# Classical Mechanics (PHY401

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Problem Set 1
Part 1: Mathematical Preliminaries Matrices: 1. For two matrices A and B, show that ! + ! ! − ! = !! − !! if and only if A and B commute. 2. A is a diagonal matrix, B is some other matrix. If A and B commutes, B is also diagonal. 3. Show that the trace of a matrix remains invariant under orthogonal similarity transformations. 4. Show that the property of antisymmetry is invariant under orthogonal similarity transformations. 5. ! =   ! !"! Show if H is hermitian, then U is unitary. 6. For ! =   ! ! , a) Show !!! =   ! !! . b) Show ! !"! = !"!!! . c) If A is orthogonal find the condition on B. 7. Find conditions under which products of two hermitian matrices is also hermitian. Rotations: 8. Consider passive rotations in 2 dimensions. Show that they form a group. 9. Consider passive rotations about x and y axes, Rx(θ1) and Ry(θ2) respectively. Show that they do not commute. Take the limit θ1, θ2  → 0, and recheck the commutativity. 10. Show that !. ! is a scalar under coordinate rotations. 11. If !×! = !, show that after a passive clockwise rotation about the z axis by an angle θ,  !′! = !! !"# ! +   !! !"# !. 12. For a non-Euclidean space the norm of a vector is defined as !! = −!! ! + !! ! . Show that the ‘rotation’ of the form:
!!

Semester I, 2012

15.      !! = . Assume ! constant. ! ! = Levi Civita: 13. Using the commutators and anticommutators of Pauli spin matrices show: ! ∙ ! ! ∙ ! = ! ∙ !  !! + !! ∙ (!×!) 23. Consider a magnetic dipole with magnetic moment ! in a magnetic field !.  Use Levi Civita to show ! =   ∇× !  ×! =   ∇ ! ∙   ! . in absence of currents. Is !× !×! the same as (!×!)×! ? 18.        !! = . 20. 14. then the force is given as ! =   ∇× !  ×! . Give example of such a transformation. Pauli Matrices: 21. Use antisymmetry of !!"# to show ! ∙ !×! = 0. the corresponding Q – Matrix is given by: ! ! ! = cos !! + !!! sin   2 2 24. Calculate !×[! ! !]. 1 0 ! 0 0 −1 Show: a) (!! )! = !! b) !! !! = !!!"# !! c) !! !! + !! !! = 2!!" !! 22.!"#ℎ ! − !"#ℎ ! − !"#ℎ ! !"#ℎ ! would preserve the norm for such a spatial geometry. Use above relations to argue why infinitesimal rotations always commute. Show !!"# !!!" = 6. 17. Find !×! ∙ !×! . Using Levi Civita show ! ∙ !!  ×!! = 0. Using Levi Civita show !× !×! = ! ∙ !  ! − ! ∙ !  ! − ! ! ∙   ! + !(! ∙   !) 16. . 19. where ! is the position vector and ! ! is a function of the radial coordinate only. The Pauli spin matrices are: 0 1 0 −! 1 0 !! = . Verify that for a rotation about x axis.

