ from the face of the stear.87 x 415 x Ast (367 . Vu = 1.62 Vu = 101.5 x 55.0.

5 x 68.55 M = 60.19 mm Refer table 2 in slab for M20 p fe 415 stal Provide 16mm @ 300mm c/c.55 – 0.3 x 1.90KN Mu = 1.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 = π x (16) 2 1000 x 4 Ast S = 306.37 KNm V = ½ (82.19 + 34.5 x 60.55 KNm Vu = 1.367) V = 68.35 KN Mu = 0. Check for shear Design of heel slab : M = 34.36 fck bd  15 .55 x 47.87fy Ast d  fy Ast  1 −   0.3) (1.90 = 103.55 x 1.37 = 90.89 x 1/3 x 1.55 2 ½ x 1.

87 x 415 4 x 1.2 x 1.37mm Provide 16mm @ 280mm c/c Development length : The main reinforcement to be developed into the fixed support for a length of Ld = φ σs 4 τ bd = 16 x 0.18 mm Check for shear 15 .IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 90.6 Ld = 752.55 x 106 = 0.03mm2 S= 1000 x π x 162 4 712.08 S = 282.87 x 415 x Ast x 367   415 Ast 1 −   20 x 1000 x 367 Ast = 712.

35 x 103 = bd 1000 x 367 = 0.0 mm2 S= π x 102 1000 x 4 540 = 145.281 N/mm2 Pt = 100 Ast 100 x 712.12 c/s is provided along the transverse direction of the base slab.315 N/mm2 τ v<τ c Hence section is safe in shear Distribution steel : Ast min = 0.194% c = 0. Ast min = 0.12 bd = 0.12 x 1000 x 150 = 540.44mm Provide 10mm @ 140mm c/c Design of stem 15 .03 = bd 1000x 367 = 0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 τ v = vu 103.

KN Mu = 1.5 x 56.45 = 4.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Stem is designed as a cantilever slab for a height of 4800mm (5250 .46.87 x 415 x Ast x 312   415 Ast 1 −   20 x 1000 x 312 Ast = 1248.5 x 110 = 165KNm Vu = 1.373 x 16 x (4.35/2)2 V = 56.) The max.46 = 84.87 fy Ast d  fy Ast  1 −   fck bd  165 x 106 = 0.373 x 16 x = 110KNm The maximum shear force at ‘d’ from compound base slab is V = Caγ Z2/2 where Z = 4.69 KN Mu = 0.35m V = 0. moment on cantilever slab in head stem is M = C a h3/6 Assume clear cover of 50mm.30mm2 14 . bar of 16mm d = 450 – 50 – 16/2 = 392mm M = 0.8 – 0.

3 = bd 1000 x 392 = 0.67 x 103 = bd 1000 x 312 = 0.392 N/mm2 v < c Hence section is safe in slab. 14 .IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 S = 161.216 N/mm2 Pt = 100 Ast 100 x 1248.06mm Provide 16mm φ @ 160mm c/c.318 C = 0. Check for shear v = Vu 84.

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Design of heel slab : Wt from backfill = 16(5.86 x 1.55 x 1.463 = 84.5 x 56.08 KNm Vu = 1.25 KN Mu = 1.25 – 0.65 S = 213. d (1415 Ast 20 x 1000x 3 ) S= 1000 x π x 122 4 529.86 + 53.367) 5.89) x 1.45) = 76.45) Self wt of heel slab 25 (0.69 KN Mu = 0.55 x 2/3 (1.75) (1.53 – 0.8 = 11.87 fy Ast.5 (45.55/2 + ½ (47.55) M = 45.39 KNm V = ½ (5.86 V = 35.39) = 68.05 Kn M = 5.53mm 15 .25 Kn = 88.

At ½ height (4/3m) half the reinforcement is curtail. Provide 16mm @ 320mm c/c. Good soil is available at a depth of 1.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Provide 12mm @ 210mm c/c.8 8  the reinforcement is reduced to half.L. Design the cantilever retaining wall to retain a level difference of 4m. Soln : 14 . Provide 16mm @ 640mm c/c.25m below G. Also provide distasted for the front face of the stem along both direction as 10mm @ 16mm c/c. The unit wt of soil 16KN/m3 and SBC of soil is 160KN/m2. Provide distribution steel 10mm @ 160mm c/c. Reinforcement Details : The main reinforcement in the stem can be curtailed at two places. The backfill is leveled one with angle of internal friction φ = 30o. At 2/8 h 2   x 4. in the base slab as well as along the transverse direction for the steam in the rear face. The distribution steel is also curtail in the similar method.

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Height of wall above G.L.25m Unit wt of soil = 16 Kn/m3 SBC = 160KN/m2  = 30 Rankine’s min depth of foundation.25 Earth pressure co-efficient Ca = 1 − sinθ 1 + sinθ = 1 − sin 30o 1 + sin 30o = 0.L= 4m Good soil depth below G.11m  1.333 Cp = 1 − sinθ 1 + sinθ = 1 − sin 30o 1 + sin 30o =3 15 . dmin = SBC  1 − sin θ   γ  1 + sin θ 2 = 160  1 − sin 30o    16  1 + sin 30o  2 = 1. = 1.

67 = 2.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Thickness of base slab = h 5.25 = 12 12 = 0.67 R = 0.610m Provide base slab width of 3m Width of heel slab is Xmin = Lmin x α R = 3. 15 .333   3    5.01 = 2m The preliminary proportions is shown in figure.67 = 2.25    0.45m Assume top width of wall as 150mm & tk of stem tappers from 450mm to 150mm Lmin =  Ca  h   α  3  R Assuming the trapezoidal sters below the base slab  Lmin =  0.4375 = 0.0 x 0.

75 W = 200.48 = 1.43 Kn Force ID W1 Force (KN) Distance from Moment heel (m) KNm ½ x 1.045 = W 200 .25) 2     2  Pa = 73.85 + 18 1.75 3/2 3/2 = 1.08 0.65  0.5 50. X4 = Mw 228 .IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 For the assumed proportions the retaining is check for stability against overturning (s) Pa = Ca e x  (h)    2  2 = 0.85 – 1/3(0.188m 14 .045 KNm The resistant of vertical forces lies at a the of x 01 from the heel end.45) x 25 = 1.3) 11.925 W3 ½ x (0.8 x 1.25 – 0.85 x 0.925 = 34.45 x 25 = 33.15 x (5.42 142.45 – 0.15    2  W2 0.45 x 16 = 1/2 x 1.85 = 181.333 x 16 x  (5.625 W4 3 x 0.35 (25-16) = 6.31KN M = 228.31 = 1.15) x 4.

31 (3 – 1.138) = 372.97KNm Foso = 0.97 128.25    3  Mo = 128.61 > 1.9 x 372.50 =2.155 KN 14 .9 F Pa Cos θ F = μR = 0.50 KNm Mr = W (L.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Check for overturning moment : Foso = 0.4 Check for sliding Fos sliding = 0.5 x 200.31 = 100.43  5. x W) + Pa Sin (L) = 200.9 Mr Mo Mo = Pa cos θ x h1/3 = 73.

