You are on page 1of 52

Presentation of Residual Life Assessment (RLA)

By H.S.Bedi Sr. Vice President (Power Engineering and Energy Services)

RESIDUAL LIFE ASSESSMENT (RLA) STUDY: ENERGO STRENGTH


Accredited by -Central Boiler Board Govt. of India.

RLA study is carried out by conducting NDT & DT as per IBR 391 A Table I & II.
NDT tests of turbine components are carried out generally as per the scope of work of the client and based on the experience of the agency.

RLA study of Generators, Electricals & Civil structures is also carried out generally as per the scope of work of the client and based on the experience of the agency.

OUR APPROACH IS CONCERNED FOR


EXTENDED OPERATION OF PLANT SAFELY

List of In-House Instruments


DESCRIPTIOPN Ultrasonic Flaw Detector: Ultrasonic Thickness Gauge MAKE EEC EEC MODEL DS322 ETM-2 ETM-2 ETM -2DL EF-2Y

Magnetic Particle testing electromagnetic yoke:

Magnaflux EEC

CREDIBILITY
1. WE HAVE COMPLETED RLA OF BOILERS RANGING FROM 25 MW TO 500 MW POST CERTIFICATION FOR OUR VARIOUS CLIENTS.

2.

COMPLETED RLA OF TG & AUXILIARIES.

List of In-House Instruments


DESCRIPTIOPN
In-Situ Advanced Ultrasonic Oxide Scale Thickness Measurement Gauge:

MAKE

MODEL

Panametrics, 37 DL Plus USA With additional Probes for 150 micron Magnaflux ZB 100 K 100

Black light source:

DPT Kit:

Magnaflux

List of In-House Instruments contd..


DESCRIPTIOPN Hardness tester: MAKE OPTEL TIME Scholly Aero space Precision MODEL HT-7 TH130 MP 600 Digital Manual X-MET

Fibroscopy Vernier Caliper: Outside Caliper: Outside Micrometer : Parent metal analysis (PMI) :

OUR RLA INVOLVEMENT IS


FOR
BOILER TURBINE GENERATOR AND AUXILLIARIES

ACTIVITIES WHICH ARE CARRIED OUT


OBTAINING PERMISSION FOR RLA FROM STATE CIB HOT WALK DOWN SURVEY-PLANT OPERATING DATA.

COLD WALK DOWN AND DECIDING TEST LOCATIONS.


CONDUCT NDT AS PER IBR 391 A. / B & REPORT COLLECT SAMPLES FOR LAB. / DESTRUCTIVE TESTS BASED ON OBSERVATIONS, NDT DATA ANALYSIS, ESTIMATED REMENANT LIFE IS WORKED OUT BY VARIOUS METHODS ( eg, TH. / DIM, REPLICA OF MICROSTRUCTURE, DEPOSIT ANALYSIS, OXIDE SCALE & ACRT IF REQD, CHOOSING THE LEAST / SAFEST LIFE. SUBMISSION OF FINAL REPORT COMPRISING OF RUN REPAIR, REPLACEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS

RLA RELATED, IBR RECOMMENDED & CUSTOMER REQUIRED TESTS ON BOILERS


VISUAL EXAMINATION PLANT OUTAGE DATA & HISTORYASME B & P V Code:

Section: V. SAG, SWELL, DIM, OD AND THICKNESS MEASUREMENT DYE PENETRANT TEST as per ASTM-E 165 MAGNETIC PARTICAL INSPECTION as per ASTM-E 709 & A-275, E-1444 ULTRASONIC TEST (THICKNESS / FLAW DETECTION) as per ASTM-E 114 & 587 IN-SITU HARDNESS TEST IN-SITU METALLOGRAPHY & REPLICATION as per ASTM-E 139 FIBROSCOPIC / VIDEOSCOPY ( INTERNAL INSPECTION ) IN-SITU OXIDE SCALE / CORROSION THICKNESS MEASUREMENT. HYDOGEN EMBRITTLEMENT TEST DEPOSIT SAMPLES COLLECTION FOR ANALYSIS IN LAB. TUBE SAMPLES ( Mech., Met., ETC.) IN LAB. HANGER AND SUPPORT CHECKING

Residual Life Assessment Study: Energo Strength


Steam Path Audit
Hangers Study Oxide scale measurement Natural Frequency Test(NFT) in HP,IP & LP Turbine Rotor blades Eddy Current Test in condenser tubes Eddy Current Test in turbine blades Magnetic Particle Inspection(MPI) in coil method Boroscopy & Borosonic Tests ELCID test on core RSO test on rotor winding Frequency Response analysis Test Measurement of Tan Delta Step voltage test Surge comparison test