Point out the cyclic coordinate and the conjugate momentum? Show that the differential equation for orbit is given by d 2u mf (u ) +u = − 2 2 2 Also find out the effective potential and draw the energy diagram for the inverse square attractive force. s n . e) Using Lagrangian find out the equation of a simple pendulum. a) A particle of mass m is moving in a central potential. dt  ∂T ∂T −2 = Qj  ∂q j ∂q j 26. ⎜ ⎟ − ⎜ ⎟ − ⎜ ∂s ⎟ ∂s dt ⎜ ∂qi ⎟ ∂qi ⎝ & ⎠ i i ⎝ & ⎠ df (q.. Show that Lagrange’s equations are invariant under a point transformation of generalized coordinates defined as q i = q i (s 1 . What happens in the limit ! !! → ∞     d) A particle initially at rest starts falling from a height under the influence of  gravity and air-resistance.. Find out the equation of motion using the Lagrangian. g 16 . Prove that L ' = L + 27. s 2 .Part 2: Lagrangian Dynamics and Application to Central Force Field: Lagrangian Dynamics: 25. Prove Nelson Form of Lagrange’s equation 28.t ) Hint: Show d dt ⎛ ∂L ⎞ ∂L d ⎛ ∂L ⎞ ∂L = 0 given that = 0 for all i.. Comment on the limit m1 ! " . write down the Lagrangian and Lagrange’s Equation. which is given by − kz . Find ! the frequencies of small oscillations.  the  time-­‐period  of  oscillation   dθ ul   T = 2π l a2 + + O (a 4 ). derive the Lagarange’s equation using appropriate Rayleigh dissipative function. b) A simple pendulum consisting of a mass m2 at one end and a mass m1 at the point of support that moves in a vertical plane. At what rate energy is dissipated? Find the terminal velocity. c) Consider a coplanar double pendulum in which mass !! hangs from a fixed point by a massless string of length !! and a mass !! hangs from !! . Show that when                        amplitude  (a)  is  not  very  small. t ) also satisfies the Lagrange’s equation satisfied by L.

) a) A cylinder rolling down an inclined plane with no slipping. Find out this conjugate momentum when particles with !! is moving in a magnetic field. Show that if the potential in the Lagrangian contains velocity dependent terms. At what angle it will fly off the sphere? 30. Find out the condition for the stability of circular orbits in a force field of ! ! potential ! ! =   − !"#(− ). find out the                      velocity  at the bottom of the inclined plane. a) Solve the problem by solving the orbit equation given in terms of ! = 1 !  . you must study it from them). Chapter 2. Lagrange’s equation for system with non-holonomic constraint: (Refer to the relevant discussion from Goldstein. (These two problems are solved in details in Goldstein and other books. (see                    previous  problem  set)   ! !   b) Using the equivalent one-dimensional Hamiltonian derive the equation ! 1 ! = !! + !"   ! ! × ! − !!""   2! and use this to derive the orbit. A particle of mass m is moving in a central potential ! ! = ! !! ! . use equation given in 2(b) to find out the trajectory.                  b) Particle moving on the surface of a sphere under the influence of gravity if   starts from the top θ = 0 . Central Field Motion: 31. the derivative is with respect to the velocity components ˆ and n is the unit vector of rotation. ! ! 32.29. the canonical momentum conjugate to a coordinate denoting rotation !  of the entire system is no longer the angular momentum !! but is given by rr pθ = Lθ − ∑n ⋅ri ×∇r U i i in the gradient operator. . 33. 34. given the differential form of constraint equation use Lagrange’s equation of first kind. Determine the geometric trajectory !(!) for a particle of mass m moving in a central potential    ! ! = − . Suppose there is a small correction to Newton’s laws of gravitation so that the potential energy of a two-particle system is given by ! ! =   − Show that the shape of the orbit is described by !"# ! ! ! +   ! ! .

) 1/2 (θ − θ0 )⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎤ ⎣   35. A particle of mass m is moving in a circle of radius R in the presence of a central force whose origin lies on the circumference of a circle. What is the total energy of the particle assuming V (r) ! 0 as r ! " . Show that the angular momentum! = !(!×!) is not constant but the ! ! ! qMr vector D = L ! is. R and m.⎡⎛ a 2mα ⎞ = 1 + e cos ⎢⎜ 1 + 2 ⎟ r l ⎠ ⎢⎝ (We have assumed that M>>m. Many problems those were discussed in the class or given as homework problems are not written explicitly. Find out the time period of motion as a function of the orbital angular momentum. a) Show that for a particle moving in an inverse square force field the Runge-Lenz vector is a constant of motion (Solved in Goldsetin) b) Consider a charged particle of mass m and charged q moving in the presence of r ! ! r r r an electromagnetic field of the form: E = Q 3 and B = M 3 show that the r r angular momentum is not conserved. You must NOT forget them. . Find the form of the potential. (We are using Gaussian Unit with c=1.) r 36.