22 < 1.155 73.75m h1 h2 Ppe = 1.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Fos sliding = 0.3m from the too as shown in figure.43 = 1.25 .0.25) 2 ) 2 Pps = 58.9 x 100.5KN 15 .3 + 0.3 x = 0.25m = 1.4 Hence the section is not safe is sliding The shear key is required to resist sliding Assume shear key of size 300 x 300mm at a distance of 1.0.3 + 0.8 = 1. Figue*** Tan 30o = x 1.75 = 1.3 + 0.25 .25m = Cp e (h 2 2 2 − h1 ) =3x 16((2 ) 2 − (1.

65 cos θ = 0.02 > 1. Maximum pressure at one end is q max = R L  6e  1 +   L and min-pressure is qmin = R 6e  1 −  L L here the eccentricity ‘e’ is given by e = LR – L/2 where LR = The distance of R from the heel slab 15 .5 73.43 = 2. Soil pressure from the supporting soil on base slab : The distribution of soil pressure from the base is trapezoida in nature.9 F (100 .155 ) + 58.4 Hence the section is safe against sliding.9 F + Pps 98.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Fos s = 0.

79 x1 = 3 2 X = 49.5 + 228.28)  1 +  3  3  = 104.37 Kn/m2 > 0 Hence pressure is within the limits. Figure*** Design of Toe slab : Fig*** 74 .31 LR = 1.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 LR = (Mo + Mw) /R = (128.28)  1 −  3  3  29.78 – (3/2) = 0.31  6(0.78m e = 1.28  6(0.16KN/m2 α 160 qmin = 233.86KN/m2 15 .28m qmax = 200.04 ) 200.

Depth.367) = 58. B.23 x 1 x ½ + (½ x 1 x 21. V V = ½ x 1 (79.5 x 47. Shear force occurs at the distance of ‘d’ from the face of the stear.04 KN Factored B.925 KNm The ma.79 x = 3 1.16) x (1-0.93) x 2/3 M = 47.92 Mu = 71. Vu = 1.55 X = 38.23 + 104.64 KN/m2 The Toe slab is design for a UDL ofas cantilever beam Assume the clear cover as 75mm for base slab and bar dia of 16mm Eff.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 74.M = 1.85 KNm Factored shear force.φ /2 = 450 – 75 – 16/2 d = 367mm The max.04 14 . d = D – clear cover .5 x 58.M at the rear face of the stem is M = 79.

87 x 415 x Ast (367)   415 Ast 1 −  20 x1000x367   Ast = 560.21mm2 S = 1000 ast Ast = 1000 x π x (12) 2 4 560.06 x 103 = bd 1000x 367 = 0.06 KN Mu = 0.80 mm Provide 12mm @ 200mm c/c.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Vu = 87.21 S = 201.87fy Ast (1 fy Ast fck ) 71.88 x 106 = 0.237 N/mm2 16 . Check for shear  v = Vu 87.

68 x 2/3 x 1.25 – 0.5 (55.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Pf = 100Ast 100x 560.5 x (46.55 M = 55.84 KNm 16 . Design of heel slab : Wt from back fill = 16(5.55) x 1.55 x 38.04 KNm Mu = 1.56 KNm V = ½ (20.56KN Vu = 1.2816N/mm2 τ v = c.55 2 ½ x 1.45) = 11.04 x 1.367) V = 46.45) = 76.152% c = 0. Hence section is safe in shear.56) = 69.8 Kn Self wt of heel slab = 25 (0.25 KN/m2 88.21 = bd 1000x 367 = 0.04 + 58.55 – 0.68) (1.04) = 82.05 Kn/m2 M = (20.

36 fck bd  82.44mm 16 .12% bd = 0.71 S = 174.85mm Provide 12mm @ 170mm c/c Distribution steel Ast(min) = 0.56 x 106 = 0.87fy Ast d  fy Ast  1 −   0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Mu = 0.71mm2 S= π x 162 1000 x 4 646.12 x 1000 x 450 100 = 540mm2 S= 1000 x π x (0) 2 4 540 = 145.87 x 415 x Ast x 367   415 Ast 1 −   20 x 1000 x 367 Ast = 646.

35) 2 2 V = 50.8) 3 4 M = 98.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Provide 10mm @ 140mm c/c.20 Knm Assume 50mm cover & 16mm  bar d = 450 – 50 – 16/2 = 392mm Max. shear force at ‘d’ from compound slab is V = Caγ Z2/2 Z = 4.20 = 147.5 x 98. moment on cantilever slab in the head stem is M = Caγ h3/6 = 0.45 – 4.45 = 4.3 Knm 14 .8 – 0.25 – 0.40 KN Mu = 1.8m The max.3 V = 0.833 x 16 x ( 4.833 x 16 x ( 4. Design of Stem : Stem is designed as cantilever slab for a height of 5.

282% τ c = 0. Check for shear τ v = vu 75.3 x 106 = 0.44 = 181.375 N/mm2 τ v<τ c Hence section is safe in shear Reinforcement details : 14 .6 x 103 = bd 1000 x 392 = 0. = bd 1000x 392 = 0.40) = 75.44mm2 S= π x 162 1000 x 4 1105.5(50.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Vu = 1.192 N/mm2 Pt = 100 Ast 100 x 1105 44 .87 x 415 x Ast x 392 1− 415 Ast 20 x 1000 Ast = 1105.88mm Provide 16mm @ 180mm c/c.6 KN 147.

l on the toe side.5 = 9m 14 .5m below G.87 x 415 = 4τ bd 4 x 1.L. The co-efficient of friction below the soil and concrete is 0.5 + 1.2 x 1. Figure **** Soln : Minimum depth of foundation = P  1 − sin θ    γ  1 + sin θ  2 = 170  1 − sin30o    16  1 + sin30o  2 = 1.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Figure*** Ld = φ σ0 16 x 0. The angle of internal friction is = 30o.5m Depth of foundation = 1.6 = 752mm = 750mm Design a suitable counterfort retaining wall to support a leveled back fill of height 7.5 use M25 concrete and Fe415 steel.180m < 1. Assume good soil for the foundation at a design of 1. The SBC of soil is 170KN/m2 with unit weight as 16KN/m3.5m above g.5m Height of wall = 7.

25 0.5) = 106.5m Thickness of toe slab = 6% of 9m = 0.5 25(1.75 W3 W4 Total 25(0.5)x3 = 37.5 = (3-0.25 101.5/2+3=3.9 Mr Mo 14 .5+1.45m = 0.69 56.75 KN 1.75 MH = 874.5 = 292.5)/2 340 W2 25(0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Thickness of heel & stem = 5% of 9m = 0.72) = 27 W=510.5) (0. XW = Mw 874 .5 – 0.5)(9-0.18 2.54m Stability Conditions : Earth pressure calculations : Force ID W1 Force (KN) Distance from Moment heel (m) 16(7.5/2 + 2.5 1.75 = 1.25 1.69 = W 510 .25 KNm = 425 The resistant of vertical forces lies at a the of x 01 from the heel end.713m Check for overturning moment : Foso = 0.5) x 2.