DAMAGE MECHANISM DIFFUSIONAL DECOMPOSITION OF PHASES


FATIGUE: NUCLEATION AND GROWTH OF CRACKS UNDER A TIME DEPENDENT LOADING VISCOPLASTICITY UNDER STATIC LOADING

CREEP:

CORROSION: CHEMICAL REACTION OF MATERIAL WITH ENVIRONMENT

MECHANISM OF CORROSION
MAJOR AFFECTING VARIABLE(S): ENVIRONMENT, STRESS, & TEMPERATURE 1. PURE CHEMICAL ATTACK (SELECTIVE LEACHING / PHASE ATTACK, GRAIN BOUNDARY OXIDATION, & PITTING) 2. CORROSION-FATIGUE INTERACTION OF CHEMICAL ATTACK WITH FATIGUE (NONDUCTILE, MIXED MODE FAILURES)

CREEP AFFECTING THE AGE OF COMPONENTS


CREEP BEING TIME & TEMPRATURE DEPENDENT PHENOMANON, IT IS IMPERATIVE TO CONTROL TEMPERATURE OF SUPER HEATER, REHEATER TUBES EITHER BY INSTALLING METAL TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS OR BY INDIRECT METHODS. COMPONENTS OPERATING AT EVEN FEW DEGREES HIGHER THAN THE DESIGN TEMPERATURE CAN DRASTICALLY REDUCE THE OPERATING LIFE IN CREEP REGION. FATIGUE & HIGH VIBRATION LEVEL RESULT IN ACCELERATED LOSS OF LIFE OF COMPONENTS OPERATING IN CREEP REGION. POOR METAL SURFACE CLEANLINESS CONDUCTIVITY TO A GREAT EXTENT. AFFECTS THERMAL

CREEP DAMAGE BY MICROSTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS


NEUBAUER & WEDEL METHOD OF INTERPRETATION OF CREEP DAMAGE AND PREDICTION OF REMNANT LIFE.
Structural Classification Microstructure features Ferrite & pearlite Expended life fraction (x)

Undamaged

0.12 0.46 0.50 0.84 1.00

1 2 3 4

Isolated Cavities Oriented Cavities Limited Cavities (Microcracks Macrocracks

REMAINING LIFE trem = texp X (1/x-1)

OPTICAL SIGNATURES OF DIFFUSIONAL DECOMPOSITION SEEN IN MICROSTRUCTURE


GRAIN GROWTH

SPHERODIZATION OF PEARLITE / BAINITE

BREAKUP OF PEARLITE / BAINITE WITH REPRECIPITATION AT GRAIN BOUNDARIES


COARSENING OF CARBIDE PHASES EARLY SIGNS OF DEGENERATION BEFORE ISOLATED CAVITIES

IN-SITU METALLOGRAPHY
Microstructure show ferrite and bainite. Bainitic breakdown just started. Mag: 800X

Microstructure show major degradation of bainite. Distribution of carbides in ferrite. Mag: 800X

Energo Engineering Projects Limited, New Delhi

IN-SITU METALLOGRAPHY
Microstructure show ferrite and grain boundary carbides. Thick grain boundary. Mag: 100X

Microstructure show austenitic grains with grain boundary Carbide Precipitation . Mag: 200X
CBB Approval Presentation 4 May 2010\OBSERVATION DURING Metalurgical Testing.ppt

POWER / PROCESS BOILER COMPONENTS ARE GENERALLY EVALUATED USING IN-SITU METALLOGRAPHY ON:
HIGH TEMPERATURE HEADERS, TUBING & WELD METAL CONVECTIVE SUPER HEATER

RADIANT SUPER HEATER


FINAL SUPERHEATER ATTEMPERATOR

MAIN STEAM PIPE & AUX. STEAM PIPING &


HIGH TEMPERATURE VALVES FOR HEALTH RECORDS ADDITIONALY ON STEAM DRUM ALSO

OXIDE SCALE DEPOSIT THICKNESS BASED LIFE CALCULATIONS BY IN-HOUSE DEVELOPED PROGRAM
INPUT PARAMETERS REQUIRED PARAMETERS OXIDE SCALE THICKNESS UNIT MICRON SYMBOL X

THICKNESS OUTSIDE DIAMETER WORKING PRESSURE MATERIAL SPECIFICATION TOTAL OPERATING HOURS NOMINAL TEMPERATURE

mm mm Kg/mm2 --Hrs. 0R

TO OD WP 1-3 Cr Mo Steel Tr T1-4


Continued

Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement of Internal Oxide Scale


A significant limiting factor that affects tube life in fossil fired steam boilers is the growth of iron oxide scale (magnetite) on the inside tube surfaces. The oxide scale, which forms under long term exposure to very high temperature, acts as a thermal insulator. Nondestructive measurement of internal oxide scale thickness is of major interest in the power generation industry. The very high temperatures found inside steam boilers (in excess of 800 degrees Celsius) can cause the formation of a specific type of hard, brittle iron oxide called magnetite on the inside surfaces of boiler tubes. At very high temperature, water vapor will react with the iron in the steel to form magnetite and hydrogen. This oxide layer is detrimental to life of the tube which can be measured with the high frequency broad bad ultrasonic equipment.

CALCULATION OF OXIDE SCALE GROWTH ASSUMPTION: - OXIDE SCALE GROWTH AS LINEAR

OXIDE SCALE THICKNESS IN MILS (X0)= (0.04) x (X)EQN-1

GROWTH CONSTANT K (mils / year) = (X0) / (NO OF YEARS EXPENDED SAY 20)
OXIDE SCALE AFTER FIRST INTERVAL Tr1 X1 (SAY FIVE YEARS) = K x (5) mils OXIDE SCALE AFTER SECOND INTERVAL Tr2 X2 (SAY TEN YEARS) = K x (10) mils OXIDE SCALE AFTER THIRD INTERVAL Tr3 X3 (SAY FIFTEEN YEARS) = K x (15) mils OXIDE SCALE AFTER FOURTH INTERVAL Tr4 X4 (SAY TWENTY YEARS) =K x (20) mils

EQNS- 2

Value of P (LMP) for Oxide thickness from Graph

Log (Oxide thickness in Mils)

0.6 0.4 0.2 24K 26K


P

28K

30K

CORRESPONDING VALUE OF P FOR OXIDE THICKNESS X1, X2, X3, X4 ARE P1, P2, P3, P4 RESPECTIVELY EQNS- 3
Continued

Obtaining Corresponding Value of Temperature To in Rankine


T0 = P / (13.62 + Log t)
Where t IS TOTAL TIME IN HRS UPTO END OF EACH INTERVAL BY PUTTING THE VALUE OF P1, P2, P3, P4 AND t1, t2, t3, t4 CORRESPONDING VALUES T1, T2, T3, T4 OF CAN BE OBTAINED

T1 = P1 / (13.62 + Log t1) T2 = P2 / (13.62 + Log t2) T3 = P3 / (13.62 + Log t3) T4 = P4 / (13.62 + Log t4)
CALCULATION OF HOOP STRESS (f) IN Ksi

EQNS- 4

= [{WP (OD - TO)} / 2TO] / 0.7031

EQNS- 5

Continued

Stress (Ksi)

Value of Larson Miller Rupture Parameter with stress from the graph as shown:

LARSON MILLER RUPTURE PARAMETER WITH STRESS FOR 2 Cr-1 Mo Steel

P = T (20 + Log tr) x 10-3,

where T is in OR
Continued

BY PUTTING THE VALUE OF P&T IN THE FORMULA


P = T (20 + Log tr) Where tr is the rupture time

CALCULATION OF CORRESPODING RUPTURE TIME tr1, tr2, tr3 tr4 FROM ABOVE FORMULA BY PUTTING THE CORRESPONDING VALUE OF P1, P2, P3, P4 AND T1, T2, T3, T4
CALCULATION OF EXPENDED LIFE FRACTION

a1 = Tr1 / tr1 ; a2 = T r2/ tr2.; a3 = Tr3 / tr3. ; a4 = Tr4 / tr4. TOTAL LIFE FRACTION EXPENDED a = a 1 + a2 + a 3 + a4

REMAINING LIFE (trem) = {(1-a) / a} x Tr

IN-SITU MEASUREMENT & IN-SITU MEASUREMENT & CALCULATIONS OF LIFE CALCULATION OF REMNANT REMNANT LIFE THROUGH THROUGH OXIDE SCALE OXIDE SCALE THICKNESS THICKNESS SEPARATE SOFTWARE SEPARATE DEMO DEMO SOFTWARE ENOXIDEPROG-X047 ENOXIDEPROG-X047

ACCELERATED CREEP RUPTURE TEST ACRT


INPUT PARAMETERS REQUIRED PARAMETERS NOMINAL OD NOMINAL THICKNESS WORKING PRESSURE MATERIAL SPECIFICATION SERVICE EXPOSURE RUPTURE TIME FOR ACRT NOMINAL TEMPERATURE FOR ACRT
0K

UNIT mm mm Kg/mm2 --Hrs.

SYMBOL OD Thk WP 1-3 Cr Mo Steel tr

STEPS FOR CALCULATIONS FOR Hoop stress f in kg/cm2 = [{WP (OD - Thk)} / 2Thk] Where WP = Work Pressure in kg/cm2 OD = Tube OD (mm) Thk = Tube thickness (mm) f MPa = f kg/cm2 x 0.09804

LM(P) = T (20 + log tr) EQN For ACRT hoop stress f (in Mpa) is taken 15 to 20% more.