6KNm Foso = 0.333 x 16 x  93     6 Mo = 647.6 647.75 = 255.4 Hence.98 > 1.9 x 1423.78 Kn 16 .9 F Pa Cos θ F = μR = 0. x W) = W = 510.35 =1. section is safe against overturning.35 KNm Mr = W (L.87 KN Pa = Ca e x  (h)    2  2 = 0. Check for sliding Fos sliding = 0.718) = 1423.75 (4.333 x 16 x  ( 9) 2     2  Pa = 215.5 – 1.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Mo = Pa cos θ x h1/3 = 0.5 x 510.

5  = 3.5  = 223.97 KN/m2 > SBC un safe qmin = R L  6e  1 +   L = 510.78 = 1.37 ) 215 .5 1 +  6(73)   4.75  4.5 1 +  6(73)   4.9 x ( 255 .IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Fos sliding = 0.75  4.4 Hence the section is not safe is sliding The shear key is required to resist sliding Base pressure calculation: q max = R L  6e  1 +   L = 510.065 < 1.02 Kn/m2 > 0 Safe 16 .

5 x 25 x 0.98 – (4.75 KN LR = (Mo + Mw) 917 .5/2) = 0.75 = 3.98m e = 2.01m ∑M Design of Toe slab : 16 .75m) Since maximum earth pressure is greater than SBC of soil.72 x 1/6 (0.352 = R 519 .75 LR = 2.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 where the eccentricity ‘e’ is given by e = LR – L/2 where LR = The distance of R from the heel slab LR = (Mo + Mw) /R = (874. Increase the toe slab by 0.352 ) 510 . the length of base slab has to increased preferably along the toe side.75 + 0.72 = 519.438 + 647 .68 + 647 .5m in length. EH = 510.

64 KN/m2 The Toe slab is design for a UDL ofas cantilever beam Assume the clear cover as 75mm for base slab and bar dia of 16mm Eff.925 KNm The ma.16) x (1-0.M at the rear face of the stem is M = 79. Shear force occurs at the distance of ‘d’ from the face of the stear.φ /2 = 450 – 75 – 16/2 d = 367mm The max. V = ½ x 1 (79.23 + 104.367) 14 .79 x = 3 1.79 x1 = 3 2 X = 49.93) x 2/3 M = 47.23 x 1 x ½ + (½ x 1 x 21. Depth.86KN/m2 74. B.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Fig*** 74 . d = D – clear cover .55 X = 38.

87 x 415 x Ast (367)   415 Ast 1 −  20 x1000x367   Ast = 560.21 S = 201.5 x 58.92 Mu = 71. Vu = 1.04 KN Factored B.06 KN Mu = 0.87fy Ast (1 fy Ast fck ) 71.04 Vu = 87.M = 1.80 mm Provide 12mm @ 200mm c/c.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 V = 58.88 x 106 = 0. Check for shear 16 .21mm2 S = 1000 ast Ast = 1000 x π x (12) 2 4 560.5 x 47.85 KNm Factored shear force.

04 KNm Mu = 1.04 x 1.55 2 ½ x 1.8 Kn Self wt of heel slab = 25 (0. Design of heel slab : Wt from back fill = 16(5. v Hence section is safe in shear.55 M = 55.55 – 0.55 x 38.25 – 0.04) = 82.45) = 11.45) = 76.152% τ τ c = 0.5 (55.68 x 2/3 x 1.237 N/mm2 Pf = 100Ast 100x 560.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 v = Vu 87.21 = bd 1000x 367 = 0.68) (1.25 KN/m2 88.06 x 103 = bd 1000x 367 = 0.2816N/mm2 =  c.05 Kn/m2 M = (20.367) 16 .04 + 58.56 KNm V = ½ (20.55) x 1.

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 V = 46.5 x (46.71mm2 S= 1000 x π x 162 4 646.56) = 69.71 S = 174.85mm Provide 12mm @ 170mm c/c Distribution steel Ast(min) = 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 367   415 Ast 1 −   20 x 1000 x 367 Ast = 646.56 x 106 = 0.56KN Vu = 1.12% bd = 0.12 x 1000 x 450 100 = 540mm2 14 .84 KNm Mu = 0.87fy Ast d  fy Ast  1 −   0.36 fck bd  82.

8 – 0.20 KNm Assume 50mm cover & 16mm φ bar d = 450 – 50 – 16/2 = 392mm Max. shear force at ‘d’ from compound slab is V = Ca Z2/2 Z = 4. Design of Stem : Stem is designed as cantilever slab for a height of 5.25 – 0.44mm Provide 10mm @ 140mm c/c.35) 2 2 16 .45 = 4.8) 3 4 M = 98.45 – 4.833 x 16 x ( 4.833 x 16 x ( 4.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 S= 1000 x π x (0) 4 540 2 = 145.8m The max.3 V = 0. moment on cantilever slab in the head stem is M = Caγ h3/6 = 0.

192 N/mm2 Pt = 100 Ast 100 x 1105 44 .5 x 98. Check for shear v = vu 75.40) = 75.20 = 147.87 x 415 x Ast x 392 1− 415 Ast 20 x 1000 Ast = 1105.375 N/mm2 v < τ c 14 .88mm Provide 16mm @ 180mm c/c.282% c = 0.6 x 103 = bd 1000 x 392 = 0.44mm2 S= 1000 x π x 162 4 1105.44 = 181.40 KN Mu = 1.5(50.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 V = 50.6 KN 147. = bd 1000x 392 = 0.3 x 106 = 0.3 Knm Vu = 1.

Soln:Figure ********* Minimum depth of foundation = P γ  1 − sin φ    1 + sin φ   2 = 170  1 − Sin300    = 1.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Hence section is safe in shear Reinforcement details : Figure*** Ld = φ σ0 16 x 0.87 x 415 = 4τ bd 4 x 1. The SBC of soil is 170 KN/m2 with unit weight as 16 KN/m3.5 use M25 concrete of Fe 415 steel.180 m < 1. The angle of internal friction is φ = 300 the co-efficient of friction b/w the soil of concrete is 0.5 m 14 . Assume good soil for the foundation at a deim of 1. L on the toe side.2 x 1.5 m above g.6 = 752mm = 750mm Design a suitable counterturn retaining way to support a leveled back fill of height 7.5 m below G.5m 16  1 + sin 300  Depth of foundation = 1. L.

5 + 1.25 = 340 W2 25 (0.5 14 56.72 m.5) (9 – 0.5 m Thickness of countertort = 6% of 9 m = 0.5 = 2.0 m  3    Lmin = 1.5)x 3 = 37.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Height of wall = 7.5 – 0.25 .54 m Stabiling conditions: Earth pressure calculations: Force W1 IDforce (KN) Distance from heal (m) Moment KNm 425 16 ( 7.5) = 0.45 m = 0.5 x 3 = 4.75 106. h  Ca   X m in =   3    =  0.5 (3 – 0.25 292.5)/2 = 1.5 + 1.18 W3 25(0.5/2 + 2.333    < 9 = 3.5 Thickness of toe slab – 8% of 9m = 0.5 1.5 = 9 m Thickness of heal & stem = 5% of 9m = Thickness of heal & stem = 5% of 9m = 0.5) x 2.

Silding:Fos(sliding) = 0 .5) (0.75 Fos(overturnis) = 0 .98 > 1.75 = 9.9 M M0 = = 1.6 KNm Fos = 0. overturnins.333 x 16 x (9)3/6 = 647.69 = 1.4 647.75 KN 1.75 101.3) x 0.3 = Caγ e.69 W = 25(0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 W4 Total 25 (1.5 – 1.6) = 1.713 m Mo = Pa.9 F PaCos θ 14 .5/2 + 3 = 3.72) = 27 W = 510. h3/6 = 0.75 (4.25 M4 874. 35 KNm Mr = (L – Xw) w = 510.713) = 1423.35 Hence section is safe against.9 (1423. h.00 XW = 874.713m 510.

75  6( 0.5 6( 0.383 x 16 x (9)2/2 = 215.688 + 647.75 14  = L L 4.37) / 215.78 Fos sliding = 0.5   = 3.98m 510.78 < L/L (0. γ e.5/2 = 0.97 KN/m2 > SBC unsafe Qmin = R  6e  510 .5  4.73)   1 +  4.75 = 1.9 (255.02 w/m2 > 0 safe Where. h2/2 = 0.75 = 255.73)  1 +  = 1 +  L  L 4.98 – 4.065m < 1.5  = 223.75mm) 16 .4 Hence the section is not safe against sliding.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 F = R = 0. LR = Mh + M0 = C = LR − L / 2 where R LR = 874.352 = 2.75 e = 2.5 x 510. Base pressure calculation: 9 mas = R 60  510 .37 Pa = Ca.

75 + 0. Moment = 0. w = 510.5 x 25 x 0.5.44 KNm LR= ( M 0 + M W ) 417.75 = 917.438 x 647.511 m < L/6 (0. the length of base slab has to b.11 – 5/2 = 0.69 KN/m2 < SBC Qmin = R  6e  1 −  L  L 16 .0  = 167.5m in length. Increase the toe slab by 0.72 = 519.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Since maximum earth pressure is stresses then SBC of sol.69 + 42.75 KN Figure ********** Additional load due to increase in toe slab by 0.75m Σ m = 874.352 = = 3. increased praberables along the toe side.5 = 4.5 m  1 +  = 1 +  L  L 5.75 e = LR – L/2 = 30.833m) q max = R  6e  519 . 0  5.75  6 x 0.01m R 519.5/2 + 4.

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 = 519 . Shear they is provided to resist sliding. Re  h 2 2 − h 12      2   h2 = 1.9 x 0.2 = 2.39 m PPb = Cp.511)  1 −  5  5  Qmin = 40.082 < 1.39 + 1.89m h1 = 1.75 = Pa 215.75  6(0.20 KN/m2 > 0 FOS siliding = 0.2m 15 . Assume shear they of size 300 x 300 mm Figure ********* tan 300 = L 2400 x = 1.5 x 519.9 F 0.784 = 1.2 + 0 = 1.4 Hence the section is not slab against sliding.385 = 1.

2364 N/mm2 x 7 N/mm2 Hence the section is safe against meridonial stress.5 x 9.06  1   0.64  1 + 0.724 T = 23.30 = 4.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Meridonial thrust T = WR 1 + 1.248 N/mm2 < 7 N/mm2 Since the section is safe to resist meridonial thrust of hoop stress the provided 100 mm thickness of sufficient.64 x 10 3 = c / s 1000 x 100 = 0.64 KN Meridonial stress T 23 . Hoop stress:Hoop Stress = WR  1   Cos θ −  T  1 + cos ϑ  = 4. 15 .06 1 + 0.5 x 9.724 −  23.721  = 0.

3 x 1000 x 100 = 300 mm 2 100 For 8mm φ spacing = 1000 x π x 82 4 = 167.97 KN Ast = 106.97 x 103 = 713. Design of Rin beam The area of concrete received for the ring beam is bound for the hoop stress and area of steel required is bound for the horizontal component of meridmial thrust.5 mm 300 ∴ Provide 8 mm  @ 160 mm c/c both way.64 x 0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Ast min = 0.5/2 = 106. HZ component of Meridonial thrust = T Cos θ x D/2 = 23.13 mm 2 150 16 .724 x 12.3 % of C/S = 0.

13 π x 162 4 = 3. 08 bars = 713. no. Design of Toe slab: Eff.852 > 1.89 KN/m2 FOS sliding =  ( 2.4 Hence section is safe against sliding.54 say 4 nos Size of rins beam is based on tensile stress of concrete PP8 = 3 x 16  ( 2.89) 2 − (1. D = 720 – 85 = 635 mm 16 .2 ) 2    2   PP8 = 165.Cover = 75 + 20/2 = 85 mm Toe slab is designed similer to cantition and with maximum moment at trust face of the size a maximum shear at ‘d’ for face it beam.2 ) 2    2   = 1.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 For 16 mm φ .89) 2 − (1.

635 m = 49.66 KN Factored B.98) (2 – 0.44 KN Factored S.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 M= 80.82 + 95.M.5 (154.02 = 0.635 = 15.845 = 0.02 KNm K= M bd u 2 = 341 .44) S.85 KN 2 Area of tralizium = ½ x (a + b) h = ½ (130.35) = 341.245 x 1000 x 635 = > Ast = bd 100 Ast = 1552.F = 1.94 x x 2 2 2 3 = 227.F Vu = 231.35 KNm S.845 1000 x 635 2 Pt = 0.F at 0.38 x 22 1 2 + x 2 x 49. Mu = 1.5 (227.94 x 0.2445 Ct = 100 Ast 0.635) = 154.575 mm2 16 .

66 x 10 3 = = 0.12 x 1000 x 720 = 864 mm 2 100 Spacing = 1000 x π x 10 2 4 = 90.90 mm 864 ∴ Provide 10 mm  @ 100 mm c/C Check for shear :τ v = Vu 231 .IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Spacing = π x 16 2 1000 x 4 = 129.12% of C/S = 0.364 N / mm 2 bd 1000 x 635 τ c \ 0.36 N/mm2 τ v ~τ c ∴ The section is safe in shear Design of heel slab 16 .575 Provide 16 mm  @ 125 mm C/C Transerve Reinforcement = 0.50 mm 1552.