LMP (P) is calculated for the rupture / test period of ACRT at elevated Temperature Te say (600+273)K and elevated test hoop stress.
Considering above LMP and operating temperature say (540+273)K, rupture time is evaluated at test hoop stress which is say X. Similarly the ratiio of rupture time for working hoop stress and elevated test hoop stress is evaluated from LMP v/s hoop stress curve which is say Y Net rupture time or life of tubes shall be thus X x Y

ANALYSIS OF TEST RESULTS / DATA


FOR ASSESSING THE REMNENT LIFE THROUGH

WORKING PR. SAFETY RE-CALCULATIONS DUE TO THICKNESS REDUCTION. ( 1 ) CREEP DAMAGE BY MICROSTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS. ( 2 )

OXIDE SCALE THICKNESS MEASUREMENT IN BOILER TUBES, BASED ANALYSIS. ( 3 ) STRESS RUPTURE / ACCELERATED CREEP RUPTURE TEST (ACRT) BASED REMAINING LIFE. ( 4 ).
LOWEST CALCULATED VALUE IS CONSIDERED FOR REMAINING LIFE

FEW OBSERVATIONS AS SEEN DURING

VISUAL INSPECTION AND FIBROSCOPY

VISUAL EXAMINATION
Corrosion Pitting on Link Pipe bend external surface (SHH-4 to SHH-6)

Sagging of Link pipe from PSH outlet header to platen SH inlet header.

VISUAL EXAMINATION
Rupture type failure of Final super heater coil tubes

Weld mebuild-up of eroded PSH tubestal

VISUAL EXAMINATION
Deformation of FSH tubes due to overheating.

Platen SH coils under bowing due to overheating.

VISUAL EXAMINATION
Heavy weld build-up on the stub welding joints of LTSH inlet header.

Deformation in water wall tubes.

VISUAL EXAMINATION
Damaged Refractory, Insulation & Skin Casing in Ist Pass.

Cracked Spring loaded support assembly of main steam piping .

VISUAL EXAMINATION

Sagging / deformation of ceiling super heater tubes.

Deformed secondary super heater coil tubes, failure of spacers & over heating impression on tube surface.

VISUAL EXAMINATION
Overheating signs on platen SH coils after cleaning deposits.

Convection zone rear wall tube with erosion effect during long service.

HEAVY CORROSION & SCALE BUILD UP ON LHS STEAM DRUM DISH END.

WW TUBES SHOWING EXTERNAL CORROSION EFFECT IN FRONT PANEL.

VISUAL SWELLLING OBSERVED AT 3&4 SPOTS ON WW TUBE AS SHOWN IN PHOTOGRAPH.

PHOTOGRAPH SHOWS RUPTURED TUBES OF WW PANEL FRONT SIDE.

APPERANCE OF CREEP DAMAGE OBSERVED ON TUBES.

LOCALIZED CORROSION MARK IN THE FORM OF PITTING NOTICED ON EXTERNAL SURFACE OF TUBE AT DIFFERENT LOCATION OF WW PANELS.

OVERHEATING EFFECT ON FSH O/L HDR &TUBES .

MISSING OF LOCK PIN IN HANGER SUPPORT OF SH HDR.

FIBROSCOPY
CORROSION INSIDE BOTTOM RING HEADER

CORROSION INSIDE BOTTOM RING HEADER

FIBROSCOPY

CRACKS IN NOZZLE OF DESUPERHEATER SPRAYING NOZZLE.

IN SITU METALLOGRAPHY

IN SITU METALLOGRAPHY

DPT ON BEARING

FIBROSCOPY OF HEADER

MPI ON CASING

DPT ON ROTOR

ULTRASONIC TESTING CARRIED OUT ON PIPING

MPI CARRIED OUT ON TURBINE BLADE

UPV TEST ON FWP FOUNDATION

CORE CUTTING IN FOUNDATION

FAIRLY REASONABLE LIFE IS DEPENDENT UPON:


CONTROL OF METAL TEMPERATURE WITHIN DESIRABLE ACCURACY THROUGH OPERATION
RECOMMENDED WATER QUALITY BEING MAINTAINED RELIABLE INPUT OPERATIONAL DATA & ASSUMPTIONS

EXTRAPOLATION OF REFERENCE POINTS TO ARRIVE AT EASONABLE ASSESSMENT

OPTIMIZING THE ECONOMICS OF RLA EXERCISE


MINIMIZING SHUT DOWN TIME USING CAPITAL MAINTAINENCE TIME FOR REFURBISHMENT SAVING THE ENERGY & PROCESS COST BY DOWN TIME REDUCTION REDUCING THE RISK OF LOW PRODUCTION & ALSO ACCIDENT AND RISK OF LIFE IMPROVING THE PLANT AVAILABILITY & PROFITABILITY