Moment at the support.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 The had slab is designed by countention at regular interval.02 Ast Provide 16 mm @ 170 mm c/c. ∴ 16 .65 KNm Moment at the mid span. MSuf = Wl 2 106.69 mm2 Factored Mmidspan = 125.92 x 3. Factored Msup = 167. Mmid = Wl 2 = 83. The maximum shear at the support is W **** the maximum pressure at the best slab is consider for me design. The counterbant act as support and makes the had slab as one – way continuous slab. spacing = 1000 Ast = 170. The heal slab is designed for a moment Wl2/l2 at the support & Wl2/16 at the mid span.72 KNm 16 The max pressure acting on the had slab is the as ‘W’ for which the Ast required at mid span and support one found.47 KNm  Ast = 1172.58  Ast = 868.2 = 12 12 = 111.27mm Using 16 mm φ bar.

τ cmax = 3. spacing = 231.12% of Bd = 0.415  2   2  Factored S.F = 217. τ > c c = 0.624 N/mm2. ∴ Check for shear:Maximum shear l   2.5  W − d  = 107  − 0.1 N/mm2 v ∴ Depth has to be increased. spacing = 83. Transverse reinforcement = 0.775 mm Provided 8 mm @ 80mm c/c.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 At mid span.47 KN = Pt = 0.12 x 1000 x 500 = 600 mm 2 100 For 8mm bar. Design of stem 16 .376 N/mm2.72 mm  Provide 16mm @ 230 mm C/C.282 τ τ v = 0.

5) = 45. reinforcement is provided at the rear side & for positive moment at mid span.33 KN/m Mmid = Wl 2 16 = 1.5 x 45.04 KNm Effective depth d = 500 – (50 + 20/2) = 440 mm M support = Wl 2 1. h = 1/3 x 16 x (9 – 0. reinforcement is provided at front base of the stem.5 x 45.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 The stem is also designed as one – way continuous slab with support moment Wl 2 12 and midspan moment Wl 2 16 For the negative moment at the support.54 2 16 = 53.54 2 = = 71 KNm 12 12 Ast at support = 454. The maximum moment various beam a base Intensitus of Ca γ e.33 x 3.33 x 3.73 spacing = 69 mm 16 .25 KNm (or) 307.

12/100 x 1000 x 440 = 528 m For 8 mm .IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 ∴ Provide 16 mm @ 300 mm C/C.42 KN Transverse reinforcement = 0. spacing = 95 8mm @ 90 mm C/C 8t = 0.12 % of 6D = 0.F = 90.28 KN Factored S. Design of countertors:- 16 . τ v = 0.205 N/mm2.29 N/mm2 v < τ ∴ Shear of safe.54 mm Provide 16 mm @ 300 mm C. Ast at mid span = 339.134. spacing = 592.C Max S.F = W l   − d 2  = 60. τ c c = 0.54 mm2 For 16 mm .

Cartailment of reinforcement: Not all the 6 bars need to be taken to the for end Three bars are taken straight to the entire span of the beam upto me hop of the stem.61 Say n = 6 nos The main reinforcement is provided along the slanting face of the counterbort. Mmax = Ca γ e.5 = 252 ast πx 4 = 5.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 The countertort is desined as a cautilever beam whose depth is equal to the length of the heal slab of the base is reduces to the thickness of the stem at the top.5 mm2 No. Maximum moment at the base of coutnerfort. 14 .5 KNm Factored Mmax = 2898. of bars required = Ast 2755. h3/6 x Le Where Le  C/C distance from counterforb Mmax = 1932.75 KNm Ast = 2755.

h 14 .5 2 2 The third part is cut at a distance of n −3 h = 3 2 . the vertical stem is the countertort.γ e. h 3 = 6. Design of horizontal ties:Closed stirrups are provided t.5 6 8 .94 m n 8 . 5 2 h1 distance from top . Considering 1m strip. γ = 6-1/6 = h12/8. n = 6. where n is the total no of n −1 h = 12 n 8. T = Cα.72th (from bottom ) n −2 h 6−2 h = 2 2 => = 2 2 = 6. 5 2 Vertical ties and horizontal ties are provided to connect the counter fort with the item is the heal slab.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 One bar is Cut al a distance of .01m ( From bottom ) n 8. the tension resisted by reinforcement is given by lateral pressure on the wall multiplied by contributing area.52 h1 = 7.

5 ( 444 .87 fy T = 1/3 x 16 x (9-0.5 = 1. spacing = 70.48 ) = 666 .49 KN Factored T = 399. C/s of counter fort wall of midspan: Reinforcement details of stem.54 = 160.87 x 415 For 10 mm φ spacing = 110 mm Provide 10 mm @ 110 mm c/c closed stirrups as horizontal ties. Design of vertical ties:The vertical stirrups connects the countertort and the heel slab considering 1m strip.56 + 167) + Le = 266.93 Provide 10mm @ 70m c/c.72 mm 2 0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Where Ast = T 0.48 KN Ast = 160 . For 10mm .74 KN Ast = 1107.5) x 3. T = Avg 943. the tensile force is the product of the average download pressure & the spacing between the counterforts.15 mm2. 15 . toe slab of heel slab.48 x 10 3 x 1.

D work done by positive yield line (ab.D = E.W.S = ½ x L x L/2 x W x ½ x (1) x 4 = Wl2/3 I. da) for 1 2 = L/2 L θ = Mθ = 4[W x L x 2/L] = 8m Total I.W.D.D 16m = WL2/3 M= WL2 4b M – Moment per metre length alms the rived line.¬2L.D = 16m E.W. cd.lθ = m. bc.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Isotropicall reinforced – Squave slab – fixed on all edges – udl:External work done = W.W.2 2 L I. 14 .W. Σ W. S – virtual displacement Internal work done = Σ Mθ = Σ m. S W – load.

use M20 concrete and Fe 415 steel. the slab hase.m2.57m Provide effective depth d as 180 mm ∴ 15 . Soln:Side = L = 5m. M = ***** Step 1:As per IS 456 : 2000 L/d ratio for simply supported slab using Fe 415 steel. L/D = 0.8 (35) = 28 D = 5000/28 = 178. with side 5m.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Design a square slab fixed along as the bour edges. All four edges fixed Given Service load = 4 KN/m2 Fcx = 20 N/mm2 Fy = 415 N/mm2 As per yield line theory for isotrophic reinforced square slab fixed on all four edges. to support a service load of hase to be support a service load of 4 KN.

056 x 15 x 52 = 21 KN M2 = My = 21 KNm Mu =  fy Ast  0.59 mm 336 14 .87 fy Ast d  1 −  Fck bd     21 x 106 = 0. rebearing annex d. ly/l2 = 1 ∴ Assume all four edges discontinuous.87 fy Ast d   415 Ast 1 −  20 x 1000 x 180     Ast = 336.056 Mx = α x Wdx2 = 0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Solve the above problem using the co-efficient stam in IS 456:2000 Soln:Given Lens = l2 = ly = 5 m The slab is two way slab. take 20 αu = αy = 0.15 mm2 S= π x 82 1000 x 4 = 149 .

50 mm 247 ∴ Provide 8 mm  bar @ 220 mm c/C Check for shear:- 16 .87 x 415 x Ast x 180   415 Ast 1 −  20 x 100 x 180     Ast = 247.625 x 106 = 0.48 mm2 S= π x 82 1000 x 4 = 203 .87 fy Ast d  fy Ast  1 −  fck bd     15.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 ∴ Provide 8 mm φ @ 140 mm C/C Design the above problem for simply support condition. Soln:M= WL2 15 x 52 = = 15.625 KNm 24 24 Mu = 0.

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 τ
v

=

15 x 5 V 2 = = 0.208 N / mm2 d b 100 x 180
u

Pt =
100 Ast 100 x 247 = = 0.137 % bd 1000 x 180

τ

c

= 0.28 N/mm2

c = 1.2 x 0.28 = 0.336 N/mm2 τ
v

< c

Hence the section is safe is shear.

Vu = Wu l x 13.5 x 4 = = 27 KN 2 2 τ =
27 x 10 3 = 0.18 N / mm 2 1000 x 150

v

Pt =
100 x 277 = 0.184 % 1000 x 150

τ τ

c

= 0.307 N/mm2 =K
c

c

= 1.26 x 0.307 = 0.386 N/mm2
16

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

Hence the section is safe is shear.

In the above problem design the slab if all support are fixed Soln:Based on yield line theory, for rectangular slab fixed on all four edges, subjects to UDL throushour M=

Wu L α  tan 2 φ    24  µ 
2

tan  =

µ2   µ    1.5µ + −  4α 2   2α  
=

 (0.7 ) 2   0.7   1.5 (0.7 ) + −   4(0.67) 2   2(0.67)     
tan φ = 0.8000 m=
13.5 x 6 2  0.8 x 0.8    48  0.7 

= 9.26 KNm

18

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 M = 0.87 fy Ast d

 fy Ast  1 −  fck bd    
9.26 x 106 = 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 150

  415 Ast 1 −  20 x 1000 x 150    
Ast = 175 mm2 Ast min = 0.12 x 1000 x 170 = 204 mm 2 100 Ast provided on shorter direction is 204 mm2

Assume 80 mm φ , S =
1000 x π x 82 4 204

S = 246.39 mm Provide 8 mm  @ 240 mm c/c both ways

Check for shear v =
Vu 27 x 10 3 = = 0.18 N / mm 2 bd 1000 x 150

16

7  M = 8.28 = 0.28 Knm 8.136 % 1000 x 150 τ τ τ c = 0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Pt = 100 x 204 = 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 150   415 Ast 1 −  20 x 1000 x 150     Ast = 155.5 x 4 2  0.3 mm2 16 .82    24  0.28 N/mm2 1 c = K c = 1.26 x 0.352 N/mm2 v < c ∴ Hence the section is sale in shear Solve the above problem for two long edges fixed boundarks condition Soln:M= Wu L x  tan 2 φ    24  µ  2 = 13.23 x 106 = 0.

18 N / mm 2 1000 x 150 Pt = 100 x 204 = 0.12 x 1000 x 150 = 204 mm 2 100 Ast provide on shorter direction is 204 mm2 ∴ Assume 8mm φ . S = π x 82 1000 x 4 = 246 .352 N/mm2 τ v < c Hence the section is safe in shear.26 x 0. 16 .IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Ast min = 0.28 N/mm2 c1 = Kc = 1.28 = 0.136 % 1000 x 150 τ c = 0.39 mm 204 ∴ Provide 8 mm  @ 240 mm C/C bothways Check for shear  v = 27 x 10 3 = 0.

Depth d = 180 mm Assume in eff.2 x 25 = 5 KN/m2 Live load = 3 KN/m2 16 . isotropically reinforced and simply supported along its edges.cover of 20 mm overall depth. M= Wu L2 72 Assume L/d = 28 D = 5000/28 = 178. The span is subjected to a super imposed load of 3 KN/m2 use M20 concrete of Fe – 1415 Soln:Based on yield line theory. the ultimate moment for an etuilateral triangular slab simply supported alms all edges of subjected to VDL through out. D = 180 + 20 = 200 mm ∴ Load calculation: Self wt of slab = 1 x 0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Design an equilateral triangular slab of side 5m.54 mm Assume eff.

69 KNm 72 72 4. M= Wu L2 13. Wk = 1.5 x 52 = = 4. Check for shear τ v = Vu bd 16 .IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Floor finish = 1 KN/ m2 W = 9 KN/m2 Factored load.5 KN/m for 1m strip.87 x 415 x Ast x 180  415 Ast  1 −   20 x 1000 x 10    Ast = 72.69 x 106 = 0.5 x 9 = 43. 77 mm2 8mm φ Transverse reinforce = 0.12 x 1000 x 200 = 240 mm 2 100 Spacing = 1000 x π x 82 4 = 209 mm 240 ∴ Provide 8 mm  @ 200 mm C/C.

187 N / mm 2 1000 x 180 Pt 100 x 240 = 0. τ 1 c max = 2.336 N/mm2 c max v < c < τ ∴ Section is safe in shear A right angled triangular slab simply support along all the edges it has sides AB = BC = 4m. Find the safe permissible service load (Live load) that can be apply on the slab.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 V= WL 13.75 2 2 Vu = 33.28 = 0.133 % 1000 x 180 τ τ τ c = 0.75 τ v = 33 .5 x 5 = = 33.28 N/mm2 . Soln: 16 .75 = 33.5 N/mm2 c = K c = 1.75 x 10 3 = 0.2 x 0. the slab is isotrofically reinforced with 10 mm @ 100 mm C/C both way use M20 and Fe 415 (HYDS) bars.

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 For A1m slab S.87 fy Ast d  fy Ast  1 −  fck bd     14 . Mu = Wu x L2 (Based on yield line there ) 6 α=1 4    4  S= 1000 ast Ast Ast = π x 10 2 1000 x 4 = 785 .4 mm 2 100 L/4 = 28  d = 4000 28 D = 170 mm For Ast available moment resistance the section. Mu = 0.S along all the edges which is right angle isotuplication reinforced subjected to UDL through out.

2 KN/m2 Working load = 14.95 ∴ The service live load that can be safly apply on slab is 9.5 = 9.4 x 150  415 x 785.9 x 106 = Wu x 1 x 4 2 6 Wu = 14.5 KN/m2 Design a circular slab of diameter 5m.46 – 4.2 / 1.2 KN/m2 Factored load = 14.46 KN/m2 ∴ Self wt = 0.17 x 25 = 4.71 KN / m 2 4.9 KN m 37. Soln:16 .25 KN/m2 Floor finish = 0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Mu = 0. S.87 x 415 x 785.S along the edges and subjected to live load of 4 KN/m3 use M20 & Fe 415 steel.96 = 4.4  1 −  20 x 1000x 150     Mu = 37.

5 x 10 = 15 KN/m 14 .L = 4 KN/m2 Floor finish = KN/m2 W = 10 KN/m2 Factored load. Depth.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Based on yield line theory the ultimate moment for circular slab isotopicus reinforcement Sr. Cover = 20 mm overall depth.07mm eff. S. along the edges subjectedto VDO through. M= Wu r 2 6 Assume L/d = 28 D = 5000 / 28 = 178. d = 180 mm ∴ Adopt eff. D = 200 mm ∴ Load calculation Self wt on slab = 0. Wu = 1.2 x 25 = 5 KN/m2 L.

12 x 1000 x 200 100 = 240 mm2 For 8 mm φ S = 1000 x π x 82 4 = 203.625KNm 6 6 15.48 mm2 Transverse reinforcement = 0.48 Provide 8 mm φ @ 200 mmC/C both ways Check for shear:τ v = Wu l 15 x 5 x 103 Vu 2 = 2 = = 0.10 mm 247.87 x 415 x Ast x 180   415 Ast 1 −  20 x 1000 x 10     Ast = 247.5) 2 = = 15.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 M = Wu r 2 15 x ( 2.12% of D = 0.625 x 106 = 0.208 bd bd 1000 x 180 16 .

48 = 0.75 the service live load on the slab is 5 KN/m2 use M20 concrete and Fe 415 steel Soln : L = 8m. α = 5m LL = 5 KN/m2 Based on yield line memory the rectangular slab orthotropically reinforced.28 N/mm2 τ v<τ c Hence the section is safe in shear Design a simply supported rectangular slab of sie 5m x 8m which is orthotopilr reinforced with co-efficient of orthorooly µ = 0.187 % 1000 x 180 τ c = 0. along with edges of subjected to VDL through out.625 M= Wl 2 α2 24 [ 3+µ α − α µ 2 ] 2 Assume L/D = 28 5000 / 28 = d. Α = 5/8 = 0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Pt = 100 x 247. S. d = 178.S. 57 mm Provide d = 180 mm 15 .

5 x 11 = 16.86 x 106 = 0. Load = 5 KN/m2 Floor finish = l KN/m2 Total load.26 mm2 Transverse reinforcement ast min 14 . overall depth . D = 200 mm Load calculation Self wt on slab = 0.625 2 x 82 24 [ 3 + 0.75 ] 2 Mu = 27. Cover = 20 mm.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Eff.2 x 25 = 5 KN/m2 L.5 KN/m Mu = Wl 2 α2 24 [ 3+µ α − α µ 2 ] 2 = 16. 4 = 11 KN/m Factored load.75 x 0.5 x 0.6252 − 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 180   415 Ast 1 −  20 x 1000 x 180     Ast = 452. W = 11 KN/m2 For 1 m strip .86 KNm 27.625 0. Wu = 1.

36 N/mm2 c1 = K τ c = 1.S along the two short edges.26/1000x 180 = 0.86 = 0.432 N/mm2 Hence section is safe in shear. S along the short edges of subjected to VDL through out.25 KN v = 41.19 mm2 Check for shear: provide 10 mm @ 230 mm C/C τ v = Vu/ bd Vu = WL/2 = 16.5 x 5 / 2 = 41.229 N/mm2 Pt = 100Ast / bd = 100 x 452. The slab is subjected to the distributed live load of 4 KN/m2 design the slab for orthotopically reinforced condition with co-efficient orthotropy µ = 0.25 % τ c = 0.25 x 103 / 1000 x 180 = 0.7 Soln: Based on yield line theory for orthotropically reinforced slab fixed along long edges of S. the ultimate mum M is 16 . Design a rectangular slab of size 5m x 4m which is fixed along the long edges of S.2 x 0.C lonser direction Ast µ Ast = 0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 For 10mm φ mm bar Provide 10mm φ @ 170 mm C.75 x 452.26 = 339.

Depth d = 150 mm Effective cover = 20 mm Overall depth D = 170 mm Load calculation: Self wt of slab = .75 KN/m2 W = 9 KN/m2 For 1 m strip.5 x 9 = 13.85 Provide eff.17 x 25 = 4.5µ + −  4α 2   2α   Assume L/d = 28 4000 / d = 28 D = 142. W = 9 KN/m Wu = 1.25 KN/m2 L.0.5 KN/m2 16 .IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 M = Wulx2 / 24 =  tan 2    µ   tan φ = µ2   µ    1.L = 4 KN/m2 Floor finish = 0.

804 M = 8.5 (0.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Α = 4/5 = 0.7 (156.86 mm2 Ast provided in Longer direction = µ Ast = 0. Check for shear 14 .311 x 103 = 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 150   415 Ast 1 −  20 x 1000 x 150     Ast = 156.86) = 109.8 Ast min = 0.12% to D = 0.12 / 100 x 1000 x 170 Ast = 204 mm2 Provide Ast = 204 mm2 For 8 mm φ .8 Tan φ = 1.7) Tan = 0.87 fy Ast x d 8.311 KNm M = 0. spacking = 1000 x π x 10 2 4 = 246 204 Provide 8 mm  @ 240 mm c/c.

26 x 0.5 x 4 /2 = 27KN τ v= Vu bd Rf = WuL 13.5 x 4 = = 27 KN 2 2 τ c = 0.5 m use M20 concrete of Fe 415 steel Soln: D = 12.28 = 0.5 m Rise = 12.5/2)2 16 .IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 v = Vu/bd Vu = WuL/ 2 = 13.5)2 + (12.28 N/mm2 c1 = K τ c = 1.3528 N/mm2 v < c1 Hence section is safe in shear Design a doom for a cylindered water tank of diameter 12.5m R2 = (R – r)2 + (D/2)2 R2 = (R – 2.5/5 = 2.

8 = 90.3 162 πx 4 Provide 4 nos of 16 mm  bar Size of ring beam is based on tensile stress of concrete  ct = Ft / Act (m-1) Ast 2.5 KN/m2 Ast = HZo comp 90. no of bars = 603.50 x 103 / AC + (13.06 m Cos θ = 0.3 14 .5 KN/m2 Live load = 2 W = 4.724 The done is subjected to meridonial thorust and hoof force for which the stress should be within permissible compressive strength of concrete Assume thickness of slab.1 = 2.38mm3 σ st 150 Assume 16mm  .33-1) 603.5 x 103 = = 603.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 R = 9. t = 100 mm Loadings on slab: Self wt = 25 x 0.

R = 1. T min = 30 (4) + 50 = 170 mm Provide a thickness of 170 mm Non – dimensional parameter = 42 ( 4)2 = = 8.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Ac = 24886.84.28 Provide diameter d = 115. permissible stresses σ came σ Soln:Capacity 4 x 105 lr = 400 m3 Ht = 4m Volume πd 2 x4 4 400 x 4 = d2 πx 4 cbc st = 150 N/mm2 for M20 = 7 N/mm2.16 d = 11.4 mm2 Provide ring beam of size 160 x 160 mm Design a water tank for field base condition for a capacities of 4 lakh litres height of tanks is 4m.m Thickness of tank based on emtiral relation.79 Hoop tension devolor on the 10 all = T = co-efficient WH D/2 16 .18 Dt 11 . j = 0.5 x 0.

ett Dt 8 = 0.M = -8.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 BM develop along the W911.0143 x 9.18  0.577 x 9.18 KN Co – efficient for max B.M is taken from table to of IS 3370 (Part IV) 8  0.18 the co-efficient for hoof tension is actions it 0.64 ∴ mass – hoop tension.18 – 0.81 x 4 x 11.04 (at Base) Moment = Co.575 10 – 0.577 H2 = C.0123 8.0146 10  0.81 x 43 B.0148 Co. T = 0.608 8.97 KNm Transverse Reinforcement: 16 .efficient of max B. efficient x WH3 = -0.577 For H2 Dt of 8.5/2 T = 130.M – 0. Co-eff x WH3 Reborins tasie 9 of SI = 3370 (Pert IV) Co-efficient for m x m hoof tension = 0.0143 actions at 1.

d = 8.55 mm 2 150 x 0.84 x 127 15 .93 mm << 127 m Rb 1.86 mm2 For 16 mm φ S = π x 16 2 1000 x 4 = 231 .97 KN m by working shows mif Ast = M σst sd Min – depth.The vertical reinforcement tension for the max.16 x 1000 Overall depth of wan.c Vertical Steel:.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Ast = H t 130.97 x 106 M = = 87.18 x 108 = σ st 150 Ast = 867.8 8. BM 0.69 mm 867.8 ∴ Provide 16 mm φ @ 230 mm c/c Adopt 12 mm φ @ 130 mm c. thickness = 170 mm Adopiting a clear cover of 25 mm D = 170 – 25 – 12/2 – 12 D = 127 mm Ast = 8.97 x 10 6 = 560 .

70 mm 450 Provide 8 mm  @ 200 mm c/c both base along both faces.3 x 1000 x 150 = 450 mm 2 100 For 8 mm.5m use M20 concrete of Fe – 415 steel. Design constant j = 0. Provide haunch of side 150 x 150 mm with min.77 mm 560.3 % C. Design of base slab: Assume 150 mm thick base slab. reinforcement Ast min = 0.053 R = 1.5 ∴ Provide 12 mm  @ 200 mm c/c.32 15 . S = π x 82 1000 x 4 =111. provide 0. S = π x 12 2 1000 x 4 = 201.S = ***** Ast min = 510 mm2 < Ast rerd. Min. Ast = 0. steel of 8 mm @ 200 mm C/C along the face of the haunch Figure **** TUTORIAL Design a rectangular water tanks of size 4m x 7m with height 3.IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 For 12mm.3% of C/S as reinforcement along both the faces.

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Soln:L x B  7m x 4m L/B = 7/4 = 1.75 x2 H = 3.5 m h = H/4 or 1 = 3.5 = 0.875 or 1m 4

h=1m P = p (H-h) = 9.81 (3.5 – 7) P = 24.53 KN/m2 To find the final moment at the junction of lons will & short will based on the FEM & D.F. Moment distribution is done For any joint, D.F =

D.F =

I 1 / L1 I1 I 2 + L1 L 2

FEM MFAB =
PB 2 24.53 x 4 2 = = 32.70 KNm 12 12

82 2 24.53 x 7 2 = = 100.16 KNm 12 12

D.F Jo int

A

Member AB

14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984

D.F

I1 / L1 I1 I 2 + L1 L2
= 0.611 1/ 7 = 0.36 1 1 + 4 7

I 2 / L2 I1 I 2 + L1 L2

1/ 4 1 1 + 4 7

Joint A D.F FIM B.M Total Fixed B.M is 75.88 KNm Free B.M (For B.M) a) Along shorter direction = AB

Member AD 0.36 100.16 -24.28 75.88 KNm

0.64 -32.70 -43.17 -75.87 KNm

PB 2 24.53 x 4 2 = = 49.06 KNm 8 8

b) Longer direction =
PL2 24.53 x 7 2 = = 150.24 KNm 8 8

resultant B.M at the mid span is a) Short will == -75.88 to 49.06 = -26.82 KNm b) Long will = -75.88 + 150.24 = 74.36 KNm At support = 75.88 KNm The will is design for me max B.M of for
14

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 M max = 75.88 KNm Reinforcement details: Ast L =
M − PL x P + 2 σst id σst

Ast B =
M − Pb x P + B σst id σst

PL = P x B/2 = 24.53 x 4/2 = 49.06 KN PB = P x L/2 = 24.53 x 7/2 = 85.86 KN X = D/2 – eff.cover Providing a clear cover of 25 mm of bar 10 φ mm Eff.cover = 25 x 10/2 = 30 mm d=

75.88 106 M = = 239.75mm Rb 1.32 x 1000
provide d = 240 mm overall depth, D = 240 + 30 = 270 mm

thickness of will is 270 mm

X= 270 − 30 2 X = 105 mm

14

06 x 10 3 + 150 x 0.853 x 240 150 Ast 8 = 2749. the reinforcement is placed alogn both forces.43 mm 2630 .IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Ast L = 75.86 x 10 3 x 105 85. S = π x 20 2 1000 x 4 = 119 .88 x 10 6 − 85.33 ∴ Provide 20 mm φ @ 110 mm c/c Since the thickness is greater than 200mm.86 x 10 3 x 105 49.5 x 2 2 = 6 6 M = 5.21 x 3.853 x 240 150 Ast L = 2630.33 mm2 Ast B = 75.88 x 10 6 − 85. ∴ Along transverse direction (HZ) provide 20 mm φ @ 220mm c/c along both faces in the short well & long wall. moment develop is PHh 2 9.83 mm2 Provide 20mm φ bar.723 KN-m 16 . Vertical Reinforcement For the cantilever action.86 x 10 3 + 150 x 0.

IS 3370 (Part II) 1984 Ast min:0.87 mm 677. Since it is resting on firm ground.7 mm2 For 10mm φ .251 x 1000 270 100 = 677. Design of Base slab:Assuming a thickness of 150 mm min.7 ∴ Provide 10mm  @ 220 mm C/C as vertical reinforcement along both the faces the taks for long will and short will.3 % c/s for 100 mm of 0.2% C/S for 450 mm ∴ for 270 mm  0. slab is provided for the base slab.3 x 100 x 150 = 450mm 2 1000 For 8mm φ S = π x 82 1000 x 4 = 111 .251% C/S Ast min = 0.7 mm 450 = 450mm2 14 . Ast min = 0. S = π x 10 2 1000 x 4 = 115.